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Sample records for circumference triceps skinfold

  1. Triceps skinfold thickness centile charts in primary school children in Shiraz, Iran.

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    Ayatollahi, Seyyed-Mohammad-Taghi; Mostajabi, Farida

    2008-03-01

    Triceps skinfold thickness charts of a random sample of 2,234 healthy school children (1,161 boys and 1,073 girls) in Shiraz, Iran are presented. Triceps skinfold thickness increases by age and is higher in girls than boys, except for upper extreme centiles. Triceps skinfold thickness may be used with reasonable success to detect childhood obesity, which would be of great importance in public health promotion. It favors adequacy and simplicity in screening for adiposity. The charts presented here are likely to be applied to urban population of school-aged children in Iran, however, it should be updated periodically. PMID:18298302

  2. Relationships between neonatal weight, limb lengths, skinfold thicknesses, body breadths and circumferences in an Australian cohort.

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    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. METHODS: We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. RESULTS: Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative

  3. Differences in body circumferences, skin-fold thicknesses and lipid profiles among HIV-infected African children on and not on stavudine

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    V Musiime

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study To compare body circumferences, skin-fold thickness (SFT and lipid levels (LL, as measures of lipodystrophy, among antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve and experienced children at enrolment into the CHAPAS-3 trial. Methods HIV-infected children in Uganda and Zambia, either ART-naïve or on stavudine (d4T for ≥2 years without clinical lipodystrophy, were randomised to receive d4T, abacavir (ABC or zidovudine (ZDV with lamivudine and efavirenz (EFV or nevirapine. At enrolment, mid-upper arm (MUAC and calf (CC circumferences, SFT (biceps, triceps, sub-scapular, supra-iliac and fasting lipids (total cholesterol (TC, low density lipo-protein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, triglycerides (TRIG were measured. Age/sex adjusted z-scores of MUAC, CC, SFT and the sum of SFT (SSF used Dutch reference data. ART-naïve and ART-experienced children were compared with t-tests using Stata v11.0. Summary of results Among 444 children, 224 (51% were male and 331 (74.5% ART-naïve. Mean (sd CD4% was 19.7% (10.2 versus (vs 34.2% (7.7 in ART-naïve vs ART-experienced children. The ART-naïve were younger than the ART-experienced children (median [IQR] age 2.5 [1.5, 4.0] vs 6.0 [5.5, 7.0] years, p<0.0001. Among the ART-experienced, 4/108 (3.7% were on EFV and median (IQR d4T use was 3.5 (2.7, 4.2 years. As expected, MUAC, CC, weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ z-scores were lower in the ART-naïve; the ART-experienced had lower SFT z-scores and higher TC and HDL, but lower TRIG (Table 1. Conclusions Failure-to-thrive likely contributed to lower circumference values in ART-naïve children. Among the ART-experienced, thinner SFT and higher TC values could be ART (particularly d4T-related. Normal values, currently unavailable for African children, are being collected. During trial follow-up, we will evaluate the effect of ABC, ZDV and d4T on development of lipodystrophy in naïve children and its reversibility in d4T-treated children

  4. Prediction Equations for Body-fat Percentage in Indian Infants and Young Children Using Skinfold Thickness and Mid-arm Circumference

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Bandana; Bose, Kaushik; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Mahalanabis, Dilip

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop prediction equations for fat-mass percentage in infants in India based on skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, and age. Skinfold thicknesses and mid-arm circumference of 46 apparently-healthy infants (27 girls and 19 boys), aged 6–24 months, from among the urban poor attending a well baby clinic of a hospital in Kolkata were measured. Their body-fat percentage was measured using the D2O dilution technique as the reference method. Equations for b...

  5. Comparison between body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness and mid-arm muscle circumference in Saudi adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolescence is an important period in an individual's life. Overweight and obesity are fraught with several health problems even late in life. The objective of this study was estimate the overweight, obesity, body fat and muscle content of Saudi adolescents as compared to a recognized reference population. Data were collected from a sample of Saudi adolescents in Jeddah from 42 boys' and 42 girls' school during the month of April 2000. Data collection was done by personal interviews to collect sociodemograhic factors and by direct measurement of weight, height, triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) and mid-arm circumference (MAC). The 50th, 85th and 95th percentiles(P50, P85 and P95) for body mass index (BMI) and triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) were taken, then the 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles (P50, P90 and P95) for the mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were calculated. These measurements were compared with corresponding values of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES I). The P85 and P95 for the BMI and TSF were higher for Saudi adolescents than the NHANES I and the difference was wider for P95. Conversely, there was a lower MAMC at P90 and P95thane the NHANES I reference population curves. The lower MAMC curves were less marked in girls than in boys. On the other hand Saudi boys and girls showed on average similar body mass index indicated by MBI at P50, which was misleading, since those adolescents showing similar body mass index had more fatness than of average reference population indicated by TSF and P50, and less muscularity on average than reference population indicated MAMC at P-50. Overweight and obesity with increased body fat content and decreased body muscle content appear to be widespread among Saudi adolescents even among those adolescents showing average body index. Public health interventions are required to improve quality of food, encourage physical, activity and exercise, as well as correct the perception of

  6. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, skinfold thickness and waist circumference for assessing body composition in ambulant and non-ambulant wheelchair games players

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    Annika Willems

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Field-based assessments provide a cost–effective and accessible alternative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA for practitioners determining body composition in athletic populations. It remains unclear how the range of physical impairments classifiable in wheelchair sports may affect the utility of field-based body composition techniques. The present study assessed body composition using DXA in 14 wheelchair games players who were either wheelchair dependent (non-walkers; n =7 or relied on a wheelchair for sports participation only (walkers; n =7. Anthropometric measurements were used to predict body fat percentage with existing regression equations established for able-bodied persons by Sloan & Weir, Durnin & Womersley, Lean et al, Gallagher et al and Pongchaiyakul et al. In addition, linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the association between body fat percentage and BMI, waist circumference, sum of 6 skinfold thicknesses and sum of 8 skinfold thicknesses. Results showed that non-walkers had significantly lower total lean tissue mass (46.2±=6.6 kg vs. 59.4±8.2 kg, P =.006 and total body mass (65.8 ±4.2 kg vs. 79.4 ±14.9 kg; P =0.05 than walkers. Body fat percentage calculated from most existing regression equations was significantly lower than that from DXA, by 2 to 9% in walkers and 8 to14% in non-walkers. Of the anthropometric measurements, the sum of 8 skinfold thicknesses had the lowest standard error of estimation in predicting body fat content. In conclusion, existing anthropometric equations developed in able-bodied populations substantially underestimated body fat content in wheelchair athletes, particularly non-walkers. Impairment specific equations may be needed in wheelchair athletes.

  7. Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Skinfold Thickness, and Waist Circumference for Assessing Body Composition in Ambulant and Non-Ambulant Wheelchair Games Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Annika; Paulson, Thomas A. W.; Keil, Mhairi; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Field-based assessments provide a cost–effective and accessible alternative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for practitioners determining body composition in athletic populations. It remains unclear how the range of physical impairments classifiable in wheelchair sports may affect the utility of field-based body composition techniques. The present study assessed body composition using DXA in 14 wheelchair games players who were either wheelchair dependent (non-walkers; n = 7) or relied on a wheelchair for sports participation only (walkers; n = 7). Anthropometric measurements were used to predict body fat percentage with existing regression equations established for able-bodied persons by Sloan and Weir, Durnin and Womersley, Lean et al, Gallagher et al, and Pongchaiyakul et al. In addition, linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the association between body fat percentage and BMI, waist circumference, sum of 6 skinfold thickness and sum of 8 skinfold thickness. Results showed that non-walkers had significantly lower total lean tissue mass (46.2 ± 6.6 kg vs. 59.4 ± 8.2 kg, P = 0.006) and total body mass (65.8 ± 4.2 kg vs. 79.4 ± 14.9 kg; P = 0.05) than walkers. Body fat percentage calculated from most existing regression equations was significantly lower than that from DXA, by 2 to 9% in walkers and 8 to 14% in non-walkers. Of the anthropometric measurements, the sum of 8 skinfold thickness had the lowest standard error of estimation in predicting body fat content. In conclusion, existing anthropometric equations developed in able-bodied populations substantially underestimated body fat content in wheelchair athletes, particularly non-walkers. Impairment specific equations may be needed in wheelchair athletes. PMID:26640442

  8. VALIDITY OF USING WAIST AND HIP CIRCUMFERENCE MEASUREMENTS TO DETERMINE BODY COMPOSITION OF YOUNG SYRIAN MEN.

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    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz; Ahmad, Husam

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the relation between waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and triceps skin-fold thickness and percentage body fat in young Syrian men. The aim was to develop equations that can use these anthropometric characteristics to estimate percentage body fat in this group of subjects. A total of 2470 healthy Syrian men aged 18-19 years were enrolled in the study in 2010-2011. The anthropometric characteristics of all subjects were measured. The percentage body fat of 213 of the subjects was determined using the deuterium dilution (DD) technique as a reference method. The validity of using WC, HC, WHpR and WHtR to calculate percentage body fat, in comparison with the reference method (DD technique), was assessed by calculating biases and limits of agreement. The estimates of percentage body fat using 'WC' and 'WC with triceps skin-fold' measurements ranged from 13.00±5.56% to 14.55±8.63%, and were lower than those determined using the reference method (21.32±6.42%). A better prediction equation is proposed for young adults, based on a multiple linear regression model using WC, HC and WHtR. PMID:26971838

  9. What accounts for ethnic differences in newborn skinfold thickness comparing South Asians and White Caucasians? Findings from the START and FAMILY Birth Cohorts

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    Anand, S S; Gupta, M K; Schulze, K M; Desai, D; Abdalla, N; Wahi, G; Wade, C; Scheufler, P; McDonald, S D; Morrison, K M; Vasudevan, A; Dwarakanath, P; Srinivasan, K; Kurpad, A; Gerstein, H C; Teo, K K

    2016-01-01

    Objective: South Asians are a high-risk group for type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. We sought to determine ethnic differences in newborn adiposity comparing South Asians (SA) to White Caucasians (Whites). Methods: Seven hundred ninety pregnant women (401 SA, 389 Whites) and their full-term offspring from two birth cohorts in Canada were analyzed. Pregnant women completed a health assessment including a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test to assess for dysglycemia. Birthweight, length, waist and hip circumference, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness (a surrogate measure of body adiposity) were measured in all newborns. Multivariate regression was used to identify maternal factors associated with newborn skinfold measurements. Results: South Asian women were younger (30.1 vs 31.8 years, P<0.001), their prepregnancy body mass index was lower (23.7 vs 26.2, P<0.0001) and gestational diabetes was substantially higher (21% vs 13%, P=0.005) compared with Whites. Among full-term newborns, South Asians had lower birthweight (3283 vs 3517 g, P=0.0001), had greater skinfold thickness (11.7 vs 10.6 mm; P=0.0001) and higher waist circumference (31.1 vs 29.9 cm, P=0.0001) compared with Whites. Risk factors for newborn skinfold thickness included South Asian ethnicity (standardized estimate (s.e.): 0.24; P<0.0001), maternal glucose (s.e.: 0.079; P=0.04) and maternal body fat (s.e.: 0.14; P=0.0002). Conclusions: South Asian newborns are lower birthweight and have greater skinfold thickness, compared with White newborns, and this is influenced by maternal body fat and glucose. Interventions aimed at reducing body fat prior to pregnancy and gestational diabetes during pregnancy in South Asians may favorably alter newborn body composition and require evaluation. PMID:26315840

  10. Mid-upper arm circumference is associated with biochemically determined nutritional status indicators among adolescent girls in Central Mozambique.

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    Kulathinal, Sangita; Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja

    2016-08-01

    Biochemically determined nutritional status measurements in low-income countries are often too expensive. Therefore, we hypothesized that some anthropometrical or functional measurements (handgrip) could reflect nutritional status measured by specific biochemical indicators. We did a population-based study from 1 urban area and 2 rural districts in Zambézia Province of Mozambique. The participants (n=386) were non-pregnant adolescent girls between 15 and 18 years of age. 96% had a normal BMI-for-age score. Weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were highly correlated (r>0.8) with each other and with total body muscle mass, body mass index (BMI), and with waist circumference, as well as with skinfolds (r>0.6). Upper and total arm lengths were correlated (r>0.7) with height and with each other, and right and left handgrip were correlated only with each other, as were triceps and subscapular skinfolds (r>0.7). Serum albumin correlated negatively with waist circumference (Padolescent girls in low-income countries. When nutrition transition proceeds, waist circumference together with MUAC could form tools for the prediction of worsening of nutritional status. PMID:27440538

  11. Correlação entre o índice de massa corporal e a prega cutânea tricipital em crianças da cidade de Paulínia, São Paulo, SP Body mass index and triceps skinfold correlation in children from Paulínia city, São Paulo, SP

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    Mariana Porto Zambon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O índice de massa corporal (IMC tem sido indicado como método de escolha para o diagnóstico da obesidade em adultos e crianças. OBJETIVO: Estudar a correlação existente entre o IMC e a prega cutânea tricipital (PCT. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 4.236 crianças de 3,1 a 10,9 anos, 48,3% do sexo masculino e 51,6% feminino, de quatro estudos realizados em Paulínia, SP, Brasil. Mediu-se o peso e a estatura, com os quais calculou-se o IMC. A PCT foi medida com paquímetro Holtain. Os dados foram transformados em escores Z e comparados à curva norte-americana (Frisancho, 1993. A população foi dividida em grupos de acordo com os escores Z do IMC: grupo A escore Z 1. Realizou-se uma análise de regressão linear múltipla (método stepwise. Os dados foram processados no SPSS. RESULTADOS: O grupo A apresentou menor variabilidade na PCT (média 7,8; DP = 2,3 quando comparado aos demais (B: média 10,1; DP=4 e C: média 17,8; DP=4,4. Na análise da regressão linear, considerando todos os casos, a PCT apresentou R²=0,478. Nos grupos B e C a PCT teve R²=0,364 e 0,368, respectivamente enquanto no grupo A foi apenas 0,032. CONCLUSÃO: A correlação entre o IMC e a PCT é elevada no grupo de crianças com risco de obesidade (grupo C, o que justifica a substituição do uso da PCT pelo IMC em estudos populacionais de obesidade em escolares brasileiros.Body mass index (BMI has been considered a criterion to define and analyse obesity in adults and children. BACKGROUND: the purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between BMI and triceps skinfold (TSF. METHODS: there were studied 4,236 children (3.1-10.9y; 48.3%M:51.6%F, from four studies made in Paulínia, SP-Brazil. Height, weight and TSF (Holtain caliper were measured. For each children BMI was calculated and transformed in SDS, according to North American data (Frisancho, 1993. Multiple linear regression analysis (stepwise was used for the whole population and in three groups according

  12. RELATIVE TOTAL BODY FAT AND SKINFOLD PATTERNING IN FILIPINO NATIONAL COMBAT SPORT ATHLETES

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    Luigi T. Bercades

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess relative total body fat and skinfold patterning in Filipino national karate and pencak silat athletes. Participants were members of the Philippine men's and women's national teams in karate (12 males, 5 females and pencak silat (17 males and 5 females. In addition to age, the following anthropometric measurements were taken: height, body mass, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, umbilical, anterior thigh and medial calf skinfolds. Relative total body fat was expressed as sum of six skinfolds. Sum of skinfolds and each individual skinfold were also expressed relative to Phantom height. A two-way (Sport*Gender ANOVA was used to determine the differences between men and women in total body fat and skinfold patterning. A Bonferroni-adjusted alpha was employed for all analyses. The women had a higher proportional sum of skinfols (80.19 ± 25.31 mm vs. 51.77 ± 21.13 mm, p = 0. 001, eta2 = 0.275. The men had a lower proportional triceps skinfolds (-1.72 ± 0.71 versus - 0.35 ± 0.75, p < 0.001. Collapsed over gender, the karate athletes (-2.18 ± 0.66 had a lower proportional anterior thigh skinfold than their pencak silat colleagues (-1.71 ± 0.74, p = 0.001. Differences in competition requirements between sports may account for some of the disparity in anthropometric measurements

  13. Developing a tool for obtaining maternal skinfold thickness measurements and assessing inter-observer variability among pregnant women who are overweight and obese

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    Kannieappan Lavern M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that between 34% and 50% of Australian women entering pregnancy are overweight and obese, which is associated with an increased risk in complications for both the woman and her infant. Current tools used in clinical and research practice for measuring body composition include body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and bioimpedance analysis. Not all of these measures are applicable for use during pregnancy due to a lack of differentiation between maternal and fetal contributions. While skinfold thickness measurement (SFTM is increasingly being used in pregnancy, there is limited data and a lack of a standard tool for its use in overweight and obese pregnant women. Methods We developed a standard tool for evaluating SFTM among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Forty-nine women were measured as part of a prospective cohort study nested within a multicentre randomised controlled trial (The LIMIT Randomised Controlled Trial. Two blinded observers each performed 2 skinfold measurements on the biceps, triceps and subscapular of each woman. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and standard error of measurement (SEM were used to analyse SFTM, body fat percentage (BF% and inter-observer variability. Results The ICC for inter-observer variability in measurements were considered moderate for biceps SFTM (ICC = 0.56 and triceps SFTM (ICC = 0.51; good for subscapular SFTM (ICC = 0.71 and BF% (ICC = 0.74; and excellent for arm circumference (ICC = 0.97. The standard error of measurements ranged from 0.53 cm for arm circumference to 3.58 mm for the subscapular SFTM. Conclusion Our findings indicate that arm circumference and biceps, triceps and subscapular SFTM can be reliably obtained from overweight and obese pregnant women to calculate BF%, using multiple observers, and can be used in a research setting. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  14. Neck Circumference as a Predictor of Adiposity among Healthy and Obese Children

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    Nayera E. Hassan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity, particularly in the upper part of body, is a major health problem. Because body mass index (BMI does not adequately describe regional adiposity, other indices of body fatness are being explored. OBJECTIVES: To determine if neck circumference is a valid measure of adiposity (fat distribution among group of Egyptian children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a cross sectional study, included 50 obese subjects, aged 7 - 12 years recruited from Endocrine, obesity and Metabolism Pediatric Unit at Children Hospital, Cairo University and 50 healthy children, age and sex matched. All children were subjected to blood pressure assessment (systolic SBP and diastolic DBP, and anthropometric assessment (body weight, height, neck circumference (NC, waist (WC and hip (HC circumferences, and skin fold thicknesses at three sites: biceps, triceps and sub scapular. BMI [weight (kg/height (m2] was calculated. RESULTS: In healthy females, significant associations were detected between NC and SBP, DBP and all anthropometric measurements. However, in healthy males NC was not significantly associated with BMI, SBP and DBP. In the obese group; both sexes; insignificant association was found between NC and SBP, DBP, BMI and skinfold thickness. CONCLUSION: NC is related to fat distribution among normal healthy female children. However, this relation disappears with increasing adiposity. The results do not support the use of NC as a useful screening tool for childhood obesity.

  15. Impact of the use of different skinfold calipers for the analysis of the body composition

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    Cyrino Edilson Serpeloni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in the studies of body composition, it has been observed that several factors can interfere with the estimates of relative body fat using the skinfold thicknesses method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the use of different skinfold calipers for the analysis of body composition by skinfold thicknesses measurements. Two hundred and fifty nine male subjects (23.3 ± 2.9 years took part of the study. Nine skinfold thicknesses were measured (abdominal, subscapular, suprailiac, triceps, biceps, midaxillary, chest, medial calf, and thigh using the Lange (USA and the Cescorf (Brazil calipers with accuracy of 1.0 and 0.1 mm, respectively. Significant differences were found in the comparison between the two calipers on all the investigated skinfold thicknesses (1.8 to 31.0% with highest values obtained by the Lange caliper (p < 0.01. When these values were applied to four different predictive equations, developed by different researchers, the body fat estimate was significantly modified (p < 0.01, resulting in differences of 5.2 to 6.9%. Results indicate that the use of different skinfold calipers may maximize the errors of estimation produced by different predictive equations used for the analysis of body composition.

  16. How well do skinfold equations predict percent body fat in elite soccer players?

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    Reilly, T; George, K; Marfell-Jones, M; Scott, M; Sutton, L; Wallace, J A

    2009-08-01

    The use of generic equations for estimating percent body fat from skinfold thicknesses can be criticised when applied to specific sports. The present aims were to compare existing methods of using skinfold data and to derive an equation for predicting body fat values in professional soccer players. Forty-five professional soccer players (24.2 +/- 5.0 years; 82.0 +/- 8.5 kg; 1.82 +/- 0.07 m) participated. Skinfold thicknesses were assessed at eight sites for the application of existing prediction equations. Skinfold data were also utilised to determine a novel soccer-specific equation. All players had a reference estimate of percent fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The existing skinfold equations differed from the DXA-referenced values by varying degrees, the equation of Withers et al. (1987) demonstrating the lowest bias and highest relationship and agreement with DXA. Regression analysis resulted in an equation incorporating anterior thigh, abdominal, triceps and medial calf sites, accounting for 78.4% variance in DXA criterion values. PMID:19301213

  17. Skinfold Measurement: Which Caliper? How Much Training?.

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    Lohman, Timothy G.; Pollock, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    Critical factors in the selection of calipers for skinfold measurements to assess body fat percentage in children and considerations for the training of testers in their proper use are highlighted. (JMF)

  18. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth.

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    Kuhle, Stefan; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. PMID:27547554

  19. DISTAL TRICEPS AVULSION: A CASE REPORT

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    Ramkumar Reddy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Triceps rupture is an uncommon injury. Fracture of olecranon or a dislocation / fracture is most often common injury for similar mechanism of fall. It is commonly associated with anabolic steroid use, weight lifting, and direct laceration. Risk factors include local steroid injection, olecranon bursitis, and hyperparathyroidism. Distal triceps rupture is usually caused by a fall on an outstretched hand. Eccentric loading of a contracting triceps has been implicated. Initial diagnosis may be difficult because a palpable defect is not always present. Pain and swelling may limit the ability to evaluate strength and elbow range of motion. Although plain radiographs are helpful in ruling out other elbow pathology, MRI is used to confirm the diagnosis, classify the injury, and plan management. Incomplete tears with active elbow extension against resistance are managed non - surgically. Surgical repair is indicated in active persons with complete tears and for incomplete tears with concomitant loss of strength. Good to excellent results have been reported with surgical repair in triceps, even for chronic tears. BACKGROUND: Distal triceps tendon avulsions occur very infrequently, and the diagnosis is often missed when the injury is acute. The literature provides little guidance regarding treatment or the outcome of these injuries. The goal of this report was to report our experience with the diagnosis, timing and technique of surgical treatment, and outcome of treatment of distal triceps tendon rupture.

  20. The triceps preserving approach to total elbow arthroplasty.

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    Pierce, T D; Herndon, J H

    1998-09-01

    Elbow arthroplasty most commonly is performed through a posterior approach by detaching or reflecting the triceps off the olecranon. Surgical approaches to the elbow joint that dissociate the triceps from the olecranon have distinct disadvantages. Triceps avulsion, triceps weakness, and wound healing problems have been reported. Such complications necessitate more surgery and predispose the joint to an infection. To avoid these complications a modified posterior approach to the elbow joint that preserves the triceps muscle insertion on the olecranon was used in 10 consecutive elbow arthroplasties. This method provides adequate exposure, allows early rehabilitation, and avoids triceps weakness. PMID:9755773

  1. Triceps tendon avulsion and associated injuries of the elbow

    OpenAIRE

    Canbora, Kerem; Ozyurek, Selahattin; Gumussuyu, Gurkan; Kose, Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    A rupture or avulsion of the triceps tendon is very rare but concomitant elbow injuries with avulsion of the triceps tendon are even rarer. In this study, an extraordinary and unusual injury combination (radial head and trochlear fracture associated with triceps tendon avulsion), which happened during a fall onto the elbow with outstretched hand, was identified and has been discussed in the literature.

  2. Triceps tendon avulsion and associated injuries of the elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbora, Kerem; Ozyurek, Selahattin; Gumussuyu, Gurkan; Kose, Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    A rupture or avulsion of the triceps tendon is very rare but concomitant elbow injuries with avulsion of the triceps tendon are even rarer. In this study, an extraordinary and unusual injury combination (radial head and trochlear fracture associated with triceps tendon avulsion), which happened during a fall onto the elbow with outstretched hand, was identified and has been discussed in the literature. PMID:23667221

  3. Changes in single skinfold thickness in 100 km ultramarathoners

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    Knechtle B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Beat Knechtle,1,2 Sabrina Baumgartner,1 Patrizia Knechtle,2 Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Raúl Bescós31Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3National Institute of Physical Education, Barcelona, SpainBackground: Changes in single skinfold thickness and body fat have been investigated in ultraswimmers and ultracyclists, but not in ultrarunners. The present study investigated the changes in single skinfold thickness during a 100 km ultramarathon.Methods: Firstly, we investigated associations between prerace preparation and prerace body composition and, secondly, changes in single skinfold thickness during a 100 km ultramarathon in 219 male ultramarathoners. Changes in fat mass and skeletal muscle were estimated using anthropometric methods.Results: Kilometers run weekly prerace and running speed during training were negatively associated with all skinfold thicknesses (P < 0.05 except for the front thigh skinfold. During the race, skinfold thickness at the pectoral (−0.1%, suprailiac (−1.8%, and calf (−0.8% sites decreased (P < 0.05. The subjects lost 1.9 ± 1.4 kg of body mass (P < 0.001, 0.7 ± 1.0 kg of estimated skeletal muscle mass (P < 0.001, and 0.2 ± 1.3 kg of estimated fat mass (P < 0.05. The decrease in body mass was positively related to the decrease in both estimated skeletal muscle mass (r = 0.21, P = 0.0017 and estimated fat mass (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001.Conclusion: Firstly, prerace fat mass and prerace skinfold thickness were associated with both volume and speed in running training. Secondly, during the ultramarathon, skinfold thickness decreased at the pectoral, suprailiac, and calf sites, but not at the thigh site. Percent decreases in skinfold thickness for ultrarunners was lower than the percent decreases in skinfold thickness reported for ultraswimmers and ultracyclists.Keywords: endurance, athlete

  4. Detecting overweight and obesity among young Syrian boys based on skinfold thickness

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    Al-Bachir Mahfouz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is no data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young Syrian boys. Therefore, the present study aimed to provide baseline and reference data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among young Syrian boys using skin-fold thickness measurements and deuterium dilution (DD as a reference method. The sample of 2470 healthy Syrian 18- to 19-year-old boys were enrolled in this study. SFTs were measured at the biceps (B, triceps (T, subscapular (SI and suprailiac locations (SS were done and validated using the DD technique as a reference method. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve was drawn to determine appropriate cut-off points of the Σ2 limb SFT (T+B, Σ2 trunk SFT (SI+SS, Σ4 SFT (T+B+SI+SS and Log Σ4 SFT for defining overweight and obesity. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in young Syrian boys, based on biceps SFT, triceps SFT, subscapular SFT, suprailiac SFT, Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT, logarithm Σ4 SFT, and DDT were 35.3%, 32%, 31.6%, 14.8%, 32.9%, 26.6%, 28.1%, 24.1%, 46.5%, respectively. Strongly positive correlation was found between SFT and total body fat in adolescents. For diagnosing overweight on the basis of Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT and logarithm Σ4 SFT, we propose the following cut-off points: 17.25 mm, 23.50 mm, 39.25 mm and 1.60, respectively. To predict obesity, Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT and logarithm Σ4 SFT threshold were increased to 23.25 mm, 32.50 mm, 55.25 and 1.75, respectively. Basing on SFT clearly leads to underestimates of the prevalence of weight problems among young boys. SFT measurement screen missed 11.2 to 31.7% of overall overweight and obesity cases.

  5. Comparative Triceps Surae Morphology in Primates: A Review

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    Jandy B. Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primate locomotor evolution, particularly the evolution of bipedalism, is often examined through morphological studies. Many of these studies have examined the uniqueness of the primate forelimb, and others have examined the primate hip and thigh. Few data exist, however, regarding the myology and function of the leg muscles, even though the ankle plantar flexors are highly important during human bipedalism. In this paper, we draw together data on the fiber type and muscle mass variation in the ankle plantar flexors of primates and make comparisons to other mammals. The data suggest that great apes, atelines, and lorisines exhibit similarity in the mass distribution of the triceps surae. We conclude that variation in triceps surae may be related to the shared locomotor mode exhibited by these groups and that triceps surae morphology, which approaches that of humans, may be related to frequent use of semiplantigrade locomotion and vertical climbing.

  6. The triceps-preserving approach for semiconstrained total elbow arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopis, Peter M; Weiland, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is a useful tool to relieve pain and provide return to function for many conditions affecting the elbow. For conditions ranging from inflammatory arthropathies to comminuted intra-articular distal humeral fractures in the elderly, TEA is an excellent treatment alternative. Numerous surgical approaches for TEA have been described. Most surgeons use either a direct posterior or posterior-lateral incision. TEA is not without its complications. One such complication is insufficiency of the triceps. Many surgical approaches have been described to try to decrease the possibility of triceps insufficiency. In this article, we describe a new technique not previously described in which, using a posterior incision, the triceps is only dissected from the medial side. With this technique, the tendon insertion on the olecranon, as well as the entire lateral soft-tissue envelope of the elbow, is left undisturbed. PMID:18359644

  7. Circunferencias para valorar cambios en la masa corporal y cantidad de grasa total en gestantes del segundo y tercer trimestre Circumferences to evaluate changes in body mass and amount of total fat of women in second and third trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pérez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar antropométricamente el estado nutricional materno a través de indicadores sencillos como la circunferencia media del brazo (CMB, muslo medio (CMM y pantorrilla (CP, para valorar cambios en la masa corporal y cantidad de grasa total, en gestantes del segundo y tercer trimestre. Metodología: Se evaluaron 76 gestantes entre los 18 y 40 años de edad, de comunidades suburbanas de los municipios Baruta y El Hatillo, Venezuela. Las variables antropométricas estudiadas fueron: peso, talla, CMB, CMM, CP, pliegues del tríceps (Ptri, bíceps (Pbic, subescapular (Pse, muslo medio (PMM y pantorrilla (PP, que permitieron la construcción de indicadores de masa y cantidad de grasa corporal total. Resultados: Las CMM y CP se modificaron del segundo al tercer trimestre de embarazo, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p Objective: To evaluate the maternal nutritional state through simple anthropometric indicators as middle-arm circumference (MAC, half thigh (HTC and calf (CC, to value changes in the body mass and quantity of total fat, in women on second and third pregnancy trimester. Methodology: A sample of 76 pregnant aged between 18 and 40 years, from suburban communities of the municipalities Baruta and The Hatillo, Venezuela were evaluated. Weigh, height, MAC, HTC and CC, besides triceps, biceps, subscapular, half thigh and calf skinfolds were measured that allowed the construction of indicators of mass and quantity of total body fat. Results: The HTC and CC showed differences (p < 0.05 between second and third pregnancy trimester. Average values of MAC presented no statistical significance among the evaluated trimesters, neither the arm fat area, but the thigh fat area and calf what could explain the differences observed in the circumferences of these members among the evaluated trimesters. Conclusions: Circumferences of inferior members (half thigh and calf, probably be the variables that can be used for evaluate the

  8. Validation of a New Skinfold Prediction Equation Based on Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Cowan, Celsi; Thyfault, John; LaFontaine, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Skinfold prediction equations recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine underestimate body fat percentage. The purpose of this research was to validate an alternative equation for men created from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Two hundred ninety-seven males, aged 18-65, completed a skinfold assessment and dual energy x-ray…

  9. A Cadaveric Study of Ulnar Nerve Innervation of the Medial Head of Triceps Brachii

    OpenAIRE

    Bekler, Halil; Wolfe, Valerie M.; Rosenwasser, Melvin P.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of a separately innervated muscle unit of the triceps may have possible surgical importance and can be used for motor reconstructions. The ulnar nerve is closely situated to the triceps muscle and rarely examined above the elbow. The aim of this cadaveric study was to explore a possible contribution of the ulnar nerve to motor innervation of the medial head of the triceps. We dissected 18 limbs from axillae to midforearm. The path of the ulnar nerve was followed, and examination ...

  10. Ultrasound diagnosis of ulnar nerve dislocation and snapping triceps syndrome

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    Vivek Bhagwat Gupta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dislocation of the ulnar nerve with snapping triceps syndrome has been implicated as a cause of cubital tunnel syndrome. Patients with this condition may clinically present with a snapping sensation at the elbow upon flexion along with ulnar neuropathic symptoms. Though demonstration of this condition is possible by static MRI images, ultrasound can be used as a more accessible and inexpensive modality for attaining diagnosis. This pictorial essay emphasises the technique, findings and role of dynamic ultrasound in the diagnosis of this entity.

  11. A triceps musculocutaneous flap for chest-wall defects

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    Hartrampf, C.R. Jr.; Elliott, L.F.; Feldman, S. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    A posterior upper arm flap based on the profunda brachii vessels has been described to cover soft-tissue defects in the upper anterolateral chest. In our series, the posterior upper arm skin is elevated with the long head of the triceps muscle to cover seven chest-wall defects resulting from indolent postradiation open wounds following partial TRAM flap failure (n = 2), soft-tissue deficiencies following partial TRAM flap loss (n = 3), and primarily as an ancillary flap in TRAM flap breast reconstruction (n = 2). This flap also may be used to supply well-vascularized tissue in the regions of the shoulder, axilla, and posterolateral back. A prerequisite for this operation is redundant tissue of the upper arm often present in middle-aged women and in patients with lymphedema following mastectomy. In our series of seven patients, all donor sites were closed primarily, and there was no subjective functional deficit following transfer of the long head of the triceps muscle.

  12. A triceps musculocutaneous flap for chest-wall defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A posterior upper arm flap based on the profunda brachii vessels has been described to cover soft-tissue defects in the upper anterolateral chest. In our series, the posterior upper arm skin is elevated with the long head of the triceps muscle to cover seven chest-wall defects resulting from indolent postradiation open wounds following partial TRAM flap failure (n = 2), soft-tissue deficiencies following partial TRAM flap loss (n = 3), and primarily as an ancillary flap in TRAM flap breast reconstruction (n = 2). This flap also may be used to supply well-vascularized tissue in the regions of the shoulder, axilla, and posterolateral back. A prerequisite for this operation is redundant tissue of the upper arm often present in middle-aged women and in patients with lymphedema following mastectomy. In our series of seven patients, all donor sites were closed primarily, and there was no subjective functional deficit following transfer of the long head of the triceps muscle

  13. 利用皮褶厚度推算拉萨市藏族青少年的体脂含量%Using skinfold measurement to assess percentage body fat of adolescents in Tibetan nationality in Lhasa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟铧; 张美芝; 裴林国; 席焕久; 付强; 白玛多吉; 张海龙; 刘素伟; 李文慧; 普布次仁; 依苏; 吕坡

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过皮褶厚度了解拉萨市藏族青少年体脂含量的现状.方法:选择拉萨市10~19岁藏族青少年共1 110人,测量身高、肱二头肌皮褶厚度、肱三头肌皮褶厚度、肩胛下角皮褶厚度和髂棘上皮褶厚度,应用Mabel等提出的皮褶厚度公式进行体脂含量的推算.结果:拉萨市藏族青少年体脂含量在正常范围者仅占44.4%,营养不足者占28.5%,超重者占14.5%,肥胖者占12.6%.男生身体脂肪百分比(%BF)与年龄呈低度正相关(r=0.491),与皮褶厚度总和呈高度正相关(r=0.920);女生%BF与年龄呈正相关(r=0.692),与皮褶厚度总和呈低度正相关(r=0.384).结论:女生在各年龄段的皮褶厚度及其总和均值均高于男生,拉萨市藏族青少年中女生营养不良发生率高于男生,男生肥胖发生率高于女生,研究结果为提高西藏自治区青少年的身体素质提供参考数据.%Objective:To study the body fat percentage of Tibetan nationality adolescents in Lhasa by measuring their skin-fold thickness. Methods: 1 110 Tibetan nationality adolescents aged 10-19 years in Lhasa were selected to measure the height, biceps skinfold thickness, triceps skinfold thickness, subscapular skinfold thickness and suprailiac skinfold thickness to calculate their body fat percentage by Mabel Deurenberg-Yap's equation. Results: With the normal range of body fat percentage in Lhasa Tibetan nationality adolescents constituted only 44. 4%, However, malnutrition 28. 5%, overweight 14. 5%, and obesity 12. 6%. For the boys, there was a low correlation between percentage body fat(%BF) and age (r= 0. 491, P<0. 001) , and a high positive correlation between BF% and the sum of skinfold thickness (r=0. 920, P<0. 001); for the girls, there was a significant positive correlation between %BF and age (r=0. 692, P<0. 001) , and a low correlation between %BF and the sum of skinfold thickness (r=0. 384, P<0. 001). The skinfold thickness and its sum/mean of

  14. Mechanical and neural function of triceps surae in elite racewalking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Neil J; Hanley, Brian; Bissas, Athanassios

    2016-07-01

    Racewalking is a unique event combining mechanical elements of walking with speeds associated with running. It is currently unclear how racewalking technique impacts lower limb muscle-tendon function despite the relevance of this to muscle economy and overall performance. The present study examined triceps surae neuromechanics in 11 internationally competitive racewalkers (age 25 ± 11 yr) walking and running on a treadmill at speeds between 4.5 and 13.8 km/h while triceps surae fascicle lengths, electromyography, and kinematic data were recorded. Cumulative muscle activity required to traverse a unit distance (CMAPD) was calculated for each muscle. Medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus fascicle lengths/velocities were determined using an automated tracking algorithm, and muscle-tendon unit lengths were determined. Running was associated with net shortening of muscle fascicles during stance, combined with substantial lengthening of the muscle-tendon unit, implying energy storage in the Achilles tendon. When the same participants racewalked at the same speed, the fascicles shortened (soleus) or lengthened (MG), coinciding with rapid shortening followed by a relatively small increase in muscle-tendon length during stance. Consequently, compared with running at the same speed, racewalking decreased the energy-saving role of the Achilles tendon. Moreover, CMAPD was generally highest in racewalking, implying that in individual muscles, the energy cost of racewalking was higher than running. Together these results suggest that racewalking is neurally and mechanically costly relative to running at a given speed. As racewalking events are typically between 10 and 50 km, neuromechanical inefficiencies that occur with each stride likely result in substantial energetic penalties. PMID:27255524

  15. Head circumference in Iranian infants

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    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  16. Influence of muscle hypertrophy on the moment arm of the triceps brachii muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, Norihide; Wakahara, Taku; Murata, Koichiro; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Kawakami, Yasuo; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2015-04-01

    Although the moment arm of the triceps brachii muscle has been shown to be associated with the muscle's anatomical cross-sectional area, whether training-induced muscle hypertrophy alters the moment arm of the muscle remains unexplored. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine this. Eleven men underwent a 12-week resistance training program for the triceps brachii muscle. The maximum muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSAmax), the moment arm of the triceps brachii muscle, and the anterior-posterior dimension of the olecranon were measured using a magnetic resonance imaging system before and after intervention. The ACSAmax (33.6 ± 11.9%, P .05). The change in moment arm was smaller than that expected from the relationship between the ACSAmax and the moment arm before the intervention. The present results indicate that training-induced triceps brachii muscle hypertrophy could increase the muscle moment arm, but its impact can be small or negligible. PMID:25411895

  17. Surgical management of intercondylar fractures of the humerus using triceps reflecting anconeus pedicle (TRAP) approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Amite; Mallinath G; Malhotra Rajesh; Bhan Surya

    2007-01-01

    Background: Operative fixation of intra-articular fractures of the distal humerus requires adequate exposure. The transolecranon approach is a commonly used approach. The olecranon osteotomy has potential complications related to prominence/migration of hardware, displacement/nonunion of osteotomy and triceps weakness. Triceps-reflecting anconeus pedicle (TRAP) approach avoids the olecranon osteotomy without compromising the operative exposure. We present outcome of fixation of displaced int...

  18. Acute Exertional Rhabdomyolysis and Triceps Compartment Syndrome During a High School Football Camp

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, John Y.; Laidler, Matthew; Fiala, Steven C.; Hedberg, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acute exertional rhabdomyolysis has been infrequently reported among adolescents. In August 2010, several high school football players from one team developed rhabdomyolysis and triceps compartment syndrome following an upper arm exercise held in a non-air-conditioned wrestling room. Purpose: To confirm the diagnoses, characterize the spectrum of illnesses, and determine the factors contributing to rhabdomyolysis and triceps compartment syndromes. Study Design: Descriptive epidemi...

  19. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population. PMID:17568760

  20. Triceps fascial tongue exposure for total elbow arthroplasty: surgical technique and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinello, Patrick G; Peers, Sebastian; Styron, Joseph; Pervaiz, Khurram; Evans, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    During a posterior approach to the elbow, the triceps muscle body and tendon insertion must be addressed during exposure. Several methods exist including performing an olecranon osteotomy. The triceps fascial tongue exposure, originally described by Van Gorder in 1940, provides an excellent view of the joint while causing minimal trauma to the extensor mechanism facilitating tendon healing, and easy intraoperative conversion from fracture fixation to a total elbow arthroplasty if a fracture is not able to be reconstructed. Using a standard posterior approach to the elbow, a triceps tongue is created. A distally based flap of the triceps tendon approximately 10 cm long and 2 to 3 cm wide is created and a remnant of the tendon is kept on all sides to secure a meticulous repair with nonabsorbable figure-of-eight sutures at the conclusion of the case. In our case series, 29 patients underwent 30 total elbow arthroplasties. There were no triceps-related failures. This surgical technique is a useful alternative surgical exposure to the posterior elbow for fractures and arthroplasty. PMID:25929418

  1. The Functional Role of the Triceps Surae Muscle during Human Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco; Gagey, Olivier; Do, Manh-Cuong

    2013-01-01

    Aim Despite numerous studies addressing the issue, it remains unclear whether the triceps surae muscle group generates forward propulsive force during gait, commonly identified as ‘push-off’. In order to challenge the push-off postulate, one must probe the effect of varying the propulsive force while annulling the effect of the progression velocity. This can be obtained by adding a load to the subject while maintaining the same progression velocity. Methods Ten healthy subjects initiated gait in both unloaded and loaded conditions (about 30% of body weight attached at abdominal level), for two walking velocities, spontaneous and fast. Ground reaction force and EMG activity of soleus and gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis muscles of the stance leg were recorded. Centre of mass velocity and position, centre of pressure position, and disequilibrium torque were calculated. Results At spontaneous velocity, adding the load increased disequilibrium torque and propulsive force. However, load had no effect on the vertical braking force or amplitude of triceps activity. At fast progression velocity, disequilibrium torque, vertical braking force and triceps EMG increased with respect to spontaneous velocity. Still, adding the load did not further increase braking force or EMG. Conclusions Triceps surae is not responsible for the generation of propulsive force but is merely supporting the body during walking and restraining it from falling. By controlling the disequilibrium torque, however, triceps can affect the propulsive force through the exchange of potential into kinetic energy. PMID:23341916

  2. Extensive posterior exposure of the elbow. A triceps-sparing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, R S; Morrey, B F

    1982-06-01

    Difficulty with triceps avulsion or loss of continuity after total elbow arthroplasty has prompted the development of a modified posterior approach to the elbow joint. The characteristic feature of this approach is that the triceps mechanism is reflected from medial to lateral in continuity with the forearm fascia and the olecranon and ulnar periosteum. A variant of the technique reflects the extensor mechanism from lateral to medial. The ulnar collateral ligament may be released from the humerus to provide more exposure, but the ligament must then be securely reattached. This approach, which provides extensive exposure to the elbow joint, has been employed in 49 consecutive total elbow arthroplasties and results show no loss of triceps function and no significant weakness. The approach has proved useful for treatment of intra-articular fractures of the distal end of the humerus and with synovectomy in the rheumatoid arthritic patient. PMID:7083671

  3. The dorsal skinfold chamber: window into the dynamic interaction of biomaterials with their surrounding host tissue

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    MW Laschke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The implantation of biomaterials into the human body has become an indispensable part of almost all fields of modern medicine. Accordingly, there is an increasing need for appropriate approaches, which can be used to evaluate the suitability of different biomaterials for distinct clinical indications. The dorsal skinfold chamber is a sophisticated experimental model, which has been proven to be extremely valuable for the systematic in vivo analysis of the dynamic interaction of small biomaterial implants with the surrounding host tissue in rats, hamsters and mice. By means of intravital fluorescence microscopy, this chronic model allows for repeated analyses of various cellular, molecular and microvascular mechanisms, which are involved in the early inflammatory and angiogenic host tissue response to biomaterials during the initial 2-3 weeks after implantation. Therefore, the dorsal skinfold chamber has been broadly used during the last two decades to assess the in vivo performance of prosthetic vascular grafts, metallic implants, surgical meshes, bone substitutes, scaffolds for tissue engineering, as well as for locally or systemically applied drug delivery systems. These studies have contributed to identify basic material properties determining the biocompatibility of the implants and vascular ingrowth into their surface or internal structures. Thus, the dorsal skinfold chamber model does not only provide deep insights into the complex interactions of biomaterials with the surrounding soft tissues of the host but also represents an important tool for the future development of novel biomaterials aiming at an optimisation of their biofunctionality in clinical practice.

  4. Association between Serum Leptin Concentrations and Insulin Resistance: A Population-Based Study from China

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Zuo; Zumin Shi; Baojun Yuan; Yue Dai; Gaolin Wu; Akhtar Hussain

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance contributes to the cardio-metabolic risk. The effect of leptin in obese and overweight population on insulin resistance was seldom reported. METHODS: A total of 1234 subjects (572 men and 662 women) aged ≥18 y was sampled by the procedure. Adiposity measures included BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold and body fat percentage. Serum leptin concentrations were measured by an ELISA method. The homeostasis mod...

  5. Inhibition of the triceps surae stretch reflex by stimulation of the deep peroneal nerve in persons with spastic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Peter H.; Ladouceur, Michel; Sinkjaer, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Inhibition of the triceps surae stretch reflex by stimulation of the deep peroneal nerve in persons with spastic stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:1016-24. Objective: To reduce the triceps surae stretch reflex by electrical stimulation of the deep peroneal nerve. Design: Intervention study. Sett

  6. Determinación del Porcentaje de Masa Grasa, según Mediciones de Perímetros Corporales, Peso y Talla: Un Estudio de Validación Determination of Fat Mass Percentage by Measuring Body Circumferences, Weight and Height: A Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Díaz

    2012-12-01

    the percentage of fat mass (% FM in schoolchildren, measuring the variables body circumferences, weight and height (CWH.A sample of 1725 primary school students, 1020 girls and 705 boys, in age of 10 to 14 years old from Arica (Region XV, were analyzed to determine % FM according to the model proposed (CWH, as reference models were used Durnin & Womersley protocols (1974 and the Slaughter et al. protocol (1988.The results show that body mass index (BMI, have normal values of 21 kg/m2 for both girls and boys. The sum of the body skinfolds biceps, triceps, subscapular, iliac and abdominal (S5 is significantly higher in women, compared to males (108.5 mm and 81.4 mm respectively.The comparison of the percentage of fat mass between the various models in study demonstrates that the proposed model of "circumferences, weight and height (CWH, not show significant differences (NS. All models express percentage of fat mass over 20% in the study population, typical of overweight and obesity. We conclude that the model of circumference, weight and height (CWH, is effective to determine the percentages of body fat in school population. In addition the study population has high levels of fat mass.

  7. Differences in the U.S. Trends in the Prevalence of Obesity Based on Body Mass Index and Skinfold Thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Richard V. Burkhauser; John Cawley; Maximilian D. Schmeiser

    2009-01-01

    There are several ways to measure fatness and obesity, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. The primary measure for tracking the prevalence of obesity has historically been body mass index (BMI). This paper compares long-run trends in the prevalence of obesity when obesity is defined using skinfold thickness instead of body mass index (BMI), using data from the full series of U.S. National Health Examination Surveys. The results indicate that when one uses skinfold thicknesses rather t...

  8. Triceps surae short latency stretch reflexes contribute to ankle stiffness regulation during human running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J Cronin

    Full Text Available During human running, short latency stretch reflexes (SLRs are elicited in the triceps surae muscles, but the function of these responses is still a matter of controversy. As the SLR is primarily mediated by Ia afferent nerve fibres, various methods have been used to examine SLR function by selectively blocking the Ia pathway in seated, standing and walking paradigms, but stretch reflex function has not been examined in detail during running. The purpose of this study was to examine triceps surae SLR function at different running speeds using Achilles tendon vibration to modify SLR size. Ten healthy participants ran on an instrumented treadmill at speeds between 7 and 15 km/h under 2 Achilles tendon vibration conditions: no vibration and 90 Hz vibration. Surface EMG from the triceps surae and tibialis anterior muscles, and 3D lower limb kinematics and ground reaction forces were simultaneously collected. In response to vibration, the SLR was depressed in the triceps surae muscles at all speeds. This coincided with short-lasting yielding at the ankle joint at speeds between 7 and 12 km/h, suggesting that the SLR contributes to muscle stiffness regulation by minimising ankle yielding during the early contact phase of running. Furthermore, at the fastest speed of 15 km/h, the SLR was still depressed by vibration in all muscles but yielding was no longer evident. This finding suggests that the SLR has greater functional importance at slow to intermediate running speeds than at faster speeds.

  9. In vivo measurement of the series elasticity release curve of human triceps surae muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL

    1998-01-01

    The force-extension characteristic of the series-elastic component of the human triceps surae muscle has been measured in vivo by means of a hydraulic controlled-release ergometer in 12 subjects. The SEC characteristic can be described by a linear relation between muscle moment and extension, with a

  10. Triceps tendon rupture: the knowledge acquired from the anatomy to the surgical repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, A

    2015-09-01

    Triceps injuries are relatively uncommon in most traumatic events, and the distal triceps tendon ruptures are rare. Recently, the knowledge of this tendon lesion has increased, and it seems to be related to more precise diagnostic and clinical assessments. The most common mechanism of injury remains a forceful eccentric contraction of the muscle, while several other risk factors have been studied as chronic renal failure, endocrine disorders, metabolic bone diseases as well as steroid use. Olecranon bursitis and local corticosteroid injections may also play a role. The commonest site of rupture is at the tendon's insertion into the olecranon and rarely at the myotendinous junction or intramuscularly. The surgical intervention is recommended in acute complete ruptures, and non-operative treatment is reserved for patients with major comorbidities, as well as for partial ruptures with little functional disability and in low demanding patients. Various techniques and approaches as the direct repair to bone, the tendon augmentation, the anconeus rotation flap and the Achilles tendon allograft have been proposed for the management of these challenging injuries. The goal of surgical management should be an anatomical repair of the injured tendon by selection of a procedure with a low complication rate and one that allows early mobilization. This manuscript focuses the triceps tendon ruptures starting from the anatomy to the diagnosis and entity of the triceps tendon injuries, as well as the indications and guidelines for the management. PMID:25957546

  11. Surgical management of intercondylar fractures of the humerus using triceps reflecting anconeus pedicle (TRAP approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Amite

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Operative fixation of intra-articular fractures of the distal humerus requires adequate exposure. The transolecranon approach is a commonly used approach. The olecranon osteotomy has potential complications related to prominence/migration of hardware, displacement/nonunion of osteotomy and triceps weakness. Triceps-reflecting anconeus pedicle (TRAP approach avoids the olecranon osteotomy without compromising the operative exposure. We present outcome of fixation of displaced intra-articular distal humeral fractures with the use of TRAP approach. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the functional and radiological results of 40 consecutive patients with intercondylar fractures of the humerus treated by internal fixation through TRAP approach. There were 28 males and 12 females and the average age was 32 ± 4.5 years. The right elbow was involved in 27 patients and the left elbow in 13 patients. The mechanism of injury was a fall in 20 patients, a motor-vehicle accident in 16 patients and direct trauma in four patients. Results: At a minimum follow-up of 12 months (average 18 ± 4 months 35 (87.5% patients had good triceps strength. The average range of motion was 118.4 ± 7 degrees (range 80 o -130 o . The average time to union was 3.2 ± 1.6 months (range two to six months. No patient had triceps rupture, implant failure, neurovascular deficit or nonunion. Two patients needed removal of the implant because of subcutaneous prominence. Conclusions: The TRAP approach provides good visualization for fixation of intercondylar fractures of the humerus, without any noticeable untoward effect on triceps strength and postoperative rehabilitation; and one can avoid iatrogenic fracture of the olecranon and its associated complications.

  12. Interrelationships between anthropometric variables and overweight in childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Brannsether-Ellingsen, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Júlíusson, Pétur Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To answer the questions: how does body mass index (BMI) correlate to five overweight related anthropometric variables during different ages in childhood, and which anthropometric variables contribute most to variation in BMI during childhood? Methods Data on BMI, height (H), sitting height (SH), waist circumference (WC), waist to height ratio (WHtR), waist to sitting height ratio (WSHtR), subscapular skinfold (SSF), and triceps skinfold (TSF), from 4,576 Norwegian children 4.00&...

  13. Limb circumference and performance in junior tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Nuhmani, Shibili; Shaphe, MD Abu; Waseem, MD

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the correlation of limb circumference with functional performance of junior tennis players Design: correlation design Setting: Tennis academies all over Delhi and National Capital Region Subjects: 100 junior tennis players Measurement: The limb circumferences (thigh circumference and calf circumference) of each athlete have measured and have been correlated with all the three functional performance tests. Result and conclusion: Pearson's correlation test was used to cor...

  14. Body composition of chronic renal patients: anthropometry and bioimpedance vector analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Soares; Ivan Silveira de Avelar; Sara Rosa de Sousa Andrade; Marcus Fraga Vieira; Maria Sebastiana Silva

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to compare the body composition of patients undergoing hemodialysis with that of healthy individuals using different methods. METHOD: cross-sectional study assessing male individuals using anthropometric markers, electrical bioimpedance and vector analysis. RESULTS: the healthy individuals presented larger triceps skinfold and arm circumference (p

  15. Assessing body composition in infants and toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare different body composition techniques in infants and toddlers. Anthropometric measures including mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and weight-for-height or -length Z-scores (WHZ), and measures of body fat mass assessed wit...

  16. TRICEPS: An ATMIS Field Implementation for Control and Evaluation: Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    McNally, M. G.; Rindt, C.; Logi, F.

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes a comprehensive research project directed toward the development and implementation of an Advanced Transportation Management and Information System (ATMIS) as part of the Caltrans Advanced ATMIS Testbed Program at the Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Irvine. The primary goal of this project was to implement this prototype ATMIS, designated TRICEPS (Testbed Realtime Integrated Control and Evaluation Prototype System), in the Irvine sub-area ...

  17. Bilateral Additional Slips of Triceps Brachii Forming Osseo-Musculo-Fibrous Tunnels for Ulnar Nerves

    OpenAIRE

    Swamy, RS; Rao, MKG; Somayaji, SN; Raghu, J; Pamidi, N

    2013-01-01

    Rare additional slips of triceps brachii muscle was found bilaterally in a sixty two year old South Indian male cadaver during routine dissection of upper limb for undergraduate students at Melaka-Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, India. On left side, the variant additional muscle slip took origin from the lower part of the medial intermuscular septum about 4 cm proximal to the medial humeral epicondyle. From its origin, the muscle fibres were passing over the ulnar nerve ...

  18. A Histochemical Study of the Origin Regions of the Triceps Muscle of the Sparrow (Passer domesticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Fatime GEYİKOĞLU

    2000-01-01

    The muscle fibers in the origin regions of the triceps muscle of Passer domesticuswere characterized histochemically on the basis of their myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) activity after acidic and alkaline preincubations. Muscle fibers were identified as type II (alkaline-stable/acid-labile mATPase activity) and type III (alkaline-stable/acid-stable mATPase activity). The number of type II fibers was higher in the muscle studied (83%) and this was found to be significant.

  19. Triceps brachii tendon: anatomic-MR imaging study in cadavers with histologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belentani, Clarissa [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Pastore, Daniel; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Dirim, Berna; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, VA Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [University of California, VA Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this cadaveric study was to describe the normal MR anatomy of the triceps brachii tendon (TBT) insertion, to correlate the findings with those seen in anatomic sections and histopathologic analysis, and to review triceps tendon injuries. Twelve cadaveric elbows were used according to institution guidelines. T1-weighted spin-echo MR images were acquired in three planes. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. On MR images, the TBT had a bipartite appearance as it inserted on olecranon in all specimens. The insertion of the medial head was deeper than that of the long and lateral heads and was mainly muscular at its insertion, with a small amount of the tendon blending with the muscle distally, necessitating histologic analysis to determine if there was tendon blending with the muscle at the site of insertion and if the medial head inserted together with the common tendon or as a single unit. At histopathologic analysis, the three heads of the triceps tendon had a common insertion on the olecranon. The bipartite aspect of the tendon that was identified in the MR images was not seen by histologic study, indicating that there was a union of the medial and common tendons just before they inserted into bone. TBT has a bipartite appearance on MR images and inserts on olecranon as a single unit. (orig.)

  20. Thigh circumference and risk of heart disease and premature death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder

    2009-01-01

    of follow-up for total death. RESULTS: A small thigh circumference was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases and total mortality in both men and women. A threshold effect for thigh circumference was evident, with greatly increased risk of premature death...... circumference seems to be associated with an increased risk of developing heart disease or premature death. The adverse effects of small thighs might be related to too little muscle mass in the region. The measure of thigh circumference might be a relevant anthropometric measure to help general practitioners in...... early identification of individuals at an increased risk of premature morbidity and mortality....

  1. A CORRELATION BETWEEN HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE AND CHEST, WAIST AND HIP CIRCUMFERENCES IN YOUNG POPULATION OF KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitra S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The head and body measurements in human body vary because of differences in anatomical features which may be influenced by environmental or geographical factors. This also brings about differences in their bony structure and fat distribution. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between the Head circumference and Chest, Waist & Hip circumferences. METHODS: Head, Chest, Waist, and Hip circumferences were taken for 347 subjects. Then the subjects were classified as Total sample, Males and Females. Data was tabulated and statistical analysis (unpaired t test was carried out to find if any statistical significance between Cephalometric and Anthropometric measurements existed. The correlation co - efficient between head measurement and body measurements was determined using Karl Pearson’s formula. RESULTS: Statistically significant difference was observed for all parameters. Statistically significant correlations were observed in Total sample, Males and Females. CONCLUSION: These measurements will serve as a future frame work for comparing the craniofacial dimensions for differentiation of other racial groups. These are also useful in, anthropometric studies, cosmetology, and reconstructive surgery as well as garment industries. This is also an attempt to help a forensic scientist to identify the individual from dismembered and mutilated body parts in forensic examinations.

  2. Assessing Body Composition of Children and Adolescents Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Skinfolds, and Electrical Impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Angela; Kelsey, Laurel; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; George, James D.; Hager, Ron L.; Myrer, J. William; Vehrs, Pat R.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the validity and reliability of percent body fat estimates in 177 boys and 154 girls between 12-17 years of age, percent body fat was assessed once using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and twice using the sum of two skinfolds and three bioelectrical impedance analysis devices. The assessments were repeated on 79 participants on a…

  3. Comparison of Bioelectrical Impedance and Skinfolds with Hydrodensitometry in the Assessment of Body Composition in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, W. J.; Diemer, Gary A.; Scott, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a widely used method for estimating body composition, yet issues concerning its validity persist in the literature. The purpose of this study was to validate percentage of body fat (BF) values estimated from BIA and skinfold (SF) with those obtained from hydrodensitometry (HD). Percent BF values measured…

  4. Newborn Size and Body Composition as Predictors of Insulin Resistance and Diabetes in the Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Fall, Caroline H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We aimed to examine detailed neonatal measurements as predictors of later diabetes in both parents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Babies (n = 617) born to nondiabetic parents in Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India, were measured at birth for weight; crown-to-heel length (CHL), crown-to-rump length (CRL), and leg length; skinfolds (triceps and subscapular); and circumferences (head, abdomen, and mid–upper-arm circumference [MUAC]). Nine and a half years later, glucose tolerance...

  5. Thyroid Ultrasonography Consistently Identifies Goiter in Adults Over the Age of 30 Years Despite a Diminished Response with Aging of the Thyroid Gland to the Effects of Goitrogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sheela R. Brahmbhatt; Brahmbhatt, Rajesh M.; Eastman, Creswell J.; Steven C. Boyages

    2001-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a national health problem in India and we have recently reported on the severity of IDD in adults and children in Gujarat province. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of thyroid ultrasonography to detect goiter in adults from an iodine-deficient population of Gujarat. We studied 472 adults selected by random household surveys. Data were collected on height, body weight, mid-upper arm circumference, thigh circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, thyroid s...

  6. Quality traits of pork semimembranosus and triceps brachii muscles sourced from the United States and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Suárez, E J; Rubio-Lozano, M S; Toledo-López, V M; Torrescano-Urrutia, G R; Ponce-Alquicira, E; Huerta-Leidenz, N

    2016-12-01

    The study included fresh pork semimembranosus (SM, n=289) and triceps brachii (TB, n=283) muscles sourced from meat packers of Mexico and the USA. Samples were analyzed for moisture, protein, and fat content, pH, shear force (WBSF), cook loss, water holding capacity (WHC), instrumental color, emulsion capacity (EC) and stability (ES), and consumer sensory ratings. SM from the USA had lower WBSF (P0.05) across countries. TB from Mexico had higher (Pcountry of origin has less effect on consumer acceptability. PMID:27521501

  7. Does the relationship between waist circumference, morbidity and mortality depend on measurement protocol for waist circumference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, R; Berentzen, T; Bradshaw, A J; Janssen, I; Kahn, H S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Kuk, J L; Seidell, J C; Snijder, M B; Sørensen, T I A; Després, J-P

    2008-01-01

    There is currently no consensus regarding the optimal protocol for measurement of waist circumference (WC), and no scientific rationale is provided for any of the WC protocols recommended by leading health authorities. A panel of experts conducted a systematic review of 120 studies (236 samples) to...... WC protocols performed measurement at the minimal waist (33%), midpoint (26%) and umbilicus (27%). Non-significant associations were reported for 27% (64) of the samples. Most of these protocols measured WC at the midpoint (36%), umbilicus (28%) or minimal waist (25%). Significant associations were...

  8. Tendinopathies Around the Elbow Part 2: Medial Elbow, Distal Biceps and Triceps Tendinopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Oliver; Vannet, Nicola; Gosens, Taco; Kulkarni, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    In the second part of this review article the management of medial elbow tendinopathy, distal biceps and distal triceps tendinopathy will be discussed. There is a scarcity of publications concerning any of these tendinopathies. This review will summarise the current best available evidence in their management. Medial elbow tendinopathy, also known as Golfer's elbow, is up to 6 times less common than lateral elbow tendinopathy. The tendinopathy occurs in the insertion of pronator teres and flexor carpi radialis. Diagnosis is usually apparent through a detailed history and examination but care must be made to exclude other conditions affecting the ulnar nerve or less commonly the ulnar collateral ligament complex. If doubt exists then MRI/US and electrophysiology can be used. Treatment follows a similar pattern to that of lateral elbow tendinopathy. Acute management is with activity modification and topical NSAIDs. Injection therapy and surgical excision are utilised for recalcitrant cases. Distal biceps and triceps tendinopathies are very rare and there is limited evidence published. Sequelae of tendinopathy include tendon rupture and so it is vital to manage these tendinopathies appropriately in order to minimise this significant complication. Their management and that of partial tears will be considered.

  9. No association of skin-fold thicknesses and training with race performance in male ultra-endurance runners in a 24-hour run

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In male high-level long-distance runners over 10,000 m, a positive association between both the front thigh and medial calf skin-fold thickness and running performance has been demonstrated. It is assumed that the thickness of skin-folds of the lower limb is related to training in highly trained runners. We investigated in 22 male ultra-endurance runners in a 24-hour run the relationship between skin-fold thicknesses and race performance. The 22 runners achieved a total of 154 (47) km during ...

