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Sample records for circumference cutoff values

  1. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for Metabolic Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria in a Korean Rural Population

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Jang Hyun; Koh, Sang Baek; Lee, Mi Young; Jung, Pil Moon; Kim, Bo Hwan; Shin, Jang Yel; Shin, Young Goo; Ryu, So Yeon; Lee, Tae Yong; Park, Jong Ku; Chung, Choon Hee

    2010-01-01

    The Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO) has defined the waist circumference cutoff value of central obesity as 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the corresponding waist circumference values. A total of 3,508 persons in the Korean Rural Genomic Cohort Study were enrolled in this survey. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to find appropriate waist circumference cutoff values in relation to insulin resist...

  2. Optimal waist circumference cutoff values for the diagnosis of abdominal obesity in korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeong Sook; Oh, Sang Woo

    2014-12-29

    Abdominal obesity is associated closely with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Waist circumference (WC) is a useful surrogate marker commonly used for abdominal adiposity. The determination of WC cutoff levels is important in the prevention and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases. Recent epidemiological evidence suggested that appropriate optimal cutoffs for Koreans ranged over 80 to 89.8 cm in males and 76.1 to 86.5 cm in females. We analyzed the data from two large cohorts using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with the incidences of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarct, angina, coronary artery disease, and multiple metabolic risk factors as outcome variables. Optimal WC cutoff points for Koreans were 85 cm in males and 80 cm in females. However, considering the prevalence of abdominal obesity and the health costs for its prevention and management, 90 cm in males and 85 cm in females are probably more appropriate thresholds for abdominal obesity. These values may be modified once better research is performed through prospective studies using representative populations, common health outcomes, and proper analytical approaches. PMID:25559570

  3. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for the Diagnosis of Abdominal Obesity in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Yeong Sook; Oh, Sang Woo

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated closely with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Waist circumference (WC) is a useful surrogate marker commonly used for abdominal adiposity. The determination of WC cutoff levels is important in the prevention and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases. Recent epidemiological evidence suggested that appropriate optimal cutoffs for Koreans ranged over 80 to 89.8 cm in males and 76.1 to 86.5 cm in females...

  4. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Based on Insulin Resistance and Visceral Obesity in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Soo Lim; Young Ju Choi; Soo-Kyung Kim; Byoung Wook Huh; Eun Jig Lee; Kap Bum Huh

    2015-01-01

    Background Visceral obesity is the most powerful contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases. In light of visceral obesity, however, there is a paucity of data on the appropriate cutoff point of waist circumference (WC) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal cutoff value for WC that signals insulin resistance (IR) and visceral obesity in Koreans with type 2 diabetes. Methods We evaluated 4,252 patients...

  5. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Based on Insulin Resistance and Visceral Obesity in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Jung Soo Lim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVisceral obesity is the most powerful contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and cardiovascular diseases. In light of visceral obesity, however, there is a paucity of data on the appropriate cutoff point of waist circumference (WC in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal cutoff value for WC that signals insulin resistance (IR and visceral obesity in Koreans with type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe evaluated 4,252 patients with type 2 diabetes (male 2,220, female 2,032, mean age 57.24 years who visited our clinic between January 2003 and June 2009. WC was measured at the midpoint between the lower rib and the iliac crest, and insulin sensitivity was assessed by the rate constant of plasma glucose disappearance (Kitt %/min using an insulin tolerance test. Visceral fat thickness was measured using ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic curve.ResultsThe optimal cutoff points for WC for identifying the presence of IR and visceral obesity, as well as two or more metabolic components, were 87 cm for men and 81 cm for women. Moreover, these cutoff points had the highest predictive powers for the presence of visceral obesity. The MetS defined by new criteria correlated with the increased carotid intima-media thickness in female subjects.ConclusionOur results suggest that the optimal cutoff values for WC in Koreans with type 2 diabetes should be reestablished based on IR and visceral obesity.

  6. Waist circumference cut-off values for the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors clustering in Chinese school-aged children: a cross-sectional study

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    Xu Ying

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waist circumference has been identified as a valuable predictor of cardiovascular risk in children. The development of waist circumference percentiles and cut-offs for various ethnic groups are necessary because of differences in body composition. The purpose of this study was to develop waist circumference percentiles for Chinese children and to explore optimal waist circumference cut-off values for predicting cardiovascular risk factors clustering in this population. Methods Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured in 5529 children (2830 boys and 2699 girls aged 6-12 years randomly selected from southern and northern China. Blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose were obtained in a subsample (n = 1845. Smoothed percentile curves were produced using the LMS method. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to derive the optimal age- and gender-specific waist circumference thresholds for predicting the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. Results Gender-specific waist circumference percentiles were constructed. The waist circumference thresholds were at the 90th and 84th percentiles for Chinese boys and girls respectively, with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 67% to 83%. The odds ratio of a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among boys and girls with a higher value than cut-off points was 10.349 (95% confidence interval 4.466 to 23.979 and 8.084 (95% confidence interval 3.147 to 20.767 compared with their counterparts. Conclusions Percentile curves for waist circumference of Chinese children are provided. The cut-off point for waist circumference to predict cardiovascular risk factors clustering is at the 90th and 84th percentiles for Chinese boys and girls, respectively.

  7. Effectiveness of Different Waist Circumference Cut-off Values in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence and Risk Factors in Adults in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hai Cheng; TIAN Hao Ming; JI Qiu He; ZHU Da Long; CHEN Li; GUO Xiao Hui; ZHAO Zhi Gang; Li Qiang; ZHOU Zhi Guang; GE Jia Pu; SHAN Guang Liang; LAI Ya Xin; SHAN Zhong Yan; JIA Wei Ping; YANG Wen Ying; LU Ju Ming; WENG Jian Ping; JI Li Nong; LIU Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effectiveness of waist circumference cut-off values in predicting the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and risk factors in adults in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was condcuted in 14 provinces (autonomous region, municipality) in China. A total of 47 325 adults aged ≥20 years were selected by multistage stratified sampling, and questionnaire survey and physical and clinical examination were conducted among them. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and modified IDF criteria. Results The age-standardized prevalence of MetS was 24.2%(22.1%in men and 25.8%in women) and 19.5% (22.1% in men and 18.0% in women) according to the IDF criteria and modified IDF criteria respectively. The age-standardized prevalence of pre-MetS was 8.1%(8.6%in men and 7.8%in women) according to the modified IDF criteria. The prevalence of MetS was higher in urban residents than rural residents and in northern China residents than in southern China residents. The prevalence of central obesity was about 30% in both men and women according to the ethnicity-specific cut-off values of waist circumference for central obesity (90 cm for men and 85 cm for women). Multivariate regression analysis revealed no significant difference in risk factors between the two MetS definitions. Conclusion Using both the modified IDF criteria and ethnicity-specific cut-off values of waist circumference can provide more useful information about the prevalence of MetS in China.

  8. Optimal Waist Circumference Cut-off values for Identifying Metabolic Risk Factors in Middle-aged and Elderly Subjects in Shandong Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xin Guo; ZHANG Xiu Ping; JIANG Mei; WANG Wei Qing; NING Guang; ZHENG Hui Zhen; MA Ai Xia; SUN Yu; SONG Jun; LIN Peng; LIANG Kai; WANG Chuan; LIU Fu Qiang; LI Wen Juan; XIAO Juan; GONG Lei; WANG Mei Jian; LIU Ji Dong; YAN Fei; YANG Jun Peng; WANG Ling Shu; TIAN Meng; MA Ze Qiang; ZHAO Ru Xing; JIANG Ling; CHEN Li; YANG Wei Fang; WANG Ji Xiang; LI Cheng Qiao; WANG Yu Lian; LIU Shu Min; Hu Xiu Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the optimal waist circumference (WC) cut-off values for identifying metabolic risk factors in middle-aged and elderly subjects in Shandong Province of China. Methods A total of 2 873 men and 5 559 women were included in this cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was diagnosed according to the definition of Chinese Diabetes Society in 2004. The relation between WC and MetS was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The optimal WC cut-off values were identified using the area under the ROC curve and the different diagnostic criteria for central obesity were compared. Results The WC was the risk factor for MetS independent of BMI, blood glucose, blood lipid, and blood pressure. The optimal WC cut-off value was 83.8 cm and 91.1 cm for identifying MetS in women and men, respectively. Compared with 80 cm and 85 cm for women and men, 85 cm and 90 cm had a higher Youden index for identifying all metabolic risk factors and MetS in women and men. Conclusion The appropriate WC cut-off value is 85 cm and 90 cm for identifying central obesity and MetS in women and men in Shandong Province of China.

  9. The cutoff values of visceral fat area and waist circumference for identifying subjects at risk for metabolic syndrome in elderly Korean: Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study

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    Koh Young

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Korea, the cutoff values of waist circumference (WC for the identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS were suggested to be 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women based on the analysis mainly in middle-aged adults. As aging is associated with increased fat, especially abdominal visceral fat, the cutoff value of WC may differ according to age. In addition, the usefulness of visceral abdominal fat area (VFA to predict MetS in the elderly has not been studied yet. We aimed to suggest WC and VFA criteria and to compare the predictability of WC and VFA to identify people at risk for MetS. Methods A total of 689 elderly subjects aged ≥63 years (308 men, 381 women were chosen in this cross-sectional study from an ongoing, prospective, population-based study, the Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study. VFA was measured by single slice abdominal computed tomography scanning. The metabolic risk factors except WC (plasma glucose, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels were defined using modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. We estimated the accuracy of VFA and WC for identifying at least two of these factors by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results Two hundred three of 308 men and 280 of 381 women had ≥2 metabolic risk factors. The area under the ROC curve (AUC value for VFA to predict the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors was not significantly different from that for WC (men, 0.735 and 0.750; women, 0.715 and 0.682; AUC values for VFA and WC, respectively. The optimal cutoff points for VFA and WC for predicting the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors were 92.6 cm2 and 86.5 cm for men and 88.9 cm2 and 86.5 cm for women. Conclusion WC had comparable power with VFA to identify elderly people who are at risk for MetS. Elderly Korean men and women had very similar cutoff points for both VFA and WC measurements for estimating the risk of MetS. Age-specific cutoff point for WC might be

  10. Predictive Values of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference for Risk Factors of Certain Related Diseases in Chinese Adults - Study on Optimal Cut-off Points of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For prevention of obesity in Chinese population, it is necessary to define the optimal range of healthy weight and the appropriate cut-off points of BMI and waist circumference for Chinese adults. The Working Group on Obesity in China under the support of International Life Sciences Institute Focal point in China organized a meta-analysis on the relation between BMI, waist circumference and risk factors of related chronic diseases (e. g.,high diabetes, diabetes mellitus, and lipoprotein disorders). Methods 13 population studies in all met the criteria for enrollment, with data of 239 972 adults (20-70 year) surveyed in the 1990s. Data on waist circumference was available for 111411 persons and data on serum lipids and glucose were available for more than 80 000. The study populations located in 21provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in mainland China as well as in Taiwan. Each enrolled study provided data according to a common protocol and uniform format. The Center for data management in Department of Epidemiology, Fu Wai Hospital was responsible for statistical analysis. Results and conclusion The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of risk factors all increased with increasing levels of BMI or waist circumference. BMI at 24 with best sensitivity and specificity for identification of the risk factors, was recommended as the cut-off point for overweight, BMI at 28 which may identify the risk factors with specificity around 90 % was recommended as the cut-off point for obesity. Waist circumference beyond 85 cm for men and beyond 80 cm for women were recommended as the cut-off points for central obesity.Analysis of population attributable risk percent illustrated that reducing BMI to normal range (<24) could prevent 45%-50% clustering of risk factors. Treatment of obese persons (BMI ≥ 28)with drugs could prevent 15%-17% clustering of risk factors. The waist circumference controlled under 85 cm for men and under 80 cm for

  11. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Reflecting Insulin Resistance as a Diagnostic Criterion of Metabolic Syndrome in a Nondiabetic Korean Population Aged 40 Years and Over: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yong-Moon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Lim, Sun Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Son, Ho-Young; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We aimed at determining the cutoff value of waist circumference with respect to its ability to reflect insulin resistance in a Korean population. Materials and Methods A total of 8,817 subjects aged 40 years and over were analyzed. Insulin resistant individuals were defined as those who had the highest quartile value of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a non-diabetic population. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and multiple logi...

  12. Appropriate body mass index and waist circumference cutoff for overweight and central obesity among adults in Cambodia.

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    Yom An

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used in risk assessment for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs worldwide. Within a Cambodian population, this study aimed to identify an appropriate BMI and WC cutoff to capture those individuals that are overweight and have an elevated risk of vascular disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the STEP survey conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Cambodia in 2010. In total, 5,015 subjects between age 25 and 64 years were included in the analyses. Chi-square, Fisher's Exact test and Student t-test, and multiple logistic regression were performed. Of total, 35.6% (n = 1,786 were men, and 64.4% (n = 3,229 were women. Mean age was 43.0 years (SD = 11.2 years and 43.6 years (SD = 10.9 years for men and women, respectively. Significant association of subjects with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was found in those with BMI ≥ 23.0 kg/m(2 and with WC >80.0 cm in both sexes. The Area Under the Curve (AUC from Receiver Operating Characteristic curves was significantly greater in both sexes (all p-values <0.001 when BMI of 23.0 kg/m(2 was used as the cutoff point for overweight compared to that using WHO BMI classification for overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m(2 for detecting the three cardiovascular risk factors. Similarly, AUC was also significantly higher in men (p-value <0.001 when using WC of 80.0 cm as the cutoff point for central obesity compared to that recommended by WHO (WC ≥ 94.0 cm in men. CONCLUSION: Lower cutoffs for BMI and WC should be used to identify of risks of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia for Cambodian aged between 25 and 64 years.

  13. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Determination of the Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points in a Rural South African Community

    OpenAIRE

    Motala, Ayesha A.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Pirie, Fraser J.; Omar, Mahomed A.K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to define optimal ethnic-specific waist-circumference cutoff points in a rural South African black community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random-cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements taken, including a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement ...

  14. Optimal Waist Circumference Cut-Off Point for Multiple Risk Factor Aggregation: Results from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study

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    Valmore Bermúdez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine optimal waist circumference (WC cut-off values for the detection of multiple risk factor aggregation in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela. Participants and Methods. A total of 1,902 adult individuals of both genders belonging to MMSPS were included. Complete physical, laboratory, and anthropometric examination were done to evaluate Metabolic Syndrome (MS components and insulin resistance. ROC curves were plotted for risk factor aggregation in order to assess WC cut-off point. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess risk factors associated with the WC. Results. There were 52.2% females and 47.8% males, with WC of 90.7±13.7 cm and 98.2±15.9 cm, respectively. ROC curves exhibited a WC cut-off point for women of 90.25 cm (68.4% sensitivity, 65.8% specificity and 95.15 cm (71.1% sensitivity, 67.4% specificity for men. HOMA2-IR and high blood pressure were associated with a WC over these cut-off points, as well as 2.5-fold risk increase for multiple risk factor aggregation (OR 2.56; CI 95%: 2.05–3.20; P<0.01. Conclusions. These population-specific WC cut-offs are readily applicable tools for detection of risk factor aggregation. Insulin resistance is closely associated with this definition of abdominal obesity, which may serve as a surrogate for its assessment.

  15. Cut off values of waist circumference & associated cardiovascular risk in egyptians

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    Ibrahim M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent guidelines stressed the need to adopt different values of waist circumference (WC measurements to define abdominal obesity in different ethnic groups. The aim of this study is to identify WC cutoff points in normotensive and hypertensive subjects which are diagnostic of abdominal obesity in a Middle Eastern population and the prevalence of abdominal obesity in a nationwide sample. Methods Data were collected during phase-2 of the Egyptians National Hypertension Project survey. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements and laboratory studies were performed according to a standardized protocol by trained personnel. To derive the cutoff points for WC, we applied the factor analysis on CV risk factors: diabetes mellitus, decrease in HDL-C and increase in LDL-C, triglycerides and left ventricular mass index by echocardiography. Results The sample included 2313 individuals above the age of 25 years. WC values (mean ± SD were 88 ± 14 cm and 95 ± 14 cm for normotensive (NT and hypertensive (HT men respectively, and 89.6 ± 14.7 cm and 95.7 ± 15.9 cm for NT and HT women respectively. Applying factor analysis, the weighted average cutoff points were 93.5 cm for both NT and HT men and 91.5 and 92.5 cm for NT and HT women respectively. Based on these thresholds, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 48% in men and 51.5% in women. Conclusion This is the first report of specific abdominal obesity cutoff points in a Middle Eastern country. The cutoff points were different from the Europid standards. There is a high prevalence rate of abdominal obesity among Egyptians which is associated with increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

  16. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with PAboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  17. BMI, Waist Circumference Reference Values for Chinese School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peige; Li, Xue; Gasevic, Danijela; Flores, Ana Borges; Yu, Zengli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 5062 anthropometric records for children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 years (2679 boys and 2383 girls) were included for analysis. The participants were recruited as part of the national representative “China Health and Nutrition Survey” (CHNS). Age, gender, weight, height, and WC were assessed. Smoothed BMI and WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed by using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method. The prevalence estimates of the overall and abdominal obesity were calculated by using the cut-offs from our CHNS study and the previous “Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health” (CNSSCH) study, respectively. The difference between prevalence estimates was tested by a McNemar test, and the agreement between these prevalence estimates was calculated by using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The prevalence values of overall obesity based on the cut-offs from CHNS and CNSSCH studies were at an almost perfect agreement level in boys (κ = 0.93). However, among girls, the overall obesity prevalence differed between the studies (p children and adolescents aged 7–18 years, which can be adopted in future researches. Large longitudinal study is still needed to reveal the childhood growth pattern and validate the inconsistence between different percentile studies

  18. Hemoglobin cut-off values in healthy Turkish infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet Arvas; Emel Gür; DurmuşDoğan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to determine the cut-off value of hemoglobin for infant anemia. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out at well-baby clinics of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 1484 healthy infants aged between 4 to 24 months were included in the study. The relationship of hemoglobin (Hb) levels with mother age, birth weight, weight gain rate, feeding, and gender was evaluated. Results: The Hb levels were assessed in four age groups (4 months, 6 months, 9-12 months, and 15-24 months) and the cut-off values of Hb were determined. Hb cut-off values (5th percentile for age) were detected as 97 g/L and 93 g/L at 4 months and 6 months, respectively. In older infants, the 5th percentile was 90.5 g/L and 93.4 g/L at 9-12 months and 15-24 months, respectively. The two values were lower than the World Health Organization criteria for anemia, which could partly due to the lack of information on iron status in our population. However, this difference highlights the need for further studies on normal Hb levels in healthy infants in developing countries. Hb levels of females were higher in all age groups; however, a statistically significant difference was found in gender in only 6 month-old infants. No statistically significant difference was found among Hb levels, mother's age, birth weight, weight gain rate, and nutritional status. Conclusion: Hb cut-off values in infants should be re-evaluated and be compatible with growth and development of children in that community.

  19. Cut-Off Values of Visceral Adiposity to Predict NAFLD in Brazilian Obese Adolescents

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    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study aimed at determining cut-off points of visceral fat to predict NAFLD and analyzed metabolic disorders of obese adolescents. Methods. Cross-sectional study involved 165 obese adolescents ranged in age from 15 to 19 years. Glycemia, hepatic transaminases, lipid profile, and insulin resistance were analyzed. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasound and body composition by plesthysmography. Results. The NAFLD adolescents had significantly higher values for body mass, BMI-for-age, BMI, total fat, waist circumference, and visceral fat when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents in both genders. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between visceral fat with the variables BMI-for-age (r=0.325,, TG (r=0.277, AST (r=0.509, ALT (r=0.519, WC (r=0.390, and visceral/subcutaneous ratio (r=0.790 for NAFLD group. Total fat, triglycerides, and visceral fat were the independent predictors to NAFLD. Analysis of the ROC curves revealed cut-off points of visceral fat of 4.47 cm for girls and 4.21 cm for boys. Conclusions. The results may suggest that abdominal ultrasonography procedure may be a safe alternative method of assessing visceral adiposity aiming to be considered to the development of preventive and treatment strategies in obese individuals. This clinial trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT01358773.

  20. Metabolic syndrome: no internationally defined standard cut-off value for waist circumference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olabode Oladeinde

    2007-01-01

    @@ The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin - metabolic risk factors that appear to directly promote the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and increase the risk of development of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti

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    EL Mabchour A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asma EL Mabchour,1 Hélène Delisle,1 Colette Vilgrain,2 Philippe Larco,2 Roger Sodjinou,3 Malek Batal1 1Transition Nutritionnelle (TRANSNUT, WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition Changes and Development, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Haitian Foundation for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases (FHADIMAC, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; 3West Africa Health Organization (WAHO, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Purpose: Waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR are widely used as indicators of abdominal adiposity and the cut-off values have been validated primarily in Caucasians. In this study we identified the WC and WHtR cut-off points that best predicted cardiometabolic risk (CMR in groups of African (Benin and African ancestry (Haiti Black subjects. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 452 apparently healthy subjects from Cotonou (Benin and Port-au-Prince (Haiti, 217 women and 235 men from 25 to 60 years. CMR biomarkers were the metabolic syndrome components. Additional CMR biomarkers were a high atherogenicity index (total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4 in women and ≥5 in men; insulin resistance set at the 75th percentile of the calculated Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA-IR; and inflammation defined as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP concentrations between 3 and 10 mg/L. WC and WHtR were tested as predictors of two out of the three most prevalent CMR biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, Youden's index, and likelihood ratios were used to assess the performance of specific WC and WHtR cut-offs. Results: High atherogenicity index (59.5%, high blood pressure (23.2%, and insulin resistance (25% by definition were the most prevalent CMR biomarkers in the study groups. WC and WHtR were equally valid as predictors of CMR. Optimal WC cut-offs were 80 cm and 94 cm in men and women, respectively, which is exactly

  2. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, P.; Endris, R.; Kronvall, G.;

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values were developed for application to antibiotic susceptibility data for Flavobacterium psychrophilum generated by standard CLSI test protocols. The MIC values for ten antibiotic agents against Flavobacterium psychrophilum were determined in two laboratories. For five...

  3. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women

    OpenAIRE

    Zadeh-Vakili Azita; Tehrani Fahimeh R; Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC) for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, ...

  4. Plasma folic acid cutoff value, derived from its relationship with homocyst(e)ine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D A; Welten, H T; Reijngoud, D J; van Doormaal, J J; Muskiet, F A

    1998-01-01

    We established the cutoff value for plasma folic acid, using plasma homocyst(e)ine as the functional marker. To do this, we investigated the relationship of the plasma folic acid of 103 apparently healthy adults with their fasting plasma homocyst(e)ine and with their plasma homocyst(e)ine 6 h after

  5. Establishing Streptomycin Epidemiological Cut-Off Values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Sunde, Marianne; Karlsmose, Susanne;

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32 mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates...

  6. Defining the cutoff value of MGMT gene promoter methylation and its predictive capacity in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigliadori, Giovanni; Foca, Flavia; Dall'Agata, Monia; Rengucci, Claudia; Melegari, Elisabetta; Cerasoli, Serenella; Amadori, Dino; Calistri, Daniele; Faedi, Marina

    2016-06-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM), median survival is 12-15 months. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter methylation status is acknowledged as a predictive marker for temozolomide (TMZ) treatment. When MGMT promoter values fall into a "methylated" range, a better response to chemotherapy is expected. However, a cutoff that discriminates between "methylated" and "unmethylated" status has yet to be defined. We aimed to identify the best cutoff value and to find out whether variability in methylation profiles influences the predictive capacity of MGMT promoter methylation. Data from 105 GBM patients treated between 2008 and 2013 were analyzed. MGMT promoter methylation status was determined by analyzing 10 CpG islands by pyrosequencing. Patients were treated with radiotherapy followed by TMZ. MGMT promoter methylation status was classified into unmethylated 0-9 %, methylated 10-29 % and methylated 30-100 %. Statistical analysis showed that an assumed methylation cutoff of 9 % led to an overestimation of responders. All patients in the 10-29 % methylation group relapsed before the 18-month evaluation. Patients with a methylation status ≥30 % showed a median overall survival of 25.2 months compared to 15.2 months in all other patients, confirming this value as the best methylation cutoff. Despite wide variability among individual profiles, single CpG island analysis did not reveal any correlation between single CpG island methylation values and relapse or death. Specific CpG island methylation status did not influence the predictive value of MGMT. The predictive role of MGMT promoter methylation was maintained only with a cutoff value ≥30 %. PMID:27029617

  7. Optimization of the cutoff value for a commercial anti-dengue virus IgG immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Santos, Karla M; Beltrán, Manuela; Carrión-Lebrón, Jessica; Sanchez-Vegas, Carolina; Hamer, Davidson H; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Santiago, Luis M; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A

    2013-03-01

    A commercial anti-dengue virus (anti-DENV) indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serological diagnosis was evaluated for its utility in determining previous DENV exposure in U.S. travelers. The Boston Area Travel Medicine Network clinics used Focus Diagnostics anti-DENV IgG ELISA to measure anti-DENV IgG antibodies in 591 pretravel specimens from U.S. residents who had traveled to countries where dengue is endemic. When using the manufacturer's index cutoff value for this ELISA, false-positive results were observed that overestimated the perceived past DENV exposure in U.S. travelers. Validation of 121 of these anti-DENV IgG results by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) was used for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve optimization of the index cutoff value from 1 to 3.0, improving the specificity of the anti-DENV IgG ELISA from 24% to 95.7%. Additionally, previous vaccination with yellow fever virus contributed to 52.8% of the false-positive rate in the anti-DENV IgG ELISA results. Optimization of the cutoff value of the anti-DENV IgG ELISA provided better interpretation and confidence in the results and eliminated the need for confirmation by PRNT. The travel history of U.S. travelers was also useful for categorizing these travelers into groups for analysis of previous DENV exposure. PMID:23302742

  8. Cut-off values of blessed dementia rating scale and its clinical application in elderly Taiwanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Han; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Tai, Chih-Ta; Liu, Ching-Kuan

    2006-08-01

    Although the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale (BDRS), a clinical screening instrument, has been applied extensively, no suitable cut-off values and clinical application have been proposed, particularly in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the precursor of dementia. The BDRS, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) were administrated in people aged 65 years and above, who were enrolled from southern Taiwan with multistep stratified random sampling and followed-up for 2 years. All subjects (total number = 3,027), with new onset of MCI (defined as CDR = 0.5) in the first year and dementia (defined as CDR > or = 1) in the second and third years were subjected to statistical analysis. In distinguishing normal from MCI, except in the literate group aged 65-74 years, MMSE was superior to BDRS, with cut-off values of 1 in both literate groups aged 65-74 years and > or = 75 years, and 1.5 and 2 in less educated groups aged 65-74 and > or = 75 years, respectively. In distinguishing MCI from dementia, BDRS had cut-off values of 2.5 in both literate groups aged 65-74 and > or = 75 years, and 2.5 and 3 in less educated groups aged 65-74 and > or = 75 years, respectively. These values were better than those for MMSE in all groups. BDRS might be considered as a better tool than MMSE to screen for MCI and dementia in the increasing proportion of literate elderly aged 65-74 years in the aging population. PMID:16911919

  9. Optimization of the Cutoff Value for a Commercial Anti-Dengue Virus IgG Immunoassay

    OpenAIRE

    Marrero-Santos, Karla M.; Beltrán, Manuela; Carrión-Lebrón, Jessica; Sanchez-Vegas, Carolina; Hamer, Davidson H; Barnett, Elizabeth D.; Luis M Santiago; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    A commercial anti-dengue virus (anti-DENV) indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serological diagnosis was evaluated for its utility in determining previous DENV exposure in U.S. travelers. The Boston Area Travel Medicine Network clinics used Focus Diagnostics anti-DENV IgG ELISA to measure anti-DENV IgG antibodies in 591 pretravel specimens from U.S. residents who had traveled to countries where dengue is endemic. When using the manufacturer's index cutoff value for this...

  10. Corresponding waist circumference and body mass index values based on 10-year absolute type 2 diabetes risk in an Australian Aboriginal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbija, Odewumi; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a lack of waist circumference (WC) thresholds to identify Aboriginal individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes. We generated gender-specific WC values with equivalent 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes as body mass index (BMI) points in an Australian Aboriginal community to contribute to guidelines needed for establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginals. Research design and methods A cohort of 803 adult participants free from type 2 diabetes in an Aboriginal community was followed up for up to 20 years. We derived WC values with absolute risks equivalent for the development of type 2 diabetes as BMI values (20–35 kg/m2) using the Weibull accelerated failure-time model. Results After a mean follow-up of 15.7 years, 110 participants developed type 2 diabetes. Absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased as WC increased, ranging from 3.52% (WC=77.5 cm) to 14.14% (WC=119.9 cm) in males, and 5.04% (WC=79.5 cm) to 24.25% (WC=113.7 cm) in females. In males, WC values with same absolute risks of type 2 diabetes as BMI values were 77.5 cm for BMI=20 kg/m2, 91.5 cm for BMI=25 kg/m2 (overweight threshold), 105.7 cm for BMI=30 kg/m2 (obesity threshold) and 119.9 cm for BMI=35 kg/m2. In females, WC values were 79.5 cm for BMI=20 kg/m2, 90.9 cm for BMI=25 kg/m2, 102.3 cm for BMI=30 kg/m2 and 113.7 cm for BMI=35 kg/m2. Interaction between WC and gender was not statistically significant (p=0.53). Conclusions The absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased with higher WC measured at baseline screening. Males were not significantly different from females in the association between WC and type 2 diabetes. Our findings are useful contributions for future establishment of WC cut-off points for identifying high-risk individuals in Aboriginal people. PMID:26405557

  11. Evaluation and update of cutoff values for methanotrophic pmoA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xi; Yang, Sizhong; Liebner, Susanne

    2016-09-01

    The functional pmoA gene is frequently used to probe the diversity and phylogeny of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in various environments. Here, we compared the similarities between the pmoA gene and the corresponding 16S rRNA gene sequences of 77 described species covering gamma- and alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs (type I and type II MOB, respectively) as well as methanotrophs from the phylum Verrucomicrobia. We updated and established the weighted mean pmoA gene cutoff values on the nucleotide level at 86, 82, and 71 % corresponding to the 97, 95, and 90 % similarity of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on these cutoffs, the functional gene fragments can be entirely processed at the nucleotide level throughout software platforms such as Mothur or QIIME which provide a user-friendly and command-based alternative to amino acid-based pipelines. Type II methanotrophs are less divergent than type I both with regard to ribosomal and functional gene sequence similarity and GC content. We suggest that this agrees with the theory of different life strategies proposed for type I and type II MOB. PMID:27098810

  12. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study of Japanese men

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    Hamachi Tadamichi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral obesity is positively related to insulin resistance. The nature of the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance has not been known in Japanese populations. This study examined the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance and evaluated the optimal cutoff point for waist circumference in relation to insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. Methods Study subjects included 4800 Japanese men aged 39 to 60 years. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The relationship of waist circumference with HOMA-IR was assessed by use of adjusted means of HOMA-IR and odds ratios of elevated HOMA-IR defined as the highest quintile (≥2.00. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis using Youden index and the area under curve (AUC was employed to determine optimal cutoffs of waist circumference in relation to HOMA-IR. Results Adjusted geometric means of HOMA-IR and prevalence odds of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference. In the ROC curve analysis, the highest value of Youden index was obtained for a cutoff point of 85 cm in waist circumference across different values of HOMA-IR. Multiple logistic regression analysis also indicated that the AUC was consistently the largest for a waist circumference of 85 cm. Conclusion Waist circumference is linearly related to insulin resistance, and 85 cm in waist circumference is an optimal cutoff in predicting insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men.

  13. The Epidemiologic and Pharmacodynamic Cutoff Values of Tilmicosin against Haemophilus parasuis

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    Haihong eHao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints for tilmicosin against Haemophilus parasuis, which is an important pathogen of respiratory tract infections. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 103 H. parasuis isolates were determined by the agar dilution method. The wild-type (WT distribution and epidemiologic cutoff value (ECV were evaluated by statistical analysis. The new bronchoaveolar lavage (BAL was used to establish intrapulmonary pharmacokinetic (PK model in swine. The pharmacokinetic (PK parameters of tilmicosin, both in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF and in plasma, were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method and WinNonlin software. The pharmacodynamic cutoff (COPD was calculated using Monte Carlo simulation. Our results showed that 100% of WT isolates were covered when the ECV was set at 16μg/mL. The tilmicosin had concentration-dependent activity against H. parasuis. The PK data indicated that tilmicosin concentrations in PELF was rapidly increased to high levels at 4 hours and kept stable until 48 hours after drug administration, while the tilmicosin concentration in plasma reached maximum levels at 4 hours and continued to decrease during 4-72 hours. Using Monte Carlo simulation, COPD was defined as 1 μg/mL. Conclusively, the ECV and COPD of tilmicosin against H. parasuis were established for the first time based on the MIC distribution and PK-PD analysis in the target tissue, respectively. These values are of great importance for detection of tilmicosin-resistant H. parasuis and for effective treatment of clinical intrapulmonary infection caused by H. parasuis.

  14. Susceptibility profile and epidemiological cut-off values of Cryptococcus neoformans species complex from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Susana; Isla, Maria G; Szusz, Wanda; Vivot, Walter; Altamirano, Rodrigo; Davel, Graciela

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values (ECVs) based on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution have been recently proposed for some antifungal drug/Cryptococcus neoformans combinations. However, these ECVs vary according to the species studied, being serotypes and the geographical origin of strains, variables to be considered. The aims were to define the wild-type (WT) population of the C. neoformans species complex (C. neoformans) isolated from patients living in Argentina, and to propose ECVs for six antifungal drugs. A total of 707 unique C. neoformans isolates obtained from HIV patients suffering cryptococcal meningitis were studied. The MIC of amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole was determined according to the EDef 7.2 (EUCAST) reference document. The MIC distribution, MIC50 , MIC90 and ECV for each of these drugs were calculated. The highest ECV, which included ≥95% of the WT population modelled, was observed for flucytosine and fluconazole (32 μg ml(-1) each). For amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole, the ECVs were: 0.5, 0.5, 0.5 and 0.06 μg ml(-1) respectively. The ECVs determined in this study may aid in identifying the C. neoformans strains circulating in Argentina with decreased susceptibility to the antifungal drugs tested. PMID:26865081

  15. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

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    Alcibíades Bustamante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers.

  16. The cutoff point of waist circumference in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease%腰围预测非酒精性脂肪性肝病的切点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海钊; 陈容平; 杨锐; 孙嘉; 张如意; 何芳; 蔡德鸿; 陈宏

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究腰围与非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)的关系,寻找腰围预测NAFLD的最佳切点.方法:采用分层随机抽样法,对研究对象进行体格检查、空腹血糖、血脂、腹部超声检查,通过受试者工作特性(ROC)曲线分析得到腰围预测NAFLD的最佳切点.结果:1 535例研究对象中共检出375例NAFLD,总患病率为24.4%,其中男性患病率为41.2%,女性为10.2%.腰围是NAFLD的危险因素.在ROC曲线分析中,男性腰围预测NAFLD的曲线下面积(AUC)为0.905,女性为0.949.男性及女性腰围预测NAFLD的最佳切点值分别为88.3 cm(敏感度:86.4%,特异度:85.9%)和82.4 cm(敏感度:93.2%,特异度:89.9%).结论:腰围对NAFLD有良好的诊断效能.佛山地区人群腰围预测NAFLD的最佳切点值男性为88.3 cm,女性为82.4 cm.%Objective To investigate the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and to find the optimal cutoff point of WC to determine subjects with NAFLD. Methods A cross-sectional study with stratified and random samplings was performed. Physical examination, levels of fasting glucose and blood lipid, and abdominal ultrasound were conducted in all the subjects. Performance of WC for predicting NAFLD was undertaken using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC ) analysis. Results 375 of the 1535 subjects had NAFLD. The total prevalence was 24.4%, while the prevalence was 41.2% in males and 10.2% in females. WC was a risk factor of NAFLD. ROC analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for WC and NAFLD was 0.905 for males and 0.949 for females. The optimal cutoff point of WC to determine subjects with NAFLD was 88.3 cm for males (86.4% for sensitivity and 85.9% for specificity) and 82.4 cm for females (93.2% and 89.9%) respectively. Conclusions WC has a good efficacy in diagnosing NAFLD. WC of 88.3 cm for males and 82.4 cm for females is the optimal cutoff point to determine people with NAFLD in

  17. Cutoff Values of Surrogate Measures of Insulin Resistance for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Non-diabetic Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sihoon; Choi, Sunghee; Kim, Hae Jin; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Lee, Kwan Woo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Huh, Kap Bum; Kim, Dae Jung

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the cutoff values of surrogate of insulin resistance for diagnosing metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. The data from 976 non-diabetic individuals (484 men and 492 women) aged 30-79 yr were analyzed. We determined the odds ratios for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to the quartiles of fasting insulin, homeostasis model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) as independent variables, while adjusting for age, s...

  18. Chest and occipito-frontal circumference measurements in the detection of low birth weight among Nigerian newborns of Igbo ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ndu, Ikenna K; Ibeziako, Stella N; Obidike, Egbuna O; Adimora, Gilbert N.; Edelu, Benedict O.; Chinawa, Josephat M.; Asinobi, Isaac N; Uleanya, Nwachinemere D

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organisation has recommended the use of anthropometric measurements as birth weight surrogates. However, it has been found that cut-off points for these anthropometric measurements vary across nations and ethnic groups. Objectives To determine the predictive values of chest circumference (CC), occipito-frontal circumference (OFC) and their combinations for low birth weight (LBW) detection in Igbo newborns. Methods Live newborns of Igbo origin were recruited within ...

  19. Cut-Off Value for Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire in Predicting Surgical Success in Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Parisa; Benzel, Edward C.

    2016-01-01

    Various factors related to predict surgical success were studied; however, a standard cut-off point for the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) measure has not yet been established for a favorable surgical outcome for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). This study was to find the optimal cut-off point on the PSQ to distinguish surgical success in patients with LDH. A total of 154 patients with LDH consecutively referred to our clinic were enrolled into this prospective study between February 2011 and January 2014. All participants completed the PSQ. Patients completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score before surgery, and at 2 years after surgery. Surgical success was defined as a 13-point improvement from the baseline ODI scores. The cut-off value for PSQ was determined by the receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC). The mean age of patients was 49.3±9.6 years, and there were 80 women. The mean time for follow-up assessment was 31±5 months (range 24–35). Post-surgical success was 79.9% (n = 123) at 2 years follow up. The mean score for the total PSQ, PSQ-minor, and PSQ-moderate were 6.0 (SD = 1.6), 5.4 (SD = 1.9) and 6.5 (SD = 1.7), respectively. Total PSQ score was also significantly correlated with the total scores of the ODI. The optimal total PSQ cut-off point was determined as > 5.2 to predict surgical success in LDH patients, with 80.0% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity (AUC-0.814, 95% CI 0.703–0.926). This study showed that the PSQ could be considered a parameter for predicting surgical success in patients with LDH, and can be useful in clinical practice. PMID:27494617

  20. Immunity status against poliomyelitis in Germany: Determination of cut-off values in International Units

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    Schreier Eckart

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To prevent importations of wild polioviruses into a polio free region a high level of population immunity must be kept. Standard methodology for determination of polio antibodies is a feature aimed at obtaining consistent results. An International Standard Serum for polio antibodies exists, but no protective level in International Units is defined. Methods A representative study was carried out in order to determine the serological status against poliomyelitis in Germany (n = 2564, age 18–79 years. Furthermore, sera from persons aged less than 18 years were included (n = 881. Microneutralization test has been used for determination of antibody levels. Results have been expressed in International Units. Results The results of this study indicate that the cut-off level for polio antibodies is 0.075 IU/ml for Polio 1, 0.180 IU/ml for Polio 2 and 0.080 IU/ml for Polio 3. Neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus type 1, 2 and 3 were detected in 96.2%, 96.8% and 89.6% of samples, respectively. Conclusions Overall, this seroprevalence indicates a very high level of immunity of the general population. It must be kept after the switch of immunization strategy from attenuated to inactivated vaccine in Germany.

  1. Accuracy of cut-off value by measurement of third molar index: Study of a Colombian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Stefano; Aguilar, Lina; Rivera, Marcela; Palacio, Luz Andrea Velandia; Riccomi, Giulia; Bestetti, Fiorella; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to test the accuracy of cut-off value of 0.08 by measurement of third molar index (I3M) in assessing legal adult age of 18 years in a sample of Colombian children and young adults. Digital orthopantomographs of 288 Colombian children and young adults (163 girls and 125 boys), aged between 13 and 22 years, were analysed. Concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and κ statistics (Cohen's Kappa coefficient) showed that repeatability and reproducibility are high for both intra- and inter-observer error. κ statistics for intra- and inter-observer agreement in decision on adult or minor was 0.913 and 0.877, respectively. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both girls and boys. For girls, the sensitivity test was 95.1% (95% CI 87.1%-95%) and specificity was 93.8% (95% CI 87.1%-98.8%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 95.1%. For boys, the sensitivity test was 91.7% (95% CI 85.1%-96.8%) and specificity was 90.6% (95% CI 82.1%-97.8%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 89.7%. The cut-off value of 0.08 is highly useful to determine if a subject is 18 years of age or older or not. PMID:26898677

  2. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women

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    Zadeh-Vakili Azita

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method 1036 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. Following implementation of exclusion criteria, complete data for 907 women remained for analysis. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and its cut off value was defined as the 95th percentile of HOMA-IR value for 129 subjects, without any metabolic abnormality. The optimal cut-off of WC in relation to HOMA-IR was calculated based on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis using the Youden index and the area under curve (AUC. Results The mean age of the total sample of 907 subjects was 34.4 ± 7.6 years (range, 18 - 45 years. After adjustment for age the odds ratios (OR of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference; the age adjusted OR of IR for women with WC > 95 cm in comparison to those subjects with WC Conclusions Waist circumference is directly related to insulin resistance and the optimal cut-off value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 88.5 cm for reproductive aged Iranian women.

  3. The assessment of anorexia in patients with cancer: cut-off values for the FAACT–A/CS and the VAS for appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, S.; Ruijgrok, C.; Ostelo, R. W.; de Vet, H. C. W.; Verheul, H.M.W.; de van der Schueren, M. A. E.; Langius, J. A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anorexia is a frequently observed symptom in patients with cancer and is associated with limited food intake and decreased quality of life. Diagnostic instruments such as the Anorexia/Cachexia Subscale (A/CS) of the Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) questionnaire and the visual analog scale (VAS) for appetite have been recommended in the assessment of anorexia, but validated cut-off values are lacking. This study aimed to obtain cut-off values of these instrum...

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile using EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values and disk diffusion correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikstrup, L T; Danielsen, T K L; Hall, V; Olsen, K E P; Kristensen, B; Kahlmeter, G; Fuursted, K; Justesen, U S

    2012-08-01

    With the emergence of reduced susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to metronidazole and vancomycin the value of antimicrobial susceptibility testing has increased. The aim of our study was to evaluate disk diffusion for susceptibility testing of C. difficile by comparing disk diffusion results with MICs from gradient tests and to propose zone diameter breakpoint correlates for the EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) recently published. We tested 211 clinical isolates of C. difficile, from patients with diarrhoea hospitalized at Aarhus and Odense University Hospitals, Denmark. Furthermore, ten clinical isolates of C. difficile from the Anaerobe Reference Laboratory, University Hospital of Wales, with known reduced susceptibility to either metronidazole or vancomycin, were included. Isolates were tested with Etest gradient strips and disk diffusion towards metronidazole, vancomycin and moxifloxacin on Brucella Blood Agar supplemented with hemin and vitamin K. We found an excellent agreement between inhibition zone diameter and MICs. For each MIC value, the inhibition zones varied from 0 to 8 mm, with 93% of values within 6 mm for metronidazole, 95% of values within 4 mm for vancomycin, and 98% of values within 4 mm for moxifloxacin. With proposed zone diameter breakpoints for metronidazole, vancomycin and moxifloxacin of WT ≥ 23 mm, WT ≥ 19 and WT ≥ 20 mm, respectively, we found no very major errors and only major errors below 2%. In conclusion, we suggest that disk diffusion is an option for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of C. difficile. PMID:22672504

  5. Optimal Elasticity cut-off value for discriminating Healthy to Pathological Fibrotic patients employing Fuzzy C-Means automatic segmentation in Liver Shear Wave Elastography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, Ilias; Tsantis, Stavros; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini; Theotokas, Ioannis; Zoumpoulis, Pavlos S.; Kagadis, George C.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine an optimal elasticity cut-off value for discriminating Healthy from Pathological fibrotic patients by means of Fuzzy C-Means automatic segmentation and maximum participation cluster mean value employment in Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) images. The clinical dataset comprised 32 subjects (16 Healthy and 16 histological or Fibroscan verified Chronic Liver Disease). An experienced Radiologist performed SWE measurement placing a region of interest (ROI) on each subject's right liver lobe providing a SWE image for each patient. Subsequently Fuzzy C-Means clustering was performed on every SWE image utilizing 5 clusters. Mean Stiffness value and pixels number of each cluster were calculated. The mean stiffness value feature of the cluster with maximum pixels number was then fed as input for ROC analysis. The selected Mean Stiffness value feature an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.8633 with Optimum Cut-off value of 7.5 kPa with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.8438 and 0.875 and balanced accuracy of 0.8594. Examiner's classification measurements exhibited sensitivity, specificity and balanced accuracy value of 0.8125 with 7.1 kPa cutoff value. A new promising automatic algorithm was implemented with more objective criteria of defining optimum elasticity cut-off values for discriminating fibrosis stages for SWE. More subjects are needed in order to define if this algorithm is an objective tool to outperform manual ROI selection.

  6. The Long-term Prognostic Performance of Ki-67 in Primary Operable Breast Cancer and Evaluation of Its Optimal Cutoff Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Uiju; Kim, Hee Eun; Oh, Woo Jin; Yeo, Min-Kyung; Song, Byung Joo; Lee, Ahwon

    2016-03-01

    Markers of proliferation are considered to have prognostic importance in breast cancer (BC). The Ki-67 index has been reported as a prognostic factor, but standardized cutoff values and counting methods are not yet established. We assayed the Ki-67 labeling index (LI) of 589 consecutive operable BC patients who underwent surgical resection. Ki-67 immunostaining was performed, and the LI was manually counted using an image processing program. We also compared the manual cell count (MCC) of Ki-67 to the whole-section eyeballed estimate count (EEC). Univariate survival analysis showed statistically significant differences in long-term BC-specific survival in the following factors: tumor size, histologic grade, nuclear grade, lymph node metastasis stage, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) status, and intrinsic type (Pevaluations were statistically well correlated (Pearson correlation=0.683, Pratio. High Ki-67 LI with a 20% cutoff was also associated with poor survival in the hormone receptor-positive and lymph node-positive subgroups (P=0.015 and 0.016, respectively). In conclusion, Ki-67 LI had prognostic significance, especially in hormone receptor-positive and lymph node-positive BC patients. EEC was relatively reliable counting method with a higher cutoff value. We suggest that the 20% cutoff value be the preferable value in clinical practice. PMID:25789536

  7. GUIDANCE FOR STATISTICAL DETERMINATION OF APPROPRIATE PERCENT MINORITY AND PERCENT POVERTY DISTRIBUTIONAL CUTOFF VALUES USING CENSUS DATA FOR AND EPA REGION II ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this report is to assist Region H by providing a statistical analysis identifying the areas with minority and below poverty populations known as "Community of Concern" (COC). The aim was to find a cutoff value as a threshold to identify a COC using demographic data...

  8. Multilaboratory study of epidemiological cutoff values for detection of resistance in eight Candida species to fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Pfaller, M A; Bustamante, B; Canton, E; Fothergill, A; Fuller, J; Gonzalez, G M; Lass-Flörl, C; Lockhart, S R; Martin-Mazuelos, E; Meis, J F; Melhem, M S C; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Pelaez, T; Szeszs, M W; St-Germain, G; Bonfietti, L X; Guarro, J; Turnidge, J

    2014-01-01

    Although epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) have been established for Candida spp. and the triazoles, they are based on MIC data from a single laboratory. We have established ECVs for eight Candida species and fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole based on wild-type (WT) MIC distributions for isolates of C. albicans (n=11,241 isolates), C. glabrata (7,538), C. parapsilosis (6,023), C. tropicalis (3,748), C. krusei (1,073), C. lusitaniae (574), C. guilliermondii (373), and C. dubliniensis (162). The 24-h CLSI broth microdilution MICs were collated from multiple laboratories (in Canada, Brazil, Europe, Mexico, Peru, and the United States). The ECVs for distributions originating from ≥6 laboratories, which included ≥95% of the modeled WT population, for fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole were, respectively, 0.5, 0.06 and 0.03 μg/ml for C. albicans, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.03 μg/ml for C. dubliniensis, 8, 1, and 0.25 μg/ml for C. glabrata, 8, 0.5, and 0.12 μg/ml for C. guilliermondii, 32, 0.5, and 0.25 μg/ml for C. krusei, 1, 0.06, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. lusitaniae, 1, 0.25, and 0.03 μg/ml for C. parapsilosis, and 1, 0.12, and 0.06 μg/ml for C. tropicalis. The low number of MICs (ERG11, MDR1, CDR1, or CDR2) and 64 WT isolates indicated that our ECVs may be useful in distinguishing WT from non-WT isolates. PMID:24419346

  9. Neck Circumference as a Useful Marker for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mehri; Kajbaf, Tahereh Ziaei; Taheri, Mohammad-Reza; Aminzadeh, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Overweight and obesity at an early age are an important criterion for predicting chronic diseases. Each anthropometric method available to assess obesity has its limitations. Recently, one of the indices proposed to better detect this complication is neck circumference (NC). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between NC, and body mass index (BMI), and to find a cutoff NC size to identify children with a high BMI. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 864 students aged 6–17 years from the schools in Ahvaz, Iran. Measurements, including height, weight, neck, mid-arm, and waist circumference (WC), and clinical information were collected by trained physicians. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated between NC and other obesity indices, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the best cutoff value of NC in predicting high BMI. Results NC in both genders was significantly correlated with BMI, WC, and mid-arm circumference. The best cutoff value of NC to identify boys with a high BMI was 27.5–38.3 cm, and for girls was 26.7–33.4 cm. Conclusions NC is significantly correlated with overweight and obesity. It can be used with great reliability to screen overweight and obesity in children, and to identify those with a high BMI. PMID:27162586

  10. Validity assessment and determination of the cutoff value for the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need among 12-13 year-olds in Southern Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zheng-Yu; Jian, Fan; Long, Hu; Lu, Yun; Wang, Yan; Yang, Zhi; He, Yu-Wei; Wamalwa, Peter; Wang, Jing; Ye, Nian-Song; Wang, Sheng; Lai, Wen-Li

    2012-06-01

    To validate the use of the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON) in assessing orthodontic treatment need among 12-13 year-olds in southern China, we determined the threshold value of ICON based on Chinese orthodontists' judgments. The samples consisted of 335 students in grade 7 from 16 randomly selected middle schools in Chengdu, China. Three associate professors provided ICON scores for each participant and the results were compared with the gold standard judgments from 25 experts on treatment needs. Based on the gold standard, 195 casts belonged to the treatment category, while the rest 140 belonged to the no-treatment category. With the international cutoff point of 43, the sensitivity and specificity of the ICON score were 0.29 and 0.98.The best compromise between sensitivity and specificity in Chengdu, compared with the gold standard, was found at a cutoff point of 29, and the sensitivity and specificity were 0.88 and 0.83. When used to evaluate the treatment need of 12-13 year-olds in southern China, the international ICON cutoff value did not correspond well with Chinese orthodontists' judgments; a lower cutoff value of 29 offered a greater sensitivity and specificity with respect to expert orthodontists' perception of treatment need. PMID:22653551

  11. A proposed cutoff point of waist-to-height ratio for metabolic risk in African township adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, H. Salomé; Faber, Mieke; Schutte, Aletta E; Ellis, Suria M

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A waist:height ratio (WHtR) higher than 0.5 has been proposed as a cutoff point for abdominal obesity in both sexes and at all ages. It is unknown if this cutoff point is appropriate for previously undernourished adolescents. We assessed the cutoff value of the WHtR associated with an increased metabolic risk in 178 black South African 14- to 18-y-old adolescents (69 boys, 109 girls). Methods: We measured weight, height, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose an...