  10. The effect of hypocaloric diet enriched in legumes with or without L- arginine and selenium on anthropometric measures in central obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying new ways to decrease adiposity will be very valuable for health. The aim of this study was to find out whether L- Arginine (Arg and selenium alone or together can increase the effect of hypocaloric diet enriched in legumes (HDEL on anthropometric measures in healthy obese women. Methods: This randomized, double- blind, placebo- controlled trial was undertaken in 84 healthy premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of run- in on an isocaloric diet, participants were randomly considered to eat HDEL, Arg (5 g/d and HDEL, selenium (200 μg/d and HDEL or Arg, selenium and HDEL for 6 weeks. The following variables were assessed before intervention and 3 and 6 weeks after it: weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR, body mass index (BMI, and fasting nitrite/nitrate (NOx concentrations. Other variables (arm, thigh, calf and breast circumferences, subscapular, triceps, biceps and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses, sum of skinfold thicknesses (SSF, body density (D and estimated percent of body fat (EPF were assessed before and after intervention. Results: HDEL showed a significant effect in reduction of waist, hip, arm, thigh, calf and breast circumferences, triceps, biceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses, WHR, SSF, D and EPF. HDEL + Arg + selenium significantly reduced suprailiac skinfold thicknesses; and there was no significant effect of HDEL, Arg, selenium and Arg plus selenium on weight, BMI and fasting NOx . Conclusions: The study indicates that HDEL + Arg + selenium reduce suprailiac skinfold thicknesses which represents the abdominal obesity reduction.

  11. Stressful life events in pregnancy and head circumference at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    A strong association between stress in pregnancy and small head circumference in infants at birth was reported in 1994. This important finding has never been replicated. In a follow-up study of 4211 participants with singleton pregnancies, information on life events was collected twice during...... pregnancy and head circumference measured shortly after birth following standard procedures. No association was found between experienced or perceived stress as a result of life events during pregnancy and head circumference in the infants. In conclusion, stress in pregnancy may influence foetal brain...... development in many ways, but we found no support for an effect on the size of the brain as measured by head circumference at birth. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Dec...

  12. Waist and hip circumferences and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, J; Frederiksen, K; Tjønneland, A; Thomsen, B L; Overvad, K; Heitmann, B L; Sørensen, T I A

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether waist and hip circumferences, in addition to body mass index (BMI), are related to all-cause mortality. We studied these associations and tested the usefulness of the waist-to-hip ratio for mortality prediction. DESIGN: A Danish prospective cohort study with data...... inverse for both men and women, but only after adjustment for waist circumference, or BMI, or both. The mortality rate ratios of mutually adjusted waist and hip circumferences were 0.63 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.71), and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.79) times higher per 10% larger hip circumference in men and women......, respectively, and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.34, 1.57) and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.31) times higher per 10% larger waist circumference. The adequacy of the waist-to-hip ratio as a substitute for separate measurements of waist and hip circumferences depended on which other variables the analysis was adjusted for, indicating...

  13. Change in neck circumference after shoulder arthroscopy: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrividya Chellam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Shoulder arthroscopy requires fluid irrigation, which causes soft-tissue oedema around chest, neck, and arm intraoperatively, leading to postoperative airway complications. We decided to study the incidence of increase in the neck circumference in shoulder arthroscopy and its effects on the airway. Methods: We studied 32 cases of shoulder arthroscopies over a period of 1-year, performed under general anaesthesia with interscalene block. The neck circumference of patients before and after the procedure was measured along with other parameters. The endotracheal tube cuff was deflated at the end of surgery to determine air leak around the tube. The negative leak test suggested airway oedema. Results: Thirty out of 32 patients showed positive air leak test. The average change in neck circumference was 1.17 ± 1.16 cm and all could be extubated uneventfully. Two showed negative leak test with an increase in neck circumference by 4.5 and 6.4 cm and were not extubated. Multiple regression analysis for risk factors showed intraoperative hypertension as a single predictor for an increase in neck circumference. Conclusion: Change in the neck circumference beyond 4 cm may suggest airway compromise and below 4 cm, airway compromise is unlikely even in the presence of extensive soft-tissue oedema around the shoulder, upper arm and chest.

  14. Myositis ossificans circumscripta of the triceps due to overuse in a female swimmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saartje Defoort

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myositis ossificans is a rare condition characterized by non-neoplastic heterotopic bone formation in soft tissue and skeletal muscle. It is a benign and often self-limiting disease with no need for surgery. Here, we describe a young female swimmer with myositis ossificans circumscripta of the triceps due to overuse. Because of the benign character of the lesion, conservative treatment was initiated with rest and anti-inflammatory drugs. She obtained complete resolution after 6 months and was able to return to normal sporting activities. Myositis ossificans circumscripta is a rare benign lesion with an excellent prognosis. Most lesions in athletes occur due to contusions or strains; however, overuse is now described as well. Spontaneous resolution is seen in almost all cases. Cases in which, despite conservative treatment, a painful mass persists, surgical excision can be considered.

  15. Regression of Body Density on Skinfold Thicknesses in High Altitude Natives: Decline in the Predictive Efficiency on De-Acclimatisation to Low Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    H. Bharadwaj; T. Zachariah; S. Kishnani; S. N. Pramanik; Prasad, J.; K.L. Chaudhary; G. P. Dimri; T. L. Rao; W. Selvamurthy

    1995-01-01

    Body density, stature, body weight and skinfold thickness at 11 sites were experimentally measured on two groups of high altitude natives (HAN) of Ladakh. Group 1, consisting of 38 similar volunteers was studied after 4-week stay at an altitude of 3658 m and Group 2, consisting of 38 similar volunteers was studied after 4-week stay at Delhi (altitude, 200m). Although, there was a strong relationship between skinfolds, other anthropometric measurements and body density (R=0.898) at high...

  16. Learning circumference concepts from the didactical situations theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Sousa Cavalcanti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The circumference study, as its importance, it is one of the most relevant contents in the Analytical Geometry curriculum. However, the complexity of related concepts to this theme linked to the content fragmentation, it difficulties the students thinking of transforming geometrical problems into equations solution, systems or inequations. Within, in this article we present a partial report of a master research work, of qualitative mode, which aimed to develop and to evaluate an alternative methodology by using musical parody composition to the teaching of Mathematics in trying to contribute to the circumference concepts learning process. For that, we carried out a case study with 36 third year high school students of a public school from the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba. The research work was based and discussed on Brousseau Didactical Situation Theory. It was chosen triangulation technique for the data analyses, collected from interviews, questionnaires and a list of mathematical exercises. We concluded that the parody composition resource allowed the students better understand the concepts of center, ratio, cord and the definition of the general circumference equation, as they were capable to identify the relative positions which a circumference assumes in relation to an equation of a straight line and between two circumferences in the various concepts that differentiated them. Thus, we can state that the musical parody composition as a didactical resource can contribute to the learning of mathematical contents.

  17. Muscle Fatigue in the Three Heads of the Triceps Brachii During a Controlled Forceful Hand Grip Task with Full Elbow Extension Using Surface Electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asraf; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Badlishah Ahmad, R.; Ahamed, Nizam Uddin; Islam, Anamul; Sundaraj, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the time to fatigue and compare the fatiguing condition among the three heads of the triceps brachii muscle using surface electromyography during an isometric contraction of a controlled forceful hand grip task with full elbow extension. Eighteen healthy subjects concurrently performed a single 90 s isometric contraction of a controlled forceful hand grip task and full elbow extension. Surface electromyographic signals from the lateral, long and medial heads of the triceps brachii muscle were recorded during the task for each subject. The changes in muscle activity among the three heads of triceps brachii were measured by the root mean square values for every 5 s period throughout the total contraction period. The root mean square values were then analysed to determine the fatiguing condition for the heads of triceps brachii muscle. Muscle fatigue in the long, lateral, and medial heads of the triceps brachii started at 40 s, 50 s, and 65 s during the prolonged contraction, respectively. The highest fatiguing rate was observed in the long head (slope = −2.863), followed by the medial head (slope = −2.412) and the lateral head (slope = −1.877) of the triceps brachii muscle. The results of the present study concurs with previous findings that the three heads of the triceps brachii muscle do not work as a single unit, and the fiber type/composition is different among the three heads. PMID:26240650

  18. Dietary predictors of 5-year changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim;

    2009-01-01

    , whereas snack foods intake was positively associated. Sex differences occurred for vegetables, high-fat dairy products, and processed meat. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a diet low in fruits and red meat and high in snack foods was associated with larger waist circumference gains in both sexes......, baseline diet (192 items food frequency questionnaire), body mass index, and selected potential confounders (eg, smoking status, sport activities, and intake of alcoholic beverages). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: For women, 5-year difference in waist circumference was...... inversely related to intake from red meat, vegetables, fruit, butter, and high-fat dairy products, whereas intake from potatoes, processed meat, poultry, and snack foods was positively associated. For men, red meat and fruit intakes were inversely associated with 5-year difference in waist circumference...

  19. Long-term exposure to residential traffic noise and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe S.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2015-01-01

    in waist circumference. We found baseline BMI (p<0.001) and waist circumference (p=0.001) to be significant effect modifiers for the association between road traffic noise and waist circumference, with gain in waist circumference only among the obese (BMI≥30) participants (1.20mm/year (95% CI: 0...... obese participants....

  20. Assessment of percent body fat content in young and middle aged men: skinfold method v/s girth method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde S

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Percent body fat content was found in apparently normal healthy 30 young (17-20 Yrs. and 30 middle aged men (30-46 Yrs. by measuring the skinfold and girth. None of the subjects were athletes or did regular physical exercise. Body density was calculated using mean of the four skinfold measurements as per the equations advocated by Durnin and Womersley, while percent body fat content was calculated from the body density by the Siri′s equation. The mean % body fat content by this method in young men was 15.87 +/- 3.85% and in middle aged men was 24.75 +/- 3.55%. Ten percent of the young subjects and 90% of the middle aged subjects were found to be obese. Percent body fat content was also calculated from the girth measurements as advocated by McArdle et al. The mean of % body fat content with this method was 14.91 +/- 3.82% in young men and 24.30 +/- 3.35% in middle aged men. On comparison, the difference in percent body fat content calculated by both the methods was found to be significant in young men but not for middle aged men. The correlation, coefficient between girth method and skinfold method was 0.95 in case of young men and 0.90 for middle aged men. Therefore, we advocate that girth measurements can be used to determine percent body fat content, main advantage being simplicity of technique and requirement of inexpensive instruments for measurement.

  1. Hyperinsulinemia and waist circumference in childhood metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the characteristics of obese children presenting at a tertiary care hospital and the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) in them using two paediatric definitions. A total of 262 obese children aged 4-16 years, with BMI greater than 95 percentile were included. Children having obesity due to syndromes, medications causing weight gain, chronic illness and developmental disability were excluded. Blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, HDL, insulin and glucose levels were obtained. Obesity was defined as BMI > 95 percentile for age and gender according to the UK growth reference charts. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated using to the De Ferrantis and Lambert definitions. The frequency of MS varied between 16% and 52% depending on whether insulin levels were included in the definition. There was a significant positive correlation(r) when the metabolic parameters were correlated with waist circumference and insulin levels, except HDL which was negatively correlated. All the metabolic parameters like waist circumference, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure increased considerably across the insulin quartile (p < 0.05). The most noteworthy anthropometric and metabolic abnormality were the waist circumference (46.5%) and insulin levels (58%) respectively. There was a marked difference in the frequency of metabolic syndrome according to the definition used. The waist circumference and hyperinsulinemia are significant correlates of MS in obese children. There is a need for establishing normal insulin ranges according to age, gender and pubertal status. The clinical examination and investigations ought to include waist circumference and insulin levels together as a part of the definition of MS, for early detection and intervention of childhood obesity. (author)

  2. Posterior Deltoid-to-Triceps Tendon Transfer for Elbow Extension in a Tetraplegia Patient: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji Hun; Ahn, Dong Heun; Kim, Yong Rok; Hong, Mi Jin; Lee, Yung Jin; Park, Chang-il; Heo, Youn Moo

    2016-01-01

    In tetraplegia patients, activities of daily living are highly dependent on the remaining upper limb functions. In other countries, upper limb reconstruction surgery to improve function has been applied to diverse cases, but few cases have been reported in Korea. The current authors experienced a case of posterior deltoid-to-triceps tendon transfer and rehabilitation in a complete spinal cord injury with a C6 neurologic level, and we introduce the case—a 36-year-old man—with a literature review. The patient's muscle strength in C5 C6 muscles were normal, but C7 muscles were trace, and the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III (SCIM III) score was 24. The tendon of the posterior deltoid was transferred to the triceps brachii muscle, and then the patient received comprehensive rehabilitative treatment. His C7 muscle strength in the right upper extremity was enhanced from trace to fair, and his SCIM III score improved to 29. PMID:27152287

  3. Long head of the triceps muscle transfer for active elbow flexion in arthrogryposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogola, Gloria R; Ezaki, Marybeth; Oishi, Scott N; Gharbaoui, Idris; Bennett, James B

    2010-06-01

    Arthrogryposis is a condition characterized by symmetric, nonprogressive joint contractures and weak or absent musculature that is present at birth. The amyoplasia form is the most common, and in this group, the elbow is frequently involved, typically in an extension contracture bilaterally. Active elbow flexion is weak or absent, but active extension is spared. This elbow dysfunction poses a significant disability for affected children. Sensation and cognitive development is normal in children with arthrogryposis, and as a group they demonstrate a remarkable degree of adaptability to their deformities. The goal of any treatment is to facilitate the child's functional independence. This article describes the surgical technique of transfer of the long head of the triceps into the proximal ulna to provide active elbow flexion in children with arthrogryposis. The goal of the procedure is to reliably achieve antigravity active flexion while preserving active extension. It has the advantages of technical simplicity and minimal donor site morbidity. By adding this procedure to the existing options for treating this challenging condition, a surgeon is better able to tailor intervention to an individual child's strength and available donor muscles. PMID:20526167

  4. Head Circumferences in Twins with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Wendy; Cleveland, Sue; Torres, Andrea; Phillips, Jennifer; Cohen, Brianne; Torigoe, Tiffany; Miller, Janet; Fedele, Angie; Collins, Jack; Smith, Karen; Lotspeich, Linda; Croen, Lisa A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lajonchere, Clara; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    To determine the genetic relationship between head circumference (HC) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Twin pairs with at least one twin with an ASD were assessed. HCs in affected and unaffected individuals were compared, as were HC correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs. 404 subjects, ages 4-18, were included. 20% of males and 27%…

  5. Measurement error of waist circumference: gaps in knowledge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Proper, K.I.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is not clear whether measuring waist circumference in clinical practice is problematic because the measurement error is unclear, as well as what constitutes a clinically relevant change. The present study aimed to summarize what is known from state-of-the-art research. Design: To ident

  6. Measurement error of waist circumference: Gaps in knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Proper, K.I.; Hulshof, C.T.; Mechelen, W.V. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective It is not clear whether measuring waist circumference in clinical practice is problematic because the measurement error is unclear, as well as what constitutes a clinically relevant change. The present study aimed to summarize what is known from state-of-the-art research. Design To identif

  7. Head Circumference in Autism, Asperger Syndrome and ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Occipitofrontal circumference (OFC, measured at birth and after 16 months of age, was compared in 50 consecutive patients with Asperger syndrome, 50 diagnosed with autistic disorder, and 50 with ADHD and followed at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Goteborg University, Sweden.

  8. Head Circumference in Autism, Asperger Syndrome and ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    Occipitofrontal circumference (OFC), measured at birth and after 16 months of age, was compared in 50 consecutive patients with Asperger syndrome, 50 diagnosed with autistic disorder, and 50 with ADHD and followed at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Goteborg University, Sweden.

  9. EFFECT OF KAPALBHATI PRANAYAMA ON WAIST AND HIP CIRCUMFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT (BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rapid industrialization, environmental pollution, overcrowding, sedentary lifestyle and var ious stress factors are responsible for the deterioration of the physical health of a person. Als o, prevalence of obesity in developing countries is believed to be on the rise. This requi res special and specific techniques to transcend the limits of our physical and mental abilities exper ienced in everyday life. Hence, in the present study beneficial effect of Kapalbhati pranayama on wa ist circumference and hip circumference was studied in overweight individuals. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This study was conducted in a well-known tertiary hospital in Mumbai after th e institutional ethical clearance and written consent from each participant. A total of 60 overweig ht resident doctors were recruited in this study. The participants were divided into study and c ontrol groups, each group containing 30 subjects of both sexes. The study group was asked to perform Kapalbhati pranayama. The duration of the study was eight weeks. Waist circum ference and hip circumference were assessed in both the groups. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Paired t- test was applied for statistical analysis and p value <0.05 was considered the level of significance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In study group, waist circumference and hip circumfe rence decreased significantly as compared to that of control group. T his shows that Kapalbhati pranayama has reducing impact on waist circumference and hip circum ference in overweight individuals. The neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system mechani sms might be involved in the effects of Kapalbhati pranayama, which need further study.

  10. Combined surgical treatment for missed rupture of triceps tendon associated with avulsion of the ulnar collateral ligament and flexor-pronator muscle mass

    OpenAIRE

    Daglar, Bulent; Delialioglu, Onder M.; Ceyhan, Erman; Altas, Okyar; Bayrakci, Kenan; Gunel, Ugur

    2009-01-01

    Triceps tendon ruptures are rare injuries. Coexistence of ipsilateral ulnar collateral ligament injury is even rarer. Here, we describe an unusual combination injury to elbow of a 39-year-old male construction worker consisting of triceps tendon rupture, avulsion of elbow ulnar collateral ligament and flexor pronator muscle origin ipsilaterally. A simultaneous repair and reconstruction of all damaged structures was proposed with individualized postoperative rehabilitation. Return to pre-injur...

  11. Regression of Body Density on Skinfold Thicknesses in High Altitude Natives: Decline in the Predictive Efficiency on De-Acclimatisation to Low Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bharadwaj

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Body density, stature, body weight and skinfold thickness at 11 sites were experimentally measured on two groups of high altitude natives (HAN of Ladakh. Group 1, consisting of 38 similar volunteers was studied after 4-week stay at an altitude of 3658 m and Group 2, consisting of 38 similar volunteers was studied after 4-week stay at Delhi (altitude, 200m. Although, there was a strong relationship between skinfolds, other anthropometric measurements and body density (R=0.898 at high altitude (HA, this relationship was significantly reduced at Delhi (R=0.642. Appropriate regression equations predicting body density from skinfold thicknesses, stature and body weight are given for HAN at both the locations. It is concluded that hyperhydration of the lean body and the adipose tissue may be responsible for the weakening of the multiple Rs on de-acclimatisation to low altitude.

  12. 中国儿童青少年1995-2010年皮褶厚度和体脂率变化情况%Secular changes of skinfold thickness and percentages of body fat among Chinese children and adolescents during 1995-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季成叶; 陈天娇

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析中国学龄儿童青少年1995-2010年间肱三头肌和肩胛下皮褶厚度和体脂率的变化,为建立更科学的青少年超重/肥胖评价体系提供依据.方法 抽取来自1995年和2010年全国学生体质健康调研的北京等13个省和直辖市,共82 921和93 264名7~18岁汉族中小学生.检测指标为肱三头肌和肩胛下皮褶厚度,分大城市、中小城市、富裕乡村、中下乡村4个社会经济群体计算体脂率.结果 1995-2010年肱三头肌皮褶厚度增幅男生为1.36 mm/10 a,女生为1.05 mm/10 a;肩胛下皮褶厚度增幅男生为1.07 mm/10 a,女生为0.67 mm/10 a.男肱三头肌皮褶厚度7~12岁期间增长迅猛;女生从青春中期开始两处皮褶厚度逐步显著超过男生.1995年4个社会经济群体体脂率顺次为大城市>中小城市>富裕乡村>中下乡村;15 a间富裕乡村、中小城市增速最迅猛,各群体间差异显著缩小.2010年4个群体体脂率男生分别为18.6%,16.9%,16.0%和13.9%,女生分别为21.9%,20.5%,20.4%和18.5%;男、女增幅分别为1.42%和0.91%/10 a.结论 应及时分析我国青少儿群体及其亚群的体脂率迅猛增长原因及其带来的不利影响,提出相应的预防、应对策略和措施.%Objective To analyze the changes of triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness and to estimate the increase of body fat percentages among Chinese school-age children and adolescents during the period of 1995-2010.Methods The subjects were separately selected from the 1995 and 2010 Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health.In total there were 82 921 and 93 264 Han students aged 7-18 years,and were re-divided into four socioeconomic groups:Costal big city,moderate and small city,phosphorus rural,and underdeveloping rural.Percentages of the body fat were calculated by using the ChanglingBrozek equations.Results From 1995 to 2010,the increments of the triceps were 1.36 and 1.05 mm/10 y

  13. Grow first, gain fat in the meantime. Longitudinal study of anthropometric changes around menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Ziomkiewicz Anna; Kozieł Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    There is a long dispute among anthropologist over which factor is more important – skeletal maturation or energy accumulation – for menarche occurrence. Here we report results of longitudinal study conducted on the sample of 178 girls followed for the period from 2 years before to 2 years after the age of menarche. Each year during this period anthropometric measures of waist and hip circumference, pelvis breadth, subscapular, triceps and abdominal skinfold thickness were taken to document gi...

  14. The malarial impact on the nutritional status of Amazonian adult subjects Impacto da malaria no estado nutricional de doentes adultos da Amazônia

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Paulo C.M.; Meira, Domingos A; Paulo R Curi; Nelson de Souza; ROBERTO C. BURINI

    1995-01-01

    The anthropometric (body weight, height, upper arm circumference, triceps and subescapular skinfolds; Quetelet index and arm muscle circunference) and blood biochemistry (proteins and lipids) parameters were evaluated in 93 males and 27 females, 17-72 years old voluntaries living in the malarial endemic area of Humaita city (southwest Amazon). According to their malarial history they were assembled in four different groups: G1-controls without malarial history (n:30); G2 - controls with malar...

  15. ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS: SOMATOTYPE AND BODY COMPOSITION VALUES

    OpenAIRE

    Yener BEKTAŞ; Başak Koca Özer; Timur Gültekin; Mehmet Sağır; Galip Akın

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the somatotype and body composition characteristics of female basketball players and to demonstrate the changes between different category levels. For this purpose 37 female basketball players were subjected from Et-Balik Sports Club representing 4 different categories. 11 anthropometric measurements; body weight, height, humerus and femur bicondylar breadth, biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and thigh skinfold thickness, biceps and thigh circumference data ...

  16. A STUDY ON BODY COMPOSITION, BODY COMPONENTS AND SOMATOTYPE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCCER PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Kürkçü, Recep; Hazar, Fatih; Özdağ, Selçuk

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to study to determine and comparison the body composition, body components and somatotype characteristics of young soccer players (Young Soccer Team of Sport Club of Muğla University) with other national and international soccer players. Subjects were eighteen pubescent soccer players (age, 13.22y) of a team playing in regional soccer league. Skinfolds (biceps, triceps, back, suprailiac, abdominal, leg, thigh), diameters (femur and humerus biconduler), circumferences ...

  17. Association between anthropometric indices and cardiometabolic risk factors in pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizabal, Juan C.; Barona, Jacqueline; Hoyos, Marcela; Ruiz, Marcela; Marín, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Background The world health organization (WHO) and the Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants- study (IDEFICS), released anthropometric reference values obtained from normal body weight children. This study examined the relationship between WHO [body mass index (BMI) and triceps- and subscapular-skinfolds], and IDEFICS (waist circumference, waist to height ratio and fat mass index) anthropometric indices with cardiometabolic risk...

  18. Neck circumference as an anthropometric measure of obesity in diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadamba Aswathappa; Sumit Garg; Karthiyanee Kutty; Vinutha Shankar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthro...

  19. Circumference and COD control algorithm of NewSUBARU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We renewed a closed orbit correction program for NewSUBARU. We use a new horizontal orbit correction algorithm with a circumference control. A response matrix in the program is calculated using the correct equation of the response in an electron storage ring. It made the correction process faster and more stable. It also eliminated an interference with the control program of RF frequency. (author)

  20. Association of older women’s limb circumferences and muscle mass as estimated with bioelectrical impedance

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannon, Richard W; Chu, Johnson; Steffl, Michal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between three practical measures used to characterize muscle mass: mid-arm circumference, maximum calf circumference, and muscle mass index determined using bioimpedance analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight ambulatory women residing in a senior center (mean age, 83 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mid-arm circumference and maximum calf circumference were measured bilaterally and they all unde...

  1. Evaluation of neck circumference as a predictor of central obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xuhong; Zhang, Ning; Yu, Caiguo; Ji, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether neck circumference (NC) could be used as a valid and effective method for identifying obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 3307 adults aged 20-65 years were randomly recruited from two communities of Tongzhou, Beijing. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), neck circumference (NC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerid...

  2. Assessment of nutritional status in adult patients with cystic fibrosis: whole-body bioimpedance vs body mass index, skinfolds, and leg-to-leg bioimpedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, F.M.; Roos, de N.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Berkhout, van F.T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage estimated from BMI, skinfolds, or leg-to-leg bioimpedance are good indicators of nutritional status in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Body fat percentage measured by whole-body bioimpedance was used as the reference

  3. Hip circumference and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder; Lissner, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    waist circumference, predicted less incidence of CVD, CHD, and total death in women. This was not the case in men; BMI and waist circumference were the strongest independent predictors. DISCUSSION: A large hip circumference seems to have independent and positive effects on CVD and CHD morbidity and...

  4. MECHANISMS FOR TRICEPS SURAE INJURY IN HIGH PERFORMANCE FRONT ROW RUGBY UNION PLAYERS: A KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF SCRUMMAGING DRILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Flavell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The front row of a rugby union scrum consists of three players. The loose head prop, hooker and tight head prop. The objective of this study was to determine if known biomechanical risk factors for triceps surae muscle injury are exhibited in the lower limb of front row players during contested scrummaging. Eleven high performance front row rugby union players were landmarked bilaterally at the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS, greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, midline of the calcaneus above the plantar aspect of the heel, midline lower leg 5cm and 20cm proximal to the lateral malleolus, at the axis of subtalar joint, lateral malleolus, and head of the fifth metatarsal. Players were video recorded during a series of 2 on 1 live scrummaging drills. Biomechanical three dimensional analysis identified large angular displacements, and increased peak velocities and accelerations at the ankle joint during attacking scrummaging drill techniques when in the stance phase of gait. This places the triceps surae as increased risk of injury and provides valuable information for training staff regarding injury prevention and scrum training practices for front row players

  5. Neck circumference as a potential marker of metabolic syndrome among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Christina Rodrigues Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to relate neck circumference with metabolic syndrome and its criteria among college students.METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted with 702 college students in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil from September 2010 to June 2011. Socio-demographic data, waist circumference and neck circumference were collected together with blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride levels, and HDL-C.RESULTS: 1.7% of the studied sample presented metabolic syndrome. Of these, 58.3% presented altered neck circumference (p<0.006. As neck circumference decreases, pressure levels improve (p<0.001. Additionally, college students with high fasting blood sugar (p=0.003 and high triglyceride levels (p<0.001 presented higher values of neck circumference.CONCLUSION: neck circumference is a potential predictive marker in the detection of metabolic syndrome and its components among college students.

  6. Effects of Bed Rest on Conduction Velocity of the Triceps Surae Stretch Reflex and Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Wood, S. J.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Fisher, E. A.; Esteves, J. T.; Taylor, L. C.; DeDios, Y. E.; Harm, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite rigorous exercise and nutritional management during space missions, astronauts returning from microgravity exhibit neuromuscular deficits and a significant loss in muscle mass in the postural muscles of the lower leg. Similar changes in the postural muscles occur in subjects participating in long-duration bed rest studies. These adaptive muscle changes manifest as a reduction in reflex conduction velocity during head-down bed rest. Because the stretch reflex encompasses both the peripheral (muscle spindle and nerve axon) and central (spinal synapse) components involved in adaptation to calf muscle unloading, it may be used to provide feedback on the general condition of neuromuscular function, and might be used to evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures aimed at preserving muscle mass and function during periods of unloading. Stretch reflexes were measured on 18 control subjects who spent 60 to 90 days in continuous 6 deg head-down bed rest. Using a motorized system capable of rotating the foot around the ankle joint (dorsiflexion) through an angle of 10 degrees at a peak velocity of about 250 deg/sec, a stretch reflex was recorded from the subject's left triceps surae muscle group. Using surface electromyography, about 300 reflex responses were obtained and ensemble-averaged on 3 separate days before bed rest, 3 to 4 times in bed, and 3 times after bed rest. The averaged responses for each test day were examined for reflex latency and conduction velocity (CV) across gender. Computerized posturography was also conducted on these same subjects before and after bed rest as part of the standard measures. Peak-to-peak sway was measured during Sensory Organization Tests (SOTs) to evaluate changes in the ability to effectively use or suppress visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information for postural control. Although no gender differences were found, a significant increase in reflex latency and a significant decrease in CV were observed during the bed

  7. A new in vivo model using a dorsal skinfold chamber to investigate microcirculation and angiogenesis in diabetic wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langer, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus describes a dysregulation of glucose metabolism due to improper insulin secretion, reduced insulin efficacy or both. It is a well-known fact that diabetic patients are likely to suffer from impaired wound healing, as diabetes strongly affects tissue angiogenesis. Until now, no satisfying in vivo murine model has been established to analyze the dynamics of angiogenesis during diabetic wound healing. To help understand the pathophysiology of diabetes and its effect on angiogenesis, a novel in vivo murine model was established using the skinfold chamber in mice.Materials and Methods: Mutant diabetic mice (db; wildtype mice ( and laboratory BALB/c mice were examined. They were kept in single cages with access to laboratory chow with an 12/12 hour day/night circle. Lesions of the panniculus muscle (Ø 2 mm were created in the center of the transparent window chamber and the subsequent muscular wound healing was then observed for a period of 22 days. Important analytic parameters included vessel diameter, red blood cell velocity, vascular permeability, and leakage of muscle capillaries and post capillary venules. The key parameters were functional capillary density (FCD and angiogenesis positive area (APA.Results: We established a model which allows high resolution in vivo imaging of functional angiogenesis in diabetic wounds. As expected, db mice showed impaired wound closure (day 22 compared to wounds of BALB/c or WT mice (day 15. FCD was lower in diabetic mice compared to WT and BALB/c during the entire observation period. The dynamics of angiogenesis also decreased in db mice, as reflected by the lowest APA levels. Significant variations in the skin buildup were observed, with the greatest skin depth in db mice. Furthermore, in db mice, the dermis:subcutaneous ratio was highly shifted towards the subcutaneous layers as opposed to WT or BALB/c mice.Conclusion: Using this new in vivo model of the skinfold chamber, it

  8. Association of Neck Circumference with Obesity in Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandreou, Dimitrios; Noor, Zujaja Tul; Rashed, Maitha; Jaberi, Hadeel Al

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity levels have been dramatically increased in the United Arab Emirates over the last few years. High levels of body Mass Index, waist circumference, and percent of total body fat as a measure of obesity have found to be related to cardiovascular risk factors and other diseases. Neck circumference is a new tool that has been linked to obesity. However, no studies in UAE have been conducted yet. AIM: The purpose of this study was to measure the obesity levels in a college population and to correlate them with NC and other anthropometrical indexes. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Two hundred forty three (243) female students aged 18-25 were conveniently selected to participate in the study. Anthropometrical indexes were obtained from all subjects e after fasting. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity together was found to be 28.4 % (n = 69). Pearson correlation showed that WC, NC and BF (%) were significantly positively related to obesity, (r = 0.790; r = 0.758; r = 0.767, p < 0.001), respectively. In multiple regression analysis, only NC (Beta: 1.627, 95 %CI: 0.370, 2.846, p < 0.001) and WC (Beta: 0.464, 95 %CI: 0.135, 0.664, p < 0.001) were found to be independently associated with obesity. CONCLUSION: NC was found to be independently associated with obesity levels in Emirati college students.

  9. Decreasing "circumference" for increasing "radius" in axially symmetric gravitating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lubo, M

    2001-01-01

    Apart from the flat space with an angular deficit, Einstein general relativity possesses another cylindrically symmetric solution. Because this configuration displays circles whose "circumferences" tend to zero when their "radius" go to infinity, it has not received much attention in the past. We propose a geometric interpretation of this feature and find that it implies field boundary conditions different from the ones found in the literature if one considers a source consisting of the scalar and the vector fields of a U(1) system . To obtain a non increasing energy density the gauge symmetry must be unbroken . For the Higgs potential this is achieved only with a vanishing vacuum expectation value but then the solution has a null scalar field. A non trivial scalar behaviour is exhibited for a potential of sixth order. The trajectories of test particles in this geometry are studied, its causal structure discussed. We find that this bosonic background can support a normalizable fermionic condensate but not suc...

  10. Neck circumference as a potential marker of metabolic syndrome among college students1

    OpenAIRE

    Dayse Christina Rodrigues Pereira; Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo; Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire de Freitas; Carla Regina de Souza Teixeira; Maria Lúcia Zanetti; Marta Maria Coelho Damasceno

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to relate neck circumference with metabolic syndrome and its criteria among college students. METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted with 702 college students in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil from September 2010 to June 2011. Socio-demographic data, waist circumference and neck circumference were collected together with blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride levels, and HDL-C. RESULTS: 1.7% of the studied sample presented metabolic syndrome. Of these, 58.3% presented altered ne...

  11. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study of Japanese men

    OpenAIRE

    Hamachi Tadamichi; Yoshimitsu Shinichiro; Tabata Shinji; Abe Hiroshi; Ohnaka Keizo; Kono Suminori

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Visceral obesity is positively related to insulin resistance. The nature of the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance has not been known in Japanese populations. This study examined the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance and evaluated the optimal cutoff point for waist circumference in relation to insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. Methods Study subjects included 4800 Japanese men aged 39 to 60 years. Insu...

  12. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for Metabolic Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria in a Korean Rural Population

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Jang Hyun; Koh, Sang Baek; Lee, Mi Young; Jung, Pil Moon; Kim, Bo Hwan; Shin, Jang Yel; Shin, Young Goo; Ryu, So Yeon; Lee, Tae Yong; Park, Jong Ku; Chung, Choon Hee

    2010-01-01

    The Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO) has defined the waist circumference cutoff value of central obesity as 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the corresponding waist circumference values. A total of 3,508 persons in the Korean Rural Genomic Cohort Study were enrolled in this survey. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to find appropriate waist circumference cutoff values in relation to insulin resist...

  13. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women

    OpenAIRE

    Zadeh-Vakili Azita; Tehrani Fahimeh R; Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC) for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, ...

  14. Mechanisms for triceps surae injury in high performance front row rugby union players: a kinematic analysis of scrummaging drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavell, Carol A; Sayers, Mark G L; Gordon, Susan J; Lee, James B

    2013-01-01

    The front row of a rugby union scrum consists of three players. The loose head prop, hooker and tight head prop. The objective of this study was to determine if known biomechanical risk factors for triceps surae muscle injury are exhibited in the lower limb of front row players during contested scrummaging. Eleven high performance front row rugby union players were landmarked bilaterally at the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS), greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, midline of the calcaneus above the plantar aspect of the heel, midline lower leg 5cm and 20cm proximal to the lateral malleolus, at the axis of subtalar joint, lateral malleolus, and head of the fifth metatarsal. Players were video recorded during a series of 2 on 1 live scrummaging drills. Biomechanical three dimensional analysis identified large angular displacements, and increased peak velocities and accelerations at the ankle joint during attacking scrummaging drill techniques when in the stance phase of gait. This places the triceps surae as increased risk of injury and provides valuable information for training staff regarding injury prevention and scrum training practices for front row players. Key pointsFront rowers exhibited patterns of single leg weight bearing, in a position of greater ankle plantar flexion and knee extension at toe off during scrummaging, which is a risk position for TS injury.Front rowers also exhibited greater acceleration at the ankle, knee, and hip joints, and greater changes in ankle ROM from toe strike to toe off during attacking scrum drills.These reported accelerations and joint displacements may be risk factors for TS injury, as the ankle is accelerating into plantar flexion at final push off and the muscle is shortening from an elongated state. PMID:24149740

  15. Body mass index a better predictor of insulin resistance than waist circumference in normoglycemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Preethi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body Mass Index (BMI is the most common method of measuring obesity. Many studies have reported that waist circumference is a stronger predictor of insulin resistance in non-type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate whether waist circumference (WC or body mass index (BMI is a better predictor insulin resistance. Method: 79 normal young adult volunteers in the age range of 18 to 25 years were enrolled for the Study. All subjects underwent a detailed general physical examination including Blood Pressure, body weight, height, hip & waist circumference. BMI (Body Mass Index, waist and hip circumference & waist hip ratio calculated. 2hr OGTT with serum Insulin was performed and Insulin resistance calculated. Result: Simple clinical measures of obesity like height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and their indexes like BMI (body mass index, WHR (waist hip ratio were evaluated and correlated with the measures of Insulin resistance (IR and insulin sensitivity. BMI was found to significantly correlate with most of the IR parameters and there was a trend towards significance with weight. Waist circumference did not correlate significantly with IR parameters. Conclusion: Body Mass Index (BMI is a useful tool in evaluating obesity in normoglycemic subjects. BMI is a better predictor of Insulin Resistance and risk stratification than waist circumference.

  16. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study of Japanese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamachi Tadamichi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral obesity is positively related to insulin resistance. The nature of the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance has not been known in Japanese populations. This study examined the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance and evaluated the optimal cutoff point for waist circumference in relation to insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. Methods Study subjects included 4800 Japanese men aged 39 to 60 years. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The relationship of waist circumference with HOMA-IR was assessed by use of adjusted means of HOMA-IR and odds ratios of elevated HOMA-IR defined as the highest quintile (≥2.00. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis using Youden index and the area under curve (AUC was employed to determine optimal cutoffs of waist circumference in relation to HOMA-IR. Results Adjusted geometric means of HOMA-IR and prevalence odds of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference. In the ROC curve analysis, the highest value of Youden index was obtained for a cutoff point of 85 cm in waist circumference across different values of HOMA-IR. Multiple logistic regression analysis also indicated that the AUC was consistently the largest for a waist circumference of 85 cm. Conclusion Waist circumference is linearly related to insulin resistance, and 85 cm in waist circumference is an optimal cutoff in predicting insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men.

  17. Evaluation of doxorubicin-loaded pH-sensitive polymeric micelle release from tumor blood vessels and anticancer efficacy using a dorsal skin-fold window chamber model

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Zhe-Hu; Jin, Ming-Ji; Jiang, Chang-gao; Yin, Xue-zhe; Jin, Shuai-xing; Quan, Xiu-quan; Zhong-gao GAO

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluation the doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded pH-sensitive polymeric micelle release from tumor blood vessels into tumor interstitium using an animal vessel visibility model, the so-called dorsal skin-fold window chamber model. Methods: DOX-loaded pH-sensitive polyHis-b-PEG micelles and DOX-loaded pH-insensitive PLLA-b-PEG micelles were prepared. The uptake of the micelles by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo was examined using flow cytometry. The pharmacokinetic parameter...

  18. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis Polymeris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20–83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25–29.9 as overweight and with BMI ≥ 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (r=0.95, P 44.0 cm could be recognized as having BMI ≥ 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1 cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ≥ 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI.

  19. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeris, Antonis; Papapetrou, Peter D; Katsoulis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20-83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25-29.9 as overweight and with BMI ≥ 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC) of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (r = 0.95, P 44.0 cm could be recognized as having BMI ≥ 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1 cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ≥ 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI. PMID:26556418

  20. Identifying Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Using Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Camhi, PhD

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionMetabolic syndrome is increasing among adolescents. We examined the utility of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference to identify metabolic syndrome in adolescent girls.MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 185 predominantly African American girls who were a median age of 14 years. Participants were designated as having metabolic syndrome if they met criteria for 3 of 5 variables: 1 high blood pressure, 2 low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, 3 high fasting blood glucose level, 4 high waist circumference, and 5 high triglyceride level. We predicted the likelihood of the presence of metabolic syndrome by using previously established cutpoints of BMI and waist circumference. We used stepwise regression analysis to determine whether anthropometric measurements significantly predicted metabolic syndrome.ResultsOf total participants, 18% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. BMI for 118 (64% participants was above the cutpoint. Of these participants, 25% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, whereas only 4% of participants with a BMI below the cutpoint met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (P <.001. Girls with a BMI above the cutpoint were more likely than girls with a BMI below the cutpoint to have metabolic syndrome (P = .002. The waist circumference for 104 (56% participants was above the cutpoint. Of these participants, 28% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, whereas only 1% of participants with a waist circumference below the cutpoint met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (P <.001. Girls with a waist circumference above the cutpoint were more likely than girls with a waist circumference below the cutpoint to have metabolic syndrome (P = .002. Stepwise regression showed that only waist circumference significantly predicted metabolic syndrome.ConclusionBoth anthropometric measures were useful screening tools to identify metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference was a better predictor of

  1. Synthetic Augmented Suture Anchor Reconstruction for a Complete Traumatic Distal Triceps Tendon Rupture in a Male Professional Bodybuilder with Postoperative Biomechanical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elissavet Nikolaidou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bodybuilding is a high-risk sport for distal triceps tendon ruptures. Management, especially in high-demanding athletes, is operative with suture anchor refixation technique being frequently used. However, the rate of rerupture is high due to underlying poor tendon quality. Thus, additional augmentation could be useful. This case report presents a reconstruction technique for a complete traumatic distal triceps tendon rupture in a bodybuilder with postoperative biomechanical assessment. A 28-year-old male professional bodybuilder was treated with a synthetic augmented suture anchor reconstruction for a complete triceps tendon rupture of his right dominant elbow. Postoperative biomechanical assessment included isokinetic elbow strength and endurance testing by using multiple angular velocities to simulate the “off-season” and “precompetition” phases of training. Eighteen months postoperatively and after full return to training, the biomechanical assessment indicated that the strength and endurance of the operated elbow joint was fully restored with even higher ratings compared to the contralateral healthy arm. The described reconstruction technique can be considered as an advisable option in high-performance athletes with underlying poor tendon quality due to high tensile strength and lack of donor site morbidity, thus enabling them to restore preinjury status and achieve safe return to sports.

  2. Synthetic augmented suture anchor reconstruction for a complete traumatic distal triceps tendon rupture in a male professional bodybuilder with postoperative biomechanical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Maria-Elissavet; Banke, Ingo J; Laios, Thomas; Petsogiannis, Konstantinos; Mourikis, Anastasios

    2014-01-01

    Bodybuilding is a high-risk sport for distal triceps tendon ruptures. Management, especially in high-demanding athletes, is operative with suture anchor refixation technique being frequently used. However, the rate of rerupture is high due to underlying poor tendon quality. Thus, additional augmentation could be useful. This case report presents a reconstruction technique for a complete traumatic distal triceps tendon rupture in a bodybuilder with postoperative biomechanical assessment. A 28-year-old male professional bodybuilder was treated with a synthetic augmented suture anchor reconstruction for a complete triceps tendon rupture of his right dominant elbow. Postoperative biomechanical assessment included isokinetic elbow strength and endurance testing by using multiple angular velocities to simulate the "off-season" and "precompetition" phases of training. Eighteen months postoperatively and after full return to training, the biomechanical assessment indicated that the strength and endurance of the operated elbow joint was fully restored with even higher ratings compared to the contralateral healthy arm. The described reconstruction technique can be considered as an advisable option in high-performance athletes with underlying poor tendon quality due to high tensile strength and lack of donor site morbidity, thus enabling them to restore preinjury status and achieve safe return to sports. PMID:24711944

  3. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Antonis Polymeris; Peter D. Papapetrou; Georgios Katsoulis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20–83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25–29.9 as...

  4. Waist circumference is better associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL-c than with body mass index (BMI in adults with metabolic syndrome Circunferencia de la cintura es mejor asociado con lipoproteínas de alta densidad (LAD-C que con el índice de masa corporal (IMC en adultos con síndrome metabólico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Arimura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The measurement of waist circumference (WC is the most prevalent cause of the metabolic syndrome (MS. Objective: The aim of this study was to correlate WC and BMI with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c levels in patients with MS being consulted by the Family Health Program (PSF, Brazil. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from September to November 2008 with 42 patients (29 women and 13 men from 35 to 77 years. Dietary intake was reported, and biochemical and body composition measures were taken. Results: The HDL-c levels were higher in women when compared to men (48.4 ± 8.1 mg/dL vs. 36.4 ± 7.8 mg/dL. However, the triglycerides (TG/HDL-c ratio and TG concentrations were lower in women (3.8 ± 1.5 and 178.0 ± 57.8 mg/dL, respectively than in men (9.4 ± 8.5 and 471.5 ± 501.5 mg/dL, respectively. Regarding skinfold profile, the triceps was greater in females (37.0 ± 8.4 cm vs. 20.7 ± 10.5 cm. The dietetic profile showed that women had a lower intake of energy, fiber, phosphorus and sodium. The fruits and vegetables intake was diminished in the participants of this study, as less than 60% of the women and 50% of men met the daily recommendations. Approximately 54% of men and 28% of women had a lower intake of dairy products daily. Moreover, the results shows that the WC was negatively correlated to HDL-c (r = -0.41, p 0.06. Conclusion: Our findings showed that WC is a better predictor of changes in HDL-c than BMI.Antecedentes: La medición de la circunferencia de la cintura (CC es la causa más prevalente del síndrome metabólico (SM. Objetivo: el propósito de este estudio fue correlacionar la CC y el IMC con las concentraciones de lipoproteínas de densidad elevada (HDL-c en pacientes con SM vistos en consulta del Programa de salud familiar (PSF, de Brasil. Métodos: Este estudio trasversal se realizó entre septiembre y noviembre de 2008 en 42 pacientes (29 mujeres y 13 hombres de 35 a 77 años. Se registró la

  5. Effect of irradiation on neovascularization in rat skinfold chambers: Implications for clinical trials of low-dose radiotherapy for wet-type age-related macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Wet-type age-related macular degeneration is a refractory eye disease that involves choroidal neovascularization. Randomized controlled trials of low-dose radiotherapy for this disease performed in Japan showed that, at 12 months of follow-up, visual acuity was significantly well preserved and the neovascular membrane size decreased. Because understanding the effect of irradiation on new vascular networks is an important prerequisite for clinical trials, we used a rat skinfold chamber technique to investigate X-ray-induced changes in neovasculature microcirculation. Methods and materials: Neovascularization was induced in rat skinfold chambers via polyvinyl chloride resin plates. Neovessels were irradiated in a single 10-Gy dose, after which, changes in vascular density, blood velocity, tissue blood flow, and interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), were measured. Results: Vascular density, tissue blood flow, and IFP measurements in resin-induced inflammatory tissue were much higher than those measurements in normal tissue. Although overall blood velocity was low and sluggish or blood-flow stasis occurred in the neovascular network, after a single 10-Gy dose of radiation, the velocity increased, stasis improved markedly, and many dilated vessels narrowed. Thereafter, vascular density, blood flow, and IFP significantly decreased and approached normal values. Conclusion: These findings may help explain clinical results related to radiotherapy-induced changes in neovascular membranes in age-related macular degeneration. Both vascular morphology and vascular function in inflammatory tissue returned to normal, without vessel destruction, after an appropriate radiation dose

  6. The relation between drinking pattern and body mass index and waist and hip circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J S; Heitmann, B. L.; Tjønneland, A M; Overvad, O K; Sørensen, T I A; Grønbaek, M N

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the association between alcohol drinking pattern and obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population study with assessment of quantity and frequency of alcohol intake, waist and hip circumference, height, weight, and lifestyle factors including diet. SUBJECTS: In all, 25 325 men...... and 24 552 women aged 50-65 y from the Diet, Cancer and Health Study, Denmark, 1993-1997 participated in the study. MEASUREMENTS: Drinking frequency, total alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and waist and hip circumference. RESULTS: Among men, total alcohol intake was positively associated with...... high BMI (>/=30 kg/m(2)), large waist circumference (>/=102 cm) and inversely associated with small hip circumference (<100 cm). Among women, the total alcohol was associated with high BMI, large waist (>/=88 cm), and small hips only for the highest intake (28+ drinks/week). The most frequent drinkers...

  7. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  8. Combined influence of leisure time physical activity and hip circumference on all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Grønbæk, Morten; Ängquist, Lars Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    Hip circumference has been shown to be inversely associated with mortality. Muscle atrophy in the gluteofemoral region may be a possible explanation and thus physical activity is likely to play an important role....

  9. The cross-sectional shape and circumference of the human trachea.

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, S; Myat, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    To design a large-volume, low-pressure cuff it is essential to take into consideration cross-sectional shape and circumference of human trachea. Two hundred adult tracheas were dissected and autopsy specimens examined. Cross-sectional tracheal shapes were studied and their circumference measured. There was a definite correlation between sex and the tracheal shapes studied. Forty five per cent of female tracheas were elliptical in shape and 38% were C shaped. The most common cross-sectional tr...

  10. Human sensory nerve compound action potential amplitude: variation with sex and finger circumference.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, C F; Carter, K M

    1980-01-01

    The amplitude of human, antidromic, sensory compound action potentials (CAP) recorded from median and ulnar digital nerves is greater in females than males. This sex difference is probably due entirely to females having digits of smaller circumference, resulting in digital nerves being closer to the recording ring electrode enclosing the digit. The negative linear correlation between CAP amplitude and circumference holds true for persons of the same sex.

  11. Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management.

    OpenAIRE

    Lean, M E; Han, T.S.; Morrison, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that a single measurement, waist circumference, might be used to identify people at health risk both from being overweight and from having a central fat distribution. DESIGN--A community derived random sample of men and women and a second, validation sample. SETTING--North Glasgow. SUBJECT--904 men and 1014 women (first sample); 86 men and 202 women (validation sample). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Waist circumference, body mass index, waist:hip ratio. RESULTS--Wai...

  12. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Augmented waist circumference (WC) is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether bio-chemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 206 s...

  13. Evaluation of the relation between triceps surae H-reflex, M-response latencies and thigh length in normal population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Khosrawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The H-reflex is a useful electrophysiological procedure for evaluating the status of the peripheral nervous system, especially at the proximal segment of the peripheral nerve. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between triceps surae H-reflex and M- response latencies and thigh length in normal population, in order to determine if there is any regression equation between them. Materials and Methods: After screening 75 volunteers by considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, 72 of them were selected to enroll into our study (34 men and 38 women with the mean age of 36.04 ± 7.7 years. In all of the subjects H-reflex and M-response latencies were recorded by standard electrophysiological techniques and thigh length was measured. Finally, our data was analyzed for its relations with respect to ages in both sexes by appropriate statistical and mathematical methods. Results: Mean ± SD for H-reflex latency was 27.94 ± 1.6 ms. We found a significant correlation between H-reflex latency and M-latency (r = 0.28, no significant correlation was found between H-reflex latency and thigh length (r = -0.051. Finally based on our findings we introduce a new formula in this paper.Conclusion: We found a significant correlation among of M-response latency and other variables (H-reflex latency and thigh length. Despite this it was eliminated from our formula. The relationship between H-reflex latency and age was significant. Further studies are required to delineate the clinical usage and interpretation of the formula, which we found in this study.

  14. Impact of obesity on glucose and lipid profiles in adolescents at different age groups in relation to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plourde Gilles

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As obesity is rapidly becoming a major medical and public health problem, the aim of our study was to determine: 1 if obesity in Caucasian adolescents at 5 different Tanner stages are associated with obesity in adulthood and its obesity-associated abnormal glucose and lipid profiles, 2 the type of fat distribution is associated with glucose and lipid profile abnormalities, and 3 the risk level and the age of appearance of these abnormalities. Methods For the first study, data analyses were from a case-control study of adolescents classified according to their BMI; a BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex as overweight, and those with a BMI ≥ 95th percentile as obese. Subjects with a BMI th percentile were classified as controls. WC:AC ratio of waist circumference to arm circumference was used as an indicator of a central pattern of adiposity. Two other indices of central adiposity were calculated from skinfolds: Central-peripheral (CPR as subscapular skinfold + suprailliac skinfold/ (triceps skinfold + thigh skinfold and ratio of subscapular to triceps skinfold (STR. The sum of the four skinfolds (SUM was calculated from triceps, subscapular, suprailliac and thigh skinfolds. SUM provides a single measure of subcutaneous adiposity. Representative adult subjects were used for comparison. Glucose and lipid profiles were also determined in these subjects. Abnormal glucose and lipid profiles were determined as being those with fasting glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/l and lipid values ≥ 85th percentile adjusted for age and sex, respectively. Prevalence and odds ratio analysis were used to determine the impact of obesity on glucose and lipid profiles at each Tanner stages for both sexes. Correlation coefficient analyses were used to determine the association between glucose and lipid profiles and anthropometric measurements for both sexes. The second study evaluated in a retrospective-prospective longitudinal way if: 1 obesity in

  15. Waist circumference does not predict circulating adiponectin levels in sub-Saharan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of previously reported ethnic differences in determinants and markers of obesity and related metabolic disorders, we sought to investigate circulating levels of adiponectin and their correlates in a sub-Saharan African (sSA population. Subjects and Methods We studied 70 non-diabetic volunteers (33M/37F living in Yaoundé, Cameroon, aged 24–69 yr, with BMI 20–42 kg/m2. In all participants we measured waist circumference and total body fat by bioimpedance, and obtained a fasting venous blood sample for measurement of plasma glucose, serum insulin and adiponectin concentrations. We performed a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp in 1/4 subjects, and HOMAIR was used as surrogate of fasting insulin sensitivity index since it best correlates to clamp measurements. Results Males had lower adiponectin levels than females (8.8 ± 4.3 vs. 11.8 ± 5.5 μg/L. There was no significant correlation between adiponectin and total body fat (rs = -0.03; NS, whereas adiponectin was inversely correlated with waist circumference (rs = -0.39; p = 0.001. Adiponectin correlated negatively with insulin resistance (rs = -0.35; p = 0.01. In a regression analysis using fasting adiponectin concentration as the dependent variable, and age, HOMAIR, waist circumference, and fat mass as predictors, waist circumference (β = -3.30; p = 0.002, fat mass (β = -2.68; p = 0.01, and insulin resistance (β = -2.38; p = 0.02 but not age (β = 1.11; p = 0.27 were independent predictors of adiponectin. When considering gender, these relations persisted with the exception of waist circumference in females. Conclusion Adiponectin correlates in this study population are comparable to those observed in Caucasians with the exception of waist circumference in women. The metabolic significance of waist circumference is therefore questioned in sSA women.

  16. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Halkjaer, J.; Heitmann, B.L.; Tjonneland, A.M.; Overvad, K.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Grønbæk, Morten

    2008-01-01

    drinking, drinking on 1, 2-4, 5-6, and 7 d/wk, respectively, compared with men who drank alcohol on <1 d/wk (P for trend < 0.0001). Results for women were similar. Adjustment for the amount of alcohol intake or total energy intake did not affect results considerably. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking pattern may be......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from a...... prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined as...

  17. Evaluation of marginal circumference and marginal thickness changes in precrimped stainless steel crowns, after recrimping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar H

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The need for recrimping precrimped stainless steel crowns by the dentist in clinic is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the rate of marginal circumference and marginal thickness change of precrimped stainless steel crowns after recrimping. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 primary photos were taken from margins of 30 S.S.Cs (3M, Ni-Cr related to tooth 85 with a digital camera fixed at a determined distance. Margins of crowns were crimped by 114 and 137 pliers with a controlled force (0.2 N and then 30 secondary photos were taken in the same conditions. The circumference of crown margins in primary (group A and secondary (group B photos were assessed by a digitizer system. Comparing the circumferences of crown margins in primary and secondary photos showed a significant decrease after crimping. Thickness of 30 random points on the crown margins of a crown similar to mentioned cases was measured by SEM (×150. Then similar procedures including taking a primary photo, crimping and taking a secondary photo was done for the sample crown. After significant reduction in margin circumference, thickness of 30 other random points on the crown margin were measured by SEM. Data were analyzed by paired sample t-test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The mean marginal circumference of precrimped stainless steel crowns was reduced by 7.3% which was significant (P<0.001. On the other hand the mean marginal thickness of sample stainless steel crown showed 18µ increase. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, marginal circumference of precrimped stainless steel crowns (3M, Ni-Cr showed a significant decrease after crimping. It is concluded that crimping the stainless steel crowns even for precrimped ones seems necessary.

  18. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadeh-Vakili Azita

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method 1036 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. Following implementation of exclusion criteria, complete data for 907 women remained for analysis. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and its cut off value was defined as the 95th percentile of HOMA-IR value for 129 subjects, without any metabolic abnormality. The optimal cut-off of WC in relation to HOMA-IR was calculated based on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis using the Youden index and the area under curve (AUC. Results The mean age of the total sample of 907 subjects was 34.4 ± 7.6 years (range, 18 - 45 years. After adjustment for age the odds ratios (OR of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference; the age adjusted OR of IR for women with WC > 95 cm in comparison to those subjects with WC Conclusions Waist circumference is directly related to insulin resistance and the optimal cut-off value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 88.5 cm for reproductive aged Iranian women.

  19. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI......) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were...

  20. Gene expression profiling of differentially expressed genes in bull testicle between different scrotal circumference using DDRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify tissue-specific expression gene in testicle of differential scrotal circumference bulls and analyze the function of the specific gene on the development of the bull's scrotum in this study. The DDRT-PCR and Reverse Northern Blot Analysis were used to identify tissue-specific expression genes in bulls with differential scrotal circumference. The experiment was designed sixty 6-month-old crossbreeds (Charolais with indigenous Fuzhou female). These were raised under the same age, cross generation, raising condition and management. When the feeding was over after 6 months, the scrotal circumferences of bulls were measured. Four bulls were selected and classified into two groups, and the difference of scrotal circumference is significant between the two groups (P < 0.01). A group was consisted of two bulls with larger scrotal circumference 26±2.5cm. The control group was two crossbreed bulls with smaller scrotal circumference 17±2.2 cm. When the scrotal circumferences were measured, the bulls were castrated by surgical operations. A piece of tissue (2 by 2 by 2 cm) was removed from the deeper area of the testis and stored in liquid nitrogen. A small section (0.5 by 0.5 by 0.5 cm) was used for total RNA extraction by using the TRIZOL reagent kit (GIBCO/BRL, Bethesda, MA, USA). The RNA was prepared for DDRT-PCR experiments and quantitative real-time PCR. The results were shown that six genes corresponded to genes of known or inferred function; either the bovine gene or the likely human orthologue and three genes or ESTs were unknown. Bos taurus similar to galactosidase, beta 1-like; Bos taurus similar to Kinesin heavy chain isoform 5C; Bos taurus similar to ankyrin repeat domain protein 15 isoform and Bos taurus ebd-P2 pseudogene were founded both highly expressed in bulls which had bigger scrotal circumference by qRT-PCR. Their functions may be involved with sperm maturation in the epididymis, sperm protection and preventing the ascent of microorganisms

  1. Nutritional status and body composition of inpatients: the effects of nutritional transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cristina Portero-McLellan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effects of nutritional transition on the nutritional status and body composition of inpatients. Methods: We assessed 819 inpatients (435 men and 384women regarding clinical, anthropometric and dietary aspects. The anthropometric variables studied were: current weight (CW, height (H, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HC, arm circumference (AC, triceps skinfold (TSF and subscapular skinfold thickness (SST. From these measures were determined: the body mass index (BMI, the waist and hip ratio (WHR, the waist and height ratio (RCA, the arm muscle circumference (AMC, the arm muscle area (AMA and arm fat area (AFA. For the diagnosis of central adiposity, we used the relationship between waist and hip circumferences. Results: The mean age was 53.7 ± 16.0 years, with hospital stay of 8 days, being higher among the elderly (p <0.01. Most patients (47.8% were overweight or obese, 48.6% presented altered values of waist circumference and 76.4% had central adiposity. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 45.4% of total admissions, and 60.4% among the elderly. Conclusion: This study showed high prevalence of obesity and central adiposity among inpatients regardless of gender, age, and the reason for admission, evidencing the effects of nutritional transition in the studied population.

  2. Changes in waist circumference and mortality in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte;

    2010-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) adjusted for body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with mortality, but the association with changes in WC is less clear. We investigated the association between changes in WC and mortality in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent...

  3. Changes in waist circumference and the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte;

    2011-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass...

  4. Physical activity in leisure-time is not associated with 10-year changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, T.; Petersen, L.; Schnohr, P.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    To examine whether physical activity (PA) is associated with changes in waist circumference (WC), and changes in WC given changes in body mass index (BMI). Longitudinal population-based study including 2026 men and 2782 women aged 21-81 years. Subjects were examined in 1991-1993 (baseline) and 2001...

  5. Does change in hip circumference predict cardiovascular disease and overall mortality in Danish and Swedish women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanfer, Anne; Mehlig, Kirsten; Heitmann, Berit L; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence consistently shows that small hip circumference (HC) is related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease, diabetes, and premature death in women. This study aims to clarify whether this inverse association can be found in both normal- and ove...... overweight individuals and if change in HC over time relates to morbidity and mortality risk....

  6. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Halkjaer, Jytte; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tjønneland, Anne M; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Grønbæk, Morten

    2008-01-01

    circumference in men. Drinking frequency was unassociated with major waist loss but was inversely associated with major waist gain: odds ratios among men were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.28), 0.95 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.12), 0.88 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.99), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.71, -0.95), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.9) for never......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from a...... prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined as...

  7. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Longitudinal Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Angquist, Lars; Moldovan, Max; Huikari, Ville; Sebert, Sylvain; Cavadino, Alana; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Skaaby, Tea; Linneberg, Allan; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.; Toft, Ulla; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Power, Chris; Hypponen, Elina; Heitmann, Berit L.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2016-01-01

    body weight (ΔBW) or waist circumference (ΔWC), and whether the associations were modified by genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI). The study was based on 10,898 individuals from the Danish Inter99, the 1958 British Birth Cohort and the Northern Finland...

  8. Association of older women's limb circumferences and muscle mass as estimated with bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Richard W; Chu, Johnson; Steffl, Michal

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between three practical measures used to characterize muscle mass: mid-arm circumference, maximum calf circumference, and muscle mass index determined using bioimpedance analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight ambulatory women residing in a senior center (mean age, 83 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mid-arm circumference and maximum calf circumference were measured bilaterally and they all underwent bioimpedance analysis. Relationships were examined by using Pearson (r) correlations, Cronbach's alpha, and factor analysis. [Results] Circumferential measures correlated significantly with one another (r = 0.745-0.968) and with the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis (r = 0.480-0.628). The Cronbach's alpha for the measures was 0.905. Factor analysis confirmed that all of the measures were reflective of a common construct. [Conclusion] On the basis of their correlations with one another and the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis, circumferential measures of the mid-arm or calf may be considered crude indicators of reduced muscle mass. PMID:27134404

  9. Association of older women’s limb circumferences and muscle mass as estimated with bioelectrical impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Richard W.; Chu, Johnson; Steffl, Michal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between three practical measures used to characterize muscle mass: mid-arm circumference, maximum calf circumference, and muscle mass index determined using bioimpedance analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight ambulatory women residing in a senior center (mean age, 83 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mid-arm circumference and maximum calf circumference were measured bilaterally and they all underwent bioimpedance analysis. Relationships were examined by using Pearson (r) correlations, Cronbach’s alpha, and factor analysis. [Results] Circumferential measures correlated significantly with one another (r = 0.745–0.968) and with the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis (r = 0.480–0.628). The Cronbach’s alpha for the measures was 0.905. Factor analysis confirmed that all of the measures were reflective of a common construct. [Conclusion] On the basis of their correlations with one another and the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis, circumferential measures of the mid-arm or calf may be considered crude indicators of reduced muscle mass.

  10. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  11. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Angquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  12. Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Richard W; Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E;

    2015-01-01

    Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio. RESULTS: The data included up to 66,809 never-smokers, 43,009 former smokers and 38,913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric...

  13. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Halkjaer, Jytte; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from...

  14. Waist Circumference and Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Rural School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Coelho e Silva, Manuel J.; Ribeiro, Luís P.; Fernandes, Romulo; Mota, Jorge; Malina, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on relationships between lifestyle behaviors and adiposity in school youth is potentially important for identifying subgroups at risk. This study evaluates the associations between waist circumference (WC) and objective measures of sedentary behavior (SB) in a sample of rural school adolescents. Methods: The sample included…

  15. Neck circumference as predictor of excess body fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether neck circumference can predict cardiovascular risk factors and excess body fat in adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included male and female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years from Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The following data were collected: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, percentage of body fat according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. The anthropometric measurements were used for calculating indices and assessing nutritional status. The receiver operating characteristic curve tested whether neck circumference could predict cardiovascular risk. We also investigated how neck circumference related to the study parameters. The significance level was set at 5% (p0.5; p<0.05, varying from 0.610 for high-density lipoprotein to 0.817 for blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Neck circumference was capable of predicting excess fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents.