  12. High cut-off value of a chimeric TSH receptor (Mc4)-based bioassay may improve prediction of relapse in Graves' disease for 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sena; Shin, Dong Yeob; Song, Mi Kyung; Lee, Eun Jig

    2015-02-01

    There are scarce reports regarding a functional prognostic value of thyroid-stimulating autoantibody (TSAb) levels using a thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor chimera (Mc4) in Graves' disease (GD) in iodine sufficient area. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Mc4-TSAb can predict GD remission/relapse after antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment and to compare Mc4-TSAb with a binding assay using M22 monoclonal antibody (M22-TRAb) in GD patients. We retrospectively reviewed the results of M22-TRAb and Mc4-TSAb in GD patients treated with ATD for 12 months. GD patients who underwent ATD treatment for at least 12 months were included. We compared the predictive values of M22-TRAb and Mc4-TSAb for GD remission and relapse. Of the 92 patients, 60 (65.2%) achieved remission and 32 (34.8%) relapsed within 12 months. In receiver operating characteristic analysis, there were no significant differences in the area under the curves (AUCs) between Mc4-TSAb [AUC=0.79 (95% CI 0.69-0.89)] and M22-TRAb [AUC=0.69 (95% CI 0.58-0.81)]. The optimal predictive cut-off values of M22-TRAb and Mc4-TSAb were 2.23 IU/L and 230%, respectively. At a high Mc4-TSAb cut-off, the better specificity of 85.0% and positive predictive value (PPV) of 69.0% were shown compared with those at the best cut-off for M22-TRAb. In conclusion, a high cut-off for an Mc4 assay may improve the predictive value of relapse with superior specificity and PPV compared with M22-TRAb in treated GD. PMID:24968734

  13. CA-125 cut-off value as a predictor for complete interval debulking surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Furukawa, Naoto; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Shigemitsu, Aiko; AKASAKA, JURIA; Kanayama, Seiji; Kawaguchi, Ryuji; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Objective In the present study, we evaluated changes in CA-125 cut-off values predictive of complete interval debulking surgery (IDS) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Methods This retrospective single-institution study included patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III epithelial ovarian cancer and a pre-NAC serum CA-125 level of greater than 40 U/mL who were treated with neoadjuvant platinu...

  14. The Cut-Off Values of Anthropometric Indices for Identifying Subjects at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Elderly Men

    OpenAIRE

    Mojgan Gharipour; Masoumeh Sadeghi; Minoo Dianatkhah; Shirin Bidmeshgi; Alireza Ahmadi; Marzieh Tahri; Nizal Sarrafzadegan

    2014-01-01

    Aim. This study aimed to investigate which anthropometric indices could be a better predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the cut-off points for these surrogates to appropriately differentiate MetS in the Iranian elderly. Method. The present cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII). In total, 206 elderly subjects with MetS criteria were selected. Anthropometric indices were ...

  15. Shifting Up Cutoff Value of D-Dimer in the Evaluation of Pulmonary Embolism: A Viable Option? Possible Risks and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennidor Raviv

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the viability of the possibility to use a higher D-dimer value than the one used today in the clinical algorithms evaluating patients suspected to have pulmonary embolism. Methods. A retrospective analysis of 300 serial patients for whom D-dimer values were taken during a 10 month period in the emergency room of a tertiary medical center. Results. Our analysis showed that it may be safe and cost effective to use a D-dimer value of 900 ng/ml rather than the value of 500 ng/ml accepted today, with sensitivity of 94.4%. In younger patients [under 40 years] the sensitivity reached was even higher—100%. Conclusions. Raising cutoff values of D-dimer in screening for pulmonary embolism seems a viable option. There may be a place for “tailoring” cutoff values according individual patient characteristics, such as according age groups. More studies of the subject are warranted.

  16. Cutoff Values of Serum IgG4 and Histopathological IgG4+ Plasma Cells for Diagnosis of Patients with IgG4-Related Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hisanori Umehara; Susumu Sugai; Toshihiro Fukushima; Katumi Eguchi; Miyuki Miki; Masao Tanaka; Yoshimasa Fujita; Tomoyuki Sakai; Akio Nakajima; Haruka Iwao; Takafumi Kawanami; Takuji Nakamura; Hiroshi Minato; Naoto Umeda; Akira Hirabayashi

    2012-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is a new disease classification established in Japan in the 21st century. Patients with IgG4-related disease display hyper-IgG4-gammaglobulinemia, massive infiltration of IgG4+ plasma cells into tissue, and good response to glucocorticoids. Since IgG4 overexpression is also observed in other disorders, it is necessary to diagnose IgG4-related disease carefully and correctly. We therefore sought to determine cutoff values for serum IgG4 and IgG4/IgG and for IgG4+/IgG+ plas...

  17. Determination of Diastolic Dysfunction Cut-Off Value by Tissue Doppler Imaging in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older: A Comparative Analysis of Pulsed-Wave and Color-Coded Tissue Doppler Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Hee-Kyung; Park, Tae-Ho; Park, Sun-Yi; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Seo, Jeong-Min; Kim, Woo-Jae; Nam, Young-Hee; Kim, Moo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Dae

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives The cut-off value of diastolic dysfunction by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is affected by aging and modalities used (pulsed-wave vs. color-coded). The purpose of this study was to investigate the diastolic function of healthy elderly people and to determine the appropriate cut-off value of diastolic dysfunction in elderly individuals. Subjects and Methods Healthy volunteers (n=76) and patients with hypertension (n=51) aged ≥70 years underwent 2-dimensional and Dopple...

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile using EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values and disk diffusion correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, L T; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Kahlmeter, G;

    2012-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: With the emergence of reduced susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to metronidazole and vancomycin the value of antimicrobial susceptibility testing has increased. The aim of our study was to evaluate disk diffusion for susceptibility testing of C. difficile by ...

  19. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study of Japanese men

    OpenAIRE

    Hamachi Tadamichi; Yoshimitsu Shinichiro; Tabata Shinji; Abe Hiroshi; Ohnaka Keizo; Kono Suminori

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Visceral obesity is positively related to insulin resistance. The nature of the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance has not been known in Japanese populations. This study examined the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance and evaluated the optimal cutoff point for waist circumference in relation to insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. Methods Study subjects included 4800 Japanese men aged 39 to 60 years. Insu...

  20. Surveillance of active human cytomegalovirus infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HLA sibling identical donor: search for optimal cutoff value by real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranha Francisco JP

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cytomegalovirus (CMV infection still causes significant morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Therefore, it is extremely important to diagnosis and monitor active CMV infection in HSCT patients, defining the CMV DNA levels of virus replication that warrant intervention with antiviral agents in order to accurately prevent CMV disease and further related complications. Methods During the first 150 days after allogeneic HSTC, thirty patients were monitored weekly for active CMV infection by pp65 antigenemia, nested-PCR and real-time PCR assays. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC plot analysis was performed to determine a threshold value of the CMV DNA load by real-time PCR. Results Using ROC curves, the optimal cutoff value by real-time PCR was 418.4 copies/104 PBL (sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 89.7%. Twenty seven (90% of the 30 analyzed patients had active CMV infection and two (6.7% developed CMV disease. Eleven (40.7% of these 27 patients had acute GVHD, 18 (66.7% had opportunistic infection, 5 (18.5% had chronic rejection and 11 (40.7% died - one died of CMV disease associated with GVHD and bacterial infection. Conclusions The low incidence of CMV disease in HSCT recipients in our study attests to the efficacy of CMV surveillance based on clinical routine assay. The quantification of CMV DNA load using real-time PCR appears to be applicable to the clinical practice and an optimal cutoff value for guiding timely preemptive therapy should be clinically validated in future studies.

  1. Neck circumference as a predictor of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and low-grade systemic inflammation in children: the ACFIES study

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Camacho, Paul Anthony; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Saavedra-Cortes, Sandra; Lopez-Lopez, Cristina; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Background The current study aims to evaluate the association between neck circumference (NC) and several cardio-metabolic risk factors, to compare it with well-established anthropometric indices, and to determine the cut-off point value of NC for predicting children at increased risk of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and low-grade systemic inflammation. Methods A total of 669 school children, aged 8–14, were recruited. Demographic, clinical, anthropometric and biochemical data from a...

  2. Waterlow量表对重症患者压疮的预测价值及诊断界值分析%Predictive Value of Waterlow Scale for Pressure Ulcers for Critically Ill Patients and Its Cut-off Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓艳; 赵小利; 韩娟; 石秦东; 李昊

    2015-01-01

    目的:界定Waterlow量表对重症患者压疮的预测价值及诊断界值。方法回顾性分析765例重症患者的压疮风险评估资料,使用受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线评价Waterlow量表的预测性能和最佳诊断界值。结果由ROC分析结果可知,Waterlow评分曲线下面积为0.694,与0.5相比,具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。 Waterlow量表分界值为20分时,其灵敏度(0.880)、特异度(0.480)具有最好的平衡性。结论 Waterlow量表在预测重症患者压疮中具有较高的灵敏度和特异度,可将分界值提高至20分。%Objective To explore the predictive value of Waterlow scale for pressure ulcers for critically ill patients and its cut-off value. Methods A retrospective analysis of evaluation data of pressure ulcer risk of 765 critically ill inpatients was conducted and predictive value and cut-off value of Waterlow scale was assessed by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic). Results ROC indicated that the area under curve was 0.694, which showed statistical significance ( P<0.01). When cut-off value of Waterlow sacle reached 20, the sensitivity (0.880) and specificity (0.480) of the scale reached a good balance. Conclusion Waterlow scale has high sensitivity and specificity in predicting pressure ulcers for critically ill patients and its cut-off value could be raised to 20.

  3. Revised cutoff values of ALT and HBV DNA level can better differentiate HBeAg (- chronic inactive HBV patients from active carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gull Sana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims ELISA is still used as primary test for diagnosis HBV disease. However, ELISA-positive patients were marked as HBV inactive after confirmation with PCR and vice versa. Our aim was to assess the performance of new cut-off value of ALT, HBV DNA load and significance of AST as screening tool for HBeAg (- chronic active or inactive patients in Pakistani population. Materials and methods In a cross-sectional, cohort study, 567 HBeAg (- patients followed for one year were selected. Patients with persistent elevated ALT than normal and HBV DNA ≥ 100,000 copies/mL were taken as active chronic. Diagnostic values for ALT, AST and HBV DNA load in HBV HBeAg (- chronic active and inactive patients compared using receiver operation characteristic (ROC curves. Results Of 567 HBeAg (- patients, 228 were classified as chronic inactive and 339 as active. HBV infection was dominant in male. Serum ALT, AST and HBV DNA levels showed significant and high AUROC to differentiate chronic HBeAg (- inactive patients from active. AUROC for Serum ALT, AST and HBV DNA were observed 0.997, 0.969 and 1.000, respectively. For revised cut off value for ALT (30 IU/L for male and 19 IU/L for female and HBV DNA load ≥100,000 copies/mL, a PPV of 97%, NPV of 94%, a sensitivity of 98%, and a specificity of 92% was observed to discriminate active carriers from inactive carriers. We also observed 93.5% specificity, 83.1% sensitivity, 82% PPV and 89.5% NPV for AST ≤20 IU/L to differentiate inactive carriers from active ones in our study group. Conclusions Revised cut off value of ALT and NIH derived HBV DNA value can better discriminate between HBeAg (- chronic active and inactive patients.

  4. Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Morrissey

    Full Text Available To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N = 1635 and Salmonella spp. (N = 901 but also including Escherichia coli (N = 368, Candida albicans (N = 200, Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 60, Enterobacter spp. (N = 54, Enterococcus faecium (N = 53, and Enterococcus faecalis (N = 56. From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC, E. coli (MBC and MIC and S. aureus (MBC and MIC. There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.

  5. Study of parents of β-thalassemia major children to determine cutoff values of hematological parameters for diagnosis of β-thalassemia trait and assessment of anemia in them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipal Bhukhanvala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of the overlapping MCV, MCH and HbA 2 values in BTT and non-BTT subjects our laboratory determined own cutoffs. Aims: To establish cutoff values by investigating the parents of thalassemia major children and to assess the degree of anemia in BTT subjects. Materials and Methods: Study includes 179 parents of thalassemia major children (BTT cases and 287 non-BTT controls. Samples were analyzed on an electronic hematology analyzer. The samples having MCV ≤ 76 fl and MCH ≤ 27 pg were quantified for HbA 2 by cellulose acetate electrophoresis and grey zone samples were confirmed on HPLC. Statistical Analysis Mean ± SD, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were calculated. The histograms were plotted for MCV, MCH and HbA 2 . Results: Cases having MCV ≤ 76 fl and MCH ≤ 27 pg if considered as suspected cases of BTT then we could have missed five known BTT samples. Sensitivity increased to 100% in all three diagnostic parameters when the cutoff values were raised and specificity for MCV and MCH was decreased. But specificity was 100% with raised cutoff for HbA 2 . Hb and HCT mean values were significantly reduced in BTT cases compared to controls (P 3.8% for BTT diagnosis and there is a mild to moderate anemia in BTT cases.

  6. Cutoff Values of Serum IgG4 and Histopathological IgG4+ Plasma Cells for Diagnosis of Patients with IgG4-Related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasufumi Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease is a new disease classification established in Japan in the 21st century. Patients with IgG4-related disease display hyper-IgG4-gammaglobulinemia, massive infiltration of IgG4+ plasma cells into tissue, and good response to glucocorticoids. Since IgG4 overexpression is also observed in other disorders, it is necessary to diagnose IgG4-related disease carefully and correctly. We therefore sought to determine cutoff values for serum IgG4 and IgG4/IgG and for IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cells in tissue diagnostic of IgG4-related disease. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed serum IgG4 concentrations and IgG4/IgG ratio and IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cell ratio in tissues of 132 patients with IgG4-related disease and 48 patients with other disorders. Result. Serum IgG4 >135  mg/dl demonstrated a sensitivity of 97.0% and a specificity of 79.6% in diagnosing IgG4-related disease, and serum IgG4/IgG ratios >8% had a sensitivity and specificity of 95.5% and 87.5%, respectively. IgG4+cell/IgG+ cell ratio in tissues >40% had a sensitivity and specificity of 94.4% and 85.7%, respectively. However, the number of IgG4+ cells was reduced in severely fibrotic parts of tissues. Conclusion. Although a recent unanimous consensus of all relevant researchers in Japan recently established the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease, findings such as ours indicate that further discussion is needed.

  7. The cut-off value of waist-to-height ratio in detecting central obesity in Chinese adult population%中国成人中心性肥胖腰围身高比值的适宜切点的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵连成; 李莹; 彭亚光; 张林峰; 郭敏; 武阳丰

    2012-01-01

    to detect clustering of risk factors cluster in male, female and the whole population were 0. 49, 0. 50, and 0. 49, respectively. Keeping WHtR less than 0. 50 could prevent about 2/5 hypertension, 1/5 abnormal glucose and high TC, 1/3 low HDL-C, and one half clustering of risk factors. Conclusions WHtR≥0. 50 could be the optimal cut-off value for detecting central obesity in Chinese adult population. "Keep waist circumference half of your height" should be the target of control central obesity to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Glycolipid metabolic status of overweight/obese adolescents aged 9- to 15-year-old and the BMI-SDS/BMI cut-off value of predicting dyslipidemiain boys, Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Chun-dan; Wu, Qiao-ling; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Zheng-yan; Peng, Yong-mei

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of adolescents’ obesity and overweight has dramatically elevated in China. Obese children were likely to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, which are risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. However there was no cut-off point of anthropometric values to predict the risk factors in Chinese adolescents. The present study was to investigate glycolipid metabolism status of adolescents in Shanghai and to explore the correlations between body mass index standard deviatio...

  9. Neck circumference as a predictor of obesity and overweight in rural central India

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar; Apurva Gupta; Shraddha Jain

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neck circumference is a simple screening measure for identifying overweight and obese patients. The present study is planned to determine if NC is a valid measure of obesity in rural Indian population. Aims: To determine whether a single measure of NC might be used to identify overweight patients and to define NC cutoff levels for overweight and obesity according to existing BMI cutoff levels. Settings and Design: A prospective cross-sectional study from rural medical ...

  10. Determination of MIC Distribution and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Bedaquiline and Delamanid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Using the MGIT 960 System Equipped with TB eXiST

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M Keller; Hömke, Rico; Ritter, Claudia; Valsesia, Giorgia; Bloemberg, Guido V.; Böttger, Erik C.

    2015-01-01

    Bedaquiline (Sirturo) and delamanid (Deltyba) have recently been approved by the regulatory authorities for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is not established for either substance. On the basis of the use of the MGIT 960 system equipped with EpiCenter/TB eXiST, we determined a mean bedaquiline MIC for wild-type strains of 0.65 mg/liter (median, 0.4 mg/liter) and an epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) of 1.6 mg/liter; for delamanid, a mea...

  11. Exploration of cut-off value of TSH during screening of congenital hypothyroidism in the newborns%新生儿先天性甲状腺功能减退症筛查中TSH切值的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈肖肖; 秦玉峰; 曲一平; 毛华庆; 施玉华; 赵正言

    2008-01-01

    新生儿筛查中发现,TSH水平与先天性甲状腺功能减退症(CH)检出率呈直线正相关.当TSH切值点分别为9、10、15和20 mU/L时,CH阳性检测敏感度分别 99.77%、96.80%、81.25%和71.88%.TSH>9 mU/L是较好的切点.%Positive linear correlation was found between TSH level and detection rate of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). When measured with a cut-off point at 9, 10, 15 and 20 mU/L of TSH, the sensitivity of positive detection rate for CH was 99.77%, 96.80%, 81.25% and 71.88%, respectively. TSH > 9 mU/L seems to be a reasonable cut-off value.

  12. Determination of MIC distribution and epidemiological cutoff values for bedaquiline and delamanid in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the MGIT 960 system equipped with TB eXiST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter M; Hömke, Rico; Ritter, Claudia; Valsesia, Giorgia; Bloemberg, Guido V; Böttger, Erik C

    2015-07-01

    Bedaquiline (Sirturo) and delamanid (Deltyba) have recently been approved by the regulatory authorities for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is not established for either substance. On the basis of the use of the MGIT 960 system equipped with EpiCenter/TB eXiST, we determined a mean bedaquiline MIC for wild-type strains of 0.65 mg/liter (median, 0.4 mg/liter) and an epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) of 1.6 mg/liter; for delamanid, a mean wild-type drug MIC of 0.013 mg/liter (median, 0.01 mg/liter) and an ECOFF of 0.04 mg/liter were determined. PMID:25941226

  13. Neck circumference as a potential marker of metabolic syndrome among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Christina Rodrigues Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to relate neck circumference with metabolic syndrome and its criteria among college students.METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted with 702 college students in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil from September 2010 to June 2011. Socio-demographic data, waist circumference and neck circumference were collected together with blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride levels, and HDL-C.RESULTS: 1.7% of the studied sample presented metabolic syndrome. Of these, 58.3% presented altered neck circumference (p<0.006. As neck circumference decreases, pressure levels improve (p<0.001. Additionally, college students with high fasting blood sugar (p=0.003 and high triglyceride levels (p<0.001 presented higher values of neck circumference.CONCLUSION: neck circumference is a potential predictive marker in the detection of metabolic syndrome and its components among college students.

  14. Anti-mullerian hormone cut-off values for predicting poor ovarian response to exogenous ovarian stimulation in in-vitro fertilization

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    Ruma Satwik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (a To establish the cut-off levels for anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH in a population of Indian women that would determine poor response. (b To determine which among the three ie.,: age, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, or AMH, is the better determinant of ovarian reserve. Study Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: In vitro fertilization (IVF unit of a tertiary hospital. Materials and Methods: The inclusion criterion was all women who presented to the center for in-vitro fertilization/Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. The exclusion criteria were age >45 years, major medical illnesses precluding IVF or pregnancy, FSH more than 20 IU/L, and failure to obtain consent. The interventions including baseline pelvic scan, day 2/3 FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol estimations, and AMH measurement on any random day of cycle were done. Subjects underwent IVF according to long agonist or antagonist protocol regimen. Oocyte recovery was correlated with studied variables. The primary outcome measure was the number of oocytes aspirated (OCR. Three categories of ovarian response were defined: poor response, OCR ≤ 3; average response, OCR between 4 and 15; hyperresponse, OCR > 15. Results: Of the 198 patients enrolled, poor, average, and hyperresponse were observed in 23%, 63%, and 14% respectively. Correlation coefficient for AMH with ovarian response was r = 0.591. Area under the curve (AUCs for poor response for AMH, subject′s age, and FSH were 0.768, 0.624, and 0.635, respectively. The discriminatory level of AMH for prediction of absolute poor response was 2 pmoL/l, with 98% specificity and 20% sensitivity. Conclusions: AMH fares better than age and FSH in predicting the overall ovarian response and poor response, though it cannot be the absolute predictor of non-responder status. A level of 2 pmol/l is discriminatory for poor response.

  15. Which are the cut-off values of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) liver stiffness measurements predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sporea, Ioan, E-mail: isporea@umft.ro; Bota, Simona, E-mail: bota_simona1982@yahoo.com; Gradinaru-Taşcău, Oana, E-mail: bluonmyown@yahoo.com; Şirli, Roxana, E-mail: roxanasirli@gmail.com; Popescu, Alina, E-mail: alinamircea.popescu@gmail.com; Jurchiş, Ana, E-mail: ana.jurchis@yahoo.com

    2014-03-15

    Introduction: To identify liver stiffness (LS) cut-off values assessed by means of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method. Methods: Our prospective study included 383 consecutive subjects, with or without hepatopathies, in which LS was evaluated by means of TE and 2D-SWE. To discriminate between various stages of fibrosis by TE we used the following LS cut-offs (kPa): F1-6, F2-7.2, F3-9.6 and F4-14.5. Results: The rate of reliable LS measurements was similar for TE and 2D-SWE: 73.9% vs. 79.9%, p = 0.06. Older age and higher BMI were associated for both TE and 2D-SWE with the impossibility to obtain reliable LS measurements. Reliable LS measurements by both elastographic methods were obtained in 65.2% of patients. A significant correlation was found between TE and 2D-SWE measurements (r = 0.68). The best LS cut-off values assessed by 2D-SWE for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis were: F ≥ 1: >7.1 kPa (AUROC = 0.825); F ≥ 2: >7.8 kPa (AUROC = 0.859); F ≥ 3: >8 kPa (AUROC = 0.897) and for F = 4: >11.5 kPa (AUROC = 0.914). Conclusions: 2D-SWE is a reliable method for the non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis, considering TE as the reference method. The accuracy of 2D-SWE measurements increased with the severity of liver fibrosis.

  16. Which are the cut-off values of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) liver stiffness measurements predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: To identify liver stiffness (LS) cut-off values assessed by means of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method. Methods: Our prospective study included 383 consecutive subjects, with or without hepatopathies, in which LS was evaluated by means of TE and 2D-SWE. To discriminate between various stages of fibrosis by TE we used the following LS cut-offs (kPa): F1-6, F2-7.2, F3-9.6 and F4-14.5. Results: The rate of reliable LS measurements was similar for TE and 2D-SWE: 73.9% vs. 79.9%, p = 0.06. Older age and higher BMI were associated for both TE and 2D-SWE with the impossibility to obtain reliable LS measurements. Reliable LS measurements by both elastographic methods were obtained in 65.2% of patients. A significant correlation was found between TE and 2D-SWE measurements (r = 0.68). The best LS cut-off values assessed by 2D-SWE for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis were: F ≥ 1: >7.1 kPa (AUROC = 0.825); F ≥ 2: >7.8 kPa (AUROC = 0.859); F ≥ 3: >8 kPa (AUROC = 0.897) and for F = 4: >11.5 kPa (AUROC = 0.914). Conclusions: 2D-SWE is a reliable method for the non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis, considering TE as the reference method. The accuracy of 2D-SWE measurements increased with the severity of liver fibrosis

  17. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

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    Rossana Gómez-Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of waist circumference (WC is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders.

  18. Utility and Cutoff Value of Hair Nicotine as a Biomarker of Long-Term Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Compared to Salivary Cotinine

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    Sungroul Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While hair samples are easier to collect and less expensive to store and transport than biological fluids, and hair nicotine characterizes tobacco exposure over a longer time period than blood or urine cotinine, information on its utility, compared with salivary cotinine, is still limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 289 participants (107 active smokers, 105 passive smokers with self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS exposure, and 77 non-smokers with no SHS exposure in Baltimore (Maryland, USA. A subset of the study participants (n = 52 were followed longitudinally over a two-month interval.  Median baseline hair nicotine concentrations for active, passive and non-smokers were 16.2, 0.36, and 0.23 ng/mg, respectively, while those for salivary cotinine were 181.0, 0.27, and 0.27 ng/mL, respectively. Hair nicotine concentrations for 10% of passive or non-smokers were higher than the 25th percentile value for active smokers while all corresponding salivary cotinine concentrations for them were lower than the value for active smokers. This study showed that hair nicotine concentration values could be used to distinguish active or heavy passive adult smokers from non-SHS exposed non-smokers. Our results indicate that hair nicotine is a useful biomarker for the assessment of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke.

  19. Head circumference in Iranian infants

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    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  20. 四川省新生儿 CH筛查切值的探讨%Exploration of cut-off value of TSH during screening of congenital hypothyroidism in the newborns in Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婧瑶; 欧明才; 罗晓菊; 张钰; 胡琦; 陈雪莲; 杨丽娟; 王蕊; 李婷

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨四川省新生儿疾病筛查中心实验室先天性甲状腺功能减低症( CH)筛查切值,减少漏诊率,降低假阳性率。方法对四川省新生儿疾病筛查中心片区市县2011至2012年活产婴儿出生72小时并充分哺乳6次后取其足跟血,采用时间分辨荧光免疫法检测血中促甲状腺激素( TSH)浓度。结果2011至2012年度共测定525941例标本,其TSH浓度呈偏态分布,其中正常新生儿人数为525554,确诊CH患儿230例,高TSH血症患儿157例。当筛查切值定为8.0mIU/L和定为8.9mIU/L时,灵敏度χ2=10.188,P<0.05;特异度χ2=458.460,P<0.05,制定出四川省新生儿疾病筛查中心实验室时间分辨荧光免疫法筛查CH参考切值为8.0mIU/L。结论四川省新生儿疾病筛查中心制定的CH筛查切值是适宜的、有依据的,为更大规模开展的新生儿CH筛查提供了决策依据。%Objective To explore the positive cut-off value in neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in the Centre of Neonatal Screening of Sichuan , so as to improve screening efficiency and reduce false positive rate .Methods DELFIA was applied to detect the concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone ( TSH) in heel blood samples which were collected from the newborns 72 hours after birth and having drunk enough milk for at least 6 times.These neonates were born in 2011-2012 in counties and cities managed by the Centre of Neonatal Screening of Sichuan .Results Totally 525 941 blood samples were screened . The TSH concentration showed a skewed distribution .Among them 525 554 newborns were normal , 230 neonates were diagnosed with CH , and 157 with high TSH hyperlipidemia . When the positive cut-off value was 8.0mIU/L and 8.9mIU/L, the sensitivity χ2 was 10.188 ( P <0.05 ) and the specificity χ2 was 458.460 (P<0.05).The cut-off value of screening was 8.0mIU/L by DELFIA in the Centre of Neonatal Screening of Sichuan

  1. The GZK cutoff smeared

    CERN Document Server

    Albuquerque, I F M; Albuquerque, Ivone F. M.; Smoot, George F.

    2005-01-01

    The observed energy spectrum of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) is distorted by errors in the energy reconstruction. We estimate the UHECR spectrum at the Earth assuming it is originated from a cosmological flux. We then convolute this flux assuming a lognormal error in the energy. We show that if the standard deviation of the lognormal error distribution is equal or larger than 0.25, not only the shape but also the normalization of the measured energy spectra will be modified. As a consequence the GZK cutoff might be sufficiently smeared and as not to be seen. This result is independent of the power law of the cosmological flux. As a conclusion we show that in order to establish the presence or not of the GZK feature, not only more data is needed but also that the shape of the energy error distribution has to be known well.

  2. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai, Mohammad Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Hadibarhaghtalab, Maryam; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Salehi, Alireza; Askari, Alireza; Homayounfar, Reza

    2016-01-01

    specificity of 69% and 62%, respectively. This cut-off had a positive predictive value of 54% and a negative predictive value of 76%. When we excluded waist circumference, the optimum BMI cut-off for acquiring metabolic risk factors in males decreased to 25.7 kg/m2 (Acc = 67%) and increased for women to 27.05 kg/m2 (Acc = 66%). Iranians are at higher risks of morbidity related to metabolic factors at a lower BMI cut-off and prompt action and preventive health policy are required to prevent and educate Iranians regarding diseases associated with obesity. PMID:27509026

  3. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population. PMID:17568760

  4. EFFECT OF KAPALBHATI PRANAYAMA ON WAIST AND HIP CIRCUMFERENCE

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    Dinkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT (BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rapid industrialization, environmental pollution, overcrowding, sedentary lifestyle and var ious stress factors are responsible for the deterioration of the physical health of a person. Als o, prevalence of obesity in developing countries is believed to be on the rise. This requi res special and specific techniques to transcend the limits of our physical and mental abilities exper ienced in everyday life. Hence, in the present study beneficial effect of Kapalbhati pranayama on wa ist circumference and hip circumference was studied in overweight individuals. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This study was conducted in a well-known tertiary hospital in Mumbai after th e institutional ethical clearance and written consent from each participant. A total of 60 overweig ht resident doctors were recruited in this study. The participants were divided into study and c ontrol groups, each group containing 30 subjects of both sexes. The study group was asked to perform Kapalbhati pranayama. The duration of the study was eight weeks. Waist circum ference and hip circumference were assessed in both the groups. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Paired t- test was applied for statistical analysis and p value <0.05 was considered the level of significance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In study group, waist circumference and hip circumfe rence decreased significantly as compared to that of control group. T his shows that Kapalbhati pranayama has reducing impact on waist circumference and hip circum ference in overweight individuals. The neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system mechani sms might be involved in the effects of Kapalbhati pranayama, which need further study.

  5. Mid-upper Arm Circumference Based Undernutrition among Bengalee Children of Chapra, West Bengal, India

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    Sadaruddin Biswas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate age and sex variations in undernutrition using mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC cut-off values among 2016 (930 boys and 1086 girls. 3-5 years old rural children of Bengalee ethnicity at 66 Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Centers of Nadia District, West Bengal, India.Methods:In a cross sectional study in west Bengal of India, MUAC was measured using standard technique. A total of 2028 children (935 boys and 1093 girls from 66 ICDS centers were enrolled in this study. The response rate was approximately 95%.Findings:Mean MUAC among boys was higher than girls at all ages except 5 years. Significant sex differences were not observed over ages. The age-combined rates of overall (moderate and severe undernutrition among boys (38.49% was higher than among girls (32.22%.The age-combined rates of moderate undernutrition were 36.34% and 31.03% among boys and girls, respectively. The rates of severe undernutrition were 2.15% and 1.20% among boys and girls, respectively. There were sex differences in both moderate and severe undernutrition. In general, there was an increasing trend in the rates of overall undernutrition from 3 to 5 years in both sexes.Conclusion:These children were experiencing severe nutritional stress.

  6. Mid-Upper Arm Circumference Based Undernutrition Among Bengalee Children of Chapra, West Bengal, India

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    Ashish Mukhopadhyay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate age and sex variations in undernutrition using mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC cut-off values among 2016 (930 boys and 1086 girls. 3-5 years old rural children of Bengalee ethnicity at 66 Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Centers of Nadia District, West Bengal, India. Methods:In a cross sectional study in west Bengal of India, MUAC was measured using standard technique. A total of 2028 children (935 boys and 1093 girls from 66 ICDS centers were enrolled in this study. The response rate was approximately 95%. Findings:Mean MUAC among boys was higher than girls at all ages except 5 years. Significant sex differences were not observed over ages. The age-combined rates of overall (moderate and severe undernutrition among boys (38.49% was higher than among girls (32.22%.The age-combined rates of moderate undernutrition were 36.34% and 31.03% among boys and girls, respectively. The rates of severe undernutrition were 2.15% and 1.20% among boys and girls, respectively. There were sex differences in both moderate and severe undernutrition. In general, there was an increasing trend in the rates of overall undernutrition from 3 to 5 years in both sexes. Conclusion:These children were experiencing severe nutritional stress.

  7. Pressurized liquid extraction for the determination of cannabinoids and metabolites in hair: Detection of cut-off values by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Camilla; Simeoni, Maria Chiara; Vannutelli, Gabriele; Gregori, Adolfo; Ripani, Luigi; Sergi, Manuel; Compagnone, Dario; Curini, Roberta

    2015-08-01

    Hair analysis has become a routine procedure in most forensic laboratories since this alternative matrix presents clear advantages over classical matrices; particularly wider time window, non-invasive sampling and good stability of the analytes over time. There are, however, some major challenges for the analysis of cannabinoids in hair, mainly related to the low concentrations of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), that is the major metabolite. In this study a fast, accurate and sensitive method for the determination of cannabinol, cannabidiol, THC and THC-COOH in hair has been developed. The extraction of analytes from hair (50mg) is based on an automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using water modified with the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate as eluent phase. PLE extract is then cleaned up by SPE using polymeric reversed phase cartridges Strata XL before the injection in the HPLC-HRMS/MS system. Chromatographic conditions obtained with a fused-core column allowed a good separation of the analytes in less than 4min. The whole procedure has been validated according to SWGTOX guidelines. The LLOQs obtained for THC-COOH and the other analytes were respectively 0.1 and 2pg/mg. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first LC-MS/MS based method that allows the detection of THC-COOH in hair at values lower than the cut-off. PMID:26118805

  8. Relationship between Waist Circumference and Elevation of Carotid Intima-media Thickness in Newly-diagnosed Diabetic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIA Wei Ping; SHEN Yun; ZHOU Jian; PAN Jie Min; YU Hao Yong; CHEN Hai Bing; LI Qing; LI Ming; BAO Yu Qian

    2014-01-01

    Objective Waist circumference, as a brief indicator of visceral obesity, is associated with multi-metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was aimed to find out the relationship between waist circumference and carotid intima media thickness (C-IMT), as well as the best waist circumference cutoff for identifying C-IMT elevation in Chinese male patients with newly-diagnosed diabetes. Methods Five hundred and seventy-eight patients from Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism in Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University were enrolled. Both physical examination (for measurement of waist circumference) and carotid ultrasonography (for measurement of C-IMT) were performed. Results After grouping according to the quartiles of C-IMT, the waist circumference increased across all its quartiles. The waist circumference in 3rd and 4th quartiles (90.7±9.8 cm and 90.8±9.6 cm) was significant higher than in 1st and 2nd quartiles (P Conclusion Among newly-diagnosed diabetic male patients, waist circumference over 90 cm not only reflects sub-clinical atherosclerosis in early stage, but also predicts the progression of atherosclerosis.

  9. Comparison of VerifyNow-P2Y12 test and Flow Cytometry for monitoring individual platelet response to clopidogrel. What is the cut-off value for identifying patients who are low responders to clopidogrel therapy?

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    Castelli Alfredo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine (DAT is used to prevent stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Low response to clopidogrel therapy (LR occurs, but laboratory tests have a controversial role in the identification of this condition. Methods We studied LR in patients with stable angina undergoing elective PCI, all on DAT for at least 7 days, by comparing: 1 Flow cytometry (FC to measure platelet membrane expression of P-selectin (CD62P and PAC-1 binding following double stimulation with ADP and collagen type I either in the presence of prostaglandin (PG E1; 2 VerifyNow-P2Y12 test, in which results are reported as absolute P2Y12-Reaction-Units (PRU or % of inhibition (% inhibition. Results Thirty controls and 52 patients were analyzed. The median percentage of platelets exhibiting CD62P expression and PAC-1 binding by FC evaluation after stimulation in the presence of PG E1 was 25.4% (IQR: 21.4–33.1% and 3.5% (1.7–9.4%, respectively. Only 6 patients receiving DAT (11.5% had both values above the 1st quartile of controls, and were defined as LR. Evaluation of the same patients with the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test revealed that the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC curve was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84–0.98, p 213 PRU gave the maximum accuracy for the detection of patients defined as having LR by FC. Conclusion In conclusion our findings show that a cut-off value of ≤ 15% inhibition or > 213 PRU in the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test may provide the best accuracy for the identification of patients with LR.

  10. Entropy-driven cutoff phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Lancia, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present a theorem relating the cutoff phenomenon for finite Markov chains to suitably chosen random times. We have in mind the generalization to systems with uniform stationary measure of the link between hitting times and cutoff. Such link has been already proved in literature only for systems with stationary measure concentrated in a finite region. We show some examples of application of our result.

  11. 卵巢癌肿瘤标志的优化筛选与临界值确定%Screening and optimization of tumor markers and determination of cutoff value in ovarian cancer pa-tients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周广政

    2014-01-01

    目的:筛选卵巢癌实验诊断比较适合的肿瘤标志,进一步探究其临界值。方法将研究对象分为卵巢癌组、卵巢良性肿瘤组和健康体检组,采用电化学发光法检测CA153、CA724、CA125、人附睾蛋白4(human epididymis protein 4,HE4)等项目的浓度,并以文献报道的方法计算卵巢恶性肿瘤风险模型(risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm,ROMA);以SPSS软件分析研究对象肿瘤标志的表达差异,并分析它们的诊断指数(灵敏度+特异性);根据受试者工作特征曲线(receiver operating characteristics, ROC),试确定各肿瘤标志的最佳临界值。结果三组的肿瘤标志表达水平存在显著差异(P<0.05);ROMA的诊断能力最佳(诊断指数1.94,灵敏度0.94、特异性1.00),其它依次是HE4(诊断指数1.86,灵敏度0.89、特异性0.97)、CA125(诊断指数1.75,灵敏度0.83、特异性0.91);依据曲线下面积(area un-der the curve,AUC),诊断卵巢癌能力大小的肿瘤标志(或项目)分别是:ROMA、HE4、CA125、CA153、CA724。结论诊断卵巢癌应优先考虑CA125、HE4和ROMA等项目,相应临界值可拟定为90.96 U/ml、81.38 pmol/l和37.22%。%Objective The aim of this work is to screen suitable tumor markers (TMs)and to determine their cutoff values in patients with ovarian cancer. Methods Serum samples of 179 women,including 77 ovari-an cancer(group A),62 ovarian benign cysts(group B),and 40 healthy controls(group C),were tested for CA153,CA724,CA125 and Human Epididymis Protein 4(HE4)using fully automated instruments (Roche Elecsys cobas E). Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm(ROMA)values were calculated according to refer-ences. Differences of tumor marker concentration among three groups were evaluated by SPSS software. Using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC)curve,the cutoff values of tumor markers were determined. Results

  12. WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AS INDICATOR COMPONENTS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN THE SIBERIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Simonova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Object of research: to determine the cut-off point of waist circumference (WC identify the components of metabolic syndrome (MS in a large industrial center of Western Siberia.In the period from 2003 to 2005 in the screening population surveyed 9362 people, including 4268 men (45.6% and 5094 women (54.4%.The response rate was 61%. The study protocol included a sociodemographic data, measurement of blood pressure (BP, anthropometry (height, weight, WC, the definition of biochemical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed using the package SPSS. To determine the cut-off points of the used ROC model.In the group with ≥2 components of MS cut-off point WC from the men was 93.3 cm (sensitivity 72%, specificity 83%, women – 90.2 cm (sensitivity 72%, specificity 62%.The lowest cut-off point WC marked BP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg for men – 90 cm (sensitivity 66.8%, specificity 58.1%, for women – 86.5 cm (sensitivity 71.0%, specificity 55.7%. The highest cut-off point from the defined patients with diabetes for men was 99.0 cm (sensitivity 61%, specificity 70.2%, for women – cm (sensitivity 64.1%, specificity 65.9%.Conclusions: Cut-off point from the persons with the presence of ≥2 MS components in Siberian population 45–69 years, in accordance with the ROC analysis are 93.3 cm for men and 90.2 cm for women. The lowest cut-off point WC marked BP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg for men – 90 cm, for women – 86.5 cm. The highest cut-off point from the defined patients with diabetes for men was 99.0 cm, for women – 95 cm.

  13. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study Referencias antropométricas de los adolescentes bolivianos de 12 a 18 años: estatura, peso, circunferencia del brazo, muñeca y abdominal, índice de masa corporal: Percentiles de adolescentes bolivianos (PAB) del estudio MESA

    OpenAIRE

    A. Baya Botti; Pérez-Cueto, F.J.A.; P. A. Vasquez Monllor; P. W. Kolsteren

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policymaking at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA) study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clust...

  14. Abdominal Obesity Indicators: Waist Circumference or Waist-to-hip Ratio in Malaysian Adults Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Norfazilah; Adam, Samia Ibrahim Mohamed; Nawi, Azmawati Mohammed; Hassan, Mohd Rohaizat; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Waist circumference (WC) is an accurate and simple measure of abdominal obesity as compared to waist–hip ratio (WHR). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) with WC and WHR and suggest cutoff points for WC among Rural Malaysian adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 669 respondents from three villages in Tanjung Karang, located in the district of Kuala Selangor. Data collection was carried out by guided questionnaires and anthropometric measures. Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity for BMI was almost similar for both gender across Caucasian and Asian BMI cutoff points. Based on Caucasian cutoff points, the prevalence of abdominal obesity for WC was 23.8% (male) and 66.4% (female) while for WHR was 6.2% (male) and 54.2% (female). Asian cutoff points gave higher prevalence of abdominal obesity compared to that of WC among male respondents and WHR for both genders. WC showed strong and positive correlation with BMI compared to WHR (in male WC r = 0.78, WHR r = 0.24 and in female WC r = 0.72, WHR r = 0.19; P analysis suggested WC cutoff points of 92.5 cm in men and 85.5 cm in women is the optimal number for detection of abdominal obesity. Conclusions: WC is the best indicator as compared with WHR for abdominal obesity for Malaysian adults.

  15. Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio distributions in polish and german schoolchildren: Comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Nawarycz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To analyze differences in the distributions of waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR between Polish (PL and German (GE children and adolescents. Methods: Two samples of children and adolescents aged 7-18 y: From PL ( n = 11,326 GE ( n = 8,218 participated. The two WC cut-off points (WC1 as central fat distribution and WC2 as central obesity corresponding at age 18 to the adult criteria were determined. Furthermore, the mean WC cut-off points (WC1m, WC2m for boys and girls aged 14-18 from both countries were evaluated. For the WHtR, values over 0.5 were used as a definition of central fat distribution. The effect of different WC and WHtR criteria on the prevalence of abdominal obesity in both study groups was evaluated. Results: The mean and percentile values of WC and WHtR were generally higher in all German children as compared to their peers from Poland. When WC1m is used, the mean (95% CI prevalence of central fat distribution in the 14-18 y Polish groups was lower ( P 0.5, the results were similar for boys - 6.7% (5.9-7.5 vs. 8.5% (8.1-8.9; they were significantly ( P < 0.05 lower for Polish and German girls: 5.3% (5.0-5.6 vs. 12.7% (9.7-16.4. The prevalence of central obesity using WC2m as a criterion in the Polish vs. German groups was as follows: (boys - 1.1% (0.8-1.4 vs. 3.1% (2.2-4.0, P < 0.05; girls - 3.1% (2.5-3.7 vs. 10.2% (8.4-12.0, P < 0.05. Conclusions: The results highlight the greater central obesity associated with the German children, both in terms of WC and WHtR, in comparison to their peers from Poland. The prevalence of AO is significantly associated with the criteria used. The results demonstrate the need for the development of international WC references for pediatric subjects.

  16. Limb circumference and performance in junior tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Nuhmani, Shibili; Shaphe, MD Abu; Waseem, MD

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the correlation of limb circumference with functional performance of junior tennis players Design: correlation design Setting: Tennis academies all over Delhi and National Capital Region Subjects: 100 junior tennis players Measurement: The limb circumferences (thigh circumference and calf circumference) of each athlete have measured and have been correlated with all the three functional performance tests. Result and conclusion: Pearson's correlation test was used to cor...

  17. Is high body fat estimated by body mass index and waist circumference a predictor of hypertension in adults? A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Diego Augusto Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of body fat percentage (%BF estimated by equations using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC to identify hypertension and estimate measures of association between high %BF and hypertension in adults. Methods This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted with 1,720 adults (20–59 years from Florianopolis, southern Brazil. The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios of cutoffs for %BF were calculated. The association between %BF and hypertension was analyzed using Poisson regression, estimating the unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CI. Results The %BF equations showed good discriminatory power for hypertension (area under the ROC curve > 0.50. Considering the entire sample, the cutoffs for %BF with better properties for screening hypertension were identified in the equation with BMI for men (%BF = 20.4 and with WC for women (%BF = 34.1. Adults with high %BF had a higher prevalence of hypertension. Conclusions The use of simple anthropometric measurements allowed identifying the %BF, diagnosing obesity, and screening people at risk of hypertension in order to refer them for more careful diagnostic evaluation.

  18. Defining obesity cut-off points for migrant South Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Gray

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used to define cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk. We aimed to derive appropriate BMI and WC obesity cut-off points in a migrant South Asian population. METHODS: 4688 White Europeans and 1333 South Asians resident in the UK aged 40-75 years inclusive were screened for type 2 diabetes. Principal components analysis was used to derive a glycaemia, lipid, and a blood pressure factor. Regression models for each factor, adjusted for age and stratified by sex, were used to identify BMI and WC cut-off points in South Asians that correspond to those defined for White Europeans. FINDINGS: For South Asian males, derived BMI obesity cut-off points equivalent to 30.0 kg/m(2 in White Europeans were 22.6 kg/m(2 (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI 20.7 kg/m(2 to 24.5 kg/m(2 for the glycaemia factor, 26.0 kg/m(2 (95% CI 24.7 kg/m(2 to 27.3 kg/m(2 for the lipid factor, and 28.4 kg/m(2 (95% CI 26.5 kg/m(2 to 30.4 kg/m(2 for the blood pressure factor. For WC, derived cut-off points for South Asian males equivalent to 102 cm in White Europeans were 83.8 cm (95% CI 79.3 cm to 88.2 cm for the glycaemia factor, 91.4 cm (95% CI 86.9 cm to 95.8 cm for the lipid factor, and 99.3 cm (95% CI 93.3 cm to 105.2 cm for the blood pressure factor. Lower ethnicity cut-off points were seen for females for both BMI and WC. CONCLUSIONS: Substantially lower obesity cut-off points are needed in South Asians to detect an equivalent level of dysglycemia and dyslipidemia as observed in White Europeans. South Asian ethnicity could be considered as a similar level of risk as obesity (in White Europeans for the development of type 2 diabetes.

  19. Emotional Cutoff In Women Who Abuse Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Frances Lynn

    2000-01-01

    Emotional Cutoff in Women who Abuse Substances Frances L. Bell ABSTRACT This exploratory study was based upon Bowen Family Systems theory and investigated emotional cutoff in women (n = 168) who entered a substance abuse treatment program. Three questions were explored: First, the degree of emotional cutoff in this sample was compared to a non-clinical sample of women. Secondly, the relationship was explored between the variable of emotional cutoff and the following variables: su...

  20. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Augmented waist circumference (WC is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether bio-chemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ into stunted (−1 > HAZ ≥ −2 and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ −1 groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. Results: WC cut-off points of 58.25 cm and 67.2 cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively, the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts.

  1. Decreasing "circumference" for increasing "radius" in axially symmetric gravitating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lubo, M

    2001-01-01

    Apart from the flat space with an angular deficit, Einstein general relativity possesses another cylindrically symmetric solution. Because this configuration displays circles whose "circumferences" tend to zero when their "radius" go to infinity, it has not received much attention in the past. We propose a geometric interpretation of this feature and find that it implies field boundary conditions different from the ones found in the literature if one considers a source consisting of the scalar and the vector fields of a U(1) system . To obtain a non increasing energy density the gauge symmetry must be unbroken . For the Higgs potential this is achieved only with a vanishing vacuum expectation value but then the solution has a null scalar field. A non trivial scalar behaviour is exhibited for a potential of sixth order. The trajectories of test particles in this geometry are studied, its causal structure discussed. We find that this bosonic background can support a normalizable fermionic condensate but not suc...

  2. Waist circumference reference values in Beijing versus the national values in detecting cardiovascular risk factors in 7-18 years old children%北京与全国7~18岁儿童青少年腰围适宜界值对心血管危险因素筛查效度的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟玲慧; 罗纳; 程红; 侯冬青; 赵小元; 米杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较北京与全国7~18岁儿童青少年腰围(WC)适宜界值对心血管危险因素的筛查效度和预测价值.方法 采用LMS曲线拟合法拟合北京市21 787名3~18岁儿童青少年WC百分位曲线,以性别、年龄别第75百分位数(P75)及第90百分位数(P90)作为北京市7~18岁儿童青少年WC适宜界值.在4927名7~18岁儿童青少年组成的验证人群中,比较北京和全国7~18岁儿童青少年WC适宜界值对高血压、脂代谢紊乱、糖耐量受损及非酒精性脂肪肝(NAFLD)等心血管危险因素诊断的特异度和灵敏度,通过回归分析比较该2个界值对心血管危险因素的预测价值.结果 北京市3~18岁儿童青少年WC适宜界值分别为:男童:P75为51.8~78.2 cm,P90为54.0~86.0 cm;女童:P75为50.8~72.1 cm,P90为53.3~77.3 cm.北京与全国界值筛查心血管危险因素的灵敏度分别为:高血压:男童分别为0.74和0.82,女童分别为0.68和0.73;低高密度脂蛋白胆固醇:男童分别为0.69和0.80,女童分别为0.64和0.71;NAFLD:男童分别为0.98和1.00,女童均为0.93.北京与全国界值筛查心血管危险因素的特异度分别为:高血压:男童分别为0.62和0.53,女童分别为0.68和0.63;低高密度脂蛋白胆固醇:男童分别为0.59和0.50,女童分别为0.66和0.61;NAFLD:男童分别为0.60和0.50,女童分别为0.56和0.51.北京和全国7~18岁儿童青少年WC的P90适宜界值预测心血管危险因素的OR(95%CI)值分别为:高血压分别为6.3(5.2~7.7)和6.0(4.9~7.4);空腹血糖受损均为1.3(1.1~1.5);脂代谢紊乱均为2.9(2.5~3.4);NAFLD分别为49.1(12.0~201.6)和69.8(9.7~504.2).结论 北京市7~18岁儿童青少年WC适宜界值可提高对心血管危险因素筛查的特异度;除对NAFLD预测价值低于全国界值外,北京界值对其他心血管危险因素的预测价值与全国界值没有明显差别.%Objective To compare the optimal references of waist circumference (WC) between

  3. Thigh circumference and risk of heart disease and premature death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder

    2009-01-01

    of follow-up for total death. RESULTS: A small thigh circumference was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases and total mortality in both men and women. A threshold effect for thigh circumference was evident, with greatly increased risk of premature death...... circumference seems to be associated with an increased risk of developing heart disease or premature death. The adverse effects of small thighs might be related to too little muscle mass in the region. The measure of thigh circumference might be a relevant anthropometric measure to help general practitioners in...... early identification of individuals at an increased risk of premature morbidity and mortality....

  4. A CORRELATION BETWEEN HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE AND CHEST, WAIST AND HIP CIRCUMFERENCES IN YOUNG POPULATION OF KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitra S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The head and body measurements in human body vary because of differences in anatomical features which may be influenced by environmental or geographical factors. This also brings about differences in their bony structure and fat distribution. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between the Head circumference and Chest, Waist & Hip circumferences. METHODS: Head, Chest, Waist, and Hip circumferences were taken for 347 subjects. Then the subjects were classified as Total sample, Males and Females. Data was tabulated and statistical analysis (unpaired t test was carried out to find if any statistical significance between Cephalometric and Anthropometric measurements existed. The correlation co - efficient between head measurement and body measurements was determined using Karl Pearson’s formula. RESULTS: Statistically significant difference was observed for all parameters. Statistically significant correlations were observed in Total sample, Males and Females. CONCLUSION: These measurements will serve as a future frame work for comparing the craniofacial dimensions for differentiation of other racial groups. These are also useful in, anthropometric studies, cosmetology, and reconstructive surgery as well as garment industries. This is also an attempt to help a forensic scientist to identify the individual from dismembered and mutilated body parts in forensic examinations.

  5. Cutoff frequencies of a clarinet. What is acoustical regularity?

    OpenAIRE

    Kergomard, Jean; MOERS, Elise; Dalmont, Jean-Pierre; Guillemain, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    A characteristic of woodwind instruments is the cutoff frequency of their tone-hole lattice. Benade proposed a practical definition using the measurement of the input impedance, for which at least two frequency bands appear. The first one is a stop band, while the second is a pass band. The value of this cutoff frequency, which is a global quantity, depends on the whole geometry of the instrument, but is rather independent of the fingering. This seems to justify the consideration of a woodwin...

  6. On the temperature dependence of the lower wavelength cutoff of a series of Schott glass filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey, J. R.; Brett, D. A.; Drummond, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors have extended the work of Ångström & Drummond concerning the temperature dependence of the three meteorological standard filters (Schott OG 1, RG 2 and RG 8) and here give values of the temperature coefficient of the center of lower cutoff for seven other Schott sharp cutoff filters. The results demonstrate that there is a definite relationship between the normalized cutoff wavelength and this coefficient, the coefficient increasing semi-logarithmically with wavelength over th...

  7. Does the relationship between waist circumference, morbidity and mortality depend on measurement protocol for waist circumference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, R; Berentzen, T; Bradshaw, A J; Janssen, I; Kahn, H S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Kuk, J L; Seidell, J C; Snijder, M B; Sørensen, T I A; Després, J-P

    2008-01-01

    There is currently no consensus regarding the optimal protocol for measurement of waist circumference (WC), and no scientific rationale is provided for any of the WC protocols recommended by leading health authorities. A panel of experts conducted a systematic review of 120 studies (236 samples) to...... WC protocols performed measurement at the minimal waist (33%), midpoint (26%) and umbilicus (27%). Non-significant associations were reported for 27% (64) of the samples. Most of these protocols measured WC at the midpoint (36%), umbilicus (28%) or minimal waist (25%). Significant associations were...

  8. Ultraviolet cutoffs and the photon mass

    CERN Document Server

    Chankowski, Piotr H; Meissner, Krzysztof A

    2016-01-01

    The momentum UV cutoff in Quantum Field Theory is usually treated as an auxiliary device allowing to obtain finite amplitudes satisfying all physical requirements. It is even absent (not explicit) in the most popular approach - the dimensional regularization. We point out that the momentum cutoff treated as a bona fide physical scale, presumably equal or related to the Planck scale, would lead to unacceptable predictions. One of the dangers is a non-zero mass of the photon. In the naive approach, even with the cutoff equal to the Planck scale, this mass would grossly exceed the existing experimental bounds. We present the actual calculation using a concrete realization of the physical cutoff and speculate about the way to restore gauge symmetry order by order in the inverse powers of the cutoff scale.

  9. Age of Equalization of Head and Chest Circumference in Term Normal and Small for Gestational Age Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Bhalla

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the timing of equalization of the head and chest circumference in full-term 74 normal Punjabi and 200 small for gestational age (SGA infants of the two sexes born to parents representing upper socio-economic strata was serially studied. A regular increase in both the head and chest circumference of normal Punjabi and SGA infants of the two sexes was noticed between 1 to 12 months of age. Normal Punjabi infants of the two sexes as compared to their SGA counterparts possessed significantly (p=0.001 larger head and chest circumference during first year of life. In general, both Punjabi and SGA male infants possessed greater head and chest circumference values than their respective female peers throughout the study span. Amongst normal male and female Punjabi infants equalization of head and chest circumference took place by 4 and 5 months of age respectively. While, the equalization of head and chest circumference never occurred amongst SGA of both the sexes between 1 to 12 months of age. This clearly shows that SGA infants as compared to normal Punjabi peers remain undernourished during infancy and failed to compensate for the effect of earlier nutritional insult experienced by them during pre-natal life.

  10. Determination and Application of the cut-off values of RBC Indexes in Screening for Silent α-Thalassemias Carriers%静止型α-地中海贫血红细胞指标临界值的确定及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伟山; 周玉球; 张永良; 肖奇志

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cut-off values of RBC indexes in screening silent alpha-thalassemias carriers and to evaluate clinical application of the cut-off values. Methods RBC indexes of 77 cases with silent α-thalassaemia and 151 healthy adults (as normal control group)were retrospected,β-thalassaemias and iron deficiency were excluded in the above mentioned individuals.The receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve was used for identifying the useful RBC index and determining the cut-off values in the screening for silent α-thalassaemias. Results (1)The area under ROC curve of MCV、MCH、MCHC were 0. 857、0. 858 and 0. 740, respectively. Those indexes were of value to screen for silent α-thalassaemias carriers; (2)The cut-off values of MCV、 MC H、MCHC were 82.0 fl and 28.0pg as well as 341.5 g/L; (3)The sensitivity and specificity of the parallel test of either MCV or MCH were 93. 5 % and 72.8 %, respectively. Five silent α-thalassemia carriers failed to detect by the parallel test, resulting in a rate of 6.49%(5/77) for failure of detection, the risk of failure of detection was decreased 12 times when compared with recommended standard by TIF. They were much better than other tests. Conclusion The parallel test of either MCV≤82.0 fl or MCH≤28.0 pg can screen silent α-thalassaemia carriers effectively. The results provide the scientific basis of clinical value for clinics performing genetic counseling in the high prevalent area of thalassaemia,especially in the areas where thalassaemias can not be genotyped.%目的 探讨并评估红细胞相关指标及其临界值用于筛查静止型α-地中海贫血(α-地贫)的临床价值.方法 以77例单纯性静止型α-地贫患者和151例健康成人为研究对象,采用受试者工作特征曲线(ROC曲线)确定静止型α-地贫筛查指标及其临界值.结果 MCV、MCH、MCHC的 ROC曲线下面积分别为0.857,0.858,0.740,均有筛查价值,其最佳临界值分别为82.0 fl、28

  11. Stressful life events in pregnancy and head circumference at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    A strong association between stress in pregnancy and small head circumference in infants at birth was reported in 1994. This important finding has never been replicated. In a follow-up study of 4211 participants with singleton pregnancies, information on life events was collected twice during...... pregnancy and head circumference measured shortly after birth following standard procedures. No association was found between experienced or perceived stress as a result of life events during pregnancy and head circumference in the infants. In conclusion, stress in pregnancy may influence foetal brain...... development in many ways, but we found no support for an effect on the size of the brain as measured by head circumference at birth. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Dec...

  12. Waist and hip circumferences and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, J; Frederiksen, K; Tjønneland, A; Thomsen, B L; Overvad, K; Heitmann, B L; Sørensen, T I A

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether waist and hip circumferences, in addition to body mass index (BMI), are related to all-cause mortality. We studied these associations and tested the usefulness of the waist-to-hip ratio for mortality prediction. DESIGN: A Danish prospective cohort study with data...... inverse for both men and women, but only after adjustment for waist circumference, or BMI, or both. The mortality rate ratios of mutually adjusted waist and hip circumferences were 0.63 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.71), and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.79) times higher per 10% larger hip circumference in men and women......, respectively, and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.34, 1.57) and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.31) times higher per 10% larger waist circumference. The adequacy of the waist-to-hip ratio as a substitute for separate measurements of waist and hip circumferences depended on which other variables the analysis was adjusted for, indicating...

  13. Change in neck circumference after shoulder arthroscopy: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrividya Chellam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Shoulder arthroscopy requires fluid irrigation, which causes soft-tissue oedema around chest, neck, and arm intraoperatively, leading to postoperative airway complications. We decided to study the incidence of increase in the neck circumference in shoulder arthroscopy and its effects on the airway. Methods: We studied 32 cases of shoulder arthroscopies over a period of 1-year, performed under general anaesthesia with interscalene block. The neck circumference of patients before and after the procedure was measured along with other parameters. The endotracheal tube cuff was deflated at the end of surgery to determine air leak around the tube. The negative leak test suggested airway oedema. Results: Thirty out of 32 patients showed positive air leak test. The average change in neck circumference was 1.17 ± 1.16 cm and all could be extubated uneventfully. Two showed negative leak test with an increase in neck circumference by 4.5 and 6.4 cm and were not extubated. Multiple regression analysis for risk factors showed intraoperative hypertension as a single predictor for an increase in neck circumference. Conclusion: Change in the neck circumference beyond 4 cm may suggest airway compromise and below 4 cm, airway compromise is unlikely even in the presence of extensive soft-tissue oedema around the shoulder, upper arm and chest.

  14. Nutritional profile of the elderly - Relationship obesity and waist circumference sixty years after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramara Kadija Fonseca Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aging process the metabolic changes can cause changes in health, including nutritional status, making the absorption of nutrients or promoting the accumulation of adipose tissue. Given this, this study aimed to assess the nutritional status of the participants in an open design for the elderly, through documentary analysis of values of Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC. The analyzed results show a relationship between aging and the accumulation of visceral fat, since individuals considered eutrophic demonstrated a strong CC, as the data below, in which 11.53% of the data showed that subjects with low birth weight, 42,32 % normal weight, overweight and 46.5%, comparing with 80.76% of the values with large waist circumference, increasing the risk of developing some type of metabolic disease.

  15. Cutoff frequency of toroidal plasma waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cutoff frequencies of E and H-modes of empty and plasma filled toroidal waveguides are evaluated. The effects of space curvature and plasma density on cutoff frequencies for both modes are investigated. Using a suitable variable change, a scalar wave equation in the direction of propagation was obtained. The study indicates that the curvature in the direction of wave propagation in toroidal waveguide has an analogous effect as a straight waveguide filled with anisotropic media. The Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation method was employed to solve for cutoff frequencies in the first order of approximation. In the limit of small space curvature, the toroidal waveguide cutoff frequencies for both E and H-modes approach those of TM and TE modes of empty cylindrical waveguide with a radius equal to toroidal waveguide minor radius. The analysis shows that the curvature in the direction of propagation in toroidal waveguides leads to the removal of the degeneracy between E and H-modes

  16. Influence of different body mass index cut-off values in assessing the nutritional status of adolescents in a household survey Influência de distintos valores críticos do índice de massa corporal na avaliação do estado nutricional de adolescentes em inquérito domiciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio da Silva Gomes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric nutritional status of the adolescent population of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and the influence of changes in the adopted body mass index (BMI cut-offs in the nutritional status assessment of the adolescent population. A population-based survey conducted in 2003 obtained data from a probabilistic sample of 1,734 households and 523 adolescents. The multiple proportions test and prevalence ratios were used to analyze differences between estimates obtained from different BMI cut-offs. Changes in cut-off values from the old to the new recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO resulted in a significant increase in overweight prevalence among total, male and female adolescent population (25%, 27% and 23%, respectively (p Este artigo tem por objetivo avaliar o estado nutricional antropométrico da população adolescente residente em Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, bem como a influência das mudanças nos valores críticos de índice de massa corporal (IMC na avaliação do estado nutricional dessa população. Uma pesquisa amostral probabilística de base populacional conduzida em 2003 obteve dados de 1.734 domicílios e 523 adolescentes. Testes para múltiplas proporções e razões de prevalência foram utilizados para analisar as diferenças entre estimativas obtidas segundo distintos valores críticos de IMC. Mudanças nos pontos de corte da antiga para a atual recomendação da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS resultaram em aumentos significativos nas prevalências de sobrepeso entre o total de adolescentes, meninos e meninas (25%, 27% e 23%, respectivamente (p < 0,05. A proposta da International Obesity Task Force resultou em uma redução significativa de 29% e 39% na prevalência de baixo-IMC-para-idade entre o total de adolescentes e meninos, respectivamente, quando comparada à recomendação atual da OMS (p < 0,05. Foi evidenciado que uma simples

  17. Learning circumference concepts from the didactical situations theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Sousa Cavalcanti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The circumference study, as its importance, it is one of the most relevant contents in the Analytical Geometry curriculum. However, the complexity of related concepts to this theme linked to the content fragmentation, it difficulties the students thinking of transforming geometrical problems into equations solution, systems or inequations. Within, in this article we present a partial report of a master research work, of qualitative mode, which aimed to develop and to evaluate an alternative methodology by using musical parody composition to the teaching of Mathematics in trying to contribute to the circumference concepts learning process. For that, we carried out a case study with 36 third year high school students of a public school from the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba. The research work was based and discussed on Brousseau Didactical Situation Theory. It was chosen triangulation technique for the data analyses, collected from interviews, questionnaires and a list of mathematical exercises. We concluded that the parody composition resource allowed the students better understand the concepts of center, ratio, cord and the definition of the general circumference equation, as they were capable to identify the relative positions which a circumference assumes in relation to an equation of a straight line and between two circumferences in the various concepts that differentiated them. Thus, we can state that the musical parody composition as a didactical resource can contribute to the learning of mathematical contents.

  18. Cut off values for abdominal obesity as a criterion of metabolic syndrome in an ethnic Kyrgyz population (Central Asian region)

    OpenAIRE

    Mirrakhimov Aibek E; Lunegova Olga S; Kerimkulova Alina S; Moldokeeva Cholpon B; Nabiev Malik P; Mirrakhimov Erkin M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background People of different racial and ethnic backgrounds have a distinct pattern of central fat deposition, thus making it necessary to devise a race based approach for the diagnosis and evaluation of abdominal obesity (AO). This is the first study to determine the optimal waist circumference (WC) cutoff values for definition of AO in an ethnic Kyrgyz population. Methods 323 persons of Kyrgyz ethnicity (183 women and 140 men), with a mean age of 51.8 ± 9.5 years old were included...

  19. PAMELA's measurements of geomagnetic cutoff variations during solar energetic particle events

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, A; Barbarino, G C; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bravar, U; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carbone, R; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; Christian, E C; De Donato, C; de Nolfo, G A; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Formato, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Lee, M; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergè, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Ryan, J M; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stochaj, S; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Zverev, V G

    2015-01-01

    Data from the PAMELA satellite experiment were used to measure the geomagnetic cutoff for high-energy ($\\gtrsim$ 80 MeV) protons during the solar particle events on 2006 December 13 and 14. The variations of the cutoff latitude as a function of rigidity were studied on relatively short timescales, corresponding to single spacecraft orbits (about 94 minutes). Estimated cutoff values were cross-checked with those obtained by means of a trajectory tracing approach based on dynamical empirical modeling of the Earth's magnetosphere. We find significant variations in the cutoff latitude, with a maximum suppression of about 6 deg for $\\sim$80 MeV protons during the main phase of the storm. The observed reduction in the geomagnetic shielding and its temporal evolution were compared with the changes in the magnetosphere configuration, investigating the role of IMF, solar wind and geomagnetic (Kp, Dst and Sym-H indexes) variables and their correlation with PAMELA cutoff results.

  20. Dietary predictors of 5-year changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim;

    2009-01-01

    , whereas snack foods intake was positively associated. Sex differences occurred for vegetables, high-fat dairy products, and processed meat. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a diet low in fruits and red meat and high in snack foods was associated with larger waist circumference gains in both sexes......, baseline diet (192 items food frequency questionnaire), body mass index, and selected potential confounders (eg, smoking status, sport activities, and intake of alcoholic beverages). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: For women, 5-year difference in waist circumference was...... inversely related to intake from red meat, vegetables, fruit, butter, and high-fat dairy products, whereas intake from potatoes, processed meat, poultry, and snack foods was positively associated. For men, red meat and fruit intakes were inversely associated with 5-year difference in waist circumference...

  1. Long-term exposure to residential traffic noise and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe S.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2015-01-01

    in waist circumference. We found baseline BMI (p<0.001) and waist circumference (p=0.001) to be significant effect modifiers for the association between road traffic noise and waist circumference, with gain in waist circumference only among the obese (BMI≥30) participants (1.20mm/year (95% CI: 0...... obese participants....

  2. Enhanced interpretation of newborn screening results without analyte cutoff values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquardt, Gregg; Currier, Robert; McHugh, David M. S.; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Magera, Mark J.; Matern, Dietrich; Oglesbee, Devin; Raymond, Kimiyo; Rinaldo, Piero; Smith, Emily H.; Tortorelli, Silvia; Turgeon, Coleman T.; Lorey, Fred; Wilcken, Bridget; Wiley, Veronica; Greed, Lawrence C.; Lewis, Barry; Boemer, Francois; Schoos, Roland; Marie, Sandrine; Vincent, Marie-Francoise; Sica, Yuri Cleverthon; Domingos, Mouseline Torquado; Al-Thihli, Khalid; Sinclair, Graham; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Dymerski, Mark; Porter, Cory; Manning, Adrienne; Seashore, Margretta R.; Quesada, Jonessy; Reuben, Alejandra; Chrastina, Petr; Hornik, Petr; Mandour, Iman Atef; Sharaf, Sahar Abdel Atty; Bodamer, Olaf; Dy, Bonifacio; Torres, Jasmin; Zori, Roberto; Cheillan, David; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Ludvigson, David; Stembridge, Adrya; Bonham, Jim; Downing, Melanie; Dotsikas, Yannis; Loukas, Yannis L.; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Zacharioudakis, Georgios S. A.; Barath, Akos; Karg, Eszter; Franzson, Leifur; Jonsson, Jon J.; Breen, Nancy N.; Lesko, Barbara G.; Berberich, Stanton L.; Turner, Kimberley; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Scolamiero, Emanuela; Antonozzi, Italo; Carducci, Claudia; Caruso, Ubaldo; Cassanello, Michela; la Marca, Giancarlo; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Giordano, Giuseppe; Camilot, Marta; Teofoli, Francesca; Manos, Shawn M.; Peterson, Colleen K.; Gibson, Stephanie K. Mayfield; Sevier, Darrin W.; Lee, Soo-Youn; Park, Hyung-Doo; Khneisser, Issam; Browning, Phaidra; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Watson, Michael S.; Eaton, Roger B.; Sahai, Inderneel; Ruiz, Consuelo; Torres, Rosario; Seeterlin, Mary A.; Stanley, Eleanor L.; Hietala, Amy; McCann, Mark; Campbell, Carlene; Hopkins, Patrick V.; de Sain-Van der Velden, Monique G.; Elvers, Bert; Morrissey, Mark A.; Sunny, Sherlykutty; Knoll, Detlef; Webster, Dianne; Frazier, Dianne M.; McClure, Julie D.; Sesser, David E.; Willis, Sharon A.; Rocha, Hugo; Vilarinho, Laura; John, Catharine; Lim, James; Caldwell, S. Graham; Tomashitis, Kathy; Castineiras Ramos, Daisy E.; Cocho de Juan, Jose Angel; Fernandez, Inmaculada Rueda; Yahyaoui Macias, Raquel; Maria Egea-Mellado, Jose; Gonzalez-Gallego, Inmaculada; Delgado Pecellin, Carmen; Garcia-Valdecasas Bermejo, Maria Sierra; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Childs, Thomas; McKeever, Christine D.; Tanyalcin, Tijen; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Queijo, Cecilia; Lemes, Aida; Davis, Tim; Hoffman, William; Baker, Mei; Hoffman, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To improve quality of newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry with a novel approach made possible by the collaboration of 154 laboratories in 49 countries. Methods: A database of 767,464 results from 12,721 cases affected with 60 conditions was used to build multivariate pattern recog

  3. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Agersø, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia; Zachariasen, Camilla; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Hammerum, Anette M.; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) population distributions for colistin for Salmonella on subtype level. Furthermore, we wanted to determine if differences in MIC for colistin could be explained by mutations in pmrA or pmrB encoding proteins involved in processes that influence the binding of colistin to the cell membrane. During 2008–2011, 6,583 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates of human origin and 1931 isolates of animal/meat o...

  4. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia; Zachariasen, Camilla;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) population distributions for colistin for Salmonella on subtype level. Furthermore, we wanted to determine if differences in MIC for colistin could be explained by mutations in pmrA or pmrB encoding proteins...... involved in processes that influence the binding of colistin to the cell membrane. During 2008–2011, 6,583 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates of human origin and 1931 isolates of animal/meat origin were collected. The isolates were serotyped, and susceptibility was tested towards colistin (range...... 1–16 mg/L). Moreover, 37 isolates were tested for mutations in pmrA and pmrB by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. MIC distribution for colistin at serotype level showed that Salmonella Dublin (n=198) followed by Salmonella Enteritidis (n=1247) were less susceptible than “other...

  5. Hyperinsulinemia and waist circumference in childhood metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the characteristics of obese children presenting at a tertiary care hospital and the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) in them using two paediatric definitions. A total of 262 obese children aged 4-16 years, with BMI greater than 95 percentile were included. Children having obesity due to syndromes, medications causing weight gain, chronic illness and developmental disability were excluded. Blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, HDL, insulin and glucose levels were obtained. Obesity was defined as BMI > 95 percentile for age and gender according to the UK growth reference charts. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated using to the De Ferrantis and Lambert definitions. The frequency of MS varied between 16% and 52% depending on whether insulin levels were included in the definition. There was a significant positive correlation(r) when the metabolic parameters were correlated with waist circumference and insulin levels, except HDL which was negatively correlated. All the metabolic parameters like waist circumference, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure increased considerably across the insulin quartile (p < 0.05). The most noteworthy anthropometric and metabolic abnormality were the waist circumference (46.5%) and insulin levels (58%) respectively. There was a marked difference in the frequency of metabolic syndrome according to the definition used. The waist circumference and hyperinsulinemia are significant correlates of MS in obese children. There is a need for establishing normal insulin ranges according to age, gender and pubertal status. The clinical examination and investigations ought to include waist circumference and insulin levels together as a part of the definition of MS, for early detection and intervention of childhood obesity. (author)

  6. Predictive value of combined measurements of body mass index and waist circumference for the risk of cardiovascular disease%体质指数与腰围指标联合应用对心血管病危险的预测作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇; 赵冬; 孙佳艺; 刘静; 刘军; 秦兰萍; 吴兆苏

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the predictive value of the combined measurements of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) for the risk of cardiometabolic diseases (including diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia ) and ischemic cardiovascular disease.Method A total of 30 378 Chinese people from 11 provinces were studied in this prospective study conducted from 1992 to 2003.Multivariable logistic and Cox regression were used respectively to determine the predictive value of WC for cardiometabolic diseases and ischemic cardiovascular disease within each BMI categories.Results (1) The prevalence of obesity were 10% defined by BMI.Among them, 76.4% had abdominal obesity defined by WC.The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 17.5% by WC categories, and 43.4% of them were classified as obesity by BMI.(2) The prevalence rates of cardiometabolic diseases were higher in individuals with elevated WC within each BMI category.(3) Compared with subjects with normal BMI and WC, the risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease increased by 38% ( RR = 1.383, 95% CI 1.083-1.765 ) in overweight subjects with elevated WC and by 57% ( RR = 1.570, 95% CI 1.226-2.010) in obese subjects with elevated WC.conclusion Combined measurements of BMI and WC provide a better prediction for the risk of cardiometabolic diseases and ischemic cardiovascular disease.%目的 分析和评价在体质指数(BMI)分层基础上,增加腰围指标对心血管病危险因素的检出作用以及对心血管病发病危险的预测作用.方法 以1992年建立的中国多省市前瞻性队列35~64岁共30 378人数据为依据,在基线BMI分为正常、超重和肥胖的基础上,分析和评价加入腰围指标对心血管病代谢因素的检出作用以及心血管病发病危险的预测作用.诊断标准分别参照中的BMI切点和中的腹部肥胖切点.结果 (1)联合应用BMI和腰围指标诊断肥胖时,呈现交叉重叠情况.以BMI为标准,队列人群肥胖率是10%,其中76.4%

  7. Waist circumference and body composition in relation to all-cause mortality in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, J; Frederiksen, K; Tjønneland, A; Thomsen, B L; Overvad, K; Heitmann, B L; Sørensen, T I A

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Waist circumference is directly related to all-cause mortality when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). Body fat and fat-free body mass, when mutually adjusted, show with increasing values an increasing and decreasing relation to all-cause mortality. We investigated the association of ...

  8. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study Referencias antropométricas de los adolescentes bolivianos de 12 a 18 años: estatura, peso, circunferencia del brazo, muñeca y abdominal, índice de masa corporal: Percentiles de adolescentes bolivianos (PAB del estudio MESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baya Botti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policymaking at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clusters from urban and rural areas were selected randomly considering population proportions, 3445 school going adolescents, 12 to 18 y, 45% males; 55% females underwent anthropometric evaluation by trained personnel using standardized protocols for all interviews and examinations. Weight, height, wrist, arm and abdominal circumference data were collected. Body Mass Index was calculated. Smoothed age- and gender specific 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th Bolivian adolescent percentiles(BAP and Charts(BAC where derived using LMS regression. Percentile-based reference data for the antropometrics of for Bolivian Adolescents are presented for the first time.La antropometría es una herramienta clínica importante para el seguimiento individual de los pacientes así como para la planificación de políticas públicas. En Bolivia no existen referencias antropométricas nacionales para adolescentes. El objetivo de este estudio transversal fue de desarrollar percentiles y diagramas de crecimiento para peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, circunferencia de muñeca, brazo y abdominal de adolescentes bolivianos. Los datos antropométricos en el estudio MESA (Síndrome metabólico en adolescentes bolivianos fueron obtenidos a partir de 32 unidades muestrales, considerando proporcionalidad muestral con reposición. Fueron evaluados 3445 adolescentes de 12 a 18, 45% hombres; 55% mujeres, de colegios de

  9. Head Circumferences in Twins with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Wendy; Cleveland, Sue; Torres, Andrea; Phillips, Jennifer; Cohen, Brianne; Torigoe, Tiffany; Miller, Janet; Fedele, Angie; Collins, Jack; Smith, Karen; Lotspeich, Linda; Croen, Lisa A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lajonchere, Clara; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    To determine the genetic relationship between head circumference (HC) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Twin pairs with at least one twin with an ASD were assessed. HCs in affected and unaffected individuals were compared, as were HC correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs. 404 subjects, ages 4-18, were included. 20% of males and 27%…

  10. Measurement error of waist circumference: gaps in knowledge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Proper, K.I.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is not clear whether measuring waist circumference in clinical practice is problematic because the measurement error is unclear, as well as what constitutes a clinically relevant change. The present study aimed to summarize what is known from state-of-the-art research. Design: To ident

  11. Measurement error of waist circumference: Gaps in knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Proper, K.I.; Hulshof, C.T.; Mechelen, W.V. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective It is not clear whether measuring waist circumference in clinical practice is problematic because the measurement error is unclear, as well as what constitutes a clinically relevant change. The present study aimed to summarize what is known from state-of-the-art research. Design To identif

  12. Head Circumference in Autism, Asperger Syndrome and ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Occipitofrontal circumference (OFC, measured at birth and after 16 months of age, was compared in 50 consecutive patients with Asperger syndrome, 50 diagnosed with autistic disorder, and 50 with ADHD and followed at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Goteborg University, Sweden.

  13. Head Circumference in Autism, Asperger Syndrome and ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    Occipitofrontal circumference (OFC), measured at birth and after 16 months of age, was compared in 50 consecutive patients with Asperger syndrome, 50 diagnosed with autistic disorder, and 50 with ADHD and followed at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Goteborg University, Sweden.

  14. Cutoff dependence in lattice phi44 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses corrections to the high temperature expansion of the lattice phi44 theory in 4 + epsilon dimensions using the renormalization group. He works with vertex functions, whose expansion is derived from an effective Lagrangian for large-cutoff behaviour. He concludes that the numerical phi44 results offer a test of the idea of asymptotic freedom. (HSI)

  15. Methodology for adjusting scrotal circumference to 365 or 452 days of age and correlations of scrotal circumference with growth traits in beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D J; Spitzer, J C; Bridges, W C; Olson, L W

    1996-09-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted on data collected from 1983 through 1991, where weight and hip height were measured at start of test and every 28 d on 604 bulls completing a 224-d forage-based gain test. Scrotal circumference (SC) was measured at start of test, and at either end of test or end of the weigh period after individual bulls reached 365 d of age. Over 3 yr of this study, SC was additionally measured every 28 d. Bulls were representatives of 5 breed groups: Angus, Santa Gertrudis, Simmental, Continental (predominantly Charolais), and Zebu (predominantly Simbrah). Adjusted 365-d SC and adjusted 452-d SC were calculated by regression analysis and from formulas based on SC growth of individuals to 140 and 224 d on test, respectively. Breed group differences were observed for age of dam, birth weight, hip height, weight per day of age, average daily gain and SC at start of test, 140 d, and end of test (224 d). Scrotal circumference was positively correlated with all growth traits. Scrotal circumference was related to breed group, age, weight, hip height, average daily gain, weight per day of age, age by year, and age-by-breed group (P<0.05), as determined by regression analysis. However, omitting weight, hip height, average daily gain, and weight per day of age from the regression model did not significantly affect R2 value. Scrotal circumference growth was linear to 140 d on test; however, SC growth to 224 d on test was curvilinear. The 365-d SC predicted from the formula and from regression analysis differed for Simmental and Zebu by 0.3 and 0.4 cm, respectively (P<0.05). The 452-d SC differed for Santa Gertrudis and Zebu by 0.5 and 0.6 cm, respectively (P<0.05). Formulas based on SC growth of individuals are reasonably accurate predictors of SC at 365 and 452 d of age, when compared with more complex regression analysis. Basing SC adjustments on individual growth appears to account for variables known to affect yearling SC. PMID:16727931

  16. Cut-off frequency of magnetostrictive materials based on permeability spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Hao; Zhang Tianli [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Jiang Chengbao, E-mail: jiangcb@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-06-15

    The loss behavior and cut-off frequency of TbDyFe alloy and TbDyFe/epoxy composite have been investigated by measuring their permeability spectra. The loss factor of TbDyFe alloy increases exponentially as the frequency goes up, while it is almost unchanged for the TbDyFe/epoxy composite. The loss factor value for the TbDyFe composite is only 4.3% of that for the monolithic TbDyFe alloy at high frequency of 10 kHz under the peak magnetic induction of 10 mT. The cut-off frequency of TbDyFe/epoxy composite is 6800 kHz, 3 orders of magnitude larger than that of TbDyFe alloy. The cut-off frequency is found to be the ferromagnetic resonance frequency and can be calculated from Snoek's law. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cut-off frequency of TbDyFe alloy and TbDyFe/epoxy composite has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permeability spectra are used to study loss behavior and cut-off frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mathematic formula is deduced to predict the cut-off frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TbDyFe/epoxy composite presents high cut-off frequency of 6800 kHz.

  17. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F; Wachmann, Carsten Henrik; Ottesen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This...

  18. Neck circumference as an anthropometric measure of obesity in diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadamba Aswathappa; Sumit Garg; Karthiyanee Kutty; Vinutha Shankar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthro...

  19. Circumference and COD control algorithm of NewSUBARU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We renewed a closed orbit correction program for NewSUBARU. We use a new horizontal orbit correction algorithm with a circumference control. A response matrix in the program is calculated using the correct equation of the response in an electron storage ring. It made the correction process faster and more stable. It also eliminated an interference with the control program of RF frequency. (author)

  20. Identification of sarcopenic obesity in postmenopausal women: a cutoff proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenic obesity is the combination of reduced fat-free mass (FFM and increased fat mass (FM with advancing age but there is lack of clear criteria for its identification. The purposes of the present investigation were: 1 to determine the prevalence of postmenopausal women with reduced FFM relative to their FM and height, and 2 to examine whether there are associations between the proposed classification and health-related variables. A total of 607 women were included in this cross-sectional study and were separated into two subsets: 258 older women with a mean age of 66.8 ± 5.6 years and 349 young women aged 18-40 years (mean age, 29.0 ± 7.5 years. All volunteers underwent body composition assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The FFM index relative to FM and height was calculated and the cutoff value corresponded to two standard deviations below the mean of the young reference group. To examine the clinical significance of the classification, all older participants underwent measurements of quadriceps strength and cardiorespiratory fitness. Values were compared between those who were classified as low FFM or not, using an independent samples t-test and correlations were examined. The cutoff corresponded to a residual of -3.4 and generated a sarcopenic obesity prevalence of 19.8% that was associated with reduced muscle strength and aerobic fitness among the older participants. Also, the index correlated significantly with the health-related fitness variables. The results demonstrated reduced functional capacity for those below the proposed cutoff and suggested applicability of the approach as a definition for sarcopenic obesity.

  1. PAMELA's measurements of geomagnetic cutoff variations during the 14 December 2006 storm

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Donato, C; de Nolfo, G A; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mikhailov, M Mergé V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N

    2016-01-01

    Data from the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) satellite experiment were used to measure the geomagnetic cutoff for high-energy (>80 MeV) protons during the 14 December 2006 geomagnetic storm. The variations of the cutoff latitude as a function of rigidity were studied on relatively short timescales, corresponding to spacecraft orbital periods (94 min). Estimated cutoff values were compared with those obtained by means of a trajectory tracing approach based on a dynamical empirical modeling of the Earth's magnetosphere. We found significant variations in the cutoff latitude, with a maximum suppression of about 7 deg at lowest rigidities during the main phase of the storm. The observed reduction in the geomagnetic shielding and its temporal evolution were related to the changes in the magnetospheric configuration, investigating the role of interplanetary magnetic field, solar wind and geomagnetic parameters. PAMELA's results represent the first direct measurement...

  2. Development of generalized cutoff grade optimization algorithm for open pit mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of optimum cutoff grade is influenced by the economic parameters (price of metal, mining and processing costs, etc.),The capacities of stages (mine, mill, and refinery) in the mining operation, and the grade distribution of the deposit. The cutoff grade changes with the influence of these parameters, sometimes widely, during the life of a mining operation. The theory of optimum cutoff grades is complex. However, this problem can be solved by the availability of algorithms, which could be implemented by the computer programs. This paper presents a cutoff grade optimization algorithm, which maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of the mining operation subject to mining, milling and refining constraints, the benefits of the methodology developed are demonstrated in a case study. (author)

  3. Optimal waist-to-height ratio values for cardiometabolic risk screening in an ethnically diverse sample of South African urban and rural school boys and girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandi E Matsha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The proposed waist-to-height ratio (WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less optimal for cardiometabolic risk screening in children in many settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal WHtR for children from South Africa, and investigate variations by gender, ethnicity and residence in the achieved value. METHODS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS components were measured in 1272 randomly selected learners, aged 10-16 years, comprising of 446 black Africans, 696 mixed-ancestry and 130 Caucasians. The Youden's index and the closest-top-left (CTL point approaches were used to derive WHtR cut-offs for diagnosing any two MetS components, excluding the waist circumference. RESULTS: The two approaches yielded similar cut-off in girls, 0.465 (sensitivity 50.0, specificity 69.5, but two different values in boys, 0.455 (42.9, 88.4 and 0.425 (60.3, 67.7 based on the Youden's index and the CTL point, respectively. Furthermore, WHtR cut-off values derived differed substantially amongst the regions and ethnic groups investigated, whereby the highest cut-off was observed in semi-rural and white children, respectively, Youden's index0.505 (31.6, 87.1 and CTL point 0.475 (44.4, 75.9. CONCLUSION: The WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less accurate for screening cardiovascular risk in South African children. The optimal value in this setting is likely gender and ethnicity-specific and sensitive to urbanization.

  4. Association of older women’s limb circumferences and muscle mass as estimated with bioelectrical impedance

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannon, Richard W; Chu, Johnson; Steffl, Michal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between three practical measures used to characterize muscle mass: mid-arm circumference, maximum calf circumference, and muscle mass index determined using bioimpedance analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight ambulatory women residing in a senior center (mean age, 83 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mid-arm circumference and maximum calf circumference were measured bilaterally and they all unde...

  5. Evaluation of neck circumference as a predictor of central obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xuhong; Zhang, Ning; Yu, Caiguo; Ji, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether neck circumference (NC) could be used as a valid and effective method for identifying obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 3307 adults aged 20-65 years were randomly recruited from two communities of Tongzhou, Beijing. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), neck circumference (NC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerid...

  6. Hip circumference and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder; Lissner, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    waist circumference, predicted less incidence of CVD, CHD, and total death in women. This was not the case in men; BMI and waist circumference were the strongest independent predictors. DISCUSSION: A large hip circumference seems to have independent and positive effects on CVD and CHD morbidity and...

  7. Soil-Bentonite Cutoff Walls: Hydraulic Conductivity and Contaminant Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, Jeremy Paul

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soil-bentonite cutoff walls are commonly used to contain contaminants in the subsurface. A key property in determining the effectiveness of a cutoff wall is its hydraulic conductivity. There are important difficulties and uncertainties regarding the accuracy of commonly used methods of measuring the hydraulic conductivity of cutoff walls. When predicting contaminant transport through cutoff walls, common practice is to use the average hydraulic conductivity of the wall. ...

  8. Securitization and moral hazard: Evidence from credit score cutoff rules

    OpenAIRE

    Bubb, Ryan; Kaufman, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Mortgage originators use credit score cutoff rules to determine how carefully to screen loan applicants. Recent research has hypothesized that these cutoff rules result from a securitization rule of thumb. Under this theory, an observed jump in defaults at the cutoff would imply that securitization led to lax screening. We argue instead that originators adopted credit score cutoff rules in response to underwriting guidelines from Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and offer a simple model that ration...

  9. Cutoff regulators in chiral nuclear effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Bingwei

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional cutoff regulators are frequently employed in multi-nucleon calculations, but they violate chiral symmetry and Lorentz invariance. A cutoff regularization scheme is proposed to compensate systematically at subleading orders for these symmetry violations caused by regulator artifacts. This is especially helpful when a soft momentum cutoff has to be used for technical reasons. It is also shown that dimensional regularization can still be used for some Feynman (sub)diagrams while cutoff regulators are used for the rest.

  10. A cutoff phenomenon for quantum Markov chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive upper and lower bounds on the convergence behavior of certain classes of one-parameter quantum dynamical semigroups. The classes we consider, consist of tensor product channels and of channels with commuting Liouvillians. We introduce the notion of cutoff phenomenon in the setting of quantum information theory, and show how it exemplifies the fact that the convergence of (quantum) stochastic processes is not solely governed by the spectral gap of the transition map. We apply the new methods to show that graph states can be prepared efficiently, albeit not in constant time, by dissipation, and give the exact scaling behavior of the time to stationarity. (paper)

  11. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. PMID:22119478

  12. An algorithm to determine filter cutoff frequency in nuclear medicine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction and Objectives: Statistical noise due to low level counts is one of major image degrading factors in nuclear medicine imaging, especially in SPECT. to reduce noise effect and improve quality of reconstructed images, digital filters are commonly applied. These filters are low-pass and or rest orating filters that suppress high spatial frequencies where noise dominate the signal. Users by choosing the cutoff frequency parameter can control the degree of high frequency suppression. The location of cutoff frequency has crucial role in the sense that it affects both image noise and resolution. Low cutoff frequencies provide good noise suppression by expense of more image blurring but high cutoff frequencies preserve image resolution by expense of more image noise. The most correct cutoff frequency is frequency that contains more noise than signal. It seems an automatic algorithm that could determine the correct cutoff frequency would be useful in clinic. Method: this study introduces a new algorithm for automatically choosing filter cutoff frequency using estimation of maximum entropy of phase in frequency domain of images. After Fourier Transform of image, entropy used to estimate degree of randomness of the probability distributions of phases of each frequency. Entropy of the pre processed phases increase from low frequencies to high frequencies, and after reaching a maximum it becomes nearly constant. the frequency which it's phases distribution has maximum entropy chose as cutoff frequency. Results: We used our algorithm on simulated and real data. For simulated images our mean of results were mean square error=214.12 with STD= 1.377, and peak signal to noise ratio=14.79 db with STD= 3.11. These quantities are common in image processing evaluation tasks, their values shows good acceptable results. Discussion with help of this algorithm filtering of data in nuclear medicine imaging may be done reliably and automatically. But before it, the algorithm

  13. Anesthesia cutoff phenomenon: Interfacial hydrogen bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anesthesia cutoff refers to the phenomenon of loss of anesthetic potency in a homologous series of alkanes and their derivatives when their sizes become too large. In this study, hydrogen bonding of 1-alkanol series (ethanol to eicosanol) to dipalmitoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in DPPC-D2O-in-CCl4 reversed micelles. The alkanols formed hydrogen bonds with the phosphate moiety of DPPC and released the DPPC-bound deuterated water, evidenced by increases in the bound O-H stretching signal of the alkanol-DPPC complex and also in the free O-D stretching band of unbound D2O. These effects increased according to the elongation of the carbon chain of 1-alkanols from ethanol (C2) to 1-decanol (C10), but suddenly almost disappeared at 1-tetradecanol (C14). Anesthetic potencies of these alkanols, estimated by the activity of brine shrimps, were linearly related to hydrogen bond-breaking activities below C10 and agreed with the FTIR data in the cutoff at C10

  14. Cutoff-Free Traveling Wave NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Joel A; Sodickson, Daniel K; Jerschow, Alexej

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the concept of traveling-wave NMR/MRI was introduced by Brunner et al. (Nature 457, 994-992 (2009)), who demonstrated MR images acquired using radio frequency (RF) waves propagating down the bore of an MR scanner. One of the significant limitations of this approach is that each bore has a specific cutoff frequency, which can be higher than most Larmor frequencies of at the magnetic field strengths commonly in use for MR imaging and spectroscopy today. We overcome this limitation by using a central conductor in the waveguide and thereby converting it to a transmission line (TL), which has no cutoff frequency. Broadband propagation of waves through the sample thus becomes possible. NMR spectra and images with such an arrangement are presented and genuine traveling wave behavior is demonstrated. In addition to facilitating NMR spectroscopy and imaging in smaller bores via traveling waves, this approach also allows one to perform multinuclear traveling wave experiments (an example of which is shown), an...

  15. Head circumference growth function as a marker of neurological impairment in a cohort of microcephalic infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Ricard; Giraldo, Jesús; Macaya, Alfons; Roig, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the correlations between head circumference (HC) growth and neurological impairment in microcephalic patients.HC charts of 3,269 patients from a tertiary pediatric neurology section were reviewed and 136 microcephalic participants were selected. Standardized HC Minimum, HC Drop, and HC Catch-up variables were defined. Children with evidence of significant learning disability and/or significant cerebral palsy were classified within the neurologically impaired group and the rest of participants within the normal group.Using discriminant analysis, we found that HC Minimum and HC Drop were relevant markers of neurological impairment. A positive HC Catch-up was significantly linked to a better outcome although this variable did not add significant information to HC Minimum and HC Drop. A Fisher linear discrimination cutoff function (C-function) was obtained as C = HC Minimum + HC Drop with a cutoff level of C = -4.28 standard deviations (SD).In our cohort, the addition of the lowest HC z-score to the preceding HC z-score drop was below -4.28 SD in 6 out of 10 neurologically impaired patients , whereas in the normal group, the result was over -4.28 SD in 9 out of 10 participants. PMID:22932949

  16. Obesity Index That Better Predict Metabolic Syndrome: Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist Hip Ratio, or Waist Height Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to compare body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist hip ratio (WHR, and waist height ratio (WHtR to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS among Qatari adult population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey from April 2011 to December 2012. Data was collected from 1552 participants followed by blood sampling. MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis was performed. Results. Among men, WC followed by WHR and WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC (0.78; 95% CI 0.74–0.82 and 0.75; 95% CI 0.71–0.79, resp.. Among women, WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest AUC (0.81; 95% CI 0.78–0.85 & 0.79; 95% CI 0.76–0.83, resp.. Among men, WC at a cut-off 99.5 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 81.6% and 63.9% specificity. Among women, WC at a cut-off 91 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% and 64.7%, respectively. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in both genders. Conclusion. WC at cut-off 99.5 cm in men and 91 cm in women was the best predictor of MetS in Qatar.

  17. Association of Neck Circumference with Obesity in Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandreou, Dimitrios; Noor, Zujaja Tul; Rashed, Maitha; Jaberi, Hadeel Al

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity levels have been dramatically increased in the United Arab Emirates over the last few years. High levels of body Mass Index, waist circumference, and percent of total body fat as a measure of obesity have found to be related to cardiovascular risk factors and other diseases. Neck circumference is a new tool that has been linked to obesity. However, no studies in UAE have been conducted yet. AIM: The purpose of this study was to measure the obesity levels in a college population and to correlate them with NC and other anthropometrical indexes. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Two hundred forty three (243) female students aged 18-25 were conveniently selected to participate in the study. Anthropometrical indexes were obtained from all subjects e after fasting. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity together was found to be 28.4 % (n = 69). Pearson correlation showed that WC, NC and BF (%) were significantly positively related to obesity, (r = 0.790; r = 0.758; r = 0.767, p < 0.001), respectively. In multiple regression analysis, only NC (Beta: 1.627, 95 %CI: 0.370, 2.846, p < 0.001) and WC (Beta: 0.464, 95 %CI: 0.135, 0.664, p < 0.001) were found to be independently associated with obesity. CONCLUSION: NC was found to be independently associated with obesity levels in Emirati college students.

  18. Calculating broad neutron resonances in a cut-off Woods-Saxon potential

    CERN Document Server

    Baran, Á; Salamon, P; Vertse, T

    2015-01-01

    In a cut-off Woods-Saxon potential with realistic depth $S$-matrix poles being far from the imaginary wave number axis form a sequence where the distances of the consecutive resonances are inversely proportional with the cut-off radius value. Other poles lying closer to the imaginary wave number axis might have trajectories with irregular shapes as the depth of the potential increases. Poles being close repel each other, and their repulsion is responsible for the changes of the directions of the corresponding trajectories. The interaction is extremely sensitive to the cut-off radius value. The repulsion might cause that certain resonances become antibound and later resonances again when they collide on the imaginary axis.

  19. Calculating broad neutron resonances in a cut-off Woods-Saxon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, A.; Noszaly, Cs. [Faculty of Informatics, University of Debrecen, PO Box 12, Debrecen (Hungary); Salamon, P. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Institute for Nuclear Research, PO Box 51, Debrecen (Hungary); Vertse, T. [Faculty of Informatics, University of Debrecen, PO Box 12, Debrecen (Hungary); Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Institute for Nuclear Research, PO Box 51, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-07-15

    In a cut-off Woods-Saxon (CWS) potential with realistic depth S -matrix poles being far from the imaginary wave number axis form a sequence where the distances of the consecutive resonances are inversely proportional with the cut-off radius value, which is an unphysical parameter. Other poles lying closer to the imaginary wave number axis might have trajectories with irregular shapes as the depth of the potential increases. Poles being close repel each other, and their repulsion is responsible for the changes of the directions of the corresponding trajectories. The repulsion might cause that certain resonances become antibound and later resonances again when they collide on the imaginary axis. The interaction is extremely sensitive to the cut-off radius value, which is an apparent handicap of the CWS potential. (orig.)

  20. Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening and the cut-off level for hybrid capture 2 tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Njor, Sisse Helle; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co).......To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co)....

  1. A cutoff probe for the measurement of high density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cutoff probe is a diagnostic method to find the absolute plasma density through simple means. However, when the cutoff probe is used in the high density plasma diagnostics, the probe can be faced with measurement problems because the high influx energy from the plasma can damage the probe tips, especially for the dielectric material in the vicinity of the probe tips. Because this damage cannot only cause an error in the measurement of electron density but also acts as a contamination source in the plasma, a solution for the cutoff probe damage induced by high influx of ions and electrons is needed for the reliable measurement of the cutoff probe in high density plasma. To solve this problem, we proposed a cutoff probe shielded by the ceramic tube. In this paper, the authors addressed numerous aspects of the Ceramic Shielded Cutoff probe: the problems of the normal cutoff probe for the high density plasma measurement, the validity for the application of probe system to high density plasma measurement, the transmission spectrum characteristics of the cutoff probe, and the experimental/simulation results. - Highlights: ► A cutoff probe shielded by the ceramic tube is proposed. ► The installed ceramic tube helps to reduce the thermal damage of the probe. ► The cutoff frequency is hardly changed by ceramic tube installation

  2. Physical and cut-off effects of heavy sea quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Knechtli, Francesco; Bruno, Mattia; Finkenrath, Jacob; Leder, Björn; Marinkovic, Marina; Sommer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We simulate a theory with two dynamical O($a$) improved Wilson quarks whose mass $M$ ranges from a factor eight up to a factor two below the charm quark mass and at three values of the lattice spacing ranging from 0.066 to 0.034 fm. This theory is a prototype to study the decoupling of heavy quarks. We measure the mass and cut-off dependence of ratios of gluonic observables defined from the Wilson flow or the static potential. The size of the 1/$M$ corrections can be determined and disentangled from the lattice artifacts. The difference with the pure gauge theory is at the percent level when two quarks with a mass of the charm quark are present.