  16. Nutritional risk and anthropometric evaluation in pediatric liver transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamberlan, Patrícia; Leone, Cláudio; Tannuri, Uenis; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the nutritional status of pediatric patients after orthotopic liver transplantation and the relationship with short-term clinical outcome. METHOD: Anthropometric evaluations of 60 children and adolescents after orthotopic liver transplantation, during the first 24 hours in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. Nutritional status was determined from the Z score for the following indices: weight/age, height/age or length/age, weight/height or weight/length, body mass index/age, arm circumference/age and triceps skinfold/age. The severity of liver disease was evaluated using one of the two models which was adequated to the patients' age: 1. Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease, 2. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease. RESULTS: We found 50.0% undernutrition by height/age; 27.3% by weight/age; 11.1% by weight/height or weight/length; 10.0% by body mass index/age; 61.6% by arm circumference/age and 51.0% by triceps skinfold/age. There was no correlation between nutritional status and Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease or mortality. We found a negative correlation between arm circumference/age and length of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Children with chronic liver diseases experience a significant degree of undernutrition, which makes nutritional support an important aspect of therapy. Despite the difficulties in assessment, anthropometric evaluation of the upper limbs is useful to evaluate nutritional status of children before or after liver transplantation. PMID:23295591

  17. Methodology for adjusting scrotal circumference to 365 or 452 days of age and correlations of scrotal circumference with growth traits in beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D J; Spitzer, J C; Bridges, W C; Olson, L W

    1996-09-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted on data collected from 1983 through 1991, where weight and hip height were measured at start of test and every 28 d on 604 bulls completing a 224-d forage-based gain test. Scrotal circumference (SC) was measured at start of test, and at either end of test or end of the weigh period after individual bulls reached 365 d of age. Over 3 yr of this study, SC was additionally measured every 28 d. Bulls were representatives of 5 breed groups: Angus, Santa Gertrudis, Simmental, Continental (predominantly Charolais), and Zebu (predominantly Simbrah). Adjusted 365-d SC and adjusted 452-d SC were calculated by regression analysis and from formulas based on SC growth of individuals to 140 and 224 d on test, respectively. Breed group differences were observed for age of dam, birth weight, hip height, weight per day of age, average daily gain and SC at start of test, 140 d, and end of test (224 d). Scrotal circumference was positively correlated with all growth traits. Scrotal circumference was related to breed group, age, weight, hip height, average daily gain, weight per day of age, age by year, and age-by-breed group (P<0.05), as determined by regression analysis. However, omitting weight, hip height, average daily gain, and weight per day of age from the regression model did not significantly affect R2 value. Scrotal circumference growth was linear to 140 d on test; however, SC growth to 224 d on test was curvilinear. The 365-d SC predicted from the formula and from regression analysis differed for Simmental and Zebu by 0.3 and 0.4 cm, respectively (P<0.05). The 452-d SC differed for Santa Gertrudis and Zebu by 0.5 and 0.6 cm, respectively (P<0.05). Formulas based on SC growth of individuals are reasonably accurate predictors of SC at 365 and 452 d of age, when compared with more complex regression analysis. Basing SC adjustments on individual growth appears to account for variables known to affect yearling SC. PMID:16727931

  18. Bradykinin type 2 receptor -9/-9 genotype is associated with triceps brachii muscle hypertrophy following strength training in young healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popadic Gacesa Jelena Z

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bradykinin type 2 receptor (B2BRK genotype was reported to be associated with changes in the left-ventricular mass as a response to aerobic training, as well as in the regulation of the skeletal muscle performance in both athletes and non-athletes. However, there are no reports on the effect of B2BRK 9-bp polymorphism on the response of the skeletal muscle to strength training, and our aim was to determine the relationship between the B2BRK SNP and triceps brachii functional and morphological adaptation to programmed physical activity in young adults. Methods In this 6-week pretest-posttest exercise intervention study, twenty nine healthy young men (21.5 ± 2.7 y, BMI 24.2 ± 3.5 kg/m2 were put on a 6-week exercise protocol using an isoacceleration dynamometer (5 times a week, 5 daily sets with 10 maximal elbow extensions, 1 minute rest between sets. Triceps brachii muscle volumes were assessed by using magnetic resonance imaging before and after the strength training. Bradykinin type 2 receptor 9 base pair polymorphism was determined for all participants. Results Following the elbow extensors training, an average increase in the volume of both triceps brachii was 5.4 ± 3.4% (from 929.5 ± 146.8 cm3 pre-training to 977.6 ± 140.9 cm3 after training, p9 allele compared to individuals with one or two +9 alleles (−9/-9, 8.5 ± 3.8%; vs. -9/+9 and +9/+9 combined, 4.7 ± 4.5%, p B2BRK genotype (−9/-9, 50.2 ± 19.2%; vs. -9/+9 and +9/+9 combined, 46.8 ± 20.7%, p > 0.05. Conclusions We found that muscle morphological response to targeted training – hypertrophy – is related to polymorphisms of B2BRK. However, no significant influence of different B2BRK genotypes on functional muscle properties after strength training in young healthy non athletes was found. This finding could be relevant, not only in predicting individual muscle adaptation capacity to training or sarcopenia related to aging and inactivity, but also in

  19. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer; Olsen, Marie; Bandholm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Two of the most utilized outcome measures to assess knee joint range of motion (ROM) and intra-articular effusion are goniometry and circumference, respectively. Neither goniometry nor circumference of the knee joint have been examined for both intra-tester and inter-teste...

  20. Body composition by bioelectrical-impedance analysis compared with deuterium dilution and skinfold anthropometry in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schols, A.M.; Wouters, E.F.; Soeters, P.B.; Westerterp, K.R. (Univ. of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands))

    1991-02-01

    Body composition is an important measure of nutritional status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We generated a regression model for bioelectrical impedance (BI) by using deuterium dilution (2H2O) as a reference method in 32 COPD patients, aged 63 +/- 9 y (mean +/- SD), in stable pulmonary and cardiac condition. Height squared divided by resistance (Ht2/Res) correlated well with total body water (TBW) as measured by 2H2O (r = 0.93, P less than 0.001, SEE = 1.9 L). The best-fitting regression equation to predict TBW comprised Ht2/Res and body weight (r2 = 0.89, SEE = 1.8 L, P less than 0.001). BI-predicted TBW was used to estimate BI-fat-free mass (FFM) that was compared with skinfold-thickness-based FFM predictions (Anthr-FFM). Relative to BI-FFM a significant overestimation of 4.4 +/- 0.8 kg was found by Anthr-FFM. Our results suggest that BI is a useful measure of body composition in patients with severe COPD.

  1. In vivo Quantification of the Effects of Radiation and Presence of Hair Follicle Pores on the Proliferation of Fibroblasts in an Acellular Human Dermis in a Dorsal Skinfold Chamber: Relevance for Tissue Reconstruction following Neoadjuvant Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Vitacolonna, Mario; Belharazem, Djeda; Maier, Patrick; Hohenberger, Peter; Roessner, Eric Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In neoadjuvant therapy, irradiation has a deleterious effect on neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the post-implantation effects of neoadjuvant irradiation on the survival and proliferation of autologous cells seeded onto an acellular human dermis (hAD; Epiflex). Additionally, we examined the influence of dermal hair follicle pores on viability and proliferation. We used dorsal skinfold chambers implanted in rats and in-situ microscopy to quantify cell numbers ...

  2. Nutritional profile of the elderly - Relationship obesity and waist circumference sixty years after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramara Kadija Fonseca Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aging process the metabolic changes can cause changes in health, including nutritional status, making the absorption of nutrients or promoting the accumulation of adipose tissue. Given this, this study aimed to assess the nutritional status of the participants in an open design for the elderly, through documentary analysis of values of Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC. The analyzed results show a relationship between aging and the accumulation of visceral fat, since individuals considered eutrophic demonstrated a strong CC, as the data below, in which 11.53% of the data showed that subjects with low birth weight, 42,32 % normal weight, overweight and 46.5%, comparing with 80.76% of the values with large waist circumference, increasing the risk of developing some type of metabolic disease.

  3. STUDY OF EFFECT OF BMI AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is undertaken to evaluate any association between BMI, WC and Blood pressure and any tendency to develop prehypertension. The study comprises of 100 medical students of NRI medical college, Sangivalasa near Visakhapatnam. It was carried out ongirl students with age of 17 ye ars. Their BMI, WC and Blood pressure were determined. The examination included measurement of weight, height of the student to determine BMI, measurement of waist circumference, and measurement of blood pressure by sphygmomanometer. In the present study t he results are consistent with early clinical studies reporting that there is elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure with increasing BMI and waist circumference and there is tendency to develop prehypertension in students with higher BMI. Modificat ion of life style factors should be emphasized.

  4. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Are Associated with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hexing; Ying ZHOU; Tang, Chuanxi; He, Yanhong; Wu, Jingui; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2013-01-01

    Background Lab studies have suggested that ubiquitous phthalate exposures are related to obesity, but relevant epidemiological studies are scarce, especially for children. Objective To investigate the association of phthalate exposures with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in Chinese school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three primary and three middle schools randomly selected from Changning District of Shanghai City of China in 2011–2012. Accordi...

  5. How well do we know the circumference of a storage ring?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M. [DESY (Germany); Ziemann, V., E-mail: volker.ziemann@physics.uu.se [Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2015-01-21

    High-precision nuclear physics experiments in storage rings require precise knowledge of the beam energy. In the absence of electron cooling, which provides this information, one can use the frequency of the radio-frequency system in conjunction with knowledge of the circumference of the ring. We investigate to which precision the latter can be determined in the presence of magnet misalignment and orbit correction.

  6. How well do we know the circumference of a storage ring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, M.; Ziemann, V.

    2015-01-01

    High-precision nuclear physics experiments in storage rings require precise knowledge of the beam energy. In the absence of electron cooling, which provides this information, one can use the frequency of the radio-frequency system in conjunction with knowledge of the circumference of the ring. We investigate to which precision the latter can be determined in the presence of magnet misalignment and orbit correction.

  7. Waist Circumference: A Key Determinant of Bone Mass in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Rapheeporn KHWANCHUEA; Sasithorn THANAPOP; Samuhasaneeto, Suchittra; Suree CHARTWAINGAM; Sirirak MUKEM

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess bone mineral density (BMD) status, and to explore association between lifestyle behaviors, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and BMD status of 217 students (55 males and 162 females) aged between 17 - 23 years studying at Walailak University. The BMD was measured at distal-third radius, and confirmed at mid-shaft tibia by Quantitative ultrasound analysis. BMI and WC were recorded to assess obesity, and lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a questio...

  8. Rate of Head Circumference Growth as a Function of Autism Diagnosis and History of Autistic Regression

    OpenAIRE

    WEBB, SARA JANE; Nalty, Theresa; Munson, Jeff; Brock, Catherine; Abbott, Robert; Dawson, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    Several reports indicate that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with increased rate of head growth in early childhood. Increased rate of growth may index aberrant processes during early development, may precede the onset of symptoms, and may predict severity of the disease course. We examined rate of change in occipitofrontal circumference measurements (abstracted from medical records) in 28 boys with ASD and in 8 boys with developmental delay without autism from birth to age 36 mo...

  9. Neck circumference as a predictor of obesity and overweight in rural central India

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar; Apurva Gupta; Shraddha Jain

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neck circumference is a simple screening measure for identifying overweight and obese patients. The present study is planned to determine if NC is a valid measure of obesity in rural Indian population. Aims: To determine whether a single measure of NC might be used to identify overweight patients and to define NC cutoff levels for overweight and obesity according to existing BMI cutoff levels. Settings and Design: A prospective cross-sectional study from rural medical ...

  10. Waist Circumference and Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Rural School Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; COELHO E SILVA, MANUEL J.; RIBEIRO, LUÍS P.; FERNANDES, ROMULO; Mota, Jorge; Malina, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research on relationships between lifestyle behaviors and adiposity in school youth is potentially importante for identifying subgroups at risk. This study evaluates the associations between waist circumference (WC) and objective measures of sedentary behavior (SB) in a sample of rural school adolescents. METHODS: The sample included 254 students (114 boys, 140 girls), 13-16 years of age, from rural regions of the Portuguese midlands.Height, weight, andWCwere measured. Cardiore...

  11. How well do we know the circumference of a storage ring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-precision nuclear physics experiments in storage rings require precise knowledge of the beam energy. In the absence of electron cooling, which provides this information, one can use the frequency of the radio-frequency system in conjunction with knowledge of the circumference of the ring. We investigate to which precision the latter can be determined in the presence of magnet misalignment and orbit correction

  12. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for the Diagnosis of Abdominal Obesity in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Yeong Sook; Oh, Sang Woo

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated closely with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Waist circumference (WC) is a useful surrogate marker commonly used for abdominal adiposity. The determination of WC cutoff levels is important in the prevention and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases. Recent epidemiological evidence suggested that appropriate optimal cutoffs for Koreans ranged over 80 to 89.8 cm in males and 76.1 to 86.5 cm in females...

  13. Neck circumference as predictor of excess body fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves; Eliane Rodrigues de Faria; Sylvia Do Carmo Castro Franceschini; Silvia Eloiza Priore

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify whether neck circumference can predict cardiovascular risk factors and excess body fat in adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included male and female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years from Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The following data were collected: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, percentage of body fat according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipop...

  14. Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick Caroline

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.

  15. Assessing Factors Related to Waist Circumference and Obesity: Application of a Latent Variable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Dalvand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because the use of BMI (Body Mass Index alone as a measure of adiposity has been criticized, in the present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference (continuous outcome and obesity (binary outcome among Iranian adults. Methods. Data included 18,990 Iranian individuals aged 20–65 years that are derived from the third National Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factors in Iran. Using latent variable model, we estimated the relation of two correlated responses (waist circumference and obesity with independent variables including age, gender, PR (Place of Residence, PA (physical activity, smoking status, SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure, CHOL (cholesterol, FBG (Fasting Blood Glucose, diabetes, and FHD (family history of diabetes. Results. All variables were related to both obesity and waist circumference (WC. Older age, female sex, being an urban resident, physical inactivity, nonsmoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and having family history of diabetes were significant risk factors that increased WC and obesity. Conclusions. Findings from this study of Iranian adult settings offer more insights into factors associated with high WC and high prevalence of obesity in this population.

  16. Neck Circumference as a Useful Marker for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mehri; Kajbaf, Tahereh Ziaei; Taheri, Mohammad-Reza; Aminzadeh, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Overweight and obesity at an early age are an important criterion for predicting chronic diseases. Each anthropometric method available to assess obesity has its limitations. Recently, one of the indices proposed to better detect this complication is neck circumference (NC). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between NC, and body mass index (BMI), and to find a cutoff NC size to identify children with a high BMI. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 864 students aged 6–17 years from the schools in Ahvaz, Iran. Measurements, including height, weight, neck, mid-arm, and waist circumference (WC), and clinical information were collected by trained physicians. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated between NC and other obesity indices, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the best cutoff value of NC in predicting high BMI. Results NC in both genders was significantly correlated with BMI, WC, and mid-arm circumference. The best cutoff value of NC to identify boys with a high BMI was 27.5–38.3 cm, and for girls was 26.7–33.4 cm. Conclusions NC is significantly correlated with overweight and obesity. It can be used with great reliability to screen overweight and obesity in children, and to identify those with a high BMI. PMID:27162586

  17. Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in anthropome......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in...... anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight...... (∆BW) and waist circumference (∆WC). METHODS: A total of 7,569 participants' from MONICA, the Diet Cancer and Health study and the INTER99 study were included in the study. We combined 50 obesity associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genetic scores: a score of all SNPs and a score...

  18. Common variants at 12q15 and 12q24 are associated with infant head circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taal, H Rob; St Pourcain, Beate; Thiering, Elisabeth;

    2012-01-01

    studies (combined N = 19,089). rs7980687 on chromosome 12q24 (P = 8.1 × 10(-9)) and rs1042725 on chromosome 12q15 (P = 2.8 × 10(-10)) were robustly associated with head circumference in infancy. Although these loci have previously been associated with adult height, their effects on infant head...... circumference were largely independent of height (P = 3.8 × 10(-7) for rs7980687 and P = 1.3 × 10(-7) for rs1042725 after adjustment for infant height). A third signal, rs11655470 on chromosome 17q21, showed suggestive evidence of association with head circumference (P = 3.9 × 10(-6)). SNPs correlated to the 17......q21 signal have shown genome-wide association with adult intracranial volume, Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, indicating that a common genetic variant in this region might link early brain growth with neurological disease in later life....

  19.  Trends in Waist Circumference and Central Obesity in Adults, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Tazik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: The main aim of this study is to determine the centralobesity trends during the period from 2006 to 2010 among 15-65years old people in Northern Iran.Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional studyconducted on 6466 subjects who had been chosen by a multistage cluster random sampling within five steps. The subjects wererandomly chosen from 325 clusters and each cluster included 20cases. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥102 cmand ≥88 cm in men and women, respectively.Results: Compared to 2010, the mean waist circumference in2006 changed from 87.2 cm to 88.1 cm in men (p=0.237, andfrom 90.3 cm to 88.6 cm in women (p=0.045. The comparisonbetween 2006 and 2010 revealed that the prevalence of centralobesity slightly decreased, 6.8�0and 2.4�0in urban women andmen, respectively. Generally, the mean of waist circumferencesignificantly decreased in urban women (by 0.069 cm in each year;p=0.020; however, the decrease of waist circumference in urbanmen was not significant (0.006 cm decrease each year; p=0.915.Conclusion: The prevalence of central obesity declined amongboth males and females in the urban area; however, there wasan attenuated increasing trend in the rural area. The disparity oftrends between the two regions should be considered for furtherstudy.

  20. Relationship between Waist Circumference and Elevation of Carotid Intima-media Thickness in Newly-diagnosed Diabetic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIA Wei Ping; SHEN Yun; ZHOU Jian; PAN Jie Min; YU Hao Yong; CHEN Hai Bing; LI Qing; LI Ming; BAO Yu Qian

    2014-01-01

    Objective Waist circumference, as a brief indicator of visceral obesity, is associated with multi-metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was aimed to find out the relationship between waist circumference and carotid intima media thickness (C-IMT), as well as the best waist circumference cutoff for identifying C-IMT elevation in Chinese male patients with newly-diagnosed diabetes. Methods Five hundred and seventy-eight patients from Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism in Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University were enrolled. Both physical examination (for measurement of waist circumference) and carotid ultrasonography (for measurement of C-IMT) were performed. Results After grouping according to the quartiles of C-IMT, the waist circumference increased across all its quartiles. The waist circumference in 3rd and 4th quartiles (90.7±9.8 cm and 90.8±9.6 cm) was significant higher than in 1st and 2nd quartiles (P Conclusion Among newly-diagnosed diabetic male patients, waist circumference over 90 cm not only reflects sub-clinical atherosclerosis in early stage, but also predicts the progression of atherosclerosis.

  1. Associations of built food environment with body mass index and waist circumference among youth with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamichhane Archana P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth with diabetes are at increased risk for obesity and cardiovascular disease complications. However, less is known about the influence of built food environment on health outcomes in this population. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of accessibility and availability of supermarkets and fast food outlets with Body Mass Index (BMI z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. Methods Information on residential location and adiposity measures (BMI z-score and waist circumference for 845 youths with diabetes residing in South Carolina was obtained from the South Carolina site of the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlets data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and InfoUSA were merged based on names and addresses of the outlets. The comprehensive data on franchised supermarket and fast food outlets was then used to construct three accessibility and availability measures around each youth’s residence. Results Increased number and density of chain supermarkets around residence location were associated with lower BMI z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. For instance, for a female child of 10 years of age with height of 54.2 inches and weight of 70.4 pounds, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with about 2.8–3.2 pounds higher weight, when compared to female child of same age, height and weight with highest supermarket density around residence location. Similarly, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with a 3.5–3.7 centimeter higher waist circumference, when compared to residence location with the highest supermarket density. The associations of number and density of chain fast food outlets with adiposity measures, however, were not significant. No significant associations were observed between distance to the nearest supermarket and adiposity measures

  2. Grado de acuerdo entre los índices adiposo-musculares obtenidos a partir de medidas antropométricas del brazo, pliegues cutáneos e impedancia bioeléctrica Interchangeability of the fat-to-fat-free mass ratios obtained by arm anthropometric measures, skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Martín Moreno

    2003-04-01

    agreement among the fat-to-fat-free mass ratios obtained by arm anthropometric measures (fat-muscle index, FMI, Siri equation for the sum of four skinfold thickness (body fat-muscle index, BFMI Siri and triceps skinfold (BFMItriceps and bioelectrical impedance (BFMI Omron methods. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 145 patients were evaluated by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance (Omron BF 300(, being estimated the agreement through the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC and Bland-Altman method. The reference method was BFMI Siri. Results: The ICC between BFMI Siri - BFMItriceps were 0,9304 (0,9035; 0,9498, between BFMI Siri - FMI of 0,7726 (0,6846; 0,8361 and between BFMI Siri - BFMI Omron of 0,9114 (0,8771; 0,9361. BFMItriceps (limits of agreement -0,171 to 0,117 show the best agreement according to Bland-Altman analysis with BFMI Siri, followed by BMFI Siri - BFMI Omron (-0,186; 0,178. The agreement limits between FMI and BFMI Siri (-0,2; 0,42, BFMItriceps (-0,26; 0,42 or BFMI Omron (-0,292; 0,504 were beyond of the established cut-off points (-0,2; 0,2. Conclusions: Due to the nature of the statistical agreement BFMItriceps and BFMI Omron are methods interchangeable methods between them and with BFMI Siri. FMI is not interchangeable with BFMI Siri, BFMI Omron or BFMItriceps. These results suggest that FMI cannot estimate properly the body composition. BFMItriceps and BFMI Omron are valid alternative methods to be used instead BFMI Siri in the fat-to-fat-free mass ratio assessment.

  3. The Development Situation Investigation on the Waist Circumference and the Hip Circumference in Children and Adolescents of Qingdao%青岛市儿童青少年腰围臀围发育情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安乾; 陈暕; 高希宝; 于维森

    2015-01-01

    目的:掌握青岛市儿童青少年腰围和臀围发育情况,为制定全国标准提供参考。方法利用2014年全国学生体质健康调查研究所获得的腰围、臀围数据进行统计学分析。结果7~18岁儿童青少年腰围、臀围总的趋势是随年龄增长而增长;14岁以前,腰臀比随年龄的增长而增长,14岁以后趋于平稳。城市儿童青少年腰围、臀围高于乡村。不同体重状况儿童青少年的腰围、臀围发育水平均为肥胖组>超重组>体重正常组。结论儿童期的腰围和腰臀成为预测成人期肥胖及其相关健康危险的重要指标,青岛市儿童青少年腰围、臀围监测结果,可为制定全国统一的青少年腰围臀围标准提供参考,也为预防儿童肥胖和慢性病提供科学依据。%Objective To grasp the developmental state of the waist circumference and the hip circumference in children and ad -olescents of Qingdao ,so as to provide a reference for the national standard .Methods The statistical analysis was used to analyze the data of the waist circumference and the hip circumference which were obtained from the national student physical health research in 2014.Results The trend of the waist circumference and the hip circumference increased with the age in children and adolescents aged 7~18 years old ,and the same as the waist-hip ratio( WHR) before 14 years old,but stabilized after 14 years old.The waist circumference and the hip circumfer-ence in urban children were higher than the rural children'.The developmental level of the waist circumference and the hip circumference in children with different weight status was:obesity group>overweight group >normal group .Conclusion The waist circumference and the hip circumference have become important indicators to predict adult obesity and the related health hazards .The monitoring results of the waist circumference and the hip circumference in children of Qingdao provide not only a

  4. Neck circumference correlates with tumor size and lateral lymph node metastasis in men with small papillary thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi Ra; Kim, Sang Soo; Huh, Jung Eun; Lee, Byung Joo; Lee, Jin Choon; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seong Jang; Wang, Soo Geun; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, In Joo

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Obesity is correlated with numerous diseases, including thyroid cancer, but the clinical significance of obesity with regard to the clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer remains unclear. Neck circumference is an index of upper-body adipose tissue distribution. Methods In total, 401 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) measuring ≤ 2 cm were included. Neck circumference was measured horizontally at the level just below the thyroid cartilage on preoperative neck c...

  5. Chest and occipito-frontal circumference measurements in the detection of low birth weight among Nigerian newborns of Igbo ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ndu, Ikenna K; Ibeziako, Stella N; Obidike, Egbuna O; Adimora, Gilbert N.; Edelu, Benedict O.; Chinawa, Josephat M.; Asinobi, Isaac N; Uleanya, Nwachinemere D

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organisation has recommended the use of anthropometric measurements as birth weight surrogates. However, it has been found that cut-off points for these anthropometric measurements vary across nations and ethnic groups. Objectives To determine the predictive values of chest circumference (CC), occipito-frontal circumference (OFC) and their combinations for low birth weight (LBW) detection in Igbo newborns. Methods Live newborns of Igbo origin were recruited within ...

  6. Age of Equalization of Head and Chest Circumference in Term Normal and Small for Gestational Age Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Bhalla

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the timing of equalization of the head and chest circumference in full-term 74 normal Punjabi and 200 small for gestational age (SGA infants of the two sexes born to parents representing upper socio-economic strata was serially studied. A regular increase in both the head and chest circumference of normal Punjabi and SGA infants of the two sexes was noticed between 1 to 12 months of age. Normal Punjabi infants of the two sexes as compared to their SGA counterparts possessed significantly (p=0.001 larger head and chest circumference during first year of life. In general, both Punjabi and SGA male infants possessed greater head and chest circumference values than their respective female peers throughout the study span. Amongst normal male and female Punjabi infants equalization of head and chest circumference took place by 4 and 5 months of age respectively. While, the equalization of head and chest circumference never occurred amongst SGA of both the sexes between 1 to 12 months of age. This clearly shows that SGA infants as compared to normal Punjabi peers remain undernourished during infancy and failed to compensate for the effect of earlier nutritional insult experienced by them during pre-natal life.

  7. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with PAboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  8. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Berentzen, T L; Halkjær, Jytte;

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective was to inv...... investigate the association between intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products and subsequent changes in weight and WC. Furthermore, potential effect modification by sex, age, body mass index and WC at baseline was investigated....

  9. Genetic associations between scrotal circumference and female reproductive traits in Nelore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakado, A P N; Boligon, A A; Baldi, F; Silva, J A I I V; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic associations between scrotal circumference obtained at 12 (SC12; mean of 21.46 ± 2.74 cm), 15 (SC15; mean of 25.31 ± 3.19 cm), and 18 mo of age (SC18; mean of 26.77 ± 2.95 cm) and reproductive traits measured directly in heifers (age at first calving [AFC]: mean of 1,062.06 ± 114.79 d; heifer pregnancy at 16 mo of age [HP]: mean of 15.4 ± 0.36%; and subsequent rebreeding of primiparous heifers [HR]: mean of 27.1 ± 0.44%) using Bayesian inference to evaluate the possible inclusion of these traits as selection criteria in beef cattle breeding programs. Genetic gains comparisons were also estimated. A total of 53,683 data of Nelore animals born between 1990 and 2006, obtained from the livestock archive of Agropecuária Jacarezinho Ltda. (Valparaíso, São Paulo, Brazil), were analyzed. Two-trait analysis provided heritability estimates of 0.35 ± 0.08, 0.40 ± 0.04, 0.37 ± 0.03, 0.21 ± 0.01, 0.55 ± 0.03, and 0.17 ± 0.03 for SC12, SC15, SC18, AFC, HP, and HR, respectively. The genetic correlations between scrotal circumference and AFC, HP, and HR were -0.42 ± 0.12, 0.43 ± 0.13, and -0.13 ± 0.17, respectively, for SC12; -0.25 ± 0.07, 0.26 ± 0.07, and -0.11 ± 0.10, respectively, for SC15; and -0.22 ± 0.06, 0.39 ± 0.06, and 0.11 ± 0.09, respectively, for SC18. The direct selection response for HP was 0.12%, but when HP is indirectly selected based on the scrotal circumferences, the gains on these correlated responses were higher (0.16, 0.16, and 0.22%) for selection based on SC12, SC15, and SC18, respectively. These findings suggest that the selection of animals for larger scrotal circumference, particularly at 12 mo of age, should result in higher rates of HP and younger AFC of Nelore females. PMID:26115258

  10. Short children with a low midupper arm circumference respond to food supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Phelan, Kevin P Q; Cichon, Bernardette;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The management of children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) is based on food supplementation in outpatient programs. When midupper arm circumference (MUAC) is used as the sole admission criterion, it is common practice to exclude children with lengths <67 cm from treatment. The ...... children <67 cm in supplementary feeding programs if their MUAC is between 115 and 124 mm and their WHZ is ≥-2. This could benefit millions of children currently excluded from supplementary feeding. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN42569496....

  11. Evaluation of marginal circumference and marginal thickness changes in precrimped stainless steel crowns, after recrimping

    OpenAIRE

    Afshar H; Mozafari Kojidi M

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aim: The need for recrimping precrimped stainless steel crowns by the dentist in clinic is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the rate of marginal circumference and marginal thickness change of precrimped stainless steel crowns after recrimping. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 primary photos were taken from margins of 30 S.S.Cs (3M, Ni-Cr) related to tooth 85 with a digital camera fixed at a determined distance. Margins of crowns were crimped by 1...

  12. Trends in Waist Circumference and Central Obesity in Adults, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Tazik; Abdolhamid Angizeh; Pooneh Moharloei; Samieh Banihashem; Mehdi Sedaghat; Gholamreza Veghari; Abbas Moghaddami

    2012-01-01

     Objectives: The main aim of this study is to determine the centralobesity trends during the period from 2006 to 2010 among 15-65years old people in Northern Iran.Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional studyconducted on 6466 subjects who had been chosen by a multistage cluster random sampling within five steps. The subjects wererandomly chosen from 325 clusters and each cluster included 20cases. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥102 cmand ≥88 cm in men and wome...

  13. Between-day reliability of triceps surae responses to standing perturbations in people post-stroke and healthy controls: A high-density surface EMG investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, A; Pollock, C L; Vieira, T M; Ivanova, T D; Garland, S J

    2016-02-01

    The reliability of triceps surae electromyographic responses to standing perturbations in people after stroke and healthy controls is unknown. High-Density surface Electromyography (HDsEMG) is a technique that records electromyographic signals from different locations over a muscle, overcoming limitations of traditional surface EMG such as between-day differences in electrode placement. In this study, HDsEMG was used to measure responses from soleus (SOL, 18 channels) and medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG and LG, 16 channels each) in 10 people after stroke and 10 controls. Timing and amplitude of the response were estimated for each channel of the grids. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and normalized Standard Error of Measurement (SEM%) were calculated for each channel individually (single-channel configuration) and on the median of each grid (all-channels configuration). Both timing (single-channel: ICC=0.75-0.96, SEM%=5.0-9.1; all-channels: ICC=0.85-0.97; SEM%=3.5-6.2%) and amplitude (single-channel: ICC=0.60-0.91, SEM%=25.1-46.6; ICC=0.73-0.95, SEM%=19.3-42.1) showed good-to-excellent reliability. HDsEMG provides reliable estimates of EMG responses to perturbations both in individuals after stroke and in healthy controls; reliability was marginally better for the all-channels compared to the single-channel configuration. PMID:27004641

  14. The survey of School Circumference Hygiene in Area 2 Arak City and that’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ganji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe main goal of present research study condition of school circumference hygiene and that’s conformitywith national standard like: security, workshop and laberatory, buffet, enclosure, w.c, w.b,…the methodresearch is description and cross sectional that to register category data with diverts observation and censusand complete enumeration. There are many research results:- 58.33 percent of population is fit for girls' school and 41.66 percent is fit for son.53.44 percent is highschool and 46.55 percent is middle school.12.12 percent is one time school and 87.87 percent is two timesschool.- According to dimensions and indicators school circumference hygiene standard, average conformity in thisresearch is 45.04 percent and arrangement that conformity from up to down average conformity is:- The condition of repulse of sewage and rubbish is 100 percent.- The condition of enclosure is 55.38.- The condition of workshop and laboratory is 43.95- The condition of W.C, W.B and drinking cup is 38.43- The condition of security is 37.37- The condition of class is 37.13- The condition of buffet is 3.04

  15. The Significance of Macrocephaly or Enlarging Head Circumference in Infants With the Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Barnes, Patrick; Miller, Marvin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infants with the triad (neurologic dysfunction, subdural hematoma [SDH], and retinal hemorrhage) are often diagnosed as victims of shaken baby syndrome. Medical conditions/predisposing factors to developing the triad are often dismissed: short falls, birth-related SDH that enlarges, macrocephaly, sinus/cortical vein thrombosis, and others. Six infants with the triad are described in which child abuse was diagnosed, but parents denied wrongdoing. All 6 had either macrocephaly or enlarging head circumference, which suggested medical explanations. Three infants incurred short falls, 1 had a difficult delivery in which there was likely a rebleed of a birth-related SDH, 1 had a spontaneous SDH associated with increased extra-axial fluid spaces, and 1 had a sinus thrombosis. Following legal proceedings, all 6 infants were returned to their parents, and there has been no child maltreatment in follow-up, suggesting child abuse never happened. The results indicate that alternative medical explanations for causing the triad should be considered and that macrocephaly or an enlarging head circumference raises the possibility of a medical explanation. PMID:25893912

  16. Dipolar quantization and the infinite circumference limit of two-dimensional conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Elaborating on our previous presentation, where the term {\\it dipolar quantization} was introduced, we argue here that adopting $L_0-(L_1+L_{-1})/2+{\\bar L}_0-({\\bar L}_1+{\\bar L}_{-1})/2$ as the Hamiltonian instead of $L_0+{\\bar L}_0$ yields an infinite circumference limit in two-dimensional conformal field theory. The new Hamiltonian leads to dipolar quantization instead of radial quantization. As a result, the new theory exhibits a continuous and strongly degenerated spectrum in addition to the Virasoro algebra with a continuous index. Its Hilbert space exhibits a different inner product than that obtained in the original theory. The idiosyncrasy of this particular Hamiltonian is its relation to the so-called sine-square deformation, which is found in the study of a certain class of quantum statistical systems. The appearance of the infinite circumference explains why the vacuum states of sine-square deformed systems are coincident with those of the respective closed-boundary systems.

  17. 北京市城乡学生腰围臀围腰臀比分析%Waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio among students in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬盛鑫; 夏天; 杨忠; 安康; 尹丽君; 王东江; 宋玉珍; 刘淑娟

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解2010年北京市7~18岁中小学生腰围臀围和腰臀比的年龄、性别特征,为学生体质健康研究资料提供有益补充.方法 对2010年北京市体质调研7~18岁中小学生的腰围、臀围和腰臀比进行描述性分析.结果 男生腰围均值、腰臀比高于女生;城区男生臀围均值高于女生,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05或P<0.01),郊区男、女生臀围差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).腰围均值12岁前有随年龄增长而增加的趋势.学生臀围均值有随着年龄的增长而增加的趋势,差异有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).城区男生腰围均值高于郊区男生(P<0.05);城区女生腰围均值与郊区女生差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);城区男女生臀围均值大于郊区学生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);城郊区男生腰臀比均值差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);郊区女生腰臀比均值高于城区女生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 北京城乡7 ~18岁学生腰围、臀围和腰臀比随年龄变化总趋势一致,但城乡各指标间年龄、性别特征存在差异.%Objective To study the characteristics of waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio among students( aged 7-18 years) of different ages and sexes in Beijing. Methods As part of the Beijing students Physical fitness study, a stratified cluster representative sample of total population aged 7-18 years was selected. Anthropometric measure including waist circumference, hip circumference and the waist-hip ratio, using T test analysis methods to study the Beijing city and suburb students aged 7 to 18 waist circumference, hip circumference and the waist-hip ratio by age, gender differences in city and suburb areas. Results The boys' mean waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were higher than girls', the urban boys' mean hip circumference was higher than the urban girls( P 0.05). The mean waist circumference had an increasing trend with age before

  18. Thyroid ultrasonography consistently identifies goiter in adults over the age of 30 years despite a diminished response with aging of the thyroid gland to the effects of goitrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, S R; Brahmbhatt, R M; Eastman, C J; Boyages, S C

    2001-07-17

    Iodine deficiency is a national health problem in India and we have recently reported on the severity of IDD in adults and children in Gujarat province. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of thyroid ultrasonography to detect goiter in adults from an iodine-deficient population of Gujarat. We studied 472 adults selected by random household surveys. Data were collected on height, body weight, mid-upper arm circumference, thigh circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, thyroid size (palpation and ultrasonography), and diet. Casual urine samples for iodine (UI) and blood spots for TSH estimation were obtained. Endemic goiter is a major public health problem in Gujarat State, India and is probably caused by multiple factors including iodine deficiency, malnutrition, and other dietary goitrogens. These results indicate that thyroid US consistently detects goiter in adults despite a diminished thyroidal response to variable goitrogenic stimuli. PMID:12806080

  19. Thyroid Ultrasonography Consistently Identifies Goiter in Adults Over the Age of 30 Years Despite a Diminished Response with Aging of the Thyroid Gland to the Effects of Goitrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela R. Brahmbhatt

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency is a national health problem in India and we have recently reported on the severity of IDD in adults and children in Gujarat province. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of thyroid ultrasonography to detect goiter in adults from an iodine-deficient population of Gujarat. We studied 472 adults selected by random household surveys. Data were collected on height, body weight, mid-upper arm circumference, thigh circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, thyroid size (palpation and ultrasonography, and diet. Casual urine samples for iodine (UI and blood spots for TSH estimation were obtained. Endemic goiter is a major public health problem in Gujarat State, India and is probably caused by multiple factors including iodine deficiency, malnutrition, and other dietary goitrogens. These results indicate that thyroid US consistently detects goiter in adults despite a diminished thyroidal response to variable goitrogenic stimuli.

  20. Downhill exercise-induced changes in gene expression related with macrophage polarization and myogenic cells in the triceps long head of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minari, André Luis Araujo; Oyama, Lila Missae; Dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli

    2015-02-01

    Macrophages are one of the most heterogenic immune cells involved in skeletal muscle regeneration. After skeletal muscle damage, M1 phenotypes exhibit pro-inflammatory reaction. In a later stage, they are converted to M2 phenotypes with anti-inflammatory properties. To study when gene expressions of macrophage polarization are changed after damage induced by downhill exercise to exhaustion is the objective of this paper. Before (CTRL) and 0 h (G0), 24 h (G24), 48 h (G48) and 72 h (G72) after 18 bouts of downhill exercise, the animals were euthanised, and the triceps were dissected. We measured gene expression of macrophages (CD68 and CD163), myogenic cells (MyoD and myogenin) and quantified cytokine secretion (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)). The CD68 expression was lower in G72 compared with G24 (P = 0.005) while CD163 was higher in G48 compared with G24 (P = 0.04). The MyoD expression was higher in G72 compared with G0 (P = 0.04). The myogenin expression was lower in G24 compared with CTRL (P = 0.01) and restored in G72 compared with G24 (P = 0.007). The TNF-α was significantly higher at all times after 24 h (all compared with CTRL, with P = 0.03). The CD68 and CD163 expressions behaved distinctly after exercise, which indicates macrophage polarization between 24 and 48 h. The distinct expression of myogenin, concomitantly with MyoD elevation in G72, indicates that myogenic cell differentiation and the significant change of TNF-α level show an important role of this cytokine in these processes. PMID:25249340

  1. The variations of skinfold thickness with aging of indigenous people adults in GuangXi Bama%广西巴马世居成人的皮褶厚度及其年龄特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世富; 黄广琳; 蒋葵; 梁明康; 杨瑞; 廖彦博; 苏阳; 张玲; 李坤

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the body fat development and the thickness changes with aging from the fifth longevity township in Indigenous people adults in Guangxi bama. Methods: Six skinfold thickness parameters and the traits of their variations with age were investigated in 992 Indigenous people adults including 463 males and 529 females. Results:The skinfold thickness of the back torso skinfolds is the thickest in the male. The face and belly’s is located in the medium. In addition, limbs’s is very thin. Women's subcutaneous fat thickness value of the abdomen and lower limbs is more thick and the same as the face and back’s. The Upper arm anterior subcutaneous fat is the most thin in the men and women;Six male skinfold maximum have appeared in the group of 20 years old, its decline is not obvious with increasing age;Six female skinfold values (except Sura position) rise to the peak at the age of 40, and then start to be markedly reduced. Conclusion:The sebum growth level is at the peak value in indigenous people adults on the age of 40 in Guangxi bama, then decline slowly. However, women’s fall faster. The sebum growth level of them is moderate and similar to northern ethnic Russians and Uzbeks. And furthermore, they are superior to the Bouyei nationality living in Guizhou and zhuang nationality in the east of guangxi, China.%目的:探索世界第5长寿之乡广西巴马成人体脂发育水平及年龄变化特征。方法:测量992例(男463人,女529人)巴马20-110岁组世居人群6项皮脂厚度值。结果:(1)皮下脂肪男性以躯干背部最厚,面部、腹部居中,四肢较薄。女性腹部、下肢、面部、背部的皮下脂肪厚度值相当,均较丰厚。男女均以上臂前部皮下脂肪最薄。(2)男性6项皮褶厚度最大值均出现在20岁组,其随年龄增加下降幅度不明显;女性6项皮褶厚度值(除腓位外)均在40岁组升达高峰,以后则明显下降。结论:广西巴马

  2. Body mass index and abdominal circumference among teens in the countryside of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionara Holanda de Moura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric techniques, establishing the diagnosis of overweight / obesity as body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, are increasingly important. With this research we aimed to learn about BMI and relate it to the WC of adolescent students in two institutions in Piaui. This descriptive cross-sectional study of quantitative prevalence. It carried out in two public schools in Picos - PI with 145 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years for both sexes. Data collection was performed through a form from the months of August to December 2010. The prevalence of overweight was 3.7%. Overweight was significantly associated with increased WC (<0.0001. These results emphasize the relevance of conducting prevention and control of excess weight so that the health of adolescents should be maintained.

  3. Comparison of head circumference in an Israeli child population with United States and British standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palti, H; Peritz, E; Flug, D; Gitlin, M; Adler, B

    1983-01-01

    The head circumference (HC) growth pattern of infants from 1 to 24 months of age was studied in a Jerusalem community. The means of HC of the study population are smaller for each age and sex group than those of the National Center of Health Statistics, USA reference population, London children and the Nellhaus standard. The regression of HC on length explains about 20% of the variance. In an analysis of variance controlling for social class, birth order and length, the differences by region of origin of the mother were not significant. The smaller HC of the study population is probably due to these children being shorter and lighter than the above-mentioned western populations. Malnutrition as a factor for small HC was excluded. PMID:6838166

  4. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent of...... concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were...... associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...

  5. Waist circumference and body mass index as predictors of health care costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Betina; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Olsen, Kim Rose;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the present study we analyze the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) and future health care costs. On the basis of the relation between these anthropometric measures and mortality, we hypothesized that for all levels of BMI increased WC implies...... added future health care costs (Hypothesis 1) and for given levels of WC increased BMI entails reduced future health care costs (Hypothesis 2). We furthermore assessed whether a combination of the two measures predicts health care costs better than either individual measure. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY....../PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were obtained from the Danish prospective cohort study Diet, Cancer and Health. The population includes 15,334 men and 16,506 women 50 to 64 years old recruited in 1996 to 1997. The relationship between future health care costs and BMI and WC in combination was analyzed by use of categorized...

  6. Maternal prepregnancy waist circumference and BMI in relation to gestational weight gain and breastfeeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Nøhr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M;

    2015-01-01

    , affects GWG and breastfeeding behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how maternal prepregnancy fat distribution, described by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), is associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior. DESIGN: We analyzed 1371 live births to 1024 women after enrollment in the...... size was differently associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior depending on the location of the fat mass. Thus, maternal fat distribution may be a more important determinant of GWG and breastfeeding behavior than BMI alone.......BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that gestational weight gain (GWG) and breastfeeding behavior may influence long-term maternal abdominal fat mass. However, this could be confounded by abdominal fat mass before pregnancy because it is unknown whether abdominal fat mass, independently of body size...

  7. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer;

    2010-01-01

    -tester in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to determine the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference in patients with TKA when administered by physiotherapists (testers) with different clinical experience. METHOD......: The design was an intra-tester, inter-tester and intra-day reliability study. Nineteen outpatients (10 females) having received a TKA were examined by an inexperienced and an experienced physiotherapist. Following a standardized protocol, active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were...... and between physiotherapists (except passive knee extension). Changes in knee joint ROM of more than 6.6 degrees and 10 degrees (except active knee flexion) and knee joint circumference of more than 1.0 cm and 1.63 cm represent a real clinical improvement (SRD) or deterioration for a single individual within...

  8. Effects of selection for scrotal circumference in Limousin bulls on reproductive and growth traits of progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; McCann, M A; Kiser, T E

    1996-09-01

    Nine pairs of Limousin bulls from nine contemporary groups were acquired, with each pair consisting of one large scrotal circumference (SC) bull and one small SC bull. Average adjusted yearling scrotal circumferences were 36.3 cm (SD 1.6 cm) and 28.5 cm (SD .9 cm) for large SC (LP) and small SC (SP) bulls, respectively. In addition to the phenotypic grouping, non-parent SC EPD were used to group bulls into high (HE, > .53 cm), average (AE), and low (LE, Brangus x Hereford cows each yr for 1 to 3 yr. Birth weights, weaning and yearling weights and heights, and ultrasound measurements for backfat and ribeye measurements were taken on 407 progeny. Blood samples were collected on 210 heifer progeny when they averaged 11, 13, and 15 mo of age to determine whether they had reached puberty. When subjected to a breeding soundness exam (BSE), LP bulls scored higher (P < .01) for motility as well as total BSE score. The LP calves had heavier birth weights (P < .05) and greater testicular mass at weaning (P < .01) than SP calves. The HE and AE bull calves had greater (P < .02) testicular mass than did the LE bull calves. A greater (P < .05) percentage of HE heifers had reached puberty by the 11- and 13-mo measurements than either the AE or LE heifers. The HE heifers reached puberty at a younger age than AE (P < .01) or LE (P < .001) heifers. Selection using SC EPD was more effective than phenotypic selection in reducing age at puberty in daughters. PMID:8880405

  9. Comparison of Relative Waist Circumference between Asian Indian and US Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet S. Bajaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Relative to Europeans, Asian Indians have higher rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Whether differences in body composition may underlie these population differences remains unclear. Methods. We compared directly measured anthropometric data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES survey of southern Indians (I with those from three US ethnic groups (C: Caucasians, A: African Americans, and M: Mexican Americans from NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 15,733 subjects from CURES and 5,975 from NHANES III met inclusion criteria (age 20–39, no known diabetes. Results. Asian Indian men and women had substantially lower body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and body surface area relative to US groups (P values <0.0001. In contrast, the mean (±se waist-weight ratio was significantly higher (P<0.001 in I (men 1.35 ± 0.002 and women 1.45 ± 0.002 than in all the US groups (1.09, 1.21, and 1.14 in A, M, and C men; 1.23, 1.33, and 1.26 in A, M, and C women (se ranged from 0.005 to 0.006. Conclusions. Compared to the US, the waist-weight ratio is significantly higher in men and women from Chennai, India. These results support the hypothesis that Southeast Asian Indians are particularly predisposed toward central adiposity.

  10. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Augmented waist circumference (WC is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether bio-chemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ into stunted (−1 > HAZ ≥ −2 and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ −1 groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. Results: WC cut-off points of 58.25 cm and 67.2 cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively, the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts.

  11. Interactions of dietary protein and adiposity measures in relation to subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    dietary protein, whether replacing carbohydrate or fat, and weight change. However, individuals in the highest tertile of baseline BMI (irrespective of baseline WCBMI ) had significantly inverse change in waist circumference when protein replaced carbohydrate, but not when protein replaced fat. CONCLUSION......: Replacing carbohydrate with protein in the diet may prevent a relative increase in WC in individuals with a greater BMI....

  12. Dietary energy density in relation to subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Ginder, Vanessa;

    2009-01-01

    centers. After adjusting for baseline anthropometrics, demographic and lifestyle factors, follow-up duration and energy from beverages, ED was not associated with weight change, but significantly associated with waist circumference change overall. For 1 kcal/g ED, the annual weight change was -42 g...

  13. Waist Circumference, Weight, and Body Mass Index of Iranians Based on National Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Larijani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is an important and life-threatening disease, associated with different chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We sought to address the paucity of information on the trends of anthropometric indices such as weight, waist circumference, and body mass index in the adult population of Iran. Methods: We drew upon data from the First Non-communicable Disease Survey in Iran in 2005. In total, 79,611 participants between 20 and 64 years old were selected via the random multistage cluster sampling. The Lambda Median Scale method was applied to construct normal curves for anthropometric indices.Results: The mean of waist circumference in both genders increased with age and in all the age groups except those between 20 and 24 years old was higher in the women. The mean of body mass index was higher in all the age brackets in the women, but the means of weight and height were higher in the men. The association of theses indices with diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia was stronger in men. Conclusion: The ranges of waist circumference and body mass index in Iranian population are different from those of other countries. The higher body mass index and waist circumference in females and the direct association between obesity and chronic diseases, is advisable that the effects of this phenomenon be fully investigated and due heed be paid to the importance of lifestyle modification.

  14. The association of education with body mass index and waist circumference in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Hermann; S. Rohrmann; J. Linseisen; A.M. May; A. Kunst; H. Besson; D. Romaguera; N. Travier; M.J. Tormo; E. Molina; M. Dorronsoro; A. Barricarte; L. Rodriguez; F.L. Crowe; K.T. Khaw; N.J. Wareham; P.G.A. van Boeckel; H.B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; K. Overvad; M.U. Jakobsen; A. Tjonneland; J. Halkjaer; C. Agnoli; A. Mattiello; R. Tumino; G. Masala; P. Vineis; A. Naska; P. Orfanos; A. Trichopoulou; R. Kaaks; M.M. Bergmann; A. Steffen; B. van Guelpen; I. Johansson; S. Borgquist; J. Manjer; T. Braaten; G. Fagherazzi; F. Clavel-Chapelon; T. Mouw; T. Norat; E. Riboli; S. Rinaldi; N. Slimani; P.H.M. Peeters

    2011-01-01

    Background: To examine the association of education with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Method: This study included 141,230 male and 336,637 female EPIC-participants, who were recruited between 1992 and 2

  15. Waist circumference and body composition in relation to all-cause mortality in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, J; Frederiksen, K; Tjønneland, A; Thomsen, B L; Overvad, K; Heitmann, B L; Sørensen, T I A

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Waist circumference is directly related to all-cause mortality when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). Body fat and fat-free body mass, when mutually adjusted, show with increasing values an increasing and decreasing relation to all-cause mortality. We investigated the association of ...

  16. Head Circumference as an Early Predictor of Autism Symptoms in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Lauren M.; Dawson, Geraldine; Toth, Karen; Fein, Deborah; Munson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Siblings of children with autism have an increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). As children with autism often exhibit an atypical trajectory of head circumference (HC) growth, HC may be an indicator of vulnerability to autism. This study investigated whether infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 77) with an atypical trajectory of…

  17. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  18. Waist circumference as compared with body-mass index in predicting mortality from specific causes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Leitzmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether waist circumference provides clinically meaningful information not delivered by body-mass index regarding prediction of cause-specific death is uncertain. METHODS: We prospectively examined waist circumference (WC and body-mass index (BMI in relation to cause-specific death in 225,712 U.S. women and men. Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.1. RESULTS: During follow-up from 1996 through 2005, we documented 20,977 deaths. Increased WC consistently predicted risk of death due to any cause as well as major causes of death, including deaths from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and non-cancer/non-cardiovascular diseases, independent of BMI, age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and alcohol intake. When WC and BMI were mutually adjusted in a model, WC was related to 1.37 fold increased risk of death from any cancer and 1.82 fold increase risk of death from cardiovascular disease, comparing the highest versus lowest WC categories. Importantly, WC, but not BMI showed statistically significant positive associations with deaths from lung cancer and chronic respiratory disease. Participants in the highest versus lowest WC category had a relative risk of death from lung cancer of 1.77 (95% CI, 1.41 to 2.23 and of death from chronic respiratory disease of 2.77 (95% CI, 1.95 to 3.95. In contrast, subjects in the highest versus lowest BMI category had a relative risk of death from lung cancer of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.75 to 1.17 and of death from chronic respiratory disease of 1.18 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.56. CONCLUSIONS: Increased abdominal fat measured by WC was related to a higher risk of deaths from major specific causes, including deaths from lung cancer and chronic respiratory disease, independent of BMI.

  19. Waist circumference as a marker for screening nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Dal Molin, Bárbara; de Carvalho-Ferreira, Joana Pereira; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Tock, Lian; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the relationship between the degree of waist circumference (WC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese adolescents of both genders, analyzed according to quartiles of WC. Methods: Cross-sectional study that involved 247 obese adolescents aged 12–19 years. Mean values of the nutritional parameters and serum analyses were compared with the groups using the independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship of the parameters studied. Chi-square test for trend was used to determine the relationship between the prevalence of the NAFLD and WC quartile by gender. Results: NAFLD were presented in 60% of the study participants. Obese adolescents in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of WC presented higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared with that in the 1st quartile in both genders. The NAFLD patients had significantly higher values for body weight, BMI (body mass index), BAZ-score (BMI-for-age z-scores), total fat (% and kg), WC, visceral fat, insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that an increase in WC can reliably predict the risk of NAFLD in obese adolescents. This is a low cost and easy-to-use tool that can help in screening in adolescents. PMID:26830602

  20. Abdominal Obesity Indicators: Waist Circumference or Waist-to-hip Ratio in Malaysian Adults Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Norfazilah; Adam, Samia Ibrahim Mohamed; Nawi, Azmawati Mohammed; Hassan, Mohd Rohaizat; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Waist circumference (WC) is an accurate and simple measure of abdominal obesity as compared to waist–hip ratio (WHR). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) with WC and WHR and suggest cutoff points for WC among Rural Malaysian adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 669 respondents from three villages in Tanjung Karang, located in the district of Kuala Selangor. Data collection was carried out by guided questionnaires and anthropometric measures. Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity for BMI was almost similar for both gender across Caucasian and Asian BMI cutoff points. Based on Caucasian cutoff points, the prevalence of abdominal obesity for WC was 23.8% (male) and 66.4% (female) while for WHR was 6.2% (male) and 54.2% (female). Asian cutoff points gave higher prevalence of abdominal obesity compared to that of WC among male respondents and WHR for both genders. WC showed strong and positive correlation with BMI compared to WHR (in male WC r = 0.78, WHR r = 0.24 and in female WC r = 0.72, WHR r = 0.19; P analysis suggested WC cutoff points of 92.5 cm in men and 85.5 cm in women is the optimal number for detection of abdominal obesity. Conclusions: WC is the best indicator as compared with WHR for abdominal obesity for Malaysian adults.

  1. Association between Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and changes in weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Ängquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Romaguera, Dora; Larsen, Sofus C; Østergaard, Jane N; Halkjaer, Jytte; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Wareham, Nicolas J; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Palli, Domenico; Boer, Jolanda M A; van der A, Daphne L; Boeing, Heiner; Loos, Ruth J F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2014-01-01

    between diet and genetic predisposition to adiposity, studies should consider both diet and genetics. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether FTO rs9939609 and TCF7L2 rs7903146 modified the association between the MDS and Nordic diet score (NDS) and changes in weight (Δweight), waist circumference (ΔWC), and...... Δweight (P = 0.53). The NDS was not significantly associated with any outcome. There was a borderline significant interaction between the MDS and TCF7L2 rs7903146 on weight gain (P = 0.05), which suggested a beneficial effect of the MDS only in subjects who carried 1 or 2 risk alleles. FTO did not modify...... observed associations. CONCLUSIONS: A high MDS is associated with a lower ΔWC and ΔWCBMI, regardless of FTO and TCF7L2 risk alleles. For Δweight, findings were less clear, but the effect may depend on the TCF7L2 rs7903146 variant. The NDS was not associated with anthropometric changes during follow-up....

  2. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

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    Rossana Gómez-Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of waist circumference (WC is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders.

  3. Maternal factors influencing infant abdominal circumference and birth weight - a population based study

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    Tanvig, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Objective: 1) To examine the impact of maternal pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and smoking on infant abdominal circumference (AC) and birth weight. 2) To define reference curves for AC and birth weight in offspring of healthy, non-smoking, normal weight women. Design: Population-based study...... outcome measures: Birth AC and weight in relation to pregestational maternal BMI, maternal smoking and medical conditions (any). Results: Infant AC and birth weight increased significantly (p<0.0001) with increasing maternal BMI. Smoking was negatively associated with AC resulting in a reduction in AC (95......% CI) of 0.47 (0.49-0.45) cm and a reduction in birth weight of 173 (177-169) g. In offspring of healthy non-smoking mothers with normal pregestational BMI, mean AC (±2SD) ranged from 30.1 (25.9-34.3) cm at GA 35 weeks to 33.9 (30.1- 37.7) cm at GA 41 weeks (girls), and from 30.2 (25.8-34.6) cm at GA...

  4. Mid-upper Arm Circumference Based Undernutrition among Bengalee Children of Chapra, West Bengal, India

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    Sadaruddin Biswas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate age and sex variations in undernutrition using mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC cut-off values among 2016 (930 boys and 1086 girls. 3-5 years old rural children of Bengalee ethnicity at 66 Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Centers of Nadia District, West Bengal, India.Methods:In a cross sectional study in west Bengal of India, MUAC was measured using standard technique. A total of 2028 children (935 boys and 1093 girls from 66 ICDS centers were enrolled in this study. The response rate was approximately 95%.Findings:Mean MUAC among boys was higher than girls at all ages except 5 years. Significant sex differences were not observed over ages. The age-combined rates of overall (moderate and severe undernutrition among boys (38.49% was higher than among girls (32.22%.The age-combined rates of moderate undernutrition were 36.34% and 31.03% among boys and girls, respectively. The rates of severe undernutrition were 2.15% and 1.20% among boys and girls, respectively. There were sex differences in both moderate and severe undernutrition. In general, there was an increasing trend in the rates of overall undernutrition from 3 to 5 years in both sexes.Conclusion:These children were experiencing severe nutritional stress.

  5. Mid-Upper Arm Circumference Based Undernutrition Among Bengalee Children of Chapra, West Bengal, India

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    Ashish Mukhopadhyay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate age and sex variations in undernutrition using mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC cut-off values among 2016 (930 boys and 1086 girls. 3-5 years old rural children of Bengalee ethnicity at 66 Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Centers of Nadia District, West Bengal, India. Methods:In a cross sectional study in west Bengal of India, MUAC was measured using standard technique. A total of 2028 children (935 boys and 1093 girls from 66 ICDS centers were enrolled in this study. The response rate was approximately 95%. Findings:Mean MUAC among boys was higher than girls at all ages except 5 years. Significant sex differences were not observed over ages. The age-combined rates of overall (moderate and severe undernutrition among boys (38.49% was higher than among girls (32.22%.The age-combined rates of moderate undernutrition were 36.34% and 31.03% among boys and girls, respectively. The rates of severe undernutrition were 2.15% and 1.20% among boys and girls, respectively. There were sex differences in both moderate and severe undernutrition. In general, there was an increasing trend in the rates of overall undernutrition from 3 to 5 years in both sexes. Conclusion:These children were experiencing severe nutritional stress.

  6. Optimal waist circumference cutoff values for the diagnosis of abdominal obesity in korean adults.

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    Yoon, Yeong Sook; Oh, Sang Woo

    2014-12-29

    Abdominal obesity is associated closely with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Waist circumference (WC) is a useful surrogate marker commonly used for abdominal adiposity. The determination of WC cutoff levels is important in the prevention and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases. Recent epidemiological evidence suggested that appropriate optimal cutoffs for Koreans ranged over 80 to 89.8 cm in males and 76.1 to 86.5 cm in females. We analyzed the data from two large cohorts using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with the incidences of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarct, angina, coronary artery disease, and multiple metabolic risk factors as outcome variables. Optimal WC cutoff points for Koreans were 85 cm in males and 80 cm in females. However, considering the prevalence of abdominal obesity and the health costs for its prevention and management, 90 cm in males and 85 cm in females are probably more appropriate thresholds for abdominal obesity. These values may be modified once better research is performed through prospective studies using representative populations, common health outcomes, and proper analytical approaches. PMID:25559570

  7. Predictive Values of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference for Risk Factors of Certain Related Diseases in Chinese Adults - Study on Optimal Cut-off Points of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For prevention of obesity in Chinese population, it is necessary to define the optimal range of healthy weight and the appropriate cut-off points of BMI and waist circumference for Chinese adults. The Working Group on Obesity in China under the support of International Life Sciences Institute Focal point in China organized a meta-analysis on the relation between BMI, waist circumference and risk factors of related chronic diseases (e. g.,high diabetes, diabetes mellitus, and lipoprotein disorders). Methods 13 population studies in all met the criteria for enrollment, with data of 239 972 adults (20-70 year) surveyed in the 1990s. Data on waist circumference was available for 111411 persons and data on serum lipids and glucose were available for more than 80 000. The study populations located in 21provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in mainland China as well as in Taiwan. Each enrolled study provided data according to a common protocol and uniform format. The Center for data management in Department of Epidemiology, Fu Wai Hospital was responsible for statistical analysis. Results and conclusion The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of risk factors all increased with increasing levels of BMI or waist circumference. BMI at 24 with best sensitivity and specificity for identification of the risk factors, was recommended as the cut-off point for overweight, BMI at 28 which may identify the risk factors with specificity around 90 % was recommended as the cut-off point for obesity. Waist circumference beyond 85 cm for men and beyond 80 cm for women were recommended as the cut-off points for central obesity.Analysis of population attributable risk percent illustrated that reducing BMI to normal range (<24) could prevent 45%-50% clustering of risk factors. Treatment of obese persons (BMI ≥ 28)with drugs could prevent 15%-17% clustering of risk factors. The waist circumference controlled under 85 cm for men and under 80 cm for

  8. Waist circumference cut-off values for the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors clustering in Chinese school-aged children: a cross-sectional study

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    Xu Ying

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waist circumference has been identified as a valuable predictor of cardiovascular risk in children. The development of waist circumference percentiles and cut-offs for various ethnic groups are necessary because of differences in body composition. The purpose of this study was to develop waist circumference percentiles for Chinese children and to explore optimal waist circumference cut-off values for predicting cardiovascular risk factors clustering in this population. Methods Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured in 5529 children (2830 boys and 2699 girls aged 6-12 years randomly selected from southern and northern China. Blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose were obtained in a subsample (n = 1845. Smoothed percentile curves were produced using the LMS method. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to derive the optimal age- and gender-specific waist circumference thresholds for predicting the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. Results Gender-specific waist circumference percentiles were constructed. The waist circumference thresholds were at the 90th and 84th percentiles for Chinese boys and girls respectively, with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 67% to 83%. The odds ratio of a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among boys and girls with a higher value than cut-off points was 10.349 (95% confidence interval 4.466 to 23.979 and 8.084 (95% confidence interval 3.147 to 20.767 compared with their counterparts. Conclusions Percentile curves for waist circumference of Chinese children are provided. The cut-off point for waist circumference to predict cardiovascular risk factors clustering is at the 90th and 84th percentiles for Chinese boys and girls, respectively.