  3. Plasma density measurement with ring-type cutoff probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We proposed a cutoff probe with a ring-type detection tip enclosing a bar-type radiation tip. A comparative study between a proposed ring-type cutoff (RTC) probe and a conventional bar-type cutoff (BTC) probe showed that the RTC probe solved the problem of the BTC probe, the large measurement uncertainty of the electron density in a capacitively coupled plasma source. This improved characteristics of the RTC probe might have originated from the geometrical structure of the RTC probe concerning the monopole antennae radiation. This proposed cutoff probe can be expected to expand the applicable diagnostic range and to enhance the sensitivity of the cutoff probe. - Highlights: ► A cutoff probe with a ring type detection tip is proposed. ► Comparative experiment and simulation were conducted. ► The proposed probe showed a small uncertainty of measured plasma density. ► Improved characteristics might be originated from the geometrical structure

  4. Chronic kidney disease : Defining clinical cut-offs for albumin:creatinine ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Stephan J L

    2013-01-01

    Albuminuria is rapidly gaining recognition as a marker of the presence and of the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a new study, Naresh et al. attempt to define cut-off values for percentage change in urinary albumin:creatinine ratio that reflect changes in CKD status rather than rando

  5. Securitization and moral hazard: evidence from a lender cutoff rule

    OpenAIRE

    Bubb, Ryan; Kaufman, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Credit score cutoff rules result in very similar potential borrowers being treated differently by mortgage lenders. Recent research has used variation induced by these rules to investigate the connection between securitization and lender moral hazard in the recent financial crisis. However, the conclusions of such research depend crucially on understanding the origin of these cutoff rules. We offer an equilibrium model in which cutoff rules are a rational response of lenders to per-applicant ...

  6. Calibration of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization cutoff by mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qinghua; Li, Qingshan; Sun, Daochun; Chen, Xiaoyan; Yu, Bizhen; Ying, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) continues to play an important role in clinical investigations. Laboratories may create their own cutoff, a percentage of positive nuclei to determine whether a specimen is positive or negative, to eliminate false positives that are created by signal overlap in most cases. In some cases, it is difficult to determine the cutoff value because of differences in both the area of nuclei and the number of signals. To address these problems, we established two mathematical models using probability theory. To verify these two models, normal disomy cells from healthy individuals were used to simulate cells with different numbers of signals by hybridization with different probes. We used an X/Y probe to obtain the average distance between two signals and the probability of signal overlap in different nuclei area. Frequencies of all signal patterns were scored and compared with theoretical frequencies, and models were assessed using a goodness of fit test. We used five BCR/ABL1-positive samples, 20 BCR/ABL1-negative samples and two samples with ambiguous results to verify the cutoff calibrated by these two models. The models were in agreement with experimental results. The dynamic cutoff can classify cases in routine analysis correctly, and it can also correct for influences from nuclei area and the number of signals in some ambiguous cases. The probability models can be used to assess the effect of signal overlap and calibrate the cutoff. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:26580488

  7. A STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WEIGHT, HEIGHT, HEAD & CHEST CIRCUMFERENCE IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 3 TO 5 YEARS IN THE MALWA REGION OF MADHYA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wankhede

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : The growth & development are the important attributes of childhood. The studies on physical development & growth of infants & children are important as they are determinants of a nation’s health. The appr eciation of progress of any country in the field of health can be made from time to time with the help of such studies. The principal aim of the nutritional assessment of a community is to map out the magnitude & geographic distribution of malnutrition & a public health problem to find out the ecological factor & where possible to suggest appropriate corrective measures. AIMS & OBJECTIVES : To determine the anthropometric measurements of the pre - school age children in both sexes, to study the growth spurt & velocity of growth in the children between 3 & 5 years, to construct selected percentiles of the various measurements for boys & girls in Malwa region & to compare the figures obtained by anthropometric studies with those determined by other workers in th e different regions. MATERIALS & METHOD: A cross sectional study of weight, height, circumference of head, chest & arm of school going children ranging from 3 to 5 years in age was carried out in the city of Indore. Total 1, 000 children, belonging to both low & high socio - economic status, were examined. OBSERVATIONS: The mean values of head & chest circumferences shows a gradual increase with in both sexes. The mean value of the mid - arm circumference also shows an increase with increasing age on both sexes . As regards the height, the mean value is a bit higher in females at 3 . 5 years & 4 . 5 years as compared to Males at 3, 3 . 5, 4 & 5 years of age. The mean values of weight are more in females than males at the age of 4, 4 . 5 & 5 years. SUMMARY & CONCLUSION : A nthropometric studies were carried out in all children uniformly by determining weight, height and circumferences of head, chest & mid - arm. The head & chest circumferences equalizes at the age of 3

  8. Neck circumference as a potential marker of metabolic syndrome among college students1

    OpenAIRE

    Dayse Christina Rodrigues Pereira; Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo; Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire de Freitas; Carla Regina de Souza Teixeira; Maria Lúcia Zanetti; Marta Maria Coelho Damasceno

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to relate neck circumference with metabolic syndrome and its criteria among college students. METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted with 702 college students in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil from September 2010 to June 2011. Socio-demographic data, waist circumference and neck circumference were collected together with blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride levels, and HDL-C. RESULTS: 1.7% of the studied sample presented metabolic syndrome. Of these, 58.3% presented altered ne...

  9. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F;

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This...... constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  10. Self-consistent cutoff wave number of the ablative Rayleigh--Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cutoff wave number of the ablative Rayleigh--Taylor instability is calculated self-consistently by including the effects of finite thermal conduction. The derived cutoff wave number is quite different from the one obtained with the incompressible fluid (∇·v=0) or sharp boundary models, and it is strongly dependent on thermal conductivity (K∼Tν) and the Froude number (Fr). The derivation is carried out for values of ν>1, Fr>1, and it is valid for some regimes of interest to direct and indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The analytic formula for the cutoff wave number is in excellent agreement with the numerical results of Kull [Phys. Fluids B 1, 170 (1989)]. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  11. Testing the spin-cutoff parameterization with shell-model calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Spinella, William M

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear level density, an important input to Hauser-Feshbach calculations, depends not only on excitation energy but also on angular momentum J. The J-dependence of the level density at fixed excitation energy E_x is usually parameterized via the spin-cutoff factor sigma. We carefully test the statistical accuracy of this parameterization for a large number of spectra computed using semi-realistic interactions in the interacting shell model, with a nonlinear least-squares fit of sigma and finding the error bar in sigma. The spin-cutoff parameterization works well as long as there are enough states to be statistical. In turn, the spin-cutoff factor can be related to the average value of J^2 at a fixed excitation energy, and we briefly investigate extracting from a thermal calculation such as one might do via Monte Carlo.

  12. On the Lower Energy Cutoff of Nonthermal Electrons in Solar Flares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative method to determine the lower energy cutoff (Ec) ofpower-law electron beams is established. We apply this method to the 54 hardX-ray events observed with BATSE/Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO).The results show that about 75% of the observed broken double power-law spectra of hard X-rays can be explained by a lower energy cutoff in the power-law electronbeams. The values of Ec, varying among the flares, are all greater than the usuallyaccepted 20 keV! On average, Ec is about 69 keV. So high a lower energy cutoff of nonthermal electrons implies that nonthermal electrons might not be as important inpowering solar flares as was previously thought. Further significance of this finding is discussed.

  13. Cutoffs, Stretched Horizons and Black Hole Radiators

    CERN Document Server

    Kaloper, Nemanja

    2012-01-01

    We argue that if the UV cutoff of the IR theory is of the order, or below, the scale of the stretched horizon in a black hole background, which in turn is significantly lower than the Planck scale, the black hole radiance is controlled by the UV completion of the field theory. In particular, if the UV completion of the theory involves degrees of freedom which cannot be efficiently emitted by the black hole, the naive radiance rate estimated by the counting of the IR degrees of freedom may be dramatically reduced. If we apply this argument to the RS2 brane world, it implies that the emission rates of the low energy CFT modes will be dramatically suppressed: its UV completion is given by the bulk gravity on $AdS_5 \\times S^5$, and the only bulk modes that could be emitted by a black hole are the s-waves of bulk modes with small 4D masses. But their emission is suppressed by bulk warping. This lowers the radiation rate much below the IR estimate, by at least a factor of $N \\simeq M_{Pl}^2 L^2$, and follows direc...

  14. Clinical utility of calf front hoof circumference and maternal intrapelvic area in predicting dystocia in 103 late gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Mark W H; Megahed, Ameer A; Townsend, Jonathan R; Singleton, Wayne L; Constable, Peter D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical utility of measuring calf front hoof circumference, maternal intrapelvic area, and selected morphometric values in predicting dystocia in dairy cattle. An observational study using a convenience sample of 103 late-gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows was performed. Intrapelvic height and width of the dam were measured using a pelvimeter, and the intrapelvic area was calculated. Calf front hoof circumference and birth weight were also measured. Data were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs), Mann-Whitney U test, and binary or ordered logistic regression; P 0.068 cm/cm(2)). Determining the ratio of calf front hoof circumference to maternal intrapelvic area has clinical utility in predicting the calving difficulty score in Holstein-Friesian cattle. PMID:26474687

  15. Circunferência da cintura como indicador de gordura corporal e alterações metabólicas em adolescentes: comparação entre quatro referências Waist circumference as indicator of body fat and metabolic alterations in teenagers: comparison among four references

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Feliciano Pereira

    2010-01-01

    , hyperleptinemia and excess of body adiposity. METHODS: A total of 133 female subjects, ranging from 14 to 19 years opf age , were evaluated. All adolescents were recruited from public schools in Viçosa/MG. Blood samples were collected for determination of fasting plasma cholesterol total, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, insulin and leptin. Percentage of body fat was determined through tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance. Using the smallest abdominal measure it was possible to determine waist circumference and calculated values of sensibility, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Waist circumference contingency tables were obtained using four criteria: Freedman et al., 1999; Taylor et al., 2000; McCarthy et al., 2001; e Moreno et al., 2007. RESULTS: In general, sensibility values were low for circumferences assessed and the highest values were obtained for the table of Mc Carthy et al., on the other hand, specificity values were high considering the table of Freedman et al. The positive predictive values were more relevant for total cholesterol and body fat percentage. CONCLUSION: Cutoffs for waist circumference used by Mc Carthy et al. were the most appropriate for populational assessments. Freedman's et al. proposal is appropriate for clinical use since it presents higher specificity. In addition, it can substitute high costs exams, out of the professionals' reach such as insulin and leptin.

  16. Importância relativa do Índice de Massa Corporal e da circunferência abdominal na predição da hipertensão arterial Relative importance of body mass index and waist circumference for hypertension in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Sarno

    2007-10-01

    importance of Body Mass Index (BMI and waist circumference for the determination of hypertension in adults. METHODS: Cross sectional analysis of a sample of employees (N=1,584, aged 18 to 64 years, from a private general hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data collection included the application of a structured questionnaire and blood pressure, weight, high, and waist circumference measurements. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure levels > 140/90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication. The relative importance of BMI and waist circumference was evaluated by calculating the attributable fraction of hypertension corresponding to each anthropometric indicator, employing both the usual cut-off points as well as cut-off points based on the observed distribution of the indicator in the population. In addition, an indicator combining simultaneously BMI and abdominal circumference values was also developed. RESULTS: Prevalence of hypertension was 18.9% (26.9% in men and 12.5% in women. In men, the fraction of hypertension attributable to BMI exceeded the fraction attributable to waist circumference based on the usual cut-off points for the indicators (56% vs. 48%, respectively and also considering the quartiles of the observed distribution for these indicators (73% vs. 69%, respectively. In women, the fraction of hypertension attributable to waist circumference was slightly higher than the fraction attributable to BMI based on the usual cut off points for both indicators (44% vs. 41%, but the reverse was true when quartiles of the observed distribution were used (41% vs. 57%, respectively. In women only, the fraction of hypertension attributable to the indicator combining BMI and waist circumference (64% was higher that observed using each indicator alone. CONCLUSIONS: Both BMI and abdominal circumference were positively and independently associated with the occurrence of arterial hypertension, the influence of BMI being higher among men.

  17. RIASEC Interest and Confidence Cutoff Scores: Implications for Career Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Verena S.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Larson, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    One strategy commonly used to simplify the joint interpretation of interest and confidence inventories is the use of cutoff scores to classify individuals dichotomously as having high or low levels of confidence and interest, respectively. The present study examined the adequacy of cutoff scores currently recommended for the joint interpretation…

  18. Cut-off parameters in the one-dimensional two-fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the usual cut-off procedure (α cut-off parameter) employed in the boson representation of the fermion field opepators of the one-djmensional two-fermion model (TFM) is an incorrect one as the computator of the hermitean-conjugate field operators at the same space-point fails to fulfil a certain relationship which was pointed out long ago by Jordan. The complete form of the boson representation (including the zero-mode) of a single fermion field and the correct values of the cut-off parameter α is reviewed following Jordan and generalized to the TFM. The cut-off parameter α corresponds to a bandwidth cut-off and Jordan's boson representation is exact only in the limit α → 0. The additional zero-mode terms make the exact solution of the backscattering and umklapp scattering problem to be valid only if a supplementary condition is imposed on the coupling constants. Using the present bosonization technique all the inconsistencies of the TFM are removed. The one-particle Green's function and response functions of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model (TLM) are calculated and found to be identical with those obtained by direct diagram summation. The energy gap appearing in the spectrum of the TFM with backscattering and umklapp scattering for certain values of the coupling constants is shown to be proportional to the momentum transfer cut-off γ-1 which has to be kept finite while α goes to zero. Under such conditions the anticommunication relations and Jordan's commutator are invariant under the canonical transformation on the boson operators that diagonalizes the Hamiltonian of the TLM. The charge-density response function of the TFM with backscattering is perturbationally calculated up to the first order. The cut-off α-1 applies in the same way to terms which differ only by their spin indices in the expression of this response function. The charge-density response function is also evaluated at low frequencies for the exactly soluble TFM with

  19. Measurement of electron density using reactance cutoff probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, K. H.; You, S. J.; Kim, D. W.; Na, B. K.; Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; Seong, D. J.; Chang, H. Y.

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a new measurement method of electron density using the reactance spectrum of the plasma in the cutoff probe system instead of the transmission spectrum. The highly accurate reactance spectrum of the plasma-cutoff probe system, as expected from previous circuit simulations [Kim et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131502 (2011)], was measured using the full two-port error correction and automatic port extension methods of the network analyzer. The electron density can be obtained from the analysis of the measured reactance spectrum, based on circuit modeling. According to the circuit simulation results, the reactance cutoff probe can measure the electron density more precisely than the previous cutoff probe at low densities or at higher pressure. The obtained results for the electron density are presented and discussed for a wide range of experimental conditions, and this method is compared with previous methods (a cutoff probe using the transmission spectrum and a single Langmuir probe).

  20. Comparison of Relative Waist Circumference between Asian Indian and US Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet S. Bajaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Relative to Europeans, Asian Indians have higher rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Whether differences in body composition may underlie these population differences remains unclear. Methods. We compared directly measured anthropometric data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES survey of southern Indians (I with those from three US ethnic groups (C: Caucasians, A: African Americans, and M: Mexican Americans from NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 15,733 subjects from CURES and 5,975 from NHANES III met inclusion criteria (age 20–39, no known diabetes. Results. Asian Indian men and women had substantially lower body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and body surface area relative to US groups (P values <0.0001. In contrast, the mean (±se waist-weight ratio was significantly higher (P<0.001 in I (men 1.35 ± 0.002 and women 1.45 ± 0.002 than in all the US groups (1.09, 1.21, and 1.14 in A, M, and C men; 1.23, 1.33, and 1.26 in A, M, and C women (se ranged from 0.005 to 0.006. Conclusions. Compared to the US, the waist-weight ratio is significantly higher in men and women from Chennai, India. These results support the hypothesis that Southeast Asian Indians are particularly predisposed toward central adiposity.

  1. The INTEGRAL high energy cut-off distribution of Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, Angela; Ubertini, Pietro; Bird, Antony; Bazzano, Angela; Stephen, John; Molina, Manuela; Bassani, Loredana

    We present the primary continuum parameters, the photon index and the high energy cut-off, of Seyfert galaxies extracted from the INTEGRAL complete sample of AGN. We performed a broad band (0.3-100 keV) spectral analysis by fitting simultaneously the soft and hard X-ray spectra obtained by XMM and INTEGRAL/IBIS-Swift/BAT respectively in order to investigate the general properties of these parameters in particular their distribution and mean values. We present the mean photon index for the t type 1 and type 2 objects of the whole sample as well as their mean high energy cut-off. This is the first time that the cut-off energy is constrained in a such large number of AGN. Using the main parameters of the primary continuum, we are able to obtain the actual physical parameters of the Comptonizing region i.e. the plasma temperature kTe the optical depth tau. Finally, with the high S/N spectra starting to come from NuSTAR it will soon be possible to better constrain the cut-off values in many AGN, allowing the determination of more physical models and so to better understand the continuum emission and geometry of the region surrounding black holes.

  2. Body mass index a better predictor of insulin resistance than waist circumference in normoglycemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Preethi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body Mass Index (BMI is the most common method of measuring obesity. Many studies have reported that waist circumference is a stronger predictor of insulin resistance in non-type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate whether waist circumference (WC or body mass index (BMI is a better predictor insulin resistance. Method: 79 normal young adult volunteers in the age range of 18 to 25 years were enrolled for the Study. All subjects underwent a detailed general physical examination including Blood Pressure, body weight, height, hip & waist circumference. BMI (Body Mass Index, waist and hip circumference & waist hip ratio calculated. 2hr OGTT with serum Insulin was performed and Insulin resistance calculated. Result: Simple clinical measures of obesity like height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and their indexes like BMI (body mass index, WHR (waist hip ratio were evaluated and correlated with the measures of Insulin resistance (IR and insulin sensitivity. BMI was found to significantly correlate with most of the IR parameters and there was a trend towards significance with weight. Waist circumference did not correlate significantly with IR parameters. Conclusion: Body Mass Index (BMI is a useful tool in evaluating obesity in normoglycemic subjects. BMI is a better predictor of Insulin Resistance and risk stratification than waist circumference.

  3. A Study on Causes and Types of Abnormal Increase in Infants’ Head Circumference in Kashan/Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad TALEBIAN

    2013-08-01

    , Erzen C. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of benign macrocephaly in children. J Child Neurol 1999;14(10:678-82.13. Smith R, Leonidas JC, Maytal J. The value of head ultrasound in infants with macrocephaly. Pediatr Radiol 1998;28(3:143-6.14. Day RE, Schutt WH. Normal children with large heads benign familial megalencephaly. Arch Dis Child 1979;54(7:512-7.15. Kumar R. External hydrocephalus in small children. Childs Nerv Syst 2006;22(10:1237-41.16. Rollins JD, Collins JS, Holden KR. United states head circumference growth reference charts: birth to 21 years. J Pediatr 2010;156(6:907-13.17. Medina LS, Frawley K, Zurakowski D, Buttros D, DeGrauw AJ, Crone KR. Children with macrocrania: Clinical and imaging predictors of disorders requiring surgery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001;22(3:564-70.18. Lorber J, Priestly BL. Children with large heads: a practical approach to diagnosis in 557 children, with special reference to 109 children with megalencephaly. Dev Med Child Neurol 1981;23(4:494-504.19. Zahl SM, Wester K. Routine measurement of head circumference as a tool for detecting intracranial expansion in infants: what is the gain? A nationwide survey. Pediatrics 2008;121(3:e416-20.20. Alvarez LA, Maytal J, Shinnar S. Idiopathic external hydrocephalus: natural history and relationship to benignfamilial macrocephaly. Pediatrics 1986;77(6:901-7.21. Yew AY, Maher CO, Muraszko KM, garton HJ. Longterm health status in benign external hydrocephalus. Pediatr Neurosurg 2011;47(1:1-6.22. Muenchberger H, Assad N, Joy P, Brunsdon R, Shores EA. Idiopathic macrocephaly in the infant: long-term neurological and neuropsychological outcome. Childs Nerv Syst 2006;22(10:1242-48.

  4. Waist-to-Height Ratio Is a Better Anthropometric Index than Waist Circumference and BMI in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome among Obese Mexican Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel Rafael Rodea-Montero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the degree of association between anthropometric indices and components of metabolic syndrome (MS and to determine optimal cut-off points of these indices for predicting MS in obese adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study with a sample of (n=110 Mexican obese adolescents grouped by sex and the presence/absence of MS. BMI percentile, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR were tested. ROC curves of the anthropometric indices were created to identify whether an index was a significant predictor of MS. Results. BMI percentile, WC, and WHtR were significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. As predictors of MS overall patients, the BMI percentile generated an area under curve (AUC of 0.651 (P=0.008, cut-off point above the 99th percentile. WC generated an AUC of 0.704 (P<0.001, cut-off point of ≥90 cm. WHtR demonstrated an AUC of 0.652 (P=0.008, cut-off point of 0.60. WHtR ≥0.62 and WHtR ≥0.61 generate AUC of 0.737 (P=0.006 and AUC of 0.717 (P=0.014 for predicting hypertension and insulin resistance, respectively, in females. Conclusion. WHtR is a better tool than WC and BMI for identifying cardiometabolic risk. The overall criterion (WHtR ≥ 0.6 could be appropriate for predicting MS in obese Mexican adolescents.

  5. The INTEGRAL High-energy Cut-off Distribution of Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, A.; Molina, M.; Bassani, L.; Stephen, J. B.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; Bird, A. J.

    2014-02-01

    In this Letter we present the primary continuum parameters, the photon index Γ, and the high-energy cut-off E c of 41 type-1 Seyfert galaxies extracted from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) complete sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We performed broadband (0.3-100 keV) spectral analysis by simultaneously fitting the soft and hard X-ray spectra obtained by XMM and INTEGRAL/IBIS-Swift/BAT, respectively, in order to investigate the general properties of these parameters, in particular their distribution and mean values. We find a mean photon index of 1.73 with a standard deviation of 0.17 and a mean high-energy cut-off of 128 keV with a standard deviation of 46 keV for the whole sample. This is the first time that the cut-off energy is constrained in such a large number of AGNs. We have 26 measurements of the cut-off, which corresponds to 63% of the entire sample, distributed between 50 and 200 keV. There are a further 11 lower limits mostly below 300 keV. Using the main parameters of the primary continuum, we have been able to obtain the actual physical parameters of the Comptonizing region, i.e., the plasma temperature kT e from 20 to 100 keV and the optical depth τ < 4. Finally, with the high signal-to-noise ratio spectra starting to come from NuSTAR it will soon be possible to better constrain the cut-off values in many AGNs, allowing the determination of more physical models and thus better understand the continuum emission and geometry of the region surrounding black holes.

  6. Approximation to cutoffs of higher modes of Rayleigh waves for a layered earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    A cutoff defines the long-period termination of a Rayleigh-wave higher mode and, therefore is a key characteristic of higher mode energy relationship to several material properties of the subsurface. Cutoffs have been used to estimate the shear-wave velocity of an underlying half space of a layered earth model. In this study, we describe a method that replaces the multilayer earth model with a single surface layer overlying the half-space model, accomplished by harmonic averaging of velocities and arithmetic averaging of densities. Using numerical comparisons with theoretical models validates the single-layer approximation. Accuracy of this single-layer approximation is best defined by values of the calculated error in the frequency and phase velocity estimate at a cutoff. Our proposed method is intuitively explained using ray theory. Numerical results indicate that a cutoffs frequency is controlled by the averaged elastic properties within the passing depth of Rayleigh waves and the shear-wave velocity of the underlying half space. ?? Birkh??user Verlag, Basel 2009.

  7. The INTEGRAL high energy cut-off distribution of type 1 AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Malizia, A; Bassani, L; Stephen, J B; Bazzano, A; Ubertini, P; Bird, A J

    2014-01-01

    In this letter we present the primary continuum parameters, the photon index Gamma and the high energy cut-off Ec, of 41 type-1 Seyfert galaxies extracted from the INTEGRAL complete sample of AGN. We performed a broad band (0.3-100 keV) spectral analysis by fitting simultaneously the soft and hard X-ray spectra obtained by XMM and INTEGRAL/IBIS-Swift/BAT respectively in order to investigate the general properties of these parameters in particular their distribution and mean values. We find a mean photon index for the whole sample of 1.73 with a standard deviation of 0.17 and a mean high energy cut-off of 128 keV with a standard deviation of 46 keV. This is the first time that the cut-off energy is constrained in a such large number of AGN. We have 26 measurements of the cut-off, which corresponds to 63% of the entire sample, distributed between 50 and 200 keV. There are a further 11 lower limits mostly below 300 keV. Using the main parameters of the primary continuum, we have been able to obtain the actual ph...

  8. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis Polymeris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20–83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25–29.9 as overweight and with BMI ≥ 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (r=0.95, P 44.0 cm could be recognized as having BMI ≥ 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1 cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ≥ 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI.

  9. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeris, Antonis; Papapetrou, Peter D; Katsoulis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20-83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25-29.9 as overweight and with BMI ≥ 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC) of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (r = 0.95, P 44.0 cm could be recognized as having BMI ≥ 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1 cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ≥ 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI. PMID:26556418

  10. Identifying Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Using Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Camhi, PhD

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionMetabolic syndrome is increasing among adolescents. We examined the utility of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference to identify metabolic syndrome in adolescent girls.MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 185 predominantly African American girls who were a median age of 14 years. Participants were designated as having metabolic syndrome if they met criteria for 3 of 5 variables: 1 high blood pressure, 2 low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, 3 high fasting blood glucose level, 4 high waist circumference, and 5 high triglyceride level. We predicted the likelihood of the presence of metabolic syndrome by using previously established cutpoints of BMI and waist circumference. We used stepwise regression analysis to determine whether anthropometric measurements significantly predicted metabolic syndrome.ResultsOf total participants, 18% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. BMI for 118 (64% participants was above the cutpoint. Of these participants, 25% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, whereas only 4% of participants with a BMI below the cutpoint met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (P <.001. Girls with a BMI above the cutpoint were more likely than girls with a BMI below the cutpoint to have metabolic syndrome (P = .002. The waist circumference for 104 (56% participants was above the cutpoint. Of these participants, 28% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, whereas only 1% of participants with a waist circumference below the cutpoint met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (P <.001. Girls with a waist circumference above the cutpoint were more likely than girls with a waist circumference below the cutpoint to have metabolic syndrome (P = .002. Stepwise regression showed that only waist circumference significantly predicted metabolic syndrome.ConclusionBoth anthropometric measures were useful screening tools to identify metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference was a better predictor of

  11. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Antonis Polymeris; Peter D. Papapetrou; Georgios Katsoulis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20–83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25–29.9 as...

  12. Waist circumference as a marker for screening nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Dal Molin, Bárbara; de Carvalho-Ferreira, Joana Pereira; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Tock, Lian; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the relationship between the degree of waist circumference (WC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese adolescents of both genders, analyzed according to quartiles of WC. Methods: Cross-sectional study that involved 247 obese adolescents aged 12–19 years. Mean values of the nutritional parameters and serum analyses were compared with the groups using the independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship of the parameters studied. Chi-square test for trend was used to determine the relationship between the prevalence of the NAFLD and WC quartile by gender. Results: NAFLD were presented in 60% of the study participants. Obese adolescents in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of WC presented higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared with that in the 1st quartile in both genders. The NAFLD patients had significantly higher values for body weight, BMI (body mass index), BAZ-score (BMI-for-age z-scores), total fat (% and kg), WC, visceral fat, insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that an increase in WC can reliably predict the risk of NAFLD in obese adolescents. This is a low cost and easy-to-use tool that can help in screening in adolescents. PMID:26830602

  13. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC, as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011, and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026 were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

  14. Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties (MSQ-Job): definition of the cut-off score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavolin, Silvia; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Leonardi, Matilde; Brenna, Greta; Brambilla, Laura; Confalonieri, Paolo; Frangiamore, Rita; Mantegazza, Renato; Moscatelli, Marco; Clerici, Valentina Torri; Cortese, Francesca; Covelli, Venusia; Ponzio, Michela; Zaratin, Paola; Raggi, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) mainly affects people of working age. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties (MSQ-Job) was designed to measure difficulties in work-related tasks. Our aim is to define cut-off score of MSQ-Job to identify potential critical situations that might require specific attention. A sample of patients with MS completed the MSQ-Job, WHODAS 2.0 and MSQOL-54 respectively for work difficulties, disability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) evaluation. K-means Cluster Analysis was used to divide the sample in three groups on the basis of HRQoL and disability. ANOVA test was performed to compare the response pattern between these groups. The cut-off score was defined using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses for MSQ-Job total and count of MSQ-Job items scores ≥3: a score value corresponding to the maximum of the sensitivity-to-specificity ratio was chosen as the cut-off. Out of 180 patients enrolled, twenty were clustered in the higher severity group. The area under the ROC curve was 0.845 for the MSQ-Job total and 0.859 for the count of MSQ-Job items scores ≥3 while the cut-off score was 15.8 for MSQ-Job total and 8 for count of items scored ≥3. We recommend the use of MSQ-Job with this calculation as cut-off for identifying critical situations, e.g. in vocational rehabilitation services, where work-related difficulties have a significant impact in terms of lower quality of life and higher disability. PMID:26842465

  15. The relation between drinking pattern and body mass index and waist and hip circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J S; Heitmann, B. L.; Tjønneland, A M; Overvad, O K; Sørensen, T I A; Grønbaek, M N

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the association between alcohol drinking pattern and obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population study with assessment of quantity and frequency of alcohol intake, waist and hip circumference, height, weight, and lifestyle factors including diet. SUBJECTS: In all, 25 325 men...... and 24 552 women aged 50-65 y from the Diet, Cancer and Health Study, Denmark, 1993-1997 participated in the study. MEASUREMENTS: Drinking frequency, total alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and waist and hip circumference. RESULTS: Among men, total alcohol intake was positively associated with...... high BMI (>/=30 kg/m(2)), large waist circumference (>/=102 cm) and inversely associated with small hip circumference (<100 cm). Among women, the total alcohol was associated with high BMI, large waist (>/=88 cm), and small hips only for the highest intake (28+ drinks/week). The most frequent drinkers...

  16. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  17. Combined influence of leisure time physical activity and hip circumference on all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Grønbæk, Morten; Ängquist, Lars Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    Hip circumference has been shown to be inversely associated with mortality. Muscle atrophy in the gluteofemoral region may be a possible explanation and thus physical activity is likely to play an important role....

  18. The cross-sectional shape and circumference of the human trachea.

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, S; Myat, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    To design a large-volume, low-pressure cuff it is essential to take into consideration cross-sectional shape and circumference of human trachea. Two hundred adult tracheas were dissected and autopsy specimens examined. Cross-sectional tracheal shapes were studied and their circumference measured. There was a definite correlation between sex and the tracheal shapes studied. Forty five per cent of female tracheas were elliptical in shape and 38% were C shaped. The most common cross-sectional tr...

  19. Human sensory nerve compound action potential amplitude: variation with sex and finger circumference.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, C F; Carter, K M

    1980-01-01

    The amplitude of human, antidromic, sensory compound action potentials (CAP) recorded from median and ulnar digital nerves is greater in females than males. This sex difference is probably due entirely to females having digits of smaller circumference, resulting in digital nerves being closer to the recording ring electrode enclosing the digit. The negative linear correlation between CAP amplitude and circumference holds true for persons of the same sex.

  20. Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management.

    OpenAIRE

    Lean, M E; Han, T.S.; Morrison, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that a single measurement, waist circumference, might be used to identify people at health risk both from being overweight and from having a central fat distribution. DESIGN--A community derived random sample of men and women and a second, validation sample. SETTING--North Glasgow. SUBJECT--904 men and 1014 women (first sample); 86 men and 202 women (validation sample). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Waist circumference, body mass index, waist:hip ratio. RESULTS--Wai...

  1. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Augmented waist circumference (WC) is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether bio-chemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 206 s...

  2. Serum Cholesterol Level Nomograms for Iranian Population; Suggestion for National Cut-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Hosseini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: High cholesterol levels are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Understanding the distribution of serum cholesterol levels in each country is valuable index for use in public health planning. This study aimed to construct nomograms of total cholesterol (TC levels and establish the cut-points specific to Iranian population.Methods: Data on serum TC levels of 19,630 non-institutionalized individuals aged 25-64 years from third national survey on non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD in 2007 were used to construct cholesterol nomograms. We proposed cutoff values for borderline and high TC levels based on rounded 75th and 90th percentiles in three age groups (25-34, 35-44 and 45-64 respectively.Results: Average yearly increase of TC for males up to the age of 45 and females up to 64 were 1.15 and 1.03 mg/dl, respectively. TC levels were higher in females. In males, cutoff values for "borderline and high" TC levels were 195 and 220 mg/dl in 25-34, 210 and 240 mg/d in 35-44 and 215 and 245 mg/dl in 45-64 years old individuals. In women, these values were 200 and 225 mg/dl in 25-34,215 and 240 mg/dl in 35-44 and 235 and 265 mg/dl in 45-64 years old individuals respectively.Conclusion: Since TC levels are different in two sexes and change with age, we proposed different cutoffs for sex and age group. We think these cutoffs could be used in national public health planning.

  3. oA novel nonparametric approach for estimating cut-offs in continuous risk indicators with application to diabetes epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferger Dietmar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological and clinical studies, often including anthropometric measures, have established obesity as a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Appropriate cut-off values for anthropometric parameters are necessary for prediction or decision purposes. The cut-off corresponding to the Youden-Index is often applied in epidemiology and biomedical literature for dichotomizing a continuous risk indicator. Methods Using data from a representative large multistage longitudinal epidemiological study in a primary care setting in Germany, this paper explores a novel approach for estimating optimal cut-offs of anthropomorphic parameters for predicting type 2 diabetes based on a discontinuity of a regression function in a nonparametric regression framework. Results The resulting cut-off corresponded to values obtained by the Youden Index (maximum of the sum of sensitivity and specificity, minus one, often considered the optimal cut-off in epidemiological and biomedical research. The nonparametric regression based estimator was compared to results obtained by the established methods of the Receiver Operating Characteristic plot in various simulation scenarios and based on bias and root mean square error, yielded excellent finite sample properties. Conclusion It is thus recommended that this nonparametric regression approach be considered as valuable alternative when a continuous indicator has to be dichotomized at the Youden Index for prediction or decision purposes.

  4. The geomagnetic cutoff rigidities at high latitudes for different solar wind and geomagnetic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, W. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Space Weather; Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). College of Earth Sciences; Qin, G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Space Weather

    2016-04-01

    Studying the access of the cosmic rays (CRs) into the magnetosphere is important to understand the coupling between the magnetosphere and the solar wind. In this paper we numerically studied CRs' magnetospheric access with vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities using the method proposed by Smart and Shea (1999). By the study of CRs' vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities at high latitudes we obtain the CRs' window (CRW) whose boundary is determined when the vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities drop to a value lower than a threshold value. Furthermore, we studied the area of CRWs and found out they are sensitive to different parameters, such as the z component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), the solar wind dynamic pressure, AE index, and Dst index. It was found that both the AE index and Dst index have a strong correlation with the area of CRWs during strong geomagnetic storms. However, during the medium storms, only AE index has a strong correlation with the area of CRWs, while Dst index has a much weaker correlation with the area of CRWs. This result on the CRW can be used for forecasting the variation of the cosmic rays during the geomagnetic storms.

  5. Cut-off proposal for the detection of ketamine in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, A; Gerace, E; Diana, P; Romeo, M; Malvaso, V; Di Corcia, D; Vincenti, M

    2015-03-01

    Ketamine is a powerful anesthetic drug used in both human and veterinary surgery, but it is also commonly misused because of its psychotropic properties. Since the abuse of this drug has been reported in many countries worldwide, its determination in hair samples is offered as a specialist test by hundreds of laboratories. However, unlike other common drugs of abuse, a cut-off level for ketamine in hair has not been fixed yet. Therefore, aim of this study is to propose a concentration value for ketamine in hair analysis, in order to discriminate between chronic and occasional use, and between active use and external contamination. After considering the chemical properties of this molecule, and the experimental data collected in our laboratory or reported in several other published studies, we propose a cut-off level of 0.5ng/mg, as indicative of repeated exposure to ketamine. Additionally, we suggest that the detection of the metabolite norketamine should be mandatory to prove active intake and exclude false positive result from external contamination. Thus, a reasonable cut-off value for norketamine could be fixed at 0.1ng/mg, while the minimal concentration ratio norketamine/ketamine may be positively established at 0.05. PMID:25616219

  6. The geomagnetic cutoff rigidities at high latitudes for different solar wind and geomagnetic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studying the access of the cosmic rays (CRs) into the magnetosphere is important to understand the coupling between the magnetosphere and the solar wind. In this paper we numerically studied CRs' magnetospheric access with vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities using the method proposed by Smart and Shea (1999). By the study of CRs' vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities at high latitudes we obtain the CRs' window (CRW) whose boundary is determined when the vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities drop to a value lower than a threshold value. Furthermore, we studied the area of CRWs and found out they are sensitive to different parameters, such as the z component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), the solar wind dynamic pressure, AE index, and Dst index. It was found that both the AE index and Dst index have a strong correlation with the area of CRWs during strong geomagnetic storms. However, during the medium storms, only AE index has a strong correlation with the area of CRWs, while Dst index has a much weaker correlation with the area of CRWs. This result on the CRW can be used for forecasting the variation of the cosmic rays during the geomagnetic storms.

  7. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez; Paul A Camacho; Daniel D. Cohen; Katherine Rincón-Romero; Laura Alvarado-Jurado; Sandra Pinzón; John Duperly; Patricio López-Jaramillo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents fro...

  8. Designing the sound of a cut-off drum

    CERN Document Server

    Martinetti, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The spectral action in noncommutative geometry naturally implements an ultraviolet cut-off, by counting the eigenvalues of a (generalized) Dirac operator lower than an energy of unification. Inverting the well known question "how to hear the shape of a drum ?", we ask what drum can be designed by hearing the truncated music of the spectral action ? This makes sense because the same Dirac operator also determines the metric, via Connes distance. The latter thus offers an original way to implement the high-momentum cut-off of the spectral action as a short distance cut-off on space. This is a non-technical presentation of the results of http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.2605

  9. Holographic bounds on the UV cutoff scale in inflationary cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Keski-Vakkuri, E; Keski-Vakkuri, Esko; Sloth, Martin S.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss how holographic bounds can be applied to the quantum fluctuations of the inflaton. In general the holographic principle will lead to a bound on the UV cutoff scale of the effective theory of inflation, but it will depend on the coarse-graining prescription involved in calculating the entropy. We propose that the entanglement entropy is a natural measure of the entropy of the quantum perturbations, and show which kind of bound on the cutoff it leads to. Such bounds are related to whether the effects of new physics will show up in the CMB.

  10. On cosmic-ray cut-off terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of cosmic-ray access to location within the geomagnetic field has evolved over the past fifty years. Cosmic-ray cut-off terminology, originally developed to describe particle access and cut-off rigidities, has not evolved with the scientific advances in the field, and misunderstandings and misapplications of historical work have occurred. This paper is an attempt to remedy this situation by clarifying the areas in which changes have occurred and by providing a cross reference between the historical terms and those terms now in use for innovative cosmic-ray studies which are underway in several laboratories

  11. Gravity cutoff in theories with large discrete symmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvali, Gia; Redi, Michele; Sibiryakov, Sergey; Vainshtein, Arkady

    2008-10-10

    We set an upper bound on the gravitational cutoff in theories with exact quantum numbers of large N periodicity, such as Z(N) discrete symmetries. The bound stems from black hole physics. It is similar to the bound appearing in theories with N particle species, though a priori, a large discrete symmetry does not imply a large number of species. Thus, there emerges a potentially wide class of new theories that address the hierarchy problem by lowering the gravitational cutoff due to the existence of large Z(10(32))-type symmetries. PMID:18999587

  12. Waist circumference does not predict circulating adiponectin levels in sub-Saharan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of previously reported ethnic differences in determinants and markers of obesity and related metabolic disorders, we sought to investigate circulating levels of adiponectin and their correlates in a sub-Saharan African (sSA population. Subjects and Methods We studied 70 non-diabetic volunteers (33M/37F living in Yaoundé, Cameroon, aged 24–69 yr, with BMI 20–42 kg/m2. In all participants we measured waist circumference and total body fat by bioimpedance, and obtained a fasting venous blood sample for measurement of plasma glucose, serum insulin and adiponectin concentrations. We performed a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp in 1/4 subjects, and HOMAIR was used as surrogate of fasting insulin sensitivity index since it best correlates to clamp measurements. Results Males had lower adiponectin levels than females (8.8 ± 4.3 vs. 11.8 ± 5.5 μg/L. There was no significant correlation between adiponectin and total body fat (rs = -0.03; NS, whereas adiponectin was inversely correlated with waist circumference (rs = -0.39; p = 0.001. Adiponectin correlated negatively with insulin resistance (rs = -0.35; p = 0.01. In a regression analysis using fasting adiponectin concentration as the dependent variable, and age, HOMAIR, waist circumference, and fat mass as predictors, waist circumference (β = -3.30; p = 0.002, fat mass (β = -2.68; p = 0.01, and insulin resistance (β = -2.38; p = 0.02 but not age (β = 1.11; p = 0.27 were independent predictors of adiponectin. When considering gender, these relations persisted with the exception of waist circumference in females. Conclusion Adiponectin correlates in this study population are comparable to those observed in Caucasians with the exception of waist circumference in women. The metabolic significance of waist circumference is therefore questioned in sSA women.

  13. Clinical validation of cutoff target ranges in newborn screening of metabolic disorders by tandem mass spectrometry : A worldwide collaborative project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McHugh, David M. S.; Cameron, Cynthia A.; Abdenur, Jose E.; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Adair, Ona; Al Nuaimi, Shahira Ahmed; Ahlman, Henrik; Allen, Jennifer J.; Antonozzi, Italo; Archer, Shaina; Au, Sylvia; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Baker, Mei; Bamforth, Fiona; Beckmann, Kinga; Pino, Gessi Bentz; Berberich, Stanton L.; Binard, Robert; Boemer, Francois; Bonham, Jim; Breen, Nancy N.; Bryant, Sandra C.; Caggana, Michele; Caldwell, S. Graham; Camilot, Marta; Campbell, Carlene; Carducci, Claudia; Cariappa, Rohit; Carlisle, Clover; Caruso, Ubaldo; Cassanello, Michela; Miren Castilla, Ane; Castineiras Ramos, Daisy E.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Chandrasekar, Ram; Ramos, Alfredo Chardon; Cheillan, David; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Childs, Thomas A.; Chrastina, Petr; Sica, Yuri Cleverthon; Cocho de Juan, Jose Angel; Elena Colandre, Maria; Cornejo Espinoza, Veronica; Corso, Gaetano; Currier, Robert; Cyr, Denis; Czuczy, Noemi; D'Apolito, Oceania; Davis, Tim; de Sain-Van der Velden, Monique G.; Delgado Pecellin, Carmen; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Di Stefano, Cristina Maria; Dotsikas, Yannis; Downing, Melanie; Downs, Stephen M.; Dy, Bonifacio; Dymerski, Mark; Rueda, Inmaculada; Elvers, Bert; Eaton, Roger; Eckerd, Barbara M.; El Mougy, Fatma; Eroh, Sarah; Espada, Mercedes; Evans, Catherine; Fawbush, Sandy; Fijolek, Kristel F.; Fisher, Lawrence; Franzson, Leifur; Frazier, Dianne M.; Garcia, Luciana R. C.; Garcia-Valdecasas Bermejo, Maria Sierra; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Gerace, Rosemarie; Giordano, Giuseppe; Irazabal, Yolanda Gonzalez; Greed, Lawrence C.; Grier, Robert; Grycki, Elyse; Gu, Xuefan; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Hagar, Arthur F.; Han, Lianshu; Hannon, W. Harry; Haslip, Christa; Hassan, Fayza Abdelhamid; He, Miao; Hietala, Amy; Himstedt, Leslie; Hoffman, Gary L.; Hoffman, William; Hoggatt, Philis; Hopkins, Patrick V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hughes, Kerie; Hunt, Patricia R.; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Hynes, June; Ibarra-Gonzalez, Isabel; Ingham, Cindy A.; Ivanova, Maria; Jacox, Ward B.; John, Catharine; Johnson, John P.; Jonsson, Jon J.; Karg, Eszter; Kasper, David; Klopper, Brenda; Katakouzinos, Dimitris; Khneisser, Issam; Knoll, Detlef; Kobayashi, Hirinori; Koneski, Ronald; Kozich, Viktor; Kouapei, Rasoul; Kohlmueller, Dirk; Kremensky, Ivo; la Marca, Giancarlo; Lavochkin, Marcia; Lee, Soo-Youn; Lehotay, Denis C.; Lemes, Aida; Lepage, Joyce; Lesko, Barbara; Lewis, Barry; Lim, Carol; Linard, Sharon; Lindner, Martin; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Lorey, Fred; Loukas, Yannis L.; Luedtke, Julie; Maffitt, Neil; Magee, J. Fergall; Manning, Adrienne; Manos, Shawn; Marie, Sandrine; Hadachi, Sonia Marchezi; Marquardt, Gregg; Martin, Stephen J.; Matern, Dietrich; Gibson, Stephanie K. Mayfield; Mayne, Philip; McCallister, Tonya D.; McCann, Mark; McClure, Julie; McGill, James J.; McKeever, Christine D.; McNeilly, Barbara; Morrissey, Mark A.; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi; Mulcahy, Eleanor A.; Nikoloudis, Dimitris; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Oglesbee, Devin; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Ombrone, Daniela; Ojodu, Jelili; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Reoyo, Sherly Pardo; Park, Hyung-Doo; Pasquali, Marzia; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Patel, Pallavi; Pass, Kenneth A.; Peterson, Colleen; Pettersen, Rolf D.; Pitt, James J.; Poh, Sherry; Pollak, Arnold; Porter, Cory; Poston, Philip A.; Price, Ricky W.; Queijo, Cecilia; Quesada, Jonessy; Randell, Edward; Ranieri, Enzo; Raymond, Kimiyo; Reddic, John E.; Reuben, Alejandra; Ricciardi, Charla; Rinaldo, Piero; Rivera, Jeff D.; Roberts, Alicia; Rocha, Hugo; Roche, Geraldine; Greenberg, Cheryl Rochman; Egea Mellado, Jose Maria; Jess Juan-Fita, Maria; Ruiz, Consuelo; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Rutledge, S. Lane; Ryu, Euijung; Saban, Christine; Sahai, Inderneel; Salazar Garcia-Blanco, Maria Isabel; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro; Schenone, Andrea; Schoos, Roland; Schweitzer, Barb; Scott, Patricia; Seashore, Margretta R.; Seeterlin, Mary A.; Sesser, David E.; Sevier, Darrin W.; Shone, Scott M.; Sinclair, Graham; Skrinska, Victor A.; Stanley, Eleanor L.; Strovel, Erin T.; Jones, April L. Studinski; Sunny, Sherlykutty; Takats, Zoltan; Tanyalcin, Tijen; Teofoli, Francesca; Thompson, J. Robert; Tomashitis, Kathy; Domingos, Mouseline Torquado; Torres, Jasmin; Torres, Rosario; Tortorelli, Silvia; Turi, Sandor; Turner, Kimberley; Tzanakos, Nick; Valiente, Alf G.; Vallance, Hillary; Vela-Amieva, Marcela; Vilarinho, Laura; von Doebeln, Ulrika; Vincent, Marie-Francoise; Vorster, B. Chris; Watson, Michael S.; Webster, Dianne; Weiss, Sheila; Wilcken, Bridget; Wiley, Veronica; Williams, Sharon K.; Willis, Sharon A.; Woontner, Michael; Wright, Katherine; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Yssel, Melissa; Zakowicz, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To achieve clinical validation of cutoff values for newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry through a worldwide collaborative effort. Methods: Cumulative percentiles of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots of approximately 25-30 million normal newborns and 10,742 deiden

  14. Distributions of the S-matrix poles in Woods-Saxon and cut-off Woods-Saxon potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, P.; Baran, Á.; Vertse, T.

    2016-08-01

    The positions of the l = 0S-matrix poles are calculated in generalized Woods-Saxon (GWS) potential and in cut-off generalized Woods-Saxon (CGWS) potential. The solutions of the radial equations are calculated numerically for the CGWS potential and analytically for GWS using the formalism of Gy. Bencze [1]. We calculate CGWS and GWS cases at small non-zero values of the diffuseness in order to approach the square well potential and to be able to separate effects of the radius parameter and the cut-off radius parameter. In the case of the GWS potential the wave functions are reflected at the nuclear radius therefore the distances of the resonant poles depend on the radius parameter of the potential. In CGWS potential the wave function can be reflected at larger distance where the potential is cut to zero and the derivative of the potential does not exist. The positions of most of the resonant poles do depend strongly on the cut-off radius of the potential, which is an unphysical parameter. Only the positions of the few narrow resonances in potentials with barrier are not sensitive to the cut-off distance. For the broad resonances the effect of the cut-off cannot be corrected by using a suggested analytical form of the first order perturbation correction.

  15. Linearized Boltzmann collision integral with the correct cutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yongbin; White, R. D.

    2014-07-01

    In the calculation of the linearized Boltzmann collision operator for an inverse-square force law interaction (Coulomb interaction) F(r)=κ /r2, we found the widely used scattering angle cutoff θ ≥θmin is a wrong practise since the divergence still exists after the cutoff has been made. When the correct velocity change cutoff |v '-v|≥δmin is employed, the scattering angle can be integrated. A unified linearized Boltzmann collision operator for both inverse-square force law and rigid-sphere interactions is obtained. Like many other unified quantities such as transition moments, Fokker-Planck expansion coefficients and energy exchange rates obtained recently [Y. B. Chang and L. A. Viehland, AIP Adv. 1, 032128 (2011)], the difference between the two kinds of interactions is characterized by a parameter, γ, which is 1 for rigid-sphere interactions and -3 for inverse-square force law interactions. When the cutoff is removed by setting δmin=0, Hilbert's well known kernel for rigid-sphere interactions is recovered for γ = 1.

  16. Linearized Boltzmann collision integral with the correct cutoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the calculation of the linearized Boltzmann collision operator for an inverse-square force law interaction (Coulomb interaction) F(r)=κ/r2, we found the widely used scattering angle cutoff θ≥θmin is a wrong practise since the divergence still exists after the cutoff has been made. When the correct velocity change cutoff |v′−v|≥δmin is employed, the scattering angle can be integrated. A unified linearized Boltzmann collision operator for both inverse-square force law and rigid-sphere interactions is obtained. Like many other unified quantities such as transition moments, Fokker-Planck expansion coefficients and energy exchange rates obtained recently [Y. B. Chang and L. A. Viehland, AIP Adv. 1, 032128 (2011)], the difference between the two kinds of interactions is characterized by a parameter, γ, which is 1 for rigid-sphere interactions and −3 for inverse-square force law interactions. When the cutoff is removed by setting δmin=0, Hilbert's well known kernel for rigid-sphere interactions is recovered for γ = 1

  17. EFFECT OF FEES ON WATER SERVICE CUTOFFS AND PAYMENT DELINQUENCIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine whether increased water and sewer user fees have generated increases in payment delinquencies and service cutoff rates and whether they have created other problems such as increased health hazards. Another objective was to examine the varied use...

  18. Bare Higgs mass and potential at ultraviolet cutoff

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Yuta; Oda, Kin-ya

    2013-01-01

    We first review the current status of the top mass determination paying attention to the difference between the MS-bar and pole masses. Then we present our recent result on the bare Higgs mass at a very high ultraviolet cutoff scale.