  9. Índice de massa corporal como indicativo da gordura corporal comparado às dobras cutâneas Índice de masa corporal como indicativo de la gordura corporal comparado a los pliegues cutáneos Body mass index as indicative of body fat compared to the skinfolds

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    Maria Fátima Glaner

    2005-08-01

    coeficiente de contingencia y el índice kappa. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIÓN: Los datos indicaron que solamente el 48,98% de las chicas y el 57,32% de los chicos fueron clasificados concomitantemente por lo IMC y la sumatoria TR + PA. El índice kappa indico una franca concordancia entre las tres categorías de clasificación de la gordura corporal (por encima, por debajo, y dentro del padrón recomendado. De esta forma, se concluye que el IMC no presenta consistencia para clasificar chicas y chicos en cuanto a la gordura corporal.BACKGROUND: Body fat is associated with a high incidence of degenerative diseases. Therefore, estimating body fat with the smallest error as possible is primordial. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to verify if the body mass index (BMI presents consistence in relation to the sum of triceps and calf skinfold (TR + CA in order to classify girls and boys as above, below and within the recommended standard (reference criterion, considered as adequate for a good health condition. METHODS: The sample was composed by 694 girls and 716 boys with ages ranging from 10.50 to 17.49 years. The variables were measured and analyzed in relation to the reference criterion presented by the AAHPERD (1988. The data were analyzed by the contingency coefficient and kappa index. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results indicated that only 48.98% of girls and 57.32% of boys were concomitantly classified by BMI and TR + CA. The kappa index indicated a very weak agreement between the three classification categories of body fat (above, below and within the recommended standard. In conclusion, the BMI does not present consistence in order to classify girls and boys in relation to body fat.

  10. Dietary Patterns of Young Females and Their Association With Waist Circumference as a Health Index in Northwest of Iran, 2007

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    Alizadeh, Mohammad; Didarloo, Alireza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in western countries, the 50th and 95th percentile ranks for waist circumference in the Iranian young Females are higher than those of the western ones. Objectives: Identifying major dietary patterns in Iranian young females, which associate with central obesity, can probably explain the difference between Iranian young females’ pattern and those of their western peers regarding obesity. Patients and Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, a total of 257 young females aged 11 - 15 years old from Talaat Intelligent Guidance School, Tabriz, Iran (2007) were selected for the study using non-probability simple sampling method. Then, usual dietary intakes of all subjects were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist circumference, and Body Mass Index (BMI) using the standard protocols. Data were analyzed by inferential statistics (One-way ANOVA, Tukey test for Post-Hoc Analysis, Chi-square test, age-adjusted means, analysis of covariance with Bonferroni correction, correlation and partial correlation) by SPSS software. Results: In the current study, six major dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis method. Before and after controlling the age, subjects in the upper tertile of the Iranian Central Obesity Making Dietary Pattern (rich in cruciferous vegetables, green leafy vegetables, soft drinks, tomatoes, other vegetables and vegetable oils) had larger waist circumference in comparison with the ones in the lower tertile (before controlling for age: 64.2 ± 9 vs. 61.6 ± 7 P = 0.03; after: 64.5 ± 0.8 vs. 61.5 ± 0.8, P = 0.009). However in lacto vegetarian dietary pattern (rich in legumes, potato, other vegetables, dough, high-fat dairy products and margarine), individuals in the upper tertile had significantly lower weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with the ones

  11. Perfil antropométrico de mulheres adultas da área urbana e rural no município de Barcelos, AM Anthropometric profile of women from the urban and rural areas in Barcelos municipality. (Amazonas, Brazil

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    Dionísia Nagahama

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available De um total de 203 mulheres adultas entrevistadas, foram avaliadas 175 (entre 16 a 73 anos, por meio de medidas antropométricas: peso, altura, prega cutânea tricipital (PCT, circunferência braquial (CB, circunferência muscular (CMB e Índice de Massa Corpórea (IMC. Das mulheres analisadas, 84,0% (n=147 residiam na zona urbana e 16,0% (n=28 na zona rural. Verificou-se que o peso médio das mulheres não nutrizes residentes na área urbana foi de 54,1 kg; altura de 149,0 cm e o IMC de 24,4 kg/m², enquanto que a PCT, CB e a CMB forneceram valores médios de 19,2 mm, 27,5 cm e 21,5 cm, respectivamente. Na área rural, as mulheres apresentaram um peso médio de 50,4 kg, altura de 148,6 cm, IMC de 23,0 kg/cm² e a PCT, CB e a CMB foram 13,8 mm, 26,4 cm e 22,1 cm, respectivamente. Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa apenas nos valores médios da PCT entre as mulheres procedentes da área urbana e rural (pFrom a total of 203 adult women interviewed, 175 subjects aged 16 to 73 years were evaluated for the anthropometrics variables: weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-upper arm circumference, arm muscle circumference and body mass index (BMI. Of these women, 84,0% (147 were living in the urban area and 16,0% (28 in the rural area. Observing the mean values for non-lactating women in the urban area were: weight 54,1 kg, height 149,0 cm, BMI 24,4 kg/m², triceps skinfold thickness 19,2 mm, arm circumference 27,5 cm, arm muscle circumference 21,5 cm. For women in the rural area the values were: weight 50,4 kg, height 148,6 cm, BMI 23,0 kg/cm², triceps skinfold thickness 13,8 mm, arm circumference 26,4 cm, arm muscle circumference 22,1 cm. There was a significant difference in the average triceps skinfold thickness values between women in the rural area and women in the urban area (p<0,05. In the urban area women a 6,5% prevalence of low weight was found, a 28,2% prevalence of overweight and a 11,3% prevalence of obesity. In the

  12. An anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass using air displacement plethysmography

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    Deierlein Andrea L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current validated neonatal body composition methods are limited/impractical for use outside of a clinical setting because they are labor intensive, time consuming, and require expensive equipment. The purpose of this study was to develop an anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass (kg using an air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD® Infant Body Composition System as the criterion. Methods A total of 128 healthy term infants, 60 females and 68 males, from a multiethnic cohort were included in the analyses. Gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, age (in days, anthropometric measurements of weight, length, abdominal circumference, skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, sub scapular, and thigh, and body composition by PEA POD® were collected within 1-3 days of birth. Backward stepwise linear regression was used to determine the model that best predicted neonatal fat mass. Results The statistical model that best predicted neonatal fat mass (kg was: -0.012 -0.064*gender + 0.024*day of measurement post-delivery -0.150*weight (kg + 0.055*weight (kg2 + 0.046*ethnicity + 0.020*sum of three skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, sub scapular, and thigh; R2 = 0.81, MSE = 0.08 kg. Conclusions Our anthropometric model explained 81% of the variance in neonatal fat mass. Future studies with a greater variety of neonatal anthropometric measurements may provide equations that explain more of the variance.

  13. Hypertriglyceridemia and waist circumference predict cardiovascular risk among HIV patients: a cross-sectional study.

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    Peter M Janiszewski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although half of HIV-infected patients develop lipodystrophy and metabolic complications, there exists no simple clinical screening tool to discern the high from the low-risk HIV-infected patient. Thus, we evaluated the associations between waist circumference (WC combined with triglyceride (TG levels and the severity of lipodystrophy and cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected men and women. METHODS: 1481 HIV-infected men and 841 HIV-infected women were recruited between 2005 and 2009 at the metabolic clinic of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia in Italy. Within each gender, patients were categorized into 4 groups according to WC and TG levels. Total and regional fat and fat-free mass were assessed by duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT and abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT were quantified by computed tomography. Various cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in clinic after an overnight fast. RESULTS: The high TG/high WC men had the most VAT (208.0 ± 94.4 cm(2, as well as the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (42.2% and type-2 diabetes (16.2%, and the highest Framingham risk score (10.3 ± 6.5 in comparison to other groups (p<0.05 for all. High TG/high WC women also had elevated VAT (150.0 ± 97.9 cm(2 and a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (53.3%, hypertension (30.5% and type-2 diabetes (12.0%, and Framingham risk score(2.9 ± 2.8 by comparison to low TG/low WC women (p<0.05 for all. CONCLUSIONS: A simple tool combining WC and TG levels can discriminate high- from low-risk HIV-infected patients.

  14. BMI, Waist Circumference Reference Values for Chinese School-Aged Children and Adolescents

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    Song, Peige; Li, Xue; Gasevic, Danijela; Flores, Ana Borges; Yu, Zengli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 5062 anthropometric records for children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 years (2679 boys and 2383 girls) were included for analysis. The participants were recruited as part of the national representative “China Health and Nutrition Survey” (CHNS). Age, gender, weight, height, and WC were assessed. Smoothed BMI and WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed by using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method. The prevalence estimates of the overall and abdominal obesity were calculated by using the cut-offs from our CHNS study and the previous “Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health” (CNSSCH) study, respectively. The difference between prevalence estimates was tested by a McNemar test, and the agreement between these prevalence estimates was calculated by using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The prevalence values of overall obesity based on the cut-offs from CHNS and CNSSCH studies were at an almost perfect agreement level in boys (κ = 0.93). However, among girls, the overall obesity prevalence differed between the studies (p children and adolescents aged 7–18 years, which can be adopted in future researches. Large longitudinal study is still needed to reveal the childhood growth pattern and validate the inconsistence between different percentile studies

  15. Cut off values of waist circumference & associated cardiovascular risk in egyptians

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    Ibrahim M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent guidelines stressed the need to adopt different values of waist circumference (WC measurements to define abdominal obesity in different ethnic groups. The aim of this study is to identify WC cutoff points in normotensive and hypertensive subjects which are diagnostic of abdominal obesity in a Middle Eastern population and the prevalence of abdominal obesity in a nationwide sample. Methods Data were collected during phase-2 of the Egyptians National Hypertension Project survey. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements and laboratory studies were performed according to a standardized protocol by trained personnel. To derive the cutoff points for WC, we applied the factor analysis on CV risk factors: diabetes mellitus, decrease in HDL-C and increase in LDL-C, triglycerides and left ventricular mass index by echocardiography. Results The sample included 2313 individuals above the age of 25 years. WC values (mean ± SD were 88 ± 14 cm and 95 ± 14 cm for normotensive (NT and hypertensive (HT men respectively, and 89.6 ± 14.7 cm and 95.7 ± 15.9 cm for NT and HT women respectively. Applying factor analysis, the weighted average cutoff points were 93.5 cm for both NT and HT men and 91.5 and 92.5 cm for NT and HT women respectively. Based on these thresholds, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 48% in men and 51.5% in women. Conclusion This is the first report of specific abdominal obesity cutoff points in a Middle Eastern country. The cutoff points were different from the Europid standards. There is a high prevalence rate of abdominal obesity among Egyptians which is associated with increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

  16. Changes in waist circumference and the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged men and women.

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    Tina Landsvig Berentzen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Waist circumference (WC is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass index (DBMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on 15,577 men and 20,066 women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study were analyzed. Anthropometry was assessed in 1993-97 and 1999-02. Information on diabetes was obtained from The Danish National Diabetes Register. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated from Cox' proportional hazard models with individuals considered at risk from 1999-02 until December 31 2006. During 5.4 years of follow-up, 1,027 and 876 new cases of diabetes occurred among men and women, respectively. WC was positively associated with diabetes in both sexes also with adjustment for covariates and BMI. DWC was positively associated with diabetes in women, but not in men (HR per 5 cm change = 1.09 (1.04:1.15 in women, and 1.00 (0.94, 1.07 in men with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and DBMI. Associations with DWC were not notably different in sub-groups stratified according to baseline WC or DBMI, or when individuals with diseases or diabetes occurring within the first years of follow-up were excluded. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While this study confirmed that WC is positively associated with the risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, it surprisingly showed that changes in WC were not associated with the subsequent risk of diabetes in men, and only weakly positively associated with the risk of diabetes in women. Accordingly, these findings suggest that a reduction in WC may be a weak or insufficient or target for prevention of diabetes in middle-aged men and women.

  17. Association of Fetal Abdominal–Head Circumference Size Difference With Shoulder Dystocia: A Multicenter Study

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    Loraine Endres

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This study aims to determine if shoulder dystocia is associated with a difference in the fetal abdominal (AC to head circumference (HC of 50 mm or more noted on antenatal ultrasound. Study Design - A multicenter matched case–control study was performed comparing women who had shoulder dystocia to controls who did not. Women with vaginal births of live born nonanomalous singletons ≥ 36 weeks of gestation with an antenatal ultrasound within 4 weeks of delivery were included. Controls were matched for gestational age, route of delivery, and diabetes status. Results - We identified 181 matched pairs. Only 5% of the fetuses had an AC to HC of ≥ 50 mm. The proportion of AC to HC difference of ≥ 50 mm was significantly higher in shoulder dystocia cases (8% than controls (1%, p = 0.002. With multivariate regression, the three significant factors associated with shoulder dystocia were AC to HC ≥ 50 mm (odds ratio [OR], 7.3; confidence interval [CI], 1.6–33.3; p = 0.010, femur length (OR, 1.1; CI, 1.0–1.2; p = 0.002, and induced labor (OR, 1.8; CI, 1.1–3.1; p = 0.027. Conclusion - A prenatal ultrasound finding of a difference in AC to HC of ≥ 50 mm while uncommon is associated with shoulder dystocia.

  18. WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AS INDICATOR COMPONENTS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN THE SIBERIAN POPULATION

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    G. I. Simonova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Object of research: to determine the cut-off point of waist circumference (WC identify the components of metabolic syndrome (MS in a large industrial center of Western Siberia.In the period from 2003 to 2005 in the screening population surveyed 9362 people, including 4268 men (45.6% and 5094 women (54.4%.The response rate was 61%. The study protocol included a sociodemographic data, measurement of blood pressure (BP, anthropometry (height, weight, WC, the definition of biochemical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed using the package SPSS. To determine the cut-off points of the used ROC model.In the group with ≥2 components of MS cut-off point WC from the men was 93.3 cm (sensitivity 72%, specificity 83%, women – 90.2 cm (sensitivity 72%, specificity 62%.The lowest cut-off point WC marked BP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg for men – 90 cm (sensitivity 66.8%, specificity 58.1%, for women – 86.5 cm (sensitivity 71.0%, specificity 55.7%. The highest cut-off point from the defined patients with diabetes for men was 99.0 cm (sensitivity 61%, specificity 70.2%, for women – cm (sensitivity 64.1%, specificity 65.9%.Conclusions: Cut-off point from the persons with the presence of ≥2 MS components in Siberian population 45–69 years, in accordance with the ROC analysis are 93.3 cm for men and 90.2 cm for women. The lowest cut-off point WC marked BP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg for men – 90 cm, for women – 86.5 cm. The highest cut-off point from the defined patients with diabetes for men was 99.0 cm, for women – 95 cm.

  19. Thigh and knee circumference, knee-extension strength, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Husted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To (1) quantify changes in knee-extension strength and functional-performance at discharge after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA) and (2) investigate whether these changes correlate to changes in thigh and knee circumference (ie, swelling) or pain. DESIGN: A prospective......, descriptive, hypothesis-generating study. SETTING: A special unit for fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty operations at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four patients (20 women and 4 men; ages 69 ± 6.1 years) scheduled for primary unilateral THA. METHODS: All patients were evaluated before surgery...... and on the day of hospital discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Knee-extension strength, thigh and knee joint circumference, hip pain, and functional performance (Timed Up & Go, 30-Second Chair Stand, and 10-Meter Walk tests). RESULTS: All investigated variables changed significantly from before to after...

  20. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.;

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  1. Association between waist circumference and gray matter volume in 2344 individuals from two adult community-based samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, Deborah; Wittfeld, Katharina; Terock, Jan; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Habes, Mohamad; Hosten, Norbert; Friedrich, Nele; Nauck, Matthias; Domanska, Grazyna; Grabe, Hans Jörgen

    2015-11-15

    We analyzed the putative association between abdominal obesity (measured in waist circumference) and gray matter volume (Study of Health in Pomerania: SHIP-2, N=758) adjusted for age and gender by applying volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with VBM8 to brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We sought replication in a second, independent population sample (SHIP-TREND, N=1586). In a combined analysis (SHIP-2 and SHIP-TREND) we investigated the impact of hypertension, type II diabetes and blood lipids on the association between waist circumference and gray matter. Volumetric analysis revealed a significant inverse association between waist circumference and gray matter volume. VBM in SHIP-2 indicated distinct inverse associations in the following structures for both hemispheres: frontal lobe, temporal lobes, pre- and postcentral gyrus, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, insula, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, olfactory sulcus, para-/hippocampus, gyrus rectus, amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, fusiform and lingual gyrus, (pre-) cuneus and thalamus. These areas were replicated in SHIP-TREND. More than 76% of the voxels with significant gray matter volume reduction in SHIP-2 were also distinct in TREND. These brain areas are involved in cognition, attention to interoceptive signals as satiety or reward and control food intake. Due to our cross-sectional design we cannot clarify the causal direction of the association. However, previous studies described an association between subjects with higher waist circumference and future cognitive decline suggesting a progressive brain alteration in obese subjects. Pathomechanisms may involve chronic inflammation, increased oxidative stress or cellular autophagy associated with obesity. PMID:26256530

  2. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Determination of the Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points in a Rural South African Community

    OpenAIRE

    Motala, Ayesha A.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Pirie, Fraser J.; Omar, Mahomed A.K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to define optimal ethnic-specific waist-circumference cutoff points in a rural South African black community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random-cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements taken, including a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement ...

  3. Dietary Patterns of Young Females and Their Association With Waist Circumference as a Health Index in Northwest of Iran, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Mohammad; Didarloo, Alireza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in western countries, the 50th and 95th percentile ranks for waist circumference in the Iranian young Females are higher than those of the western ones. Objectives: Identifying major dietary patterns in Iranian young females, which associate with central obesity, can probably explain the difference between Iranian young females’ pattern and those of their western peers regarding obesity. Patients and Method...

  4. Correlation of the Ratio of Upper Third to Lower Third Circumferences of the Chest with Obstructive Pattern in Spirometry

    OpenAIRE

    Alavi Foumani, Ali; Amin, Azin; Tangestani Nejad, Azita; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Salamat, Fatemeh; Massahnia, Sara; Hassankhani, Amir; Khoshgozaran, Lida; Mirfallah Nasiri, Akram; Mohammadi, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obstructive Lung Diseases (OLDs), could lead to progressive hyperinflation of the lungs that cause increased work of breathing, impaired gas exchanges and functional limitations in patients. In this study, thoracic circumference of patients in upper and lower third were measured directly and the association of the upper to lower third width of chest with spirometric parameters was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, five hundred twenty nine consecutive...

  5. Determining the waist circumference cut off which best predicts the metabolic syndrome components in urban Africans: the SABPA study

    OpenAIRE

    Malan, Leone; Potgieter, Johannes Cornelis; Steyn, Hendrik Stefanus; J. Prinsloo; De Ridder, Johannes Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have shown that the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and abdominal obesity is age, gender as well as ethnicity-dependent. WC criteria for Sub Saharan Africans have not been defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The aim was to determine which WC cut off best predicted Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in a group of urban African teachers (80 males and 93 females). We determined sphygmomanometer blood pressure, WC, glucose, high density lipoprotein cholest...

  6. Head Circumference as an Early Predictor of Autism Symptoms in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Elder, Lauren M.; Dawson, Geraldine; Toth, Karen; Fein, Deborah; Munson, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Siblings of children with autism have an increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). As children with autism often exhibit an atypical trajectory of head circumference (HC) growth, HC may be an indicator of vulnerability to autism. This study investigated whether infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 77) with an atypical trajectory of HC growth were more likely than those without an atypical HC trajectory to develop autism symptoms. Results showed that infants who had larger HC at...

  7. Pregestational body mass index is related to neonatal abdominal circumference at birth--a Danish population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, M; Wehberg, S; Vinter, C A; Joergensen, J S; Ovesen, Per Glud; Beck-Nielsen, H; Jensen, D M; Christesen, H T

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of maternal pregestational body mass index (BMI) and smoking on neonatal abdominal circumference (AC) and weight at birth. To define reference curves for birth AC and weight in offspring of healthy, nonsmoking, normal weight women. DESIGN: Population-based study...... MEASURES: Birth AC and weight in relation to pregestational maternal BMI, maternal smoking and medical conditions (any). RESULTS: Birth AC and weight increased with increasing pregestational BMI, and decreased with smoking (P ...

  8. Retrospective Analysis of the Relationship between Decline in FEV1 and Abdominal Circumference in Male Smokers: the Takahata Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Masamichi; Shibata, Yoko; Abe, Shuichi; Inoue, Sumito; IGARASHI Akira; Yamauchi, Keiko; Aida, Yasuko; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Nunomiya, Keiko; Nakano, Hiroshi; Sato, Kento; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (Mets) is reportedly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship between abdominal circumference (AC) and decline in FEV1 has not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate this relationship among male current smokers. Methods: Spirometry was performed on subjects (n = 3,257) ≥ 40 years of age, who participated in a community-based annual health check in Takahata, Japan, from 2004 through 2006 (visit 1). Spirometry was r...

  9. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Based on Insulin Resistance and Visceral Obesity in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Soo Lim; Young Ju Choi; Soo-Kyung Kim; Byoung Wook Huh; Eun Jig Lee; Kap Bum Huh

    2015-01-01

    Background Visceral obesity is the most powerful contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases. In light of visceral obesity, however, there is a paucity of data on the appropriate cutoff point of waist circumference (WC) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal cutoff value for WC that signals insulin resistance (IR) and visceral obesity in Koreans with type 2 diabetes. Methods We evaluated 4,252 patients...

  10. Foot Length, Chest Circumference, and Mid Upper Arm Circumference Are Good Predictors of Low Birth Weight and Prematurity in Ethnic Minority Newborns in Vietnam: A Hospital-Based Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Hai Nguyen; Khanh, Dung Khu Thi; Thu, Ha Le Thi; Thomas, Emma G.; Lee, Katherine J.; Russell, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The evaluation of tools to accurately identify low birth weight (LBW) and/or premature newborns in resource-limited countries is a research priority. We explored the use of foot length, chest circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measured within 24 h as diagnostic tools for identifying newborns who are LBW, premature, or both; and compared measurements taken at birth with those taken at five days of age. Materials and Methods An observational study was undertaken in Hoa Binh Province General Hospital, Vietnam, in ethnic minority newborns. Birth weight, foot length, chest circumference, and MUAC were measured within 24 h of birth and in a subset of 200, were repeated on day five of life. Gestational age was estimated using the New Ballard Score. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and optimal cut-points (the point with the highest sensitivity and specificity where the sensitivity was at least 0.8) were calculated, for predicting prematurity, LBW, and both. Measurements within 24 h and at five days of life were compared. Results 485 newborns were recruited. Chest circumference and MUAC measured within 24 h of birth were found to be highly predictive of LBW (both yielding area under the curve [AUC] of 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96–0.99), and performed marginally better than foot length (AUC 0.94, 95%CI 0.92–0.96). The optimal cut-points for measurements within 24 h of birth were ≤7.4cm for foot length; ≤30.4cm for chest circumference; and ≤ 9.0cm for MUAC. There was statistical evidence that anthropometric measurements taken within 24 h of birth were higher than measurements on day five (p<0.02 for all anthropometric measurements) but the magnitude of these differences was small (at most 2mm). Conclusions All measurements taken within 24 h of birth were good predictors of LBW, prematurity and both. Differences in measurements taken within 24 h and on day five were not clinically relevant. Further research will ensure

  11. Nutritional status and CD4 cell counts in patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy

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    Ana Celia Oliveira dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Even with current highly active antiretroviral therapy, individuals with AIDS continue to exhibit important nutritional deficits and reduced levels of albumin and hemoglobin, which may be directly related to their cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 cell counts. The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS and relate the findings to the albumin level, hemoglobin level and CD4 cell count. Methods Patients over 20 years of age with AIDS who were hospitalized in a university hospital and were receiving antiretroviral therapy were studied with regard to clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and sociodemographic characteristics. Body mass index, percentage of weight loss, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and arm muscle circumference were analyzed. Data on albumin, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 cell count were obtained from patient charts. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test for independent variables and the Mann-Whitney U-test. The level of significance was set to 0.05 (α = 5%. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 17.0 software for Windows. Results Of the 50 patients evaluated, 70% were male. The prevalence of malnutrition was higher when the definition was based on arm circumference and triceps skinfold measurement. The concentrations of all biochemical variables were significantly lower among patients with a body mass index of less than 18.5kg/m2. The CD4 cell count, albumin, hemoglobin and hematocrit anthropometric measures were directly related to each other. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of nutritional follow-up for underweight patients with AIDS, as nutritional status proved to be related to important biochemical alterations.

  12. Scale Marking Method on the Circumference of Circle Elements for Astronomical Instruments in the Early Joseon Dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young Sook; Lee, Yong Sam

    2015-03-01

    During the reign of King Sejong (世宗, 1418-1450) in the Joseon Dynasty, there were lots of astronomical instruments, including miniaturized ones. Those instruments utilized the technical know-how acquired through building contemporary astronomical instruments previously developed in the Song(宋), Jin(金), and Yuan(元) dynasties of China. In those days, many astronomical instruments had circles, rings, and spheres carved with a scale of 365.25, 100, and 24 parts, respectively, on their circumference. These were called the celestial-circumference degree, hundred-interval (Baekgak), and 24 direction, respectively. These scales are marked by the angular distance, not by the angle. Therefore, these circles, rings, and spheres had to be optimized in size to accomodate proper scales. Assuming that the scale system is composed of integer multiples of unit length, we studied the sizes of circles by referring to old articles and investigating existing artifacts. We discovered that the star chart of Cheonsang yeolcha bunyajido was drawn with a royal standard ruler (周尺) based on the unit length of 207 mm. Interestingly, its circumference was marked by the unit scale of 3 puns per 1 du (or degree) like Honsang (a celestial globe). We also found that Hyeonju ilgu (a equatorial sundial) has a Baekgak disk on a scale of 1 pun per 1 gak (that is an interval of time similar to a quarter). This study contributes to the analysis of specifications of numerous circular elements from old Korean astronomical instruments.

  13. A Study on Causes and Types of Abnormal Increase in Infants’ Head Circumference in Kashan/Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad TALEBIAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Talebian A, Soltani B, Moravveji AR, Salamati L, Davami M. A Study on Causes and Types of Abnormal Increase in infants’ Head Circumference in Kashan/Iran. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3: 28- 33. ObjectiveHead circumference is a valuable index of brain growth and its disturbances can indicate different disorders of nervous system. Abnormal increased head circumference (macrocephaly is common and observed in about 2% of infants. In this study, the causes and clinical types of abnormal increase in infants’ head circumference were investigated in Kashan, Iran.Materials & MethodsThis cross-sectional study was performed on 90 infants less than 2 years of age with abnormal increase in head circumference in Kashan, during 2009- 2011. The data were collected by history taking, physical examination, growth chart, and imaging.Results65 (72% cases out of 90 infants were male and 25 ( 28% cases were female. Fifty-three (58.8% cases had familial megalencephaly, 30 (33.4% had hydrocephalus, and other causes were observed in 7 (7.8% cases. Eighty-three percent of Infants with familial megalencephaly and 50% with hydrocephalus had normal fontanels. In 90.6% of cases withfamilial megalencephaly, family history for large head was positive. Motor development was normal in 100% of cases with familial megalencephaly and 76.7% of hydrocephalic infants.Conclusion Familial megalencephaly was the most common cause of macrocephaly in the studied infants, and most of them had normal physical examination and development, so, parental head circumferences should be considered in the interpretation of infant’s head circumference and in cases of abnormal physical examination or development, other diagnostic modalities, including brain imaging should be done. References1. Lunde A, Melve KK, Gjessing HK, Skjaerven R, Irgens LM. Genetic and environmental influences on birth weight, Birth length, Head circumference, and gestational age by

  14. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

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    Cleliani de Cassia da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents.METHODS:Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist circumferences, and biochemical evaluation. The pubertal stage was obtained by self-assessment, and the blood pressure, by auscultation. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance. The correlation between two variables was evaluated by partial correlation coefficient adjusted for the percentage of body fat and pubertal stage. The performance of neck circumference to identify insulin resistance was tested by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve.RESULTS: After the adjustment for percentage body fat and pubertal stage, neck circumference correlated with waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and markers of insulin resistance in both genders.CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the neck circumference is a useful tool for the detection of insulin resistance and changes in the indicators of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. The easiness of application and low cost of this measure may allow its use in Public Health services.

  15. Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio in Adult Igbo’s of Nigeria: Interrelation with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Oladipo; P.A. Akande, K.C. Anugweje and I.G. Osogba

    2011-01-01

    Waist circumference and waist to hip ratio are used as indicators of abdominal obesity in population studies. This study was carried out to predict if the Igbo ethnic groups are at a risk of cardiovascular disease. A total of 800 subjects were randomly selected, 400 males and 400 females between age range 20-65 years. A measuring tape was used to measure their waist and hip circumference to get its ratio. Their blood pressure and body mass index were also determined. The mean waist circumfere...

  16. Changes in waist circumference relative to body mass index in Chinese adults, 1993–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Dalia; Smith, Lindsey P; Zhang, Bing; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background Although BMI and waist circumference (WC) are correlated, the relationship between WC and BMI may have changed over time. Objectives Describe temporal trends in BMI and WC distributions and quantify the increase in WC at a given BMI over time. Subjects/Methods Data on adults aged 20–59 years from two waves (1993 and 2009) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used in a pooled cross-sectional analysis. Quantile regression examined age-adjusted temporal trends in the distributions of BMI and WC. Linear regression examined changes in mean WC over time, adjusting for BMI, age at survey and survey year. All models were stratified by gender. Results There was a significant increase in BMI and WC over time, particularly at the 95th quantile: on average, men had 2.8 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.4, 3.3) and women 1.5 kg/m2 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.0) higher BMI in 2009 compared to their counterparts in 1993. WC increased by 9.0 cm (95% CI: 7.5, 10.1) and 5.0 cm (95% CI: 3.4, 6.6) for and women had a 3.2 cm (95% CI: 2.8, 3.7) and 2.1 cm (95% CI: 1.7, 2.5) higher WC in 2009 compared to their counterparts in 1993, holding BMI and age constant. WC adjusted for BMI increased to a larger extent amongst obese versus lean individuals and amongst younger versus older women. Conclusions For both genders, BMI and WC increased significantly over time, with particularly greatest increase in magnitude in the upper tail of the BMI and WC distributions. Furthermore, WC at equivalent BMI was higher in 2009, compared to their counterparts in 1993. Our findings suggest that even if BMI remained constant from 1993 to 2009, adults in 2009 might be at increased cardiometabolic risk as a result of their higher WC. PMID:24813367

  17. Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio distributions in polish and german schoolchildren: Comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Nawarycz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To analyze differences in the distributions of waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR between Polish (PL and German (GE children and adolescents. Methods: Two samples of children and adolescents aged 7-18 y: From PL ( n = 11,326 GE ( n = 8,218 participated. The two WC cut-off points (WC1 as central fat distribution and WC2 as central obesity corresponding at age 18 to the adult criteria were determined. Furthermore, the mean WC cut-off points (WC1m, WC2m for boys and girls aged 14-18 from both countries were evaluated. For the WHtR, values over 0.5 were used as a definition of central fat distribution. The effect of different WC and WHtR criteria on the prevalence of abdominal obesity in both study groups was evaluated. Results: The mean and percentile values of WC and WHtR were generally higher in all German children as compared to their peers from Poland. When WC1m is used, the mean (95% CI prevalence of central fat distribution in the 14-18 y Polish groups was lower ( P 0.5, the results were similar for boys - 6.7% (5.9-7.5 vs. 8.5% (8.1-8.9; they were significantly ( P < 0.05 lower for Polish and German girls: 5.3% (5.0-5.6 vs. 12.7% (9.7-16.4. The prevalence of central obesity using WC2m as a criterion in the Polish vs. German groups was as follows: (boys - 1.1% (0.8-1.4 vs. 3.1% (2.2-4.0, P < 0.05; girls - 3.1% (2.5-3.7 vs. 10.2% (8.4-12.0, P < 0.05. Conclusions: The results highlight the greater central obesity associated with the German children, both in terms of WC and WHtR, in comparison to their peers from Poland. The prevalence of AO is significantly associated with the criteria used. The results demonstrate the need for the development of international WC references for pediatric subjects.

  18. Neck circumference predicts renal function decline in overweight women: A community-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chang-Yun; Park, Jung Tak; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Kee, Youn Kyung; Seo, Changhwan; Lee, Misol; Cha, Min-Uk; Jung, Su-Young; Park, Seohyun; Yun, Hae-Ryong; Kwon, Young Eun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Upper-body subcutaneous fat, which is commonly estimated from the neck circumference (NC), was revealed to be the main reservoir of circulating nonesterified fatty acids in overweight patients. Despite a close association between NC and metabolic complications, the relationship of NC with renal function has not been fully investigated. In this study, the impact of NC on the development of incident CKD was elucidated.The data were retrieved from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study cohort. The subjects were followed at 2-year intervals from 2003 to 2011. Overweight was defined as a body mass index of ≥23 kg/m. A total of 4298 cohort subjects were screened. After exclusion, 2268 overweight subjects were included for the final analysis. The primary end point was incident CKD, which was defined as a composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m or the development of proteinuria.The mean patient age was 36.3 ± 3.0 years, and 1285 (56.7%) were men. They were divided into 2 groups according to the median NC in male and female subjects, separately. In both sexes, hypertension (men, P < 0.001; women, P = 0.009) and diabetes (men, P = 0.002; women, P < 0.001) were significantly more prevalent in the big NC group than in the small NC group. In contrast, eGFR was significantly lower only in male subjects of the big NC group (P < 0.001), whereas it was comparable between the small and big NC groups (P = 0.167). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, NC values were independently associated with incident CKD development in female subjects after adjusting for multiple confounding factors (per 1 cm increase, hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.159 [1.024-1.310], P = 0.019) but not in male subjects.NC is independently associated with the development of CKD in overweight female subjects, suggesting

  19. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cleliani de Cassia da Silva; Mariana Porto Zambon; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Rodrigues, Ana Maria de B.; Daniella Fernandes Camilo; Maria Ângela R.G.M Antonio; Roberta Soares L. Cassani; Bruno Geloneze

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist cir...

  20. Newborn Size and Body Composition as Predictors of Insulin Resistance and Diabetes in the Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Fall, Caroline H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We aimed to examine detailed neonatal measurements as predictors of later diabetes in both parents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Babies (n = 617) born to nondiabetic parents in Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India, were measured at birth for weight; crown-to-heel length (CHL), crown-to-rump length (CRL), and leg length; skinfolds (triceps and subscapular); and circumferences (head, abdomen, and mid–upper-arm circumference [MUAC]). Nine and a half years later, glucose tolerance and fasting insulin were measured in their parents (469 mothers and 398 fathers). RESULTS Sixty-two (15.6%) fathers and 22 (4.7%) mothers had developed diabetes. There were linear inverse associations of the children’s birth weight, CHL, CRL, MUAC, and skinfolds with paternal diabetes and insulin resistance (P < 0.05 for all). Offspring birth weight and adiposity (MUAC, abdominal circumference, and skinfolds) showed U-shaped associations with maternal diabetes (P for quadratic association <0.05 for all). These associations persisted after adjusting for the parents’ current adiposity and maternal glucose concentrations and adiposity during pregnancy. Newborn adiposity was positively related to maternal insulin resistance; this association was nonsignificant after adjusting for maternal current adiposity. CONCLUSIONS Newborn size is a window into the future health of the parents. Small newborn size (especially soft-tissue body components) predicts an increased risk of later diabetes in both parents, suggesting a genetic or epigenetic link between parents’ diabetes risk and reduced fetal growth in their children. The association of higher birth weight and newborn adiposity with later maternal diabetes suggests effects on fetal adiposity of the intrauterine environment in prediabetic mothers. PMID:22751963

  1. Combined use of waist and thigh circumference to identify high-risk, abdominally obese HIV+ patients

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    T O'Neil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background We examined whether the combination of waist (WC and thigh (ThC circumference improves the prediction of visceral adipose tissue (VAT over WC and ThC independently in HIV-infected men and women after correction for age. We also examined the independent associations between VAT, and the combination of WC and ThC with metabolic risk factors, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and prior cardiovascular events in HIV-infected individuals. Methods Consecutive patients attending the metabolic clinic of the University of Modena in Italy between 2005 and 2009 were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Total and regional fat mass and lean mass were quantified using DEXA. A single CT image was taken for quantification of VAT and CAC. Prior cardiovascular events which occurred within a 5-year period of the clinical evaluation were analysed. A cross-fold test was used to explore different models in the ability to predict VAT in order to build an algorithm for VAT estimation (e-VAT. Regression analysis were performed to determine the univariate and multivariate relations between WC, ThC, and age with VAT. A comparison of beta coefficients for VAT and e-VAT to predict cardio-metabolic risk and events were performed using multivariable regression models after correction for BMI and age. Results 2322 HIV-infected patients were recruited: median duration of HIV infection was 182 months (IQR 126–236; median nadir and current CD4 were 172 (IQR 68–262 and 515.5 (IQR 369–700 and 75% of them had undetectable HIV1-VL. In this abstract only the results of men will be presented. Men (n=1481 had a mean age of 45.9±7.3 years, a BMI of 24.1 ± 3.8 kg/m2, a WC of 88.0±10.1 cm and a ThC of 47.8±4.3 cm. e-VAT algorithm for men was: (5.44*WC−(1.35*ThC−(1.70*age−348.1 In men, at multivariable regression models after correction for BMI and age, e-VAT was concordant to VAT in predicting HOMA, MetS Risk, prior cardiovascular events (OR=1

  2. A new instrument for the measurement of rib cage and abdomen circumference variation in respiration at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortuna, C L; Passerini, L

    1995-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive new extensometer for measuring changes in chest wall circumference during human respiratory movements is presented. The instrument detects the delay between ultrasound emission and reception at opposite ends of two rubber tubes encircling the rib cage and abdomen. Assuming a two degree of freedom model of the chest wall and employing an isovolume procedure for determination of volume-motion coefficients, extensometer estimation of tidal volume (VT) from changes of rib cage and abdomen circumference was compared with spirometer measurements at rest and during exercise on a cycle ergometer (55-155 W) in six subjects and, in four of them, on a treadmill (4-12 km.h-1). In three subjects hypercapnic hyperpnoea at rest was also studied. The slopes of the linear relationship between extensometer and spirometer VT (litres) averaged 0.9967 (SD 0.0117) (r2 = 0.995-0.998; n = 90-143) for cycle ergometer exercise, 1.0072 (SD 0.0078) (r2 = 0.991-0.998; n = 75-93) for treadmill exercise and 0.9942 (SD 0.0188) (r2 = 0.997-0.998; n = 18-25) for hypercapnic hyperpnoea. In all instances the slope of the regression line was consistent with the model of the identity line (slope = 1). The changes in end-expiratory lung volume between respiration at rest and during exercise were determined by the extensometers, and were nearly identical (98.4% on average) to those measured with the spirometer (r2 = 0.945; n = 24). It is concluded that determination of chest wall circumference with this new instrument is suitable for quantitative measurement of ventilation and lung volume variations in humans under most physiological conditions. PMID:7588698

  3. Avaliação do amaciamento de carne bovina de dianteiro (Triceps brachii) pelos métodos de maturação, estimulação elétrica, injeção de ácidos e tenderização mecânica An evaluation of tenderization of forequarter bovine meat (Triceps brachii) through methods of ageing and injection with acetic and lactic acids

    OpenAIRE

    PUGA Débora Maria Ubisses; CONTRERAS Carmen Josefina Castillo; Marcello Rodrigues TURNBULL

    1999-01-01

    Vinte e dois músculos Triceps brachii obtidos de 11 bovinos fêmeas com idade 3 e 4 anos, abatidos em abatedouro experimental, foram submetidos à tenderização mecânica, à injeção de ácido acético 0,1M e ácido lático 0,2M, à maturação por 9 e 14 dias, à estimulação elétrica (250V - 60 Hz - 90s), sendo alguns reservados como grupo-controle, sem tratamento. A maturação por 14 dias apresentou 21% de aumento na maciez subjetiva e 12% de diminuição da força de cisalhamento; estes valores são semelha...

  4. BLOOD SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVEL AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE AND SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALO BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SAJJAD, S. ALI, N. ULLAH1, M. ANWAR1, S. AKHTER AND S. M. H. ANDRABI1

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the blood serum testosterone level and its relationship with scrotal circumference and physical characteristics of semen in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Semen samples were collected weekly from three buffalo bulls of 14 years age for 12 weeks and were evaluated for physical characteristics i.e. ejaculatory volume, sperm motility, sperm concentration, pH and sperm abnormalities. Jugular blood samples were collected from each bull at weekly intervals and analyzed for serum testosterorse concentrations. Mean (+ SE blood serum testosterone level (ng/ml, scrotal circumference (cm, semen volume (ml, progressive sperm motility (%, sperm concentration (106/µl, semen pH and total sperm abnormalities (% observed were 0.69 ± 0.12, 34.6 ± 0.9, 3.59 ± 0.41, 51.53 ± 2.23, 0.99 ± 0.07, 7.01 ± 0.08 and 11.67 ± 0.90, respectively. Positive correlations between testosterone level and scrotal circumference (r=0.414 and ejaculatory volume (r=0.348 were observed. However, no correlation of testosterone level with sperm motility (r=0.145, sperm concentration (r=0.264, semen pH (r=-0.208 and total sperm abnormalities (r=-0.242 was found. Similary, ejaculatory volume did not show any correlation with sperm motility percentage (r=0.115, sperm concentration (r=0.045, semen pH (r=-0.015 and total sperm abnormalities (r=-0.135. Sperm motility percentage had positive correlation with sperm concentration (r=0.347 and negative correlation with semen pH (r=-0.670. Sperm concentration was negatively correlated with semen pH (r=-0.501. It was concluded that in 14 years old buffalo bulls the level of serum testosterone and scrotal circumference and ejaculatory volume were positively correlated. The other semen quality parameters including sperm motility, sperm concentration, semen pH and sperm abnormalities were not related with serum testosterone level.

  5. biochemical and hormonal studies in obese cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out on a total number of 116 obese and 23 non-obese control females. Obesity was assessed mainly by body mass index (BMI). Other skinfold thickness e.g. triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, as parameters of obesity assessment were determined in some obese patients. The degree of obesity was assessed by BMI and categorized as follows: i- Mild obesity, BMI=25-30 Kg/m2. ii-Moderate obesity, BMI=31-35 kg/m2. iii-severe obesity, BMI= above 35 kg/m2. Type of fat distribution was assessed by waist/hip circumference ratio (w/H) as :- i-gynoid (lower body segment obesity). (≤ 0.81) i i- android (upper body segment obesity). (≥0.82)

  6. Physical growth of St. Lawrence Island Eskimos: body size, proportion, and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, F E; Laughlin, W S; Harper, A B; Ensroth, A E

    1982-08-01

    Growth patterns of body size, proportion, and composition were analyzed in 57 male and 56 female Eskimos from St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, ranging in age from 1.23 through 19.82 years. Age-groups means for whites and blacks of the U.S. Health Examination Survey served as reference data. Relative to HES data, the Eskimo sample were shorter with lower values for leg length, while there were no differences from the reference values for sitting height. The Eskimos also had higher values of Quetelet's Index, the sitting height/height ratio, and the upper arm muscle circumference, while there were no differences in body weight or triceps skinfold thickness. Differences from the reference data were more pronounced in males than in females. The growth patterns for size and body proportion are in conformity with known relationships between morphology and climate. PMID:7124933

  7. Improved nutritional status in elderly patients 6 months after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynningsen, Peter Krogh; Husted, Steen; Damsgaard, Else Marie Skjøde

    2007-01-01

    , length of stay in hospital and infectious complications. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 89 patients with ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit had their nutritional status evaluated in the hospital at 1 week and 5 weeks after stroke, and in their own home at 3 months and...... 6 months. Nutritional status was evaluated by body weight, body mass index (BMI), mid upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and serum concentrations of albumin and transferrin. Malnutrition was defined if the patients had 2 or more abnormal nutritional variables. RESULTS......INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status among stroke patients has received limited attention despite the fact, that it may have an influence on clinical outcome. Previous studies have estimated that 15-20 % of patients suffer from malnutrition in the acute phase of stroke, but so far no studies have...

  8. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations: impact of ethnicity and urbanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L; Eis, Jeanette; Hansen, Andreas Wolff;

    2008-01-01

    and in the urban population. AMA was only higher with increasing age among males. The prevalence of overweight (BMI > or = 25) (39.8% vs. 15.8%) and obesity (BMI > or = 30) (15.5% vs. 5.1%) was highest in the urban vs. rural population. CONCLUSION: Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness was......BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing rapidly in Africa, and may not be associated with the same changes in body composition among different ethnic groups in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To assess abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, prevalence of obesity, and differences in body composition in...... rural and urban Kenya. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study carried out among Luo, Kamba and Maasai in rural and urban Kenya, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured by ultrasonography. Height and weight, waist, mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold...

  9. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Eis, Jeannette; Hansen, Andreas W.;

    2008-01-01

    and in the urban population. AMA was only higher with increasing age among males. The prevalence of overweight (BMI >= 25) (39.8% vs. 15.8%) and obesity (BMI >= 30) (15.5% vs. 5.1%) was highest in the urban vs. rural population. Conclusion: Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness was higher......Background: Obesity is increasing rapidly in Africa, and may not be associated with the same changes in body composition among different ethnic groups in Africa. Objective: To assess abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, prevalence of obesity, and differences in body composition in...... rural and urban Kenya. Subjects and methods: In a cross-sectional study carried out among Luo, Kamba and Maasai in rural and urban Kenya, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured by ultrasonography. Height and weight, waist, mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold...

  10. ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS: SOMATOTYPE AND BODY COMPOSITION VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yener BEKTAŞ

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the somatotype and body composition characteristics of female basketball players and to demonstrate the changes between different category levels. For this purpose 37 female basketball players were subjected from Et-Balik Sports Club representing 4 different categories. 11 anthropometric measurements; body weight, height, humerus and femur bicondylar breadth, biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and thigh skinfold thickness, biceps and thigh circumference data were collected according to the International Biological Programme (IBP and International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. The mean age of the subjects were 13.84 + 4.34 (year where weight 55.4 + 15.7 (kg and height 162.2 + 11.6 (cm. Study results showed gradual increase tendency in body fat pattern through categories. Subsequently body somatotypes were differed between categories as well. As a general tendency the somatotype characteristics of the subjects were found to be endomorphic mesomorph.

  11. Adductor pollicis muscle: potential anthropometric parameter in hospitalized individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Abranches Rosa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the measurement of adductor pollicis muscle thickness as a parameter for the assessment of nutritional status in patients admitted to a University Hospital in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State. This is a prospective cross-sectional study with 64 adults and elderly patients. We evaluated the percentage of weight loss based on the usual weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, arm muscle circumference, laboratory parameters and measurement of adductor pollicis muscle thickness. The measurements were performed only once, in the first 72 hours of hospitalization. Data were analyzed using statistical software BioEstat 5.0, with a significance level of 0.05. The average thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle was 17.5 + 5.3 mm. We found a significant negative association of muscle with age. There was a significant association between the measure of muscle and parameters such as body mass index, arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, albumin and nutritional status assessed by physical examination. The adductor pollicis muscle allows easy measurement, direct assessment, fast results, low cost and good correlation with anthropometric parameters. However, further studies should be conducted to validate this new method.

  12. Impact of cancer, type, site, stage and treatment on the nutritional status of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyzed the nutritional status of cancer patients in relation to type and site of origin of the tumor, stage of disease, and previous chemical or radiation therapy. The analysis was performed on 321 patients (280 with cancer and 41 controls). The nutritional parameters included per cent of weight loss, anthropometric indices (arm circumference, triceps skinfold, arm muscle circumference), creatinine-height index, serum protein, albumin, total iron binding capacity and cholinesterase, C3 and C4 components of complement, total peripheral lymphocytes, and skin tests. The statistical comparison between patients with different tumors and controls, between patients treated with or without previous chemical or radiation therapy led to the following conclusions: (1) malnutrition is mainly related to the type and site of origin of the tumor and, in the early stages of disease, is more pronounced in patients with cancer of the esophagus and stomach; (2) except in patients with breast and cervix cancer, malnutrition gets more severe as the disease becomes advanced; (3) chemical or radiation therapy has a variable impact on the nutritional status, but in selected patients it causes a drop in body weight, arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, and peripheral lymphocytes; (4) body weight, cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity and serum albumin are the most commonly altered parameters

  13. A STUDY ON BODY COMPOSITION, BODY COMPONENTS AND SOMATOTYPE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep KÜRKÇÜ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to study to determine and comparison the body composition, body components and somatotype characteristics of young soccer players (Young Soccer Team of Sport Club of Muğla University with other national and international soccer players. Subjects were eighteen pubescent soccer players (age, 13.22y of a team playing in regional soccer league. Skinfolds (biceps, triceps, back, suprailiac, abdominal, leg, thigh, diameters (femur and humerus biconduler, circumferences (biceps, thigh of the body and body fat parameters were measured. Somatotype characteristics were calculated and evaluated by Heat-Carter formula. Subjects’ measurements were as; height 158.44±10.42cm, body weight 47.65±8.38kg, skinfolds; biceps 5.75±1.54mm, triceps 10.61±2.93mm, back 7.30±1.59mm, suprailiac 7.00±2.04mm, abdominal 9.91±3.98mm, leg 13.52±4.76mm; diameters; femur biconduler 11.03±0.74cm; humerus biconduler 7.30±0.59cm; circumferences, biceps 22.76±3.11cm, thigh 32.84±3.33cm and body fat percentage 5.41±1.37 %, somatotype characteristics; Endomorph; 4.59±2.08, Mezomorph; 6.94±3.10, and Ecthomorph; 3.55±1.34. In related sports, physical fitness parameters including physical and anthropometric characteristics of athletes are very important in talent identification. Therefore, results of the present study could provide important data on selection of talented players in soccer and to the other related researches.

  14. The relationship of violence and traumatic stress to changes in weight and waist circumference: longitudinal analyses from the study of women's health across the nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Clark, Cari Jo; Bromberger, Joyce; Gold, Ellen B

    2014-05-01

    This article investigates the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2,870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years, and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes, and confounders. At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese, and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.28-4.47]), weight loss (OR = 3.54, 95% CI = [1.73-7.22]), and gain (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = [1.37-4.37]) or loss (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = [1.23-5.77]) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women were associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  15. The Relationship of Violence and Traumatic Stress to Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Longitudinal Analyses from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Gold, Ellen B; Clark, Cari; Bromberger, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. Methods The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes and confounders. Results At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (OR=2.39, 95% CI= 1.28, 4.47), weight loss (OR=3.54, 95% CI=1.73, 7.22), and gain (OR=2.44, 95% CI =1.37, 4.37) or loss (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.23, 5.77) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Conclusion Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women was associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  16. Association of birthweight and head circumference at birth to cognitive performance in 9- to 10-year-old children in South India: prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Wills, Andrew K; Kurpad, Anura V; Muthayya, Sumithra; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Nagarajaiah, Kiran K; Fall, Caroline H D; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether birthweight and head circumference at birth are associated with childhood cognitive ability in South India, cognitive function was assessed using three core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, and visuospatial and verbal abilities among 505 full-term born children (mean age 9.7 y). In multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, gestation, socioeconomic status, parent's education, maternal age, parity, body mass index, height, rural/urban residence, and time of testing, Atlantis score (learning ability/long-term storage and retrieval) rose by 0.1 SD per SD increase in newborn weight and head circumference, respectively (p < 0.05 for all), and Kohs' block design score (visuospatial ability) increased by 0.1 SD per SD increase in birthweight (p < 0.05). The associations were reduced after further adjustment for current head circumference. There were no associations of birthweight and/or head circumference with measures of short-term memory, fluid reasoning, verbal abilities, and attention and concentration. In conclusion, higher birthweight and larger head circumference at birth are associated with better childhood cognitive ability. The effect may be specific to learning, long-term storage and retrieval, and visuospatial abilities, but this requires confirmation by further research. PMID:20032815

  17. Relationship Between Scrotal Circumference, Testicular Growth and Semen Quality Parameters in Guzerat Breed Bulls, from Puberty to 36 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Pérez Osorio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the association between scrotal circumference size and sperm characteristics in 194 males of Guzerat breed. Methods: The bulls were divided by age groups from 12 to 36 months of age. The length and width of the testicle and scrotal circumference were measured. Semen was collected from the animals that showed a circumference ≥ 19 cm through transrectal electrostimulation in order to induce ejaculation. The characteristics assessed in the semen were motility, speed, sperm concentration and presence of rounded cells. Results: the correlation between the scrotal circumference with the sperm motility by group of age was positive (r = 0.94; p < 0.005. The present study showed that the presence of proximal cytoplasmic droplet, the rounded cells in the semen and the defects on the head of the spermatozoids are objective evaluation features, which can be used for early selection of sperm production in Guzerat males. Conclusions: The production of sperm with normal rates in the Guzerat breed is achieved when males reach the age of 28 months and a scrotal circumference close to 30 cm.

  18. Umbilical Cord Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Relation to Birthweight, Head Circumference and Infant Length at Age 14 Days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Steuerwald, Ulrike;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insufficient supply of vitamin D during early development may negatively affect offspring growth. METHODS: We examined the association between umbilical cord (UC) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and infant size in a study of two Faroese birth cohorts of 1038 singleton...... linear regression models with adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI, sex, parity, gestational age, or infant age at examination, season of birth, smoking, gestational diabetes, examiner, and cohort identity, we found no relationship between birthweight or head circumference and UC 25(OH)D. However, infants...... with vitamin D status <12 nmol/L had a 0.49 (95% confidence interval 0.05, 0.93) cm lower length than infants with vitamin D status >50 nmol/L in models further adjusted for birthweight. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that umbilical cord serum 25(OH)D concentrations are positively associated with infant...

  19. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.;

    physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...... MetS-markers in 8-11-year-olds at nine Danish schools without existing school meal programmes. Methods In a cluster-randomized cross-over design we assigned 834 third and fourth graders to school lunch and snacks based on the New Nordic Diet and usual home-packed lunch (control) for 3 months. We...... measured blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance based on the Homeostasis Model of Assessment (HOMA-IR), anthropometry and body composition at baseline, month 3 and 6. Results Seventy-six% of the children were normalweight; 10% were underweight and 14% overweight/obese. The NND school meals did...

  20. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla P.; Berentzen, Tina L.; Østergaard, Jane N.;

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) plays a role in the development of obesity. The proportions of adipose tissue fatty acids not synthesised endogenously in humans, such as TFA, usually correlate well with the dietary intake. Hence, the use of these...... biomarkers may provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than that obtained with dietary questionnaires. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC......% central range 0·98, 2·19) in men and 1·47% (1·01, 2·19) in women. No significant associations were observed between the proportions of total 18 : 1t, 18:1 D6-10t, vaccenic acid or rumenic acid and changes in weight or WC. The present study suggests that the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue...

  1. Interaction between genetic predisposition to adiposity and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    ) and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight (ΔBW) or change in WC (ΔWC). DESIGN: Three different Danish cohorts were used. In total 7,054 individuals constituted the study population with information on diet, 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI, WC or......BACKGROUND: Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI......-score: <0.1 mm/y/5 energy% protein/risk allele, [-0.1; 0.1]). Similar results were seen when protein replaced fat. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the genetic predisposition to general and abdominal adiposity, assessed by gene-scores, does not seem to modulate the influence of dietary protein on ΔBW...

  2. Interaction between genetic predisposition to obesity and dietary calcium in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether genetic predisposition...... to higher body mass index (BMI), WC, or waist-hip ratio (WHR) interacts with dietary calcium in relation to subsequent annual change in BW (ΔBW) and WC (ΔWC). DESIGN: The study was based on 7569 individuals from the MONItoring trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease Study, a sample from the...... Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study and the INTER99 study, with information on diet; 54 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI, WC, or WHR adjusted for BMI; and potential confounders. The SNPs were combined in 4 scores as indicators of genetic predisposition; all SNPs in a general...

  3. Clinical utility of calf front hoof circumference and maternal intrapelvic area in predicting dystocia in 103 late gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Mark W H; Megahed, Ameer A; Townsend, Jonathan R; Singleton, Wayne L; Constable, Peter D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical utility of measuring calf front hoof circumference, maternal intrapelvic area, and selected morphometric values in predicting dystocia in dairy cattle. An observational study using a convenience sample of 103 late-gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows was performed. Intrapelvic height and width of the dam were measured using a pelvimeter, and the intrapelvic area was calculated. Calf front hoof circumference and birth weight were also measured. Data were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs), Mann-Whitney U test, and binary or ordered logistic regression; P 0.068 cm/cm(2)). Determining the ratio of calf front hoof circumference to maternal intrapelvic area has clinical utility in predicting the calving difficulty score in Holstein-Friesian cattle. PMID:26474687

  4. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Romaguera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the association of food groups/items consumption on prospective annual changes in "waist circumference for a given BMI" (WC(BMI, a proxy for abdominal adiposity. DESIGN: We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WC(BMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on BMI, and annual change in WC(BMI (ΔWC(BMI, cm/y was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between food groups/items and ΔWC(BMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. RESULTS: Higher fruit and dairy products consumption was associated with a lower gain in WC(BMI whereas the consumption of white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks was positively associated with ΔWC(BMI. When these six food groups/items were analyzed in combination using a summary score, those in the highest quartile of the score--indicating a more favourable dietary pattern--showed a ΔWC(BMI of -0.11 (95% CI -0.09 to -0.14 cm/y compared to those in the lowest quartile. CONCLUSION: A dietary pattern high in fruit and dairy and low in white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks may help to prevent abdominal fat accumulation.

  5. Combined use of waist and hip circumference to identify abdominally obese HIV-infected patients at increased health risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor O'Neill

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine whether for a given waist circumference (WC, a larger hip circumference (HC was associated with a reduced risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D, hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD in HIV-infected patients. A second objective was to determine whether, for a given WC, the addition of HC improved upon estimates of abdominal adiposity, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT, compared to those obtained by WC alone. METHODS: HIV-infected men (N = 1481 and women (N = 841 were recruited between 2005 and 2009. WC and HC were obtained using standard techniques and abdominal adiposity was measured using computed tomography. RESULTS: After control for WC and covariates, HC was negatively associated with risk of insulin resistance (p<0.05 and T2D [Men: OR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.96; Women: OR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84-0.98]. For a given WC, HC was also negatively associated with a lower risk of hypertension (p<0.05 and CVD [OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99] in men, but not women. Although HC was negatively associated with VAT in men and women after control for WC (p<0.05, the addition of HC did not substantially improve upon the prediction of VAT compared to WC alone. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of HIV-infected individuals at increased health risk by WC alone is substantially improved by the addition of HC. Estimates of visceral adipose tissue by WC are not substantially improved by the addition of HC and thus variation in visceral adiposity may not be the conduit by which HC identifies increased health risk.

  6. Study of Low-grade Chronic Inflammatory Markers in Men with Central Obesity: Cathepsin S was Correlated with Waist Circumference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Todingrante

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a prevalence increase of overweight and obesity in Indonesia. Central obesity can lead a variety of chronic diseases through the inflammatory process. There are some markers for low-grade chronic inflammatory, such as cathepsin S, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, interleukin-1- beta (IL-1β. To our current interest that central obesity can lead to various chronic diseases through the inflammatory process, we conducted a study to investigate correlation of Cathepsin S, hs-CRP, IL-1β in men with central obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Seventy-eight selected subjects were examined to collect anthropometric data and prepared for sample collection. Collected samples were processed for the following biochemical analyses: fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, cathepsin S, hs-CRP, and IL-1β. Data distribution and variable correlation were then statistically analyzed. RESULTS: There were significant correlations between waist circumference (WC and cathepsin S (p=0.030; r=0.214, hs-CRP and cathepsin S (p=0.007; r=0.276, triglyceride and IL-1β (p=0.019; r=-0.235, WC and systolic blood pressure (SBP (p=0.003; r=-0.312, WC and fasting glucose (p=0.000; r=0.380, WC and body mass index (BMI (p=0.000; r=0.708. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that cathepsin S was correlated with central obesity, suggesting that cathepsin S could be a potential inflammatory marker in central obesity in the future. KEYWORDS: obesity, inflammation, hs-CRP, cathepsin S, IL-1β, waist circumference.

  7. Body mass index, waist circumference, body adiposity index, and risk for type 2 diabetes in two populations in Brazil: general and Amerindian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Oliveira Alvim

    Full Text Available The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus.A total of 1,572 individuals from the general population of Vitoria City, Brazil and 620 Amerindians from the Aracruz Indian Reserve, Brazil were randomly selected. BMI, waist circumference, and BAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by the presence of fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or by the use of antidiabetic drugs.The area under the curve was similar for all anthropometric indices tested in the Amerindian population, but with very different sensitivities or specificities. In women from the general population, the area under the curve of waist circumference was significantly higher than that of the body adiposity index. Regarding risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body adiposity index was a better risk predictor than body mass index and waist circumference in the Amerindian population and was the index with highest odds ratio for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men from the general population, while in women from the general population waist circumference was the best risk predictor.Body adiposity index was the best risk predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Amerindian population and men from the general population. Our data suggest that the body adiposity index is a useful tool for the risk assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in admixture populations.

  8. A STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WEIGHT, HEIGHT, HEAD & CHEST CIRCUMFERENCE IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 3 TO 5 YEARS IN THE MALWA REGION OF MADHYA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wankhede

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : The growth & development are the important attributes of childhood. The studies on physical development & growth of infants & children are important as they are determinants of a nation’s health. The appr eciation of progress of any country in the field of health can be made from time to time with the help of such studies. The principal aim of the nutritional assessment of a community is to map out the magnitude & geographic distribution of malnutrition & a public health problem to find out the ecological factor & where possible to suggest appropriate corrective measures. AIMS & OBJECTIVES : To determine the anthropometric measurements of the pre - school age children in both sexes, to study the growth spurt & velocity of growth in the children between 3 & 5 years, to construct selected percentiles of the various measurements for boys & girls in Malwa region & to compare the figures obtained by anthropometric studies with those determined by other workers in th e different regions. MATERIALS & METHOD: A cross sectional study of weight, height, circumference of head, chest & arm of school going children ranging from 3 to 5 years in age was carried out in the city of Indore. Total 1, 000 children, belonging to both low & high socio - economic status, were examined. OBSERVATIONS: The mean values of head & chest circumferences shows a gradual increase with in both sexes. The mean value of the mid - arm circumference also shows an increase with increasing age on both sexes . As regards the height, the mean value is a bit higher in females at 3 . 5 years & 4 . 5 years as compared to Males at 3, 3 . 5, 4 & 5 years of age. The mean values of weight are more in females than males at the age of 4, 4 . 5 & 5 years. SUMMARY & CONCLUSION : A nthropometric studies were carried out in all children uniformly by determining weight, height and circumferences of head, chest & mid - arm. The head & chest circumferences equalizes at the age of 3

  9. Effect of 635nm Low-level Laser Therapy on Upper Arm Circumference Reduction: A Double-blind, Randomized, Sham-controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor, Mark S.; Zarraga, Matthew B.; Park, Hyunhee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of low-level laser therapy as a noninvasive method for reducing upper arm circumference. Design: Randomized, double-blind study whereby healthy subjects (N=40) with a body mass index of 20 to 35kg/m2 received three 20-minute low-level laser therapy (N=20) or sham treatments (N=20) each week for two weeks. Measurements: Upper arm circumference was measured after three and six treatments and two weeks post-treatment. Primary success criterion was the...

  10. Avaliação do amaciamento de carne bovina de dianteiro (Triceps brachii pelos métodos de maturação, estimulação elétrica, injeção de ácidos e tenderização mecânica An evaluation of tenderization of forequarter bovine meat (Triceps brachii through methods of ageing and injection with acetic and lactic acids

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    Débora Maria Ubisses PUGA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e dois músculos Triceps brachii obtidos de 11 bovinos fêmeas com idade 3 e 4 anos, abatidos em abatedouro experimental, foram submetidos à tenderização mecânica, à injeção de ácido acético 0,1M e ácido lático 0,2M, à maturação por 9 e 14 dias, à estimulação elétrica (250V - 60 Hz - 90s, sendo alguns reservados como grupo-controle, sem tratamento. A maturação por 14 dias apresentou 21% de aumento na maciez subjetiva e 12% de diminuição da força de cisalhamento; estes valores são semelhantes aos da estimulação elétrica. Contudo, a injeção com ácidos e a maturação por 9 dias não apresentaram efeito significativo sobre a textura da carne tratada. E embora o valor da força de cisalhamento da carne tenderizada mecanicamente tenha sido o menor entre todos os tratamentos, suspeita-se de superestimação devido ao plano de fraturas criadas por tal processo.Ainda outras análises foram realizadas, como: monitoramento da curva de pH e de valor R; análises de cor; perda de peso por cozimento e devido aos tratamentos; e análises microbiológicas.Twenty-two Triceps brachii muscle obtained from 11 cows aged 3 and 4 years , killed in an experimental slaughter plant, were submitted to mechanical tenderization, injection with acetic acid 0,1M and lactic acid 0,2M, ageing for 9 and 14 days and electrical stimulation (250v - 60Hz - 90s, some of them were reserved as a control group, without treatment. The 14 days ageing time presented 21% of increase in subjective tenderness and 12% of reduction in shear force, these values were similar to the electrical stimulated meat. However the injection with acids and the ageing time 9 days did not present significant effect in the texture. Although the shear force values of mechanical tenderized meat was the shortest among all treatments, suspect of superestimation because of the fractures plan created by this process. Another analyses were carried out: pH reduction curve, R value

  11. Measuring abdominal circumference and skeletal muscle from a single cross-sectional CT image: a step-by-step guide for clinicians using National Institutes of Health ImageJ

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Perez, Sandra L.; Haus, Jacob M.; Sheean, Patricia; Patel, Bimal; Mar, Winnie; Chaudhry, Vivek; McKeever, Liam; Braunschweig, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans provide numerous opportunities for body composition analysis including quantification of abdominal circumference, abdominal adipose tissues (subcutaneous, visceral and intermuscular) and skeletal muscle (SM). CT scans are commonly performed for diagnostic purposes in clinical settings and methods for estimating abdominal circumference and whole-body SM mass from them have been reported. A supine abdominal circumference is a valid measure of waist circ...

  12. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, S H; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S R; Hill, J C; Osmond, C; Kiran; Coakley, P; Karat, S C; Fall, C H D

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children's physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown-heel, crown-buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6-10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = -4.69, CI: -7.31, -2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  13. Glycemic index and glycemic load of thirteen year old children whose waist circumference (WC ≥ 90 percentile dependent on BMI

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    Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the reasons for the accumulation of fat tissue (including visceral fat tissue in the body is an unbalanced diet in respect of the amount and the structure of carbohydrates and the value of the glycemic index (GI and the glycemic load (GL. The research describing the dependence between the BMI (Body Mass Index, WC (Waist Circumference, WHtR (Waist-to-Height Ratio, and GI and GL indexes in adults exists but only a limited number of works discuss children during the pubertal spurt. Therefore the objective of this research is the evaluation of the state of nutrition of 13-year-old children with waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile with various BMI, taking into consideration GL and GL of their meals. Material and methods.The state of nutrition (BMI, WC, WHtR of 871 thirteen-year-old children of both sexes was evaluated and 230 children with WC ≥ 90 percentile were selected (26.4% of the total number examined and divided into three groups regarding the BMI. In 71 children (30.9% of the selected group the method of nutrition, energy and nutritive value of menus, structure of consumption of food groups and GI and GL value were evaluated, on the basis of the analysis of their three day menus, which had been documented. Results.Significantly higher values of BMI and WC were ascertained in boys than in girls. No essential differences in values of WHtR index were ascertained between boys and girls. The analysis of children’s menus, in both sexes with a waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile showed, regardless of BMI value, a low realisation of recommended energetic value of the diet and low realisation of recommended supply of: dietary fibre, fat, mineral components (K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, vitamins (E, B1, PP and liquids with simultaneous occurrence of protein in general and animal protein, sodium and vitamins (A, B2, B6 supply. A significantly higher supply of the most of aforementioned ingredients was ascertained in the

  14. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

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    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC, as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011, and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026 were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

  15. Assessment of Volume Measurement of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema by Three Methods: Circumference Measurement, Water Displacement, and Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Caroline; Zerahn, B.; Hendel, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Following treatment for breast cancer 12%-60% develop breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). There are several ways of assessing BCRL. Circumference measurement (CM) and water displacement (WD) for volume measurements (VM) are frequently used methods in practice and research...

  16. Waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and BMI as indicators of percentage fat mass and cardiometabolic risk factors in children aged 3-7 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Bocca, Gianni; L'abée, Carianne; Liem, Eryn T; Sauer, Pieter J J; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) is a better estimate of body fat percentage (BF %) and a better indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors than BMI or waist circumference (WC) in young children. Methods: WHtR, WC and BMI were measured by trained staff according to standardiz

  17. Evaluation of a Chest Circumference-Adapted Protocol for Low-Dose 128-Slice Coronary CT Angiography with Prospective Electrocardiogram Triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chenying; Wang, Zufei; Ji, Jiansong; Wang, Hailin; Hu, Xianghua; Chen, Chunmiao [Department of Radiology, Lishui Central Hospital, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Lishui, Zhejiang 323000 (China)

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effect of chest circumference-adapted scanning protocol on radiation exposure and image quality in patients undergoing prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered coronary CT angiography (CCTA). One hundred-eighty-five consecutive patients, who had undergone prospective ECG triggering CCTA with a 128-slice CT, were included in the present study. Nipple-level chest circumference, body weight and height were measured before CT examinations. Patients were divided into four groups based on kV/ref·mAs = 100/200, 100/250, 120/200, and 120/250, when patient's chest circumference was ≤ 85.0 (n = 56), 85.0-90.0 (n = 53), 90.0-95.0 (n = 44), and > 95.0 (n = 32), respectively. Image quality per-segment was independently assessed by two experienced observers. Image noise and attenuation were also measured. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. The effective radiation dose was calculated using CT dose volume index and the dose-length product. A significant correlation was observed between patients' chest circumference and body mass index (r = 0.762, p < 0.001). Chest circumference ranged from 74 to 105 cm, and the mean effective radiation dose was 1.9-3.8 mSv. Diagnostic image quality was obtained in 98.5% (2440/2478) of all evaluated coronary segments without any significant differences among the four groups (p = 0.650). No significant difference in image noise was observed among the four groups (p = 0.439), thus supporting the validity of the chest circumference-adapted scanning protocol. However, vessel attenuation, SNR and CNR were significantly higher in the 100 kV groups than in the 120 kV groups (p < 0.05). A measure of chest circumference can be used to adapt tube voltage and current for individualized radiation dose control, with resultant similar image noise and sustained diagnostic image quality.

  18. Dietary determinants of changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index - a proxy measure of visceral adiposity.

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    Dora Romaguera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the recognized health effects of visceral fat, the understanding of how diet can modulate changes in the phenotype "waist circumference for a given body mass index (WC(BMI", a proxy measure of visceral adiposity, is deemed necessary. Hence, the objective of the present study was to assess the association between dietary factors and prospective changes in visceral adiposity as measured by changes in the phenotype WC(BMI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WC(BMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on body mass index, and annual change in WC(BMI (DeltaWC(BMI, cm/y was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between energy, energy density (ED, macronutrients, alcohol, glycemic index (GI, glycemic load (GL, fibre and DeltaWC(BMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. Men and women with higher ED and GI diets showed significant increases in their WC(BMI, compared to those with lower ED and GI [1 kcal/g greater ED predicted a DeltaWC(BMI of 0.09 cm (95% CI 0.05 to 0.13 in men and 0.15 cm (95% CI 0.09 to 0.21 in women; 10 units greater GI predicted a DeltaWC(BMI of 0.07 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.12 in men and 0.06 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.10 in women]. Among women, lower fibre intake, higher GL, and higher alcohol consumption also predicted a higher DeltaWC(BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study suggest that a diet with low GI and ED may prevent visceral adiposity, defined as the prospective changes in WC(BMI. Additional effects may be obtained among women of low alcohol, low GL, and high fibre intake.

  19. Measurement of mid-arm muscle circumference and prognosis in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartari, Rafaela Festugatto; Ulbrich-Kulczynski, Jane Maria; Filho, Antônio Fabiano Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Overall survival (OS) varies widely in patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Strong prognostic factors are still needed to improve decision-making regarding standard treatment options, to stratify patients for inclusion in innovative therapeutic trials and to identify patients who would be best treated with palliative care rather than with systemic chemotherapy. Mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) is a bedside anthropometric measurement that estimates somatic protein reserve, an early indicator of nutritional depletion. This measurement is simple, non-invasive, objective and inexpensive to perform. We evaluated MAMC as a potential prognostic factor in patients with stage IV NSCLC. A total of 56 non-selected consecutive patients with stage IV NSCLC were evaluated. The MAMC measurement results for these patients were expressed as a percentage of the expected reference values, adjusted for gender and age. Patients were categorized as normal (MAMC ≥90%) or depleted (MAMC model). MAMC is a strong independent prognostic factor in stage IV NSCLC patients. Patients with MAMC <90% of the expected value had poor OS. PMID:23426523

  20. Trabecular-iris circumference volume in open angle eyes using swept-source fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigi, Mohammed; Blieden, Lauren S; Nguyen, Donna; Chuang, Alice Z; Baker, Laura A; Bell, Nicholas P; Lee, David A; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A; Feldman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV), which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan). Trabecular-iris space area (TISA) and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15) years (range 20-79). TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD) value of 4.75 µL (±2.30) for TICV500 and a mean (±SD) value of 8.90 µL (±3.88) for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P = 0.035). In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter. PMID:25210623

  1. Trabecular-Iris Circumference Volume in Open Angle Eyes Using Swept-Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Mohammed Rigi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV, which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan. Trabecular-iris space area (TISA and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15 years (range 20–79. TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD value of 4.75 µL (±2.30 for TICV500 and a mean (±SD value of 8.90 µL (±3.88 for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P=0.035. In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter.

  2. The association of education with body mass index and waist circumference in the EPIC-PANACEA study

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    Vineis Paolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the association of education with body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC. Method This study included 141,230 male and 336,637 female EPIC-participants, who were recruited between 1992 and 2000. Education, which was assessed by questionnaire, was classified into four categories; BMI and WC, measured by trained personnel in most participating centers, were modeled as continuous dependent variables. Associations were estimated using multilevel mixed effects linear regression models. Results Compared with the lowest education level, BMI and WC were significantly lower for all three higher education categories, which was consistent for all countries. Women with university degree had a 2.1 kg/m2 lower BMI compared with women with lowest education level. For men, a statistically significant, but less pronounced difference was observed (1.3 kg/m2. The association between WC and education level was also of greater magnitude for women: compared with the lowest education level, average WC of women was lower by 5.2 cm for women in the highest category. For men the difference was 2.9 cm. Conclusion In this European cohort, there is an inverse association between higher BMI as well as higher WC and lower education level. Public Health Programs that aim to reduce overweight and obesity should primarily focus on the lower educated population.

  3. Head circumference growth function as a marker of neurological impairment in a cohort of microcephalic infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Ricard; Giraldo, Jesús; Macaya, Alfons; Roig, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the correlations between head circumference (HC) growth and neurological impairment in microcephalic patients.HC charts of 3,269 patients from a tertiary pediatric neurology section were reviewed and 136 microcephalic participants were selected. Standardized HC Minimum, HC Drop, and HC Catch-up variables were defined. Children with evidence of significant learning disability and/or significant cerebral palsy were classified within the neurologically impaired group and the rest of participants within the normal group.Using discriminant analysis, we found that HC Minimum and HC Drop were relevant markers of neurological impairment. A positive HC Catch-up was significantly linked to a better outcome although this variable did not add significant information to HC Minimum and HC Drop. A Fisher linear discrimination cutoff function (C-function) was obtained as C = HC Minimum + HC Drop with a cutoff level of C = -4.28 standard deviations (SD).In our cohort, the addition of the lowest HC z-score to the preceding HC z-score drop was below -4.28 SD in 6 out of 10 neurologically impaired patients , whereas in the normal group, the result was over -4.28 SD in 9 out of 10 participants. PMID:22932949

  4. A 233 km Circumference Tunnel for $e^+$$e^-$, $p$$\\bar {p}$, and $\\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, George T

    2011-01-01

    In 2001 a cost analysis survey was conducted to build a 233km circumference tunnel in northern Illinois in which to build a Very Large Hadron Collider. Ten years later I have reexamined the proposal, taking into consideration the technological advancements in all the aspects of construction cost analysis. I outline the implementations of $e^+ e^-$, $p{\\bar{p}}$, and $\\mu^+\\mu^-$ collider rings in the tunnel using 21${\\rm{st}}$ century technology. The $e^+e^-$ collider employs a Crab Waist Crossing, ultra low emittance damped bunches, 12 GV of superconducting RF, and 0.026 Tesla low coercivity grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. The $p{\\bar{p}}$ collider uses the high intensity Fermilab $\\bar{p}$ source, exploits high cross sections for $p\\bar{p}$ production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconductor magnets run with liquid neon. The $\\mu^+\\mu^-$ ring ramps the $p{\\bar{p}}$ magnets at 8 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of SRF, and mitigates neutrino radiation w...

  5. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

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    Alcibíades Bustamante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers.

  6. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children

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    Shoukri Mohammed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI and waist circumference (W_C, together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. Methods 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. Results The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P ≤ 0.001. W_C and BMI was positively correlated with sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P Conclusions A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  7. NRXN3 is a novel locus for waist circumference: a genome-wide association study from the CHARGE Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L Heard-Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Central abdominal fat is a strong risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. To identify common variants influencing central abdominal fat, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association analysis for waist circumference (WC. In total, three loci reached genome-wide significance. In stage 1, 31,373 individuals of Caucasian descent from eight cohort studies confirmed the role of FTO and MC4R and identified one novel locus associated with WC in the neurexin 3 gene [NRXN3 (rs10146997, p = 6.4x10(-7]. The association with NRXN3 was confirmed in stage 2 by combining stage 1 results with those from 38,641 participants in the GIANT consortium (p = 0.009 in GIANT only, p = 5.3x10(-8 for combined analysis, n = 70,014. Mean WC increase per copy of the G allele was 0.0498 z-score units (0.65 cm. This SNP was also associated with body mass index (BMI [p = 7.4x10(-6, 0.024 z-score units (0.10 kg/m(2 per copy of the G allele] and the risk of obesity (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.19; p = 3.2x10(-5 per copy of the G allele. The NRXN3 gene has been previously implicated in addiction and reward behavior, lending further evidence that common forms of obesity may be a central nervous system-mediated disorder. Our findings establish that common variants in NRXN3 are associated with WC, BMI, and obesity.

  8. Obesity Index That Better Predict Metabolic Syndrome: Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist Hip Ratio, or Waist Height Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to compare body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist hip ratio (WHR, and waist height ratio (WHtR to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS among Qatari adult population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey from April 2011 to December 2012. Data was collected from 1552 participants followed by blood sampling. MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis was performed. Results. Among men, WC followed by WHR and WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC (0.78; 95% CI 0.74–0.82 and 0.75; 95% CI 0.71–0.79, resp.. Among women, WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest AUC (0.81; 95% CI 0.78–0.85 & 0.79; 95% CI 0.76–0.83, resp.. Among men, WC at a cut-off 99.5 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 81.6% and 63.9% specificity. Among women, WC at a cut-off 91 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% and 64.7%, respectively. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in both genders. Conclusion. WC at cut-off 99.5 cm in men and 91 cm in women was the best predictor of MetS in Qatar.

  9. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Based on Insulin Resistance and Visceral Obesity in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Jung Soo Lim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVisceral obesity is the most powerful contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and cardiovascular diseases. In light of visceral obesity, however, there is a paucity of data on the appropriate cutoff point of waist circumference (WC in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal cutoff value for WC that signals insulin resistance (IR and visceral obesity in Koreans with type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe evaluated 4,252 patients with type 2 diabetes (male 2,220, female 2,032, mean age 57.24 years who visited our clinic between January 2003 and June 2009. WC was measured at the midpoint between the lower rib and the iliac crest, and insulin sensitivity was assessed by the rate constant of plasma glucose disappearance (Kitt %/min using an insulin tolerance test. Visceral fat thickness was measured using ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic curve.ResultsThe optimal cutoff points for WC for identifying the presence of IR and visceral obesity, as well as two or more metabolic components, were 87 cm for men and 81 cm for women. Moreover, these cutoff points had the highest predictive powers for the presence of visceral obesity. The MetS defined by new criteria correlated with the increased carotid intima-media thickness in female subjects.ConclusionOur results suggest that the optimal cutoff values for WC in Koreans with type 2 diabetes should be reestablished based on IR and visceral obesity.

  10. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

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    Koon Poh Bee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique and skinfold thickness (SFT at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems.

  11. Body Composition and Somatotype in Adolescent Competion Swimmers

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    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The swimmer is a high level athlete, with long limbs, and whose musculoskeletal components are important in sporting success. However, the fat component is paradoxical because of its relationship with the buoyancy and displacement of the body in the water. The aim of this study is to describe the anthropometric profile of adolescent competition swimmers.Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescent swimmers were evaluated, 10 boys (13.2 ±1.32 years and 7 girls (15±1.83 years. A qualified anthropometrist took anthropometric measures according to the protocol of the Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK, with approved materials according to the methodology of Marfell-Jones et al, 2003. Body composition was calculated according to the consensus of Kinanthropometry and somatotype with Heath-Carter´s method.Results: Of all the variables studied (weight, height, folds, circumferences, diameters and lengths, significant differences were found (P<.05 between the sexes in height, arm span, skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, crestailiaca, ileo-spinal, abdominal, thigh, leg, sum of skinfolds, biacromial-bi-iliac index, bone body mass, muscle and fat, ectomorphy, and endomorphy.Conclusions: There are significant anthropometric differences between genders in adolescent swimmers (P<.05. Such differences, resulting in the development of both sexes, might be highly related to athletic performance of young athletes.

  12. Impact of brisk walking and aerobics in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Alhusaini, Adel A; Buragadda, Syamala; Kaur, Taranpreet; Khan, Imran Ali

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lack of physical activity and an uncontrolled diet cause excessive weight gain, which leads to obesity and other metabolic disorders. Studies have indicated that brisk walking and aerobics are the best methods for controlling and reducing weight and body mass composition. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 45 overweight women were enrolled and divided into 3 groups. Women not involved in brisk walking or aerobics were included in group A (n = 15) as control subjects; women involved in brisk walking were in group B (n = 15); and those involved in aerobics were in group C (n = 15). [Results] This program was carried out 5 days/week for 10 weeks. Pre- and post-measurements of body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and skinfold thickness of the abdomen, subscapular area, biceps, and triceps were recorded for the women in all 3 groups. All values decreased in women who participated in brisk walking and aerobics for 10 weeks. [Conclusion] These results indicate that aerobics with diet therapy is a more effective intervention program for controlling and reducing body mass index and skinfold thickness than brisk walking with diet therapy in North Indian women. PMID:26957777

  13. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez; Paul A Camacho; Daniel D. Cohen; Katherine Rincón-Romero; Laura Alvarado-Jurado; Sandra Pinzón; John Duperly; Patricio López-Jaramillo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents fro...

  14. Association of birthweight and head circumference at birth to cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in South India: prospective birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Wills, Andrew K; Kurpad, Anura V; Muthayya, Sumithra; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Samuel C.; Nagarajaiah, Kiran K.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether birthweight and head circumference at birth are associated with childhood cognitive ability in South-India, cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities among 505 full-term born children (mean age 9.7-y). In multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, gestation, socio-economic status, parent’...

  15. No meaningful association of neighborhood food store availability with dietary intake, body mass index, or waist circumference in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-08-01

    The affordability of food is considered as an important factor influencing people's diet and hence health status. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood food store availability is associated with some aspects of dietary intake and thus possibly with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. Subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 years of age. Neighborhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (meat stores, fish stores, fruit and vegetable stores, confectionery stores/bakeries, rice stores, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores). Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire. No association was seen between any measure of neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, except for a positive association between confectionery and bread availability (based on confectionery stores/bakeries, convenience stores, and supermarkets/grocery stores) and intake of these items (P for trend = .02). Further, no association was seen for BMI or waist circumference, except for an inverse relationship between availability of convenience stores and BMI and a positive relationship between store availability for meat (meat stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and fish (fish stores and supermarkets/grocery stores) and waist circumference. In conclusion, this study of young Japanese women found no meaningful association between neighborhood food store availability and dietary intake, BMI, or waist circumference, with the exception of a positive relationship between availability and intake for confectionery and bread. PMID:20851311

  16. Combined impact of lifestyle factors on prospective change in body weight and waist circumference in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study.

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    Anne M May

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evidence that individual dietary and lifestyle factors influence a person's weight and waist circumference is well established; however their combined impact is less well documented. Therefore, we investigated the combined effect of physical activity, nutrition and smoking status on prospective gain in body weight and waist circumference. METHODS: We used data of the prospective EPIC-PANACEA study. Between 1992 and 2000, 325,537 participants (94,445 men and 231,092 women, aged between 25-70 were recruited from nine European countries. Participants were categorised into two groups (positive or negative health behaviours for each of the following being physically active, adherent to a healthy (Mediterranean not including alcohol diet, and never-smoking for a total score ranging from zero to three. Anthropometric measures were taken at baseline and were mainly self-reported after a medium follow-up time of 5 years. RESULTS: Mixed-effects linear regression models adjusted for age, educational level, alcohol consumption, baseline body mass index and follow-up time showed that men and women who reported to be physically active, never-smoking and adherent to the Mediterranean diet gained over a 5-year period 537 (95% CI -706, -368 and 200 (-478, -87 gram less weight and 0.95 (-1.27, -0.639 and 0.99 (-1.29, -0.69 cm less waist circumference, respectively, compared to participants with zero healthy behaviours. CONCLUSION: The combination of positive health behaviours was associated with significantly lower weight and waist circumference gain.

  17. Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: Fixed-effect associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jacobs, David R.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Gortmaker, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts changes in waist circumference and body mass index over time using a fixed-effect regression approach in SAS statistical software, providing control for both measured and unmeasured time-invariant covariates. Between 1992–93 and 2000–01, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination decreased among 843 Black women (75% to 73%), 601 Black men (80% to 77%), 893 White women (30% to 23%), and 856 White men (28% to 23%). In fixed-effect regression models, controlling for all time-invariant covariates, social desirability bias, and changes in education and parity (women only) over time, an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination over time was significantly associated with an increase in waist circumference (b=1.09, 95% CI: 0.00–2.19, p=0.05) and an increase in body mass index (b=0.67, 95% CI: 0.19–1.16, p=0.007) among Black women. No associations were observed among Black men and White women and men. These findings suggest that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with increases in waist circumference and body mass index among Black women over time. PMID:22856616

  18. Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: fixed-effects associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Berkman, Lisa F; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jacobs, David R; Seeman, Teresa E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2013-03-01

    Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts changes in waist circumference and body mass index over time using a fixed-effects regression approach in SAS statistical software, providing control for both measured and unmeasured time-invariant covariates. Between 1992-93 and 2000-01, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination decreased among 843 Black women (75% to 73%), 601 Black men (80% to 77%), 893 White women (30% to 23%) and 856 White men (28% to 23%). In fixed-effects regression models, controlling for all time-invariant covariates, social desirability bias, and changes in education and parity (women only) over time, an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination over time was significantly associated with an increase in waist circumference (β=1.09, 95% CI: 0.00-2.19, p=0.05) and an increase in body mass index (β=0.67, 95% CI: 0.19-1.16, p=0.007) among Black women. No associations were observed among Black men and White women and men. These findings suggest that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with increases in waist circumference and body mass index among Black women over time. PMID:22856616

  19. Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: Fixed-effect associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Timothy J.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jacobs, David R.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported ...

  20. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio: Which Anthropometric Indicator is Better Predictor for the Hypertension Development in Women Population of the Island Cres

    OpenAIRE

    Kabalin, Milena; Kolarić, Branko; VASILJEV MARCHESI, VANJA; Pereza, Nina; Ostojić, Saša; Rukavina, Tomislav; Kapović, Miljenko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure and to prove which of three anthropometric indicators of obesity – waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) waist-to-hip ratio – is better predictor for the development of hypertension in women population of the island of Cres. We approached separately groups of women with measured high blood pressure and with previously diagnosed. The research was preformed within the research project ...

  1. IMPACT OF SPORTS AND NUTRITION COUNSELING TO BLOOD PRESSURE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS BASED ON WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS AT BENGKULU MUNICIPALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emy Yuliantini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a condition when blood pressure at constant state is over 140190 mmHg. According to National Health Survey in 2001 the proportion of hypertension in Indonesia was 27% in male and 29% in female. The prevalence of hypertension at Bengkulu Municipality in 2005 was 1.7% (6.098, increased to 2.6% (7,244 in 2006, 2.6% (7,514 in 2007 and 7,175 in 2008. Respectively the management of hypertension therapy and lifestyle modification become important in the management of hypertensive patients. Objective: The study aimed to identify the impact of sports and nutrition counseling to blood pressure and nutrition status based on waist circumference in hypertensive patients at Bengkulu Municipality. Method: The study was a quasi experiment. Subject were hypertensive patients that fulfilled inclusion criteria (newly-diagnosed hypertension, age of 20-50 years, living in Bengkulu and willing to become respondents. Samples consisted of 120 people divided into 3 groups with intervention; Each group consisted of 40 people. Analysis used chi square, t-test, Anova and double linear regression. Result There was difference (p = 0.000 in waist circumference in female subject but not in male subject. Mutivariate test showed that aerobic sports within 60 minutes 3 times/week largely insignificant. T-test showed there was impact (p = 0.000 of nutrition counseling and sports to blood pressure status. Multivariate test showed that aerobic sports within 60 minutes 3 times/week largely affected systolic and diastolic blood pressure by controlling nutrition  counseling  and frequency of antihypertensive drug taking. Conclusion: The main factors affected to decrease of blood pressure and nutrional status patients based on waist circumference were nutritional counseling and sports.  Key words: sports, nutritional counseling, nutritional status, waist circumference, blood pressure

  2. Neck circumference as a predictor of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and low-grade systemic inflammation in children: the ACFIES study

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Camacho, Paul Anthony; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Saavedra-Cortes, Sandra; Lopez-Lopez, Cristina; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Background The current study aims to evaluate the association between neck circumference (NC) and several cardio-metabolic risk factors, to compare it with well-established anthropometric indices, and to determine the cut-off point value of NC for predicting children at increased risk of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and low-grade systemic inflammation. Methods A total of 669 school children, aged 8–14, were recruited. Demographic, clinical, anthropometric and biochemical data from a...

  3. The Current Waist Circumference Cut Point Used for the Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome in Sub-Saharan African Women Is Not Appropriate

    OpenAIRE

    Crowther, Nigel J.; Norris, Shane A.

    2012-01-01

    The waist circumference cut point for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan African subjects is based on that obtained from studies in European populations. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders in an urban population of African females, a group at high risk for such diseases, and to determine the appropriate waist cut point for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome. Anthropometry and fasting lipid, glucose and insulin levels wer...

  4. Appropriate waist circumference cut points for identifying insulin resistance in black youth: a cross sectional analysis of the 1986 Jamaica birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Tulloch-Reid Marshall K; Ferguson Trevor S; Younger Novie OM; Van den Broeck Jan; Boyne Michael S; Knight-Madden Jennifer M; Samms-Vaughan Maureen E; Ashley Deana E; Wilks Rainford J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background While the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has ethnic specific waist circumference (WC) cut-points for the metabolic syndrome for Asian populations it is not known whether the cut-points for black populations should differ from those for European populations. We examined the validity of IDF WC cut points for identifying insulin resistance (IR), the underlying cause of the metabolic syndrome, in predominantly black, young Jamaican adults. Methods Participants from a ...

  5. Nutritional aspects of Noonan syndrome and Noonan-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fernanda Marchetto; Jorge, Alexander Augusto; Malaquias, Alexandra; da Costa Pereira, Alexandre; Yamamoto, Guilherme Lopes; Kim, Chong Ae; Bertola, Debora

    2016-06-01

    Rasopathies are a group of rare disorders characterized by neurocardiofaciocutaneous involvement, and caused by mutations in several genes of the RAS/MAPK pathway. In the present study, we characterized growth parameters, body composition, and nutritional aspects of children and adults (n = 62) affected by these disorders, mainly Noonan syndrome, using an indirect method-anthropometry-and a 24-hr recall questionnaire. The growth parameters in our cohort showed short stature, especially in individuals with RAF1 and SHOC2 mutations, lower obesity rates compared to the control population, and BMI scores highest in individuals with BRAF mutations and lowest in individuals with SHOC2. Body composition showed a compromise in the upper arm muscle circumference, with a statistically significant difference in the z-score of triceps skinfold (P = 0.0204) and upper arm fat area (P = 0.0388) between BRAF and SHOC2 groups and in the z-score of triceps skinfold between RAF1 and SHOC2 (P = 0.0218). The pattern of macronutrient consumption was similar to the control population. Our study is the first to address body composition in RASopathy individuals and the data indicate a compromise not only in adipose tissue, but also in muscle mass. Studies using different techniques, such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or imaging studies, which give a more precise delineation of fat and non-fat mass, are required to confirm our results, ultimately causing an impact on management strategies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27038324

  6. Musculus triceps brachii bilateral approach operation in the treatment of children with supracondylar fracture of humerus in 36 cases%肱三头肌两侧入路手术治疗小儿肱骨踝上骨折36例的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑谊; 熊健

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨肱三头肌两侧入路手术治疗小儿肱骨踝上骨折的临床效果。方法:收治小儿肱骨踝上骨折患者72例,按照不同的治疗方法分为观察组与对照组,每组36例。观察组给予肱三头肌两侧入路手术治疗;对照组给予舌形瓣切断肱三头肌入路手术治疗。对两组患者的治疗效果进行对比。结果:观察组的手术时间、术中出血量、术后疼痛明显优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:小儿肱骨踝上骨折选择肱三头肌两侧入路治疗效果显著,预后良好。%Objective:To explore the clinical effect of musculus triceps brachii bilateral approach operation in the treatment of children with supracondylar fracture of humerus.Methods:72 children with supracondylar fracture of humerus were selected.They were divided into the observation group and the control group with 36 cases in each according to the different treatment methods. The observation group was given musculus triceps brachii bilateral approach operation treatment.The control group was given tongue shaped flap cutting off tricep approach operation treatment.The treatment effects of two groups were compared.Results:The operation time,intraoperative bleeding volume, postoperative pain of the observation group were significantly better than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion: The effect of musculus triceps brachii bilateral approach operation treatment of children with supracondylar fracture of humerus choices is remarkable,and its prognosis is good.

  7. Participant characteristics associated with greater reductions in waist circumference during a four-month, pedometer-based, workplace health program

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    Freak-Poli Rosanne LA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace health programs have demonstrated improvements in a number of risk factors for chronic disease. However, there has been little investigation of participant characteristics that may be associated with change in risk factors during such programs. The aim of this paper is to identify participant characteristics associated with improved waist circumference (WC following participation in a four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace health program. Methods 762 adults employed in primarily sedentary occupations and voluntarily enrolled in a four-month workplace program aimed at increasing physical activity were recruited from ten Australian worksites in 2008. Seventy-nine percent returned at the end of the health program. Data included demographic, behavioural, anthropometric and biomedical measurements. WC change (before versus after was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Seven groupings of potential associated variables from baseline were sequentially added to build progressively larger regression models. Results Greater improvement in WC during the program was associated with having completed tertiary education, consuming two or less standard alcoholic beverages in one occasion in the twelve months prior to baseline, undertaking less baseline weekend sitting time and lower baseline total cholesterol. A greater WC at baseline was strongly associated with a greater improvement in WC. A sub-analysis in participants with a 'high-risk' baseline WC revealed that younger age, enrolling for reasons other than appearance, undertaking less weekend sitting time at baseline, eating two or more pieces of fruit per day at baseline, higher baseline physical functioning and lower baseline body mass index were associated with greater odds of moving to 'low risk' WC at the end of the program. Conclusions While employees with 'high-risk' WC at baseline experienced the greatest improvements in

  8. Appropriate body mass index and waist circumference cutoff for overweight and central obesity among adults in Cambodia.

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    Yom An

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used in risk assessment for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs worldwide. Within a Cambodian population, this study aimed to identify an appropriate BMI and WC cutoff to capture those individuals that are overweight and have an elevated risk of vascular disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the STEP survey conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Cambodia in 2010. In total, 5,015 subjects between age 25 and 64 years were included in the analyses. Chi-square, Fisher's Exact test and Student t-test, and multiple logistic regression were performed. Of total, 35.6% (n = 1,786 were men, and 64.4% (n = 3,229 were women. Mean age was 43.0 years (SD = 11.2 years and 43.6 years (SD = 10.9 years for men and women, respectively. Significant association of subjects with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was found in those with BMI ≥ 23.0 kg/m(2 and with WC >80.0 cm in both sexes. The Area Under the Curve (AUC from Receiver Operating Characteristic curves was significantly greater in both sexes (all p-values <0.001 when BMI of 23.0 kg/m(2 was used as the cutoff point for overweight compared to that using WHO BMI classification for overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m(2 for detecting the three cardiovascular risk factors. Similarly, AUC was also significantly higher in men (p-value <0.001 when using WC of 80.0 cm as the cutoff point for central obesity compared to that recommended by WHO (WC ≥ 94.0 cm in men. CONCLUSION: Lower cutoffs for BMI and WC should be used to identify of risks of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia for Cambodian aged between 25 and 64 years.

  9. Interaction between genetic predisposition to adiposity and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference.

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    Mikkel Z Ankarfeldt

    Full Text Available Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry.To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight (ΔBW or change in WC (ΔWC.Three different Danish cohorts were used. In total 7,054 individuals constituted the study population with information on diet, 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with BMI, WC or WHRBMI, as well as potential confounders. Mean follow-up time was ∼5 years. Four genetic predisposition-scores were based on the SNPs; a complete-score including all selected adiposity- associated SNPs, and three scores including BMI, WC or WHRBMI associated polymorphisms, respectively. The association between protein intake and ΔBW or ΔWC were examined and interactions between SNP-score and protein were investigated. Analyses were based on linear regressions using macronutrient substitution models and meta-analyses.When protein replaced carbohydrate, meta-analyses showed no associations with ΔBW (41.0 gram/y/5 energy% protein, [95% CI: -32.3; 114.3] or ΔWC (<-0.1 mm/y/5 energy % protein, [-1.1; 1.1]. Similarly, there were no interactions for any SNP-scores and protein for either ΔBW (complete SNP-score: 1.8 gram/y/5 energy% protein/risk allele, [-7.0; 10.6] or ΔWC (complete SNP-score: <0.1 mm/y/5 energy% protein/risk allele, [-0.1; 0.1]. Similar results were seen when protein replaced fat.This study indicates that the genetic predisposition to general and abdominal adiposity, assessed by gene-scores, does not seem to modulate the influence of dietary protein on ΔBW or ΔWC.

  10. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Longitudinal Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Influence of Genetic Predisposition to Adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Moldovan, Max; Huikari, Ville; Sebert, Sylvain; Cavadino, Alana; Singh Ahluwalia, Tarunveer; Skaaby, Tea; Linneberg, Allan; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.; Toft, Ulla; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina; Heitmann, Berit L.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and changes in measures of adiposity have shown inconsistent results, and interaction with genetic predisposition to obesity has rarely been examined. We examined whether 25(OH)D was associated with subsequent annual changes in body weight (ΔBW) or waist circumference (ΔWC), and whether the associations were modified by genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI). The study was based on 10,898 individuals from the Danish Inter99, the 1958 British Birth Cohort and the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. We combined 42 adiposity-associated Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) into four scores indicating genetic predisposition to BMI, WC and WHRBMI, or all three traits combined. Linear regression was used to examine the association between serum 25(OH)D and ΔBW or ΔWC, SNP-score × 25(OH)D interactions were examined, and results from the individual cohorts were meta-analyzed. In the meta-analyses, we found no evidence of an association between 25(OH)D and ΔBW (-9.4 gram/y per 10 nmol/L higher 25(OH)D [95% CI: -23.0, +4.3; P = 0.18]) or ΔWC (-0.06 mm/y per 10 nmol/L higher 25(OH)D [95% CI: -0.17, +0.06; P = 0.33]). Furthermore, we found no statistically significant interactions between the four SNP-scores and 25(OH)D in relation to ΔBW or ΔWC. Thus, in view of the narrow CIs, our results suggest that an association between 25(OH)D and changes in measures of adiposity is absent or marginal. Similarly, the study provided evidence that there is either no or very limited dependence on genetic predisposition to adiposity. PMID:27077659

  11. The influence of waist circumference on insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in apparently healthy Korean adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Deok Yun; Choe, Young Gil; Shin, Dong Suk; Yoo, Su Hyeon; Yim, Seo Hyoung; Lee, Ji Yong; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Park, Dong Il; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Waist circumference (WC) is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and is related to insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The purpose of this study was to determine the association between WC and IR and NAFLD in apparently healthy Korean adults. Methods The volunteers included in this cross-sectional study comprised 9,159 adults (5,052 men, 4,107 women) who participated in a comprehensive health checkup program. IR was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) and was considered to be present when the HOMA-IR score was >2. NAFLD was evaluated by ultrasound examination. Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was defined as >40 IU/L in men and >35 IU/L in women. Logistic regression was performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for NAFLD, IR, and ALT according to categorized levels of WC. Results NAFLD was found in 2,553 (27.9%) of the participants (82.6% men, 17.4% women), while IR and elevated ALT were found in 17.2% (68.1% men, 31.9% women) and 10% (83% men, 17% women), respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, the prevalence of NAFLD, IR, and elevated ALT was significantly associated with increases in WC quartile: highest quartile for NAFLD in men, OR=15.539, 95% CI=12.687-19.033; highest quartile for NAFLD in women, OR=48.732, 95% CI=23.918-99.288 (P<0.001); and highest quartile for IR in men, OR=17.576, 95% CI=13.283-23.255; highest quartile for IR in women, OR=11.078, 95% CI=7.813-15.708 (P<0.001); highest quartile for elevated ALT in men, OR=7.952, 95% CI=6.046-10.459; and highest quartile for elevated ALT in women, OR=8.487, 95% CI=4.679-15.395 (P<0.001). Conclusions WC contributes to IR and NAFLD in apparently healthy Korean adults, and thus may be an important factor in the development of IR and NAFLD. PMID:23837138

  12. Sensibilidade de indicadores da desnutrição protéico-energética em cirróticos com vários graus de disfunção hepatocelular Sensibility of anthropometric-laboratory markers of protein-energy malnutrition in cirrhotic patients

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    Regiane Maio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A sensibilidade de indicadores antropométricos e laboratoriais, na detecção da desnutrição protéico-energética de cirróticos foi estudada em 117 adultos, com gravidades (Child-Pugh, Child A (18, B (42 e C (57. RESULTADOS: Os indicadores antropométricos mais alterados foram: a circunferência braquial 61%, a prega cutânea tricipital 55% e a prega cutânea subescapular 53%, e os laboratoriais: albumina 93% e hemoglobina 90%. Com a combinação de indicadores circunferência braquial + prega cutânea subescapular + albumina ou hemoglobina, alcançaram-se 29% de déficit, valor idêntico ao da associação apenas de circunferência braquial + prega cutânea subescapular. Essa combinação (circunferência braquial e prega cutânea subescapular detectou 63% de desnutrição protéico-energética, com predominância das formas moderada e grave em todos os graus Child. CONCLUSÃO: A desnutrição protéico-energética na cirrose hepática é predominantemente protéica, podendo ser caracterizada por indicadores laboratoriais (mais sensíveis ou, com maior especificidade, pela circunferência braquial, embora inespecífica à discriminação da gravidade da desnutrição protéico-energética entre os grupos Child B e C.AIM: The prevalence and severity of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM were investigated through the anthropometric (body mass index, triceps and subescapular skinfolds and upper arm circumferences and blood measures in 117 cirrhotic patients. The sensitivity and specificity of single or combined PEM markers were tested among Child A (n=18, Child B (n=42 and Child C (n=57 adults (51±13y. RESULTS: Were calculated as z score and considered deficient when z<-1.28SD according to local standards. The most deficient markers where albumin (93%, hemoglobin (90%, upper arm circumference (61%, triceps (55% and subescapular (53% skinfolds. By combining upper arm circumference with triceps or subescapular skinfolds, PEM were

  13. Effectiveness of Different Waist Circumference Cut-off Values in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence and Risk Factors in Adults in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hai Cheng; TIAN Hao Ming; JI Qiu He; ZHU Da Long; CHEN Li; GUO Xiao Hui; ZHAO Zhi Gang; Li Qiang; ZHOU Zhi Guang; GE Jia Pu; SHAN Guang Liang; LAI Ya Xin; SHAN Zhong Yan; JIA Wei Ping; YANG Wen Ying; LU Ju Ming; WENG Jian Ping; JI Li Nong; LIU Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effectiveness of waist circumference cut-off values in predicting the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and risk factors in adults in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was condcuted in 14 provinces (autonomous region, municipality) in China. A total of 47 325 adults aged ≥20 years were selected by multistage stratified sampling, and questionnaire survey and physical and clinical examination were conducted among them. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and modified IDF criteria. Results The age-standardized prevalence of MetS was 24.2%(22.1%in men and 25.8%in women) and 19.5% (22.1% in men and 18.0% in women) according to the IDF criteria and modified IDF criteria respectively. The age-standardized prevalence of pre-MetS was 8.1%(8.6%in men and 7.8%in women) according to the modified IDF criteria. The prevalence of MetS was higher in urban residents than rural residents and in northern China residents than in southern China residents. The prevalence of central obesity was about 30% in both men and women according to the ethnicity-specific cut-off values of waist circumference for central obesity (90 cm for men and 85 cm for women). Multivariate regression analysis revealed no significant difference in risk factors between the two MetS definitions. Conclusion Using both the modified IDF criteria and ethnicity-specific cut-off values of waist circumference can provide more useful information about the prevalence of MetS in China.

  14. Association of waist circumference with perception of own health in urban African males and females: the Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) study

    OpenAIRE

    J. Botha; Malan, L; Potgieter, J.C.; H. S. Steyn; De Ridder, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Current waist circumference (WC) cut-points of the Joint Statement Consensus (JSC) (male ≥ 94 cm, female ≥ 80 cm) were compared with a recently proposed WC cut-point (RPWC) (male ≥ 90 cm, female ≥ 98 cm). In this study, we aimed to compare the two cut-points to assess the association between central obesity and perception of own health. Method: We determined blood pressure and fasting bloods [glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides] as metabolic syndrome marke...

  15. Waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference, and body mass index as indices of cardiometabolic risk among 36,642 Taiwanese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wen-Cheng; Chen, I-Chuan; Chang, Yu-Che; Loke, Song-Seng; Wang, Shih-Hao; Hsiao, Kuang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with cardiometabolic risk. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 21,038 men and 15,604 women who participated in a health check-up were included. Results In both men and women, the area under the curve (AUC) of WHtR was significantly greater than that of BMI or WC in the prediction of diabetes, hypertension, high total cholesterol, high triglycerides, and low H...

  16. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV1 at 12 years of age; the PIAMA birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, Marga B; Alet H Wijga; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Background In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and large WC, with forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at age 12. Methods Height, weight, WC and FVC and FEV1 were measured during a medical examination in 1288 12-year-olds part...

  17. Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio in Adult Igbo’s of Nigeria: Interrelation with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

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    G.S. Oladipo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Waist circumference and waist to hip ratio are used as indicators of abdominal obesity in population studies. This study was carried out to predict if the Igbo ethnic groups are at a risk of cardiovascular disease. A total of 800 subjects were randomly selected, 400 males and 400 females between age range 20-65 years. A measuring tape was used to measure their waist and hip circumference to get its ratio. Their blood pressure and body mass index were also determined. The mean waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, blood pressure, body mass index and hip circumference were 84.27±8.13 cm, 0.88±0.05, 125/80±12.18/10.44 mmHg, 25±2.97 (kg/m2 and 95.30±6.94 cm for males respectively and those of female subjects were 87.43±11.97 cm, 0.85±0.06, 122/79±11.95/10.98 mmHg, 27±4.88 (kg/m2 and102.48±9.87 cm, respectively. Using z-test, there was a significant difference in their systolic pressure, body mass index and waist to hip ratio (p<0.05. Based on their age range the calculated parameters increased with an advancing age, especially from 40-65 years which means that this age ranges were at a higher risk than those between 20-39 years. In the study, 50% of the adult males had a waist to hip ratio greater than 0.95 cm which kept them at a higher risk than their female counterparts of which 21.87% had a waist to hip ratio greater than 0.85 cm. The result of this studies showed that the Igbo ethnic groups were pre-hypertensive and obese with an advancing age. This study signifies that they are at a risk of cardiovascular disease and need urgent medical attention.

  18. Avaliação nutricional: descrição da concordância entre avaliadores Nutrition assessment: the agreement between observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariur Gomes Beghetto

    2007-12-01

    , arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness, percentage of weight loss, Body Mass Index, muscle arm circumference, and Subjective Global Assessment. Agreement was analyzed using the Kappa coefficient, paired t test, and intra-class correlation coefficient. The sample consisted of 102 patients, whose mean age was 53±15 years. Good correlations (ICC>0.86 and low mean differences between observers were obtained for all anthropometric measures. Agreement in classifying patients into categories of Body Mass Index was very strong (kappa=0.98; 95%CI:0.95-1.0, weak for Subjective Global Assessment (kappa=0.46; 95%CI:0.31-0.60 and moderate for the 5th and 10th percentiles of arm circumference (kappa=0.78; 95%CI:0.65-0.91, muscle arm circumference (kappa=0.73; 95%CI:0.54-0.92 and triceps skinfold thickness (kappa=0.65; 95%CI:0.48-0.82. Several patients had clinically relevant discrepancies in percentage of weight loss, arm circumference, triceps skin-fold thickness, and muscle arm circumference. Although anthropometric methods showed good statistical reproducibility, we should be prudent in applying these measures in the hospital setting, since discrepancies were observed, especially in arm anthropometry and Subjective Global Assessment.

  19. Anthropometric Characteristics of Chinese Professional Female Marathoners and Predicted Variables for Their Personal Bests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Gang; Wang, Yang; Bao, Da-Peng; Hu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate anthropometric characteristics of Chinese professional female marathoners and suitable predicted variables correlated with their personal bests (PB), 96 Chinese female long-distance runners were divided into international (Olympic Games. Selected anthropometric variables, including height, body mass, percentages of body fat, girths, breadths, lengths and skin-folds were measured. Only iliac crest skin-fold of international athletes was significantly lower than it is in national group. Girth of forearm and lower limbs, length of lower limbs, and all skin-folds of national athletes were significantly lower than those from average level group. Percentages of body fat, girth of forearm and calf, length of lower limbs, and skin-folds at sites of subscapular, abdominal and iliac crest of athletes from average level group were significantly higher than those in international athletes. Positive correlation was found between forearm girth and PB, and between the subscapular, abdominal, iliac crest and triceps surae skin-folds and PB for total athletes. Negative correlation between biiliac breadth and PB in international athletes, and positive correlations between abdominal and triceps surae skin-folds and PB in national athletes were found. For average runners, high positive correlation was found between upper arm girth and PB, and between subscapular, abdominal, iliac crest and triceps surae skin-folds and PB. The findings suggested that compared to stride length, stride frequency and efficiency were more important factors influencing running performance, which were in accordance with running technique in Chinese female marathoners. PMID:26987158

  20. Influência da circunferência abdominal sobre o desempenho funcional de idosas Infuence of waist circumference on elderly women's functional performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Campanha-Versiani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi comparar o desempenho funcional de idosas segundo a medida de suas circunfêrencias abdominais (CA. Foram avaliadas 48 idosas, divididas nos grupos 1, com CA>88 cm, e grupo 2, de CAThe purpose of this study was to compare physical performance of elderly women according to their waist circumference (WC. Forty-eight elderly women were divided into group 1, with WC>88 cm, and group 2, with WC<88 cm. Physical function was assessed by means of the six-minute walk test (6MWT and by the modified physical performance test (MPPT, non-dependent on physical fitness. Group 1 mean body mass and body mass index measures were statistically higher (p<0.05 than group 2's; group 1 also walked significantly shorter mean distances than group 2 (p<0.05, and scored lower at the MPPT (p<0.05. Data thus show that elderly women with over 88 cm waist circumference had poor performance at physical function tests, suggesting that the presence of visceral obesity may contribute to functional decline and further impairment among elderly women.

  1. Early insulin resistance predicts weight gain and waist circumference increase in first-episode psychosis--A one year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinänen, Jaakko; Mantere, Outi; Kieseppä, Tuula; Mäntylä, Teemu; Torniainen, Minna; Lindgren, Maija; Sundvall, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2015-12-01

    First-episode psychosis (FEP) is associated with weight gain during the first year of treatment, and risk of abdominal obesity is particularly increased. To identify early risk markers of weight gain and abdominal obesity, we investigated baseline metabolic differences in 60 FEP patients and 27 controls, and longitudinal changes during the first year of treatment in patients. Compared to controls at baseline, patients had higher low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride and apolipoprotein B levels, and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein A-I but no difference in body mass index or waist circumference. At 12-month follow-up, 60.6% of patients were overweight or obese and 58.8% had abdominal obesity. No significant increase during follow-up was seen in markers of glucose and lipid metabolism or blood pressure, but increase in C-reactive protein between baseline and 12-month follow-up was statistically significant. Weight increase was predicted by baseline insulin resistance and olanzapine use, while increase in waist circumference was predicted by baseline insulin resistance only. In conclusion, insulin resistance may be an early marker of increased vulnerability to weight gain and abdominal obesity in young adults with FEP. Olanzapine should be avoided as a first-line treatment in FEP due to the substantial weight increase it causes. In addition, the increase in the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity was accompanied by the emergence of low-grade systemic inflammation. PMID:26589392

  2. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio: which anthropometric indicator is better predictor for the hypertension development in women population of the island Cres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalin, Milena; Kolarić, Branko; Marchesi, Vanja Vasiljev; Pereza, Nina; Ostojić, Sasa; Rukavina, Tomislav; Kapović, Miljenko

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure and to prove which of three anthropometric indicators of obesity - waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) waist-to-hip ratio - is better predictor for the development of hypertension in women population of the island of Cres. We approached separately groups of women with measured high blood pressure and with previously diagnosed. The research was preformed within the research project "Genetic and biomedical characteristics of the population of the island of Cres". This was the cross sectional study and data were obtained on the sample of 247 females over 18 years old that voluntarily participated in this study. In our study group the prevalence of overweight was 39.0%, obesity 27.5%, increased waist circumference was present in 69.4% while increased blood pressure was found in 53.0% examinees. Our results indicate that age, BMI, impaired glucose concentration and serum cholesterol could be considered as predictors for the development of arterial hypertension, whether measured or previously diagnosed. PMID:22856216

  3. Suitable Assimilation Model of Culture, Beliefs and Rites Concerning Deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism for Peace of Thai Society in Bangkok and Circumferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phra M.K. Kaewchaiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: At present, Thai society widely assimilates culture, beliefs and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism by worshipping the deity images at the temples or the abodes of gods in Bangkok and circumferences. A typical worship is to pray the deity for help. As a matter of fact, people should help themselves first and use a prayer as willpower. The purpose of this research were these; (1 to investigate the background of culture, belief and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism in Bangkok and circumferences, (2 to investigate the current situations of the assimilation of culture, beliefs and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism in Bangkok and circumferences and (3 to determine a suitable assimilation model of culture beliefs and rite concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism for peace of Thai society in Bangkok and circumferences. Approach: A qualitative research was used for this research. Research areas were these: (1 Yannawa Temple, Yannawa sub district, Sathon district, Bangkok, (2 Lum Charoen Satta Temple, Yannawa sub district, Sathon district, Bangkok, (3 Brahma House at the Erawan Hotel, Lum Phini sub district, Pathumwan district , Bangkok, (4 Phai Lom Temple, Phra Pathom Chedi, Muang district, Nakhon Pathom Province, (5 Sisa Thong Temple, Sisa Thong sub district, Nakhon Chaisi, Nakhon Pathom Province, (6 Phra Sri Maha Uma Thewi Temple, Silom sub district, Bangkok district, Bangkok, (7 Visanu temple, Thung Wat Don sub district, Sathon district, Bangkok, (8 Thep Nimit Temple, Khok Phaed sub district, Nong Chok district, Bangkok, (9 Brahman Temple, Sao Chingcha sub district, Phra Nakhon district, Bangkok and (10 Ganesha House at Ratchada crossroads, Huay Khwang district, Bangkok. Deity worships have been held at these areas for a long time and a lot of people have participated in these worships. A population was the people who lived in 9 districts. A sample

  4. Length of marriage and its effect on spousal concordance in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kandari, Yagoub; Crews, Douglas E; Poirier, Frank E

    2002-01-01

    It was hypothesized that marriage duration affects physical and cultural homogamy and spousal concordance in Kuwaiti marriages. Westernization increased spousal correlations due to fewer arranged marriages and increased individual spousal choice. Spousal similarities for selected physical and cultural traits were also examined for couples married 15 years or less, 16 to 30 years, and 31 years and more. Consanguineous couples belong to the al-Kandari, one of the largest and most important kindreds in Kuwait, who traditionally married kin and continue to do so. Six physical measurements and blood pressure were taken along with a sociocultural questionnaire to examine cultural preferences. In all, 242 couples (484 people) participated; 62 couples were in non-consanguineous unions. It was hypothesized that in shorter-duration unions spouses would be more alike for physical and cultural traits. For physical traits, results for stature, weight, the body mass index, and hip circumference are congruent with the hypothesis, whereas results for the triceps and subscapular skinfolds, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure are not. Overall, for some traits spouses are more alike than in previous generations, and specific aspects of similarity among long-term spouses reflect historical and cultural phenomena. PMID:11911449

  5. Heritability of phenotypes associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity in a rural area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Geórgia G; Dutra, Míriam Santos; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation between glucose homeostasis and adiposity traits in a population in a rural community in Brazil. The Jequitinhonha Community Family Study cohort consists of subjects aged ≥18 years residing in rural areas in Brazil. The data on the following traits were assembled for 280 individuals (51.7% women): body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist and mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfold, conicity index, insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Extended pedigrees were constructed up to the third generation of individuals using the data management software PEDSYS. The heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component method. The age- and sex-adjusted heritability values estimated for insulin (h(2) = 52%), glucose (h(2) = 51%), HDLc (h(2) = 58%), and waist circumference (WC; h(2) = 49%) were high. Significantly adjusted genetic correlations were observed between insulin paired with each of the following phenotypes; (BMI; ρg = 0.48), WC (ρg = 0.47) and HDLc (ρg = -0.47). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was genetically correlated with BMI (ρg = 0.53) and HDLc (ρg = -0.58). The adjusted genetic correlations between traits were consistently higher compared with the environmental correlations. In conclusion, glucose metabolism and adiposity traits are highly heritable and share common genetic effects with body adiposity traits. PMID:24359477

  6. Body composition of chronic renal patients: anthropometry and bioimpedance vector analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Soares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to compare the body composition of patients undergoing hemodialysis with that of healthy individuals using different methods. METHOD: cross-sectional study assessing male individuals using anthropometric markers, electrical bioimpedance and vector analysis. RESULTS: the healthy individuals presented larger triceps skinfold and arm circumference (p<0.001. The bioimpedance variables also presented significant higher values in this group. Significant difference was found in the confidence interval of the vector analysis performed for both the patients and healthy individuals (p<0.0001. The tolerance intervals showed that 55.20% of the patients were dehydrated, 10.30% presented visible edema, and 34.50% were within normal levels of hydration. Bioimpedance and vector analysis revealed that 52% of the patients presented decreased cell mass while 14.00% presented increased cell mass. CONCLUSIONS: the differences in the body composition of patients and healthy individuals were revealed through bioimpedance and vector analysis but not through their measures of arm circumference and arm muscle area.

  7. Comparison of somatotype values of football players in two professional league football teams according to the positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ozlem; Sagir, Mehmet; Zorba, Erdal

    2013-06-01

    This study compared the somatotype values of football players according to their playing positions. The study aimed to determine the physical profiles of players and to analyze the relationships between somatotypes and playing positions. Study participants were members of two teams in the Turkey Professional Football League, Gençlerbirligi Sports Team (GB) (N = 24) and Gençlerbirligi Oftas Sports Team (GBO) (N = 24). Anthropometric measurements of the players were performed according to techniques suggested by the Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual (ASRM) and International Biological Program (IBP). In somatotype calculations, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and calf skinfold thickness, humerus bicondylar, femur bicondylar, biceps circumference, calf circumference and body weight and height were used. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Graph Pad prism Version 5.00 for Windows (Graph Pad Software, San Diego California USA); somatotype calculations and analyses used the Somatotype 1.1 program and graphical representations of the results were produced. Analysis of non-parametric (two independent samples) Mann-Whitney U Test of the player data showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the two teams. The measurements indicated that, when all of the GB and GBO players were evaluated collectively, their average somatotypes were balanced mesomorph. The somatotypes of GBO goalkeepers were generally ectomorphic mesomorph; GB goalkeepers were balanced mesomorphic, although they were slightly endomorphic. PMID:23940981

  8. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents from two Amazonian ecosystems: variations according to seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hilton P; Veiga, Gloria V; Kac, Gilberto; Pereira, Rosangela A

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims to describe the nutritional status of Caboclo adolescents living in two areas of the Amazon Basin. Two cross-sectional studies, the first in the dry and the second in the wet season, were carried out in two Amazonian ecosystems: the forest and black water ecosystem, and the floodplain and white water ecosystem. Measurements of weight, stature, arm circumference and triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds were performed on 247 adolescents (10-19 years of age). Nutritional status was classified using body mass index according to international criteria and the prevalence of underweight and overweight was estimated. Linear mixed effects models were used with the anthropometric measurements as dependent variables and time interval, place of residence, sex, age and stature variation as independent variables. During the wet season, the prevalence of overweight among girls was higher in the forest (42%) than in the floodplain (9%). Longitudinal linear regression models showed that the arm circumference measurement was influenced both by seasonality and location, revealing that the increment between dry and wet seasons was less pronounced in the floodplain. At the time of the study, overweight already constituted a major public health concern among girls living in the forest area. In order to develop adequate public health policies for this important segment of the Amazon population further studies are necessary to investigate the role of environment and seasonality on the growth and nutritional status of adolescents. PMID:19906320

  9. Mid-arm and calf circumferences are stronger mortality predictors than body mass index for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho SC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shu-Chuan Ho,1,2 Jiun-Yi Wang,3,4 Han-Pin Kuo,5 Chien-Da Huang,5 Kang-Yun Lee,2,6 Hsiao-Chi Chuang,1,2 Po-Hao Feng,2,6 Tzu-Tao Chen,2,* Min-Fang Hsu7,* 1School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, 2Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, 3Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Wufeng, 4Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung, 5Department of Thoracic Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 6Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 7Department of Nursing, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, Hsinchu City, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is currently the third most common cause of death in the world. Patients with COPD experience airflow obstruction, weight loss, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and comorbidities. Anthropometric indicators are risk factors for mortality in geriatric assessment. Purpose: This study examined and compared the associations of anthropometric indicators, such as low body mass index (BMI, low mid-arm circumference (MAC, and low calf circumference (CC, with the prediction of a 3-year follow-up mortality risk in patients with COPD. Methods: We recruited nonhospitalized patients with COPD without acute conditions from a general hospital in Taiwan. The BMI, MAC, and CC of all patients were measured, and they were followed for 3 years through telephone interviews and chart reviews. The Kaplan–Meier survival curves stratified by BMI, MAC, and CC were analyzed. Variables univariately associated with survival were entered into a multivariate Cox regression model. The Bayesian information criterion was used to compare the predictive ability of the three anthropometric

  10. Determination of depot fat of children by measuring skin folds, body circumference and body distances as well as by the 40K-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    10 different anthropometric measurements were performed in 134 children (mean age 3 years). We measured at 4 sites the thickness of four skin folds. In addition six body distances and circumferences were determined by means of a measuring tape. By multiple linear regression analysis those values were calculated, which representatively indicate the total fat content. Simultaneously a second depot fat determination was performed on these children by means of the 40K method. Here, the total potassium content was determined by measuring the natural 40K radioactivity of the whole body. The comparison of these two fat values showed good correlation. Our results confirm the opinion of those authors, who also evaluated the significance of this method. The measurement of the subcutaneous fatty tissue by means of anthropometric methods permits the objective analysis and evaluation of the outer state of nutrition of children. (orig./MG)

  11. Aplasia cutis congenita in a setting of fetus papyraceus associated with small fetal abdominal circumference and high alpha-fetoprotein and amniotic acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Joni M; Klein, Janice F; Christopher, Kurt; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2015-01-01

    Fetus papyraceus is the fetal death of one or more fetuses in a multiparous pregnancy. The surviving infants can experience extensive aplasia cutis in an H-shaped distribution over the flanks and abdomen as a consequence of the loss of their fetal sibling. We report the case of a monochorionic, diamniotic pregnancy complicated by a single fetal death at 13 weeks of gestational age. Aplasia cutis of the surviving twin was suggested in utero by three criteria: high amniotic and maternal alpha-fetoprotein, detectable acetylcholinesterase, and small abdominal circumference on prenatal ultrasound. This constellation of findings in the setting of fetus papyraceus can be an indicator of aplasia cutis in the surviving fetus. PMID:24118049

  12. How do pregnancy-related weight changes and breastfeeding relate to maternal weight and BMI-adjusted waist circumference 7 y after delivery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Abrams, Barbara;

    2013-01-01

    breastfeeding are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine how prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, postpartum weight changes, and breastfeeding influence maternal weight and body mass index-adjusted waist circumference (WCBMI) 7 y after delivery. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study of...... show that postpartum weight retention at 6 mo and weight gain from 6 to 18 mo postpartum contribute equally to adverse maternal anthropometric measures 7 y after delivery. Breastfeeding duration may have a beneficial effect.......BACKGROUND: Reproduction has been related to long-term maternal weight gain, and changes in fat mass, with gestational weight gain, have been identified as an important contributor. However, the influence of weight changes during the whole reproductive cycle and the modifying effect of...

  13. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yanbin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity, insulin resistance, energy intake and physical activity in European - (EA and African-American (AA youth. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical activity were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was also measured by accelerometry. Results FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI (P = 0.01, weight (P = 0.03 and waist circumference (P = 0.04, with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05, or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical activity (P > 0.05. No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical activity were observed (P > 0.05. Conclusions The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity.

  14. The estimation of body density in rugby union football players.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, W

    1995-01-01

    The general regression equation of Durnin and Womersley for estimating body density from skinfold thicknesses in young men, was examined by comparing the estimated density from this equation, with the measured density of a group of 45 rugby union players of similar age. Body density was measured by hydrostatic weighing with simultaneous measurement of residual volume. Additional measurements included stature, body mass and skinfold thicknesses at the biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailia...

  15. Born in Bradford, a cohort study of babies born in Bradford, and their parents: Protocol for the recruitment phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynor Pauline

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bradford, one of the most deprived cities in the United Kingdom, has a wide range of public health problems associated with socioeconomic deprivation, including an infant mortality rate almost double that for England and Wales. Infant mortality is highest for babies of Pakistani origin, who comprise almost half the babies born in Bradford. The Born in Bradford cohort study aims to examine environmental, psychological and genetic factors that impact on health and development perinatally, during childhood and subsequent adult life, and those that influence their parents' health and wellbeing. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Methods Most Bradford women attend for antenatal care and give birth at the Bradford Royal Infirmary, which has approximately 5,800 births per year. Women are eligible for recruitment if they plan to give birth here. Babies born from March 2007 are eligible to participate, recruitment is planned to continue until 2010. Fathers of babies recruited are invited to participate. Women are usually recruited when they attend for a routine oral glucose tolerance test at 26–28 weeks gestation. Recruitment of babies is at birth. Fathers are recruited whenever possible during the antenatal period, or soon after the birth. The aim is to recruit 10,000 women, their babies, and the babies' fathers. At recruitment women have blood samples taken, are interviewed to complete a semi-structured questionnaire, weighed, and have height, arm circumference and triceps skinfold measured. Umbilical cord blood is collected at birth. Within two weeks of birth babies have their head, arm and abdominal circumference measured, along with subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness. Fathers self-complete a questionnaire at recruitment, have height and weight measured, and provide a saliva sample. Participants are allocated a unique study number. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage

  16. Mid-arm and calf circumferences are stronger mortality predictors than body mass index for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shu-Chuan; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Kuo, Han-Pin; Huang, Chien-Da; Lee, Kang-Yun; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Feng, Po-Hao; Chen, Tzu-Tao; Hsu, Min-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the third most common cause of death in the world. Patients with COPD experience airflow obstruction, weight loss, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and comorbidities. Anthropometric indicators are risk factors for mortality in geriatric assessment. Purpose This study examined and compared the associations of anthropometric indicators, such as low body mass index (BMI), low mid-arm circumference (MAC), and low calf circumference (CC), with the prediction of a 3-year follow-up mortality risk in patients with COPD. Methods We recruited nonhospitalized patients with COPD without acute conditions from a general hospital in Taiwan. The BMI, MAC, and CC of all patients were measured, and they were followed for 3 years through telephone interviews and chart reviews. The Kaplan–Meier survival curves stratified by BMI, MAC, and CC were analyzed. Variables univariately associated with survival were entered into a multivariate Cox regression model. The Bayesian information criterion was used to compare the predictive ability of the three anthropometric indicators to predict mortality rate. Results In total, 104 patients were included (mean ± standard deviation age, 74.2±6.9 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second [%], 58.4±20.4 predicted; males, 94.2%); 22 patients (21.2%) died during the 36-month follow-up. During this long-term follow-up, the three anthropometric indicators could predict mortality risk in patients with COPD (low BMI [<21 kg/m2], hazard ratio [HR] =2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.10–7.10; low MAC [<23.5 cm], HR =3.09, 95% CI =1.30–7.38; low CC [<30 cm], HR =4.40, 95% CI =1.82–10.63). CC showed the strongest potential in predicting the mortality risk, followed by MAC and BMI. Conclusion Among the three anthropometric variables examined, CC can be considered a strong predictor of mortality risk in patients with COPD.