  19. Cadmium cutoff energy for MCNP modeling of dosimetry reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor pressure vessel neutron fluence calculations are verified by comparing calculated reaction rates of dosimetry foils assumed to be placed in the cavity surrounding the pressure vessel with corresponding experimentally determined dosimetry reaction rates at the same location. The irradiated foils used are bare and cadmium covered. The cadmium-covered foils see a different neutron flux than the uncovered foils. Computer models computing reaction rates for the foils must approximate the effect of the cadmium foil cover. The MCNP code modeling of reactor cavity dosimetry reactions to validate the computed neutron flux hitting the pressure vessel of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) requires the choice of an appropriate cadmium cutoff energy. Since the neutron spectrum is harder in the cavity than in the core, the same cadmium cutoff energy may not be universally applied. The correct cutoff energy for the cavity of a PWR was computed by using MCNP4a and a representative cavity spectrum. Four cadmium-covered foil reactions were analyzed, and the appropriate energy cutoff was determined to be ∼ 0.6 eV for ∼0.5-mm-thick cadmium covers

  20. Schwinger-Dyson Study for Walking/Conformal Dynamics with IR Cutoffs

    CERN Document Server

    Miura, Kohtaroh; Shibata, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by recent progress on many flavor QCD on a lattice, we investigate conformal/walking dynamics by using Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation within an improved ladder approximation for two-loop running coupling. By numerically solving the SD equation, we obtain a pole mass $m_{p}$, pion decay constant $f_{\\pi}$, and investigate the chiral symmetry breaking and mass anomalous dimension $\\gamma_{m}$ in the presence of IR cutoffs $\\Lambda_{\\mathrm{IR}}$. We find that the chiral symmetry breaking is suppressed \\ if IR cutoff $\\Lambda_{\\mathrm{IR}}$ becomes larger than the critical \\ value near the dynamical mass ($\\Lambda_{\\mathrm{IR}}$ $\\simeq m_{D}$) In the conformal phase the $\\gamma_{m}$ is strongly suppressed by IR cutoffs for $\\Lambda _{\\mathrm{IR}}$ $\\simeq m_{p}$. We, then, obtain finite size hyperscaling (FSS) relation by adapting a linearized approximation for the SD equation, and examine the $\\gamma_{m}$ The results offer valuable insight and suggestion for analyses in lattice gauge theories.

  1. Determination of Cutoff of ELISA and Immunofluorescence Assay for Scrub Typhus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; Chaudhry, Rama; Thakur, Chandan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most common method employed for diagnosis of scrub typhus is serology. It is widely known that demonstration of ≥4-fold rise in titers of antibody in paired sera is required for diagnosis. However, for guidance of initial treatment, there is a need for rapid diagnosis at the time of admission. Therefore, there is a need for standardized region specific cutoff titers at the time of admission. Materials and Methods: A total of 258 patients of all age groups with clinically suspected scrub typhus over a period of 24 months (October 2013-October 2015) were enrolled. Serum samples of these patients were subjected to immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) for immunoglobulin M (IgM) (Fuller Labs, USA) with dilutions of 1:64, 1:128, 1:256, and 1:512. Serum samples of all 258 patients were subjected to IgM ELISA (Inbios Inc., USA). Any patient with response to antibiotics within 48 h accompanied by either presence of an eschar or positivity by polymerase chain reaction was taken as positive. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to generate cutoff for these tests. Results: A total of 20 patients were diagnosed as cases of scrub typhus. The ROC curve analysis revealed a cutoff optical density value of 0.87 with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94.12%, respectively. ROC curve analysis of IFA revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93.5%, respectively at 1:64 dilution. Conclusion: Considering cost constraints, centers in and around New Delhi region can use the cutoffs we determined for the diagnosis of scrub typhus.

  2. Cut-off wall construction at the Peribonka hydroelectric project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellette, C.; Morency, J.Y.; Bigras, A.; Hammamji, Y. [Hydro-Quebec Equipment, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Gagne, B. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Rattue, A. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Energy Division

    2007-07-01

    The Peribonka hydroelectric development, located in Quebec includes a 80 metre high dam and two dikes consisting of zoned earth and rock fills with a till core, an underground power house, a diversion tunnel and a spillway. The project is in its final stages of construction and presented several challenges related to the presence of a deep canyon under the river bed filled with alluvial sand, gravel, cobbles and boulders. The design included an approximately 10 metre high working platform in the river and the construction of a plastic concrete cut-off wall down to bedrock. The construction of a 116 metre deep single cut-off wall that is at the limit of precedent in terms of present knowledge and equipment capacity was the main challenge for the project. In addition, a 52 metre deep plastic concrete cut-off wall was built under a dyke. This conference discussed the cut-off wall construction experience, as well as the challenges encountered and how they were addressed. The paper presented a description of the site conditions and the scope of the work, as well as the typical specifications of the cut-offs. The paper also provided an overview of an extensive quality control program that was implemented for all phases of the project construction and results of the project. Last, the paper described the challenges, problems encountered and the modifications from the initial design and specifications. It was concluded that the topography at the Peribonka dam site showed a deep narrow gully filled with alluvial material comprising sand, gravel, cobbles and boulders. Elaborate quality control was essential to ensure that excavation and concreting were done to satisfactory standards. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  3. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Halkjaer, J.; Heitmann, B.L.; Tjonneland, A.M.; Overvad, K.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Grønbæk, Morten

    2008-01-01

    drinking, drinking on 1, 2-4, 5-6, and 7 d/wk, respectively, compared with men who drank alcohol on <1 d/wk (P for trend < 0.0001). Results for women were similar. Adjustment for the amount of alcohol intake or total energy intake did not affect results considerably. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking pattern may be......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from a...... prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined as...

  4. Evaluation of marginal circumference and marginal thickness changes in precrimped stainless steel crowns, after recrimping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar H

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The need for recrimping precrimped stainless steel crowns by the dentist in clinic is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the rate of marginal circumference and marginal thickness change of precrimped stainless steel crowns after recrimping. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 primary photos were taken from margins of 30 S.S.Cs (3M, Ni-Cr related to tooth 85 with a digital camera fixed at a determined distance. Margins of crowns were crimped by 114 and 137 pliers with a controlled force (0.2 N and then 30 secondary photos were taken in the same conditions. The circumference of crown margins in primary (group A and secondary (group B photos were assessed by a digitizer system. Comparing the circumferences of crown margins in primary and secondary photos showed a significant decrease after crimping. Thickness of 30 random points on the crown margins of a crown similar to mentioned cases was measured by SEM (×150. Then similar procedures including taking a primary photo, crimping and taking a secondary photo was done for the sample crown. After significant reduction in margin circumference, thickness of 30 other random points on the crown margin were measured by SEM. Data were analyzed by paired sample t-test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The mean marginal circumference of precrimped stainless steel crowns was reduced by 7.3% which was significant (P<0.001. On the other hand the mean marginal thickness of sample stainless steel crown showed 18µ increase. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, marginal circumference of precrimped stainless steel crowns (3M, Ni-Cr showed a significant decrease after crimping. It is concluded that crimping the stainless steel crowns even for precrimped ones seems necessary.

  5. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI......) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were...

  6. Gene expression profiling of differentially expressed genes in bull testicle between different scrotal circumference using DDRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify tissue-specific expression gene in testicle of differential scrotal circumference bulls and analyze the function of the specific gene on the development of the bull's scrotum in this study. The DDRT-PCR and Reverse Northern Blot Analysis were used to identify tissue-specific expression genes in bulls with differential scrotal circumference. The experiment was designed sixty 6-month-old crossbreeds (Charolais with indigenous Fuzhou female). These were raised under the same age, cross generation, raising condition and management. When the feeding was over after 6 months, the scrotal circumferences of bulls were measured. Four bulls were selected and classified into two groups, and the difference of scrotal circumference is significant between the two groups (P < 0.01). A group was consisted of two bulls with larger scrotal circumference 26±2.5cm. The control group was two crossbreed bulls with smaller scrotal circumference 17±2.2 cm. When the scrotal circumferences were measured, the bulls were castrated by surgical operations. A piece of tissue (2 by 2 by 2 cm) was removed from the deeper area of the testis and stored in liquid nitrogen. A small section (0.5 by 0.5 by 0.5 cm) was used for total RNA extraction by using the TRIZOL reagent kit (GIBCO/BRL, Bethesda, MA, USA). The RNA was prepared for DDRT-PCR experiments and quantitative real-time PCR. The results were shown that six genes corresponded to genes of known or inferred function; either the bovine gene or the likely human orthologue and three genes or ESTs were unknown. Bos taurus similar to galactosidase, beta 1-like; Bos taurus similar to Kinesin heavy chain isoform 5C; Bos taurus similar to ankyrin repeat domain protein 15 isoform and Bos taurus ebd-P2 pseudogene were founded both highly expressed in bulls which had bigger scrotal circumference by qRT-PCR. Their functions may be involved with sperm maturation in the epididymis, sperm protection and preventing the ascent of microorganisms

  7. Glycemic index and glycemic load of thirteen year old children whose waist circumference (WC ≥ 90 percentile dependent on BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the reasons for the accumulation of fat tissue (including visceral fat tissue in the body is an unbalanced diet in respect of the amount and the structure of carbohydrates and the value of the glycemic index (GI and the glycemic load (GL. The research describing the dependence between the BMI (Body Mass Index, WC (Waist Circumference, WHtR (Waist-to-Height Ratio, and GI and GL indexes in adults exists but only a limited number of works discuss children during the pubertal spurt. Therefore the objective of this research is the evaluation of the state of nutrition of 13-year-old children with waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile with various BMI, taking into consideration GL and GL of their meals. Material and methods.The state of nutrition (BMI, WC, WHtR of 871 thirteen-year-old children of both sexes was evaluated and 230 children with WC ≥ 90 percentile were selected (26.4% of the total number examined and divided into three groups regarding the BMI. In 71 children (30.9% of the selected group the method of nutrition, energy and nutritive value of menus, structure of consumption of food groups and GI and GL value were evaluated, on the basis of the analysis of their three day menus, which had been documented. Results.Significantly higher values of BMI and WC were ascertained in boys than in girls. No essential differences in values of WHtR index were ascertained between boys and girls. The analysis of children’s menus, in both sexes with a waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile showed, regardless of BMI value, a low realisation of recommended energetic value of the diet and low realisation of recommended supply of: dietary fibre, fat, mineral components (K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, vitamins (E, B1, PP and liquids with simultaneous occurrence of protein in general and animal protein, sodium and vitamins (A, B2, B6 supply. A significantly higher supply of the most of aforementioned ingredients was ascertained in the

  8. On the cutoff frequency of clarinet-like instruments. Geometrical versus acoustical regularity

    OpenAIRE

    MOERS, Elise; Kergomard, Jean

    2011-01-01

    A characteristic of woodwind instruments is the cutoff frequency of their tone-hole lattice. Benade proposed a practical definition using the measurement of the input impedance, for which at least two frequency bands appear. The first one is a stop band, while the second one is a pass band. The value of this frequency, which is a global quantity, depends on the whole geometry of the instrument, but is rather independent of the fingering. This seems to justify the consideration of a woodwind w...

  9. Thomas-Fermi Model in the Presence of Natural Cutoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Nozari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been revealed, in the context of quantum gravity candidates, that measurement of position cannot be done with arbitrary precision and there is a finite resolution of space-time points. This leads naturally to a minimal measurable length of the order of Planck length. Also, in the context of newly proposed doubly special relativity theories, a test particle’s momentum cannot be arbitrarily imprecise leading nontrivially to a maximal momentum for a test particle. These two natural cutoffs affects most of quantum field theoretic arguments in the spirit of condensed matter physics. Here we focus on the role of these natural cutoffs on Thomas-Fermi theory in condensed matter physics. We show how quantum gravity effects can play important role phenomenologically in many-body interactions of solids.

  10. Partial ring currents and cosmic ray magnetic cutoff rigidity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short introduction on cosmic ray modulation and a description of the magnetosphere, and of some physical processes occurring within its boundaries are presented. 20 geomagnetic storms are analysed together with the cosmic ray intensities during these storms as measured by Neutron Monitors. Using a semi-empirical method, the variations in the magnetic cutoff rigidity for the mountain stations Pic du Midi and Jungfraujoch are deduced. These stations are the most sensitive for measuring these variations. The analysis shows that all analyzed storms have an asymmetric development phase. Often the asymmetry even continues during part of the recovery phase. It is shown that variations in magnetic cutoff rigidity occur only during the asymmetric phase of the storm. The largest variations are found when the cosmic ray station is located in the late afternoon-midnight sector. (Auth.)

  11. Histogram plots and cutoff energies for nuclear discrete levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discrete level schemes for 1277 nuclei, from 6Li through 251Es, extracted from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File were analyzed. Cutoff energies (Umax), indicating the upper limit of level scheme completeness, were deduced from the inspection of histograms of the cumulative number of levels. Parameters of the constant-temperature level density formula (nuclear temperature T and energy shift U0) were obtained by means of the least square fit of the formula to the known levels below cutoff energy. The results are tabulated for all 1277 nuclei allowing for an easy and reliable application of the constant-temperature level density approach. A complete set of cumulative plots of discrete levels is also provided. (author). 5 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Discrete power law with exponential cutoff and Lotka's Law

    CERN Document Server

    Smolinsky, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The first bibliometric law appeared in Alfred J. Lotka's 1926 examination of author productivity in chemistry and physics. The result is that the productivity distribution is thought to be described by a power law. In this paper, Lotka's original data on author productivity in chemistry is reconsidered by comparing the fit of the data to both a discrete power law and a discrete power law with exponential cutoff.

  13. Overcoming cut-off restrictions in multimorbidity prevalence estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Holzer, Barbara M.; Siebenhuener, Klarissa; Bopp, Matthias; Minder, Christoph E

    2014-01-01

    Background Presently, there is no consensus on how to define multimorbidity. In this paper we investigate the connection between prevalence estimates for two or more and three or more chronic conditions to improve comparability of multimorbidity studies with different cut-offs. Methods In a systematic review of the literature published between January, 1990 and December, 2011, we found 52 suitable studies, many providing prevalence estimates for several age groups. A total of 31 studies repor...

  14. Effects of a strict cutoff on Quantum Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard Quantum Field Theory has a number of integrals which are infinite. Although these are eliminated for some cases by renormalization, this aspect of the theory is not fully satisfactory. A number of theories with fundamental lengths have been introduced as alternatives and it would be useful to be able to distinguish between them. In particular, the effects that a strict cutoff would have on Quantum Field Theory is studied. It is noted that care must be taken in the method used to apply a strict cutoff. This lead to considering a theory where the cutoffs are defined by restricting each internal line. This theory is only piece-wise analytic. The resulting scattering matrix is frame dependent, yet the theory still satisfies the special relativity view that all frames are subjectively identical. The renormalization of this theory is finite. The change in mass from the electron self-energy will be a spinor operator. The main distinctions of this theory from standard theory will occur at super high energies. New poles and resonances which arise from new endpoint singularities will be found. The locations of these singularities will be frame dependent. Some of these singularities will correspond to creations or interactions of the normal particles with tachyons. It will be shown that for the one loop diagram, the form of the cutoff singularities are closely related to the standard singularities. When there is more than one loop, there can appear some new type of behavior. In particular, a cube root type of behavior in the two loop self-energy diagram will be found. Also the asymptotic behavior of the ladder diagram is studied

  15. Community-Specific BMI Cutoff Points for South Indian Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kishore Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze multiparameters related to total body composition, with specific emphasis on obesity in South Indian females, in order to derive community-specific BMI cutoff points. Patients and Methods. A total number of 87 females (of age 37.33±13.12 years from South Indian Chennai urban population participated in this clinical study. Body composition analysis and anthropometric measurements were acquired after conducting careful clinical examination. Results. BMI demonstrated high significance when normal group (21.02±1.47 kg/m2 was compared with obese group (29.31±3.95 kg/m2, <0.0001. BFM displayed high significance when normal group (14.92±4.28 kg was compared with obese group (29.94 ± 8.1 kg, <0.0001. Conclusion. Community-specific BMI cutoffs are necessary to assess obesity in different ethnic groups, and relying on WHO-based universal BMI cutoff points would be a wrong strategy.

  16. Changes in waist circumference and mortality in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte;

    2010-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) adjusted for body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with mortality, but the association with changes in WC is less clear. We investigated the association between changes in WC and mortality in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent...

  17. Changes in waist circumference and the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte;

    2011-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass...

  18. Physical activity in leisure-time is not associated with 10-year changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, T.; Petersen, L.; Schnohr, P.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    To examine whether physical activity (PA) is associated with changes in waist circumference (WC), and changes in WC given changes in body mass index (BMI). Longitudinal population-based study including 2026 men and 2782 women aged 21-81 years. Subjects were examined in 1991-1993 (baseline) and 2001...

  19. Does change in hip circumference predict cardiovascular disease and overall mortality in Danish and Swedish women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanfer, Anne; Mehlig, Kirsten; Heitmann, Berit L; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence consistently shows that small hip circumference (HC) is related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease, diabetes, and premature death in women. This study aims to clarify whether this inverse association can be found in both normal- and ove...... overweight individuals and if change in HC over time relates to morbidity and mortality risk....

  20. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Halkjaer, Jytte; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tjønneland, Anne M; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Grønbæk, Morten

    2008-01-01

    circumference in men. Drinking frequency was unassociated with major waist loss but was inversely associated with major waist gain: odds ratios among men were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.28), 0.95 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.12), 0.88 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.99), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.71, -0.95), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.9) for never......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from a...... prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined as...

  1. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Longitudinal Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Angquist, Lars; Moldovan, Max; Huikari, Ville; Sebert, Sylvain; Cavadino, Alana; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Skaaby, Tea; Linneberg, Allan; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.; Toft, Ulla; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Power, Chris; Hypponen, Elina; Heitmann, Berit L.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2016-01-01

    body weight (ΔBW) or waist circumference (ΔWC), and whether the associations were modified by genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI). The study was based on 10,898 individuals from the Danish Inter99, the 1958 British Birth Cohort and the Northern Finland...

  2. Association of older women's limb circumferences and muscle mass as estimated with bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Richard W; Chu, Johnson; Steffl, Michal

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between three practical measures used to characterize muscle mass: mid-arm circumference, maximum calf circumference, and muscle mass index determined using bioimpedance analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight ambulatory women residing in a senior center (mean age, 83 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mid-arm circumference and maximum calf circumference were measured bilaterally and they all underwent bioimpedance analysis. Relationships were examined by using Pearson (r) correlations, Cronbach's alpha, and factor analysis. [Results] Circumferential measures correlated significantly with one another (r = 0.745-0.968) and with the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis (r = 0.480-0.628). The Cronbach's alpha for the measures was 0.905. Factor analysis confirmed that all of the measures were reflective of a common construct. [Conclusion] On the basis of their correlations with one another and the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis, circumferential measures of the mid-arm or calf may be considered crude indicators of reduced muscle mass. PMID:27134404

  3. Association of older women’s limb circumferences and muscle mass as estimated with bioelectrical impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Richard W.; Chu, Johnson; Steffl, Michal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between three practical measures used to characterize muscle mass: mid-arm circumference, maximum calf circumference, and muscle mass index determined using bioimpedance analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight ambulatory women residing in a senior center (mean age, 83 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mid-arm circumference and maximum calf circumference were measured bilaterally and they all underwent bioimpedance analysis. Relationships were examined by using Pearson (r) correlations, Cronbach’s alpha, and factor analysis. [Results] Circumferential measures correlated significantly with one another (r = 0.745–0.968) and with the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis (r = 0.480–0.628). The Cronbach’s alpha for the measures was 0.905. Factor analysis confirmed that all of the measures were reflective of a common construct. [Conclusion] On the basis of their correlations with one another and the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis, circumferential measures of the mid-arm or calf may be considered crude indicators of reduced muscle mass.

  4. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  5. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Angquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  6. Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Richard W; Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E;

    2015-01-01

    Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio. RESULTS: The data included up to 66,809 never-smokers, 43,009 former smokers and 38,913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric...

  7. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Halkjaer, Jytte; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from...

  8. Waist Circumference and Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Rural School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Coelho e Silva, Manuel J.; Ribeiro, Luís P.; Fernandes, Romulo; Mota, Jorge; Malina, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on relationships between lifestyle behaviors and adiposity in school youth is potentially important for identifying subgroups at risk. This study evaluates the associations between waist circumference (WC) and objective measures of sedentary behavior (SB) in a sample of rural school adolescents. Methods: The sample included…

  9. Neck circumference as predictor of excess body fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether neck circumference can predict cardiovascular risk factors and excess body fat in adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included male and female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years from Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The following data were collected: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, percentage of body fat according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. The anthropometric measurements were used for calculating indices and assessing nutritional status. The receiver operating characteristic curve tested whether neck circumference could predict cardiovascular risk. We also investigated how neck circumference related to the study parameters. The significance level was set at 5% (p0.5; p<0.05, varying from 0.610 for high-density lipoprotein to 0.817 for blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Neck circumference was capable of predicting excess fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents.

  10. Interstellar Flow Longitude from the Symmetry of the Pickup Ion Cut-off at 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, E.; Lee, M. A.; Drews, C.

    2015-12-01

    We provide a proof of concept that the pickup ion (PUI) cutoff speed variation with ecliptic longitude can provide the interstellar neutral (ISN) flow longitude {λ }{ISN∞ } outside the heliosphere with a precision of the order of 0.°1. We compare 2007-2014 STEREO A PLASTIC observations in the solar wind frame with a simple analytical cutoff model and perform a Pearson correlation of the cutoff as a function of longitude with those values mirrored about a location λM that slides in longitude. The resulting maximum correlation at λM = 255.°21 ± 0.°04 reflects the ISN upwind direction with a purely statistical uncertainty. This result is consistent with recent ISN flow longitude values, but a precision determination requires the evaluation of underlying systematic effects. Obtaining a precision ISN flow longitude is highly complementary to the IBEX ISN observations, which return a narrow tube in the ISN parameter space that couples flow speed and longitude tightly, but leaves a substantially larger error bar along the tube. The ISN flow provides one cardinal axis of the heliosphere, with a strong leverage on the plane subtended by the ISN velocity and the interstellar magnetic field vector, which controls the shape of the heliosphere and its interaction with the interstellar medium. In addition, a discussion about potential temporal variations of the ISN flow has started. Both issues require a precision determination of the ISN flow velocity over decade-long time intervals. ACE SWICS, STEREO PLASTIC, and SOHO CTOF PUI data allow such long-term studies over almost two decades.

  11. Magnetospheric effects of cosmic rays. 1. Long-term changes in the geomagnetic cutoff rigidities for the stations of the global network of neutron monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdevskii, B. B.; Abunin, A. A.; Kobelev, P. G.; Gushchina, R. T.; Belov, A. V.; Eroshenko, E. A.; Yanke, V. G.

    2016-07-01

    Vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities are obtained for the stations of the global network of neutron monitors via trajectory calculations for each year of the period from 1950 to 2020. Geomagnetic cutoff rigidities are found from the model of the Earth's main field International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for 1950-2015, and the forecast until 2020 is provided. In addition, the geomagnetic cutoff rigidities for the same period are obtained by Tsyganenko model T89 (Tsyganenko, 1989) with the average annual values of the Kp-index. In each case, the penumbra is taken into account in the approximation of the flat and power spectra of variations of cosmic rays. The calculation results show an overall decrease in geomagnetic cutoff rigidities, which is associated with the overall decrease and restructuring of the geomagnetic field during the reporting period, at almost all points.

  12. Relationships between neonatal weight, limb lengths, skinfold thicknesses, body breadths and circumferences in an Australian cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. METHODS: We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. RESULTS: Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative

  13. Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio percentiles and central obesity among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central obesity has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in children and anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. South Asian children have higher body fat distribution in the trunk region but the literature regarding WC and related indices is scarce in this region. The study was aimed to provide age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed percentiles, and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity, among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 primary school children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed percentile curves were constructed for WC, WHR and WHtR by the LMS method. Central obesity was defined as having both age- and gender-specific WC percentile ≥90th and WHtR ≥0.5. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of central obesity and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% CI were obtained. Linear regression was used to explore the independent determinants of WC and WHtR. Statistical significance was considered at P Results First ever age- and gender-specific smoothed WC, WHR and WHtR reference curves for Pakistani children aged five to twelve years are presented. WC increased with age among both boys and girls. Fiftieth WC percentile curves for Pakistani children were higher as compared to those for Hong Kong and British children, and were lower as compared to those for Iranian, German and Swiss children. WHR showed a plateau pattern among boys while plateau among girls until nine years of age and decreased afterwards. WHtR was age-independent among both boys and girls, and WHtR cut-off of ≥0.5 for defining central obesity corresponded

  14. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer; Olsen, Marie; Bandholm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Two of the most utilized outcome measures to assess knee joint range of motion (ROM) and intra-articular effusion are goniometry and circumference, respectively. Neither goniometry nor circumference of the knee joint have been examined for both intra-tester and inter-teste...

  15. Reducing cutoff effects in maximally twisted lattice QCD close to the chiral limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When analyzed in terms of the Symanzik expansion, the expectation values of multi-local (gauge-invariant) operators with non-trivial continuum limit exhibit in maximally twisted lattice QCD ''infrared divergent'' cutoff effects of the type a2k/(mπ2)h, 2k ≥ h ≥ 1, which become numerically dangerous when the pion mass gets small. We prove that, if the critical mass counter-term is chosen in some ''optimal'' way or, alternatively, the action is O(a) improved a la Symanzik, the leading cutoff effects of this kind (i.e. those with h = 2k) can all be eliminated. Once this is done, the remaining next-to-leading ''infrared divergent'' effects are only of the kind a2(a2/mπ2)k, k ≥ 1. This implies that the continuum extrapolation of lattice results is smooth at least down to values of the quark mass, mq, satisfying the order of magnitude inequality mq > a2ΛQCD3. (orig.)

  16. Prognostic significance and optimal cutoff of age in medullary thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-long; Li, Duan-shu; Wang, Yu; Huang, Cai-ping; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Age has been found to correlate with the prognosis for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). This study was conducted to investigate whether age can predict long-term unfavorable prognosis and evaluate its predictive accuracy associated with TNM staging, using data of patients diagnosed with MTC between 2000 and 2010 from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. The relationship between the patients’ age at diagnosis and cancer-specific survival (CSS) was evaluated using multivariate Cox regression analysis. Age stratifications were combined into a nomogram model to predict the CSS of MTC. The X-tile program determined 49 and 69 as optimal age cutoff values for CSS. On multivariate analysis, independent factors for survival were age (50–69 years, HR 2.853, 95% CI 1.631–4.991; ≥70 years, HR 5.804, 95% CI 2.91–11.555), race (white, HR 0.344, 95% CI 0.188–0.630), T (T3/4, HR 3.931, 95% CI 2.093–7.381), N (N1a, HR 3.269, 95% CI 1.386–7.710) and M (M1, HR 3.998, 95% CI 2.419–6.606). The C-index for CSS prediction with TNM, age (cutoff of 45)/sex/race/TNM and age (cutoff of 49 and 69)/sex/race/TNM were 0.832 (95% CI 0.763–0.901), 0.863 (95% CI 0.799–0.928), and 0.876 (95% CI 0.817–0.935), respectively. Subgroup multivariate analyses also showed that age significantly increased the risk for CSS in females, non-Hispanic white patients, and those with stage IV MTC. In conclusion, CSS was independently associated with ages between 49 and 69 years, which might be applied for risk stratification in MTC patients. PMID:26910117

  17. Neck circumference predicts renal function decline in overweight women: A community-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chang-Yun; Park, Jung Tak; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Kee, Youn Kyung; Seo, Changhwan; Lee, Misol; Cha, Min-Uk; Jung, Su-Young; Park, Seohyun; Yun, Hae-Ryong; Kwon, Young Eun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Upper-body subcutaneous fat, which is commonly estimated from the neck circumference (NC), was revealed to be the main reservoir of circulating nonesterified fatty acids in overweight patients. Despite a close association between NC and metabolic complications, the relationship of NC with renal function has not been fully investigated. In this study, the impact of NC on the development of incident CKD was elucidated.The data were retrieved from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study cohort. The subjects were followed at 2-year intervals from 2003 to 2011. Overweight was defined as a body mass index of ≥23 kg/m. A total of 4298 cohort subjects were screened. After exclusion, 2268 overweight subjects were included for the final analysis. The primary end point was incident CKD, which was defined as a composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m or the development of proteinuria.The mean patient age was 36.3 ± 3.0 years, and 1285 (56.7%) were men. They were divided into 2 groups according to the median NC in male and female subjects, separately. In both sexes, hypertension (men, P < 0.001; women, P = 0.009) and diabetes (men, P = 0.002; women, P < 0.001) were significantly more prevalent in the big NC group than in the small NC group. In contrast, eGFR was significantly lower only in male subjects of the big NC group (P < 0.001), whereas it was comparable between the small and big NC groups (P = 0.167). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, NC values were independently associated with incident CKD development in female subjects after adjusting for multiple confounding factors (per 1 cm increase, hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.159 [1.024-1.310], P = 0.019) but not in male subjects.NC is independently associated with the development of CKD in overweight female subjects, suggesting

  18. Resonance and cut-off surfaces in the ion cyclotron frequency range in toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonances and cut-offs of the fast Alfven and ion-cyclotron waves have been studied for a multicomponent plasma in a toroidal axisymmetric geometry. The resonance and cut-off frequencies are given by eigenvalues of ordinary differential equations on the rosonance and cut-off sufaces, respectively. These surfaces coincide with magnetic surfaces. (author)

  19. Circunferência da cintura e índice de massa corporal como preditores da hipertensão arterial Waist circumference and body mass index as predictors of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário Gondim Peixoto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre índices antropométricos, índice de massa corporal (IMC e circunferência da cintura (CC e hipertensão arterial (HA e avaliar a capacidade desses índices na predição da HA. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal populacional realizado em Goiânia (GO, em 2001, com amostra de 1.238 adultos, de vinte a 64 anos. Foi definida como obesidade total (IMC > 30 kg/m², como obesidade abdominal (CC no nível 2 - CC > 88 cm para mulheres e > 102 cm para homens e como HA (pressão sistólica > 140 mmHg ou pressão diastólica > 90 mmHg, ou uso de hipotensores. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística múltipla para avaliar as associações entre os índices antropométricos e a HA. Análise de curva ROC para avaliar a sensibilidade e especificidade do IMC (> 30 e nível 2 da CC na predição da HA e para determinar os pontos de corte com melhor predição da HA. RESULTADOS: A CC apresentou associação com a HA em ambos os sexos. O nível 2 da CC e o IMC >30 kg/m² apresentaram baixa sensibilidade em identificar a HA. Os pontos de corte com melhor capacidade preditiva de HA coincidiram com o nível 1 da CC (> 80 cm e com o IMC >25 kg/m² (sobrepeso, para as mulheres, e foram inferiores aos valores do nível 1 da CC e de sobrepeso, para os homens. CONCLUSÃO: O nível 2 da CC e o IMC > 30 kg/m² não são adequados para identificar os grupos de maior risco de HA, já que esse risco se eleva com pequenos aumentos na adiposidade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between anthropometric indexes - body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC - and hypertension, and to evaluate the predictive value of these indexes in detecting hypertension. METHODS: Cross-sectional population study conducted in the city of Goiânia (GO with a sample of 1,238 adults aged twenty to 64 years, in 2001. Total obesity was defined as BMI > 30 kg/m²; abdominal obesity was defined as level 2 WC > 88 cm for women and > 102 cm for men, and

  20. Accuracy of sagittal abdominal diameter as predictor of abdominal fat among Brazilian adults: a comparation with waist circumference Precisión de diámetro abdominal sagital como predictor de la grasa abdominal en brasileños adultos: una comparación con la circunferencia de la cintura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Duarte Pimentel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aim was to compare the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD with waist circumference (WC as a predictor of central obesity among adults and to identify the sensitivity and specificity of the best cut-off point for SAD. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 266 Brazilians adults (euthrophic and overweight, aged 31-84 years old, of which 89 men and 177 women, was carried out. Anthropometric measurements such as SAD, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, waist and hip ratio, body mass index, body fat percentage were performed. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curve was used to identify the sensitivity and specificity of the best cut off point for SAD as a predictor of central obesity. Statistical analysis were considered significant with a value of p Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo es comparar el diámetro abdominal sagital (DAS con la circunferencia de la cintura (CC como predictor de la obesidad central entre los adultos y para determinar la sensibilidad y la especificidad de la mejor punto de corte para el DAS. Métodos: Estudio transversal de 266 adultos brasileños (eutróficos y con sobrepeso, de entre 31-84 años de edad, de los cuales 89 hombres y 177 mujeres, se llevó a cabo. Las medidas antropométricas como la DAS, peso, talla, circunferencia de la cintura y cadera, relación cintura-cadera, índice de masa corporal, porcentaje de grasa corporal se llevaron a cabo. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curva se utilizó para determinar la sensibilidad y la especificidad del mejor punto de corte para el DAS como predictor de la obesidad central. El análisis estadístico se consideró significativo un valor de p < 0,05. Resultados: La medición del DAS se correlacionó positivamente con CC para ambos sexos, aunque más fuerte entre las mujeres con sobrepeso y obesidad (r = 0,71, p < 0,001, r = 0,79, p < 0,001, respectivamente que los hombres. De curvas ROC identificado las mejores puntos de corte para el DAS de 23.1 cm y 20

  1. Dual cut-off dc-tunable microwave low-pass filter on superconducting Nb microstrips with asymmetric nanogrooves

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V.; Huth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present a dual cut-off, dc-tunable low-pass microwave filter on a superconducting Nb microstrip with uniaxial asymmetric nanogrooves. The frequency response of the device was measured in the range $300$\\,KHz to $14$\\,GHz at different temperatures, magnetic fields, and dc current values. The microwave loss is most effectively reduced when the Abrikosov vortex lattice spatially matches the underlying washboard pinning landscape. The forward transmission coefficient $S_{21}(f)$ of the microst...

  2. STUDY OF EFFECT OF BMI AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is undertaken to evaluate any association between BMI, WC and Blood pressure and any tendency to develop prehypertension. The study comprises of 100 medical students of NRI medical college, Sangivalasa near Visakhapatnam. It was carried out ongirl students with age of 17 ye ars. Their BMI, WC and Blood pressure were determined. The examination included measurement of weight, height of the student to determine BMI, measurement of waist circumference, and measurement of blood pressure by sphygmomanometer. In the present study t he results are consistent with early clinical studies reporting that there is elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure with increasing BMI and waist circumference and there is tendency to develop prehypertension in students with higher BMI. Modificat ion of life style factors should be emphasized.

  3. High Operating Temperature Barrier Infrared Detector with Tailorable Cutoff Wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Seibel, Alexander (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith Y. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A barrier infrared detector with absorber materials having selectable cutoff wavelengths and its method of manufacture is described. A GaInAsSb absorber layer may be grown on a GaSb substrate layer formed by mixing GaSb and InAsSb by an absorber mixing ratio. A GaAlAsSb barrier layer may then be grown on the barrier layer formed by mixing GaSb and AlSbAs by a barrier mixing ratio. The absorber mixing ratio may be selected to adjust a band gap of the absorber layer and thereby determine a cutoff wavelength for the barrier infrared detector. The absorber mixing ratio may vary along an absorber layer growth direction. Various contact layer architectures may be used. In addition, a top contact layer may be isolated into an array of elements electrically isolated as individual functional detectors that may be used in a detector array, imaging array, or focal plane array.

  4. Minimum length cutoff in inflation and uniqueness of the action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to most inflationary models, fluctuations that are of cosmological size today started out much smaller than any plausible cutoff length such as the string or Planck lengths. It has been shown that this could open an experimental window for testing models of the short-scale structure of space-time. The observability of effects hinges crucially, however, on the initial conditions imposed on the new comoving modes which are continually being created at the cutoff length scale. Here, we address this question while modeling space-time as obeying the string and quantum gravity inspired minimum length uncertainty principle. We find that the usual strategy for determining the initial conditions faces an unexpected difficulty because it involves reformulating the action and discarding a boundary term: We find that actions that normally differ merely by a boundary term can differ significantly when the minimum length is introduced. This is possible because the introduction of a minimum length comes with an ordering ambiguity much like the ordering ambiguity that arises with the introduction of (ℎ/2π) in the process of quantization

  5. Cutoff for extensions of massive gravity and bi-gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Recently there has been interest in extending ghost-free massive gravity, bi-gravity, and multi-gravity by including non-standard kinetic terms and matter couplings. We first review recent proposals for this class of extensions, emphasizing how modifications of the kinetic and potential structure of the graviton and modifications of the coupling to matter are related. We then generalize existing no-go arguments in the metric language to the vielbein language in second-order form. We give an ADM argument to show that the most promising extensions to the kinetic term and matter coupling contain a Boulware-Deser ghost. However, as recently emphasized, we may still be able to view these extensions as effective field theories below some cutoff scale. To address this possibility, we show that there is a decoupling limit where a ghost appears for a wide class of matter couplings and kinetic terms. In particular, we show that there is a decoupling limit where the linear effective vielbein matter coupling contains a ghost. Using the insight we gain from this decoupling limit analysis, we place an upper bound on the cutoff for the linear effective vielbein coupling. This result can be generalized to new kinetic interactions in the vielbein language in second-order form. Combined with recent results, this provides a strong uniqueness argument on the form of ghost-free massive gravity, bi-gravity, and multi-gravity.

  6. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Are Associated with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hexing; Ying ZHOU; Tang, Chuanxi; He, Yanhong; Wu, Jingui; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2013-01-01

    Background Lab studies have suggested that ubiquitous phthalate exposures are related to obesity, but relevant epidemiological studies are scarce, especially for children. Objective To investigate the association of phthalate exposures with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in Chinese school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three primary and three middle schools randomly selected from Changning District of Shanghai City of China in 2011–2012. Accordi...

  7. How well do we know the circumference of a storage ring?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M. [DESY (Germany); Ziemann, V., E-mail: volker.ziemann@physics.uu.se [Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2015-01-21

    High-precision nuclear physics experiments in storage rings require precise knowledge of the beam energy. In the absence of electron cooling, which provides this information, one can use the frequency of the radio-frequency system in conjunction with knowledge of the circumference of the ring. We investigate to which precision the latter can be determined in the presence of magnet misalignment and orbit correction.

  8. How well do we know the circumference of a storage ring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, M.; Ziemann, V.

    2015-01-01

    High-precision nuclear physics experiments in storage rings require precise knowledge of the beam energy. In the absence of electron cooling, which provides this information, one can use the frequency of the radio-frequency system in conjunction with knowledge of the circumference of the ring. We investigate to which precision the latter can be determined in the presence of magnet misalignment and orbit correction.

  9. Waist Circumference: A Key Determinant of Bone Mass in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Rapheeporn KHWANCHUEA; Sasithorn THANAPOP; Samuhasaneeto, Suchittra; Suree CHARTWAINGAM; Sirirak MUKEM

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess bone mineral density (BMD) status, and to explore association between lifestyle behaviors, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and BMD status of 217 students (55 males and 162 females) aged between 17 - 23 years studying at Walailak University. The BMD was measured at distal-third radius, and confirmed at mid-shaft tibia by Quantitative ultrasound analysis. BMI and WC were recorded to assess obesity, and lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a questio...

  10. Rate of Head Circumference Growth as a Function of Autism Diagnosis and History of Autistic Regression

    OpenAIRE

    WEBB, SARA JANE; Nalty, Theresa; Munson, Jeff; Brock, Catherine; Abbott, Robert; Dawson, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    Several reports indicate that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with increased rate of head growth in early childhood. Increased rate of growth may index aberrant processes during early development, may precede the onset of symptoms, and may predict severity of the disease course. We examined rate of change in occipitofrontal circumference measurements (abstracted from medical records) in 28 boys with ASD and in 8 boys with developmental delay without autism from birth to age 36 mo...

  11. Waist Circumference and Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Rural School Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; COELHO E SILVA, MANUEL J.; RIBEIRO, LUÍS P.; FERNANDES, ROMULO; Mota, Jorge; Malina, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research on relationships between lifestyle behaviors and adiposity in school youth is potentially importante for identifying subgroups at risk. This study evaluates the associations between waist circumference (WC) and objective measures of sedentary behavior (SB) in a sample of rural school adolescents. METHODS: The sample included 254 students (114 boys, 140 girls), 13-16 years of age, from rural regions of the Portuguese midlands.Height, weight, andWCwere measured. Cardiore...

  12. How well do we know the circumference of a storage ring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-precision nuclear physics experiments in storage rings require precise knowledge of the beam energy. In the absence of electron cooling, which provides this information, one can use the frequency of the radio-frequency system in conjunction with knowledge of the circumference of the ring. We investigate to which precision the latter can be determined in the presence of magnet misalignment and orbit correction

  13. Neck circumference as predictor of excess body fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves; Eliane Rodrigues de Faria; Sylvia Do Carmo Castro Franceschini; Silvia Eloiza Priore

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify whether neck circumference can predict cardiovascular risk factors and excess body fat in adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included male and female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years from Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The following data were collected: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, percentage of body fat according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipop...

  14. The Association Between Epicardial Adipose Tissue and Coronary Artery Disease: an Echocardiographic Cut-off Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Toufan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: EAT is an independent factor in coronary artery disease (CAD. The objective of the current study was to define an echocardiographic cut-off point for EAT and to determine its diagnostic value in predicting the increase in CAD risk. Methods: Two hundred patients underwent coronary artery angiography for diagnosis of CAD and transthoracic echocardiography for measurement of EAT on the right ventricle (RV, RV apex and RV outlet tract. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of the EAT cut-off points in the three above-mentioned areas for predicting the severity of CAD were measured. The relation between the EAT and CAD risk factors was evaluated as well. Results: EAT was independent from gender, height, hypertension, diabetes, HDL, total cholesterol, ejection fraction, acute coronary syndrome, and the location of the coronary artery stenosis in the coronary artery in all three anatomical areas. EAT on RV and RV apex had a significant relation with CAD (P ≤ 0.05. Overall, RV EAT≥ 10 mm and RV apex EAT ≥ 8 mm had sensitivity and PPV of more than 70% in predicting coronary stenosis ≥ 50% and acute coronary syndrome (ACS and RVOT EAT ≥ 13 mm is of PPV=83.5% for predicting coronary stenosis ≥ 50%. Conclusion: EAT thickness has an acceptable diagnostic value for predicting severe coronary artery stenosis and ACS. Therefore, non-invasive EAT thickness measurement could be of great assistance to clinicians for detecting the patients at risk and helping them to undergo supplementary evaluations with invasive approaches.

  15. Using serum α-fetoprotein for prognostic prediction in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: what is the most optimal cutoff?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yang Hsu

    Full Text Available The prognostic ability of α-fetoprotein (AFP for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC was examined by using different cutoff values. The optimal AFP cutoff level is still unclear.A total of 2579 HCC patients were consecutively enrolled in Taiwan, where hepatitis B is the major etiology of chronic liver disease. Four frequently used AFP cutoff levels, 20, 200, 400, 1000 ng/mL, were investigated. One-to-one matched pairs between patients having AFP higher and lower than the cutoffs were selected by using the propensity model. The adjusted hazard ratios of survival difference were calculated with Cox proportional hazards model.Patients with a higher AFP level were associated with more severe cirrhosis, more frequent vascular invasion, higher tumor burden and poorer performance status (all p0.05. Patients with AFP <20 ng/mL had significantly better long-term survival than patients with AFP ≧20 ng/mL (p<0.0001, and patients with AFP <400 ng/mL had significantly better overall outcome than patients with AFP ≧400 ng/mL (p = 0.0186. There was no difference of long-term survival between patients divided by AFP levels of 200 and 1000 ng/mL. The adjusted hazard ratios of AFP ≧20 ng/mL and AFP ≧400 ng/mL were 1.545 and 1.471 (95% confidence interval: 1.3-1.838 and 1.178-1.837, respectively.This study shows the independently predictive ability of baseline serum AFP level in HCC patients. AFP levels of 20 and 400 ng/mL are considered feasible cutoffs to predict long-term outcome in unselected HCC patients.

  16. Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick Caroline

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.

  17. Assessing Factors Related to Waist Circumference and Obesity: Application of a Latent Variable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Dalvand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because the use of BMI (Body Mass Index alone as a measure of adiposity has been criticized, in the present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference (continuous outcome and obesity (binary outcome among Iranian adults. Methods. Data included 18,990 Iranian individuals aged 20–65 years that are derived from the third National Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factors in Iran. Using latent variable model, we estimated the relation of two correlated responses (waist circumference and obesity with independent variables including age, gender, PR (Place of Residence, PA (physical activity, smoking status, SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure, CHOL (cholesterol, FBG (Fasting Blood Glucose, diabetes, and FHD (family history of diabetes. Results. All variables were related to both obesity and waist circumference (WC. Older age, female sex, being an urban resident, physical inactivity, nonsmoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and having family history of diabetes were significant risk factors that increased WC and obesity. Conclusions. Findings from this study of Iranian adult settings offer more insights into factors associated with high WC and high prevalence of obesity in this population.

  18. Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in anthropome......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in...... anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight...... (∆BW) and waist circumference (∆WC). METHODS: A total of 7,569 participants' from MONICA, the Diet Cancer and Health study and the INTER99 study were included in the study. We combined 50 obesity associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genetic scores: a score of all SNPs and a score...

  19. Common variants at 12q15 and 12q24 are associated with infant head circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taal, H Rob; St Pourcain, Beate; Thiering, Elisabeth;

    2012-01-01

    studies (combined N = 19,089). rs7980687 on chromosome 12q24 (P = 8.1 × 10(-9)) and rs1042725 on chromosome 12q15 (P = 2.8 × 10(-10)) were robustly associated with head circumference in infancy. Although these loci have previously been associated with adult height, their effects on infant head...... circumference were largely independent of height (P = 3.8 × 10(-7) for rs7980687 and P = 1.3 × 10(-7) for rs1042725 after adjustment for infant height). A third signal, rs11655470 on chromosome 17q21, showed suggestive evidence of association with head circumference (P = 3.9 × 10(-6)). SNPs correlated to the 17......q21 signal have shown genome-wide association with adult intracranial volume, Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, indicating that a common genetic variant in this region might link early brain growth with neurological disease in later life....

  20.  Trends in Waist Circumference and Central Obesity in Adults, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Tazik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: The main aim of this study is to determine the centralobesity trends during the period from 2006 to 2010 among 15-65years old people in Northern Iran.Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional studyconducted on 6466 subjects who had been chosen by a multistage cluster random sampling within five steps. The subjects wererandomly chosen from 325 clusters and each cluster included 20cases. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥102 cmand ≥88 cm in men and women, respectively.Results: Compared to 2010, the mean waist circumference in2006 changed from 87.2 cm to 88.1 cm in men (p=0.237, andfrom 90.3 cm to 88.6 cm in women (p=0.045. The comparisonbetween 2006 and 2010 revealed that the prevalence of centralobesity slightly decreased, 6.8�0and 2.4�0in urban women andmen, respectively. Generally, the mean of waist circumferencesignificantly decreased in urban women (by 0.069 cm in each year;p=0.020; however, the decrease of waist circumference in urbanmen was not significant (0.006 cm decrease each year; p=0.915.Conclusion: The prevalence of central obesity declined amongboth males and females in the urban area; however, there wasan attenuated increasing trend in the rural area. The disparity oftrends between the two regions should be considered for furtherstudy.

  1. Neck Circumference as a Predictor of Adiposity among Healthy and Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity, particularly in the upper part of body, is a major health problem. Because body mass index (BMI does not adequately describe regional adiposity, other indices of body fatness are being explored. OBJECTIVES: To determine if neck circumference is a valid measure of adiposity (fat distribution among group of Egyptian children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a cross sectional study, included 50 obese subjects, aged 7 - 12 years recruited from Endocrine, obesity and Metabolism Pediatric Unit at Children Hospital, Cairo University and 50 healthy children, age and sex matched. All children were subjected to blood pressure assessment (systolic SBP and diastolic DBP, and anthropometric assessment (body weight, height, neck circumference (NC, waist (WC and hip (HC circumferences, and skin fold thicknesses at three sites: biceps, triceps and sub scapular. BMI [weight (kg/height (m2] was calculated. RESULTS: In healthy females, significant associations were detected between NC and SBP, DBP and all anthropometric measurements. However, in healthy males NC was not significantly associated with BMI, SBP and DBP. In the obese group; both sexes; insignificant association was found between NC and SBP, DBP, BMI and skinfold thickness. CONCLUSION: NC is related to fat distribution among normal healthy female children. However, this relation disappears with increasing adiposity. The results do not support the use of NC as a useful screening tool for childhood obesity.

  2. Leptin reference values and cutoffs for identifying cardiometabolic abnormalities in the spanish population

    OpenAIRE

    Gijón-Conde, Teresa; Graciani, Auxiliadora; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Aguilera, M. Teresa; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Banegas, José R

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes y objetivo: Estimar los valores de referencia de leptina y calcular los puntos de corte de leptinemia que identifiquen anormalidad cardiometabólica en España. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado de 2008 a 2010 sobre 11.540 individuos representativos de la población española ≥ 18 años. La información se obtuvo mediante examen físico estandarizado y las analíticas se realizaron en un laboratorio central. La leptinemia se midió por inmunoensayo enzimático. Se definió anormalid...

  3. Frequent Detection of Respiratory Viruses without Symptoms: Toward Defining Clinically Relevant Cutoff Values

    OpenAIRE

    Rogier R Jansen; Wieringa, Joanne; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Visser, Caroline E.; Pajkrt, Dasja; Molenkamp, Richard; Menno D. de Jong; Schinkel, Janke

    2011-01-01

    Highly sensitive techniques, such as PCR, have greatly improved the detection of respiratory viruses. However, the sensitivity of PCR tests also complicates clinical interpretation, as the presence of small amounts of viral targets may not necessarily have clinical relevance. We performed a prospective case-control study in asymptomatic and symptomatic young children. PCR detection of 14 respiratory viruses was performed in nasal washes, and results were quantified in copies per milliliter. A...

  4. Echocardiography for the detection of portopulmonary hypertension in liver transplant candidates : An analysis of cutoff values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevens, Sarah; Colle, Isabelle; Reyntjens, Koen; Geerts, Anja; Berrevoet, Frederik; Rogiers, Xavier; Troisi, Roberto I.; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; De Pauw, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH), a complication of chronic liver disease, may be a contraindication to liver transplantation (LT) because of the elevated risk of peritransplant and posttransplant morbidity and mortality. Because POPH is frequently asymptomatic, screening with echocardiography is

  5. Quantitative chemical-shift MR imaging cutoff value: Benign versus malignant vertebral compression – Initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Z. Zidan

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Quantitative chemical shift MR imaging could be a valuable addition to standard MR imaging techniques and represent a rapid problem solving tool in differentiating benign from malignant vertebral compression, especially in patients with known primary malignancies.

  6. Reproducibility of the cutoff probe for the measurement of electron density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. W.; You, S. J.; Kwon, J. H.; You, K. H.; Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; Yoon, J.-S.; Oh, W. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Since a plasma processing control based on plasma diagnostics attracted considerable attention in industry, the reproducibility of the diagnostics using in this application has become a great interest. Because the cutoff probe is one of the potential candidates for this application, knowing the reproducibility of the cutoff probe measurement becomes quit important in the cutoff probe application research. To test the reproducibility of the cutoff probe measurement, in this paper, a comparative study among the different cutoff probe measurements was performed. The comparative study revealed remarkable result: the cutoff probe has a great reproducibility for the electron density measurement, i.e., there are little differences among measurements by different probes made by different experimenters. The discussion including the reason for the result was addressed via this paper by using a basic measurement principle of cutoff probe and a comparative experiment with Langmuir probe.