  17. Measuring Abdominal Circumference and Skeletal Muscle From a Single Cross-Sectional Computed Tomography Image: A Step-by-Step Guide for Clinicians Using National Institutes of Health ImageJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Perez, Sandra L; Haus, Jacob M; Sheean, Patricia; Patel, Bimal; Mar, Winnie; Chaudhry, Vivek; McKeever, Liam; Braunschweig, Carol

    2016-03-01

    Diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans provide numerous opportunities for body composition analysis, including quantification of abdominal circumference, abdominal adipose tissues (subcutaneous, visceral, and intermuscular), and skeletal muscle (SM). CT scans are commonly performed for diagnostic purposes in clinical settings, and methods for estimating abdominal circumference and whole-body SM mass from them have been reported. A supine abdominal circumference is a valid measure of waist circumference (WC). The valid correlation between a single cross-sectional CT image (slice) at third lumbar (L3) for abdominal SM and whole-body SM is also well established. Sarcopenia refers to the age-associated decreased in muscle mass and function. A single dimensional definition of sarcopenia using CT images that includes only assessment of low whole-body SM has been validated in clinical populations and significantly associated with negative outcomes. However, despite the availability and precision of SM data from CT scans and the relationship between these measurements and clinical outcomes, they have not become a routine component of clinical nutrition assessment. Lack of time, training, and expense are potential barriers that prevent clinicians from fully embracing this technique. This tutorial presents a systematic, step-by-step guide to quickly quantify abdominal circumference as a proxy for WC and SM using a cross-sectional CT image from a regional diagnostic CT scan for clinical identification of sarcopenia. Multiple software options are available, but this tutorial uses ImageJ, a free public-domain software developed by the National Institutes of Health. PMID:26392166

  18. Interactions between genetic variants associated with adiposity traits and soft drinks in relation to longitudinal changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Ängquist, Lars; Larsen, Sofus C;

    2016-01-01

    soft drink intake and the annual change (Δ) in body weight (BW), WC, or waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WCBMI) and possible interactions with the GRSs were examined with the use of linear regression analyses and meta-analyses. RESULTS: For each soft drink serving per day, soft drink consumption...... was significantly associated with a higher ΔBW of 0.07 kg/y (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13 kg/y; P = 0.020) but not with the ΔWC or ΔWCBMI In analyses of the ΔBW, we showed an interaction only with the GRSWC (per risk allele for each soft drink serving per day: -0.06 kg/y; 95% CI: -0.10, -0.02 kg/y; P = 0.006). In analyses...... of the ΔWC, we showed interactions only with the GRSBMI and GRSComplete [per risk allele for each soft drink serving per day: 0.05 cm/y (95% CI: 0.02, 0.09 cm/y; P = 0.001) and 0.05 cm/y (95% CI: 0.02, 0.07 cm/y; P = 0.001), respectively]. Nearly identical results were observed in analyses of the ΔWCBMI...

  19. Body mass index and waist circumference combined predicts obesity-related hypertension better than either alone in a rural Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Guoan; Zhang, Hongyan; Ren, Yongcheng; Wang, Bingyuan; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Xiangyu; Han, Chengyi; Pang, Chao; Yin, Lei; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available on the association of obesity defined by both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with incident hypertension in rural China. A total of 9,174 participants ≥18 years old from rural areas in middle of China, free of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction and stroke, were selected in this cohort study. Questionnaire interview and anthropometric and laboratory measurements were performed at baseline (2007–2008) and follow-up (2013–2014). During the 6 years of follow-up, hypertension developed in 733/3,620 men and 1,051/5,554 women. After controlling for age, education level, smoking, drinking, physical activity, and family history of hypertension, the relative risk of hypertension was lower for participants with high BMI but normal WC than those with both BMI and WC obesity for men 18–39 and 40–59 years old. Women 18–39 years old with normal BMI but high WC showed a 1.96-fold risk of hypertension, and being female with age 40–59 years and high BMI but normal WC was independently associated with hypertension incidence as compared with both normal BMI and WC. BMI is more associated with hypertension as compared with WC in both genders. High WC tends to add additional risk of hypertension in young women. PMID:27545898

  20. Is high body fat estimated by body mass index and waist circumference a predictor of hypertension in adults? A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Diego Augusto Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of body fat percentage (%BF estimated by equations using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC to identify hypertension and estimate measures of association between high %BF and hypertension in adults. Methods This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted with 1,720 adults (20–59 years from Florianopolis, southern Brazil. The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios of cutoffs for %BF were calculated. The association between %BF and hypertension was analyzed using Poisson regression, estimating the unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CI. Results The %BF equations showed good discriminatory power for hypertension (area under the ROC curve > 0.50. Considering the entire sample, the cutoffs for %BF with better properties for screening hypertension were identified in the equation with BMI for men (%BF = 20.4 and with WC for women (%BF = 34.1. Adults with high %BF had a higher prevalence of hypertension. Conclusions The use of simple anthropometric measurements allowed identifying the %BF, diagnosing obesity, and screening people at risk of hypertension in order to refer them for more careful diagnostic evaluation.

  1. Evaluation of mid-upper arm circumference in pre-school children: comparison between NCHS/CDC-2000 and WHO-2006 references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Viviane G; Machado, Thais Costa; Bertoli, Ciro João; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E; Leone, Claudio

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the classification of arm circumference (AC) in pre-school children by using National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS/CDC-2000) and World Health Organization (WHO-2006) references. We evaluated 205 children: weight, height and AC were assessed and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The BMI values were classified into Z-scores by the WHO referential. The AC was classified into Z-cores by two references, comparing the whole-sample value and among groups (tercis) of BMI Z-score. The correlation was also evaluated between differences of AC with BMI Z-score. The WHO referential classified the AC in Z-scores greater than the NCHS/CDC, which is more specific and less sensitive than the NCHS/CDC for lean children and at the same time more sensitive and less specific for children with overweight. In conclusion, a significant difference in the AC classification occurs according to the referential used. PMID:20852256

  2. Optimal Waist Circumference Cut-off values for Identifying Metabolic Risk Factors in Middle-aged and Elderly Subjects in Shandong Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xin Guo; ZHANG Xiu Ping; JIANG Mei; WANG Wei Qing; NING Guang; ZHENG Hui Zhen; MA Ai Xia; SUN Yu; SONG Jun; LIN Peng; LIANG Kai; WANG Chuan; LIU Fu Qiang; LI Wen Juan; XIAO Juan; GONG Lei; WANG Mei Jian; LIU Ji Dong; YAN Fei; YANG Jun Peng; WANG Ling Shu; TIAN Meng; MA Ze Qiang; ZHAO Ru Xing; JIANG Ling; CHEN Li; YANG Wei Fang; WANG Ji Xiang; LI Cheng Qiao; WANG Yu Lian; LIU Shu Min; Hu Xiu Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the optimal waist circumference (WC) cut-off values for identifying metabolic risk factors in middle-aged and elderly subjects in Shandong Province of China. Methods A total of 2 873 men and 5 559 women were included in this cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was diagnosed according to the definition of Chinese Diabetes Society in 2004. The relation between WC and MetS was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The optimal WC cut-off values were identified using the area under the ROC curve and the different diagnostic criteria for central obesity were compared. Results The WC was the risk factor for MetS independent of BMI, blood glucose, blood lipid, and blood pressure. The optimal WC cut-off value was 83.8 cm and 91.1 cm for identifying MetS in women and men, respectively. Compared with 80 cm and 85 cm for women and men, 85 cm and 90 cm had a higher Youden index for identifying all metabolic risk factors and MetS in women and men. Conclusion The appropriate WC cut-off value is 85 cm and 90 cm for identifying central obesity and MetS in women and men in Shandong Province of China.

  3. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI in elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adesilda Silva Pestana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference (AC and the body mass index (BMI in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years. The active independent variable investigated was nature of treatment intervention (Pilates mat based exercises vs resistance exercise, and the dependent variables were hs-CRP level, AC and BMI. The statistical analysis used Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests. The correlation between the continuous variables was assessed using Spearman’s coefficient of correlation. The data were analysed using SPSS software version 17.0, and probability values lower than 5% (p< 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mat Pilates based exercises exhibited reductions in serum hs-CPR level (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -2.466, p = 0.01, BMI (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.295, p = 0.001 and AC (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.398, p = 0.01. Mat Pilates based exercises promoted a significant reduction of the serum hs-CRP levels and anthropometric measurements in elderly individuals.

  4. Body mass index and waist circumference combined predicts obesity-related hypertension better than either alone in a rural Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Guoan; Zhang, Hongyan; Ren, Yongcheng; Wang, Bingyuan; Zhang, Lu; Yang, Xiangyu; Han, Chengyi; Pang, Chao; Yin, Lei; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available on the association of obesity defined by both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with incident hypertension in rural China. A total of 9,174 participants ≥18 years old from rural areas in middle of China, free of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction and stroke, were selected in this cohort study. Questionnaire interview and anthropometric and laboratory measurements were performed at baseline (2007-2008) and follow-up (2013-2014). During the 6 years of follow-up, hypertension developed in 733/3,620 men and 1,051/5,554 women. After controlling for age, education level, smoking, drinking, physical activity, and family history of hypertension, the relative risk of hypertension was lower for participants with high BMI but normal WC than those with both BMI and WC obesity for men 18-39 and 40-59 years old. Women 18-39 years old with normal BMI but high WC showed a 1.96-fold risk of hypertension, and being female with age 40-59 years and high BMI but normal WC was independently associated with hypertension incidence as compared with both normal BMI and WC. BMI is more associated with hypertension as compared with WC in both genders. High WC tends to add additional risk of hypertension in young women. PMID:27545898

  5. Investigate the Active Degree of Na+-K+-ATPase and Free Radical Metabolism Changes of Triceps of Rats Subjected Exhaustive Exercise%大鼠力竭运动肌细胞膜Na+-K+-ATP酶活性与自由基代谢研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董赫男

    2015-01-01

    Objective:By using the experimental model of acute incremental exercise ,To observe the active degree of Na+-K+-ATPase changes of triceps of Rats, and to discuss the effects of exhaustive exercise on cell membrane permeability and mechanism changing cell membrane permeability deeply. Methods:To create exhaustive exercise injury model by making rat ran downhill ,and Na+-K+-ATP activity changes of the forelimb triceps skeletal muscle cell membrane has been studied in different time periods after exercise in rats. Results:Exhaustive exercise causes the drop of Na+-K+-ATP Enzyme mark⁃edly at a moment’s notice after exercise, and get right at 24 hours. There was no significant trend about membrane Na+-K+-ATP value increased activity between 24 hours to 5 days after the exercise. Conclusions:Comparing studies about free radi⁃cals immediately after exercise of the same experimental system, the significantly reducing of Na+-K+-ATP activity may be damaged by free radical.%目的:通过离心运动方式创建大鼠前肢一次性力竭损伤模型,观察大鼠前肢肱三头肌细胞膜Na+-K+-ATP酶活性变化,探究力竭离心运动损伤诱发的骨骼肌细胞膜结构变化,以及导致该种变化的相关机制。方法:采用大鼠下坡一次性力竭离心跑的损伤模型,研究了大鼠前肢肱三头肌骨骼肌细胞膜Na+-K+-ATP酶活性在运动后不同时间段的变化情况。结果:Na+-K+-ATP酶活性运动后即刻较安静时显著性下降,且达到峰值;即刻后开始恢复,至运动后24小时恢复明显;运动后24小时至第5天细胞膜Na+-K+-ATP酶活性值上升无显著性趋势。结论:结合同一实验体系下关于自由基代谢情况的研究,运动后即刻Na+-K+-ATP酶活性显著性降低可能与自由基损伤有关。

  6. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in portuguese adolescents: Comparison of different anthropometric methods

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Minghelli; Carla Nunes; Raul Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample...

  7. Mid-upper arm circumference for age and undernutrition among 2 to 6 year old Bauri and Santal children of Purulia, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subal Das

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC is one of the simplest and easiest measures for large-scale screening programme for assessing undernutrition, especially among children. MUAC-based nutritional survey is easy to implement at the community level by the health workers or volunteers after minimum training. Methods: The present cross sectional study was done among Bauri and Santal children of Purulia, West Bengal, India. A total of 1013 children (Bauri = 499 and Santal = 514 aged 2-6 years were measured for MUAC. The normalized MUAC for age by z-scores were calculated using LMS method. Results: The age, sex and community specific sample distributions were prepared. Mean MUAC increased with age (except among Santal boys at the age of 6 years. The girls had higher median MUAC than boys at all ages except at 2 years. Prevalence of MUAC-based undernutrition (following WHO was highest at the age of 3 years for boys (61.7 % and girls (36.5 %. Similarly, prevalence of undernutrition was highest (48.6 % and 47.4 % among Santal boys and girls at the age of 6 and 3 years, respectively. Significant sex difference (age combined in prevalence of undernutrition was observed among Bauris (χ2= 20.54, df= 8, p< 0.001 and Santals (χ2= 6.71, p< 0.05. Conclusion: High rate of undernutrition was observed among these children.. Our study clearly revealed that the median MUAC of children were lower than two standard references at all ages.

  8. Association between dietary phytochemical index and 3-year changes in weight, waist circumference and body adiposity index in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirmiran Parvin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intakes of phytochemical-rich foods have favorable effects on the prevention of chronic diseases. In this study we assessed the dietary phytochemical index (PI in relation to 3-year change in weight, waist circumference (WC, body adiposity index (BAI among Tehranian adults. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, on 1938 adults, aged 19–70 y. The usual intake of participants was measured at baseline using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and dietary PI was calculated. Anthropometric measures were assessed both at baseline and 3 years later. Multiple regression models were used to estimate mean difference changes in anthropometrics associated with various dietary PI. Results The mean age of participants was 40.4 ± 13.0 y, at baseline, respectively. Mean weight gain was 1.49 ± 5.06 kg (1.65 ± 5.3 kg in men and 1.34 ± 4.9 kg in women during 3-year period. After adjustment for potential confounding variables including age at baseline, sex, BMI, educational levels, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, dietary intake of carbohydrate, fat and protein, dietary intakes of whole grains in the highest quartile category of PI were inversely associated with 3-year changes in weight and WC (P for trend . Dietary intake of fruits in the highest quartile was also associated with lower weight gain during the study period (P for trend . There was significant inverse association between the highest quartile category of dietary PI with the 3-year changes in weight and BAI (P for trend . Conclusion Higher dietary PI could have favorable effects on prevention of weight gain and reduction of body adiposity in adults.

  9. When the diameter of the abdominal aorta should be considered as abnormal? A new ultrasonographic index using the wrist circumference as a body build reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To use US to evaluate the normal values of aortic diameter (AD), stratifying the population by age, gender and body build, as measured using wrist circumference (WC). Materials and methods: Between April 2010 and February 2012, consecutive patients ≥ 30 years of age, without history of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) were prospectively enrolled. They underwent an abdominal ultrasonography for reasons other than aorta evaluation. AD was measured at the infrarenal (AD1), intermediate (AD2), and iliac bifurcation (AD3) levels: a diameter ≥ 3 cm was considered as an aneurysm. The maximal aortic diameter (ADmax) was measured for AAA patients. WC was measured; AD/WC ratio was calculated and presented in percentage: the range of normal values was obtained excluding AAA cases and calculated as mean ± 1.96 × standard deviation. Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Results: We recruited 1200 patients, 15 (1.25%; age range = 64–86 years) had AAA. AD ranges of the other patients were: AD1 = 0.74–1.84 cm, AD2 = 0.78–1.85 cm, and AD3 = 0.68–1.76 cm for females; AD1 = 0.86–2.02 cm, AD2 = 0.91–2.08 cm, and AD3 = 0.84–1.95 cm for males. AD2/WC ratio of non-AAA patients range was 4–15%, with only one outlier at 18%, while ADmax/WC ratio of AAA patients range was 15–35% (p 1, r = 0.318, p 2 and r = 0.280, p 3). Conclusion: The definition of normal AD should consider body build. An AD2/WC ratio of 15% may be regarded as a threshold to differentiate AAA- from non-AAA patients. Patients with AD2/WC values comprised between 12% and 15% may be at risk for AAA

  10. Waist-to-Height Ratio Is a Better Anthropometric Index than Waist Circumference and BMI in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome among Obese Mexican Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel Rafael Rodea-Montero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the degree of association between anthropometric indices and components of metabolic syndrome (MS and to determine optimal cut-off points of these indices for predicting MS in obese adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study with a sample of (n=110 Mexican obese adolescents grouped by sex and the presence/absence of MS. BMI percentile, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR were tested. ROC curves of the anthropometric indices were created to identify whether an index was a significant predictor of MS. Results. BMI percentile, WC, and WHtR were significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. As predictors of MS overall patients, the BMI percentile generated an area under curve (AUC of 0.651 (P=0.008, cut-off point above the 99th percentile. WC generated an AUC of 0.704 (P<0.001, cut-off point of ≥90 cm. WHtR demonstrated an AUC of 0.652 (P=0.008, cut-off point of 0.60. WHtR ≥0.62 and WHtR ≥0.61 generate AUC of 0.737 (P=0.006 and AUC of 0.717 (P=0.014 for predicting hypertension and insulin resistance, respectively, in females. Conclusion. WHtR is a better tool than WC and BMI for identifying cardiometabolic risk. The overall criterion (WHtR ≥ 0.6 could be appropriate for predicting MS in obese Mexican adolescents.

  11. Optimal Waist Circumference Cut-Off Point for Multiple Risk Factor Aggregation: Results from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmore Bermúdez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine optimal waist circumference (WC cut-off values for the detection of multiple risk factor aggregation in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela. Participants and Methods. A total of 1,902 adult individuals of both genders belonging to MMSPS were included. Complete physical, laboratory, and anthropometric examination were done to evaluate Metabolic Syndrome (MS components and insulin resistance. ROC curves were plotted for risk factor aggregation in order to assess WC cut-off point. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess risk factors associated with the WC. Results. There were 52.2% females and 47.8% males, with WC of 90.7±13.7 cm and 98.2±15.9 cm, respectively. ROC curves exhibited a WC cut-off point for women of 90.25 cm (68.4% sensitivity, 65.8% specificity and 95.15 cm (71.1% sensitivity, 67.4% specificity for men. HOMA2-IR and high blood pressure were associated with a WC over these cut-off points, as well as 2.5-fold risk increase for multiple risk factor aggregation (OR 2.56; CI 95%: 2.05–3.20; P<0.01. Conclusions. These population-specific WC cut-offs are readily applicable tools for detection of risk factor aggregation. Insulin resistance is closely associated with this definition of abdominal obesity, which may serve as a surrogate for its assessment.

  12. Skinfold thickness, body mass index and ischaemic heart disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Imeson, J D; Haines, A P; Meade, T W

    1989-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between obesity and subsequent incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). DESIGN: Prospective cohort survey. SETTING: Study of three occupational groups, with follow up examinations. SUBJECTS: 3500 people recruited between 1972 and 1978 (80% response rate), and followed up between 1978 and 1984. This report is based on subgroup of 1511 white men aged 40-64 at entry. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Information was obtained on smoking and family hi...

  13. Feeding premature infants banked human milk homogenized by ultrasonic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayol, M R; Martinez, F E; Jorge, S M; Gonçalves, A L; Desai, I D

    1993-12-01

    Premature neonates fed ultrasonically homogenized human milk had better weight gain and triceps skin-fold thickness than did a control group given untreated human milk (p tube feeding (p Ultrasonic homogenization of human milk appears to minimize loss of fat and thus allows better growth of premature infants. PMID:8229535

  14. Avaliação do estado nutricional de atletas de ginástica olímpica do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo Nutritional status evaluation of olympic gymnastics athletes from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gonçalves RIBEIRO

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o estado nutricional de atletas de ginástica olímpica, do sexo feminino, foram estudadas 46 ginastas, de 11 a 14 anos, pertencentes a clubes e academias das cidades do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo. O estudo antropométrico envolveu medidas de massa corporal, estatura, dobras cutâneas e perímetros. Observou-se diferença significativa para as dobras cutâneas tricipital, suprailíaca, da coxa e da panturrilha e para o percentual de gordura (pThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of 46 female olympic gymnastics athletes, aged 11 to 14 years old, attending private gymnastics clubs of the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The anthropometric assessment involved measurements of height, body mass, skinfold thickness and circumferences. Significant difference was observed for the triceps, suprailiac, mid thigh and medial calf skinfolds and for the percentage of body fat (p<0.05. For the assessment of dietary intake a 24-hour recall and a 3-day self-register were used. The energy consumption and the percentage of carbohydrates (50% to 58% in the diet were low and the protein ingestion (1.5 to 1.7 g/kg of body weight was appropriate, according to values proposed for athletes. Vitamin intake was satisfactory, except for folic acid of gymnasts from Rio de Janeiro. From the minerals assessed, the intake of calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron was inadequate. No clinical signs of iron deficiency were observed.

  15. Growth of specific muscle strength between 6 and 18 years in contrasting socioeconomic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, M; Brush, G; Harrison, G A

    2001-05-01

    The influence of sex, age, and socioeconomic conditions on specific grip strength of 6-18-year-old individuals was studied among 1,704 males and 1,956 females belonging to the so-called "Cape Coloured" community in the western part of South Africa. Half of the participants of both sexes came from communities in the Greater Cape Town area where living conditions are comparable to those of middle-class First World communities (high SES). The other half came from the poorest rural communities of Klein Karoo (low SES). Arm circumferences, triceps skinfold thickness, and grip strength of the right and of the left hand were greater in individuals from high SES at all ages. Females within each SES group had skinfolds thicker than males, especially at older ages, and were weaker. Specific grip strength (SS), estimated as grip strength per unit area of cross section of the fat-free arm, increased with age in each group, was greater in males, and was significantly lower in low SES groups, than in the high SES ones, especially during and after puberty. It seems that SES difference in SS will persist into adulthood. Sexual differences in SS can be attributed to hormonal differences; while the SS increase with age and the difference between SES groups find no clear explanation in current theories of muscle growth and development. Since the speed of neuromuscular reaction observed in our participants is slower among low SES individuals, it seems that the difference in neuromuscular control of strength may be responsible for our findings. Differences in muscle metabolism and hormonal regulation must also be considered. PMID:11309751

  16. Mothers Understand And Can do it (MUAC): a comparison of mothers and community health workers determining mid-upper arm circumference in 103 children aged from 6 months to 5 years

    OpenAIRE

    Blackwell, Nikki; Myatt, Mark; Allafort-Duverger, Thierry; Balogoun, Amour; Ibrahim, Almou; Briend, André

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was recently endorsed and recommended for screening for acute malnutrition in the community. The objective of this study was to determine whether a colour-banded MUAC strap would allow minimally trained mothers to screen their own children for malnutrition, without locating the mid-point of the left upper arm by measurement, as currently recommended.METHODS: A non-randomised non-blinded evaluation of mothers' performance when measuring MUAC after...

  17. The Impact of a 24 Month Housing First Intervention on Participants’ Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: Results from the At Home / Chez Soi Toronto Site Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Woodhall-Melnik; Vachan Misir; Vered Kaufman-Shriqui; Patricia O'Campo; Vicky Stergiopoulos; Stephen Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals experiencing homelessness have high rates of overweight and obesity. Unhealthy weights and homelessness are both associated with increased risk of poor health and mortality. Using longitudinal data from 575 participants at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial, we investigate the impact of receiving a Housing First intervention on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference of participants with moderate and high needs for...

  18. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Reflecting Insulin Resistance as a Diagnostic Criterion of Metabolic Syndrome in a Nondiabetic Korean Population Aged 40 Years and Over: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yong-Moon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Lim, Sun Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Son, Ho-Young; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We aimed at determining the cutoff value of waist circumference with respect to its ability to reflect insulin resistance in a Korean population. Materials and Methods A total of 8,817 subjects aged 40 years and over were analyzed. Insulin resistant individuals were defined as those who had the highest quartile value of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a non-diabetic population. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and multiple logi...

  19. Impact of the PPAR gamma-2 gene polymorphisms on the metabolic state of postmenopausal women

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BOGNA GRYGIEL-GÓRNIAK; MARIA MOSOR; JUSTYNA MARCINKOWSKA; JULIUSZ PRZYSŁAWSKI; JERZY NOWAK

    2016-09-01

    The relationship Pro12Ala (rs1801282) and C1431T (rs3856806) polymorphisms of PPAR gamma-2 with glucose and lipid metabolism is not clear after menopause. We investigated the impact of the Pro12Ala and C1431T silentsubstitution in the 6th exon in PPAR gamma-2 gene on nutritional and metabolic status in 271 postmenopausal women(122 lean and 149 obese). The general linear model (GLM) approach to the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to infer the interactions between the analysed genotypes. The frequency of the Pro-T haplotype was higher in obese than in lean women ($p\\lt 0.0349$). In the analysed GLM models according to obesity status, the C1431C genotypewas related to a lower glucose concentration ($\\beta=-0.2103$) in lean women, and to higher folliculotropic hormone FSH levels ($\\beta=0.1985$) and lower waist circumferences ($\\beta=-0.1511$) in obese women. The influence of C1431C waspresent regardless of the occurrence of the Pro12Ala polymorphism. The co-existence of the C1431C and Pro12Progenotypes was related to lower values for triceps skinfold thickness compared those for the T1241/X and Ala12/X polymorphisms ($\\beta=-0.1425$). The presence of C1431C decreased the differences between triceps values that weredetermined by Pro or Ala allele. In conclusion, C1431T polymorphism seems to have a more essential influence onanthropometric and biochemical parameters than is the case with Pro12Ala polymorphism.

  20. Physical growth and nutritional status of elite rhythmic gymnasts

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    Gómez-Campos, R.1 ; Camargo, C.2 ; Arruda, M.1 ; Cossio-Bolanos, M. A.1

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the physical growth of weightand height of elite rhythmic gymnasts with referenceto the World Health Organization and determine thenutritional status through muscle and fat areas of arm,proposed by Frisancho.Material and Methods: We studied 136 elite rhythmicgymnasts from Brazil. The athletes were selected in anon-probabilistic (intentional. The anthropometric variables evaluated were weight, height, height-cephalictrunk, arm circumference and triceps skinfold relaxedright arm. Weight and height were compared with thereference of the World Health Organization and nutritional status was assessed by muscle and fat area proposed by Frisancho.Results: The gymnasts are low in body weight (p 0.05. Regarding nutritional status, we observed that 13.5% are at risk of malnutrition andmalnutrition 12.5% depending on the subject protein.In the case of caloric reserves, 11.5% are at risk ofmalnutrition and malnutrition 12.5%, respectively. Ingeneral, similar values gymnasts muscle area and lowvalues of fat area in relation to the reference whencompared to the p-50.Conclusion: The results suggest that young people ofthis sport have low caloric values of reserves due tohigh intensity training to which they are exposed.

  1. Development of risky varices in alcoholic cirrhosis with a well-maintained nutritional status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirayuki; Enomoto; Yoshiyuki; Sakai; Yoshinori; Iwata; Ryo; Takata; Nobuhiro; Aizawa; Naoto; Ikeda; Kunihiro; Hasegawa; Chikage; Nakano; Takashi; Nishimura; Kazunori; Yoh; Akio; Ishii; Tomoyuki; Takashima; Hiroki; Nishikawa; Hiroko; Iijima; Shuhei; Nishiguchi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the nutritional status between alcoholic compensated cirrhotic patients and hepatitis C virus(HCV)-related cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension.METHODS: A total of 21 patients with compensated cirrhosis(14 with HCV-related cirrhosis and seven with alcoholic cirrhosis) who had risky esophageal varices were investigated. In addition to physical variables, including the body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, and arm-muscle circumference, the nutritional status was also assessed using the levels of pre-albumin(pre-ALB), retinol-binding protein(RBP) and non-protein respiratory quotient(NPRQ) measured with an indirect calorimeter.RESULTS: A general assessment for the nutritional status with physical examinations did not show a significant difference between HCV-related cirrhosis and alcoholic cirrhosis. However, the levels of pre-ALB and RBP in alcoholic compensated cirrhotic patients were significantly higher than those in HCV-related compensated cirrhotic patients. In addition, the frequency of having a normal nutritional status(NPRQ ≥ 0.85 and ALB value > 3.5 g/d L) in alcoholic compensated cirrhotic patients was significantly higher than that in HCV-related compensated cirrhotic patients.CONCLUSION: According to our small scale study, alcoholic compensated cirrhotic patients can develop severe portal hypertension even with a relatively well-maintained liver function and nutritional status compared with HCV-related cirrhosis.

  2. [Crohn's disease and enteral feeding: comparative nutritional efficacy of elemental and polymeric nutritive mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosnes, J; Bellanger, J; Gendre, J P; Le Quintrec, Y

    1988-10-01

    The nutritional development with three types of enteral diets during 28 days, was compared in 45 patients with malnutrition presenting an active Crohn's disease. Enteral feeding consisted of a polymeric mixture (Realmentyl) administered in addition to a normal oral diet in 11 patients; the same mixture was administered alone exclusively to 9 patients, and an elemental diet (Vivonex HN) administered exclusively to 25 patients. The total caloric intake reached, in the three groups, the mean values of 60.2, 36.9 and 33.8 kcal/kg of ideal weight/day, respectively. 33 patients also received steroids. At the end of 28 days of enteral diet, the improvement in the weight and the anthropometric measurements (muscle circumference, triceps skinfold) was significantly more marked (gain of 6.5 kg) with the supplemental polymeric mixture than with exclusive enteral diet, polymeric diet (+/- 2.0 kg) or basic (+1.2 kg). Transferrin and albumin plasma levels increased in all 3 groups, but much faster with the exclusive elemental feeding, in spite of a higher urinary urea excretion in these patients. The overall nutritional development was significantly better with supplemental polymeric feeding, and was identical in the two other groups. These results confirm that the supplemental polymeric enteral feeding is more effective, from the nutrition standpoint. With an exclusive enteral feeding, the nutritional result is appreciably the same, whether the mixture consists of polymers or basic elements. PMID:3144938

  3. Nutritional status predicts outcome in patients hospitalised with exacerbation of COPD

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    Mathew Jayant

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status affects outcome in acute illnesses. Weight loss is associated with poor lung functions and outcome in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD. There is not much data on the effects of nutritional status on hospital outcome in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. This study was conducted to address this issue. Twenty five patients with COPD admitted with acute exacerbation in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India were studied. Lung functions were as-sessed by spirometry. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric mea-sures {body mass index (BMI, mid-arm circumference (MAC, triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF and fat free mass (FFM}. Resting energy expenditure (REE was measured using indirect calorimetry. Hospital outcome was determined by mortal-ity, number of days to improve subjectively and number of days to discharge. Patients with a lower BMI, MAC and TSF took a longer time to recover. REE was found to be lower in patients with weight loss unlike the Western patients. On multivariate analysis, only a lower BMI was associated with a longer time to re-covery. Thus, nutritional status is an important predictor of hospital outcome in patients with COPD.

  4. Meat supplementation increases arm muscle area in Kenyan schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Charlotte G; Jiang, Luohua; Weiss, Robert E; Grillenberger, Monika; Gewa, Constance A; Siekmann, Jonathan H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Bwibo, Nimrod O

    2013-04-14

    The present study examines the effect of animal-source-food (ASF) intake on arm muscle area growth as part of a larger study examining causal links between ASF intake, growth rate, physical activity, cognitive function and micronutrient status in Kenyan schoolchildren. This randomised, controlled feeding intervention study was designed with three isoenergetic feeding interventions of meat, milk, and plain traditional vegetable stew (githeri), and a control group receiving no snack. A total of twelve elementary schools were randomly assigned to interventions, with three schools per group, and two cohorts of 518 and 392 schoolchildren were enrolled 1 year apart. Children in each cohort were given feedings at school and studied for three school terms per year over 2 years, a total of 9 months per year: cohort I from 1998 to 2000 and cohort II from 1999 to 2001. Food intake was assessed by 24 h recall every 1-2 months and biochemical analysis for micronutrient status conducted annually (in cohort I only). Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, triceps skinfold (TSF) and mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC). Mid-upper-arm muscle area (MAMA) and mid-upper-arm fat area (MAFA) were calculated. The two cohorts were combined for analyses. The meat group showed the steepest rates of gain in MUAC and MAMA over time, and the milk group showed the next largest significant MUAC and MAMA gain compared with the plain githeri and control groups (Plean body mass in primary schoolchildren consuming vegetarian diets. PMID:22856533

  5. “Parenteral Nutrition Supplementation in Biliary Atresia Patients Listed for Liver Transplantation”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jillian S; Sundaram, Shikha S; Pan, Zhaoxing; Sokol, Ronald J

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of parenteral nutrition (PN) on outcomes in biliary atresia (BA) patients listed for liver transplantation (LTx). Study Design We retrospectively reviewed charts of all BA patients from 1990 through 2010 at our institution, s/p hepatoportoenterostomy, ≤ 36 months old, and listed for LTx. Initiation of PN was based on clinical indications. Results 25 PN and 22 non-PN subjects (74% female) were studied. Median PN initiation age was 7.7 months, mean duration 86 days, and mean PN energy supplied 77 kcal/kg/day. Prior to PN, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and mid-arm circumference (MAC) Z-scores were decreasing. After PN, TSF (p=0.003) and MAC (p<0.0001) improved significantly. The PN group had lower MAC and TSF than non-PN at time of LTx listing. Between listing and LTx, MAC and TSF improved in PN and worsened in non-PN such that both groups had the same Z-scores at LTx. PN group had a higher incidence of GI bleeding and ascites pre-LTx, but there was no difference in pre-LTx bacteremia, and post-LTx days in ICU and patient or graft survival. Conclusions PN improves nutritional status in malnourished BA patients awaiting LTx, which is associated with post-LTx outcomes comparable to those not requiring PN. PMID:21987426

  6. Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional study of NHANES data, 1999–2002

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    Singer Martha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. Methods We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES participants aged 6–80. We included 4369 participants from NHANES 1999–2002, with data on mono-ethyl (MEP, mono-2-ethylhexyl (MEHP, mono-n-butyl (MBP, and mono-benzyl (MBzP phthalate; 2286 also had data on mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (MEHHP and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (MEOHP phthalate (2001–2002. Using multiple regression, we computed mean BMI and WC within phthalate quartiles in eight age/gender specific models. Results The most consistent associations were in males aged 20–59; BMI and WC increased across quartiles of MBzP (adjusted mean BMI = 26.7, 27.2, 28.4, 29.0, p-trend = 0.0002, and positive associations were also found for MEOHP, MEHHP, MEP, and MBP. In females, BMI and WC increased with MEP quartile in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 22.9, 23.8, 24.1, 24.7, p-trend = 0.03, and a similar but less strong pattern was seen in 20–59 year olds. In contrast, MEHP was inversely related to BMI in adolescent girls (adjusted mean BMI = 25.4, 23.8, 23.4, 22.9, p-trend = 0.02 and females aged 20–59 (adjusted mean BMI = 29.9, 29.9, 27.9, 27.6, p-trend = 0.02. There were no important associations among children, but several inverse associations among 60–80 year olds. Conclusion This exploratory, cross-sectional analysis revealed a number of interesting associations with different phthalate metabolites and obesity outcomes, including notable differences by gender and age subgroups. Effects of endocrine disruptors, such as phthalates, may depend upon endogenous hormone levels, which vary dramatically by age and gender. Individual phthalates also have different

  7. Corresponding waist circumference and body mass index values based on 10-year absolute type 2 diabetes risk in an Australian Aboriginal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbija, Odewumi; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a lack of waist circumference (WC) thresholds to identify Aboriginal individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes. We generated gender-specific WC values with equivalent 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes as body mass index (BMI) points in an Australian Aboriginal community to contribute to guidelines needed for establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginals. Research design and methods A cohort of 803 adult participants free from type 2 diabetes in an Aboriginal community was followed up for up to 20 years. We derived WC values with absolute risks equivalent for the development of type 2 diabetes as BMI values (20–35 kg/m2) using the Weibull accelerated failure-time model. Results After a mean follow-up of 15.7 years, 110 participants developed type 2 diabetes. Absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased as WC increased, ranging from 3.52% (WC=77.5 cm) to 14.14% (WC=119.9 cm) in males, and 5.04% (WC=79.5 cm) to 24.25% (WC=113.7 cm) in females. In males, WC values with same absolute risks of type 2 diabetes as BMI values were 77.5 cm for BMI=20 kg/m2, 91.5 cm for BMI=25 kg/m2 (overweight threshold), 105.7 cm for BMI=30 kg/m2 (obesity threshold) and 119.9 cm for BMI=35 kg/m2. In females, WC values were 79.5 cm for BMI=20 kg/m2, 90.9 cm for BMI=25 kg/m2, 102.3 cm for BMI=30 kg/m2 and 113.7 cm for BMI=35 kg/m2. Interaction between WC and gender was not statistically significant (p=0.53). Conclusions The absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased with higher WC measured at baseline screening. Males were not significantly different from females in the association between WC and type 2 diabetes. Our findings are useful contributions for future establishment of WC cut-off points for identifying high-risk individuals in Aboriginal people. PMID:26405557

  8. Impact of waist circumference and body mass index on risk of cardiometabolic disorder and cardiovascular disease in Chinese adults: a national diabetes and metabolic disorders survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhong Hou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC or body mass index (BMI category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in Chinese adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 46,024 participants aged ≥20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007-2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96-2.44 vs 1.88 (1.67-2.12 and 1.12 (0.99-1.26; 5.70 (5.24-6.19 vs 1.51 (1.39-1.65 and 1.69 (1.57-1.82; and 3.73 (3.42-4.07 vs 2.16 (1.98-2.35 and 1.33 (1.25-1.40, respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk.

  9. The cutoff values of visceral fat area and waist circumference for identifying subjects at risk for metabolic syndrome in elderly Korean: Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study

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    Koh Young

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Korea, the cutoff values of waist circumference (WC for the identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS were suggested to be 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women based on the analysis mainly in middle-aged adults. As aging is associated with increased fat, especially abdominal visceral fat, the cutoff value of WC may differ according to age. In addition, the usefulness of visceral abdominal fat area (VFA to predict MetS in the elderly has not been studied yet. We aimed to suggest WC and VFA criteria and to compare the predictability of WC and VFA to identify people at risk for MetS. Methods A total of 689 elderly subjects aged ≥63 years (308 men, 381 women were chosen in this cross-sectional study from an ongoing, prospective, population-based study, the Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study. VFA was measured by single slice abdominal computed tomography scanning. The metabolic risk factors except WC (plasma glucose, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels were defined using modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. We estimated the accuracy of VFA and WC for identifying at least two of these factors by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results Two hundred three of 308 men and 280 of 381 women had ≥2 metabolic risk factors. The area under the ROC curve (AUC value for VFA to predict the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors was not significantly different from that for WC (men, 0.735 and 0.750; women, 0.715 and 0.682; AUC values for VFA and WC, respectively. The optimal cutoff points for VFA and WC for predicting the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors were 92.6 cm2 and 86.5 cm for men and 88.9 cm2 and 86.5 cm for women. Conclusion WC had comparable power with VFA to identify elderly people who are at risk for MetS. Elderly Korean men and women had very similar cutoff points for both VFA and WC measurements for estimating the risk of MetS. Age-specific cutoff point for WC might be

  10. Appropriate waist circumference cut points for identifying insulin resistance in black youth: a cross sectional analysis of the 1986 Jamaica birth cohort

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    Tulloch-Reid Marshall K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the International Diabetes Federation (IDF has ethnic specific waist circumference (WC cut-points for the metabolic syndrome for Asian populations it is not known whether the cut-points for black populations should differ from those for European populations. We examined the validity of IDF WC cut points for identifying insulin resistance (IR, the underlying cause of the metabolic syndrome, in predominantly black, young Jamaican adults. Methods Participants from a 1986 birth cohort were evaluated between 2005 and 2007 when they were 18-20 years old. Trained observers took anthropometric measurements and collected a fasting blood sample. IR was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment computer programme (HOMA-IR. Sex specific quartiles for IR were generated using HOMA-IR values and participants in the highest quartile were classified as "insulin resistant". Receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves were used to estimate the best WC to identify insulin resistance. The sensitivity and specificity of these values were compared with the IDF recommended WC cut-points. Results Data from 707 participants (315 males; 392females were analysed. In both sexes those with IR were more obese, had higher mean systolic blood pressure, glucose and triglycerides and lower mean HDL cholesterol. The WC was a good predictor of IR with an ROC area under the curve (95% CI of 0.71(0.64,0.79 for men and 0.72(0.65,0.79 for women. Using the Youden Index (J the best WC cut point for identifying IR in male participants was 82 cm (sensitivity 45%, specificity 93%, J 0.38 while the standard cut point of 94 cm had a sensitivity of 14% and specificity of 98% (J 0.12. In the female participants 82 cm was also a good cut point for identifying IR (sensitivity 52%, specificity 87%, J 0.39 and was similar to the standard IDF 80 cm cut point (sensitivity 53%, specificity 82%, J 0.35. Conclusions The WC that identified IR in young black men is lower

  11. Does endothelial dysfunction correlate better with waist-to-hip ratio than with body mass index or waist circumference among obese patients? Em obesos, a disfunção endotelial correlaciona melhor com a relação cintura-quadril do que com a medida da cintura ou índice de massa corpórea

    OpenAIRE

    Nivaldo Ribeiro Villela; Luiz Guilherme Kraemer Aguiar; Luciana Bahia; Daniel Bottino; Eliete Bouskela

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, affecting large arteries and the microcirculation. Waist circumference and body mass index are routinely employed as measures for assessing obesity-related health risk, whereas waist-to-hip ratio is not. We aimed to investigate the association between brachial vascular reactivity and body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. METHODS: Eighty-five volunteers (21 men/66 women), aged between 20 and 55 years, underwent...

  12. A new formula for screening metabolic syndrome in Asians: skin fold thickness at A8 point on Erdheim diagram and waist circumference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toan C Nguyen; Thai Q Ngo; Khoa TA Pham; Son V Nguyen; Hieu T Luong; Cong D Nguyen

    2007-01-01

    Background and objectives Recent studies have shown that abdominal obesity is an important component for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MS) and MS is a high risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to develop a new formula for screening and diagnosis of MS using the waist circumference (WC) and skin fold thickness at the point A8(SFA8) on the Erdheim diagram. Methods A total of 358 essential hypertensive patients (189 male and 169 female) with a mean age of 59.0±9.7 years were included; 151 healthy people (79 male, 72 female) with a mean age of 57.3± 12.1 years (similar to hypertensive patients) who were non-hypertensive and non-diabetic served as a control group. All subjects had no evidence of hepatic, renal, or endocrine disease as determined by history, physical examination and screening blood tests. Height, weight, WC, SFA8, blood pressure (BP), fasting plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in all subjects. Abdominal obesity measured by WC using the Asia-Pacific criteria (IDFA) was applied for meeting the MS definition. The normal value of SFA8 was measured in the nonMS group. Relationships between SFA8 and systolic BP, diastolic BP, fasting plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were calculated in the control group. A new formula was developed according to high SFA8 and high WC. Results The normal value of SFA8 in non-MS group was 23.6±7.2 mm in male and 26.5±4.6 mm in female, respectively. The value of SFA8 in MS group was 36.7± 7.4 mm in male and 38.9 ± 8.1 mm in female, respectively. The value of WC in MS group and non-MS group were 92.5±3.0 cm and 79.4±6.1 cm in male and 86.3±6.4 cm and 74.7±5.4 cm in female, respectively. There was a correlation between SFA8 and systolic BP, diastolic BP, fasting plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride in control group (the correlation coefficients were 0.29, 0.23, 0.25, -0.31and 0.46, respectively, P

  13. Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio percentiles and central obesity among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years

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    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central obesity has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in children and anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. South Asian children have higher body fat distribution in the trunk region but the literature regarding WC and related indices is scarce in this region. The study was aimed to provide age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed percentiles, and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity, among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 primary school children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed percentile curves were constructed for WC, WHR and WHtR by the LMS method. Central obesity was defined as having both age- and gender-specific WC percentile ≥90th and WHtR ≥0.5. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of central obesity and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% CI were obtained. Linear regression was used to explore the independent determinants of WC and WHtR. Statistical significance was considered at P Results First ever age- and gender-specific smoothed WC, WHR and WHtR reference curves for Pakistani children aged five to twelve years are presented. WC increased with age among both boys and girls. Fiftieth WC percentile curves for Pakistani children were higher as compared to those for Hong Kong and British children, and were lower as compared to those for Iranian, German and Swiss children. WHR showed a plateau pattern among boys while plateau among girls until nine years of age and decreased afterwards. WHtR was age-independent among both boys and girls, and WHtR cut-off of ≥0.5 for defining central obesity corresponded

  14. Anatomical location for waist circumference measurement in older adults: a preliminary study Localización anatómica para medición de la circunferencia de la cintura en ancianos: estudio preliminar

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    R.S. Guerra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Different anatomical locations for measuring waist circumference are described in the literature but the best anatomical location for measuring waist circumference in older adults has yet to be established. Thus, an exploratory study was developed to examine which waist circumference best explains abdominal fat mass in older adults. Methods: Waist circumference was measured in the ten different anatomical locations from a sample of 51 older adults. The choice of which waist circumference measurement best associated with abdominal fat mass was evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA measurement of abdominal fat. Results: Mean waist circumference values varied from 81.9 (standard deviation (SD: 8.7 cm and 91.5 (SD: 11.2 cm for women and between 95.7 (SD: 8.2 cm and 101.5 (SD: 10.4 cm for men, according to the different anatomical locations. The coefficients of determination of the linear regression model varied from 0.545 to 0.698 (p Fundamento y objetivo: La literatura describe diferentes localizaciones anatómicas para medir la circunferencia de la cintura. Sin embargo, la mejor localización anatómica para tal medición en ancianos aun no se ha establecido. El presente estudio exploratorio pretende determinar cuál es el lugar anatómico que se asocia mejor entre la medida del perímetro de la cintura y el tejido adiposo abdominal en esta población. Método: Se midió la circunferencia de la cintura en diez lugares anatómicos diferentes, en una muestra de 51 ancianos. El tejido adiposo abdominal se determinó mediante absorciometría de doble energía de rayos X (DXA. Resultados: Los valores medios de la circunferencia de cintura, teniendo en cuenta las mediciones en distintos lugares anatómicos, variaron de 81,9 cm (desviación estándar (DE: 8,7 a 91,5 cm (DE: 11,2 entre las mujeres y de 95,7 cm (DE: 8,2 a 101,5 cm (DE: 10,4 entre los hombres. Los coeficientes de determinación del modelo de regresi

  15. Moderate agreement between body mass index and measures of waist circumference in the identification of overweight among 5-year-old children; the ‘Be active, eat right’ study

    OpenAIRE

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; Jansen, Wilma; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A.; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is a common indirect method to assess weight status among children. There is evidence that BMI data alone can underestimate overweight-related health risk and that waist circumference (WC) should also be measured. In this study we investigated the agreement between BMI and WC and BMI and the waist-height ratio (WHtR) when used to identify overweight among children. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds (n = 770...

  16. Detecting Nuchal Skinfold Thickness and Maternal Serum AFP and Free-β-HCG in Screening fetuses with Down syndrome%B超测NT联合母体血清AFP、F-β-HCG筛查胎儿唐氏综合征的临床价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢玉珏; 杨育菲; 周安连; 杨倩

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of combined detecting nuchal skinfold thickness (NT) of fetus with maternal serum AFP and F-β-HCG.Methods The NTs were detected in 300 fetus with the gestational age being 11 to 14 weeks by ultrasonography,while the maternal serum AFP and F-β-HCG were tested in 600 pregnant women with the gestational weeks of 14 to 21.Other 300 cases received NT detection at 11 to 14 weeks and maternal serum AFP and F-β-HCG tests at 14 to 21 weeks.The fetal outcomes were followed up.Results For screening the fetal abnormalities, the sensitivities of NT and maternal serum markers were 75% and 90.9% ,respectively;the specificities were 99.3% and 92.6% ,respectively.The sensitivity and specificity of combined determination of fetal NT with maternal serum screening marker were 100% and 85.1% ,respectively.Conclusion There are high sensitivity for screening fetal abnormalities with determination of fetal NT and maternal serum markers ( AFP +Free-β-HCG).The combined detection of the two methods can improve the sensitivity significantly.%目的 探讨B超测胎儿颈部软组织厚度联合母体血清标记物在筛查胎儿发育异常的临床应用价值.方法 收集300例孕11~14周超声测定胎儿颈部软组织(nuchal translucency,NT)厚度;600例孕14~21周测定母体二联血清标记物(AFP+Free-β-HCG);300例在孕11~14周既超声测定胎儿颈部软组织又于孕14~21周测定母体二联血清标记物的参加者.对其胎儿结局进行追踪.结果 胎儿NT测定和母体血清标记物用于筛查胎儿发育异常的敏感度分别为75%和90.9%,特异度分别为99.3%和92.6%.胎儿NT测定联合母体血清标记物用于筛查胎儿发育异常的敏感度为100%,特异度为85.1%.结论 胎儿NT和母体血清标记(AFP+Free-β-HCG)筛查胎儿发育异常具有较高的敏感性.两者联合敏感度更加显著.

  17. Comparison of bioelectrical impedance with skinfold thickness and X-ray absorptiometry to measure body composition in HIV-infected with lipodistrophy Comparación de impendancia bioeléctrica con grosor de pliegues cutáneos y absorciometría de rayos X para mensurar la composición corporal de personas con VIH con lipodistrofia

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    H. Siqueira Vassimon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human immunodeficiency vírus (HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (LS includes body composition and metabolic alterations. Lack of validated criteria and tools make difficult to evaluate body composition in this group. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare different methods to evaluate body composition between Brazilians HIV subjects with (HIV+LIPO+ or without LS (HIV+LIPO- and healthy subjects (Control. Methods: in a cross-sectional analyses, body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, skinfold thickness (SF and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA in 10 subjects from HIV+LIPO+ group; 22 subjects from HIV+LIPO- group and 12 from Control group. Results: There were no differences in age and body mass index (BMI between groups. The fat mass (FM (% estimated by SF did not correlate with DXA in HIV+LIPO+ group (r = 0,46/ p > 0,05 and had fair agreement in both HIV groups (HIV+LIPO+ =0,35/ HIV+ LIPO- = 0,40. BIA had significant correlation in all groups (p Introducción: El síndrome de lipodistrofia (SL asociado al virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV incluye alteraciones en la composición corporal y metabólica. La falta de herramientas adecuadas y criterios válidos dificultan la evaluación de la composición corporal en este grupo. Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue comparar distintos métodos para evaluar la composición corporal entre individuos brasileños con HIV que teniam (HIV+LIPO+ o no LS (HIV+LIPO- e individuos sanos (control. Métodos: Estudio transversal en el que fue evaluada la composición corporal por análisis de impedancia bioeléctrica (BIA, pliegues cutáneos (SF y absorciometría de rayos X de doble energía (DXA en un grupo de 10 individuos con HIV+LIPO+, 22 individuos del grupo HIV+ LIPO- y 12 individuos del grupo control. Resultados: No hubo diferencias en la edad e índice de masa corporal (IMC entre grupos. La masa grasa (MG (% estimada por SF no se correlacion

  18. Assessment of nutritional status in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: a single-center study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Reza; Sanavi, Suzan; Izadi-Khah, Akram

    2007-09-01

    Malnutrition is a relatively common problem in patients on hemodialysis (HD) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in affected patients. With the aid of subjective global assessment (SGA), a semi-quantitative scale for estimating nutritional status, the malnutrition score (MS), has been developed. The MS incorporates advantages of the SGA while extending the reliability and precision. This study was performed to assess the nutritional status in patients on HD at the Mostafa Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Based on the MS, which consists of seven components--weight change, dietary intake, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, functional capacity, comorbidity, subcutaneous fat, and muscle wasting--we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study on 54 HD patients (35 males, 19 females) with age range of 18 to 82 years (mean 44.2 +/- 19.8 years). Each component of the MS has a score from one (normal) to five (very severe). Anthropometric measurements including triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF), mid-arm circumference (MAC) and mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were taken on all patients. Also, the body mass index and TSF/MAC ratio were calculated. Relevant laboratory parameters were checked. The duration of HD of the study patients ranged between 5 and 36 months (mean 19.5 +/- 1.5 months). Data analysis was carried out using the SPSS, Pearson correlation, 't' test and regression. Based on the MS, 40.7% of patients had malnutrition (mean score 13.8 +/- 2.8). There were statistically significant correlations between TSF (p sample size and longer duration are required to confirm this observation. PMID:17679753

  19. Simple methods for nutritional status assessment in patients treated with repeated hemodialysis

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    Tirmenštajn-Janković Biserka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Protein-energy malnutrition is common in chronic hemodialysis patients and is strongly associated with increased morbidity and mortality. While determination of the nutritional status is often based on objective measurements such as biochemical parameters and anthropometric measurements, there is no single measurement that can reliably identify risk for malnutrition. Material and methods A subjective global assessment (SGA was performed to evaluate the nutritional status in 43 chronic dialysis patients (27 men and 16 women. Anthropometric measurements including body weight (BW, body mass index (BMI, skin-fold thickness (triceps-TS, biceps-BS, subscapular-SSS, suprailiac-SIS, mid-arm circumference (MAC; mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC; body fat percentage (%BF; total body fat (TBF; lean body mass (LBM and laboratory parameters (total proteins, albumins, transferrin, hemoglobin, lymphocytes. Results According to SGA, patients were divided into three groups: first group of 23 pts with a normal nutritional status, second group of 11 pts with mild malnutrition and third group of 9 pts with moderate or severe malnutrition. In examined groups there was a significant decrease in total protein (p = 0.02, serum albumin (p = 0.000 and hemoglobin (p = 0.04 levels with an increase in SGA scores (oneway ANOVA. In the same way, SGA was correlated with the number of anthropometric parameters (BW, BMI, TS, SSS, SIS, MAC, MAMC, % BF, TBF, LBM. Conclusion Our data confirmed a high prevalence of malnutrition in hemodialysis patients and showed that SGA closely correlated with more objective measures. Being an inexpensive method of well-proven realibility, SGA can be recommended for a more frequent assessment of nutritional status in dialysis patients.

  20. Comparison of the Effects of Swimming and Tai Chi Chuan on Body Fat Composition in Elderly People

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    Tung-Yang Yu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulation of fat and substantial loss of muscle mass are common phenomenain the elderly. In this study, we observed the effects of Tai ChiChuan (TCC and swimming, two exercises suitable for elderly people, onthe percentage body fat and fat distribution by measuring subcutaneous adiposetissue thickness and body composition.Methods: Subjects were divided into three groups: regular swimmers (n = 20, regularTCC practitioners (n = 32, and age-matched control subjects (n = 31.Subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness was taken using a Lange skinfoldcaliper at the chests, abdomens, and thighs in the men, and the triceps,suprailium, and thighs in the women. Mid-arm circumference (MAC wasmeasured on the non-dominant upper arm using fiberglass tape. Body compositionwas analyzed using the Inbody 3.0 logo, a bioelectrical impedanceanalysis (BIA system.Results: No significant differences were found between the three test groups in relationto total body adiposity and arm muscle circumference in the men andwomen. There was significantly less subcutaneous adipose tissue at theabdomen (p = 0.011 and thigh (p < 0.001 of TCC-group men and at thethighs (p < 0.001 of the swimming group compared with the control group.In women, only the thigh skinfold (p = 0.002 showed a decrease in the TCCgroup compared with the control group.Conclusion: Swimming and TCC may not decrease total fat adiposity in elderly men andwomen, however, they may change body fat distribution due to certain musclegroup usage. The differences observed in the effects of exercise on bodyfat distribution between elderly women and men may be gender-related.

  1. Nutritional status at presentation, comparison of assessment tools, and importance of arm anthropometry in children with cancer in India

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    P Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, approximately 40,000 new cases of cancer in children are diagnosed each year. However, there are no good studies analyzing their nutritional status. Also, since accurate and sensitive nutritional assessment is critical for optimal clinical outcomes through timely remediation of malnutrition, it is important to assess the relative sensitivity and feasibility of commonly used nutritional screening tools. Methods: This observational study analyzed height/length (cm, weight (kg, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC, triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT as well as their Z-scores or percentiles, albumin levels and history of weight loss at diagnosis in children aged 2–15 years being treated for cancer between November 2008 to December 2013. Body mass index (BMI and arm muscle circumference (AMC were calculated respectively from height and weight, and MUAC and TSFT. Results: A total of 1693 new patients were enrolled; 1187 had all anthropometric measurements performed. The prevalence of malnutrition was 38%, 57%, 76%, 69% and 81% on the basis of BMI, TSFT, MUAC, AMC, and arm TSFT + MUAC respectively with the highest prevalence in solid abdominal tumours. Addition of BMI and serum albumin to arm anthropometry increased the proportion classified as severely nutritionally depleted by a mere 2% & 1.5% respectively. Positive history of significant weight loss additionally identified 16.5% at nutritional risk over arm anthropometry. Conclusions: The prevalence of malnutrition in Indian children with cancer at presentation is very high ranging from 40% and 80% depending on the method used for assessment, being higher with MUAC and lowest with BMI. Either MUAC alone or TSFT + MUAC (wherever feasible should be used for screening for malnutrition in children with cancer at diagnosis to plan timely nutritional interventions, reduce the treatment-related morbidity and optimise their chance of long-term cure.

  2. Sympathoadrenal Reactivity to Stress as a Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk Factors

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    Flaa A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is much uncertainty about the pathophysiology of essential hypertension. One possible cause may be alterations in the autonomic nervous system, which plays an important role in the normal physiological regulation of pressure. Therefore, we studied the relationship between resting blood pressure and arterial plasma catecholamines, cardiovascular and sympathetic reactivities, and cardiovascular risk factors in young men (aged 19 years with low, normal, and high blood pressures, who were unaware of their blood pressure status. In the initial cross-sectional study, lower blood pressure was associated with a better lipoprotein profile, lower fructosamine concentration, and waist-hip-ratio. Mental stress test was the only test that induced differential responses between the 3 blood pressure groups, where the high blood pressure group showed the most and the low blood pressure group the least pronounced response in blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma catecholamines. Adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations during mental stress test were significant predictors of future systolic blood pressure in a follow- up study over 18 years, while plasma catecholamine levels at rest and during the cold pressor test did not show significant associations with later blood pressure. Noradrenaline response to mental stress was a weak positive predictor for future waist circumference. None of the other parameters during rest or cold pressor test were significantly related to changes in Body Mass Index, waist circumference, or triceps skinfold thickness. Noradrenaline response to the cold pressor test was positively related to fasting plasma glucose and HOMA-IR at followup in univariate analyses. In the multiple regression analyses, noradrenaline response was an independent positive predictor of HOMA-IR. There were no significant associations with plasma catecholamines at rest or during mental stress test. Thus, reactivity of the sympathetic nervous system is

  3. Nutritional assessment in hepatic cirrhosis; clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and hematological parameters

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    Patricia M. Vieira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since malnutrition is common in patients with hepatic cirrhosis (HC is necessary to investigate the interference of the pathophysiological changes of liver in the methods of diagnosis of the nutritional status. Objective: To evaluate the frequency of malnutrition among patients with HC outpatients, using different assessment methods of the nutritional state. Methods: Nutritional state was determined by subjective global assessment (SGA; body mass index (BMI; percentage of ideal body weight (%BW; triceps skinfold thickness (%TST, mid-arm circumference (%MAC and of the ideal mid-arm muscle circumference (%MAMC; serum albumin (ALB and total lymphocyte count (TLC. Results: Seventy-eight patients were evaluated, 56.4% were male and mean age were 53.0 ± 7.7 years. The HC etiology was alcoholic in 56.4% of the cases. According to the classification of Child-Pugh, 48.7% were A, 26.9% were B and 24.4% were C. Variable degrees of malnutrition were diagnosed in 61.5% (SGA, 16.7% (BMI, 17.9% (%BW, 93.6% (%TST, 62.8% (%MAC and 38.5% (%MAMC of the patients. The levels of ALB and TLC were compatible with malnutrition diagnosis in 43.6% and 69.2% of the patients, respectively. The frequency of diagnosis of malnutrition increased according to the severity of HC and it also increased in patients with alcoholic etiology. A greater depletion of adipose tissue in women and of muscular tissue in men was demonstrated. Conclusions: The diagnostic frequency of malnutrition in ambulatory-treated patients varies according to the nutritional evaluation method used. The prevalence of malnutrition is greater in the more advanced stages of HC and in alcoholic etiology.

  4. Curva de crescimento do diâmetro biparietal e da circunferência cefálica na gestação gemelar Growth curve of the biparietal diameter and head circumference in twin gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Marie Fujita

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar curvas e tabelas de crescimento do diâmetro biparietal médio e da circunferência cefálica média em relação à idade gestacional de gestações gemelares e analisar eventuais diferenças com as existentes para fetos únicos e gêmeos. Métodos: por meio de exames ultra-sonográficos realizados a cada duas ou três semanas por um único observador em 34 pacientes com gestação gemelar sem patologias feto-maternas foi possível estabelecer curvas e tabelas do diâmetro biparietal médio e da circunferência cefálica média em relação a idade gestacional. Os valores destes parâmetros biométricos foram comparados aos descritos pela literatura para fetos únicos e gêmeos. Resultados: foram obtidas curvas e tabelas do diâmetro biparietal e da circunferência cefálica em relação a idade gestacional. O crescimento do diâmetro biparietal e da circunferência cefálica se revelou menor no terceiro trimestre em relação aos observados por Hadlock et al.15 para gestação única. A diferença entre os valores médios foi 6 mm (diâmetro biparietal e 2,0 cm (circunferência cefálica na 39ª semana de gestação. Foram observadas também algumas diferenças em relação a outros estudos de gestações gemelares. Conclusão: este estudo sugeriu que as curvas e tabelas de crescimento do diâmetro biparietal médio e da circunferência cefálica média de gestações únicas não são apropriadas para avaliação de gestações gemelares da população analisada principalmente no terceiro trimestre.Purpose: to estimate growth curves and tables of average biparietal diameter and average head circumference of twin gestations and to compare them with published growth curves for singletons and twins. Methods: growth curves and tables of average biparietal diameter and average head circumference were obtained from sonographic examinations of 34 patients with twin gestations without maternal and fetal complications. Sonographic

  5. Waist circumference in the prediction of obesity-related adverse pregnancy outcomes Circunferência da cintura na predição de desfechos adversos da gestação relacionados à obesidade

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    Eliana M. D. R. Wendland

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic properties of waist circumference in the prediction of obesity-related gestational outcomes. Pregnant women 20 years or older were consecutively enrolled in six Brazilian State capitals from 1991 to 1995. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Patients were followed through childbirth by chart review. Diagnostic performance for the different outcomes, as measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, was estimated through logistic regression. Areas under the ROC curve (95%CI for waist circumference were 0.621(0.589-0.652 for gestational diabetes, 0.640 (0.588-0.692 for preeclampsia, and 0.645(0.617-0.673 for macrosomia. These areas were similar to those for BMI (p > 0.05. A waist circumference of 82cm jointly maximized sensitivity (63% and specificity (57%. Cutoff points of 23kg/m² for pre-pregnancy BMI and 26kg/m² for BMI at enrollment produced similar diagnostic properties. In conclusion, waist circumference predicts obesity-related adverse pregnancy outcomes at least as well as BMI.O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar as propriedades diagnósticas da circunferência da cintura na predição de desfechos adversos da gestação relacionados à obesidade. Gestantes com 20 ou mais anos de idade, foram arroladas consecutivamente, entre 20 e 28 semanas de gestação, em seis capitais do Brasil, entre 1991 e 1995. Peso, altura e circunferência da cintura foram aferidos e um teste de tolerância à glicose foi realizado. As pacientes foram acompanhadas até o parto através de revisão de prontuários. Propriedades diagnósticas para os diferentes desfechos, mensurados através da área sob a curva Receiver Operator Charactheristic (ROC, foram estimadas por regressão logística. Áreas (IC95% sob as curvas ROC para a cintura foram 0,621 (0,589-0,652 para diabetes gestacional, 0,640 (0,588-0,692 para pr

  6. Relationship between neck circumference and insulin resistance in a community population%社区非糖尿病人群颈围和胰岛素抵抗的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉; 梁军; 腾飞; 邹彩艳; 刘学奎; 张倩; 卞文; 李洪艳; 邱勤勤

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析和探索中国社区人群健康成人的颈围和胰岛素抵抗的相关性.方法 选择常住江苏徐州地区的社Ⅸ健康人群2 31 8名为研究对象,检测受试者颈围、身高、腰围、臀围、体重和甘油三酯、总胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(H DL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、空腹血糖和餐后2 h血糖等相关生化指标.胰岛素抵抗以稳态模型评估的胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)来评价.结果 颈围和年龄、体重指数(BMI)、腰围、臀围、腰臀比、收缩压、舒张压、甘油三酯、总胆固醇、LDL-C、尿酸正相关,与HDL-C负相关.校正年龄和其他心血管代谢危险因素后,无论男性和女性,颈围和HOMA-IR的增加趋势显著相关,进一步校正BMI和腰围后,这种相关性并没有明显变化.颈围和BMI或腰围对HOMA-IR有显著的叠加作用(P<0.01);在较大BMI和较大腰围的个体,颈围和HOMA-IR的相关性更明显.结论 在中国健康成人中,颈围和胰岛素抵抗、心血管代谢危险因素独立相关,并且和BMI、腰围有交互作用.%Objective To investigate the relationship between neck circumference (NC) and insulin resistance in a large Chinese cohort of community population.Methods A total of 2 318 subjects in this study were from a community-based health examination survey in Xuzhou.Serum triglyceride(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C),low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C),and glucose levels were determined.NC,height,waist circumference (WC),hip circumference,and body weight were measured.Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index.Results NC was positively correlated with age,body mass index(BMI),WC,hip circumference,waist-to-hip ratio,systolic blood pressure,diastolic blood pressure,uric acid,TC,TG,LDL-C,while negatively correlated with HDL-C.NC was significantly associated with increasing trend of HOMA

  7. Smoking cessation early in pregnancy and birth weight, length, head circumference, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in umbilical and chorionic vessels: an observational study of healthy singleton pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene R; Simonsen, Ulf; Uldbjerg, Niels;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced production of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) in fetal vessels in pregnant smokers may lower the blood flow to the fetus and result in lower birth weight, length, and head circumference. The present study measured endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity in fetal umbilical and...... chorionic vessels from nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers and related the findings to the fetal outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 266 healthy, singleton pregnancies, 182 women were nonsmokers, 43 were smokers, and 41 stopped smoking early in pregnancy. eNOS activity and concentration were quantified in...... endothelial cells of the fetal vessels. Cotinine, lipid profiles, estradiol, l-arginine, and dimethylarginines that may affect NO production were determined in maternal and fetal blood. Serum cotinine verified self-reported smoking. Newborns of smokers had a lower weight (P< or =0.001) and a smaller head...

  8. OBESITY LEVELS OF ADULT WOMEN AND MEN IN CITY CENTRE OF SİVAS / SİVAS İL MERKEZİNDE YETİŞKİN KADIN VE ERKEKLERDE OBEZİTE DEĞERLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Gülüşan ÖZGÜN BAŞIBÜYÜK

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rational differences of anthropometric measurements of people belonging low, medium and high socioeconomic status who are over 20 years old and living in Sivas (Turkey was investigated. Effects of environmental properties such as socioeconomic status for all age groups and gender were evaluated and compared with other studies done in our country. Also, it is thought that anthropometric data obtained in this study will contribute to various studies (health, education, e.g. related to this age groups. For this study, it was measured of 500 female and 500 male (total 1000 individuals living in city centre of Sivas. However for both gender, for every age group 50 individual were included in statistical measurement. According to International Biological Programme, 7 anthropometric measurements were taken: these include Weight, Height, Triceps, Biceps, Subscapular, Supraspinale and Calf Skinfold Thickness. The measurements of statistical analyses were made by SPSS 13.0 programme. With the help of these anthropometric measurements, Body Mass Index (kg/ m2 and waist circumference / hip circumference were calculated. Also, average values obtained with the help of SPSS programme was used to produce smooth graphs applying Kalidegraph™ 3.51 programme. According to our findings in female individuals average value of height is 1542.97 mm; in males this value is 1679.58 mm. With regard to height, discrimination of gender is clearly remarkable in all age of group. It was also determined that there is positive secular trend on height. In addition, while value of average weight is 72.08 kg in female individuals, this value is 78.94 kg in males. Body Mass Index is 30.43 kg/ m2 in female; it is 27.99 kg/m2 in males. Also, while value of average waist circumference / hip circumference is 0.83 in female individuals, this value is 0.93 in males. At this situation, our female and male individuals show that they have values closer to risk groups for

  9. Morphological Characteristics of Professional Ballet Dancers of the Bolshoi Theater Company

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro Ferrari, Elisa; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Rebolho Martins, Cilene; Fidelix, Yara Lucy; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the morphological profile of professional dancers compared with university physical education students. Thirty-five subjects were evaluated as follows: 13 professional ballet dancers of the Bolshoi Theater Company, six males and seven females, and 22 university physical education students, 11 males and 11 females. Body mass, height, skinfold (triceps, biceps, subscapular, chest, axilla, supraspinale, Iliac crest, abdominal, Front thigh, medial calf)...

  10. 大学陸上競技部員における身体的特徴の多様性

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    藤木, 雄也; 高崎, 裕治; FUJIKI, Yuya; TAKASAKI, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Morphological and physiological characteristics were examined in 15 college male students training in the track and field club. Subjects were classified into four groups depending on their chosen event, that is, throwers, sprinters, distance runners, and jumpers. Morphological characteristics were measured on height, body weight, girth at chest, upper arm and thigh, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness. Physiological characteristics were determined on maximal anaerobic power, back s...

  11. ネパール王国西北部山岳地に居住するタカリ族の形態および最大酸素摂取量

    OpenAIRE

    大柿, 哲朗; 吉水, 浩; 川崎, 晃一; 伊藤, 和枝

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical characteristics and maximal aerobic power (MAP) of the Thakali tribe, which lives in the mountainous area of the Mustang district, in the Western region of Nepal. A total of 222 males and 209 females, aged from 20 to 80, participated in this study. The measurements of their physique were carried out for body height, body weight and skinfold thickness (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, umbilical and calf). The percentage of body fat(%Fa...

  12. Length of urban residence and obesity among within-country rural-to-urban Andean migrants

    OpenAIRE

    Antiporta, DA; Smeeth, L.; GILMAN, RH; Miranda, Jj

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between length of residence in an urban area and obesity among Peruvian rural-to-urban migrants. Design Cross-sectional database analysis of the migrant group from the PERU MIGRANT Study (2007). Exposure was length of urban residence, analysed as both a continuous (10-year units) and a categorical variable. Four skinfold site measurements (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac) were used to calculate body fat percentage and obesity (body fat percent...

  13. Somatotype of Competitive Youth Soccer Players From Brazil

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    Fidelix Yara Lucy; Berria Juliane; Ferrari Elisa Pinheiro; Ortiz Jaelson Gonçalves; Cetolin Tiago; Petroski Edio Luiz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the morphological configuration of youth athletes from professional soccer clubs and to verify their differences according to the tactical position on the field. Overall, 67 male players aged 15 to 17 years were evaluated. The examined anthropometric measurements included body mass, body height, skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, supraspinal and medial calf), girths (flexed and tensed arm and calf) and breadths (humerus and femur). For statistical purposes,...

  14. Relative contributions of strength, anthropometric, and body composition characteristics to estimated propulsive force in young male swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Kristen C; Housh, Terry J; Smith, Cory M; Hill, Ethan C; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Johnson, Glen O; Housh, Dona J; Schmidt, Richard J; Cramer, Joel T

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of isokinetic forearm flexion (FLX) and extension (EXT) peak torque (PT) at 180°·s, height (HT), percent body fat (%BF), and fat-free mass (FFM) to the prediction of estimated propulsive force (EPF) and which of these variables should be a focus of training in young male swimmers. Thirty young male swimmers (mean age ± SD = 12.4 ± 2.7 years) volunteered for this study. The subjects were members of local swimming clubs who competed in the front crawl. The swimmers were measured for FLX and EXT PT at 180°·s, HT, body mass (BM), arm muscle area (AMA), arm circumference, triceps skinfold, %BF, and FFM. Arm muscle area was used to calculate EPF. Zero-order correlations and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of FLX, EXT, HT, %BF, and FFM to the prediction of EPF. Forearm flexion PT at 180°·s, EXT, BM, HT, FFM, AMA, and EPF were significantly intercorrelated (r = 0.83-1.00). In addition, 4 variables contributed significantly to the prediction of EPF (standardized regression coefficients = FFM [1.00], FLX [0.92], EXT [-0.62], and HT [-0.35]). Percent body fat did not contribute to any of the stepwise models. These findings suggested that age-related increases in HT and FFM, as well as training for increases in FLX and EXT strength may improve propulsive force and swimming performance in young male swimmers. PMID:25785708

  15. Type 2 Diabetes Family Histories, Body Composition and Fasting Glucose Levels: A Cross-Section Analysis in Healthy Sedentary Male and Female

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    Antonino Bianco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes type 2 is a world wide spread disease with a multifactorial pathogenetic evolution. Various factors like obesity, physical inactivity and poor lifestyle habits contribute to its development. The aim of this study was to verify if in young healthy sedentary male and female there is positive correlation between family history to type 2 diabetes and an increase in body weight and fat mass, or alterations in basal glycemia values.Methods: Totally183 male and 237 female healthy sedentary subjects were analysed in 2012, in Italy. They were divided in three groups: FH+ with first degree family history, FH++with second degree family history and FH- with no family history. Anthropometrics, body composition and blood parameters were assessed.Results: Male had the highest BMI values (P<0.01. FH+ and FH++ had increased waist and hip circumferences and body weight (P<0.005 for men, P<0.0001 for women, body mass index (P< 0.0001 in both sexes, waist-hip ratio (P< 0.05 for men and women and triceps skinfold (P< 0.0005 for both sexes. Obesity incidence was higher in FH+ and FH++ compared to control groups.Conclusions: The study confirms family history to diabetes type 2 as a risk factor for the development of the illness, mainly in a case of first degree of FH. Preventive interventions are necessary to promote significant life-style changes, such as increased physical activity and controlled quantity and quality of food intake.

  16. The Effects of Different Exercise Programmes on Female Body Composition

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    Soares Costa de Mendonça Rosa Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of 16 weeks of practicing different exercise programmes on body composition. This is an exploratory and descriptive study of 89 women aged 25 to 55 years (41.42 ± 9.23 years. The subjects were randomly divided into three experimental groups (EG: practitioners of strength training (SG, dance (DG, hydrogymnastics (HG, and a control group (CG with sedentary women. Measurements of body mass and height, circumferences of the chest, waist, abdomen, hips, thighs, calves, and skinfolds of the triceps, suprailiac and thigh were registered in three different moments: prior to the commencement of the training program, again after 8 weeks of training, and finally after 16 weeks of training. Body density was estimated by using the trifold protocol by Jackson, Pollock and Ward. The ANOVA and deltas of change (Δ% were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. The effects of greater statistical significance on body composition related the variables "time", "group" and the interaction between the two (time x group were observed for the percentage of fat - F% (F (1.79, 152.52 = 24.59, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.22, fat mass - FM (F (1.75, 149.01 = 12.65, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.13 and lean mass - LM (F (1.77, 150.66 = 47.38, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.36. The HG and SG were more beneficial in reducing F%. It was observed that the EG indicated healthier anthropometric aspects compared to the CG, regardless of the type of exercise programmes practiced. The time factor was more representative over the effects of exercise on anthropometric dimensions.

  17. Normal weight obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in young adults from a middle-income country.

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    Francilene B Madeira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This population-based birth cohort study examined whether normal weight obesity is associated with metabolic disorders in young adults in a middle-income country undergoing rapid nutrition transition. DESIGN AND METHODS: The sample involved 1,222 males and females from the 1978/79 Ribeirão Preto birth cohort, Brazil, aged 23-25 years. NWO was defined as body mass index (BMI within the normal range (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2 and the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds above the sex-specific 90th percentiles of the study sample. It was also defined as normal BMI and % BF (body fat >23% in men and >30% in women. Insulin resistance (IR, insulin sensitivity and secretion were based on the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA model. RESULTS: In logistic models, after adjusting for age, sex and skin colour, NWO was significantly associated with Metabolic Syndrome (MS according to the Joint Interim Statement (JIS definition (Odds Ratio OR = 6.83; 95% Confidence Interval CI 2.84-16.47. NWO was also associated with HOMA2-IR (OR = 3.81; 95%CI 1.57-9.28, low insulin sensitivity (OR = 3.89; 95%CI 2.39-6.33, and high insulin secretion (OR = 2.17; 95%CI 1.24-3.80. Significant associations between NWO and some components of the MS were also detected: high waist circumference (OR = 8.46; 95%CI 5.09-14.04, low High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 1.65; 95%CI 1.11-2.47 and high triglyceride levels (OR = 1.93; 95%CI 1.02-3.64. Most estimates changed little after further adjustment for early and adult life variables. CONCLUSIONS: NWO was associated with MS and IR, suggesting that clinical assessment of excess body fat in normal-BMI individuals should begin early in life even in middle-income countries.

  18. Lifestyle Triple P: a parenting intervention for childhood obesity

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    Gerards Sanne MPL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reversing the obesity epidemic requires the development and evaluation of childhood obesity intervention programs. Lifestyle Triple P is a parent-focused group program that addresses three topics: nutrition, physical activity, and positive parenting. Australian research has established the efficacy of Lifestyle Triple P, which aims to prevent excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The aim of the current randomized controlled trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention when applied to Dutch parents of overweight and obese children aged 4–8 years. This effectiveness study is called GO4fit. Methods/Design Parents of overweight and obese children are being randomized to either the intervention or the control group. Those assigned to the intervention condition receive the 14-week Lifestyle Triple P intervention, in which they learn a range of nutritional, physical activity and positive parenting strategies. Parents in the control group receive two brochures, web-based tailored advice, and suggestions for exercises to increase active playing at home. Measurements are taken at baseline, directly after the intervention, and at one year follow-up. Primary outcome measure is the children’s body composition, operationalized as BMI z-score, waist circumference, and fat mass (biceps and triceps skinfolds. Secondary outcome measures are children’s dietary behavior and physical activity level, parenting practices, parental feeding style, parenting style, parental self-efficacy, and body composition of family members (parents and siblings. Discussion Our intervention is characterized by a focus on changing general parenting styles, in addition to focusing on changing specific parenting practices, as obesity interventions typically do. Strengths of the current study are the randomized design, the long-term follow-up, and the broad range of both self-reported and objectively measured

  19. A validated disease specific prediction equation for resting metabolic rate in underweight patients with COPD

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    Anita Nordenson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Anita Nordenson2, Anne Marie Grönberg1,2, Lena Hulthén1, Sven Larsson2, Frode Slinde11Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; 2Department of Internal Medicine/Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, SwedenAbstract: Malnutrition is a serious condition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Successful dietary intervention calls for calculations of resting metabolic rate (RMR. One disease-specific prediction equation for RMR exists based on mainly male patients. To construct a disease-specific equation for RMR based on measurements in underweight or weight-losing women and men with COPD, RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry in 30 women and 11 men with a diagnosis of COPD and body mass index <21 kg/m2. The following variables, possibly influencing RMR were measured: length, weight, middle upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold, body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance, lung function, and markers of inflammation. Relations between RMR and measured variables were studied using univariate analysis according to Pearson. Gender and variables that were associated with RMR with a P value <0.15 were included in a forward multiple regression analysis. The best-fit multiple regression equation included only fat-free mass (FFM: RMR (kJ/day = 1856 + 76.0 FFM (kg. To conclude, FFM is the dominating factor influencing RMR. The developed equation can be used for prediction of RMR in underweight COPD patients.Keywords: pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, basal metabolic rate, malnutrition, body composition

  20. Associação entre insatisfação com a imagem corporal e indicadores antropométricos em adolescentes Association between body image dissatisfaction and anthropometric indicators in adolescents

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    Maria Fátima Glaner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi verificar a associação entre a insatisfação com a imagem corporal, o índice de massa corporal (IMC, a adiposidade corporal e a obesidade abdominal em adolescentes. Participaram 637 adolescentes (11-17 anos de ambos os sexos. Foram medidos massa corporal, estatura, perímetro do abdômen, dobras cutâneas do tríceps e perna medial e, coletadas informações referentes a imagem corporal. O IMC, a obesidade abdominal e a adiposidade corporal foram usados como referência em relação ao desfecho. A prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal foi de 60% (rapazes = 54,3%, moças = 65,2%; p The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between body image dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI, body adiposity and abdominal obesity in adolescents. A total of 637 adolescent boys and girls (11-17 years participated. Measures of body weight, height, waist circumference, triceps and medial calf skinfold thickness and, body image were collected. BMI, abdominal obesity and body adiposity were used as references in relation to the outcome. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was 60% (boys = 54.3%; girls = 65.2%, p < 0.05. Boys with a low BMI and abdominal obesity presented a 4.31 and 4.93 times higher probability of body image dissatisfaction, respectively. In girls, the probability of body dissatisfaction was 6.81 and 1.95 times higher among those with a high BMI and high body adiposity, respectively. Low BMI and abdominal obesity were associated with body image dissatisfaction in boys, whereas in girls an association was observed with high BMI and high body adiposity.

  1. The association of maternal vitamin D status with infant birth outcomes, postnatal growth and adiposity in the first 2 years of life in a multi-ethnic Asian population: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Yi Lin; Quah, Phaik Ling; Tint, Mya Thway; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chen, Ling Wei; van Dam, Rob M; Heppe, Denise; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Foong-Fong Chong, Mary

    2016-08-01

    Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with infant birth and postnatal growth outcomes, but reported findings have been inconsistent, especially in relation to postnatal growth and adiposity outcomes. In a mother-offspring cohort in Singapore, maternal plasma vitamin D was measured between 26 and 28 weeks of gestation, and anthropometric measurements were obtained from singleton offspring during the first 2 years of life with 3-month follow-up intervals to examine birth, growth and adiposity outcomes. Associations were analysed using multivariable linear regression. Of a total of 910 mothers, 13·2 % were vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/l) and 26·5 % were insufficient (50-75 nmol/l). After adjustment for potential confounders and multiple testing, no statistically significant associations were observed between maternal vitamin D status and any of the birth outcomes - small for gestational age (OR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·56, 1·79) and pre-term birth (OR 1·16; 95 % CI 0·64, 2·11) - growth outcomes - weight-for-age z-scores, length-for-age z-scores, circumferences of the head, abdomen and mid-arm at birth or postnatally - and adiposity outcomes - BMI, and skinfold thickness (triceps, biceps and subscapular) at birth or postnatally. Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy did not influence infant birth outcomes, postnatal growth and adiposity outcomes in this cohort, perhaps due to the low prevalence (1·6 % of the cohort) of severe maternal vitamin D deficiency (defined as of <30·0 nmol/l) in our population. PMID:27339329

  2. Risk factors for nutritional status determination and indications for preventive nutrition therapy in hospitalized gastroenterological patients

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    Roganović Branka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Risk factors for the intrahospital nutritional status worsening (NSW have not been precisely defined in the literature. The objective was defining thoese factors among gastroenterological patients and defining the risk patients requiring a preventive nutritional therapy. Methods. In 650 gastroenterological patients, NSW was evaluated on the basis of reducing of the six parameters: body weight, body mass index (BMI, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF, midupper arm muscle circumference (MAMC, serum albumin level (ALB, and lymphocyte count (LYM. The influence on NSW was tested for 13 factors concerning characteristics of the patient, disease, and diagnostic procedures. Among the factors influencing significantly the NSW, primary and secondary risk factors were selected. After scoring of risk factors had been performed, the risk-score for NSW (RSNSW was defined. The critical value of RSNSW which required preventive nutritional therapy was also calculated. Results. The incidence of NSW was in the range 29.2%−57.9%. The presence of general complications and severe disease activity were considered as primary risk factors, whereas malignant disease, age above 71, hepato-billiary tract involvement, hospitalization longer than 14 days, and mobility worsening were considered as secondary risk factors. The best predictive value for the NSW was proved for the RSNSW ≥ 6. Because of that, preventive nutritional therapy should be indicated in patients presenting with both primary risk factors or in patients presenting with one primary factor combined with three secondary risk factors at least. Conclusion. There are 7 risk factors for NSW in gastroenterological patients, but they are not of the same importance - two primary and five secondary risk factors can be differentiated. Preventive nutritional therapy is indicated only in patients having both primary risk factors or in those presenting with one primary risk factor combined with three

  3. Surrogate markers of visceral adiposity in young adults: waist circumference and body mass index are more accurate than waist hip ratio, model of adipose distribution and visceral adiposity index.

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    Susana Borruel

    Full Text Available Surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity, a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, are routinely used in clinical practice because objective measurements of visceral adiposity are expensive, may involve exposure to radiation, and their availability is limited. We compared several surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity with ultrasound assessment of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots in 99 young Caucasian adults, including 20 women without androgen excess, 53 women with polycystic ovary syndrome, and 26 men. Obesity was present in 7, 21, and 7 subjects, respectively. We obtained body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, model of adipose distribution (MOAD, visceral adiposity index (VAI, and ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots and hepatic steatosis. WC and BMI showed the strongest correlations with ultrasound measurements of visceral adiposity. Only WHR correlated with sex hormones. Linear stepwise regression models including VAI were only slightly stronger than models including BMI or WC in explaining the variability in the insulin sensitivity index (yet BMI and WC had higher individual standardized coefficients of regression, and these models were superior to those including WHR and MOAD. WC showed 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.88-0.99 and BMI showed 0.91 (0.85-0.98 probability of identifying the presence of hepatic steatosis according to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, WC and BMI not only the simplest to obtain, but are also the most accurate surrogate markers of visceral adiposity in young adults, and are good indicators of insulin resistance and powerful predictors of the presence of hepatic steatosis.

  4. The relationship of high sensitivity C-reactive protein to percent body fat mass, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference in a Taiwanese population

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    Lin Wen-Yuan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP is an easily measured inflammatory biomarker. This study compared the association of percent body fat mass (%FM, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR with hs-CRP in a Taiwanese population. Methods A total of 1669 subjects aged 40-88 years were recruited in 2004 in a metropolitan city in Taiwan. The relationships between obesity indicators and a high level of hs-CRP were examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The upper quartile of the hs-CRP distributions was defined as the high category group. The areas under the curve (AUCs of the receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated for all obesity indicators to compare their relative ability to correctly classify subjects with a high level of hs-CRP. Results After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratio for %FM was the only significant indicator that was associated with a high level of hs-CRP in men (1.55, 95% CI: 1.07-2.25. All indicators were associated with a high level of hs-CRP in women. In men, the AUCs for %FM were significantly higher than those for BMI, WHR, and WC, when demographic and lifestyle behaviors were considered (p Conclusions Our study demonstrates that %FM is the only obesity indicator that is strongly associated with a high level of hs-CRP after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle behaviors and components of metabolic syndrome in both genders in a Taiwanese population aged forty years and over. In men, %FM had the greatest ability to classify subjects with a high level of hs-CRP when only demographic and lifestyle behaviors were considered. Our study finding has important implications for the screening of obesity in community settings.

  5. Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Tests among Colombian Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Rodrigues-Bezerra, Diogo; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Izquierdo, Mikel; Lobelo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that youth physical fitness levels are an important marker of lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health profiles and predict future risk of chronic diseases. The reliability physical fitness tests have not been explored in Latino-American youth population. This study’s aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in the Colombian health promotion “Fuprecol study”. Participants were 229 Colombian youth (boys n = 124 and girls n = 105) aged 9 to 17.9 years old. Five components of health-related physical fitness were measured: 1) morphological component: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat (%) via impedance; 2) musculoskeletal component: handgrip and standing long jump test; 3) motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run); 4) flexibility component (hamstring and lumbar extensibility, sit-and-reach test); 5) cardiorespiratory component: 20-meter shuttle-run test (SRT) to estimate maximal oxygen consumption. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week, except for the SRT which was performed only once. Intra-observer technical errors of measurement (TEMs) and inter-rater (reliability) were assessed in the morphological component. Reliability for the Musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness components was examined using Bland–Altman tests. For the morphological component, TEMs were small and reliability was greater than 95% of all cases. For the musculoskeletal, motor, flexibility and cardiorespiratory components, we found adequate reliability patterns in terms of systematic errors (bias) and random error (95% limits of agreement). When the fitness assessments were performed twice, the systematic error was nearly 0 for all tests, except for the sit and reach (mean difference: -1.03% [95% CI = -4.35% to -2.28%]. The results from this study indicate that the

  6. Evolução de parâmetros antropométricos em portadores do vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana ou com Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida: um estudo prospectivo Changes in the anthropometric parameters of patients with the Human Immunodeficiency virus or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: a prospective study

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    Maíra Ladeia Rodrigues Curti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional e a evolução de parâmetros antropométricos para alterações morfológicas em pacientes vivendo com o vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana ou com Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida em uso de terapia antirretroviral de alta atividade. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo de coorte prospectiva com duração de 12 meses, envolvendo indivíduos adultos, de ambos os sexos, em terapia antirretroviral recém introduzida. Os indicadores antropométricos estudados foram índice de massa corporal, circunferência de cintura, dobras cutâneas subescapular, biciptal e triciptal, avaliados com intervalos de três meses, totalizando 4 medidas do tempo. Variáveis foram descritas segundo mediana e percentis 25 e 75 e analisadas por ANOVA para medidas repetidas. RESULTADOS: A população estudada foi composta por 53 indivíduos, a maioria do sexo masculino (81%, entre 30 e 39 anos. Apenas a dobra cutânea subescapular apresentou significante variação no tempo (T1=13,7 vs T4=16,0; pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status and changes in the anthropometric indicators of patients with the human Immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome using the highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: This is a 12-month prospective cohort study of adult males and females who recently started antiretroviral therapy. The anthropometric indicators studied were body mass index, waist circumference and subscapular, biceps and triceps skinfold thicknesses, taken 4 times during the year in 3-month intervals. The variables were described according to medians and 25 and 75 percentiles and analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measurements. RESULTS: The studied population consisted of 53 patients, mostly males (81% aged 30 to 39 years. Only subscapular skinfold thickness changed significantly over time (T1=13.70 vs T4=16.00, p<0.001, indicating cervical lipohypertrophy (buffalo hump. CONCLUSION

  7. Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Tests among Colombian Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study.

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    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence indicates that youth physical fitness levels are an important marker of lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health profiles and predict future risk of chronic diseases. The reliability physical fitness tests have not been explored in Latino-American youth population. This study's aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in the Colombian health promotion "Fuprecol study". Participants were 229 Colombian youth (boys n = 124 and girls n = 105 aged 9 to 17.9 years old. Five components of health-related physical fitness were measured: 1 morphological component: height, weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat (% via impedance; 2 musculoskeletal component: handgrip and standing long jump test; 3 motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run; 4 flexibility component (hamstring and lumbar extensibility, sit-and-reach test; 5 cardiorespiratory component: 20-meter shuttle-run test (SRT to estimate maximal oxygen consumption. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week, except for the SRT which was performed only once. Intra-observer technical errors of measurement (TEMs and inter-rater (reliability were assessed in the morphological component. Reliability for the Musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness components was examined using Bland-Altman tests. For the morphological component, TEMs were small and reliability was greater than 95% of all cases. For the musculoskeletal, motor, flexibility and cardiorespiratory components, we found adequate reliability patterns in terms of systematic errors (bias and random error (95% limits of agreement. When the fitness assessments were performed twice, the systematic error was nearly 0 for all tests, except for the sit and reach (mean difference: -1.03% [95% CI = -4.35% to -2.28%]. The results from this study indicate that the

  8. Relationship of body mass index to percent body fat and waist circumference among schoolchildren in Japan - the influence of gender and obesity: a population-based cross-sectional study

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    Ochiai Hirotaka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the correlation coefficient between body mass index (BMI and percent body fat (%BF or waist circumference (WC has been reported, studies conducted among population-based schoolchildren to date have been limited in Japan, where %BF and WC are not usually measured in annual health examinations at elementary schools or junior high schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of BMI to %BF and WC and to examine the influence of gender and obesity on these relationships among Japanese schoolchildren. Methods Subjects included 3,750 schoolchildren from the fourth and seventh grade in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan between 2004 and 2008. Information about subject's age, sex, height, weight, %BF, and WC was collected from annual physical examinations. %BF was measured with a bipedal biometrical impedance analysis device. Obesity was defined by the following two criteria: the obese definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the definition of obesity for Japanese children. Pearson's correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF or WC were calculated separately for sex. Results Among fourth graders, the correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF were 0.74 for boys and 0.97 for girls, whereas those between BMI and WC were 0.94 for boys and 0.90 for girls. Similar results were observed in the analysis of seventh graders. The correlation coefficient between BMI and %BF varied by physique (obese or non-obese, with weaker correlations among the obese regardless of the definition of obesity; most correlation coefficients among obese boys were less than 0.5, whereas most correlations among obese girls were more than 0.7. On the other hand, the correlation coefficients between BMI and WC were more than 0.8 among boys and almost all coefficients were more than 0.7 among girls, regardless of physique. Conclusions BMI was positively correlated with %BF and WC among Japanese

  9. Índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal: associação com fatores de risco cardiovascular Body mass index and waist circumference: association with cardiovascular risk factors

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    Fabiane Aparecida Canaan Rezende

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a associação entre índice de massa corporal (IMC e circunferência abdominal (CA com fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se 231 servidores da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, sendo 54,1% do sexo masculino (21-76 anos. Analisou-se glicemia de jejum, colesterol total e frações, triglicérides, pressão arterial, IMC, CA, relação cintura-quadril e percentual de gordura corporal. Informações sobre tabagismo, ingestão de bebidas alcoólicas e atividade física também foram obtidas. RESULTADOS: As freqüências de sobrepeso/obesidade foram bastante elevadas, principalmente em mulheres. A obesidade abdominal foi observada em 74% das mulheres e 46,1% dos homens. Os homens apresentaram valores médios e medianos de colesterol total, HDL, triglicérides, IMC e percentual de gordura corporal maiores do que as mulheres (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between cardiovascular risk factors and the anthropometric values - body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC. METHODS: It was studied 231 employees of Federal University of Viçosa, Brazil, 54,1% of them were men (21-76 years old. Glycemia, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, blood pressure, BMI, WC, waist-to-hip ratio and body fatness were measured. It was also investigated smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight/obesity in this population was high mainly in women. The abdominal obesity was observed in 74% of the women and 46,1% of the men. The average of BMI, body fatness, total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides were significantly higher in men than in women. (p < 0,05. The sedentary lifestyle was a risk factor for obesity. Smoking and alcohol consumption were more common among men and normal weight volunteers. Most of the correlations between anthropometric indices and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were significant, but weak and the WC was the index that had

  10. Associação entre circunferência abdominal e hipertensão arterial em mulheres: Estudo Pró-Saúde Association between abdominal circumference and hypertension among women: the Pró-Saúde Study

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    Maria Helena Hasselmann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência de hipertensão arterial segundo estratos de circunferência abdominal (CA e índice de massa corporal (IMC, em kg/m² em uma população de funcionárias públicas de universidade localizada no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Foram analisados dados seccionais de 1.743 mulheres não grávidas de 24 a 69 anos participantes, em 2001, do Estudo Pró-Saúde. Mulheres com baixo peso ou apresentando IMC > 35kg/m² foram excluídas. Mulheres que apresentavam pressão sangüínea sistólica > 140mmHg ou diastólica > 90mmHg ou faziam uso de medicação anti-hipertensiva foram consideradas hipertensas. A análise foi conduzida segundo dois estratos de CA (normal: 88cm e três de IMC (eutrofia: 18,5-24,9kg/m²; sobrepeso: 25,0-29,9kg/m²; e obesidade I: 30,0-34,9kg/m². Entre mulheres eutróficas, participantes com valores elevados de CA apresentaram o dobro da prevalência de hipertensão arterial do que aquelas com CA This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hypertension according to levels of abdominal circumference (AC and body mass index (BMI, expressed as kg/m² among public employees at a university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cross-sectional data were obtained for 1,743 non-pregnant women aged 24-69 years participating in the Pró-Saúde Study. Underweight women and those with BMI > 35kg/m² were excluded. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure >140mmHg or diastolic > 90mmHg or the use of anti-hypertensive drugs. Age-adjusted prevalence rates for hypertension were calculated considering two strata of AC (normal: 88cm and three levels of BMI (normal: 18.5-24.9kg/m²; overweight: 25.0-29.9kg/m²; and obesity I: 30.0-34.9kg/m². Among normal-weight women, participants with high AC showed a two-fold higher prevalence of hypertension as compared to those with AC < 88cm (18% vs. 8%, p < 0.05. Routine measurement of AC, in addition to BMI, could contribute to early identification of

  11. Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti

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    EL Mabchour A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asma EL Mabchour,1 Hélène Delisle,1 Colette Vilgrain,2 Philippe Larco,2 Roger Sodjinou,3 Malek Batal1 1Transition Nutritionnelle (TRANSNUT, WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition Changes and Development, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Haitian Foundation for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases (FHADIMAC, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; 3West Africa Health Organization (WAHO, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Purpose: Waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR are widely used as indicators of abdominal adiposity and the cut-off values have been validated primarily in Caucasians. In this study we identified the WC and WHtR cut-off points that best predicted cardiometabolic risk (CMR in groups of African (Benin and African ancestry (Haiti Black subjects. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 452 apparently healthy subjects from Cotonou (Benin and Port-au-Prince (Haiti, 217 women and 235 men from 25 to 60 years. CMR biomarkers were the metabolic syndrome components. Additional CMR biomarkers were a high atherogenicity index (total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4 in women and ≥5 in men; insulin resistance set at the 75th percentile of the calculated Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA-IR; and inflammation defined as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP concentrations between 3 and 10 mg/L. WC and WHtR were tested as predictors of two out of the three most prevalent CMR biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, Youden's index, and likelihood ratios were used to assess the performance of specific WC and WHtR cut-offs. Results: High atherogenicity index (59.5%, high blood pressure (23.2%, and insulin resistance (25% by definition were the most prevalent CMR biomarkers in the study groups. WC and WHtR were equally valid as predictors of CMR. Optimal WC cut-offs were 80 cm and 94 cm in men and women, respectively, which is exactly

  12. 高血压儿童腰围发育曲线及其与高血压相关性的研究%Relationship between waist circumference development curve of children and hypertension and risk of hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鹏; 王法艳; 赵玉秋; 王磊; 唐青松; 陶芳标

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解高血压儿童腰围发育曲线特点,探讨与儿童高血压相关的腰围正常值合理切点.方法 研究对象为安徽省北、中、南3个地市的8194名7~17岁汉族城乡中小学生,测量腰围与血压.以LMS( lambda-mu-sigma)法拟合腰围随年龄变化的百分位数曲线.建立Logistic回归模型,计算不同百分位数腰围学生发生高血压的OR值.结果 高血压男生的腰围发育曲线明显向上平行偏离总体男生标准曲线,而高血压女生腰围发育曲线在12岁前向上逐渐偏离总体女生标准曲线,之后逐渐回归.男生腰围上升至同年龄别第60百分位数、女生腰围上升至同年龄别第70百分位数时,高血压发生风险即开始显著增加,男生腰围p60~组、P70~组、P80~组和P90~组的OR值从1.88(95%CI:1.18 ~2.99)逐渐上升至4.87(95%CI:3.31 ~7.16),女生腰围P70~组、P80~组和P90~组的OR值从1.71 (95%CI:1.07~2.73)逐渐上升至3.32(95% CI:2.16~5.09).结论 高血压男生和女生的腰围发育曲线轨迹明显不同.从第85百分位数向下适当降低儿童腰围正常值切点有利于儿童心血管疾病风险的预防.%Objective The 85th percentile of waist circumference (WC) is considered an appropriate cutoff for Chinese children in the prediction of cardiovascular risks in previous researches,but the risk for hypertension of moderate WC maybe underestimated.The purpose of this study was to understand the characteristics of the WC curve trajectory of children with hypertension and to determine the appropriate cutoffs for waist circumference for Chinese school-age children and adolescents for predicting hypertension risk factors.Methods A total of 8194 Han children aged 7-17 years were selected from schools in Suzhou,Hefei,and Chizhou cities in Anhui province by stratified cluster sampling. WC and blood pressure were accurately measured in all subjects. LMS (lambda-mu-sigma) method was used to construct WC

  13. Generational changes in the growth of children from Maribor and Slovenia.

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    Bigec, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Among the numerous factors which influence a child's growth and development are also factors of changeable socio-economic environment and life style. Our aim was to evaluate these changes and contribute to preventive measures and evaluation of a child's growth in pediatric practice. Therefore, we decided to estimate the state of body growth in two generations of children from Maribor at five and six years of age of both gender, establish secular changes and define standards. On a representative sample (gender and age) of 1461 children from Maribor measured in 1996 and a sample of 608 children from Maribor, measured in 1966, 28 body features were studied and compared in each population unit. Variables were statistically and epidemiologically assessed and results were controlled by a test. The following anthropometric differences were significant: in 5-year old boys the measures in the 1996 generation are statistically higher than in 1966 - foot length, head length, upper arm skinfold, subscapular skinfold, arm length, arm diameter, upper thigh skinfold, stature (length), suprailiac skinfold, and body weight. Decreased measures are: abdomen circumference, knee circumference, sitting height, elbow circumference, biacromial diameter, and face heigth. In 6-year old boys additional features have increased in comparison with the year 1966: sternal height, tight circumference, hip width, chest circumference; following measures have decreased: face height, head circumference. In 5-year old girls: increased measures in comparison with the generation from 1966 are: lower leg length, head length, ankle circumference, upper arm skinfold, body weight, billiac diameter, body height, subscapular skinfold, chest circumference, hip circumference, sternal height, suprailiac skinfold, decreased measures are: head circumference, elbow circumference, face circumference, shoulder with, sitting height. In 6-year old girls additional measures are increased: wrist circumference, arm length

  14. Valoración de la circunferencia de la pantorrilla como indicador de riesgo de desnutrición en personas mayores Assessment of calf circumference as an indicator of the risk for hyponutrition in the elderly

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    M. Cuervo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La desnutrición es una situación frecuente en las personas mayores, que se asocia con altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad. Por otro lado, la circunferencia de la pantorrilla (CP es una medida antropométrica directa, que guarda relación con la masa libre de grasa. Una detección temprana de un estado de desnutrición en las personas mayores, basado en el test Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA contribuiría en muchos casos a la prevención de su desarrollo y consecuencias. Objetivo: Analizar la relación existente entre la CP y una posible situación de desnutrición basada en la aplicación del test MNA, en personas españolas mayores de 65 años, estudiando la influencia del sexo y la edad. Sujetos y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal para analizar la situación nutricional de una población ambulatoria de todas las zonas de la geografía española (n = 22007, mediante la aplicación del cuestionario MNA. Todas las personas encuestadas tenían 65 o más años de edad en el momento de la recogida de datos. Resultados: Existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los sujetos con CP Background: Undernutrition is a very common situation among elderly, that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. On the other hand, calf circumference (CC is a direct anthropometric measurement, related to fat free mass. An early detection of an elderly undernutrition situation, based on CC assessment, could contribute to prevent its development and consequences. Objective: To analyse the relationship between CC and a possible undernutrition situation, based on the application of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA test, among Spanish subjects of 65 or more years old, including the gender and age influences. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the nutritional situation of an ambulatory population, from every area of Spanish geography (n = 22007, using the questionnaire

  15. Estudo das associações genéticas entre perímetro escrotal e características reprodutivas de fêmeas Nelore Genetic association among scrotal circumference and female reproductive traits in Nellore

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    Selmos Luiz Gressler

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar parâmetros genéticos para as características perímetro escrotal (PE, medido aos 12 (PE12, n = 652 e 18 (PE18, n = 607 meses de idade, idade ao primeiro parto (IPP, n = 1582, datas do primeiro (DPP, n = 1582 e segundo partos (DSP, n = 644 e primeiro intervalo de partos (PIP, n = 644 de animais da raça Nelore. Os parâmetros foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita, usando-se um modelo animal e incorporando 15.648 informações de pedigree. As estimativas de herdabilidade das análises incluindo somente uma variável foram 0,24±0,10; 0,31±0,10; 0,01±0,03; 0,11±0,05; 0,07±0,08; e 0,10±0,10, respectivamente, para PE12, PE18, IPP, DPP, DSP e PIP. Estas estimativas foram semelhantes às obtidas nas análises em que foram incluídas duas variáveis, com exceção da análise incluindo os dois PE (0,68 e 0,61 para PE12 e PE18, respectivamente. As estimativas de correlações genéticas entre PE12 e IPP, DPP, DSP e PIP foram, respectivamente, -1,00; -0,08; -0,71; e -0,37. Por outro lado, as correlações genéticas entre PE18 e as características observadas nas fêmeas foram, na mesma ordem, -1,00; 0,21; -0,35; e -0,44. A seleção para o PE12 seria mais efetiva que a seleção para o PE18, quando se deseja obter melhorias relacionadas às características reprodutivas das fêmeas.The objectives of this work were to estimate of genetic parameters for scrotal circumference (SC at 12 (SC12, n = 652 and 18 (SC18, n = 607 months of age, age at first calving (AFC, n = 1,582, first (FCD, n = 1,582 and second (SCD, n = 644 calving dates and first calving interval (FCI, n = 644 in Nellore cattle. Parameters were estimated using REML methodology, with animal models and considering the relations among 15,648 animals. Heritability estimates from univariate analyses were .24±.10, .31±.10, .01±.03, .11±.05, .07±.08 and .10±.10, respectively, for SC12, SC18, AFC, FCD, SCD and FCI

  16. Associação dos padrões alimentares com obesidade geral e abdominal em mulheres residentes no Sul do Brasil Association between dietary patterns and body mass index and waist circumference in women living in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Perozzo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de estudar a associação de padrões alimentares com obesidade, realizou-se estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra representativa de 1.026 mulheres (20 a 60 anos em São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A obesidade geral foi avaliada pela utilização de índice de massa corporal (IMC > 30kg/m² e a adiposidade abdominal, circunferência da cintura (CC> 88cm. Os padrões alimentares foram identificados por análise fatorial. Para análise multivariada, foi utilizada regressão de Poisson. Entre o total de mulheres, 18% (IC95%: 15,66-20,53 tinham obesidade geral e 23,3% (IC95%: 20,72-26,06 abdominal. Após controle para fatores de confusão, o baixo consumo do PA-frutas associou-se positivamente com o IMC (RP = 2,18; IC95%: 1,35-3,53; p = 0,001. Já o baixo consumo do PA-vegetais apresentou efeito protetor para o aumento nos níveis de IMC (RP = 0,64; IC95%: 0,47-0,86; p = 0,004 e o do PA-nozes/oleaginosas para o aumento na medida da CC (RP = 0,93; IC95%: 0,89-0,98; p = 0,008. O estudo aponta para a complexidade envolvida na relação entre padrões alimentares e obesidade e a necessidade de novos estudos, objetivando o melhor entendimento do tema.This study focused on the association between dietary patterns and obesity. A cross-sectional population-based study was performed in 1,026 adult women from Southern Brazil. Waist circumference (WC, height, and weight were measured according to a standardized protocol, and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Obesity was defined as BMI > 30kg/m² and WC > 88cm. Principal components analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multivariate analysis used a Poisson regression model to estimate prevalence ratios and respective confidence intervals. After controlling for possible confounders, low consumption of "vegetables" protected against increased BMI (PR = 0.64; 95%CI: 0.47-0.86; p = 0.004, while low consumption of "nuts/oilseeds" protected against increased WC (PR = 0

  17. Circunferência da cintura e índice de massa corporal como preditores da hipertensão arterial Waist circumference and body mass index as predictors of hypertension

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    Maria do Rosário Gondim Peixoto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre índices antropométricos, índice de massa corporal (IMC e circunferência da cintura (CC e hipertensão arterial (HA e avaliar a capacidade desses índices na predição da HA. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal populacional realizado em Goiânia (GO, em 2001, com amostra de 1.238 adultos, de vinte a 64 anos. Foi definida como obesidade total (IMC > 30 kg/m², como obesidade abdominal (CC no nível 2 - CC > 88 cm para mulheres e > 102 cm para homens e como HA (pressão sistólica > 140 mmHg ou pressão diastólica > 90 mmHg, ou uso de hipotensores. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística múltipla para avaliar as associações entre os índices antropométricos e a HA. Análise de curva ROC para avaliar a sensibilidade e especificidade do IMC (> 30 e nível 2 da CC na predição da HA e para determinar os pontos de corte com melhor predição da HA. RESULTADOS: A CC apresentou associação com a HA em ambos os sexos. O nível 2 da CC e o IMC >30 kg/m² apresentaram baixa sensibilidade em identificar a HA. Os pontos de corte com melhor capacidade preditiva de HA coincidiram com o nível 1 da CC (> 80 cm e com o IMC >25 kg/m² (sobrepeso, para as mulheres, e foram inferiores aos valores do nível 1 da CC e de sobrepeso, para os homens. CONCLUSÃO: O nível 2 da CC e o IMC > 30 kg/m² não são adequados para identificar os grupos de maior risco de HA, já que esse risco se eleva com pequenos aumentos na adiposidade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between anthropometric indexes - body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC - and hypertension, and to evaluate the predictive value of these indexes in detecting hypertension. METHODS: Cross-sectional population study conducted in the city of Goiânia (GO with a sample of 1,238 adults aged twenty to 64 years, in 2001. Total obesity was defined as BMI > 30 kg/m²; abdominal obesity was defined as level 2 WC > 88 cm for women and > 102 cm for men, and

  18. Standardized reference of waist circumference among children and adolescents in Beijing using the LMS Method%北京市儿童青少年腰围正常值LMS法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕若然; 孟灵慧; 孙颖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the standardized reference of waist circumference (WC) among children and adolescents in Beijing.Method Stratified by rural and urban areas,level of economic status,a total of 9 421 students aged in 6-22years from 40 primary and middle schools and 2 colleges in 6 districts of Beijing were investigated.The reference intervals were calculated using the LMS method.Results WC was increasing by age in boys aged 7-22 years old; the same trend was in girls before 12 years old.At 18 years old,average WC was 76.62 cm in boys and 72.55 cm in girls.The WC was highest in obese students,followed by overweight and normal-weight students.WC cut-off values for screening overweight and obesity was 79.72 cm and 89.35 cm in boys aged 18 and 74.38 cm and 84.40 cm in girls,respectively.Conclusion Standardized reference of WC for screening overweight and obesity by using the LMS method is reliable.It can be used in Beijing.%目的 通过分析2010年北京市学生体质健康调研结果,建立北京市儿童腰围筛查分类标准.方法 按城乡、经济水平分层,调查北京市6个区40所中小学校和2所大学的7 ~ 22岁大中小学生8 795名.按照《2010年全国学生体质健康调研工作手册》规定的方法进行身体测量,以LMS法计算性别年龄别腰围各百分位数值,并绘制LMS曲线,建立北京市儿童青少年腰围正常值.结果 北京市7 ~22岁男生腰围随年龄的增加而增大,女生在12岁以前呈现同样趋势,但之后趋于稳定.18岁男、女生腰围分别为76.62 cm和72.55 cm.不同BMI组别间腰围均值不同,肥胖组>超重组>正常组.北京市18岁男生超重/肥胖的腰围筛查标准是79.72 cm和89.31 cm,女生分别是74.38 cm和84.40 cm.结论 LMS法建立的北京市儿童青少年腰围筛查标准准确,可以在北京地区推广使用.

  19. The cutoff point of waist circumference in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease%腰围预测非酒精性脂肪性肝病的切点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海钊; 陈容平; 杨锐; 孙嘉; 张如意; 何芳; 蔡德鸿; 陈宏

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究腰围与非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)的关系,寻找腰围预测NAFLD的最佳切点.方法:采用分层随机抽样法,对研究对象进行体格检查、空腹血糖、血脂、腹部超声检查,通过受试者工作特性(ROC)曲线分析得到腰围预测NAFLD的最佳切点.结果:1 535例研究对象中共检出375例NAFLD,总患病率为24.4%,其中男性患病率为41.2%,女性为10.2%.腰围是NAFLD的危险因素.在ROC曲线分析中,男性腰围预测NAFLD的曲线下面积(AUC)为0.905,女性为0.949.男性及女性腰围预测NAFLD的最佳切点值分别为88.3 cm(敏感度:86.4%,特异度:85.9%)和82.4 cm(敏感度:93.2%,特异度:89.9%).结论:腰围对NAFLD有良好的诊断效能.佛山地区人群腰围预测NAFLD的最佳切点值男性为88.3 cm,女性为82.4 cm.%Objective To investigate the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and to find the optimal cutoff point of WC to determine subjects with NAFLD. Methods A cross-sectional study with stratified and random samplings was performed. Physical examination, levels of fasting glucose and blood lipid, and abdominal ultrasound were conducted in all the subjects. Performance of WC for predicting NAFLD was undertaken using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC ) analysis. Results 375 of the 1535 subjects had NAFLD. The total prevalence was 24.4%, while the prevalence was 41.2% in males and 10.2% in females. WC was a risk factor of NAFLD. ROC analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for WC and NAFLD was 0.905 for males and 0.949 for females. The optimal cutoff point of WC to determine subjects with NAFLD was 88.3 cm for males (86.4% for sensitivity and 85.9% for specificity) and 82.4 cm for females (93.2% and 89.9%) respectively. Conclusions WC has a good efficacy in diagnosing NAFLD. WC of 88.3 cm for males and 82.4 cm for females is the optimal cutoff point to determine people with NAFLD in

  20. Association between waist circumference/body mass index and blood triglyceride level in adults%成人腰围、体重指数与高三酰甘油血症的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新宜; 汪毓诚; 林钟芳; 吴琦; 何毓箐; 王建英; 张莲

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between body mass index(BMI)/waist circumference (WC)and blood triglyceride(TG)level in adults. To evaluate the value of the BMI and WC in diagnosing the hypertriglyceridemia by the receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve.Methods A total of 1 093 adults(707men and 356 women)were examined in our hospital from July to September in 2008.Height,weight,WC and blood triglyceride were measured and analyzed.The ROC curve was drawn to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the threshold values.Results The hypertriglyceridemia rate was 33.5%among men and 8.3%among women.The BMI and WC of hypertriglyceridemia group were significantly higher than those of normal TG group for both men and women(P<0.01).The area under ROC curve was 0.728±0.041 for men and 0.708±0.021 for women when using BMI to predict hypertriglyceridemia.The optimal threshold value was 24.5 for men and 22.5 for women.The area under ROC curve was 0.790±0.042 for men and 0.714±0.020 for women when using WC to predict hypertriglyceridemia.The optimal threshold value was 86 cm for men and 77 cm for women.Conclusions Both BMI and WC are associated blood triglyceride level. WC and BMI are useful parameters in predicting hypertriglyceridemia.%目的 探讨体重指数(BMI)、腰围(WC)与三酰甘油水平之间的关系,并用受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线评价BMI和WC对诊断高三酰甘油血症的价值.方法 以2008年7至9月在我院进行常规体检的1 093人(男性707人、女性386人)为研究对象,检测身高、体重、腰围和血三酰甘油水平.比较三酰甘油正常组与异常组BMI和WC的差异.建立BMI和WC的ROC曲线,获得曲线下面积及曲线上各界值点的灵敏度和特异度.结果 男女性三酰甘油异常率分别为33.5%和8.3%.三酰甘油异常者的BMI和WC明显大于三酰甘油正常者(P<0.01).以BMI诊断高三酰甘油血症的ROC曲线下面积:男性为0.728±0.041、女性为0.708±0.021,

  1. Circunferência abdominal avaliada antes da 12ª semana de gestação: correlação com níveis séricos de leptina Waist circumference measured before the 12th week of pregnancy: correlation with serum leptin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Silveira Castellano Filho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a correlação entre a circunferência abdominal materna, medida antes da 12ª semana de gestação, e os níveis séricos de leptina durante a gravidez, bem como, comparar os níveis médios de leptina entre gestantes com e sem obesidade abdominal, diagnosticada no início da gestação. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo incluindo 40 gestantes atendidas no pré-natal de baixo risco, superiores a 20 anos, não tabagistas, com gestação única, e sem doenças crônicas intercorrentes. A circunferência abdominal foi medida antes da 12ª semana, e os níveis séricos de leptina dosados entre a 9ª e a 12ª, a 25ª e a 28ª e entre a 34ª e a 37ª semanas de gestação. De acordo com a circunferência abdominal, a coorte foi dividida em dois grupos: com e sem obesidade abdominal. Os testes de Mann-Whitney e do χ² avaliaram as diferenças entre os grupos. A correlação de Pearson verificou a associação entre a circunferência abdominal e os níveis séricos de leptina durante a gestação. Considerou-se o valor de pPURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between maternal waist circumference measured before the 12th week of gestation and serum leptin levels during pregnancy, as well as to compare the leptin levels of women with and without abdominal obesity diagnosed in early pregnancy. METHODS: Prospective study including 40 pregnant women receiving low-risk prenatal care, older than 20 years, nonsmokers, with singleton pregnancies and without chronic disease. Waist circumference was measured before the 12th week and serum leptin levels were measured between the 9th and 12th, 25th and 28th and 34th and 37th weeks of gestation. According to waist circumference measurement, the cohort was divided into two groups: with and without abdominal obesity. The Mann-Whitney and χ² tests were used to assess the differences between groups. The Pearson correlation coeffient was used to assess the association between waist circumference and

  2. Modeling growth curves to track growing obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to examine the relationship between total physical activity (PA) and PA at various intensity levels with insulin resistance at increasing waist circumference and skinfold thickness levels. Being able to describe growth appropriately and succinctly is important in many nutrition and p...

  3. Somatotypes of Male Whitewater Canoe Athletes of the Turkish National Canoe Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedat, Ayan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the somatotype characteristics of male whitewater canoe athletes of the Turkish National Canoe Team. 10 male whitewater canoe athletes from the Turkish National Canoe Team voluntarily participated in the study during the national team camp in Rize in 2011. The age, height, weight, skinfold thickness, circumference,…

  4. A CORRELATION BETWEEN HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE AND CHEST, WAIST AND HIP CIRCUMFERENCES IN YOUNG POPULATION OF KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Suchitra S; Ramakrishna; Rohan

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The head and body measurements in human body vary because of differences in anatomical features which may be influenced by environmental or geographical factors. This also brings about differences in their bony structure and fat distribution. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between the Head circ...

  5. Central obesity and risk for type 2 diabetes in Maori, Pacific and European young men in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty healthy male volunteers between the ages of 18 and 27 and of a wide range of fatness were recruited for this study. Equal numbers (10) self identified as belonging to each of the Maori Pacific and European ethnic groups. Originally it was intended that 90 men(30 in each group) should be measured but the cost and availability of the doubly-labelled water prevented this. Specific measurements undertaken included resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, total energy expenditure over 14 days by the doubly-labelled water technique; total and regional body fat from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; anthropometry (body mass index, skinfold thicknesses and girths); fat and carbohydrate utilisation from respiratory quotients and from carbon-13 analysis of expired breath; and dietary intake of macronutrients. Glucose tolerance, insulin, thyroid hormone, leptin and blood lipid determinations were also performed. The groups did not differ significantly in BMI, height body mass or fat mass - but the European group had significantly lower subscapular to triceps skinfolds and fat free mass than the Maori and Pacific group. Resting metabolic rate adjusted for fat mass and fat free mass was not different among the groups. Carbon-13 in expired breath was positively correlated to the subscapular to triceps skinfold ratio and insulin. Reported intake of dietary fibre was negatively related to blood lipids and subscapular to triceps skinfold ratio. Central obesity showed strong associations with biochemical measures of Type 2 diabetes risk These findings emphasise the relationships between body composition and fat distribution with risk of diabetes independent of ethnicity. (author)

  6. Estudo preliminar da influência do perímetro escrotal sobre a libido em touros jovens da raça Nelore Preliminar study of influence of scrotal circumference upon libido and seminal characteristics in young Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Pineda

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available O perímetro escrotal (PE de 202 touros jovens da raça Nelore, sem experiência sexual prévia, classificados pela Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Zebu como superiores ou elite, foi medido aos 7, 12, 18 e 28 meses de idade, aproximadamente. Após a última medição, eles foram submetidos ao teste de libido e procedeu-se à colheita de sêmen por eletroejaculação, seguida de avaliação andrológica. As medidas do PE aos 7, 12, 18 e 28 meses foram de 18,30; 22,29; 27,54 e 33,26cm, respectivamente. Os coeficientes de correlação simples entre estas medidas variaram de 0,35 a 0,53. O coeficiente de correlação entre PE aos 28 meses e peso corporal na mesma idade foi de 0,43. A correlação entre a nota da libido e o perímetro escrotal medido aos l8 meses foi de 0,15 e entre aquela e o perímetro escrotal aos 28 meses foi de 0,13. Observou-se elevado crescimento do perímetro escrotal entre o 7º e 18º meses de idade. Utilizou-se o método de quadrados mínimos para analisar a libido, incluindo ano de nascimento como efeito fixo e como covariáveis os efeitos lineares da idade e peso no momento da avaliação e medidas de perímetro escrotal aos 7, l2, l8 e 28 meses. Cada covariável foi retida de forma seqüencial obtendo-se vários modelos de análises e as somas de quadrados foram decompostas de forma seqüencial e parcial. O ano de nascimento, a idade e o perímetro escrotal aos 18 meses de idade afetaram significativamente a libido. Os coeficientes de correlação entre a libido e concentração espermática, motilidade, peso e idade do animal no momento da avaliação foram de 0,34, 0,l6, 0,38 e 0,35, respectivamente.The scrotal circumference (SC of 202 young Nelore bulls with no previous sexual experience, classified by Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Zebu as superiors and elite, was measured at 7, 12, 18 and 28 months of age. Immediately after the last measurement (28 months they were submitted to libido tests

  7. Importância relativa do Índice de Massa Corporal e da circunferência abdominal na predição da hipertensão arterial Relative importance of body mass index and waist circumference for hypertension in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Sarno

    2007-10-01

    importance of Body Mass Index (BMI and waist circumference for the determination of hypertension in adults. METHODS: Cross sectional analysis of a sample of employees (N=1,584, aged 18 to 64 years, from a private general hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data collection included the application of a structured questionnaire and blood pressure, weight, high, and waist circumference measurements. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure levels > 140/90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication. The relative importance of BMI and waist circumference was evaluated by calculating the attributable fraction of hypertension corresponding to each anthropometric indicator, employing both the usual cut-off points as well as cut-off points based on the observed distribution of the indicator in the population. In addition, an indicator combining simultaneously BMI and abdominal circumference values was also developed. RESULTS: Prevalence of hypertension was 18.9% (26.9% in men and 12.5% in women. In men, the fraction of hypertension attributable to BMI exceeded the fraction attributable to waist circumference based on the usual cut-off points for the indicators (56% vs. 48%, respectively and also considering the quartiles of the observed distribution for these indicators (73% vs. 69%, respectively. In women, the fraction of hypertension attributable to waist circumference was slightly higher than the fraction attributable to BMI based on the usual cut off points for both indicators (44% vs. 41%, but the reverse was true when quartiles of the observed distribution were used (41% vs. 57%, respectively. In women only, the fraction of hypertension attributable to the indicator combining BMI and waist circumference (64% was higher that observed using each indicator alone. CONCLUSIONS: Both BMI and abdominal circumference were positively and independently associated with the occurrence of arterial hypertension, the influence of BMI being higher among men.

  8. Relationship between body mass index with dietary fiber intake and skinfolds: differences among bodybuilders who train during morning and nocturne period Relación entre el índice de masa corporal con la ingesta de fibra dietética y pliegues de la piel: las diferencias entre los culturistas que se entrenan durante el período de la mañana y nocturno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. V. Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of overweight individuals has increased in recent years. Moreover, the importance of a healthy diet is associated with the practice of physical activity and attempt to verify the achievement of physical exercise influences on food choice. However, it relationship between food intake and physical activity have not been studied. Aim: To evaluate if the period in which the trainings are conducted, morning and nocturne, interfere qualitatively and quantitatively in food consumption as well as verify possible associations between anthropometric profiles and dietary habits. Methods: We collected data from 33 adult volunteers, between men and women, practitioners of bodybuilding. Results: A total of 33 volunteers were interviewed (18 (54.5% were men and 15 (45.5% were women. Regarding anthropometric data, it turns out that that the volunteers of the two periods had similar characteristics, differentiating only weight. The consumption of nutritional supplements was observed in 30.77% of the practitioners in the morning period vs. 35% for the nocturne. Considering macronutrient intake, there was a significant difference in the consumption of protein between the periods. The consumption during nocturne period was greater (126 ± 5% of the daily requirement than the morning period (115.7 ± 2%. As for micro-nutrients, calcium intake was greater among men when compared to women. There was a positive correlation between the BMI, and arm circumference for practitioners of the morning period. Conclusion: This study show that the practitioners who train in the morning have quietly better eating habits than those in the nocturne period, however both are inappropriate.Antecedentes: La prevalencia de individuos con sobrepeso ha aumentado en los últimos años. Además, la importancia de una dieta saludable se asocia con la práctica de actividad física y los intentos de lograr la realización de la esta actividad influyen en la elecci

  9. Circunferência da cintura como indicador de gordura corporal e alterações metabólicas em adolescentes: comparação entre quatro referências Waist circumference as indicator of body fat and metabolic alterations in teenagers: comparison among four references

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Feliciano Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a validade diagnóstica de quatro tabelas de referência para circunferência da cintura em adolescentes do sexo feminino para detecção de alterações lipídicas, hiperinsulinemia, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA elevado, hiperleptinemia e elevada adiposidade corporal. MÉTODOS: Avaliadas 113 adolescentes com idade entre 14 e 19 anos, provenientes de escolas públicas de Viçosa (MG. Em amostras de sangue foram dosados colesterol total, LDL, HDL, triglicerídeos, insulina e leptina. Determinado percentual de gordura corporal através de bioimpedância elétrica tetrapolar. Pela medida de menor diâmetro abdominal foi determinada a circunferência da cintura do abdômen e calculados valores de sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e negativo. Foram elaboradas tabelas de contingência de classificação de circunferência da cintura em adolescentes para quatro critérios: Freedman et al., 1999; Taylor et al., 2000; McCarthy et al., 2001; e Moreno et al., 2007. RESULTADOS: Valores de sensibilidade em geral foram baixos para as referências avaliadas, sendo os maiores obtidos para a de McCarthy et al. Ao contrário, as especificidades foram altas, principalmente para a tabela de Freedman et al. Os valores preditivos positivos foram mais relevantes para colesterol total e percentual de gordura corporal. CONCLUSÃO: Os pontos de corte para circunferência da cintura de McCarthy et al. demonstraram-se os mais adequados para avaliações populacionais. A proposta de Freedman et al. por apresentar maior especificidade, é útil para uso clínico e pode substituir a realização de exames de custo elevado que em muitos locais não se encontram ao alcance dos profissionais de saúde, como leptina e insulina.OBJECTIVE: Assess diagnostic validity of four reference tables for waist circumference in female teenagers in order to detect lipid alterations, hyperinsulin, elevated homeostasis model assessment (HOMA

  10. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study Referencias antropométricas de los adolescentes bolivianos de 12 a 18 años: estatura, peso, circunferencia del brazo, muñeca y abdominal, índice de masa corporal: Percentiles de adolescentes bolivianos (PAB) del estudio MESA

    OpenAIRE

    A. Baya Botti; Pérez-Cueto, F.J.A.; P. A. Vasquez Monllor; P. W. Kolsteren

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policymaking at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA) study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clust...