  7. Associations of built food environment with body mass index and waist circumference among youth with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamichhane Archana P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth with diabetes are at increased risk for obesity and cardiovascular disease complications. However, less is known about the influence of built food environment on health outcomes in this population. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of accessibility and availability of supermarkets and fast food outlets with Body Mass Index (BMI z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. Methods Information on residential location and adiposity measures (BMI z-score and waist circumference for 845 youths with diabetes residing in South Carolina was obtained from the South Carolina site of the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlets data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and InfoUSA were merged based on names and addresses of the outlets. The comprehensive data on franchised supermarket and fast food outlets was then used to construct three accessibility and availability measures around each youth’s residence. Results Increased number and density of chain supermarkets around residence location were associated with lower BMI z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. For instance, for a female child of 10 years of age with height of 54.2 inches and weight of 70.4 pounds, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with about 2.8–3.2 pounds higher weight, when compared to female child of same age, height and weight with highest supermarket density around residence location. Similarly, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with a 3.5–3.7 centimeter higher waist circumference, when compared to residence location with the highest supermarket density. The associations of number and density of chain fast food outlets with adiposity measures, however, were not significant. No significant associations were observed between distance to the nearest supermarket and adiposity measures

  8. Measurement of mid-arm muscle circumference and prognosis in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartari, Rafaela Festugatto; Ulbrich-Kulczynski, Jane Maria; Filho, Antônio Fabiano Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Overall survival (OS) varies widely in patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Strong prognostic factors are still needed to improve decision-making regarding standard treatment options, to stratify patients for inclusion in innovative therapeutic trials and to identify patients who would be best treated with palliative care rather than with systemic chemotherapy. Mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) is a bedside anthropometric measurement that estimates somatic protein reserve, an early indicator of nutritional depletion. This measurement is simple, non-invasive, objective and inexpensive to perform. We evaluated MAMC as a potential prognostic factor in patients with stage IV NSCLC. A total of 56 non-selected consecutive patients with stage IV NSCLC were evaluated. The MAMC measurement results for these patients were expressed as a percentage of the expected reference values, adjusted for gender and age. Patients were categorized as normal (MAMC ≥90%) or depleted (MAMC model). MAMC is a strong independent prognostic factor in stage IV NSCLC patients. Patients with MAMC <90% of the expected value had poor OS. PMID:23426523

  9. Trabecular-iris circumference volume in open angle eyes using swept-source fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigi, Mohammed; Blieden, Lauren S; Nguyen, Donna; Chuang, Alice Z; Baker, Laura A; Bell, Nicholas P; Lee, David A; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A; Feldman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV), which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan). Trabecular-iris space area (TISA) and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15) years (range 20-79). TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD) value of 4.75 µL (±2.30) for TICV500 and a mean (±SD) value of 8.90 µL (±3.88) for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P = 0.035). In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter. PMID:25210623

  10. Trabecular-Iris Circumference Volume in Open Angle Eyes Using Swept-Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rigi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV, which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan. Trabecular-iris space area (TISA and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15 years (range 20–79. TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD value of 4.75 µL (±2.30 for TICV500 and a mean (±SD value of 8.90 µL (±3.88 for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P=0.035. In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter.

  11. Scope and verification of a Fissile Material (Cutoff) Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippel, Frank N. von [Program on Science and Global Security, Princeton University, 221 Nassau St., 2nd floor, Princeton, NJ 08542 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    A Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) would ban the production of fissile material - in practice highly-enriched uranium and separated plutonium - for weapons. It has been supported by strong majorities in the United Nations. After it comes into force, newly produced fissile materials could only be produced under international - most likely International Atomic Energy Agency - monitoring. Many non-weapon states argue that the treaty should also place under safeguards pre-existing stocks of fissile material in civilian use or declared excess for weapons so as to make nuclear-weapons reductions irreversible. This paper discusses the scope of the FMCT, the ability to detect clandestine production and verification challenges in the nuclear-weapons states.

  12. Effective Potential in Curved Space and Cut-Off Regularizations

    CERN Document Server

    Sobreira, Flavia; Shapiro, Ilya L

    2011-01-01

    We consider derivation of the effective potential for a scalar field in curved space-time within the physical regularization scheme, using two sorts of covariant cut-off regularizations. The first one is based on the local momentum representation and Riemann normal coordinates and the second is operatorial regularization, based on the Fock-Schwinger-DeWitt proper-time representation. We show, on the example of a self-interacting scalar field, that these two methods produce equal results for divergences, but the first one gives more detailed information about the finite part. Furthermore, we calculate the contribution from a massive fermion loop and discuss renormalization group equations and their interpretation for the multi-mass theories.

  13. Negative effective mass below a cut-off frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Shanshan; Hu, Gengkai

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials with negative effective mass below a cut-off frequency are studied. An equivalent mass-spring structure is firstly proposed for such metamaterials, the effective mass is found to follow the Drude model: being negative below a specific frequency. The peculiar behavior is then verified by transmission experiments operating in the low-frequency regime. Inspired by the mass-spring model, we investigate the two-dimensional elastic waveguide with clamped boundaries and attribute the bandgap occurring below a critical frequency to negative effective mass density. The finding helps us to design a new acoustic Drude metamaterial, which enables shearing and bending deformations, in contrast to the membrane-type ones. Both simulation and experimental results show that the proposed metamaterial exhibits negative effective mass below 1200 Hz, thus opening broadband applications in vibration and noise controls.

  14. Cut-off points of the visceral adiposity index (VAI identifying a visceral adipose dysfunction associated with cardiometabolic risk in a Caucasian Sicilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amato Marco C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI is a sex-specific mathematical index, based on Waist Circumference (WC, Body Mass Index (BMI, triglycerides (TG and HDL cholesterol (HDL levels, indirectly expressing visceral adipose function and insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to find the optimal cut-off points of VAI identifying a visceral adipose dysfunction (VAD associated with cardiometabolic risk in a Caucasian Sicilian population. Methods Medical check-up data of 1,764 Primary Care patients (PC patients were retrospectively and cross-sectionally examined using a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve to determine appropriate stratified-for-age cut-off of VAI, for the identification of PC patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS according to the NCEP-ATP III criteria. The PC patients with higher VAI scores were subdivided into three groups according to VAI tertiles (i.e. PC patients with mild VAD, moderate VAD or severe VAD. Finally, VAD classes were compared to classical cardio- and cerebrovascular risk factors as independent predictors of coronary heart disease and/or myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack and/or ischemic stroke. Results Moderate and severe VADs proved to be independently associated with cardiovascular events [(OR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.92-14.87; p = 0.001 and (OR: 7.46; 95% CI: 2.64-21.05; p Conclusions Our study suggests that among Caucasian Sicilian subjects there are clear cut-off points of VAI able to identify a VAD strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk.

  15. Comparisons of high latitude E > 20 MeV proton geomagnetic cutoff observations with predictions of the SEPTR model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ling

    Full Text Available Radiation effects from solar energetic proton (SEP events are a concern when the International Space Station reaches high latitudes accessible to SEPs. We use data from the 20–29 and 29–64 MeV proton channels of the Proton/Electron Telescope on the SAMPEX satellite during nine large SEP events to determine the experimental geographic cutoff latitudes for the two energy ranges. These are compared with calculated cutoff latitudes based on a computer model, SEPTR (solar energetic particle tracer. The observed cutoff latitudes are systematically equatorward of the latitudes calculated by the SEPTR program using a Tsyganenko field model, but that model produces mean values of ~ 2° for latitudinal differences with observations, DLat, which are ~ 3 times smaller than those using the 1995 International Geomagnetic Reference Field model alone. The number distributions of DLat are peaked near 0° and decline toward higher values. With the Tsyganenko model, we find no significant trend in either the DLat or their variances with increasing Kp .Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles – Magnetospheric physics (polar cap phenomena – Space plasma physics (charged particle motion and acceleration

  16. Interacting logarithmic entropy-corrected holographic dark energy model with different cut-offs in Brans-Dicke cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Darabi, F

    2015-01-01

    We study the Interacting Logarithmic Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy model with different cut-offs in Brans-Dicke cosmology and obtain the equation of state and the squared of sound speed for each cut-off. The former is used to describe the accelerating or decelerating behaviour and the later is used to describe the classical stability or instability of the universe. The correspondence between the scalar field models and the logarithmic entropy-corrected holographic dark energy densities allows us to reconstruct the potentials and the dynamics of the quintessence and tachyon scalar field models in Brans-Dicke cosmology. We show that these models can describe the observed accelerated expansion of our universe with a parameter space consistent with the most recent observational data. However, it turns out that there is fine-tuning problem concerning the value of Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega$ at early universe which casts doubt on the viability of these dark energy models.

  17. Variations of the vertical cutoff rigidities for the world wide neutron monitor network during 1950-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    Vertical cutoff rigidities for the world wide neutron monitor network are obtained with one year resolution during the period of 1950-2020 by the method of trajectory calculations. The models of Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field and International Geomagnetic Reference Field have been used. Besides, cutoff rigidities for the whole period were obtained using model by Tsyganenko Ts89 with involving yearly mean values of Kp index. In each case an estimation of penumbra contribution was made in approximation of flat and low spectra (index in variations spectrum 0 and -1) of cosmic ray variations. The results testify total decrease of cut off rigidities practically in the all locations, which is apparently connected to the common decrease of magnetic field in a considered period.

  18. The Development Situation Investigation on the Waist Circumference and the Hip Circumference in Children and Adolescents of Qingdao%青岛市儿童青少年腰围臀围发育情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安乾; 陈暕; 高希宝; 于维森

    2015-01-01

    目的:掌握青岛市儿童青少年腰围和臀围发育情况,为制定全国标准提供参考。方法利用2014年全国学生体质健康调查研究所获得的腰围、臀围数据进行统计学分析。结果7~18岁儿童青少年腰围、臀围总的趋势是随年龄增长而增长;14岁以前,腰臀比随年龄的增长而增长,14岁以后趋于平稳。城市儿童青少年腰围、臀围高于乡村。不同体重状况儿童青少年的腰围、臀围发育水平均为肥胖组>超重组>体重正常组。结论儿童期的腰围和腰臀成为预测成人期肥胖及其相关健康危险的重要指标,青岛市儿童青少年腰围、臀围监测结果,可为制定全国统一的青少年腰围臀围标准提供参考,也为预防儿童肥胖和慢性病提供科学依据。%Objective To grasp the developmental state of the waist circumference and the hip circumference in children and ad -olescents of Qingdao ,so as to provide a reference for the national standard .Methods The statistical analysis was used to analyze the data of the waist circumference and the hip circumference which were obtained from the national student physical health research in 2014.Results The trend of the waist circumference and the hip circumference increased with the age in children and adolescents aged 7~18 years old ,and the same as the waist-hip ratio( WHR) before 14 years old,but stabilized after 14 years old.The waist circumference and the hip circumfer-ence in urban children were higher than the rural children'.The developmental level of the waist circumference and the hip circumference in children with different weight status was:obesity group>overweight group >normal group .Conclusion The waist circumference and the hip circumference have become important indicators to predict adult obesity and the related health hazards .The monitoring results of the waist circumference and the hip circumference in children of Qingdao provide not only a

  19. Some consequences of GUP induced ultraviolet wavevector cutoff in one-dimensional Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, K; Nagy, S

    2013-01-01

    A projection method is proposed to treat the one-dimensional Schrodinger equation for a single particle when the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) generates an ultraviolet (UV) wavevector cutoff. The existence of a unique coordinate representation called the naive one is derived from the one-parameter family of discrete coordinate representations. In this bandlimited Quantum Mechanics a continuous potential is reconstructed from discrete sampled values observed by means of a particle in maximally localized states. It is shown that bandlimitation modifies the speed of the center and the spreading time of a Gaussian wavepacket moving in free space. Indication is found that GUP accompanied by bandlimitation may cause departures of the low-lying energy levels of a particle in a box from those in ordinary Quantum Mechanics much less suppressed than commonly thought when GUP without bandlimitation is in work.

  20. ELISA Cut-off Point for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis; a Comparison with Serum Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a world-wide disease, which has a diverse clinical manifestation, and its diagnosis has to be proven by laboratory data. Serum agglutination test (SAT is the most-widely used test for diagnosing brucellosis. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA can also determine specific antibody classes against brucella. It is a sensitive, simple and rapid test, which could be an acceptable alternative to SAT with fewer limitations, however, like any other new test it should be further evaluated and standardized for various populations. This study was planned to determine an optimal cut-off point, for ELISA which would offer maximum sensitivity and specificity for the test when compared to SAT.Methods: Four hundred and seven patients with fever and other compatible symptoms of brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Serum agglutination test, 2-Mercaptoethanol test, and ELISA were performed on their sera. Results: The cut-off point of 53 IU/ml of ELISA-IgG yielded the maximal sensitivity and specificity comparing to the other levels of ELISA-IgG, and was considered the best cut off-point of ELISA-IgG to diagnose acute brucellosis. At this cut-off, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 84.09%, 85.38%, 62.20, 94.90, 5.75, 0.18, respectively.Conclusion: The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG is 53 IU/ml, which yields the maximal sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute brucellosis.

  1. Neck circumference correlates with tumor size and lateral lymph node metastasis in men with small papillary thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi Ra; Kim, Sang Soo; Huh, Jung Eun; Lee, Byung Joo; Lee, Jin Choon; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seong Jang; Wang, Soo Geun; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, In Joo

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Obesity is correlated with numerous diseases, including thyroid cancer, but the clinical significance of obesity with regard to the clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer remains unclear. Neck circumference is an index of upper-body adipose tissue distribution. Methods In total, 401 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) measuring ≤ 2 cm were included. Neck circumference was measured horizontally at the level just below the thyroid cartilage on preoperative neck c...

  2. Comparison between body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness and mid-arm muscle circumference in Saudi adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolescence is an important period in an individual's life. Overweight and obesity are fraught with several health problems even late in life. The objective of this study was estimate the overweight, obesity, body fat and muscle content of Saudi adolescents as compared to a recognized reference population. Data were collected from a sample of Saudi adolescents in Jeddah from 42 boys' and 42 girls' school during the month of April 2000. Data collection was done by personal interviews to collect sociodemograhic factors and by direct measurement of weight, height, triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) and mid-arm circumference (MAC). The 50th, 85th and 95th percentiles(P50, P85 and P95) for body mass index (BMI) and triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) were taken, then the 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles (P50, P90 and P95) for the mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were calculated. These measurements were compared with corresponding values of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES I). The P85 and P95 for the BMI and TSF were higher for Saudi adolescents than the NHANES I and the difference was wider for P95. Conversely, there was a lower MAMC at P90 and P95thane the NHANES I reference population curves. The lower MAMC curves were less marked in girls than in boys. On the other hand Saudi boys and girls showed on average similar body mass index indicated by MBI at P50, which was misleading, since those adolescents showing similar body mass index had more fatness than of average reference population indicated by TSF and P50, and less muscularity on average than reference population indicated MAMC at P-50. Overweight and obesity with increased body fat content and decreased body muscle content appear to be widespread among Saudi adolescents even among those adolescents showing average body index. Public health interventions are required to improve quality of food, encourage physical, activity and exercise, as well as correct the perception of

  3. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Berentzen, T L; Halkjær, Jytte;

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective was to inv...... investigate the association between intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products and subsequent changes in weight and WC. Furthermore, potential effect modification by sex, age, body mass index and WC at baseline was investigated....

  4. Genetic associations between scrotal circumference and female reproductive traits in Nelore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakado, A P N; Boligon, A A; Baldi, F; Silva, J A I I V; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic associations between scrotal circumference obtained at 12 (SC12; mean of 21.46 ± 2.74 cm), 15 (SC15; mean of 25.31 ± 3.19 cm), and 18 mo of age (SC18; mean of 26.77 ± 2.95 cm) and reproductive traits measured directly in heifers (age at first calving [AFC]: mean of 1,062.06 ± 114.79 d; heifer pregnancy at 16 mo of age [HP]: mean of 15.4 ± 0.36%; and subsequent rebreeding of primiparous heifers [HR]: mean of 27.1 ± 0.44%) using Bayesian inference to evaluate the possible inclusion of these traits as selection criteria in beef cattle breeding programs. Genetic gains comparisons were also estimated. A total of 53,683 data of Nelore animals born between 1990 and 2006, obtained from the livestock archive of Agropecuária Jacarezinho Ltda. (Valparaíso, São Paulo, Brazil), were analyzed. Two-trait analysis provided heritability estimates of 0.35 ± 0.08, 0.40 ± 0.04, 0.37 ± 0.03, 0.21 ± 0.01, 0.55 ± 0.03, and 0.17 ± 0.03 for SC12, SC15, SC18, AFC, HP, and HR, respectively. The genetic correlations between scrotal circumference and AFC, HP, and HR were -0.42 ± 0.12, 0.43 ± 0.13, and -0.13 ± 0.17, respectively, for SC12; -0.25 ± 0.07, 0.26 ± 0.07, and -0.11 ± 0.10, respectively, for SC15; and -0.22 ± 0.06, 0.39 ± 0.06, and 0.11 ± 0.09, respectively, for SC18. The direct selection response for HP was 0.12%, but when HP is indirectly selected based on the scrotal circumferences, the gains on these correlated responses were higher (0.16, 0.16, and 0.22%) for selection based on SC12, SC15, and SC18, respectively. These findings suggest that the selection of animals for larger scrotal circumference, particularly at 12 mo of age, should result in higher rates of HP and younger AFC of Nelore females. PMID:26115258

  5. Short children with a low midupper arm circumference respond to food supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Phelan, Kevin P Q; Cichon, Bernardette;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The management of children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) is based on food supplementation in outpatient programs. When midupper arm circumference (MUAC) is used as the sole admission criterion, it is common practice to exclude children with lengths <67 cm from treatment. The ...... children <67 cm in supplementary feeding programs if their MUAC is between 115 and 124 mm and their WHZ is ≥-2. This could benefit millions of children currently excluded from supplementary feeding. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN42569496....

  6. Evaluation of marginal circumference and marginal thickness changes in precrimped stainless steel crowns, after recrimping

    OpenAIRE

    Afshar H; Mozafari Kojidi M

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aim: The need for recrimping precrimped stainless steel crowns by the dentist in clinic is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the rate of marginal circumference and marginal thickness change of precrimped stainless steel crowns after recrimping. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 primary photos were taken from margins of 30 S.S.Cs (3M, Ni-Cr) related to tooth 85 with a digital camera fixed at a determined distance. Margins of crowns were crimped by 1...

  7. Trends in Waist Circumference and Central Obesity in Adults, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Tazik; Abdolhamid Angizeh; Pooneh Moharloei; Samieh Banihashem; Mehdi Sedaghat; Gholamreza Veghari; Abbas Moghaddami

    2012-01-01

     Objectives: The main aim of this study is to determine the centralobesity trends during the period from 2006 to 2010 among 15-65years old people in Northern Iran.Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional studyconducted on 6466 subjects who had been chosen by a multistage cluster random sampling within five steps. The subjects wererandomly chosen from 325 clusters and each cluster included 20cases. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥102 cmand ≥88 cm in men and wome...

  8. Spectral cutoffs of Fermi-LAT GRBs 080916C and 090926A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biao Li; Zhuo Li

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that there should be a spectral cutoff at the high energy end of emission from a prompt gamma-ray burst (GRB),due to,e.g.γγ absorption and/or a high energy cutoff in the electron distribution.We analyze the spectral data of FermiLAT detected GRBs 080916C and 090926A,aiming at locating the spectral cutoff.By assuming that the prompt GRB spectrum at the high energy end is a power law with an exponential cutoff,our analysis finds that the cutoff energy Ecutoff depends on the photon index β and the cutoff occurs at very high energy,Ecutoff =161+-53395 GeV in GRB 080916C and Ecutoff (≥)100 GeV (forβ ≈-2.3) in GRB 090926A.Such high energy photons,if they exist,may disfavor the synchrotron origin and need alternative generation mechanisms.

  9. Diagnóstico da restrição de crescimento fetal pela relação diâmetro transverso do cerebelo e circunferência abdominal Diagnosis of fetal growth restriction by transverse cerebellar diameter/abdominal circumference ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Arimatea Barreto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: testar a validade da relação diâmetro transverso do cerebelo (DTC/circunferência abdominal (CA no diagnóstico da restrição de crescimento fetal (RCF, determinando seu melhor ponto de corte e acurácia nas restrições simétrica e assimétrica. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo, transversal, envolvendo 250 gestantes com gravidez única, idade gestacional entre a 20ª e a 42ª semana, confirmada por ultra-sonografia. A medida do DTC foi obtida colocando-se os calipers nas margens externas do cerebelo, após sua localização na fossa posterior, com suave rotação do transdutor abaixo do plano do tálamo. A circunferência abdominal foi medida na junção das veias porta esquerda e umbilical. O melhor ponto de corte da relação DTC/CA foi obtido pela curva ROC (receiver operator characteristic. Os neonatos cujas relações DTC/CA foram maiores do que o ponto de corte selecionado foram considerados com RCF. Consideraram-se padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico de RCF recém-nascidos cujos pesos situaram-se abaixo do percentil 10. Neonatos com RCF e índice ponderal de Rohrer entre 2,2 e 3 foram considerados simétricos e abaixo de 2,2, assimétricos. RESULTADOS: o ponto de corte da relação DTC/CA, obtido pela curva ROC foi 16,1. A sensibilidade, especificidade, acurácia, valores preditivos positivo e negativo e razões de verossimilhança positiva e negativa foram de 77,4; 82,6; 38,7; 96,3; 82; 4,5 e 3,7%, respectivamente. Na RCF simétrica a sensibilidade e especificidade foram de 80,8 e 81,7%, respectivamente. Na assimétrica, a sensibilidade e especificidade foram de 60 e 75%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: a relação DTC/CA mostrou-se eficaz no diagnóstico da RCF simétrica e assimétrica.PURPOSE: to evaluate the validity of transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD/abdominal circumference (AC ratio in the diagnosis of fetal growth restriction (FGR, determining its best cutoff value and accuracy in symmetric and asymmetric FGR. METHOD: a

  10. Calibration of Thomson scattering systems using electron cyclotron emission cutoff data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative method of absolute calibration of Thomson scattering (TS) systems is described. The method is based on the measurements of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) from the plasma. If the plasma density reaches some critical value the emission at some frequencies is cut off and an abrupt loss of signal is registered by the ECE diagnostic. These critical values are calculated from the frequencies of the ECE channels in which cutoffs are observed, using the dispersion relation for the wave propagation. The radial positions of the ECE channels are bound to the measured magnetic field in the tokamak and, therefore, are known. The derived critical density values at certain positions in plasma are used to calculate absolute calibration coefficients for the core TS system. For that data points from the TS diagnostic are interpolated in time and space to these critical density values. This calibration technique is implemented in situ on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak during plasma operation. We use a nine-channel ECE diagnostic to calibrate the eight-channel core TS system. The uncertainty of the TS density calibration is ≤10%, which is less than that from the gas scattering calibrations. Good agreement exists between TS density profiles and measurements from the visible continuum diagnostic and interferometry. Given the wide availability of ECE diagnostics on most tokamaks and other fusion devices, this technique should be suitable on many other experiments

  11. Calibration of Thomson scattering systems using electron cyclotron emission cutoff data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhurovich, K.; Mossessian, D. A.; Hughes, J. W.; Hubbard, A. E.; Irby, J. H.; Marmar, E. S.

    2005-05-01

    An alternative method of absolute calibration of Thomson scattering (TS) systems is described. The method is based on the measurements of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) from the plasma. If the plasma density reaches some critical value the emission at some frequencies is cut off and an abrupt loss of signal is registered by the ECE diagnostic. These critical values are calculated from the frequencies of the ECE channels in which cutoffs are observed, using the dispersion relation for the wave propagation. The radial positions of the ECE channels are bound to the measured magnetic field in the tokamak and, therefore, are known. The derived critical density values at certain positions in plasma are used to calculate absolute calibration coefficients for the core TS system. For that data points from the TS diagnostic are interpolated in time and space to these critical density values. This calibration technique is implemented in situ on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak during plasma operation. We use a nine-channel ECE diagnostic to calibrate the eight-channel core TS system. The uncertainty of the TS density calibration is ⩽10%, which is less than that from the gas scattering calibrations. Good agreement exists between TS density profiles and measurements from the visible continuum diagnostic and interferometry. Given the wide availability of ECE diagnostics on most tokamaks and other fusion devices, this technique should be suitable on many other experiments.

  12. The effect of Fermi momentum cutoff on the binding energy of closed-shell nuclei in the LOCV framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ground-state binding energies of the light symmetric closed-shell nuclei, i.e., 4He, 12C, 16O and 40Ca, and the heavy asymmetric ones, i.e., 48Ca, 90Zr and 120Sn, are calculated in the harmonic oscillator (HOS) basis, by imposing the relative Fermi momentum cutoff of two point-like interacting nucleons on the density-dependent average effective interactions (DDAEI). The DDAEI are generated through the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method calculations for the asymmetric nuclear matter with the operator and the channel-dependent-type bare nucleon-nucleon potentials, such as the Argonne Av18jmax=2 and the Reid soft core, Reid68, interactions. In the framework of the harmonic oscillator shell model, the cutoff is imposed by defining the maximum value of the relative quantum numbers (RQNmax) in two ways: (1) the RQNmax of the last shell and (2) the RQNmax of each shell, in the ground state of the nucleus. It is shown that present results on the binding energies and the root-mean-square radius are closer to the corresponding experimental data than our previous works with the same DDAEI potentials, but without the cutoff constraint. However, for the light symmetric nuclei, the second scheme gives less binding energy and larger root-mean-square radius compared to the first one, while the situation is reversed for the heavier nuclei.

  13. Twilight anomaly, midday recovery and cutoff latitudes during the intense polar cap absorption event of March 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ranta

    Full Text Available A study was made of the polar cap absorption (PCA event on 23-24 March 1991 produced by the largest solar proton event at E>10 MeV since August 1972. This PCA event was related to a solar flare in the eastern hemisphere lasting only 2 days and exhibiting a long time delay between the flare and the increase of ionospheric absorption. Midday recovery occurred regularly each PCA day near the cut-off latitudes during the noontime hours and is attributed to the daily variation in the proton cut-off latitudes. The maximum absorption during the PCA event was observed at high latitudes or near the cut-off latitudes where ionization may be due to both solar protons and trapped particles. The minimum in the absorption values during the night-time hours would appear to be caused by the chemistry of the D-region as well as access of the solar protons into the polar cap area.

  14. Emission Enhancement in a Plasmonic Waveguide at Cut-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alù

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of molecular emission is usually obtained by coupling small optical emitters with external resonant structures and systems, as first established by Purcell several decades ago, and verified in several recent investigations using molecules or quantum dots coupled with plasmonic nanoantennas. Here we theoretically investigate in detail a different mechanism for emission enhancement, based on our recent idea of a plasmonic nanolauncher [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2009, 103, 043902], i.e., a metamaterial-inspired ultranarrow waveguide channel operating near its cut-off frequency. Such system is not necessarily at resonance, but its peculiar operation may provide enhanced emission over a relatively broad physical area, which may allow enhancement of emission independent of the position of an individual or of a group of molecules along such plasmonic channel, and the possibility to bend and route the emitted energy with large flexibility. We present here extensive theoretical and numerical results that confirm this intuition and may envision a novel method for molecular emission enhancement at the nanoscale, with more flexibility than the conventional Purcell resonance techniques.

  15. The survey of School Circumference Hygiene in Area 2 Arak City and that’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ganji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe main goal of present research study condition of school circumference hygiene and that’s conformitywith national standard like: security, workshop and laberatory, buffet, enclosure, w.c, w.b,…the methodresearch is description and cross sectional that to register category data with diverts observation and censusand complete enumeration. There are many research results:- 58.33 percent of population is fit for girls' school and 41.66 percent is fit for son.53.44 percent is highschool and 46.55 percent is middle school.12.12 percent is one time school and 87.87 percent is two timesschool.- According to dimensions and indicators school circumference hygiene standard, average conformity in thisresearch is 45.04 percent and arrangement that conformity from up to down average conformity is:- The condition of repulse of sewage and rubbish is 100 percent.- The condition of enclosure is 55.38.- The condition of workshop and laboratory is 43.95- The condition of W.C, W.B and drinking cup is 38.43- The condition of security is 37.37- The condition of class is 37.13- The condition of buffet is 3.04

  16. The Significance of Macrocephaly or Enlarging Head Circumference in Infants With the Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Barnes, Patrick; Miller, Marvin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infants with the triad (neurologic dysfunction, subdural hematoma [SDH], and retinal hemorrhage) are often diagnosed as victims of shaken baby syndrome. Medical conditions/predisposing factors to developing the triad are often dismissed: short falls, birth-related SDH that enlarges, macrocephaly, sinus/cortical vein thrombosis, and others. Six infants with the triad are described in which child abuse was diagnosed, but parents denied wrongdoing. All 6 had either macrocephaly or enlarging head circumference, which suggested medical explanations. Three infants incurred short falls, 1 had a difficult delivery in which there was likely a rebleed of a birth-related SDH, 1 had a spontaneous SDH associated with increased extra-axial fluid spaces, and 1 had a sinus thrombosis. Following legal proceedings, all 6 infants were returned to their parents, and there has been no child maltreatment in follow-up, suggesting child abuse never happened. The results indicate that alternative medical explanations for causing the triad should be considered and that macrocephaly or an enlarging head circumference raises the possibility of a medical explanation. PMID:25893912

  17. Dipolar quantization and the infinite circumference limit of two-dimensional conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Elaborating on our previous presentation, where the term {\\it dipolar quantization} was introduced, we argue here that adopting $L_0-(L_1+L_{-1})/2+{\\bar L}_0-({\\bar L}_1+{\\bar L}_{-1})/2$ as the Hamiltonian instead of $L_0+{\\bar L}_0$ yields an infinite circumference limit in two-dimensional conformal field theory. The new Hamiltonian leads to dipolar quantization instead of radial quantization. As a result, the new theory exhibits a continuous and strongly degenerated spectrum in addition to the Virasoro algebra with a continuous index. Its Hilbert space exhibits a different inner product than that obtained in the original theory. The idiosyncrasy of this particular Hamiltonian is its relation to the so-called sine-square deformation, which is found in the study of a certain class of quantum statistical systems. The appearance of the infinite circumference explains why the vacuum states of sine-square deformed systems are coincident with those of the respective closed-boundary systems.

  18. VALIDITY OF USING WAIST AND HIP CIRCUMFERENCE MEASUREMENTS TO DETERMINE BODY COMPOSITION OF YOUNG SYRIAN MEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz; Ahmad, Husam

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the relation between waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and triceps skin-fold thickness and percentage body fat in young Syrian men. The aim was to develop equations that can use these anthropometric characteristics to estimate percentage body fat in this group of subjects. A total of 2470 healthy Syrian men aged 18-19 years were enrolled in the study in 2010-2011. The anthropometric characteristics of all subjects were measured. The percentage body fat of 213 of the subjects was determined using the deuterium dilution (DD) technique as a reference method. The validity of using WC, HC, WHpR and WHtR to calculate percentage body fat, in comparison with the reference method (DD technique), was assessed by calculating biases and limits of agreement. The estimates of percentage body fat using 'WC' and 'WC with triceps skin-fold' measurements ranged from 13.00±5.56% to 14.55±8.63%, and were lower than those determined using the reference method (21.32±6.42%). A better prediction equation is proposed for young adults, based on a multiple linear regression model using WC, HC and WHtR. PMID:26971838

  19. How high is too high in cutoff levels from 50-g glucose challenge test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun-Hwa; Kim, Ji Ye; Choi, Suk-Joo; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the highest 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) value that indicates no further diagnostic test is needed to confirm a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) under the criteria of National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) or the Carpenter and Coustan (C&C) and fasting glucose thresholds from the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG). Methods We collected the 50-g GCT results from 16,560 pregnancies and identified 2,457 gravidas with positive 50-g GCT (≥130 mg/dL) values who underwent the 100-g glucose tolerance test. We investigated GDM prevalence in pregnancies with positive 50-g GCT according to the respective diagnostic thresholds and determined the 50-g GCT cutoff values with 100% positive predictive value for GDM under each diagnostic threshold. Results Twelve point five percent (306/2,457), 20.0% (492/2,457), and 9.6% (235/2,457) met the diagnostic criteria of GDM with the application of NDDG, C&C criteria, and fasting glucose thresholds from IADPSG (≥92 mg/dL), respectively. We also found that the prevalence of GDM increased with increasing 50-g GCT values using each diagnostic criterion. Importantly, we identified that all subjects with a 50-g GCT value ≥223, ≥217, or ≥228 mg/dL can be exclusively diagnosed as having gestational diabetes according to the criteria of NDDG, C&C, and fasting glucose thresholds from IADPSG, respectively. Conclusion We propose that women with a 50-g GCT screening value ≥228 mg/dL can be reliably omitted from further confirmative tests for GDM, such as 100- or 75-g glucose tolerance test. PMID:27200307

  20. Determination of depot fat of children by measuring skin folds, body circumference and body distances as well as by the 40K-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    10 different anthropometric measurements were performed in 134 children (mean age 3 years). We measured at 4 sites the thickness of four skin folds. In addition six body distances and circumferences were determined by means of a measuring tape. By multiple linear regression analysis those values were calculated, which representatively indicate the total fat content. Simultaneously a second depot fat determination was performed on these children by means of the 40K method. Here, the total potassium content was determined by measuring the natural 40K radioactivity of the whole body. The comparison of these two fat values showed good correlation. Our results confirm the opinion of those authors, who also evaluated the significance of this method. The measurement of the subcutaneous fatty tissue by means of anthropometric methods permits the objective analysis and evaluation of the outer state of nutrition of children. (orig./MG)

  1. 北京市城乡学生腰围臀围腰臀比分析%Waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio among students in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬盛鑫; 夏天; 杨忠; 安康; 尹丽君; 王东江; 宋玉珍; 刘淑娟

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解2010年北京市7~18岁中小学生腰围臀围和腰臀比的年龄、性别特征,为学生体质健康研究资料提供有益补充.方法 对2010年北京市体质调研7~18岁中小学生的腰围、臀围和腰臀比进行描述性分析.结果 男生腰围均值、腰臀比高于女生;城区男生臀围均值高于女生,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05或P<0.01),郊区男、女生臀围差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).腰围均值12岁前有随年龄增长而增加的趋势.学生臀围均值有随着年龄的增长而增加的趋势,差异有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).城区男生腰围均值高于郊区男生(P<0.05);城区女生腰围均值与郊区女生差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);城区男女生臀围均值大于郊区学生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);城郊区男生腰臀比均值差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);郊区女生腰臀比均值高于城区女生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 北京城乡7 ~18岁学生腰围、臀围和腰臀比随年龄变化总趋势一致,但城乡各指标间年龄、性别特征存在差异.%Objective To study the characteristics of waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio among students( aged 7-18 years) of different ages and sexes in Beijing. Methods As part of the Beijing students Physical fitness study, a stratified cluster representative sample of total population aged 7-18 years was selected. Anthropometric measure including waist circumference, hip circumference and the waist-hip ratio, using T test analysis methods to study the Beijing city and suburb students aged 7 to 18 waist circumference, hip circumference and the waist-hip ratio by age, gender differences in city and suburb areas. Results The boys' mean waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were higher than girls', the urban boys' mean hip circumference was higher than the urban girls( P 0.05). The mean waist circumference had an increasing trend with age before

  2. Normal values for segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy in pediatric patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Avila

    Full Text Available Localized limb edema is a clinically relevant sign in diseases such as post-thrombotic syndrome and lymphedema. Quantitative evaluation of localized edema in children is mainly done by measuring the absolute difference in limb circumference, which includes fat and fat-free mass. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS provides information on the fluid volume of a body segment. Our objective was to determine normal ranges for segmental (arm and leg BIS measurements in healthy children. Additionally, we determined the normal ranges for the difference in arm and ankle circumference and explored the influence of handedness and the correlation between techniques.Healthy children aged 1-18 years were recruited. The ratio of extracellular fluid content between contralateral limbs (estimated as the inter-arm and inter-leg extracellular impedance ratio, and the ratio of extracellular to intracellular fluid content for each limb (estimated as the intracellular to extracellular impedance ratio were determined with a bioimpedance spectrometer. Arm and ankle circumference was determined with a Gulick II tape.We recruited 223 healthy children (48 infants, 54 preschoolers, 66 school-aged children, and 55 teenagers. Normal values for arm and leg BIS measurements, and for the difference in arm and ankle circumference were estimated for each age category. No influence of handedness was found. We found a statistically significant correlation between extracellular impedance ratio and circumference difference for arms among teenagers.We determined normal BIS ranges for arms and legs and for the difference in circumference between arms and between ankles in children. There was no statistically significant correlation between extracellular impedance ratio and difference in circumference, except in the case of arms in adolescents. This may indicate that limb circumference measures quantities other than fluid, challenging the adequacy of this technique to determine the presence

  3. Differences in body circumferences, skin-fold thicknesses and lipid profiles among HIV-infected African children on and not on stavudine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Musiime

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study To compare body circumferences, skin-fold thickness (SFT and lipid levels (LL, as measures of lipodystrophy, among antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve and experienced children at enrolment into the CHAPAS-3 trial. Methods HIV-infected children in Uganda and Zambia, either ART-naïve or on stavudine (d4T for ≥2 years without clinical lipodystrophy, were randomised to receive d4T, abacavir (ABC or zidovudine (ZDV with lamivudine and efavirenz (EFV or nevirapine. At enrolment, mid-upper arm (MUAC and calf (CC circumferences, SFT (biceps, triceps, sub-scapular, supra-iliac and fasting lipids (total cholesterol (TC, low density lipo-protein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, triglycerides (TRIG were measured. Age/sex adjusted z-scores of MUAC, CC, SFT and the sum of SFT (SSF used Dutch reference data. ART-naïve and ART-experienced children were compared with t-tests using Stata v11.0. Summary of results Among 444 children, 224 (51% were male and 331 (74.5% ART-naïve. Mean (sd CD4% was 19.7% (10.2 versus (vs 34.2% (7.7 in ART-naïve vs ART-experienced children. The ART-naïve were younger than the ART-experienced children (median [IQR] age 2.5 [1.5, 4.0] vs 6.0 [5.5, 7.0] years, p<0.0001. Among the ART-experienced, 4/108 (3.7% were on EFV and median (IQR d4T use was 3.5 (2.7, 4.2 years. As expected, MUAC, CC, weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ z-scores were lower in the ART-naïve; the ART-experienced had lower SFT z-scores and higher TC and HDL, but lower TRIG (Table 1. Conclusions Failure-to-thrive likely contributed to lower circumference values in ART-naïve children. Among the ART-experienced, thinner SFT and higher TC values could be ART (particularly d4T-related. Normal values, currently unavailable for African children, are being collected. During trial follow-up, we will evaluate the effect of ABC, ZDV and d4T on development of lipodystrophy in naïve children and its reversibility in d4T-treated children

  4. Singularity of macroscopic variables near boundary for gases with cut-off inverse-power potential

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, I-Kun; Hsia, Chun-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the boundary singularity for stationary solutions of the linearized Boltzmann equation with cut-off inverse power potential is analyzed. In particular, for cut-off hard-potential cases, we establish the asymptotic approximation for the gradient of the moments. Our analysis indicates the logarithmic singularity of the gradient of the moments.

  5. Distress or no distress, that's the question: A cutoff point for distress in a working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhenen, W. van; Dijk, F.J.H. van; Schaufeli, W.B.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Background. The objective of the present study is to establish an optimal cutoff point for distress measured with the corresponding scale of the 4DSQ, using the prediction of sickness absence as a criterion. The cutoff point should result in a measure that can be used as a credible selection instrum

  6. Body mass index and abdominal circumference among teens in the countryside of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionara Holanda de Moura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric techniques, establishing the diagnosis of overweight / obesity as body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, are increasingly important. With this research we aimed to learn about BMI and relate it to the WC of adolescent students in two institutions in Piaui. This descriptive cross-sectional study of quantitative prevalence. It carried out in two public schools in Picos - PI with 145 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years for both sexes. Data collection was performed through a form from the months of August to December 2010. The prevalence of overweight was 3.7%. Overweight was significantly associated with increased WC (<0.0001. These results emphasize the relevance of conducting prevention and control of excess weight so that the health of adolescents should be maintained.

  7. Comparison of head circumference in an Israeli child population with United States and British standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palti, H; Peritz, E; Flug, D; Gitlin, M; Adler, B

    1983-01-01

    The head circumference (HC) growth pattern of infants from 1 to 24 months of age was studied in a Jerusalem community. The means of HC of the study population are smaller for each age and sex group than those of the National Center of Health Statistics, USA reference population, London children and the Nellhaus standard. The regression of HC on length explains about 20% of the variance. In an analysis of variance controlling for social class, birth order and length, the differences by region of origin of the mother were not significant. The smaller HC of the study population is probably due to these children being shorter and lighter than the above-mentioned western populations. Malnutrition as a factor for small HC was excluded. PMID:6838166

  8. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent of...... concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were...... associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...

  9. Waist circumference and body mass index as predictors of health care costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Betina; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Olsen, Kim Rose;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the present study we analyze the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) and future health care costs. On the basis of the relation between these anthropometric measures and mortality, we hypothesized that for all levels of BMI increased WC implies...... added future health care costs (Hypothesis 1) and for given levels of WC increased BMI entails reduced future health care costs (Hypothesis 2). We furthermore assessed whether a combination of the two measures predicts health care costs better than either individual measure. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY....../PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were obtained from the Danish prospective cohort study Diet, Cancer and Health. The population includes 15,334 men and 16,506 women 50 to 64 years old recruited in 1996 to 1997. The relationship between future health care costs and BMI and WC in combination was analyzed by use of categorized...

  10. Maternal prepregnancy waist circumference and BMI in relation to gestational weight gain and breastfeeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Nøhr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M;

    2015-01-01

    , affects GWG and breastfeeding behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how maternal prepregnancy fat distribution, described by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), is associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior. DESIGN: We analyzed 1371 live births to 1024 women after enrollment in the...... size was differently associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior depending on the location of the fat mass. Thus, maternal fat distribution may be a more important determinant of GWG and breastfeeding behavior than BMI alone.......BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that gestational weight gain (GWG) and breastfeeding behavior may influence long-term maternal abdominal fat mass. However, this could be confounded by abdominal fat mass before pregnancy because it is unknown whether abdominal fat mass, independently of body size...

  11. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer;

    2010-01-01

    -tester in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to determine the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference in patients with TKA when administered by physiotherapists (testers) with different clinical experience. METHOD......: The design was an intra-tester, inter-tester and intra-day reliability study. Nineteen outpatients (10 females) having received a TKA were examined by an inexperienced and an experienced physiotherapist. Following a standardized protocol, active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were...... and between physiotherapists (except passive knee extension). Changes in knee joint ROM of more than 6.6 degrees and 10 degrees (except active knee flexion) and knee joint circumference of more than 1.0 cm and 1.63 cm represent a real clinical improvement (SRD) or deterioration for a single individual within...

  12. Effects of selection for scrotal circumference in Limousin bulls on reproductive and growth traits of progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; McCann, M A; Kiser, T E

    1996-09-01

    Nine pairs of Limousin bulls from nine contemporary groups were acquired, with each pair consisting of one large scrotal circumference (SC) bull and one small SC bull. Average adjusted yearling scrotal circumferences were 36.3 cm (SD 1.6 cm) and 28.5 cm (SD .9 cm) for large SC (LP) and small SC (SP) bulls, respectively. In addition to the phenotypic grouping, non-parent SC EPD were used to group bulls into high (HE, > .53 cm), average (AE), and low (LE, Brangus x Hereford cows each yr for 1 to 3 yr. Birth weights, weaning and yearling weights and heights, and ultrasound measurements for backfat and ribeye measurements were taken on 407 progeny. Blood samples were collected on 210 heifer progeny when they averaged 11, 13, and 15 mo of age to determine whether they had reached puberty. When subjected to a breeding soundness exam (BSE), LP bulls scored higher (P < .01) for motility as well as total BSE score. The LP calves had heavier birth weights (P < .05) and greater testicular mass at weaning (P < .01) than SP calves. The HE and AE bull calves had greater (P < .02) testicular mass than did the LE bull calves. A greater (P < .05) percentage of HE heifers had reached puberty by the 11- and 13-mo measurements than either the AE or LE heifers. The HE heifers reached puberty at a younger age than AE (P < .01) or LE (P < .001) heifers. Selection using SC EPD was more effective than phenotypic selection in reducing age at puberty in daughters. PMID:8880405

  13. Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    EL Mabchour A; Delisle H; Vilgrain C; Larco P; Sodjinou R; Batal M

    2015-01-01

    Asma EL Mabchour,1 Hélène Delisle,1 Colette Vilgrain,2 Philippe Larco,2 Roger Sodjinou,3 Malek Batal1 1Transition Nutritionnelle (TRANSNUT), WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition Changes and Development, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Haitian Foundation for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases (FHADIMAC), Port-au-Prince, Haiti; 3West Africa Health Organization (WAHO), Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Purpose: Waist circu...

  14. Defining a Valid Age Cutoff in Staging of Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Iain J.; Kuk, Deborah; Wreesmann, Volkert; Morris, Luc; Palmer, Frank L.; Ganly, Ian; Patel, Snehal G.; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Tuttle, R. Michael; Shaha, Ashok R.; Gönen, Mithat; Shah, Jatin P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Age 45 years is used as a cutoff in the staging of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) as it represents the median age of most datasets. The aim of this study was to determine a statistically optimized age threshold using a large dataset of patients treated at a comprehensive cancer center. Methods Overall, 1807 patients with a median follow-up of 109 months were included in the study. Recursive partitioning was used to determine which American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) variables were most predictive of disease-specific death, and whether a different cutoff for age would be found. From the resulting tree, a new age cutoff was picked and patients were restaged using this new cutoff. Results The 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) by Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) stage was 99.6, 100, 96, and 81 % for stages I–IV, respectively. Using recursive partitioning, the presence of distant metastasis was the most powerful predictor of DSS. For M0 patients, age was the next most powerful predictor, with a cutoff of 56 years. For M1 patients, a cutoff at 54 years was most predictive. Having reviewed the analysis, age 55 years was selected as a more robust age cutoff than 45 years. The 10-year DSS by new stage (using age 55 years as the cutoff) was 99.2, 98, 100, and 74 % for stages I–IV, respectively. Conclusion A change in age cutoff in the AJCC/UICC staging for WDTC to 55 years would improve the accuracy of the system and appropriately prevent low-risk patients being overstaged and overtreated. PMID:26215199

  15. Transmission characteristics of the wave cut-off probe with parallel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2012-10-01

    A cut-off probe has been used to obtain an absolute electron density from a plasma frequency. A cut-off probe with parallel plates was constructed to investigate the transmission characteristics of electromagnetic waves and electrostatic waves at various gaps, pressures and powers. It is found that a clear cut-off peak at a plasma frequency and many other peaks due to plasma sheath series resonance, cavity resonance and transmission line are observed. By using circuit model of plasma and transmission line theory, the various peaks was analyzed and discussed.

  16. Observation of the GZK Cutoff by the HiRes Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R U; Amman, J F; Archbold, G; Belov, K; Belz, J W; Ben-Zvi, S Y; Bergman, D R; Brusova, O A; Burt, G W; Cannon, C; Cao, Z; Connolly, B C; Deng, W; Fedorova, Y; Finley, C B; Gray, R C; Hanlon, W F; Hoffman, C M; Holzscheiter, M H; Hughes, G; Hüntemeyer, P; FJones, B; Jui, C C H; Kim, K; Kirn, M A; Loh, E C; Maestas, M M; Manago, N; Marek, L J; Martens, K; Matthews, J A J; Matthews, J N; Moore, S A; O'Neill, A; Painter, C A; Perera, L; Reil, K; Riehle, R; Roberts, M; Sasaki, N; Schnetzer, S R; Scott, L M; Sinnis, G; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Song, C; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Thomas, S B; Thomas, J R; Thomson, G B; Tupa, D; Westerhoff, S; Wiencke, L R; Zhang, X; Zech, A

    2007-01-01

    The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment has observed the GZK cutoff. HiRes' measurement of the flux of cosmic rays shows a sharp suppression at an energy of $6 \\times 10^{19}$ eV, exactly the expected cutoff energy. We observe the ``Ankle'' of the cosmic ray spectrum as well, at an energy of $4 \\times 10^{18}$ eV. We describe the experiment, data collection, analysis, and estimate the systematic uncertainties. The results are presented and the calculation of a $\\sim5$ standard deviation observation of the GZK cutoff is described.

  17. Detection of relevant colonic neoplasms with PET/CT: promising accuracy with minimal CT dose and a standardised PET cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luboldt, Wolfgang [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Volker, Teresa; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg [University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Wiedemann, Baerbel [University Hospital Dresden, Institute of Medical Informatics and Biometrics, Dresden (Germany); Wehrmann, Ursula [University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Surgery, Dresden (Germany); Koch, Arne; Abolmaali, Nasreddin [University Hospital Dresden, Oncoray, Dresden (Germany); Toussaint, Todd; Luboldt, Hans-Joachim [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); Middendorp, Markus; Gruenwald, Frank [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt (Germany); Aust, Daniela [University Hospital Dresden, Department of Pathology, Dresden (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    To determine the performance of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of relevant colorectal neoplasms (adenomas {>=}10 mm, with high-grade dysplasia, cancer) in relation to CT dose and contrast administration and to find a PET cut-off. 84 patients, who underwent PET/CT and colonoscopy (n=79)/sigmoidoscopy (n=5) for (79 x 6+5 x 2)=484 colonic segments, were included in a retrospective study. The accuracy of low-dose PET/CT in detecting mass-positive segments was evaluated by ROC analysis by two blinded independent reviewers relative to contrast-enhanced PET/CT. On a per-lesion basis characteristic PET values were tested as cut-offs. Low-dose PET/CT and contrast-enhanced PET/CT provide similar accuracies (area under the curve for the average ROC ratings 0.925 vs. 0.929, respectively). PET demonstrated all carcinomas (n=23) and 83% (30/36) of relevant adenomas. In all carcinomas and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (n=10) the SUV{sub max} was {>=}5. This cut-off resulted in a better per-segment sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) than the average PET/CT reviews (sensitivity: 89% vs. 82%; NPV: 99% vs. 98%). All other tested cut-offs were inferior to the SUV{sub max}. FDG-PET/CT provides promising accuracy for colorectal mass detection. Low dose and lack of iodine contrast in the CT component do not impact the accuracy. The PET cut-off SUV{sub max}{>=} 5 improves the accuracy. (orig.)

  18. An optimal cut-off point for the calving interval may be used as an indicator of bovine abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier

    2015-10-01

    The bovine abortion surveillance system in France aims to detect as early as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification and testing of each aborting cow, but under-reporting is high. This research uses a new and simple approach which considers the calving interval (CI) as a "diagnostic test" to determine optimal cut-off point c and estimate diagnostic performance of the CI to identify aborting cows, and herds with multiple abortions (i.e. three or more aborting cows per calving season). The period between two artificial inseminations (AI) was considered as a "gold standard". During the 2006-2010 calving seasons, the mean optimal CI cut-off point for identifying aborting cows was 691 days for dairy cows and 703 days for beef cows. Depending on the calving season, production type and scale at which c was computed (individual or herd), the average sensitivity of the CI varied from 42.6% to 64.4%; its average specificity from 96.7% to 99.7%; its average positive predictive value from 27.6% to 65.4%; and its average negative predictive value from 98.7% to 99.8%. When applied to the French bovine population as a whole, this indicator identified 2-3% of cows suspected to have aborted, and 10-15% of herds suspected of multiple abortions. The optimal cut-off point and CI performance were consistent over calving seasons. By applying an optimal CI cut-off point to the cattle demographics database, it becomes possible to identify herds with multiple abortions, carry out retrospective investigations to find the cause of these abortions and monitor a posteriori compliance of farmers with their obligation to report abortions for brucellosis surveillance needs. Therefore, the CI could be used as an indicator of abortions to help improve the current mandatory notification surveillance system. PMID:26318526

  19. Interactions of dietary protein and adiposity measures in relation to subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    dietary protein, whether replacing carbohydrate or fat, and weight change. However, individuals in the highest tertile of baseline BMI (irrespective of baseline WCBMI ) had significantly inverse change in waist circumference when protein replaced carbohydrate, but not when protein replaced fat. CONCLUSION......: Replacing carbohydrate with protein in the diet may prevent a relative increase in WC in individuals with a greater BMI....

  20. Dietary energy density in relation to subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Ginder, Vanessa;

    2009-01-01

    centers. After adjusting for baseline anthropometrics, demographic and lifestyle factors, follow-up duration and energy from beverages, ED was not associated with weight change, but significantly associated with waist circumference change overall. For 1 kcal/g ED, the annual weight change was -42 g...

  1. Waist Circumference, Weight, and Body Mass Index of Iranians Based on National Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Larijani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is an important and life-threatening disease, associated with different chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We sought to address the paucity of information on the trends of anthropometric indices such as weight, waist circumference, and body mass index in the adult population of Iran. Methods: We drew upon data from the First Non-communicable Disease Survey in Iran in 2005. In total, 79,611 participants between 20 and 64 years old were selected via the random multistage cluster sampling. The Lambda Median Scale method was applied to construct normal curves for anthropometric indices.Results: The mean of waist circumference in both genders increased with age and in all the age groups except those between 20 and 24 years old was higher in the women. The mean of body mass index was higher in all the age brackets in the women, but the means of weight and height were higher in the men. The association of theses indices with diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia was stronger in men. Conclusion: The ranges of waist circumference and body mass index in Iranian population are different from those of other countries. The higher body mass index and waist circumference in females and the direct association between obesity and chronic diseases, is advisable that the effects of this phenomenon be fully investigated and due heed be paid to the importance of lifestyle modification.

  2. The association of education with body mass index and waist circumference in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Hermann; S. Rohrmann; J. Linseisen; A.M. May; A. Kunst; H. Besson; D. Romaguera; N. Travier; M.J. Tormo; E. Molina; M. Dorronsoro; A. Barricarte; L. Rodriguez; F.L. Crowe; K.T. Khaw; N.J. Wareham; P.G.A. van Boeckel; H.B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; K. Overvad; M.U. Jakobsen; A. Tjonneland; J. Halkjaer; C. Agnoli; A. Mattiello; R. Tumino; G. Masala; P. Vineis; A. Naska; P. Orfanos; A. Trichopoulou; R. Kaaks; M.M. Bergmann; A. Steffen; B. van Guelpen; I. Johansson; S. Borgquist; J. Manjer; T. Braaten; G. Fagherazzi; F. Clavel-Chapelon; T. Mouw; T. Norat; E. Riboli; S. Rinaldi; N. Slimani; P.H.M. Peeters

    2011-01-01

    Background: To examine the association of education with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Method: This study included 141,230 male and 336,637 female EPIC-participants, who were recruited between 1992 and 2

  3. Head Circumference as an Early Predictor of Autism Symptoms in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Lauren M.; Dawson, Geraldine; Toth, Karen; Fein, Deborah; Munson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Siblings of children with autism have an increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). As children with autism often exhibit an atypical trajectory of head circumference (HC) growth, HC may be an indicator of vulnerability to autism. This study investigated whether infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 77) with an atypical trajectory of…

  4. Mid-upper arm circumference is associated with biochemically determined nutritional status indicators among adolescent girls in Central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja

    2016-08-01

    Biochemically determined nutritional status measurements in low-income countries are often too expensive. Therefore, we hypothesized that some anthropometrical or functional measurements (handgrip) could reflect nutritional status measured by specific biochemical indicators. We did a population-based study from 1 urban area and 2 rural districts in Zambézia Province of Mozambique. The participants (n=386) were non-pregnant adolescent girls between 15 and 18 years of age. 96% had a normal BMI-for-age score. Weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were highly correlated (r>0.8) with each other and with total body muscle mass, body mass index (BMI), and with waist circumference, as well as with skinfolds (r>0.6). Upper and total arm lengths were correlated (r>0.7) with height and with each other, and right and left handgrip were correlated only with each other, as were triceps and subscapular skinfolds (r>0.7). Serum albumin correlated negatively with waist circumference (Padolescent girls in low-income countries. When nutrition transition proceeds, waist circumference together with MUAC could form tools for the prediction of worsening of nutritional status. PMID:27440538

  5. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  6. Waist circumference as compared with body-mass index in predicting mortality from specific causes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Leitzmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether waist circumference provides clinically meaningful information not delivered by body-mass index regarding prediction of cause-specific death is uncertain. METHODS: We prospectively examined waist circumference (WC and body-mass index (BMI in relation to cause-specific death in 225,712 U.S. women and men. Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.1. RESULTS: During follow-up from 1996 through 2005, we documented 20,977 deaths. Increased WC consistently predicted risk of death due to any cause as well as major causes of death, including deaths from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and non-cancer/non-cardiovascular diseases, independent of BMI, age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and alcohol intake. When WC and BMI were mutually adjusted in a model, WC was related to 1.37 fold increased risk of death from any cancer and 1.82 fold increase risk of death from cardiovascular disease, comparing the highest versus lowest WC categories. Importantly, WC, but not BMI showed statistically significant positive associations with deaths from lung cancer and chronic respiratory disease. Participants in the highest versus lowest WC category had a relative risk of death from lung cancer of 1.77 (95% CI, 1.41 to 2.23 and of death from chronic respiratory disease of 2.77 (95% CI, 1.95 to 3.95. In contrast, subjects in the highest versus lowest BMI category had a relative risk of death from lung cancer of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.75 to 1.17 and of death from chronic respiratory disease of 1.18 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.56. CONCLUSIONS: Increased abdominal fat measured by WC was related to a higher risk of deaths from major specific causes, including deaths from lung cancer and chronic respiratory disease, independent of BMI.

  7. FACTORS AFFECTING THE HYDRAULIC BARRIER PERFORMANCE OF SOIL-BENTONITE MIXTURE CUT-OFF WALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Atsushi; Inui, Toru; Katsumi, Takeshi; Kamon, Masashi; Araki, Susumu

    Containment technique using cut-off walls is a valid method against contaminants in subsurface soil and/or groundwater. This paper states laboratory testing results on hydraulic barrier performance of Soil-Bentonite (SB), which is made by mixing bentonite with in-situ soil. Since the bentonite swelling is sensitive to chemicals, chemical compatibility is important for the hydraulic barrier performance of SB. Hydraulic conductivity tests using flexible-wall permeameter were conducted on SB specimens with various types and concentrations of chemicals in the pore water and/or in the permeant and with various bentonite powder contents. As a result, hydraulic barrier performance of SB was influenced by the chemical concentration in the pore water of original soil and bentonite powder content. In the case that SB specimens have damage parallel to the permeating direction, no significant leakage in the SB occurs by the self-sealing property of SB. In addition, the hydraulic conductivity values of SB have excellent correlation with their plastic indexes and swelling pr essures, thus these properties of SB have some possibility to be indicators for estimation of the hydraulic barrier performance of SB.

  8. EFFECTS OF THE TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY ON THE MASER INSTABILITY EXCITED BY LOWER ENERGY CUTOFF BEHAVIOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron-cyclotron maser (ECM) conventionally driven by velocity anisotropies of energetic electrons trapped in magnetic fields is one of the most important radio-emission mechanisms in astrophysics. Recently, Wu and Tang proposed that a proper lower energy cutoff behavior of power-law electrons can effectively excite the ECM emission. This paper considers effects of temperature anisotropy on this new ECM mechanism. The results show that the growth rates of the ECM emissions increase with βperpendicular0 and β||0, where βperpendicular0 and β||0 are the perpendicular and parallel velocity spreads (in units of the light velocity c) of the energetic electron beam, respectively. Moreover, the growth rates of O1 and X2 modes both sensitively depend on the ratio of the electron-cyclotron frequency to the plasma frequency Ω and reach their extremum values at Ω ≅ 1.5 for the O1 mode and at Ω ≅ 1.0 for the X2 mode. Meanwhile, as the mean velocity of the electron beam βs (in units of c) increases, the growth rate of the O1 mode remains approximately constant and that of the X2 mode decreases considerably.

  9. On the cutoff frequency of clarinet-like instruments: Geometrical vs acoustical regularity

    CERN Document Server

    Moers, Elise

    2011-01-01

    A characteristic of woodwind instruments is the cutoff frequency of their tone-hole lattice. Benade proposed a practical definition using the measurement of the input impedance, for which at least two frequency bands appear. The first one is a stop band, while the second is a pass band. The value of this frequency, which is a global quantity, depends on the whole geometry of the instrument, but is rather independent on the fingering. This seems to justify the consideration of a woodwind with several open holes as a periodic lattice. However the holes on a clarinet are very irregular. The paper investigates the question of the acoustical regularity: an acoustically regular lattice of tone holes is defined as a lattice built with T-shaped cells of equal eigenfrequencies. Then the paper discusses the possibility of division of a real lattice into cells of equal eigenfrequencies. It is shown that it is not straightforward but possible, explaining the apparent paradox of the Benade theory. When considering the ope...

  10. Short-range Cut-Off of the Summed-Up van der Waals Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Abhirup; Perdew, John P.

    2015-03-01

    van der Waals interactions are important in typical van der Waals-bound systems such as noble-gas, hydrocarbon, alkali and alkaline-earth dimers. The summed-up van der Waals series works well and gives an accurate result at large separation between two atoms. But it has a strong singularity at short non-zero separation, where the two atoms touch. In this work we remove that singularity with a reasonable and physical choice of the cut-off distance. Only one fitting parameter has been introduced for the short-range cut off. The parameter in our model has been optimized for each system, and a system-averaged value has been used to get the final binding energy curves. When this correction is added to the binding energy curve from the semilocal density functional meta-GGA-MS2, we get vdW- corrected binding energy curve. These curves are compared with the results of other vdW-corrected methods such as PBE-D2 and vdW-DF2 .Binding energy curves are in reasonable agreement with those from experiment. These curves also predict reasonably good equilibrium bond length. Supported by NSF (DMR).

  11. Waist circumference in the prediction of obesity-related adverse pregnancy outcomes Circunferência da cintura na predição de desfechos adversos da gestação relacionados à obesidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M. D. R. Wendland

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic properties of waist circumference in the prediction of obesity-related gestational outcomes. Pregnant women 20 years or older were consecutively enrolled in six Brazilian State capitals from 1991 to 1995. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Patients were followed through childbirth by chart review. Diagnostic performance for the different outcomes, as measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, was estimated through logistic regression. Areas under the ROC curve (95%CI for waist circumference were 0.621(0.589-0.652 for gestational diabetes, 0.640 (0.588-0.692 for preeclampsia, and 0.645(0.617-0.673 for macrosomia. These areas were similar to those for BMI (p > 0.05. A waist circumference of 82cm jointly maximized sensitivity (63% and specificity (57%. Cutoff points of 23kg/m² for pre-pregnancy BMI and 26kg/m² for BMI at enrollment produced similar diagnostic properties. In conclusion, waist circumference predicts obesity-related adverse pregnancy outcomes at least as well as BMI.O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar as propriedades diagnósticas da circunferência da cintura na predição de desfechos adversos da gestação relacionados à obesidade. Gestantes com 20 ou mais anos de idade, foram arroladas consecutivamente, entre 20 e 28 semanas de gestação, em seis capitais do Brasil, entre 1991 e 1995. Peso, altura e circunferência da cintura foram aferidos e um teste de tolerância à glicose foi realizado. As pacientes foram acompanhadas até o parto através de revisão de prontuários. Propriedades diagnósticas para os diferentes desfechos, mensurados através da área sob a curva Receiver Operator Charactheristic (ROC, foram estimadas por regressão logística. Áreas (IC95% sob as curvas ROC para a cintura foram 0,621 (0,589-0,652 para diabetes gestacional, 0,640 (0,588-0,692 para pr

  12. Variation of acoustic cutoff period with height in the solar atmosphere: theory versus observations

    CERN Document Server

    Murawski, K; Konkol, P; Wiśniewska, A

    2016-01-01

    Recently Wi\\'sniewska et al. demonstrated observationally how the acoustic cutoff frequency varies with height in the solar atmosphere including the upper photosphere and the lower and middle chromosphere, and showed that the observational results cannot be accounted for by the existing theoretical formulas for the acoustic cutoff. In order to reproduce the observed variation of the cutoff with atmospheric height, numerical simulations of impulsively generated acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere are performed, and the spectral analysis of temporal wave profiles is used to compute numerically changes of the acoustic cutoff with height. Comparison of the numerical results with the observational data shows good agreement, which clearly indicates that the obtained results may be used to determine the structure of the background solar atmosphere.

  13. Optimizing working parameters of the twin-range cutoff method in terms of accuracy and efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Han

    2012-01-01

    We construct a priori error estimation for the force error of the twin-range cutoff method, which is widely used to treat the short-range non-bonded interactions in molecular simulations. Based on the error and cost estimation, we develop a work flow that can automatically determine the nearly most efficient twin-range cutoff parameters (i.e. the cutoff radii and the neighbor list updating frequency) prior to a simulation for a predetermined accuracy. Both the error estimate and the parameter tuning method are demonstrated to be effective by testing simulations of the standard Lennard-Jones 6-12 fluid in gas, liquid as well as supercritical state. We recommend the tuned twin-range cutoff method that can save precious user time and computational resources.

  14. Doping-Spike PtSi Schottky Infrared Detectors with Extended Cutoff Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. L.; Park, J. S.; Gunapala, S. D.; Jones, E. W.; Castillo, H. M. Del

    1994-01-01

    A technique incorporating a p+ doping spike at the silicide/Si interface to reduce the effective Schottky barrier of the silicide infrared detectors and thus extend the cutoff wavelength has been developed.

  15. Surface Vacuum Energy in Cutoff Models: Pressure Anomaly and Distributional Gravitational Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, Ricardo; Mera, Fernando D

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum-energy calculations with ideal reflecting boundaries are plagued by boundary divergences, which presumably correspond to real (but finite) physical effects occurring near the boundary. Our working hypothesis is that the stress tensor for idealized boundary conditions with some finite cutoff should be a reasonable ad hoc model for the true situation. The theory will have a sensible renormalized limit when the cutoff is taken away; this requires making sense of the Einstein equation with a distributional source. Calculations with the standard ultraviolet cutoff reveal an inconsistency between energy and pressure similar to the one that arises in noncovariant regularizations of cosmological vacuum energy. The problem disappears, however, if the cutoff is a spatial point separation in a "neutral" direction parallel to the boundary. Here we demonstrate these claims in detail, first for a single flat reflecting wall intersected by a test boundary, then more rigorously for a region of finite cross section sur...

  16. Optical amplification of the cutoff mode in planar asymmetric polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, M.; Vehse, M.; Swensen, J.; Moses, D.; Heeger, A. J.; Perzon, E.; Andersson, M. R.

    2003-12-01

    Modes with low threshold for optical gain were observed at wavelengths close to the cutoff in experiments probing the amplified spontaneous emission of light-emitting polymer thin films. The polymer was the semiconductor layer in a multilayer semiconductor-insulator-metal structure that simulates the one-dimensional waveguide characteristics in the channel of a field-effect transistor. The "cutoff" mode propagates at the polymer/gate-insulator interface, has an optical gain threshold of approximately 10 kW/cm2, and is not influenced by absorption of the gate electrode. The wavelength of the amplified emission tracks the cutoff wavelength of the asymmetric double-waveguide structure and the cutoff mode is, therefore, tunable in wavelength. Our results suggest that the light-emitting field-effect transistor architecture is a promising route for the construction of an injection laser.

  17. Spin cut-off factor in SPA and SPA + RPA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spin cut-off factor (σ) is an important parameter needed in Bethe's formula for the fixed-J level density. The parameter σ is also required to relate the theoretical calculated state density with the experimentally observed level density

  18. Rotating arc cutoff with a Fluarc switch or a Rollarc contactor in SF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplay, C.

    1983-05-01

    The principles of rotating arc cutoff are reviewed, and applications to circuit breakers and contactors are indicated. The Rollarc (trademark) contactor offers high cutoff power (10 KA at 7.2 KV) and an extremely low level of overvoltage. The Fluorarc (trademark) circuit breaker is similar to the Rollarc, using a magnetic coil to shift the arc, but uses knife switches which are separated from the coil/arc assembly. Fluorarc is sealed for life, and requires no maintenance.

  19. Optimal Cutoff Titers for Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay for Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Cherry; Blacksell, Stuart D; Laongnualpanich, Achara; Kantipong, Pacharee; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Paris, Daniel H.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2015-01-01

    We determined the optimal cutoff titers in admission and convalescent-phase samples for scrub typhus indirect immunofluorescence assay using Bayesian latent class models. Cutoff titers of ≥1:3,200 in an admission sample or of a ≥4-fold rise to ≥1:3,200 in a convalescent-phase sample provided the highest accuracy (sensitivity, 81.6%; specificity, 100%).

  20. Surface effect theory in binary alloys: surfaces with cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A surface effect theory in binary alloys which ore ordered with surfaces with cut-off is presented. This theory is based in a model of pair interaction between first neighbours and includes long and short range effects. The (120) surface with sup(-) (110) monoatomic cut-off and terrace in the (110) planes of an alloy with body centered cubic structure is presented as example. Results for the concentrations in all the different surface sites are given. (L.C.)

  1. Sharp regularity properties for the non-cutoff spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation

    OpenAIRE

    Glangetas, Leo; Li, Hao-Guang; Xu, Chao-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Accepted to publish by "Kinetic and Related Models" In this work, we study the Cauchy problem for the spatially homogeneous non-cutoff Boltzamnn equation with Maxwellian molecules. We prove that this Cauchy problem enjoys Gelfand-Shilov regularizing effect, that means the smoothing properties is same as the Cauchy problem defined by the evolution equation associated to a fractional harmonic oscillator. The power of this fractional is exactly the singular index of non-cutoff collisional ker...

  2. Cutoff nonlinearities in the low-temperature vibrations of glasses and crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Hideyuki; Silbert, Leonardo E.; Sperl, Matthias; Mossa, Stefano; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    We present a computer simulation study of glassy and crystalline states using the standard Lennard-Jones interaction potential that is truncated at a finite cutoff distance, as is typical of many computer simulations. We demonstrate that the discontinuity at the cutoff distance in the first derivative of the potential (corresponding to the interparticle force) leads to the appearance of cutoff nonlinearities. These cutoff nonlinearities persist into the very-low-temperature regime thereby affecting low-temperature thermal vibrations, which leads to a breakdown of the harmonic approximation for many eigenmodes, particularly for low-frequency vibrational modes. Furthermore, while expansion nonlinearities which are due to higher order terms in the Taylor expansion of the interaction potential are usually ignored at low temperatures and show up as the temperature increases, cutoff nonlinearities can become most significant at the lowest temperatures. Anharmonic effects readily show up in the elastic moduli which not only depend on the eigenfrequencies, but are crucially sensitive to the eigenvectors of the normal modes. In contrast, those observables that rely mainly on static structural information or just the eigenfrequencies, such as the vibrational density of states, total potential energy, and specific heat, show negligible dependence on the presence of the cutoff. Similar aspects of nonlinear behavior have recently been reported in model granular materials, where the constituent particles interact through finite-range, purely repulsive potentials. These nonlinearities have been ascribed to the nature of the sudden cutoff at contact in the force law. As a consequence, we demonstrate that cutoff nonlinearities emerge as a general feature of ordered and disordered solid state systems interacting through truncated potentials.

  3. Alignment dependent enhancement of the photo-electron cutoff for multi-photon ionization of molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Smeenk, C.T.L.; Arissian, L; Sokolov, A. V.; Spanner, M.; Lee, K F; Staudte, A.; Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P B

    2013-01-01

    The multiphoton ionization rate of molecules depends on the alignment of the molecular axis with respect to the ionizing laser polarization. By studying molecular frame photo-electron angular distributions from N$_2$, O$_2$ and benzene, we illustrate how the angle-dependent ionization rate affects the photo-electron cutoff energy. We find alignment can enhance the high energy cutoff of the photo-electron spectrum when probing along a nodal plane or when ionization is otherwise suppressed. Thi...

  4. Distress or no distress, that's the question: A cutoff point for distress in a working population

    OpenAIRE

    Schaufeli Wilmar B; van Dijk Frank JH; van Rhenen Willem; Blonk Roland WB

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of the present study is to establish an optimal cutoff point for distress measured with the corresponding scale of the 4DSQ, using the prediction of sickness absence as a criterion. The cutoff point should result in a measure that can be used as a credible selection instrument for sickness absence in occupational health practice and in future studies on distress and mental disorders. Methods Distress is measured using the Four Dimensional Symptom Questionnair...

  5. Standardized reference of waist circumference among children and adolescents in Beijing using the LMS Method%北京市儿童青少年腰围正常值LMS法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕若然; 孟灵慧; 孙颖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the standardized reference of waist circumference (WC) among children and adolescents in Beijing.Method Stratified by rural and urban areas,level of economic status,a total of 9 421 students aged in 6-22years from 40 primary and middle schools and 2 colleges in 6 districts of Beijing were investigated.The reference intervals were calculated using the LMS method.Results WC was increasing by age in boys aged 7-22 years old; the same trend was in girls before 12 years old.At 18 years old,average WC was 76.62 cm in boys and 72.55 cm in girls.The WC was highest in obese students,followed by overweight and normal-weight students.WC cut-off values for screening overweight and obesity was 79.72 cm and 89.35 cm in boys aged 18 and 74.38 cm and 84.40 cm in girls,respectively.Conclusion Standardized reference of WC for screening overweight and obesity by using the LMS method is reliable.It can be used in Beijing.%目的 通过分析2010年北京市学生体质健康调研结果,建立北京市儿童腰围筛查分类标准.方法 按城乡、经济水平分层,调查北京市6个区40所中小学校和2所大学的7 ~ 22岁大中小学生8 795名.按照《2010年全国学生体质健康调研工作手册》规定的方法进行身体测量,以LMS法计算性别年龄别腰围各百分位数值,并绘制LMS曲线,建立北京市儿童青少年腰围正常值.结果 北京市7 ~22岁男生腰围随年龄的增加而增大,女生在12岁以前呈现同样趋势,但之后趋于稳定.18岁男、女生腰围分别为76.62 cm和72.55 cm.不同BMI组别间腰围均值不同,肥胖组>超重组>正常组.北京市18岁男生超重/肥胖的腰围筛查标准是79.72 cm和89.31 cm,女生分别是74.38 cm和84.40 cm.结论 LMS法建立的北京市儿童青少年腰围筛查标准准确,可以在北京地区推广使用.

  6. Determining Cutoff Scores on a Developmental Screening Measure: Use of Receiver Operating Characteristics and Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovanoff, P.; Squires, J.

    2006-01-01

    Two different theoretical approaches were compared to determine the optimal cutoff scores for the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ: SE), a social-emotional screening test. Cutoff scores based on statistical decision theory modeling, Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC), were compared with cutoff scores obtained using Item…

  7. Association between Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and changes in weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Ängquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Romaguera, Dora; Larsen, Sofus C; Østergaard, Jane N; Halkjaer, Jytte; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Wareham, Nicolas J; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Palli, Domenico; Boer, Jolanda M A; van der A, Daphne L; Boeing, Heiner; Loos, Ruth J F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2014-01-01

    between diet and genetic predisposition to adiposity, studies should consider both diet and genetics. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether FTO rs9939609 and TCF7L2 rs7903146 modified the association between the MDS and Nordic diet score (NDS) and changes in weight (Δweight), waist circumference (ΔWC), and...... Δweight (P = 0.53). The NDS was not significantly associated with any outcome. There was a borderline significant interaction between the MDS and TCF7L2 rs7903146 on weight gain (P = 0.05), which suggested a beneficial effect of the MDS only in subjects who carried 1 or 2 risk alleles. FTO did not modify...... observed associations. CONCLUSIONS: A high MDS is associated with a lower ΔWC and ΔWCBMI, regardless of FTO and TCF7L2 risk alleles. For Δweight, findings were less clear, but the effect may depend on the TCF7L2 rs7903146 variant. The NDS was not associated with anthropometric changes during follow-up....

  8. Maternal factors influencing infant abdominal circumference and birth weight - a population based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Objective: 1) To examine the impact of maternal pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and smoking on infant abdominal circumference (AC) and birth weight. 2) To define reference curves for AC and birth weight in offspring of healthy, non-smoking, normal weight women. Design: Population-based study...... outcome measures: Birth AC and weight in relation to pregestational maternal BMI, maternal smoking and medical conditions (any). Results: Infant AC and birth weight increased significantly (p<0.0001) with increasing maternal BMI. Smoking was negatively associated with AC resulting in a reduction in AC (95......% CI) of 0.47 (0.49-0.45) cm and a reduction in birth weight of 173 (177-169) g. In offspring of healthy non-smoking mothers with normal pregestational BMI, mean AC (±2SD) ranged from 30.1 (25.9-34.3) cm at GA 35 weeks to 33.9 (30.1- 37.7) cm at GA 41 weeks (girls), and from 30.2 (25.8-34.6) cm at GA...

  9. Phase properties of the cut-off high-order harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Khokhlova, M A

    2015-01-01

    The cut-off regime of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) by atoms in an intense laser field is studied numerically and analytically. We find that the cut-off regime is characterized by equal dephasing between the successive harmonics. The change of the harmonic phase-locking when HHG evolves from the cut-off to the plateau regime determines the optimal bandwidth of the spectral region which should be used for attosecond pulse generation via amplitude gating technique. The cut-off regime is also characterized by a linear dependence of the harmonic phase on the fundamental intensity. The proportionality coefficient grows as the cube of the fundamental wavelength, thus this dependence becomes very important for the HHG by mid-infrared fields. Moreover, for every high harmonic there is a {\\it range} of laser intensities providing the generation in the cut-off regime and the atomic response magnitude in this regime can be greater than that in the plateau regime. Thus the cut-off regime substantially contributes ...

  10. Translation invariant models in QFT without ultraviolet cutoffs

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshima, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The translation invariant model in quantum field theory is considered by functional integrations. Ultraviolet renormalization of the translation invariant Nelson model with a fixed total momentum is proven by functional integrations. As a corollary it can be shown that the Nelson Hamiltonian with zero total momentum has a ground state for arbitrary values of coupling constants in two dimension. Furthermore the ultraviolet renormalization of the polaron model is also studied.

  11. Determination of the optimal cut-off point for ELISA test for diagnosis of brucellosis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Finding a reliable diagnostic method for brucellosis is the most challengeable problem. In this study we determined the optimal diagnostic cut-off point for ELISA test."n"nMethods: We gathered 56 confirmed cases of brucellosis. Furthermore blood samples from 126 controls including 73 healthy controls and 53 without brucellosis febrile patients were collected. In all of the cases and controls ELISA Ig G and ELISA Ig M levels were measured and compared with each other by Box plot graph and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA Ig G and Ig M were fixed in different cut-off values and Ig G and Ig M levels yielding maximal sensitivity plus specificity were selected for determination of optimal cut-off point."n"nResults: The nineteen patients had positive blood cultures for Brucella melitensis. The standard agglutination test results were 1/160 or more in 54 patients. The Box plot graph indicated a high degree of dispersion for Ig G and Ig M data in patients with brucellosis compared with febrile patients without brucellosis and healthy controls. We observed partial overlap for Ig M data (not for Ig G between cases and controls. The area under ROC curve for

  12. Excitation energy and angular momentum dependence of nuclear level densities and spin cut-off factor in SPA and SPA + RPA approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the excitation energy (E*) and angular momentum (J) dependence of nuclear level density and spin cut-off factor (σ) within microscopic approaches based on SPA and its extension SPA+RPA representation of the grand partition function for quadrupole-quadrupole interaction model Hamiltonian. For 110Sn, we find that excitation energy dependence of the total level density obtained within these approaches is significantly different. On the other hand, these approaches yield similar behaviour for J-dependence of the level density at fixed values of E*. Values of σSPA+RPA at low E* are found to be slightly smaller than σSPA but they tend to become almost the same at higher E* (>30 MeV). We also find that Bethe's formula for fixed-J level density based on the spin cut-off approximation can be used to compute ρ(E*,J) near the yrast line provided one uses an appropriate value of the spin cut-off factor. (orig.)

  13. Cutoff effects of electron velocity distribution to the properties of plasma parameters near the plasma-sheath boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma properties under high thermodynamic non-equilibrium condition, established due to the presence of electrically biased electrode, are investigated. Assumption of electron cut-off velocity distribution function (VDF), as done by Andrews and Varey in their investigations of the sheath region [J. Phys. A 3, 413 (1970)], has been extended here to both plasma and sheath regions. Analytic expressions for the moments of electron VDF, as well as for the electron screening temperature function dependence on the plasma-sheath local potential are derived. In deriving the ion velocity distribution the ''standard'' assumption of strict plasma quasineutrality, or equivalently vanishing of the plasma Debye length, is employed, whereas the ions are assumed to be generated at rest over the plasma region. However, unlike the standard approach of solving the plasma equation, where pure Boltzmann electron density profile is used, here we employ modified Boltzmann's electron density profile, due to cutoff effect of the electron velocity distribution. It is shown that under these conditions the quasineutrality equation solution is characterised by the electric field singularity for any negative value of the electrode bias potential as measured with respect to the plasma potential. The point of singularity i.e., the plasma length and its dependence on the electrode bias and sheath potential is established for the particular case of ionization profile mechanism proportional to the local electron density. Relevant parameters for the kinetic Bohm criterion are explicitly calculated for both ions and electrons, for arbitrary electrode bias.

  14. Determination of the accuracy and optimal cut-off point for ELISA test in diagnosis of human brucellosis in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hasibi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In endemic area the most challenging problem for brucellosis is to find a reliable diagnostic method. In this case-control study, we investigated the accuracy of ELISA test for diagnosis of human brucellosis and determined the optimal cut-off value for ELISA results in Iran. The laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis was performed by blood isolation of Brucella organism with a BACTEC 9240 system and/or detection of Brucella antibodies by standard agglutination test (titer ≥ 1:160. Serum level of ELISA IgG and ELISA IgM from 56 confirmed cases of brucellosis and 126 controls were compared with each other by Box plot graph and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. Box plot graphs showed the high degree of dispersion for IgG and IgM data in patients compared with all controls. We observed partially overlapping for IgM data (not for IgG between cases and controls in graphs. The area under ROC curve for distinguishing between cases and controls was larger for IgG compared to IgM. Based on results of this study, ELISA IgG test was more reliable than ELISA IgM test in diagnosis of human brucellosis in Iran. Using a cut-off of 10 IU/ml and 50 IU/ml had most sensitivity (92.9% and most specificity (100% for ELISA IgG test, respectively.

  15. CFT dual of the AdS Dirichlet problem : Fluid/Gravity on cut-off surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Brattan, Daniel K; Loganayagam, R; Rangamani, Mukund

    2011-01-01

    We study the gravitational Dirichlet problem in AdS spacetimes with a view to understanding the boundary CFT interpretation. We define the problem as bulk Einstein's equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions on fixed timelike cut-off hypersurface. Using the fluid/gravity correspondence, we argue that one can determine non-linear solutions to this problem in the long wavelength regime. On the boundary we find a conformal fluid with Dirichlet constitutive relations, viz., the fluid propagates on a `dynamical' background metric which depends on the local fluid velocities and temperature. This boundary fluid can be re-expressed as an emergent hypersurface fluid which is non-conformal but has the same value of the shear viscosity as the boundary fluid. The hypersurface dynamics arises as a collective effect, wherein effects of the background are transmuted into the fluid degrees of freedom. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this collective fluid is forced to be non-relativistic below a critical cut-off radius in...

  16. Dietary Patterns of Young Females and Their Association With Waist Circumference as a Health Index in Northwest of Iran, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mohammad; Didarloo, Alireza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in western countries, the 50th and 95th percentile ranks for waist circumference in the Iranian young Females are higher than those of the western ones. Objectives: Identifying major dietary patterns in Iranian young females, which associate with central obesity, can probably explain the difference between Iranian young females’ pattern and those of their western peers regarding obesity. Patients and Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, a total of 257 young females aged 11 - 15 years old from Talaat Intelligent Guidance School, Tabriz, Iran (2007) were selected for the study using non-probability simple sampling method. Then, usual dietary intakes of all subjects were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist circumference, and Body Mass Index (BMI) using the standard protocols. Data were analyzed by inferential statistics (One-way ANOVA, Tukey test for Post-Hoc Analysis, Chi-square test, age-adjusted means, analysis of covariance with Bonferroni correction, correlation and partial correlation) by SPSS software. Results: In the current study, six major dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis method. Before and after controlling the age, subjects in the upper tertile of the Iranian Central Obesity Making Dietary Pattern (rich in cruciferous vegetables, green leafy vegetables, soft drinks, tomatoes, other vegetables and vegetable oils) had larger waist circumference in comparison with the ones in the lower tertile (before controlling for age: 64.2 ± 9 vs. 61.6 ± 7 P = 0.03; after: 64.5 ± 0.8 vs. 61.5 ± 0.8, P = 0.009). However in lacto vegetarian dietary pattern (rich in legumes, potato, other vegetables, dough, high-fat dairy products and margarine), individuals in the upper tertile had significantly lower weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with the ones

  17. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  18. Validation of Victoria Symptom Validity Test Cutoff Scores among Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Litigants Using a Known-Groups Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk-Eglit, Graham M; Lynch, Julie K; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    The Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT) is one of the most accurate performance validity tests. Previous research has recommended several cutoffs for performance invalidity classification on the VSVT. However, only one of these studies used a known groups design and no study has investigated these cutoffs in an exclusively mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) medico-legal sample. The current study used a known groups design to validate VSVT cutoffs among mild traumatic brain injury litigants and explored the best approach for using the multiple recommended cutoffs for this test. Cutoffs of 6, and <5 items correct on any block yielded the strongest classification accuracy. Using multiple cutoffs in conjunction reduced classification accuracy. Given convergence across studies, a cutoff of <18 Hard items correct is the most appropriate for use with mTBI litigants. PMID:26795609

  19. Hypertriglyceridemia and waist circumference predict cardiovascular risk among HIV patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Janiszewski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although half of HIV-infected patients develop lipodystrophy and metabolic complications, there exists no simple clinical screening tool to discern the high from the low-risk HIV-infected patient. Thus, we evaluated the associations between waist circumference (WC combined with triglyceride (TG levels and the severity of lipodystrophy and cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected men and women. METHODS: 1481 HIV-infected men and 841 HIV-infected women were recruited between 2005 and 2009 at the metabolic clinic of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia in Italy. Within each gender, patients were categorized into 4 groups according to WC and TG levels. Total and regional fat and fat-free mass were assessed by duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT and abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT were quantified by computed tomography. Various cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in clinic after an overnight fast. RESULTS: The high TG/high WC men had the most VAT (208.0 ± 94.4 cm(2, as well as the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (42.2% and type-2 diabetes (16.2%, and the highest Framingham risk score (10.3 ± 6.5 in comparison to other groups (p<0.05 for all. High TG/high WC women also had elevated VAT (150.0 ± 97.9 cm(2 and a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (53.3%, hypertension (30.5% and type-2 diabetes (12.0%, and Framingham risk score(2.9 ± 2.8 by comparison to low TG/low WC women (p<0.05 for all. CONCLUSIONS: A simple tool combining WC and TG levels can discriminate high- from low-risk HIV-infected patients.

  20. Changes in waist circumference and the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Landsvig Berentzen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Waist circumference (WC is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass index (DBMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on 15,577 men and 20,066 women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study were analyzed. Anthropometry was assessed in 1993-97 and 1999-02. Information on diabetes was obtained from The Danish National Diabetes Register. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated from Cox' proportional hazard models with individuals considered at risk from 1999-02 until December 31 2006. During 5.4 years of follow-up, 1,027 and 876 new cases of diabetes occurred among men and women, respectively. WC was positively associated with diabetes in both sexes also with adjustment for covariates and BMI. DWC was positively associated with diabetes in women, but not in men (HR per 5 cm change = 1.09 (1.04:1.15 in women, and 1.00 (0.94, 1.07 in men with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and DBMI. Associations with DWC were not notably different in sub-groups stratified according to baseline WC or DBMI, or when individuals with diseases or diabetes occurring within the first years of follow-up were excluded. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While this study confirmed that WC is positively associated with the risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, it surprisingly showed that changes in WC were not associated with the subsequent risk of diabetes in men, and only weakly positively associated with the risk of diabetes in women. Accordingly, these findings suggest that a reduction in WC may be a weak or insufficient or target for prevention of diabetes in middle-aged men and women.

  1. Association of Fetal Abdominal–Head Circumference Size Difference With Shoulder Dystocia: A Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loraine Endres

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This study aims to determine if shoulder dystocia is associated with a difference in the fetal abdominal (AC to head circumference (HC of 50 mm or more noted on antenatal ultrasound. Study Design - A multicenter matched case–control study was performed comparing women who had shoulder dystocia to controls who did not. Women with vaginal births of live born nonanomalous singletons ≥ 36 weeks of gestation with an antenatal ultrasound within 4 weeks of delivery were included. Controls were matched for gestational age, route of delivery, and diabetes status. Results - We identified 181 matched pairs. Only 5% of the fetuses had an AC to HC of ≥ 50 mm. The proportion of AC to HC difference of ≥ 50 mm was significantly higher in shoulder dystocia cases (8% than controls (1%, p = 0.002. With multivariate regression, the three significant factors associated with shoulder dystocia were AC to HC ≥ 50 mm (odds ratio [OR], 7.3; confidence interval [CI], 1.6–33.3; p = 0.010, femur length (OR, 1.1; CI, 1.0–1.2; p = 0.002, and induced labor (OR, 1.8; CI, 1.1–3.1; p = 0.027. Conclusion - A prenatal ultrasound finding of a difference in AC to HC of ≥ 50 mm while uncommon is associated with shoulder dystocia.

  2. Impact of waist circumference and body mass index on risk of cardiometabolic disorder and cardiovascular disease in Chinese adults: a national diabetes and metabolic disorders survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhong Hou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC or body mass index (BMI category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in Chinese adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 46,024 participants aged ≥20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007-2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96-2.44 vs 1.88 (1.67-2.12 and 1.12 (0.99-1.26; 5.70 (5.24-6.19 vs 1.51 (1.39-1.65 and 1.69 (1.57-1.82; and 3.73 (3.42-4.07 vs 2.16 (1.98-2.35 and 1.33 (1.25-1.40, respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk.

  3. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI, Body Adiposity Index (BAI, Waist Circumference (WC, Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR and Waist-To-Height Ratio (WHtR as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Chih Chiang Lam

    Full Text Available Excess adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Amongst the various measures of adiposity, the best one to help predict these risk factors remains contentious. A novel index of adiposity, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI was proposed in 2011, and has not been extensively studied in all populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR, Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR, Body Adiposity Index (BAI and CVD risk factors in the local adult population.This is a cross sectional study involving 1,891 subjects (Chinese 59.1% Malay 22.2%, Indian 18.7%, aged 21-74 years, based on an employee health screening (2012 undertaken at a hospital in Singapore. Anthropometric indices and CVD risk factor variables were measured, and Spearman correlation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves and multiple logistic regressions were used. BAI consistently had the lower correlation, area under ROC and odd ratio values when compared with BMI, WC and WHtR, although differences were often small with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for BMI, BAI did not further increase the odds of CVD risk factors, unlike WC and WHtR (for all except hypertension and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. When subjects with the various CVD risk factors were grouped according to established cut-offs, a BMI of ≥23.0 kg/m2 and/or WHtR ≥0.5 identified the highest proportion for all the CVD risk factors in both genders, even higher than a combination of BMI and WC.BAI may function as a measure of overall adiposity but it is unlikely to be better than BMI. A combination of BMI and WHtR could have the best clinical utility in identifying patients with CVD risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

  4. Thigh and knee circumference, knee-extension strength, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Husted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To (1) quantify changes in knee-extension strength and functional-performance at discharge after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA) and (2) investigate whether these changes correlate to changes in thigh and knee circumference (ie, swelling) or pain. DESIGN: A prospective......, descriptive, hypothesis-generating study. SETTING: A special unit for fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty operations at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four patients (20 women and 4 men; ages 69 ± 6.1 years) scheduled for primary unilateral THA. METHODS: All patients were evaluated before surgery...... and on the day of hospital discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Knee-extension strength, thigh and knee joint circumference, hip pain, and functional performance (Timed Up & Go, 30-Second Chair Stand, and 10-Meter Walk tests). RESULTS: All investigated variables changed significantly from before to after...

  5. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.;

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  6. Association between waist circumference and gray matter volume in 2344 individuals from two adult community-based samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, Deborah; Wittfeld, Katharina; Terock, Jan; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Habes, Mohamad; Hosten, Norbert; Friedrich, Nele; Nauck, Matthias; Domanska, Grazyna; Grabe, Hans Jörgen

    2015-11-15

    We analyzed the putative association between abdominal obesity (measured in waist circumference) and gray matter volume (Study of Health in Pomerania: SHIP-2, N=758) adjusted for age and gender by applying volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with VBM8 to brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We sought replication in a second, independent population sample (SHIP-TREND, N=1586). In a combined analysis (SHIP-2 and SHIP-TREND) we investigated the impact of hypertension, type II diabetes and blood lipids on the association between waist circumference and gray matter. Volumetric analysis revealed a significant inverse association between waist circumference and gray matter volume. VBM in SHIP-2 indicated distinct inverse associations in the following structures for both hemispheres: frontal lobe, temporal lobes, pre- and postcentral gyrus, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, insula, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, olfactory sulcus, para-/hippocampus, gyrus rectus, amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, fusiform and lingual gyrus, (pre-) cuneus and thalamus. These areas were replicated in SHIP-TREND. More than 76% of the voxels with significant gray matter volume reduction in SHIP-2 were also distinct in TREND. These brain areas are involved in cognition, attention to interoceptive signals as satiety or reward and control food intake. Due to our cross-sectional design we cannot clarify the causal direction of the association. However, previous studies described an association between subjects with higher waist circumference and future cognitive decline suggesting a progressive brain alteration in obese subjects. Pathomechanisms may involve chronic inflammation, increased oxidative stress or cellular autophagy associated with obesity. PMID:26256530

  7. Dietary Patterns of Young Females and Their Association With Waist Circumference as a Health Index in Northwest of Iran, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Mohammad; Didarloo, Alireza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in western countries, the 50th and 95th percentile ranks for waist circumference in the Iranian young Females are higher than those of the western ones. Objectives: Identifying major dietary patterns in Iranian young females, which associate with central obesity, can probably explain the difference between Iranian young females’ pattern and those of their western peers regarding obesity. Patients and Method...

  8. Correlation of the Ratio of Upper Third to Lower Third Circumferences of the Chest with Obstructive Pattern in Spirometry

    OpenAIRE

    Alavi Foumani, Ali; Amin, Azin; Tangestani Nejad, Azita; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Salamat, Fatemeh; Massahnia, Sara; Hassankhani, Amir; Khoshgozaran, Lida; Mirfallah Nasiri, Akram; Mohammadi, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obstructive Lung Diseases (OLDs), could lead to progressive hyperinflation of the lungs that cause increased work of breathing, impaired gas exchanges and functional limitations in patients. In this study, thoracic circumference of patients in upper and lower third were measured directly and the association of the upper to lower third width of chest with spirometric parameters was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, five hundred twenty nine consecutive...

  9. Determining the waist circumference cut off which best predicts the metabolic syndrome components in urban Africans: the SABPA study

    OpenAIRE

    Malan, Leone; Potgieter, Johannes Cornelis; Steyn, Hendrik Stefanus; J. Prinsloo; De Ridder, Johannes Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have shown that the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and abdominal obesity is age, gender as well as ethnicity-dependent. WC criteria for Sub Saharan Africans have not been defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The aim was to determine which WC cut off best predicted Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in a group of urban African teachers (80 males and 93 females). We determined sphygmomanometer blood pressure, WC, glucose, high density lipoprotein cholest...

  10. Head Circumference as an Early Predictor of Autism Symptoms in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Elder, Lauren M.; Dawson, Geraldine; Toth, Karen; Fein, Deborah; Munson, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Siblings of children with autism have an increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). As children with autism often exhibit an atypical trajectory of head circumference (HC) growth, HC may be an indicator of vulnerability to autism. This study investigated whether infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 77) with an atypical trajectory of HC growth were more likely than those without an atypical HC trajectory to develop autism symptoms. Results showed that infants who had larger HC at...

  11. Pregestational body mass index is related to neonatal abdominal circumference at birth--a Danish population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, M; Wehberg, S; Vinter, C A; Joergensen, J S; Ovesen, Per Glud; Beck-Nielsen, H; Jensen, D M; Christesen, H T

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of maternal pregestational body mass index (BMI) and smoking on neonatal abdominal circumference (AC) and weight at birth. To define reference curves for birth AC and weight in offspring of healthy, nonsmoking, normal weight women. DESIGN: Population-based study...... MEASURES: Birth AC and weight in relation to pregestational maternal BMI, maternal smoking and medical conditions (any). RESULTS: Birth AC and weight increased with increasing pregestational BMI, and decreased with smoking (P ...

  12. Retrospective Analysis of the Relationship between Decline in FEV1 and Abdominal Circumference in Male Smokers: the Takahata Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Masamichi; Shibata, Yoko; Abe, Shuichi; Inoue, Sumito; IGARASHI Akira; Yamauchi, Keiko; Aida, Yasuko; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Nunomiya, Keiko; Nakano, Hiroshi; Sato, Kento; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (Mets) is reportedly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship between abdominal circumference (AC) and decline in FEV1 has not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate this relationship among male current smokers. Methods: Spirometry was performed on subjects (n = 3,257) ≥ 40 years of age, who participated in a community-based annual health check in Takahata, Japan, from 2004 through 2006 (visit 1). Spirometry was r...

  13. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What is the...... value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections of...... morals and morality.2 The main question is then, what the use of `value' as the key-term in moral discourses means to morality as such. Accepting ethics as a part of morality - since one cannot be moral without sometimes reflecting on the validity of the morality employed andexperienced - I have...

  14. Adding value(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carré, David

    2015-01-01

    Most economic inquires revolve around agents making decisions. Getting the ‘best value’, it is assumed, drives such decisions: gaining most while risking least. This assumption has been debunked by showing that people does not always choose neither maximum benefit nor less risk (Kahneman & Tversky......, 1992). In response, behavioral economics (Camerer, 1999) has shown that agents have values other than optimization underpinning their decisions. Therefore, concerns arose regarding which values are guiding the agent but not about how such values became relevant for the agent. In this presentation, I...... will explore the consequences of shifting to the latter perspective, i.e. looking for the generative framework of values. Here I argue that economic behavior should also be seen as a sense-making process, guided by values that are chosen/rejected along with fellow human beings, in specific socio...

  15. Cutoff for the Transposition Walk on Permutations with One-Sided Restrictions

    CERN Document Server

    Blumberg, Olena

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the mixing time of the random transposition walk on permutations with one-sided interval restrictions. In particular, we're interested in the notion of cutoff, a phenomenon which occurs when mixing occurs in a window of order smaller than the mixing time. One of the main tools of the paper is the diagonalization obtained by Hanlon; the use of the spectral information is inspired by the famous paper of Diaconis and Shahshahani on the mixing time of the random transposition walk on the entire symmetric group. The diagonalization allows us to prove chi-squared cutoff for a broad class of one-sided restriction matrices. Furthermore, under an extra condition, the walk also undergoes total variation cutoff. Finally, a large collection of examples which undergo chi-squared cutoff but in which total variation mixing occurs substantially earlier and without cutoff is produced. These results resolve a conjecture of Diaconis and Hanlon from Section 5 of Hanlon's paper.

  16. Flood duration and chute cutoff formation in a wandering gravel-bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, A.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Chute cutoffs occur when a bypass or "chute" channel incises across a bar or low floodplain area, re-distributing water and sediment. Cutoffs result from a setup and a triggering event, typically during overbank flow, but the combined effect of magnitude and duration on potential erosion in in-channel and overbank areas is still poorly constrained. Here we investigated how overbank flow duration impacts cutoff formation and spatiotemporal shear stress patterns in a wandering gravel-bed river. We applied a two-dimensional hydraulic model to a recently reconstructed reach of the Clark Fork River in western Montana that experienced chute cutoffs during a long-duration flood in 2011. Hydrographs with increasing durations exceeding overbank were simulated; for each magnitude-duration combination, various metrics were quantified for in-channel and overbank areas separately. We confirm the hypothesized importance of floodplain elevation, vegetation presence, chute-channel inlet entrance location, and high overbank shear stress zones at bend apexes on cutoff occurrence. Floodplain width plays an important role in controlling unit discharge such that overbank areas are more competent in a narrower floodplain conveyance corridor. Duration controls cumulative flow exceeding sediment mobility thresholds, having the largest effect in overbank areas. Side channels at the reconstructed study site act like naturally formed incipient chutes. This work describes a complex floodplain system characteristic of wandering gravel-bed rivers with implications for understanding morphodynamic evolution, river restoration, and flow management in regulated rivers.