  11. The Relationship between Anthropometry and Split Performance in Recreational Male Ironman Triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knechtle

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between anthropometric variables and total race time including split times in 184 recreational male Ironman triathletes. Methods Body mass, body height, body mass index, lengths and circumferences of imbs, thicknesses of skin-folds, sum of skin-fold thicknesses, and percent body fat were related to total race time including split times using correlation analysis and effect size. Results A large effect size (r>0.37 was found for the association between body mass index and time in the run split and between both the sum of skin-folds and percent body fat with total race time. A medium effect size (r=0.24–0.36 was observed in the association between body mass and both the split time in running and total race time, between body mass index and total race time, between both the circumferences of upper arm and thigh with split time in the run and between both the sum of skin-folds and percent body fat with split times in swimming, cycling and running. Conclusions The results of this study showed that lower body mass, lower body mass index and lower body fat were associated with both a faster Ironman race and a faster run split; lower circumferences of upper arm and thigh were also related with a faster run split.

  12. Crescimento do perímetro cefálico nos primeiros seis meses em crianças em aleitamento materno exclusivo Crecimiento del perímetro cefálico en los primeros 6 meses en niños en lactancia materna exclusiva Head circumference growth of exclusively breastfed infants during the first six months of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça M Jaldin

    2011-12-01

    crecimiento satisfactorio del perímetro cefálico, en conformidad con el percentil 50 del estándar WHO/2006 y de la referencia NCHS/1977.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the head circumference growth of exclusively breastfed children from birth to the sixth month of life using, as references, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS/1977 as well as the World Health Organization/2006 international standard (WHO/2006. METHODS: A longitudinal research carried out at the Mother and Child University Hospital of the Federal University of Maranhão (Northeast Brazil, from October 2007 to November 2008. A non-probabilistic sample of 328 singleton full term neonates, with birthweight >2500g and <4000g was enrolled, being all neonates exclusively breastfed from birth to the sixth month of life; 181 children (95 females and 86 males completed the follow-up. The head circumference was estimated by average, standard deviation and percentiles 5, 50 and 95. Percentile results were compared taking as references the NCHS/1977 and the WHO/2006 standards. RESULTS: There was an average of 1.5cm in head circumference growth for males and 1.4cm for females per month during the first six months of life. Head circumference followed the 50th percentile of the WHO/2006 standard for both genders. Regarding the NCHS/1977 standard, males presented head circumference following the 50th percentile throughout the six months, except at birth, and females followed the 50th percentile from birth until six months of life. CONCLUSIONS: Exclusively breastfed children presented a satisfactory head circumference growth up to the sixth month of life, in accordance with the 50th percentile of WHO/2006 and NCHS/1977 standards.

  13. Does endothelial dysfunction correlate better with waist-to-hip ratio than with body mass index or waist circumference among obese patients? Em obesos, a disfunção endotelial correlaciona melhor com a relação cintura-quadril do que com a medida da cintura ou índice de massa corpórea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Ribeiro Villela

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, affecting large arteries and the microcirculation. Waist circumference and body mass index are routinely employed as measures for assessing obesity-related health risk, whereas waist-to-hip ratio is not. We aimed to investigate the association between brachial vascular reactivity and body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. METHODS: Eighty-five volunteers (21 men/66 women, aged between 20 and 55 years, underwent determination of waist circumference, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and endothelial function by venous occlusion plethysmography. Forearm blood flow was measured in response to intrabrachial artery infusions of 3 different concentrations of endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/min and endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside 2, 4, and 8 mg/min vasodilators. RESULTS: There was an inverse correlation of body mass index and waist circumference with forearm blood flow increments after acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside infusions, while waist-to-hip ratio showed an inverse correlation with forearm blood flow increments only after acetylcholine. When subjects older than 40 years (n = 25 were excluded from the analysis, the inverse correlation of body mass index with forearm blood flow increments after acetylcholine infusion no longer existed, while waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio showed the same results observed before. CONCLUSION: The waist-to-hip ratio is probably a better estimator of endothelial dysfunction and possibly of cardiovascular risk than body mass index. These findings underscore the importance of routinely collecting hip circumference as an obesity index and risk estimator.OBJETIVO: A obesidade é associada a doenças cardiovasculares e compromete tanto a macro como a microcirculação. As medidas da cintura e do índice de massa corpórea são rotineiramente empregadas para avaliação do risco

  14. Mechanics of human triceps surae muscle in walking, running and jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL; Van Zandwijk, JP; Bobbert, AF; Bobbert, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Length changes of the muscle-tendon complex (MTC) during activity are in part the result of length changes of the active muscle fibres, the contractile component (CC), and also in part the result of stretch of elastic structures [series-elastic component (SEC)], We used a force platform and kinemati

  15. Anthropometric and body-mass composition suggests an intrinsic feature in Williams-Beuren syndrome Antropometria e composição de massa corporal sugerem achado intrínseco da síndrome de Williams-Beuren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto José Negrão Nogueira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:Although considered a well-known condition, there is only one study describing the body composition among individuals with Williams-Beuren syndrome. The aim was to characterize the nutritional status in Brazilian individuals with this condition. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate clinical and nutritional data of 17 Brazilian patients. Z-scores for height, weight, body mass index, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, arm circumference, arm muscle area, arm fat area were calculated. Wilcoxon's test was used to investigate differences between the z-scores of the anthropometrical measures and zero. RESULTS: Four children were considered stunted and two severely malnourished. The z-score mean value for height was -1.14 ± 1.00 (p-value = 0.004, for weight, -0.67 ± 1.19 (p-value = 0.0443, for arm circumference, -0.94 ± 1.14 (p-value = 0.0222, for triceps skinfold thickness, -0.59 ± 0.63 (p-value = 0.0042 and for arm fat area -0.67 ± 0.67 (p-value = 0.0061. CONCLUSION: Short stature seen in this series confirms a previous study describing this feature in a German population, which would suggest it as an intrinsic feature in Williams-Beuren syndrome. In addition, skinfold thickness measures have not been previously performed in this syndrome and detected abnormalities in fat stores in this sample. Considering this method a fast and low-cost way to evaluate body composition, similar studies could be performed in other populations in order to better characterize this issue. Morbidity related with this genetics condition and information for clinical investigation and clinical follow-up are also discussed.OBJETIVO: Embora a síndrome de Williams-Beuren seja bem conhecida, há apenas um estudo descrevendo a composição corporal nesses pacientes. O objetivo foi caracterizar o estado nutricional de brasileiros com síndrome de Williams. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se um estudo transversal com a avaliação de dados clínicos e

  16. The contribution of fat component to gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Pokusaeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the role of adipose tissue in gestational weight gain (GWG and preferential fat deposition among normal-weight women. Subjects and methods: prospective cohort study of 84 pregnancies: maternal body mass index 18,5–24,9 kg/m2, singleton term pregnancy, nondiabetic women, somatically well. GWG and skinfold thickness were evaluated in the 1st, 2nd, 3d trimesters, on the 3d day after delivery. Results: fat mass gain in low GWG was similar to recommended GWG and in the high-GWG group was greater one. Women with recommended and low GWG returned to their initial fat level on the 3d day after delivery, in excessive weight gain fat significantly increased (р=0,025. Compared to initial recommended GWG resulted in triceps skinfold thicknesses loss (р=0,001, in abdominal skinfold gained nothing and in thighs skinfold thicknesses increasing (р=0,021. Inadequate GWG leads to fat loss in arms (р=0,017, fat of abdominal area and thighs return to initial level. In excessive GWG fat in the upper trunk and arms not changed, in the lower area (thighs significantly increased compared to initial level (р=0,001 or other groups (р=0,001. Conclusion: excessive GWG was associated with greater adipose tissue cumulation and its deposition preferentially over the thighs. Inadequate GWG was clearly linked to low fat-free mass gain.

  17. Comparison of body composition among rural preschool children of Purulia, West Bengal, using two different equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subal Das

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Body composition is an important factor in identifying populations at risk of metabolic disease including type-2 diabetes in South Asian children. Many equations for calculating body-fat percentage (BF % from anthropometric methods have been developed among South-Asian children. The objective of this study was to compare the BF % derived from two different methods obtained from skinfold equations in Santal tribal and Bauri caste preschool children. In Purulia, 1012 (480 girls, 532 boys rural children aged 2-6 years underwent anthropometric measurements. We conducted anthropometry, including biceps, triceps, sub-scapular, suprailiac and medial-calf skinfold thicknesses. Two previously published equations (Shaikh and Mahalanabis and Slaughter et al., were used to calculate BF % from anthropometric data. There was poor agreement between the two BF % values. The former equation over estimated the BF (% while the latter equation tended to under-estimate BF (%. Thus, currently available skinfold equations do not accurately predict BF % in rural preschool children of Purulia, West Bengal, India. Further studies are needed using direct methods of determining body fat. Subsequently, validation studies using skinfolds should be undertaken to determine the sex and ethnic specific equations.

  18. Normal Weight Obesity Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance in Young Adults from a Middle-Income Country

    OpenAIRE

    Madeira, Francilene B.; Antônio A. Silva; Veloso, Helma F.; Marcelo Z. Goldani; Gilberto Kac; Cardoso, Viviane C.; Heloisa Bettiol; Barbieri, Marco A

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This population-based birth cohort study examined whether normal weight obesity is associated with metabolic disorders in young adults in a middle-income country undergoing rapid nutrition transition. DESIGN AND METHODS: The sample involved 1,222 males and females from the 1978/79 Ribeirão Preto birth cohort, Brazil, aged 23-25 years. NWO was defined as body mass index (BMI) within the normal range (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) and the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds above the sex-s...

  19. Breast feeding duration, age at starting periods and high BMI risk and adiposity in Indian children

    OpenAIRE

    Caleyachetty, A.; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C H; Wills, A K

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized data from a prospective birth cohort study on 568 Indian children, to determine whether a longer duration of breastfeeding and later introduction of solid feeding were associated with a reduced higher body mass index (BMI) and less adiposity. Main outcomes were high BMI (>90th within-cohort sex-specific BMI percentile) and sum of skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular) at age 5. Main exposures were breastfeeding (six categories from 1–4 to ?21 months) and age of start...

  20. Waist circumference and body mass index present situation investigation and analysis on the cognitive condition in Beijing Dongcheng District of primary school students parents%北京市东城区小学生父母腰围及体重指数的现状调查及认知情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛锦锋; 杨学军; 邢丽丽; 丁素琴; 魏群

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解北京市东城区小学生父母腹部肥胖的流行特征,为今后在中青年中开展知信行干预提供科学依据.方法 以参与发放腰围尺的全区31 279名在校小学生为范围,采用整群抽样的方法随机抽取630个班级的11520名小学生,将其父母同时列为调查对象,进行问卷调查.结果 基线调查学生父母22 270人,父亲平均腰围为89.9±9.2厘米,母亲的平均腰围为77.1±7.9厘米,父亲的超重率为43.2%,肥胖率为17.3%;母亲的超重率为16.4%,肥胖率为4.6%.母亲体重正常的占79.0%,而父亲体重正常者占39.5%,父亲的超重与肥胖水平明显高于母亲(P<0.01).结论 小学生父母亲腰围随年龄的增加而增长,母亲45岁以后腰围平均接近正常值的上限,而父亲从28岁开始腰围开始接近正常值的上限.为使小学生父母的腰围向健康的方向发展,今后需要对小学生父母亲展开针对性的干预措施,进而间接影响孩子的生活方式.%Objective To understand abdominal obesity epidemic characteristics in Beijing Dongcheng District of primary school students parents, for the future in the young of KAP intervention and provide a scientific basis. Methods To participate in the issuance of waist circumference ruler of the whole area is 31 279 school pupils as range, stratified random sampling method was selected from 630 classes of 11 520 pupils, their parents at the same time as the investigation object, conducted a questionnaire survey. Results The baseline survey parents of students 22 270 people, father average waist size of 89. 9 ± 9. 2 cm, mother's average waist size of 77. 1 ±7. 9 cm, father of overweight rate is 43. 2% , the obesity rate was 17. 3% ; mother of overweight rate was 16.4% , the rate of obesity was 4. 6%. Mothers of normal weight accounted for 79.0% , and the father of normal weight was 39.5% , his father' s overweight and obesity levels were significantly higher than those of the

  1. Accuracy of sagittal abdominal diameter as predictor of abdominal fat among Brazilian adults: a comparation with waist circumference Precisión de diámetro abdominal sagital como predictor de la grasa abdominal en brasileños adultos: una comparación con la circunferencia de la cintura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Duarte Pimentel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aim was to compare the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD with waist circumference (WC as a predictor of central obesity among adults and to identify the sensitivity and specificity of the best cut-off point for SAD. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 266 Brazilians adults (euthrophic and overweight, aged 31-84 years old, of which 89 men and 177 women, was carried out. Anthropometric measurements such as SAD, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, waist and hip ratio, body mass index, body fat percentage were performed. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curve was used to identify the sensitivity and specificity of the best cut off point for SAD as a predictor of central obesity. Statistical analysis were considered significant with a value of p Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo es comparar el diámetro abdominal sagital (DAS con la circunferencia de la cintura (CC como predictor de la obesidad central entre los adultos y para determinar la sensibilidad y la especificidad de la mejor punto de corte para el DAS. Métodos: Estudio transversal de 266 adultos brasileños (eutróficos y con sobrepeso, de entre 31-84 años de edad, de los cuales 89 hombres y 177 mujeres, se llevó a cabo. Las medidas antropométricas como la DAS, peso, talla, circunferencia de la cintura y cadera, relación cintura-cadera, índice de masa corporal, porcentaje de grasa corporal se llevaron a cabo. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curva se utilizó para determinar la sensibilidad y la especificidad del mejor punto de corte para el DAS como predictor de la obesidad central. El análisis estadístico se consideró significativo un valor de p < 0,05. Resultados: La medición del DAS se correlacionó positivamente con CC para ambos sexos, aunque más fuerte entre las mujeres con sobrepeso y obesidad (r = 0,71, p < 0,001, r = 0,79, p < 0,001, respectivamente que los hombres. De curvas ROC identificado las mejores puntos de corte para el DAS de 23.1 cm y 20

  2. 重型颅脑损伤早期肠内营养支持的合理应用%The rational application of early enteral nutrition support in patients with severe craniocerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林智; 周锐先; 付圆博; 任小江; 张跃银

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the rational application and clinical significance of nutritional support in patients with severe traumatic brain and head injury. Methods We used enteral nutrition within 48 hours for all 22 patients. A portion of pa tients had also been supplemented with parenteral nutrition, which was waned and substituted by enteral nutrition shortly. The up per arm circumference, triceps skinfold, lymphocyte count, blood sugar and serum albumin levels were recorded. Any complica tion was also documented. Results 3 of the 22 patients died. No abnormality in lymphocyte count, serum albumin, and blood sugar was recorded within one week. No severe diarrhea, infection or organ failure occurred. Conclusion Nutritional support should be applied early after traumatic brain injury to improve survivals and reduce complications.%目的 探讨重型颅脑损伤患者早期肠内营养支持的合理应用及临床意义.方法 对22例重型颅脑损伤患者伤后或术后即行肠内营养,并逐渐过渡到全肠内营养,早期不足部分由肠外营养补充.观察上臂肌围,肱三头肌皮褶厚度,淋巴细胞计数,血糖、血浆清蛋白,同时观察并发症发生率及预后.结果 本组存活19例,死亡3例.治疗1周时,血清清蛋白、淋巴细胞计数无明显下降,血糖控制良好,肠内营养期间,无严重腹泻,未见严重的感染和多器官功能不全.结论重型颅脑损伤患者早期即行肠内营养支持,可提高重型颅脑损伤的生存率,降低并发症和病死率.

  3. Fatores associados ao desenvolvimento de úlceras de pressão: o impacto da nutrição Factors associated with the development of pressure ulcers: the impact of nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Fabiane Campos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo com o objetivo de determinar a incidência, em um hospital universitário, de úlceras de pressão e verificar fatores nutricionais envolvidos em seu desenvolvimento. Métodos Foram registrados dados clínicos, sociodemográficos, antropométricos e dietéticos de 50 pacientes, posteriormente analisados com auxílio do programa Epi Info 3.2. Resultados Verificou-se a predominância de indivíduos do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 66,6, DP=18,0 anos. A incidência das injúrias foi de 28,0%, resultando em uma média de 1,7 feridas por paciente, mais frequentes na região sacral (57,1% e em calcanhares (35,7%. Encontrou-se significância estatística (pObjective This prospective study aimed to determine the incidence of pressure ulcers in a university hospital and investigate the nutritional factors involved in their development. Methods The clinical, sociodemographic, anthropometric and dietary data of 50 patients were collected and analyzed by the software Epi Info 3.2. Results Females aged M=66.6, SD=18.0 years prevailed. The incidence of pressure ulcers was 28.0%, resulting in roughly 1.7 pressure ulcers per patient. The most common sites were the sacral region (57.1% and heels (35.7%. Statistical significance (p<0.05 was found for the following variables: changing position in bed, activity level, use of diaper, mental or neurological illness, anemia and use of antibiotics, anti-inflammatories and immunosuppressants. With respect to nutritional factors, positive associations were found between patients with ulcers and low arm muscle area, low calf circumference, low triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, low hemoglobin level, low hematocrit, and high white blood cell count. The wounds also were associated with higher mortality rates and longer hospital stays. Conclusion There is a close association between poor nutritional status and the development of pressure ulcers. This study

  4. Distribuição da gordura corporal em pacientes com e sem doenças crônicas: uso da relação cintura-quadril e do índice de gordura do braço Body fat distribution in patients with and without chronic-degenerative diseases: use of the waist to hip relationship and arm fat index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Marliere NAVARRO

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição de gordura corporal, visceral e não visceral, em pacientes internados, medida por meio da antropometria. Foram avaliados 157 pacientes internados, distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo I (95 pacientes portadores de doenças crônicas e Grupo II (62 pacientes portadores de hepatopatias, pneumopatias, nefropatias, neoplasias, úlceras, gastrites, e doenças hematológicas, denominados PTodos. Em cada paciente, foram obtidas as seguintes medidas antropométricas: peso, altura, prega cutânea tricipital e circunferências (cintura e quadril. Os maiores valores dos parâmetros relação cintura/quadril e índice de gordura do braço foram encontrados no Grupo I e estes valores foram significativamente superiores quando comparados ao Grupo II. Os resultados demonstraram que, no grupo de pacientes estudados, houve uma distribuição de gordura corporal diferenciada entre pacientes Grupo I e Grupo II. Estas relações confirmam que os pacientes portadores de doenças crônicas (Grupo I apresentam valores de relação cintura/quadril e índice de gordura do braço que são discriminatórios em relação aos dos pacientes portadores de hepatopatias, pneumopatias, nefropatias, neoplasias, úlceras, gastrites e doenças hematológicas (Grupo II.The objective of this work was to evaluate the distribution of corporal, visceral and not visceral fat, in hospitalized patients, measured by means of the anthropometry. The study evaluated 157 hospitalized patients, distributed in two groups: Group I (95 patients with chronic-degenerative diseases and Group II (62 patients with liver, lung and kidney diseases, neoplasms, ulcers, gastritis, and hematologic diseases. The following anthropometric measurements were obtained from each patient: weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness and circumferences (waist and hip. The largest values of the parameters waist to hip relationship and arm fat index were found in the

  5. Clinical application of subjective global assessment in Chinese patients with gastrointestinal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bei-Wen Wu; Tao Yin; Wei-Xin Cao; Zhi-Dong Gu; Xiao-Jin Wang; Min Yan; Bing-Ya Liu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of subjective global assessment (SGA) in nutritional assessment and outcome prediction of Chinese patients with gastrointestinal cancer. METHODS: A total of 751 patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancer between August 2004 and August 2006 were enrolled in this study. Within 72 h after admission, SGA, anthropometric parameters, and laboratory tests were used to assess the nutritional status of each patient. The outcome variables including hospital stay, complications, and in-hospital medical expenditure were also obtained. RESULTS: Based on the results of SGA, 389 (51.8%), 332 (44.2%), and 30 (4.0%) patients were classified into well nourished group (SGA-A), mildly to moderately malnourished group (SGA-B), and severely malnourished group (SGA-C), respectively. The prevalence of malnutrition classified by SGA, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-upper arm muscle circumference (MAMC), albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), and body mass index (BMI) was 48.2%, 39.4%, 37.7%, 31.3%, 21.7%, and 9.6%, respectively. In addition, ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in body mass index (BMI), TSF, PA, and ALB of patients in different SGA groups. The more severely malnourished the patient was, the lower the levels of BMI, TSF, PA, and ALB were ( P < 0.05). c2 tests showed a significant difference in SGA classification between patients receiving different types of treatment (surgery vs chemotherapy/radiotherapy). As the nutritional status classified by SGA deteriorated, the patients stayed longer in hospital and their medical expenditures increased significantly. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that SGA and serum ALB could help predict the medical expenditures and hospital stay of patients undergoing surgery. The occurrence of complications increased in parallel with the increasing grade of SGA, and was the highest in the SGA-C group (23.3%) and the lowest in the SGA-A group (16.8%). CONCLUSION: SGA is a reliable

  6. 丙氨酰谷氨酰胺对合并肝硬化结直肠癌患者术后蛋白质代谢及营养状况的影响%Effect of total parenteral alimentation nutrition supplemented with alanyl-glutamine on metabolism of protein and nutrition states in patients with cirrhosis after colorectal radical correction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫民; 曹建明; 梁盛佳

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨传统全肠外营养(total parenteral nutrition, TPN)及添加丙氨酰谷氨酰胺(alanyl-glutamine, Ala-Gln)的TPN对合并肝硬化结直肠癌患者术后蛋白质代谢及营养状况的影响.方法 将47例合并肝硬化结直肠癌患者前瞻性地随机分为两组:传统TPN组(对照组,22例),添加Ala-Gln的TPN组(研究组) .术后第2天按照标准体质量,给予静脉营养支持,共7 d,热量为104.6 kJ/kg,对照组氮源由支链氨基酸供给,研究组氮源由支链氨基酸和Ala-Gln(20%力肽),力肽提供氮量约占总氮量的35%.术后第2天和第10天测量:肱三头肌皮皱厚度(triceps skin-fold, TSF)、上臂中部肌周长(mid-arm circumference, MAC)、营养预后指数(prognostic nutritional index, PNI)、血清总蛋白(total serum protein, TSP)、血清白蛋白(serum albumin, SA)、前白蛋白(prealbumin, PA)和转铁蛋白(transferrin, TF).结果 对照组术后第10天较术后第2天的TSF和MAC明显降低(P<0.05),研究组无明显变化(P≥0.05);对照组术后第10天较术后第2天的PNI、PA和TF下降(P<0.05),研究组术后第10天和术后第2天的PNI、PA和TF明显增加(P<0.05).结论 TPN中添加Ala-Gln能有效减轻合并肝硬化结直肠癌根治术后机体蛋白质的分解,改善病人的蛋白质合成代谢和降低肝负荷.

  7. Análise da relação entre a estatura e o perímetro abdominal em indivíduos portadores de percentuais normais de gordura Relationship between the stature and abdominal circumference in individuals with normal fat percentages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Celso de Lima

    2010-03-01

    da razão cintura-estatura entre indivíduos do sexo masculino de faixa etária entre 18 e 25 anos portadores de percentual normal de gordura de 43% do valor de sua estatura.BACKGROUND: Obese people have evident morphologic changes characterizing the syndrome. Different parameters and index are used to analyze their anthropometric measurements related to metabolic diseases. Many of these are applied widely to the population in general. AIM: To verify the existence of the waist-height common in male individuals from 18 to 25 years of age, with normal percentages of fat, to provide a method for measuring the circumference (perimeter abdominal. METHODS: It was selected a non-probabilistic intentional 380 male subjects group, aged between 18 and 45 years (2004 to 2008 with160 to 169 cm, 170 to 179 cm and 180 to 189 cm of height, taken from the database Outpatient Clinic School Company IBRATE - Brazilian Institute of Therapy and Education, based in Curitiba, PR, Brasil. From this population were screened 174 individuals, aged between 18 and 25 years, owners of percentage of fat within the normal range between 4% and 16%. Spearman's correlation coefficient (r was used between fat percentage and waist circumference, determined by mean and standard deviation of all variables, with confidence interval of 95% for average waist circumference and population reasons waist-height. RESULTS: The analysis showed 174 men with age 21,2 + 2,1 y; height 174,3 + 6,2 cm; fat percentage of 10,8 %; abdominal circumference of 75,5 + 5,7 cm and waist-height reason of 0,43 + 0,033. CONCLUSION: There is a correlation in the waist-height among men from 18 and 25 years old with normal fat percentage of 43% of the stature.

  8. Nutritional status in relation to lifestyle in patients with compensated viral cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fumikazu Hayashi; Chika Momoki; Miho Yuikawa; Yuko Simotani; Etsushi Kawamura; Atsushi Hagihara; Hideki Fujii

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the nourishment status and lifestyle of non-hospitalized patients with compensated cirrhosis by using noninvasive methods.METHODS:The subjects for this study consisted of 27 healthy volunteers,59 patients with chronic viral hepatitis,and 74 patients with viral cirrhosis,from urban areas.We assessed the biochemical blood tests,anthropometric parameters,diet,lifestyle and physical activity of the patients.A homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value of ≥2.5 was considered to indicate insulin resistance.We measured height,weight,waist circumference,arm circumference,triceps skin-fold thickness,and handgrip strength,and calculated body mass index,arm muscle circumference (AMC),and arm muscle area (AMA).We interviewed the subjects about their dietary habits and lifestyle using health assessment computer software.We surveyed daily physical activity using a pedometer.Univariate and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used to identify the relevant factors for insulin resistance.RESULTS:The rate of patients with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 (which was considered to indicate insulin resistance)was 14 (35.9%) in the chronic hepatitis and 17 (37.8%)in the cirrhotic patients.AMC (%) (control vs chronic hepatitis,111.9% ± 10.5% vs 104.9% ± 10.7%,P =0.021; control vs cirrhosis,111.9% ± 10.5% vs 102.7% ± 10.8%,P =0.001) and AMA (%) (control vs chronic hepatitis,128.2% ± 25.1% vs 112.2% ±22.9%,P =0.013; control vs cirrhosis,128.2% ±25.1% vs 107.5% ± 22.5%,P =0.001) in patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis were significantly lower than in the control subjects.Handgrip strength (%) in the cirrhosis group was significantly lower than in the controls (control vs cirrhosis,92.1%± 16.2% vs 66.9% ± 17.6%,P < 0.001).The results might reflect a decrease in muscle mass.The total nutrition intake and amounts of carbohydrates,protein and fat were not significantly different amongst

  9. Comparação de métodos de avaliação nutricional empregados no acompanhamento de pacientes submetidos a transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas alogênico Comparison of nutritional assessment methods employed to monitor patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa M. Sommacal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes submetidos a transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas alogênico (TCTH alo exigem atenção diferenciada devido à agressividade do tratamento. O objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar os métodos disponíveis e a frequência de avaliações nutricionais nesses pacientes. Dezessete pacientes foram avaliados semanalmente entre o dia D-7 e D+28, divididos em cinco intervalos. Foram avaliados altura, peso, índice de massa corporal (IMC, circunferência do braço (CB, dobra cutânea tricipital (DCT, circunferência muscular do braço (CMB, percentual de perda de peso (%PP, dosagem de albumina sérica, balanço hídrico total (BHT, controle de ingestão e percentual de massa magra (MM, massa gorda (MG e água (H2O através de bioimpedância elétrica. A média de consumo energético foi de 1.377 (DP±582Kcal. 76,47% (n=13 deles tiveram diminuição de peso e, desses, 57% (n=8 foram classificados como significativo; a média de %PP foi de 6,27 Kg (DP±4,25. A CB mostrou diferença significativa (pPatients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation require special attention due to the aggressiveness of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare methods used to monitor nutritional status (including anthropometric methods of bioelectrical impedance analysis, dietary intake and biochemical control and the frequency of nutritional evaluations in these patients. Weekly assessments were performed for six female and eleven male patients between day (D-7 and D+28, divided into 5 time intervals. The height, weight, triceps skinfold (TS, arm circumference (AC, arm muscle circumference (AMC, percentage of weight loss (%WL, concentration of serum albumin, body mass index (BMI, total water balance (TWB and control of intake were evaluated. Additionally, the percentages of lean mass (LM, fat mass (FM and water (H2O were assessed by electric bioimpedance. The average daily food intake was 1377 ± 582Kcal. Of the total, 76.47% (n = 13 of

  10. Crescimento e composição corporal em crianças e adolescentes com síndrome nefrótica córtico-dependente Growth and body composition in children and adolescents with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza de Castro Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar crescimento e composição corporal em crianças e adolescentes com Síndrome Nefrótica Córtico-Dependente (SNCD. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos todos os pacientes de 5 a 18 anos, em acompanhamento por pelo menos dois anos, com diagnóstico de SNCD. Foram coletados dados referentes a: tempo de tratamento, idade de início de tratamento, valores consecutivos do colesterol, albuminemia, proteinemia total, dose de uso de corticoide e peso, estatura e idade da primeira consulta. As avaliações antropométricas dobra cutânea triciptal e subescapular, índice de massa corpórea, circunferência muscular do braço, circunferência da cintura e z-escore de estatura/idade foram realizadas durante as consultas de rotina e realizadas somente quando se considerou a criança sem edema clinicamente visível. Estatística não paramétrica com p OBJECTIVE: To assess growth and body composition in children and adolescents with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS. METHODS: All children aged 5 to 18 years diagnosed with SDNS and followed up at the Pediatric Nephrology Unit for at least two years were studied. The following data were collected from the medical records: duration of treatment; age at treatment onset; total dose of steroids (mg/ kg and mg/kg/d; weight and height at the first visit; and the albuminemia, total proteinemia, and total cholesterol values. The anthropometric measures (triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, body mass index, arm muscle circumference, waist circumference, and height/age z-score were routinely determined when patients had no clinical edema. Nonparametric statistics was used with significance level of p < 0.05. RESULTS: The study comprised 18 patients (11 males, aged 6 to 16 years (mean age, 12.22 ± 2.98, with a mean treatment duration of 6.75 ± 3.75 years. The initial height/ age z-score values were significantly greater than the final ones (-0.69 ± 0.80 and -2.07 ± 1

  11. Graded associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, fatness, and blood pressure in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klasson-Heggebø, L.; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wennlöf, A.H.;

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To measure the graded relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and sum of skinfolds, waist circumference, and blood pressure in children and adolescents participating in the European youth heart study. Methods: The participants were 4072 children and adolescents (aged 9 and 15) from...... Denmark, Portugal, Estonia, and Norway. Cardiorespiratory fitness was indirectly determined using a maximal ergometer cycle test. The sum of four skinfolds, waist circumference, and blood pressure were assessed with a standardised protocol. Linear regression analysis was used to test the graded relation.......09-0.26 for the different sexes and age groups). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure also showed a curvilinear relation with cardiorespiratory fitness, and fitness explained 2% of the variance in systolic blood pressure. The difference in systolic blood pressure between the least and most fit was 6 mm Hg...

  12. Quantitative assessment of calf circumference in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, EAC; de Vries, Joeke; Fock, JM; van Tol, M; Brouwer, OF; Maurits, NM; van der Hoeven, JH

    2002-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is clinically characterised by progressive muscle weakness and a gradual increase in the size of some affected muscles, especially calf muscles. The extent of calf enlargement is usually determined by subjective visual assessment. The purpose of this study was to determin

  13. Predictor variables for half marathon race time in recreational female runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Knechtle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The relationship between skin-fold thickness and running performance has been investigated from 100 m to the marathon distance, except the half marathon distance. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether anthropometry characteristics or training practices were related to race time in 42 recreational female half marathoners to determine the predictor variables of half-marathon race time and to inform future novice female half marathoners. METHODS: Observational field study at the 'Half Marathon Basel' in Switzerland. RESULTS: In the bivariate analysis, body mass (r = 0.60, body mass index (r = 0.48, body fat (r = 0.56, skin-fold at pectoral (r = 0.61, mid-axilla (r = 0.69, triceps (r = 0.49, subscapular (r = 0.61, abdominal (r = 0.59, suprailiac (r = 0.55 medial calf (r = 0.53 site, and speed of the training sessions (r = -0.68 correlated to race time. Mid-axilla skin-fold (p = 0.04 and speed of the training sessions (p = 0.0001 remained significant after multi-variate analysis. Race time in a half marathon might be predicted by the following equation (r² = 0.71: Race time (min = 166.7 + 1.7x (mid-axilla skin-fold, mm - 6.4x (speed in training, km/h. Running speed during training was related to skinfold thickness at mid-axilla (r = -0.31, subscapular (r = -0.38, abdominal (r = -0.44, suprailiacal (r = -0.41, the sum of eight skin-folds (r = -0.36 and percent body fat (r = -0.31. CONCLUSION: Anthropometric and training variables were related to half-marathon race time in recreational female runners. Skin-fold thicknesses at various upper body locations were related to training intensity. High running speed in training appears to be important for fast half-marathon race times and may reduce upper body skin-fold thicknesses in recreational female half marathoners.

  14. Effects of Reductions of Body Fat and Regional Adipose Tissue on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Among Eldery Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeto, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Hiroshi; Takemoto, Tai-ichiro

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate effects of improvement of obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism, changes of body weight, skinfolds and biochemical parameters in glucose and lipid metabolism were examined through a six month health education on excercise and diet. Subjects were 20 men and 36 women aged from 48 to 87, who had overweight and/or glucose intolerance. Weight, relative weight and fat mass were significantly reduced after the program in both sexes. Circumference ratios were reduced only in women. The ...

  15. Ethnicity, obesity and health pattern among Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Mungreiphy, N. K.; Dhall, Meenal; Tyagi, Renu; Saluja, Kiran; Kumar, Aniket; Tungdim, Mary Grace; Sinha, Rashmi; Rongmei, K. S.; Tandon, Kajri; Bhardwaj, Shaila; Kapoor, Anup Kumar; Kapoor, Satwanti

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship of ethnicity with overweight/obesity, variation in adiposity levels, regional distribution of fat and its impact on cardio-respiratory health among selected ethnic groups. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 300 young adults of three ethnic groups from different geographical regions of India ranging in age from 20 to 30 years. Stature, weight, circumferences, body fat percentage, and skinfold thicknesses were measured. Obes...

  16. Analysing physical fitness and biomechanical factors that determine tennis serve performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ertuğrul Gelen; Sami Mengütay; Mustafa Karahan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyse the fitness and the biomechanical factors which determine the velocity of the ball during serve in tennis (VBTS). The subjects of the study were fifteen male tournament level tennis player between the ages of sixteen and twenty five (18,8 ± 2,70 age/year). The physical fitness measurement of the study were; length, body weight, skinfold, diameter, circumference and length of the body, body composition, isometric handgrip strength, vertical jump, uppe...

  17. Body Build and the Level of Development of Muscle Strength Among Male Jiu-Jitsu Competitors and Strength-Trained Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Pietraszewska Jadwiga; Burdukiewicz Anna; Stachoń Aleksandra; Andrzejewska Justyna; Stefaniak Tadeusz; Witkowski Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the present study was to assess the morpho-functional characteristics of male jiu-jitsu practitioners against a sample of strength-trained university students. Methods. The all-male research sample included 49 jiu-jitsu competitors and 30 university students actively involved in strength training. Measures of body mass and height, lower extremity length, sitting height, arm span, trunk width, skeletal breadths, circumferences and skinfold thicknesses of the trunk and extre...

  18. Anthropometric Methods in Evaluation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Karakas, Sacide; Dincer Bilgin, Mehmet; Polatli, Mehmet; Ozlem, Sercin; Tas-Gulen, Sule

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is mainly expressed by weight loss with especially fat-free mass (FFM) depletion and a low body weight correlates with increased mortality and a poor prognosis. We investigated whether anthropometric body composition equations could be used for evaluation of the body composition in COPD. Thirty clinically stable patients with COPD and 13 healthy age matched control subjects underwent the skinfolds and circumference measurements in addition to body ...

  19. A comparative study on nutritional status and body composition of urban and rural schoolchildren from Brandsen District (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Cesani Rossi, María Florencia; Garraza, Mariela; Bergel Sanchís, María Laura; Luis, María Antonia; Torres, María Fernanda; Quintero, Fabián; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze whether nutritional status and body composition varies according to the environment of residence (urban or rural) of children in the Brandsen district (Argentina). Weight, height, arm circumference and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were performed in 1368 schoolchildren aged 3 to 14. NHANES III reference was used to estimate nutritional status -underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity- and to evaluate body composition -deficit and ...

  20. A Comparative Study on Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Urban and Rural Schoolchildren from Brandsen District (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Cesani, Maria Florencia; Garraza, Mariela; Bergel Sanchís, María Laura; Luis, María Antonia; Torres, María Fernanda; Quintero, Fabián Aníbal; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze whether nutritional status and body composition varies according to the environment of residence (urban or rural) of children in the Brandsen district (Argentina). Weight, height, arm circumference and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were performed in 1368 schoolchildren aged 3 to 14. NHANES III reference was used to estimate nutritional status -underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity- and to evaluate body composition -deficit and ...

  1. ASSESSING THE ANTHROPOMETRIC, SOMATOTYPE AND SOME PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 8 &10

    OpenAIRE

    AYAN, Vedat

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between the anthropometric, somatotype and some performance characteristics of female children aged between 8–10. In this study 1777 volunteer secondary school female students, at the age of 9±1, from Ankara, participated in the subject group.In our study 11 anthropometric measurements including skinfold thickness, circumference and width measurements etc. were taken. Of performance characteristics, vertical jump test and 20 m short distance ...

  2. Food behavior, body image and anthropometric indices of university students
    Comportamento alimentar, imagem corporal e índices antropométricos de universitários

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. P. MONTEIRO; V. F. ZANIRATI; M. L. ANDRADE; R.R. Silva

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess food behavior, self-image perception and anthropometric indices of college students. This was a cross-sectional study with 54 students in a public university. The lifestyle and self-image perception was collected using a standardized questionnaire tested. Food behavior was evaluated through the Eating Attitudes Test. Body composition was assessed for Body Mass Index (BMI), circumferences, skinfold analysis and bioelectrical impedan...

  3. FOOD BEHAVIOR, BODY IMAGE AND ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICES OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Regina Pereira MONTEIRO; Viviane Ferreira ZANIRATI; Mariana Lage de Oliveira ANDRADE; Silva, Roberta Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess food behavior, self-image perception and anthropometric indices of college students. This was a cross-sectional study with 54 students in a public university. The lifestyle and self-image perception was collected using a standardized questionnaire tested. Food behavior was evaluated through the Eating Attitudes Test. Body composition was assessed for Body Mass Index (BMI), circumferences, skinfold analysis and bioelectrical impedan...

  4. Body composition and body image perception in portuguese and spanish college students: comparative study between overweight /obese and normal weight women

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Elza; Lacerda, Fernanda; Valador, Natacha; Ferro-Lebres, Vera; Arroyo, Marta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate body image perception and compare with real measures of body composition between overweight/obese and normal weight women college students. Subjects: The reported sample included 600 students from Portugal and Spain. Material and Methods: The anthropometry variables: weight, height, skinfolds, circumferences and body mass index, waist-hip ratio, percentage of body fat and fat-free mass- FFM were compared with reference values. The body image perception an...

  5. Nutritional Status of Maasai Pastoralists under Change

    OpenAIRE

    Galvin, Kathleen A.; Beeton, Tyler A.; Boone, Randall B.; Shauna B. BurnSilver

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the nutritional status of Maasai pastoralists living in a period of great social, economic and ecological changes in Kajiado County, southern Kenya. Data on weight, height, skinfolds, and circumferences were collected from 534 individuals in the year 2000. The data were used to describe mean differences in human nutrition between ages, sexes, and within and among three Group Ranches. Nutritional data and diet recall data were compared with past studies of Maasai nutrition ...

  6. Seguimento nutricional de pacientes com fibrose cística: papel do aconselhamento nutricional Nutritional follow-up of cystic fibrosis patients: the role of nutrition education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola V. Adde

    2004-12-01

    possibilitou melhora na aderência ao uso de enzimas pancreáticas e de suplementos nutricionais e no estado nutricional, principalmente nos pacientes de baixa idade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional status of a group of cystic fibrosis patients and establish the role of nutrition education addressed to them in a comparative study before and after intervention. METHODS: All cystic fibrosis patients in regular follow-up in the pulmonology clinic of Instituto da Criança during 1996-99 were prospectively monitored for 3.5 years. Measurements of weight, height, mid upper arm circumference, skinfolds and calculations of weight/age, height/age, weight/height, mid upper arm circumference and triceps z scores, percentage of ideal weight for height, percentage of body fat, check of the use of enzymes with meals and of the use of nutritional supplements were performed at four points in time: initial (I, 7 (II, 13 (III and 43 (IV months after the first evaluation. Nutritional counseling was given both verbally and in writing (booklet to all patients. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients, 38F/36M, age range 6 months to 18.4 years were evaluated. At study entry the anthropometric data showed: percentage of ideal weight for height = 94±13, percentage of body fat = 15±7.1, z scores for weight/age = -1.13±1.3, z scores for height/age = -0.94±1.2, z scores for weight/height = -0.69±1.1, z scores for mid upper arm circumference = -1.35±1.3, triceps z scores = -0.74±0.9. Compliance with enzyme therapy and use of high-calorie supplements improved during the study period. There was a significant increase in weight/height and triceps z scores and percentage of body fat throughout the study period. After stratifying patients into three age groups the anthropometric improvement was only significant among children under 5 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Mild malnutrition was present in this group of cystic fibrosis patients. The nutrition education led to an improvement in compliance with enzyme

  7. Prevalence of concealed penis among school boys in Shanghai and its relationship with obesity%上海市中小学男生隐匿阴茎流行现状及其与肥胖的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文; 史慧静; 李丹; 张越; 张博林; 王群; 江小小

    2012-01-01

    . There were statistically significant correlations between the obesity-related indicators (BMI, weight and waistline,hip circumference, waist-hip ratio,subscapular,skinfold, triceps skinfold) and concealed penis (their ORs were 1.730,1.158,1.252,1.297,13.734,1.248,1.229 respectively). [Conclusion] The prevalence of the concealed penis is higher than before. All the obesity-related indicators are risk factors of the concealed penis, moreover, the central obesity is attributed to the concealed penis among the boys. Actually,the influence of children obesity towards concealed penis should be paid high attention.

  8. Correction of Hypothyroidism Seems to Have No Effect on Body Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Okan Bakiner; Emre Bozkirli; Emine Duygu Ersozlu Bozkirli; Kursat Ozsahin

    2013-01-01

    Aim. We aimed to observe the effects of L-thyroxine replacement therapy on body fat content determined with various anthropometric methods and a bioelectrical impedance analysis method in patients with hypothyroidism. Methods. Forty-two women with naive autoimmune hypothyroidism were included. Also, 40 healthy participants were enrolled as a control group. Weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and subscapulary, suprailiac, femur, biceps, and triceps skin fold thicknesses were measured...

  9. Noninvasive evaluation of the vascular response to transplantation of alginate encapsulated islets using the dorsal skin-fold model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Rahul; Arora, Rajan P; Alexander, Michael; White, Sean M; Lamb, Morgan W; Foster, Clarence E; Choi, Bernard; Lakey, Jonathan R T

    2014-01-01

    Alginate encapsulation reduces the risk of transplant rejection by evading immune-mediated cell injury and rejection; however, poor vascular perfusion results in graft failure. Since existing imaging models are incapable of quantifying the vascular response to biomaterial implants after transplantation, in this study, we demonstrate the use of in vivo laser speckle imaging (LSI) and wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) to monitor the microvascular environment surrounding biomaterial implants. The vascular response to two islet-containing biomaterial encapsulation devices, alginate microcapsules and a high-guluronate alginate sheet, was studied and compared after implantation into the mouse dorsal window chamber (N = 4 per implant group). Images obtained over a 14-day period using LSI and WiFI were analyzed using algorithms to quantify blood flow, hemoglobin oxygen saturation and vascular density. Using our method, we were able to monitor the changes in the peri-implant microvasculature noninvasively without the use of fluorescent dyes. Significant changes in blood flow, hemoglobin oxygen saturation and vascular density were noted as early as the first week post-transplant. The dorsal window chamber model enables comparison of host responses to transplanted biomaterials. Future experiments will study the effect of changes in alginate composition on the vascular and immune responses. PMID:24176195

  10. Body Mass Index and Skinfold Thickness Measurements as Body Composition Screening Tools in Caucasian and African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Charity Leigh; Solmon, Melinda A.; Zanovec, Michael T.; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2011-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding childhood obesity and its impact on children's health, and many states and school districts have mandated that health assessments be conducted as part of physical education. Tools such as the FITNESSGRAM[R] can help teachers inform students and parents if students are above a healthy weight range. The FITNESSGRAM…

  11. Aleitamento materno exclusivo e adiposidade Amamantamiento materno exclusivo y adiposidad Exclusive breastfeeding and adiposity

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    José Fernando V. N. Moraes

    2011-06-01

    ón transversal, en la que 134 pre-escolares entre 3 y 5 años de edad de una escuela privada de Brasilia, Brasil, fueron evaluados respecto a: masa corporal, estatura, perímetros del brazo y de la cintura, pliegues cutáneos tricipital y subescapular. Los padres de los niños contestaron a un cuestionario sobre el tiempo de amamantamiento. El diagnóstico de sobrepeso y obesidad fue realizado conforme a la clasificación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para el índice de masa corporal por edad. RESULTADOS: Las niñas tuvieron mayor concentración adiposa en el pliegue cutáneo tricipital (p=0,001, subescapular (p=0,044 y en la suma de éstos (p=0,003 respecto a los niños. La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad fue similar en los dos sexos (25,4% en los niños y 22,6% en las niñas, así como el tiempo mediano de amamantamiento exclusivo (4,3 meses para niños y 4,6 meses para niñas. Se notó correlación inversa significativa entre tiempo de amamantamiento exclusivo y perímetro de la cintura (r=-0,166; p=0,05. Las otras variables también mostraron tendencia de correlación inversa con el tiempo de amamantamiento materno exclusivo, pero sin valores significativos. CONCLUSIONES: La asociación inversa entre el tiempo de amamantamiento y el perímetro de la cintura muestra un posible efecto del amamantamiento materno sobre la distribución de grasa corporal en el pre-escolar.OBJECTIVE: To associate exclusive breastfeeding with central and peripheral adiposity measured by body mass index, waist and arm circumferences, triceps and subscapular skinfolds and their sum in preschool children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 134 preschool children aged 3-5 years from a private school in Brasília, Brazil. All children had their body weight, height, waist and arm circumferences, and triceps and subscapular skinfolds measured. Children's parents an-swered a questionnaire about breastfeeding duration. Overweight and obesity were diagnosed based on the World Health

  12. Standardisation of the Waist Circumference (WC for each range of Body Mass Index (BMI in adult outpatients attended to in Endocrinology and Nutrition Departments Estandarización de la circunferencia de cintura (WC, para cada rango de índice de masa corporal (BMI en pacientes adultos atendidos en un servicio de endocrinología y nutrición

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    M. López de la Torre

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available By this study we seek the expectable range of waist circumference (WC for every degree of body mass index (BMI, which will serve to studies targeting ascertaining the health risk. We studied 2,932 patients (39.6% men and 60.4% women, between 18 and 96 years of the same ethnic group who consecutively attended outpatient departments of our clinics between 2000 and 2004.. BMI correlated linearly with the WC (cc: 0.85; p = 102 cm and women > = 88 cm in 94.3% of the obese, in 32.3% of overweight patients, in 3.8% of patients with BMI En este estudio hemos buscado el rango de circunferencia de cintura (WC para cada grado de índice de masa corporal (BMI, que sirva para estudios que determinen riesgos de salud. Estudiamos 2.932 pacientes (39,6% varones y 60,4% mujeres, entre 18 y 96 años del mismo grupo étnico que consecutivamente asistieron a consultas externas de nuestras clínicas entre 2000 and 2004. El BMI correlacionó linealmente con la WC (cc: 0,85; p = 102 cm y mujeres > = 88 cm la presentaban el 94,3% de los obesos, el 32,3% de los pacientes con sobrepeso y el 3,8% de pacientes con BMI < 25, el 84,3% de diabéticos y el 72,6% de pacientes sin diabetes. Elaboramos una estandarización gráfica de WC en relación con BMI y calculamos los precentiles 10, 25, 50, 75 y 90, agrupados en rangos de 2 kg/m² de BMI. Como el número de diabeticos es menor, los agrupamos en rangos de 4 kg/m². En conclusión presentamos una estandarización de la WC de pacientes atendidos en nuestra consulta de endocrinología y nutrición distribuidos en percentiles como herramienta utilizable clínicamente para definir rangos de WC para cada valor de BMI.

  13. A relação cintura quadril e o perímetro da cintura associados ao índice de massa corporal em estudo com escolares Waist-hip ratio and waist circumference associated with body mass index in a study with schoolchildren

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    Claudia Soar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os valores percentis de índice de massa corporal (IMC, relação cintura quadril (RCQ e perímetro da cintura (PC e verificar as possíveis correlações existentes entre esses índices em escolares matriculados no Instituto Estadual de Educação, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Foram investigadas 419 crianças entre sete e nove anos de idade, sendo 215 (51,3% do sexo masculino e 204 (48,7% do sexo feminino. O sexo masculino apresentou maiores valores de IMC, RCQ e PC em relação ao sexo feminino; entretanto, com diferença estatística somente para RCQ e PC. Encontrou-se prevalência de 17,9% de sobrepeso e 6,7% de obesidade. Os índices antropométricos que apresentam maior correlação foram o IMC e o PC (r = 0,87 e p The objectives of this study were to determine the percentile levels of the anthropometric indices body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, and waist circumference (WC and to verify possible correlations among theses indices in schoolchildren registered at the State Institute of Education, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. A total of 419 children ages 7 to 9 years were investigated: 215 (51.3% boys and 204 (48.7% girls. BMI, WHR, and WC were higher for boys than for girls. However, the differences were only statistically significant for WHR and WC. Prevalence rates were 17.9% for overweight and 6.7% for obesity. The anthropometric indices with the highest correlation were BMI and WC (r = 0.87 and p < 0.01. For overweight, BMI and WC also presented the strongest correlation (r = 0.74. For obesity, WHR and WC showed the best correlation (r = 0.54.

  14. The use of body circumferences for the prediction of intra-abdominal fat in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome El uso de circunferencias corporales para la predicción de la grasa intra-abdominal en mujeres obesas con el síndrome del ovario poliquístico

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    F. Rodrigues de Oliveira Penaforte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Computerizd tomography (CT is the gold standard for the evaluation of intra- (IAF and total (TAF abdominal fat; however, the high cost of the procedure and exposure to radiation limit its routine use. Objective: To develop equations that utilize anthropometric measures for the estimate of IAF and TAF in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods: The weight, height, BMI, and abdominal (AC, waist (WC, chest (CC, and neck (NC circumferences of thirty obese women with PCOS were measured, and their IAF and TAF were analyzed by CT. Results: The anthropometric variables AC, CC, and NC were chosen for the TAF linear regression model because they were better correlated with the fat deposited in this region. The model proposed for TAF (predicted was: 4.63725 + 0.01483 x AC - 0.00117 x NC - 0.00177 x CC (R² = 0.78; and the model proposed for IAF was: IAF (predicted = 1.88541 + 0.01878 x WC + 0.05687 x NC -0.01529 x CC (R²=0.51. AC was the only independent predictor of TAF (p Introducción: La tomografia computarizada (TC es el estándar de oro para la evaluación de la grasa intra-abdominal (GIA y abdominal total (GAT, pero los altos costos y la exposición a la radiación limitan su uso rutinario. Objetivo: Desarrollar ecuaciones para la estimación de la GIA y la GAT en mujeres obesas con el sindrome del ovario poliquistico, utilizando medidas antropométricas. Métodos: Se evaluó el peso, la altura, el IMC y las circunferencias abdominal (CA, cintura (CC, pecho (CP y cuello (Ccu de 30 mujeres obesas con SOP. La GIA y GAT fueron analizados por la TC. Resultados: El modelo propuesto fue: GAT = 4,63725 + 0,01483 x CA - 0.00117 x CCu - 0,00177 x CP (R² = 0,78; y para la GIA fue: GIA = 1, 88541 + 0, 01878 x CC + 0,05687 x CCu - 0,01529 x CP (R² = 0,51. La CA fue La única variable predictora independiente de la GAT (p < 0,01. Conclusión: Las equaciones propuestas correlacionaronse bien con el valor real, medido a trav

  15. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI, Body Adiposity Index (BAI, Waist Circumference (WC, Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR and Waist-To-Height Ratio (WHtR as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

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    Benjamin Chih Chiang Lam

    Full Text Available Excess adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Amongst the various measures of adiposity, the best one to help predict these risk factors remains contentious. A novel index of adiposity, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI was proposed in 2011, and has not been extensively studied in all populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR, Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR, Body Adiposity Index (BAI and CVD risk factors in the local adult population.This is a cross sectional study involving 1,891 subjects (Chinese 59.1% Malay 22.2%, Indian 18.7%, aged 21-74 years, based on an employee health screening (2012 undertaken at a hospital in Singapore. Anthropometric indices and CVD risk factor variables were measured, and Spearman correlation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves and multiple logistic regressions were used. BAI consistently had the lower correlation, area under ROC and odd ratio values when compared with BMI, WC and WHtR, although differences were often small with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for BMI, BAI did not further increase the odds of CVD risk factors, unlike WC and WHtR (for all except hypertension and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. When subjects with the various CVD risk factors were grouped according to established cut-offs, a BMI of ≥23.0 kg/m2 and/or WHtR ≥0.5 identified the highest proportion for all the CVD risk factors in both genders, even higher than a combination of BMI and WC.BAI may function as a measure of overall adiposity but it is unlikely to be better than BMI. A combination of BMI and WHtR could have the best clinical utility in identifying patients with CVD risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

  16. Relação do índice de massa corporal, da relação cintura-quadril e da circunferência abdominal com a mortalidade em mulheres idosas: seguimento de 5 anos Relationship between body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio and mortality in elderly women: a 5-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. S. Cabrera

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a associação entre a relação cintura-quadril (RCQ, a circunferência abdominal (CA e o índice de massa corporal (IMC com a mortalidade total e cardiovascular em 575 mulheres idosas ambulatoriais por um seguimento de cinco anos. Os maiores quartis de RCQ, CA e IMC, bem como as categorias pré-determinadas de IMC, foram analisados como variáveis preditivas e analisada a interferência de algumas variáveis confundidoras. Oitenta e oito mulheres morreram durante o seguimento (15,4%. As mulheres com baixo peso (IMC 0,97 estava associado com a maior mortalidade total, entretanto, na análise multivariada o aumento de RCQ apresentou uma associação independente com a mortalidade total, apenas entre as mulheres de 60 a 80 anos. Nenhuma medida antropométrica apresentou uma associação significativa com a mortalidade cardiovascular. Os resultados identificaram o baixo peso e a RCQ como preditores de mortalidade total em idosas, principalmente entre as mulheres com até 80 anos.This study examines the association between body mass index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and waist circumference (WC and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in elderly women in a 5-year longitudinal study of 575 female outpatients 60 years and over. The highest BMI, WHR, and WC quartiles and predefined BMI categories were analyzed as predictive variables. Death occurred in 88 (15.4%. Underweight (BMI 0.97 was associated with all-cause mortality. However, after adjustment for age, smoking, and previous cardiovascular diseases, the increase in WHR was positively associated only in women from 60 to 80 years of age. None of the anthropometric measurements was associated with cardiovascular mortality. The results indicate that underweight and increased waist-to-hip ratio were predictors of all-cause mortality in elderly women, mainly among those under 80 years.

  17. Diagnóstico da restrição de crescimento fetal pela relação diâmetro transverso do cerebelo e circunferência abdominal Diagnosis of fetal growth restriction by transverse cerebellar diameter/abdominal circumference ratio

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    José de Arimatea Barreto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: testar a validade da relação diâmetro transverso do cerebelo (DTC/circunferência abdominal (CA no diagnóstico da restrição de crescimento fetal (RCF, determinando seu melhor ponto de corte e acurácia nas restrições simétrica e assimétrica. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo, transversal, envolvendo 250 gestantes com gravidez única, idade gestacional entre a 20ª e a 42ª semana, confirmada por ultra-sonografia. A medida do DTC foi obtida colocando-se os calipers nas margens externas do cerebelo, após sua localização na fossa posterior, com suave rotação do transdutor abaixo do plano do tálamo. A circunferência abdominal foi medida na junção das veias porta esquerda e umbilical. O melhor ponto de corte da relação DTC/CA foi obtido pela curva ROC (receiver operator characteristic. Os neonatos cujas relações DTC/CA foram maiores do que o ponto de corte selecionado foram considerados com RCF. Consideraram-se padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico de RCF recém-nascidos cujos pesos situaram-se abaixo do percentil 10. Neonatos com RCF e índice ponderal de Rohrer entre 2,2 e 3 foram considerados simétricos e abaixo de 2,2, assimétricos. RESULTADOS: o ponto de corte da relação DTC/CA, obtido pela curva ROC foi 16,1. A sensibilidade, especificidade, acurácia, valores preditivos positivo e negativo e razões de verossimilhança positiva e negativa foram de 77,4; 82,6; 38,7; 96,3; 82; 4,5 e 3,7%, respectivamente. Na RCF simétrica a sensibilidade e especificidade foram de 80,8 e 81,7%, respectivamente. Na assimétrica, a sensibilidade e especificidade foram de 60 e 75%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: a relação DTC/CA mostrou-se eficaz no diagnóstico da RCF simétrica e assimétrica.PURPOSE: to evaluate the validity of transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD/abdominal circumference (AC ratio in the diagnosis of fetal growth restriction (FGR, determining its best cutoff value and accuracy in symmetric and asymmetric FGR. METHOD: a

  18. Estimativas de tendências e parâmetros genéticos do peso padronizado aos 378 dias de idade, medidas corporais e perímetro escrotal de machos Nelore de Sertãozinho, SP Estimates of genetic parameters and trends for body weight at 378 days, body measurements and scrotal circumference of Sertãozinho Nellore males

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    Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves Cyrillo

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram estimar as tendências e os parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos do peso padronizado aos 378 dias de idade (P378, medidas corporais e perímetro escrotal de machos Nelore, pertencentes às populações selecionadas e controle da Estação Experimental de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho. As herdabilidades, estimadas considerando-se modelo de touro e modelo animal, foram, respectivamente, 0,53±0,12 e 0,36 para P378; 0,38±0,11 e 0,58 para altura na garupa; 0,31±0,10 e 0,10 para perímetro torácico; 0,40± 0,11 e 0,13 para comprimento do corpo; 0,39±0,11 e 0,30 para comprimento do dorso; 0,33±0,10 e 0,12 para comprimento da garupa; 0,08± 0,07 e 0,14 para distância de ísquios; 0,23±0,09 e 0,08 para distância de íleos e 0,57±0,13 e 0,44 para perímetro escrotal. A correlação genética mais alta entre P378 e medidas corporais foi encontrada para perímetro torácico (0,86 ± 0,08; as demais variaram de 0,46 a 0,72. Os resultados deste estudo mostraram que, em função dos valores médios a altos das herdabilidades estimadas para P378 e da maioria das características de medidas do corpo dos animais, houve considerável variação genética aditiva nesses atributos. Além disso, devido às altas correlações genéticas de P378 com a maioria das características, pode-se concluir ser bastante provável que grande parte dos genes que controlam o peso pós-desmame também seja responsável pelo desenvolvimento das diferentes regiões do corpo de machos Nelore. A magnitude desses parâmetros justifica a tendência genética positiva nas características de seleção direta e nas secundárias.The objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic trends and also the genetic and phenotypic parameters for body weight at 378 days (W378, body measurements and scrotal circumferences of Nellore males from selected and control populations of the Estação Experimental de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho (SP, Brazil. The

  19. Morphological characteristics of professional ballet dancers of the Bolshoi theater company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Elisa Pinheiro; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Martins, Cilene Rebolho; Fidelix, Yara Lucy; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the morphological profile ofprofessional dancers compared with university physical education students. Thirty-five subjects were evaluated as follows: 13 professional ballet dancers of the Bolshoi Theater Company, six males and seven females, and 22 university physical education students, 11 males and 11 females. Body mass, height, skinfold (triceps, biceps, subscapular, chest, axilla, supraspinale, Iliac crest, abdominal, Front thigh, medial calf) girth (Arm flexed and tensed, forearm, waist, gluteal girth, Mid-thigh girth and calf) and breadth (wrist, ankle, Biepicondylar humerus and femur) were evaluated and somatotype, body fat percentage (BF%) body mass index (BMI), Sigma7 Skinfolds lean body mass, bone, residual and muscle mass were calculated. Dancers showed lower values for BMI, sum of seven skinfolds, BF%, body fat percentage, fat mass, residual mass (p<0.05). For females, lean body mass was also lower in the group of dancers. Body muscle values were lower for university physical education students of both sexes (p<0.05). When assessing differences between male and female dancers and male and female university physical education students, dancers appeared to be more homogeneous than students. As for somatotype, male dancers showed predominance of mesomorphy over the other components and female dancers showed predominance of ectomorphy. The intense training in classical ballet interfered in body composition components, changing them significantly. PMID:23914487

  20. Variabilidad de la presión arterial en 24 horas en adolescentes obesas y no-obesas con desarrollo mamario 4 y 5 de los criterios de Tanner Blood pressure variability in 24 hours in obese and non-obese adolescents with breast development 4 and 5 of Tanner's criteria

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    I. C. Bonilla Rosales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Investigar el comportamiento de la presión arterial (PA mediante monitoreo ambulatorio de la presión arterial (MAPA en 24 h en un grupo de adolescentes obesas y no-obesas con estadios mamarios de Tanner 4 y 5. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado en el Instituto de Investigación Cardiovascular en México, incluyendo 64 adolescentes entre 13 a 16 años de edad con estadios mamarios 4 o 5 de la clasificación de Tanner. Se midió PA en la oficina, frecuencia cardiaca (FC, índice de masa corporal (IMC, índice cintura-cadera, circunferencia de brazo, pliegues cutáneos tricipital, subescapular, abdominal y supraespinal. Se analizaron PA con MAPA en 24 h en obesas y no-obesas. Resultados: Cincuenta y nueve adolescentes, 29 obesas (IMC 31,2 ± 4,0 y 30 no-obesas (IMC 21,2 ± 2,2. Obesas vs no-obesas PAs en la oficina 116,9 vs 105,9 ± 9,3 mmHg (p Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the blood pressure variability during 24 h by using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM in a group of obese and non-obese female adolescents with breast development status 4 and 5 of Tanner´s criteria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Cardiovascular Research Institute, Mexico. All subjects underwent 24 h non-invasive ABPM recording device. Pubertal status was determined by breast development. Measurements: office systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and heart rate (HR. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumferences, arm circumference, waist to hip ratio (W/H, and skinfold thickness measurements: triceps, subscapular, abdominal and supraspinal. Results: Fifty-nine adolescents 13-16 years old; 29 obese (BMI 31.2 ± 4.0, and 30 non- obese (BMI 21.2 ± 2.2. Obese vs. non-obese: Office SBP 116.9 vs. 105.9 ± 9.3 mmHg (p < 0.001; ABPM in 24 h: SBP 113.8 ± 6.3 vs. 107.6 ± 5.7 mmHg (p < 0.001; diurnal SBP 117.3 mmHg vs. 111.2 mmHg (p < 0.001; nocturnal SBP 105.5 ± 8 vs. 99