  17. Foot Length, Chest Circumference, and Mid Upper Arm Circumference Are Good Predictors of Low Birth Weight and Prematurity in Ethnic Minority Newborns in Vietnam: A Hospital-Based Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Hai Nguyen; Khanh, Dung Khu Thi; Thu, Ha Le Thi; Thomas, Emma G.; Lee, Katherine J.; Russell, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The evaluation of tools to accurately identify low birth weight (LBW) and/or premature newborns in resource-limited countries is a research priority. We explored the use of foot length, chest circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measured within 24 h as diagnostic tools for identifying newborns who are LBW, premature, or both; and compared measurements taken at birth with those taken at five days of age. Materials and Methods An observational study was undertaken in Hoa Binh Province General Hospital, Vietnam, in ethnic minority newborns. Birth weight, foot length, chest circumference, and MUAC were measured within 24 h of birth and in a subset of 200, were repeated on day five of life. Gestational age was estimated using the New Ballard Score. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and optimal cut-points (the point with the highest sensitivity and specificity where the sensitivity was at least 0.8) were calculated, for predicting prematurity, LBW, and both. Measurements within 24 h and at five days of life were compared. Results 485 newborns were recruited. Chest circumference and MUAC measured within 24 h of birth were found to be highly predictive of LBW (both yielding area under the curve [AUC] of 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96–0.99), and performed marginally better than foot length (AUC 0.94, 95%CI 0.92–0.96). The optimal cut-points for measurements within 24 h of birth were ≤7.4cm for foot length; ≤30.4cm for chest circumference; and ≤ 9.0cm for MUAC. There was statistical evidence that anthropometric measurements taken within 24 h of birth were higher than measurements on day five (p<0.02 for all anthropometric measurements) but the magnitude of these differences was small (at most 2mm). Conclusions All measurements taken within 24 h of birth were good predictors of LBW, prematurity and both. Differences in measurements taken within 24 h and on day five were not clinically relevant. Further research will ensure

  18. Scale Marking Method on the Circumference of Circle Elements for Astronomical Instruments in the Early Joseon Dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young Sook; Lee, Yong Sam

    2015-03-01

    During the reign of King Sejong (世宗, 1418-1450) in the Joseon Dynasty, there were lots of astronomical instruments, including miniaturized ones. Those instruments utilized the technical know-how acquired through building contemporary astronomical instruments previously developed in the Song(宋), Jin(金), and Yuan(元) dynasties of China. In those days, many astronomical instruments had circles, rings, and spheres carved with a scale of 365.25, 100, and 24 parts, respectively, on their circumference. These were called the celestial-circumference degree, hundred-interval (Baekgak), and 24 direction, respectively. These scales are marked by the angular distance, not by the angle. Therefore, these circles, rings, and spheres had to be optimized in size to accomodate proper scales. Assuming that the scale system is composed of integer multiples of unit length, we studied the sizes of circles by referring to old articles and investigating existing artifacts. We discovered that the star chart of Cheonsang yeolcha bunyajido was drawn with a royal standard ruler (周尺) based on the unit length of 207 mm. Interestingly, its circumference was marked by the unit scale of 3 puns per 1 du (or degree) like Honsang (a celestial globe). We also found that Hyeonju ilgu (a equatorial sundial) has a Baekgak disk on a scale of 1 pun per 1 gak (that is an interval of time similar to a quarter). This study contributes to the analysis of specifications of numerous circular elements from old Korean astronomical instruments.

  19. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleliani de Cassia da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents.METHODS:Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist circumferences, and biochemical evaluation. The pubertal stage was obtained by self-assessment, and the blood pressure, by auscultation. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance. The correlation between two variables was evaluated by partial correlation coefficient adjusted for the percentage of body fat and pubertal stage. The performance of neck circumference to identify insulin resistance was tested by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve.RESULTS: After the adjustment for percentage body fat and pubertal stage, neck circumference correlated with waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and markers of insulin resistance in both genders.CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the neck circumference is a useful tool for the detection of insulin resistance and changes in the indicators of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. The easiness of application and low cost of this measure may allow its use in Public Health services.

  20. Atmospheric neutrons at 8.5-GV cutoff in the southern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here, for the first time, southern hemispheric measurements of the altitude, latitude, angle, and energy distributions of atmospheric neutrons from 5 to 80 MeV. The data were obtained with the University of California, Riverside, balloon-borne telescope flown from Alice Springs, Australia, on November 10, 1981, at 290 south geomagnetic latitude (SGML). The efficiencies required to evaluate the fluxes for both the upward and the downward moving neutrons were obtained from a Monte Carlo program tested against neutron calibrations. The counting rates of the upward and the downward moving neutrons increase from a residual altitude of 4 gcm2 to a maximum at 100 gcm2 and then decrease rapidly. These variations agree well with the previous results of Preszler et al. (1974) at 410 north geomagnetic latitude (NGML). The escape current calculated at 290 SGML, 8.5-GV cutoff, for neutron energies between 20 and 70 MeV, is 0.059 +- 0.008 neutronscm2 s, adding another point to the latitude distribution, in good agreement with the theoretical predictions of Merker (1972). The angular distributions at all altitudes are similar, with dips near 600 and 1300 from the zenith direction. The energy distributions decrease with energy at all altitudes but flatten at energies around 25 MeV. The albedo neutron current decreases as E/sup -1.61//sup +- //sup 0.28/ at 4.1 gcm2. These values are compared with the experimental results of Preszler et al. (1974, 1976), Lockwood et al. (1976, 1979) and Bhatt (1983, 1986) and to the theoretical results of Armstrong et al. (1973) and Merker (1972,1975). copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  1. Lateral Cutoff Analysis and Results from NASA's Farfield Investigation of No-Boom Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliatt, Larry J., II; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Arnac, Sarah R.; Hill, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) and the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), in partnership with other industry organizations and academia, conducted a flight research experiment to analyze acoustic propagation at the lateral edge of the sonic boom carpet. The name of the effort was the Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds (FaINT). The test helped to build a dataset that will go toward further understanding of the unique acoustic propagation characteristics near the sonic boom carpet extremity. The FaINT was an effort that collected finely-space sonic boom data across the entire lateral cutoff transition region. A major objective of the effort was to investigate the acoustic phenomena that occur at the audible edge of a sonic boom carpet, including the transition and shadow zones. A NASA F-18B aircraft made supersonic passes such that its sonic boom carpet transition zone would intersect a linear 60-microphone, 7500-ft long array. A TG-14 motor glider equipped with a microphone on its wing also attempted to capture the same sonic boom rays that were measured on the ground, at altitudes of 3000 - 6000 ft above ground level. This paper determined an appropriate metric for sonic boom waveforms in the transition and shadow zones called Perceived Sound Exposure Level, and established a value of 65 dB as a limit for the acoustic levels defining the lateral extent of a sonic boom's noise region; analyzed the change in sonic boom levels as a function of distance from flight path both on the ground and 4500 ft above the ground; and compared between sonic boom measurements and numerical predictions.

  2. Potential interface slip analysis of Peribonka Dam plastic concrete cut-off wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morency, J.Y.; Chahde, J.; Bigras, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Garand, P.; Rattue, A. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The Peribonka hydroelectric development is currently under construction near the confluence of the Manouane River with the Peribonka River in Quebec. It includes an 80 m high dam and two dykes of zoned earth fills with a till core, an underground power house with an installed capacity of 385 MW, a diversion tunnel and a spillway. The Peribonka dam will be built on a highly permeable alluvial foundation. The design includes a 10 m high working platform in the river between the cofferdams and a plastic concrete cut-off wall (COW) down to bedrock. The maximum depth of the COW in a narrow canyon will be 115 m. A bi-dimensional finite element stress and deformation analysis software (SDAS) was used to model the stress-strain behaviour of the foundation soils and the COW under the dam. The SDAS software made it possible to determine the vertical deformations as well as the horizontal stress distribution in the foundation soils. It was shown that due to the oedometric nature of the loading of the soil, no significant shear stress was generated due to the soil deformations in the foundation below the axis of the dam. However, the finite element program did not allow hyperbolic model slip elements. As such, it was not possible to evaluate if negative skin friction occurred at the soilplastic concrete interface. For that reason, a one-dimensional model allowing the simulation of negative or positive friction between the soil and the COW was developed. This model considered the elastic-plastic behaviour of the COW using a hyperbolic model. It showed that nowhere, except in the upper 2 to 3 m of the COW embedment in the core, was negative friction able to mobilize the full value of the internal friction angle of the soil. 4 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  3. Computational study on reliability of sheath width measurement by the cutoff probe in low pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the technique for measurement of the sheath width by using the cutoff probe and its equivalent circuit model was proposed and conducted experimentally. In this study, we investigate the reliability of this technique based on the computational simulation. The simulation of three-dimensional Finite-Difference Time-Domain reproduces the transmission spectrum of the cutoff probe with an input parameter of sheath width. We measure the sheath width by using the circuit model and calculate the discrepancy between them under various input plasma densities and sheath widths. The results show the acceptable discrepancy under all of the conditions we studied (the largest discrepancy is about  45%). This indicates that the technique for measurement of sheath width around the floating tip of cutoff probe is robust and reliable. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  4. Investigation of the negative-mass behaviors occurring below a cut-off frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shanshan; Zhou, Xiaoming; Hu, Gengkai

    2010-10-01

    Negative-mass phenomena occurring below a cut-off frequency are examined using both theoretical and experimental methods. The paper begins with an investigation of a mass-spring structure, the effective mass of which is shown to be negative below a specific frequency. Due to the decaying nature of lattice waves in the negative-mass system, the transmission drop induced by negative effective mass is demonstrated experimentally. Further investigation is conducted for a rectangular solid waveguide with clamped boundary conditions. It is shown that the lowest bandgap mode of the clamped waveguide can be attributed to negative effective mass below a cut-off frequency. Based on this observation, elastic metamaterials made of a steel grid filled with styrene butadiene rubber are designed and fabricated. Both the simulation and experimental analyses demonstrate that the designed metamaterials have negative effective mass below a cut-off frequency.

  5. Comment on "Cutoff dependence of the Casimir force within an inhomogeneous medium"

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Fanglin

    2015-01-01

    Horsley and Simpson [Phys. Rev. A 88, 013833 (2013)] recently claimed that the inhomogeneous Casimir pressure in a piston model is cutoff dependent, and diverges when the cutoff parameter is removed ({\\xi}->0). We demonstrate that, there is a miscalculation in their derivation, and our correction results in a cutoff independent Casimir pressure, based on first-order perturbation theory. We give the general expressions of first-order perturbative inhomogeneous Casimir energy which make it convenient to analyze the divergence problem or to yield the Casimir force. The Casimir pressure contribution of parallel waves (with wave vector parallel to the Casimir plates) together with the non-commutativity of limit and summation operators, are discussed and found to be useful for understanding the inhomogeneous divergence declared in another paper [Phys. Rev. A 87, 043806 (2013)]. We should emphasize that we cannot yet give an exact expression of inhomogeneous Casimir pressure beyond first-order perturbation, which is...

  6. Mass-number and excitation-energy dependence of the spin cutoff parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, S. M.; Voinov, A. V.; Massey, T. N.

    2016-07-01

    The spin cutoff parameter determining the nuclear level density spin distribution ρ (J ) is defined through the spin projection as 1 /2 or equivalently for spherical nuclei, ( 3 ) 1 /2. It is needed to divide the total level density into levels as a function of J . To obtain the total level density at the neutron binding energy from the s -wave resonance count, the spin cutoff parameter is also needed. The spin cutoff parameter has been calculated as a function of excitation energy and mass with a super-conducting Hamiltonian. Calculations have been compared with two commonly used semiempirical formulas. A need for further measurements is also observed. Some complications for deformed nuclei are discussed. The quality of spin cut off parameter data derived from isomeric ratio measurement is examined.

  7. A summary of the lateral cutoff analysis and results from NASA's Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliatt, Larry J.; Hill, Michael A.; Haering, Edward A.; Arnac, Sarah R.

    2015-10-01

    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, NASA, in partnership with other industry organizations, conducted a flight research experiment to analyze acoustic propagation at the lateral edge of the sonic boom carpet. The name of the effort was the Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds (FaINT). The research from FaINT determined an appropriate metric for sonic boom waveforms in the transition and shadow zones called Perceived Sound Exposure Level, established a value of 65 dB as a limit for the acoustic lateral extent of a sonic boom's noise region, analyzed change in sonic boom levels near lateral cutoff, and compared between real sonic boom measurements and numerical predictions.

  8. Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio in Adult Igbo’s of Nigeria: Interrelation with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Oladipo; P.A. Akande, K.C. Anugweje and I.G. Osogba

    2011-01-01

    Waist circumference and waist to hip ratio are used as indicators of abdominal obesity in population studies. This study was carried out to predict if the Igbo ethnic groups are at a risk of cardiovascular disease. A total of 800 subjects were randomly selected, 400 males and 400 females between age range 20-65 years. A measuring tape was used to measure their waist and hip circumference to get its ratio. Their blood pressure and body mass index were also determined. The mean waist circumfere...

  9. Evaluation of mid-upper arm circumference in pre-school children: comparison between NCHS/CDC-2000 and WHO-2006 references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Viviane G; Machado, Thais Costa; Bertoli, Ciro João; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E; Leone, Claudio

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the classification of arm circumference (AC) in pre-school children by using National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS/CDC-2000) and World Health Organization (WHO-2006) references. We evaluated 205 children: weight, height and AC were assessed and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The BMI values were classified into Z-scores by the WHO referential. The AC was classified into Z-cores by two references, comparing the whole-sample value and among groups (tercis) of BMI Z-score. The correlation was also evaluated between differences of AC with BMI Z-score. The WHO referential classified the AC in Z-scores greater than the NCHS/CDC, which is more specific and less sensitive than the NCHS/CDC for lean children and at the same time more sensitive and less specific for children with overweight. In conclusion, a significant difference in the AC classification occurs according to the referential used. PMID:20852256

  10. Changes in waist circumference relative to body mass index in Chinese adults, 1993–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Dalia; Smith, Lindsey P; Zhang, Bing; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background Although BMI and waist circumference (WC) are correlated, the relationship between WC and BMI may have changed over time. Objectives Describe temporal trends in BMI and WC distributions and quantify the increase in WC at a given BMI over time. Subjects/Methods Data on adults aged 20–59 years from two waves (1993 and 2009) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used in a pooled cross-sectional analysis. Quantile regression examined age-adjusted temporal trends in the distributions of BMI and WC. Linear regression examined changes in mean WC over time, adjusting for BMI, age at survey and survey year. All models were stratified by gender. Results There was a significant increase in BMI and WC over time, particularly at the 95th quantile: on average, men had 2.8 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.4, 3.3) and women 1.5 kg/m2 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.0) higher BMI in 2009 compared to their counterparts in 1993. WC increased by 9.0 cm (95% CI: 7.5, 10.1) and 5.0 cm (95% CI: 3.4, 6.6) for and women had a 3.2 cm (95% CI: 2.8, 3.7) and 2.1 cm (95% CI: 1.7, 2.5) higher WC in 2009 compared to their counterparts in 1993, holding BMI and age constant. WC adjusted for BMI increased to a larger extent amongst obese versus lean individuals and amongst younger versus older women. Conclusions For both genders, BMI and WC increased significantly over time, with particularly greatest increase in magnitude in the upper tail of the BMI and WC distributions. Furthermore, WC at equivalent BMI was higher in 2009, compared to their counterparts in 1993. Our findings suggest that even if BMI remained constant from 1993 to 2009, adults in 2009 might be at increased cardiometabolic risk as a result of their higher WC. PMID:24813367

  11. Gyrotron with a sectioned cavity based on excitation of a far-from-cutoff operating mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A typical problem of weakly relativistic low-power gyrotrons (especially in the case of operation at high cyclotron harmonics) is the use of long cavities ensuring extremely high diffraction Q-factors for the operating near-cutoff waves. As a result, a great share of the rf power radiated by electrons is spent in Ohmic losses. In this paper, we propose to use a sectioned cavity with π-shifts of the wave phase between sections. In such a cavity, a far-from-cutoff axial mode of the operating cavity having a decreased diffraction Q-factor is excited by the electron beam in a gyrotron-like regime

  12. Drift transport model of field effect transistors in saturation beyond cutoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field effect transistors (FETs) can be used for Terahertz radiation detection beyond cutoff frequencies. Their operation in the linear regime of operation has been sufficiently modeled and analyzed. Unfortunately, this is not the case for FETs operating in the saturation regime. This work expands the (semi-classical) drift current transport theory in FETs beyond the cutoff frequency to present a piece-wise model of nonlinear high frequency rectification in the saturation regime. The saturation regime is divided into three subregimes, each of them has a distinct rectification response function. The transition between them may induce a peaking effect in the overall response function. (paper)

  13. Observations of a low-frequency cutoff in magnetospheric radio noise received on Imp 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Frankel, M. S.

    1975-01-01

    The quasi-continuous component of the magnetospheric noise observed by Imp 6, lying between 30 and 110 kHz, often exhibits a low-frequency cutoff when the spacecraft is in the interplanetary medium or the magnetosheath. A hypothesis is considered in which this low-frequency cutoff, f-co, is caused by overdense plasma situated somewhere along the noise-source-to-satellite path. The plasma is assumed to have a plasma frequency approximately equal to f-co, thus cutting off propagation below f-co.

  14. Duality Bounds on the Cut-Off Rate with Applications to Ricean Fading

    OpenAIRE

    Lapidoth, Amos; Miliou, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    We propose a technique to derive upper bounds on Gallager's cost-constrained random coding exponent function. Applying this technique to the non-coherent peak-power or average-power limited discrete time memoryless Ricean fading channel, we obtain the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) expansion of this channel's cut-off rate. At high SNR the gap between channel capacity and the cut-off rate approaches a finite limit. This limit is approximately 0.26 nats per channel-use for zero specular compo...

  15. B to light meson form factors with end-point cutoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decay form factors of B to light pseudoscalar (P) and vector (V) mesons are analyzed with the momentum cutoff near the end point. The cutoff is caused by possible Cherenkov gluon radiation when an energetic light parton from the weak vertex travels through the ''brown muck'' of light degrees of freedom. The end-point singularities and the double countings are naturally absent. The soft-overlap contributions where the partonic momenta configuration is highly asymmetric are very suppressed in this framework. A simple calculation gives a plausible results for B→P, V form factors

  16. Cut-off rate calculations for the outer channel in a concatenated cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herro, M. A.; Costello, D. J., Jr.; Hu, L.

    1984-01-01

    Concatenated codes were long used as a practical means of achieving long block or constraint lengths for combating errors on very noisy channels. The inner and outer encoders are normally separated by an interleaver, so that decoded error bursts coming from the inner decoder are randomized before entering the outer decoder. The effectiveness of this interleaver is examined by calculating the cut-off rate of the outer channel seen by the outer decoder with and without interleaving. Interleaving never hurts the performance of a concatenated code, and when the inner code rate is near the cut-off rate of the inner channel, interleaving significantly improves code performance.

  17. Adequate cutoff frequency of the prefilter in quantification of regional cerebral blood flow using 123I-IMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of cutoff frequency (CF) of the butterworth filter was studied in the quantification of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by N-isopropyl-P-[123I]-iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) auto-radiography (ARG) to determine the adequate cutoff value by comparison with XeCT/CBF. The single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) machine was Toshiba 3-detector GCA-9300A/PI equipped with a low energy high resolution fanbeam collimator and data processor GMS-5500A/PI, on which the butterworth filter was loaded. SPECT data acquisition was performed 18-48 min after 123I-IMP injection, and the data and blood radioactivity at 10 min measured by Aloka auto-well counter ARC-300 were used for calculating rCBF (ARG/CBF) values. The CCP-II phantom for the cross calibration factor (CCF) was purchased from Sangyo Kagaku Co., Ltd. and was filled with 123I-IMP (10 kBq/mL). The CT machine was Toshiba X-vigor, and CT with Xenon gas (XeCT) was done with the products of Anzai Sogyo aspirator AZ-725 and data processor AZ-7000. XeCT data acquisition was performed by 4 min aspiration/4 min washout of the gas (Xe 30%, O2 70%) and XeCT/CBF values were calculated with the processor AZ-7000. Data were selected from 80 patients (M 46, average age 62.1 y) with chronic diseases of cerebral blood vessels, in whom ARG/CBF and XeCT/CBF tests had been conducted within a week. Examined were the relationships between CF (0.523-0.930 cycles/cm) vs CCF; CF vs ARG/CBF, where rCBF was defined to be at regions of the middle cerebral artery, thalamus and cerebral ventricle; ARG/CBF vs XeCT/CBF at CF of 0.581-0.930, where the correlation coefficient (r) and slope were evaluated for decision of the optimal CF value. Under conditions employed, CBF values varied with the CF and its optimal value was found to be 0.814 cycles/cm with a best fitted slope. (T.T.)

  18. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cleliani de Cassia da Silva; Mariana Porto Zambon; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Rodrigues, Ana Maria de B.; Daniella Fernandes Camilo; Maria Ângela R.G.M Antonio; Roberta Soares L. Cassani; Bruno Geloneze

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist cir...

  19. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned, Volume 2 of 3: Appendixes A - C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, R.A.; Davis, C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.

    1995-08-01

    This document is the 2nd volume of the three volume set from the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise held at Hanford in 1994. Volume 2 contains Appendices A-C, with Appendices A and B containing a discussion of the design of the PUREX process and Appendix C containing a discussion of the safeguards measures for the PUREX facility.

  20. Bifurcation instability and chute cutoff development in meandering gravel-bed rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Wout M.; Schuurman, Filip; Van de Lageweg, Wietse I.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

    2014-01-01

    Chute cutoffs reduce sinuosity of meandering rivers and potentially cause a transition from a single to a multiple channel river. The channel bifurcation of the main channel and the mouth of the incipient chute channel controls sediment and flow partitioning and development of the chute. Recent chan

  1. Wave cutoff method to measure absolute electron density in cold plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for precise measurements of absolute electron density in plasma using wave cutoff is described. This method of measurement uses a network analyzer with radiating and detecting antenna A microwave signal of 10 kHZ-3 GHz frequency is introduced into the plasma from a radiating port of the network analyzer and propagates in the plasma. The transmitted wave is monitored at a distance from a radiating antenna using an antenna connected to the receiving port of the network analyzer. The transmitted wave decays rapidly at a cutoff plasma frequency, which is a direct measure of the absolute electron density. This cutoff method is free of many difficulties often encountered with a Langmuir probe, such as thin film deposition and plasma potential fluctuation. The cutoff probe can also measure the spatial distribution of the electron density. The measurement technique is analyzed theoretically and experimentally, demonstrated in density measurements of an inductively coupled radio-frequency plasma, and is compared with the double probe and a plasma oscillation methods

  2. Quantum Čerenkov Radiation: Spectral Cutoffs and the Role of Spin and Orbital Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Ido; Mutzafi, Maor; Levy, Amir; Harari, Gal; Herzig Sheinfux, Hanan; Skirlo, Scott; Nemirovsky, Jonathan; Joannopoulos, John D.; Segev, Mordechai; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-01-01

    We show that the well-known Čerenkov effect contains new phenomena arising from the quantum nature of charged particles. The Čerenkov transition amplitudes allow coupling between the charged particle and the emitted photon through their orbital angular momentum and spin, by scattering into preferred angles and polarizations. Importantly, the spectral response reveals a discontinuity immediately below a frequency cutoff that can occur in the optical region. Near this cutoff, the intensity of the conventional Čerenkov radiation (ČR) is very small but still finite, while our quantum calculation predicts exactly zero intensity above the cutoff. Below that cutoff, with proper shaping of electron beams (ebeams), we predict that the traditional ČR angle splits into two distinctive cones of photonic shockwaves. One of the shockwaves can move along a backward cone, otherwise considered impossible for conventional ČR in ordinary matter. Our findings are observable for ebeams with realistic parameters, offering new applications including novel quantum optics sources, and opening a new realm for Čerenkov detectors involving the spin and orbital angular momentum of charged particles.

  3. Entropy of a charged black hole in two dimensions without cutoff

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Wontae; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    2007-01-01

    By introducing the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) on quantum density states, we newly obtain a consistent entropy of a scalar field on the (1+1)-dimensional Maxwell-dilaton background without an artificial cutoff in contrast to the results of the brick wall model, which depend on the choice of the Hawking temperature for the extremal case.

  4. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials

  5. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

    1995-08-01

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials.

  6. Spurious excitation of near-cutoff modes in free-electron masers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bratman, V. L.; Denisov, G. G.; Savilov, A. V.; Bongers, W. A.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; Manintveld, P.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.; Urbanus, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    Spurious excitation of a low-frequency near-cutoff wave in the presence of the operating high-frequency traveling wave is considered for a free-electron maser. The temporal dynamics of the competition of the waves is studied. It is shown that the effect of mutual scattering of the waves can result i

  7. Detailed river stage mapping and head gradient analysis during meander cutoff in a laboratory river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bangshuai; Endreny, Theodore A.

    2014-02-01

    Analytical models of river evolution predict meander narrowing and elongation which creates sinuosity-driven hyporheic exchange across the meander neck, by decreasing flow distance and increasing head loss. We used a laboratory river table and close range photogrammetry to map and analyze sinuosity as a driver of head gradients and hyporheic exchange during cutoff. The river valley had relatively high slopes (1.8%) and moderately cohesive sediment (10% talc, 90% sand) to facilitate cutoff, and ratios of horizontal to vertical scaling were distorted to achieve dynamic similitude (Re = 3200). Incipient to cutoff, the head gradient across the neck increased due to a narrowing neck, upstream aggradation, and downstream degradation. Longitudinal and transverse river surface slopes around the meander bend increased as the meander approached cutoff. The steep head gradient across the moderately cohesive meander neck generated seepage erosion and scour that formed a low-sinuosity avulsion. Sediment-rich flow in the avulsed channel aggraded the downstream bed and separated the active channel and oxbow lake. The limitation in geometric and dynamic similitude in the river table limits extrapolation to natural rivers, yet river evolution may involve aggradation and degradation induced channel head loss and turnover hyporheic exchange as well as seepage-induced meander neck erosion. Our submillimeter maps of meander morphology and water stage provide data to parameterize river evolution and hyporheic exchange models, and may inform analysis and mapping of field sites.

  8. EVALUATION OF BASIN INFLOW CUTOFF CRITERION IN THE IRRIGATION DISTRICTS OF SOUTHWEST ARIZONA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low irrigation efficiencies persist in irrigated areas near Yuma, Arizona due to poorly designed irrigation systems, poor condition of existing systems, inaccurate delivery of flow rates, and inadequate criteria for determining irrigation cutoff. In farms where growers lack adequate control over the...

  9. Influence of the terrestrial magnetic field geometry on the cutoff rigidity of cosmic ray particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the propagation of charged energetic particles in the Earth's magnetic field go back to Carl Stoermer. In the end, his investigations finally lead to the definition of the so-called cutoff rigidity RC; that is, the minimum momentum per charge a particle must have in order to reach a certain geographical location. Employing Monte Carlo simulations with the PLANETOCOSMICS code we investigate the correlation between the geomagnetic field structure and the cutoff rigidity. We show that the geometry of the magnetic field has a considerable influence on the resulting cutoff rigidity distribution. Furthermore, we will present a simple geometry-based parameter, δB, which is able to reflect the location-dependent cutoff rigidity. We show that this correlation is also visible in the temporal evolution of the Earth's magnetic field, at least over the last 100 yr. Using latitude scans with neutron monitors, changes of the relative counting rates at different positions are calculated, showing small variations for, e.g., Kiel and Moscow, while large ones occur at Mexico City as well as on the British Virgin Islands.

  10. Absence of GZK Cutoff and Test of de Sitter Invariant Special Relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Zhe; CHEN Shao-Xia; HUANG Chao-Guang

    2005-01-01

    @@ The possibility that the absence of Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) cutoff is used to discriminate between de Sitter invariant special relativity (SRc,R) and general relativity (GR) is studied.A careful investigation shows,unfortunately, that the phenomenon fails to distinguish SRc,R from GR, at least, at classical level.

  11. Entropy of 2+1 dimensional de Sitter space without cutoff

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, W; Park, Y J; Kim, Wontae; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    2006-01-01

    By introducing the generalized uncertainty principle on the quantum state density, we calculate the statistical entropy of a scalar field on the background of three-dimensional de Sitter space without artificial cutoff. The desired entropy proportional to the horizon perimeter is obtained.

  12. Accuracy of Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Classifying Obesity in Chilean Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; David Langer, Raquel; de Fátima Guimarães, Roseane; Contiero San Martini, Mariana; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; de Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Moreira Gonçalves, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of two international Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs for classifying obesity compared to the percentage of fat mass (%FM) assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in a Chilean sample of children and adolescents; Material and Methods: The subjects studied included 280 children and adolescents (125 girls and 155 boys) aged 8 to 17 years. Weight and height were measured. The BMI was calculated. Two international references (IOFT and WHO) were used as cut-off points. The %FM was assessed by DXA. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the performance of BMI in detecting obesity on the basis of %FM; Results: A high correlation was observed between the %FM measured by the DXA and the Z-scores of IOTF and WHO scores in the Chilean adolescents separated by sex (r = 0.78–0.80). Differences occurred in both references (IOFT and WHO) in relation to the criteria (p < 0.001). Both references demonstrated a good ability to predict sensitivity (between 84% and 93%) and specificity (between 83% and 88%) in both sexes of children and adolescents; Conclusions: A high correlation was observed between the Z-score of the BMI with the percentage of fat determined by the DXA. Despite this, the classifications using the different BMI cut-off points showed discrepancies. This suggests that the cut-off points selected to predict obesity in this sample should be viewed with caution. PMID:27164119

  13. Science and Art of Setting Performance Standards and Cutoff Scores in Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weimo

    2013-01-01

    Setting standards and cutoff scores is essential to any measurement and evaluation practice. Two evaluation frameworks, norm-referenced (NR) and criterion-referenced (CR), have often been used for setting standards. Although setting fitness standards based on the NR evaluation is relatively easy as long as a nationally representative sample can be…

  14. Cognitive characteristics of children with mathematics learning disability (MLD) vary as a function of the cutoff criterion used to define MLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Melissa M; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Hanich, Laurie B; Early, Martha C

    2007-01-01

    Researchers of mathematics learning disability (MLD) commonly use cutoff scores to determine which participants have MLD. Some researchers apply more restrictive cutoffs than others (e.g., performance below the 10th vs. below the 35th percentile). Different cutoffs may lead to groups of children that differ in their profile of math and related skills, including reading, visual-spatial, and working memory skills. The present study assesses the characteristics of children with MLD based on varying MLD definitions of math performance either below the 10th percentile (n = 22) or between the 11th and 25th percentile (n = 42) on the Test of Early Math Ability, second edition (TEMA-2). Initial starting levels and growth rates for math and related skills were examined in these two MLD groups relative to a comparison group (n = 146) whose TEMA-2 performance exceeded the 25th percentile. Between kindergarten and third grade, differences emerged in the starting level and growth rate, suggesting qualitative differences among the three groups. Despite some similarities, qualitative group differences were also observed in the profiles of math-related skills across groups. These results highlight differences in student characteristics based on the definition of MLD and illustrate the value of examining skill areas associated with math performance in addition to math performance itself. PMID:17915500

  15. Combined use of waist and thigh circumference to identify high-risk, abdominally obese HIV+ patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T O'Neil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background We examined whether the combination of waist (WC and thigh (ThC circumference improves the prediction of visceral adipose tissue (VAT over WC and ThC independently in HIV-infected men and women after correction for age. We also examined the independent associations between VAT, and the combination of WC and ThC with metabolic risk factors, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and prior cardiovascular events in HIV-infected individuals. Methods Consecutive patients attending the metabolic clinic of the University of Modena in Italy between 2005 and 2009 were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Total and regional fat mass and lean mass were quantified using DEXA. A single CT image was taken for quantification of VAT and CAC. Prior cardiovascular events which occurred within a 5-year period of the clinical evaluation were analysed. A cross-fold test was used to explore different models in the ability to predict VAT in order to build an algorithm for VAT estimation (e-VAT. Regression analysis were performed to determine the univariate and multivariate relations between WC, ThC, and age with VAT. A comparison of beta coefficients for VAT and e-VAT to predict cardio-metabolic risk and events were performed using multivariable regression models after correction for BMI and age. Results 2322 HIV-infected patients were recruited: median duration of HIV infection was 182 months (IQR 126–236; median nadir and current CD4 were 172 (IQR 68–262 and 515.5 (IQR 369–700 and 75% of them had undetectable HIV1-VL. In this abstract only the results of men will be presented. Men (n=1481 had a mean age of 45.9±7.3 years, a BMI of 24.1 ± 3.8 kg/m2, a WC of 88.0±10.1 cm and a ThC of 47.8±4.3 cm. e-VAT algorithm for men was: (5.44*WC−(1.35*ThC−(1.70*age−348.1 In men, at multivariable regression models after correction for BMI and age, e-VAT was concordant to VAT in predicting HOMA, MetS Risk, prior cardiovascular events (OR=1

  16. Optimal Ki67 cut-off for luminal breast cancer prognostic evaluation: a large case series study with a long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustreo, Sara; Osella-Abate, Simona; Cassoni, Paola; Donadio, Michela; Airoldi, Mario; Pedani, Fulvia; Papotti, Mauro; Sapino, Anna; Castellano, Isabella

    2016-06-01

    Although Ki67 index suffers from poor reproducibility, it is one of the most important prognostic markers used by oncologists to select the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer patients. In this study, we aim to establish the optimal Ki67 cut-offs for stratifying patient prognosis and to create a comprehensive prognostic index for clinical applications. A mono-institutional cohort of 1.577 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative/ER+ breast cancer patients having complete clinical, histological, and follow-up data was collected. The 14 and 20 % Ki67 cut-offs were correlated to disease-free interval (DFI) and disease-specific survival (DSS). To create a comprehensive prognostic index, we used independent variables selected by uni/multivariate analyses. In terms of DFI and DSS, patients bearing tumors with Ki67  20 % showed the poorest prognosis. Moreover, to tumor size, the number of metastatic lymph nodes and Ki67 > 20 % was given a score value, varying depending on definite cut-offs and used to create a prognostic index, which was applied to the population. Patients with a prognostic index ≥3 were characterized by significant risk of relapse [DFI: Hazard Ratio (HR) = 4.74, p < 0.001] and death (DSS: HR = 5.03, p < 0.001). We confirm that the 20 % Ki67 cut-off is the best to stratify high-risk patients in luminal breast cancers, and we suggest to integrate it with other prognostic factors, to better stratify patients at risk of adverse outcome. PMID:27155668

  17. Reference ranges and cutoff levels of pneumococcal antibody global serum assays (IgG and IgG2) and specific antibodies in healthy children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M A; Buess, J; Ventur, Y; Zielen, S; Herrmann, E; Schulze, J; Schubert, R

    2013-08-01

    Pneumococcal antibodies represent the acquisition of natural immunity. Determination of pneumococcal antibodies is an important screening tool for immunodeficiencies. Our study generated reference ranges and cutoff levels for pneumococcal antibody global serum assays correlated to a specific pneumococcal antibody ELISA. Specific pneumococcal antibody levels were measured from 457 children undergoing elective surgery and 46 healthy adult volunteers (88 with previous pneumococcal immunization from both groups), 22 severe immunodeficient subjects with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T, negative controls), and age-matched 36 healthy allergic asthmatics. We determined a representative panel of serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies (serotype 4, 5, 6B, 7F, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F) by ELISA and global pneumococcal IgG and IgG2 antibodies by EIA. In vaccine-naïve healthy subjects, initial pneumococcal IgG geometric mean concentrations of 13.1 μg/ml were low in the first year of life and increased over the time, reaching adult levels (70.5 μg/ml) at age 8-12 years. In parallel, IgG2 antibodies increased from 20.7 % (0.5-1 year old) to adult proportions (>30 %) in preschoolers. Correlation between the pneumococcal IgG screening assay and specific pneumococcal antibody levels was acceptable (Pearson's coefficient r = 0.4455; p = 0.001). Cutoff levels showed high sensitivity, whereas specificity was high to moderate calculated from correlations with the specific ELISA. We provide reference ranges and cutoff levels for the interpretation of specific antibody determinations in the clinical setting. The global pneumococcal IgG/IgG2 assay is a suitable screening tool and correlates with the ELISA serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies. However, results below our cutoff values should be re-evaluated by serotype-specific ELISA testing. PMID:23529214

  18. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  19. Cut-off period for slow magnetoacoustic waves in coronal plasma structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, A. N.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Context. There is abundant observational evidence of longitudinal compressive waves in plasma structures of the solar corona, which are confidently interpreted in terms of slow magnetoacoustic waves. The uses of coronal slow waves in plasma diagnostics, as well as analysis of their possible contribution to coronal heating and the solar wind acceleration, require detailed theoretical modelling. Aims: We investigate the effects of obliqueness, magnetic field, and non-uniformity of the medium on the evolution of long-wavelength slow magnetoacoustic waves guided by field-aligned plasma non-uniformities, also called tube waves. Special attention is paid to the cut-off effect due to the gravity stratification of the coronal plasma. Methods: We study the behaviour of linear tube waves in a vertical untwisted straight field-aligned isothermal plasma cylinder. We apply the thin flux tube approximation, taking into account effects of stratification caused by gravity. The dispersion due to the finite radius of the flux tube is neglected. We analyse the behaviour of the cut-off period for an exponentially divergent magnetic flux tube filled in with a stratified plasma. The results obtained are compared with the known cases of the constant Alfven speed and the pure acoustic wave. Results: We derive the wave equation for tube waves and reduce it to the form of the Klein-Gordon equation with varying coefficients, which explicitly contains the cut-off frequency. The cut-off period is found to vary with height, decreasing significantly in the low-beta plasma and in the plasma with the beta of the order of unity. The depressions in the cut-off period profiles can affect the propagation of longitudinal waves along coronal plasma structures towards the higher corona and can form coronal resonators.

  20. A new instrument for the measurement of rib cage and abdomen circumference variation in respiration at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortuna, C L; Passerini, L

    1995-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive new extensometer for measuring changes in chest wall circumference during human respiratory movements is presented. The instrument detects the delay between ultrasound emission and reception at opposite ends of two rubber tubes encircling the rib cage and abdomen. Assuming a two degree of freedom model of the chest wall and employing an isovolume procedure for determination of volume-motion coefficients, extensometer estimation of tidal volume (VT) from changes of rib cage and abdomen circumference was compared with spirometer measurements at rest and during exercise on a cycle ergometer (55-155 W) in six subjects and, in four of them, on a treadmill (4-12 km.h-1). In three subjects hypercapnic hyperpnoea at rest was also studied. The slopes of the linear relationship between extensometer and spirometer VT (litres) averaged 0.9967 (SD 0.0117) (r2 = 0.995-0.998; n = 90-143) for cycle ergometer exercise, 1.0072 (SD 0.0078) (r2 = 0.991-0.998; n = 75-93) for treadmill exercise and 0.9942 (SD 0.0188) (r2 = 0.997-0.998; n = 18-25) for hypercapnic hyperpnoea. In all instances the slope of the regression line was consistent with the model of the identity line (slope = 1). The changes in end-expiratory lung volume between respiration at rest and during exercise were determined by the extensometers, and were nearly identical (98.4% on average) to those measured with the spirometer (r2 = 0.945; n = 24). It is concluded that determination of chest wall circumference with this new instrument is suitable for quantitative measurement of ventilation and lung volume variations in humans under most physiological conditions. PMID:7588698

  1. Absolute depth of myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer is superior to the currently used cut-off value of 50%

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, Y.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Berg-van Erp, S.H. van den; Snijders, M.P.; Bulten, J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In endometrial carcinoma, myometrial invasion is a well known predictor of recurrence, and important in the decision making for adjuvant treatment. According to the FIGO staging system, myometrial invasion is expressed as invasion of <50%> of the myometrium (50%MI). It has been sugg

  2. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI in elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adesilda Silva Pestana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference (AC and the body mass index (BMI in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years. The active independent variable investigated was nature of treatment intervention (Pilates mat based exercises vs resistance exercise, and the dependent variables were hs-CRP level, AC and BMI. The statistical analysis used Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests. The correlation between the continuous variables was assessed using Spearman’s coefficient of correlation. The data were analysed using SPSS software version 17.0, and probability values lower than 5% (p< 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mat Pilates based exercises exhibited reductions in serum hs-CPR level (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -2.466, p = 0.01, BMI (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.295, p = 0.001 and AC (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.398, p = 0.01. Mat Pilates based exercises promoted a significant reduction of the serum hs-CRP levels and anthropometric measurements in elderly individuals.

  3. BLOOD SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVEL AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE AND SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALO BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SAJJAD, S. ALI, N. ULLAH1, M. ANWAR1, S. AKHTER AND S. M. H. ANDRABI1

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the blood serum testosterone level and its relationship with scrotal circumference and physical characteristics of semen in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Semen samples were collected weekly from three buffalo bulls of 14 years age for 12 weeks and were evaluated for physical characteristics i.e. ejaculatory volume, sperm motility, sperm concentration, pH and sperm abnormalities. Jugular blood samples were collected from each bull at weekly intervals and analyzed for serum testosterorse concentrations. Mean (+ SE blood serum testosterone level (ng/ml, scrotal circumference (cm, semen volume (ml, progressive sperm motility (%, sperm concentration (106/µl, semen pH and total sperm abnormalities (% observed were 0.69 ± 0.12, 34.6 ± 0.9, 3.59 ± 0.41, 51.53 ± 2.23, 0.99 ± 0.07, 7.01 ± 0.08 and 11.67 ± 0.90, respectively. Positive correlations between testosterone level and scrotal circumference (r=0.414 and ejaculatory volume (r=0.348 were observed. However, no correlation of testosterone level with sperm motility (r=0.145, sperm concentration (r=0.264, semen pH (r=-0.208 and total sperm abnormalities (r=-0.242 was found. Similary, ejaculatory volume did not show any correlation with sperm motility percentage (r=0.115, sperm concentration (r=0.045, semen pH (r=-0.015 and total sperm abnormalities (r=-0.135. Sperm motility percentage had positive correlation with sperm concentration (r=0.347 and negative correlation with semen pH (r=-0.670. Sperm concentration was negatively correlated with semen pH (r=-0.501. It was concluded that in 14 years old buffalo bulls the level of serum testosterone and scrotal circumference and ejaculatory volume were positively correlated. The other semen quality parameters including sperm motility, sperm concentration, semen pH and sperm abnormalities were not related with serum testosterone level.

  4. Anatomical location for waist circumference measurement in older adults: a preliminary study Localización anatómica para medición de la circunferencia de la cintura en ancianos: estudio preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Guerra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Different anatomical locations for measuring waist circumference are described in the literature but the best anatomical location for measuring waist circumference in older adults has yet to be established. Thus, an exploratory study was developed to examine which waist circumference best explains abdominal fat mass in older adults. Methods: Waist circumference was measured in the ten different anatomical locations from a sample of 51 older adults. The choice of which waist circumference measurement best associated with abdominal fat mass was evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA measurement of abdominal fat. Results: Mean waist circumference values varied from 81.9 (standard deviation (SD: 8.7 cm and 91.5 (SD: 11.2 cm for women and between 95.7 (SD: 8.2 cm and 101.5 (SD: 10.4 cm for men, according to the different anatomical locations. The coefficients of determination of the linear regression model varied from 0.545 to 0.698 (p Fundamento y objetivo: La literatura describe diferentes localizaciones anatómicas para medir la circunferencia de la cintura. Sin embargo, la mejor localización anatómica para tal medición en ancianos aun no se ha establecido. El presente estudio exploratorio pretende determinar cuál es el lugar anatómico que se asocia mejor entre la medida del perímetro de la cintura y el tejido adiposo abdominal en esta población. Método: Se midió la circunferencia de la cintura en diez lugares anatómicos diferentes, en una muestra de 51 ancianos. El tejido adiposo abdominal se determinó mediante absorciometría de doble energía de rayos X (DXA. Resultados: Los valores medios de la circunferencia de cintura, teniendo en cuenta las mediciones en distintos lugares anatómicos, variaron de 81,9 cm (desviación estándar (DE: 8,7 a 91,5 cm (DE: 11,2 entre las mujeres y de 95,7 cm (DE: 8,2 a 101,5 cm (DE: 10,4 entre los hombres. Los coeficientes de determinación del modelo de regresi

  5. When the diameter of the abdominal aorta should be considered as abnormal? A new ultrasonographic index using the wrist circumference as a body build reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To use US to evaluate the normal values of aortic diameter (AD), stratifying the population by age, gender and body build, as measured using wrist circumference (WC). Materials and methods: Between April 2010 and February 2012, consecutive patients ≥ 30 years of age, without history of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) were prospectively enrolled. They underwent an abdominal ultrasonography for reasons other than aorta evaluation. AD was measured at the infrarenal (AD1), intermediate (AD2), and iliac bifurcation (AD3) levels: a diameter ≥ 3 cm was considered as an aneurysm. The maximal aortic diameter (ADmax) was measured for AAA patients. WC was measured; AD/WC ratio was calculated and presented in percentage: the range of normal values was obtained excluding AAA cases and calculated as mean ± 1.96 × standard deviation. Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Results: We recruited 1200 patients, 15 (1.25%; age range = 64–86 years) had AAA. AD ranges of the other patients were: AD1 = 0.74–1.84 cm, AD2 = 0.78–1.85 cm, and AD3 = 0.68–1.76 cm for females; AD1 = 0.86–2.02 cm, AD2 = 0.91–2.08 cm, and AD3 = 0.84–1.95 cm for males. AD2/WC ratio of non-AAA patients range was 4–15%, with only one outlier at 18%, while ADmax/WC ratio of AAA patients range was 15–35% (p 1, r = 0.318, p 2 and r = 0.280, p 3). Conclusion: The definition of normal AD should consider body build. An AD2/WC ratio of 15% may be regarded as a threshold to differentiate AAA- from non-AAA patients. Patients with AD2/WC values comprised between 12% and 15% may be at risk for AAA

  6. On the Ratio of Circumference to Diameter for the Largest Observable Circles: An Empirical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Knox, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    I present here a measurement of pi as determined for the largest observable circles. Intriguingly, the value of 16/5 asserted by the House of Representatives of the State of Indiana in 1897 is still viable, although strongly disfavored relative to 22/7, another popular value. The oft-used `small-circle' value of 3 is ruled out at greater than 5\\sigma. We discuss connections with string theory, sterile neutrinos, and possibilities for (very large) lower limits to the size of the Universe.

  7. High-Operating-Temperature Barrier Infrared Detector with Tailorable Cutoff Wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory, J.; Soibel, Alexander; Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2011-01-01

    A mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) barrier photodetector is capable of operating at higher temperature than the prevailing MWIR detectors based on InSb. The standard high-operating-temperature barrier infrared detector (HOT-BIRD) is made with an InAsSb infrared absorber that is lattice-matched to a GaSb substrate, and has a cutoff wavelength of approximately 4 microns. To increase the versatility and utility of the HOT-BIRD, it is implemented with IR absorber materials with customizable cutoff wavelengths. The HOT-BIRD can be built with the quaternary alloy GaInAsSb as the absorber, GaAlSbAs as the barrier, on a lattice-matching GaSb substrate. The cutoff wavelength of the GaInAsSb can be tailored by adjusting the alloy composition. To build a HOT-BIRD requires a matching pair of absorber and barrier materials with the following properties: (1) their valence band edges must be approximately the same to allow unimpeded hole flow, while their conduction band edges should have a large difference to form an electron barrier; and (2) the absorber and the barrier must be respectively lattice-matched and closely lattice-matched to the substrate to ensure high material quality and low defect density. To make a HOT-BIRD with cutoff wavelength shorter than 4 microns, a GaInAsSb quaternary alloy was used as the absorber, and a matching GaAlSbAs quaternary alloy as the barrier. By changing the alloy composition, the band gap of the quaternary alloy absorber can be continuously adjusted with cutoff wavelength ranging from 4 microns down to the short wavelength infrared (SWIR). By carefully choosing the alloy composition of the barrier, a HOT-BIRD structure can be formed. With this method, a HOT-BIRD can be made with continuously tailorable cutoff wavelengths from 4 microns down to the SWIR. The HOT-BIRD detector technology is suitable for making very-large-format MWIR/SWIR focal plane arrays that can be operated by passive cooling from low Earth orbit. High-operating temperature

  8. Mathematical model of processes in cut-off leaking steam generator as a part of operating ship reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model of processes in cut-off leaking steam generator of an operating ship reactor was presented. The model describes the coolant pressure increasing when filling the heat pipes system of cut-off leaking direct-flow steam generator, and allows estimating the time lag before putting restrictions on power maneuvering of the ship reactor

  9. Effect of the magnetospheric DCF and DR current systems of on cosmic ray geomagnetic cut-off rigidities in Forbush effect event periods in June and August 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of magnetospheric DCF and DR current systems on regidity of geomagnetic cut-off of cosmic rays (CR) in the periods of Forbush effect in June and August,1972 is considered. It is shown that magnetospheric CR effects conditioned by DCF and DR current fields are opposite in sign and comparable in value during strong disturbances of solar wind velocity. Belts of the most probable current localization in the process of development and evolution of magnetospheric DR current exist in the distances: 4R3(R3-Earth radius) and GR3 in the June event and about 2R3, 4R3 and GR3 in the August event

  10. 高血压儿童腰围发育曲线及其与高血压相关性的研究%Relationship between waist circumference development curve of children and hypertension and risk of hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鹏; 王法艳; 赵玉秋; 王磊; 唐青松; 陶芳标

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解高血压儿童腰围发育曲线特点,探讨与儿童高血压相关的腰围正常值合理切点.方法 研究对象为安徽省北、中、南3个地市的8194名7~17岁汉族城乡中小学生,测量腰围与血压.以LMS( lambda-mu-sigma)法拟合腰围随年龄变化的百分位数曲线.建立Logistic回归模型,计算不同百分位数腰围学生发生高血压的OR值.结果 高血压男生的腰围发育曲线明显向上平行偏离总体男生标准曲线,而高血压女生腰围发育曲线在12岁前向上逐渐偏离总体女生标准曲线,之后逐渐回归.男生腰围上升至同年龄别第60百分位数、女生腰围上升至同年龄别第70百分位数时,高血压发生风险即开始显著增加,男生腰围p60~组、P70~组、P80~组和P90~组的OR值从1.88(95%CI:1.18 ~2.99)逐渐上升至4.87(95%CI:3.31 ~7.16),女生腰围P70~组、P80~组和P90~组的OR值从1.71 (95%CI:1.07~2.73)逐渐上升至3.32(95% CI:2.16~5.09).结论 高血压男生和女生的腰围发育曲线轨迹明显不同.从第85百分位数向下适当降低儿童腰围正常值切点有利于儿童心血管疾病风险的预防.%Objective The 85th percentile of waist circumference (WC) is considered an appropriate cutoff for Chinese children in the prediction of cardiovascular risks in previous researches,but the risk for hypertension of moderate WC maybe underestimated.The purpose of this study was to understand the characteristics of the WC curve trajectory of children with hypertension and to determine the appropriate cutoffs for waist circumference for Chinese school-age children and adolescents for predicting hypertension risk factors.Methods A total of 8194 Han children aged 7-17 years were selected from schools in Suzhou,Hefei,and Chizhou cities in Anhui province by stratified cluster sampling. WC and blood pressure were accurately measured in all subjects. LMS (lambda-mu-sigma) method was used to construct WC

  11. Infrared and ultraviolet cutoffs in variational calculations with a harmonic oscillator basis

    CERN Document Server

    Coon, Sidney A

    2013-01-01

    I abstract from a recent publication [1] the motivations for, analysis in and conclusions of a study of the ultraviolet and infrared momentum regulators induced by the necessary truncation of the model spaces formed by a variational trial wave function. This trial function is built systematically from a complete set of many-body basis states based upon three-dimensional harmonic oscillator (HO) functions. Each model space is defined by a truncation of the expansion characterized by a counting number (N) and by the intrinsic scale ($\\hbar\\omega$) of the HO basis. Extending both the uv cutoff to infinity and the ir cutoff to zero is prescribed for a converged calculation. In [1] we established practical procedures which utilize these regulators to obtain the extrapolated result from sequences of calculations with model spaces. Finally, I update this subject by mentioning recent work on our extrapolation prescriptions which have appeared since the submission of [1]. The numerical example chosen for this contribu...

  12. Fast beam cut-off method in RF-knockout extraction for spot-scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, T

    2002-01-01

    An irradiation method with magnetic scanning has been developed in order to provide accurate irradiation even for an irregular target shape. The scanning method has strongly required a lower ripple of the beam spill and a faster response to beam-on/off in slow extraction from a synchrotron ring. At HIMAC, RF-knockout extraction has utilized a bunched beam to reduce the beam-spill ripple. Therefore, particles near the resonance can be spilled out from the separatrices by synchrotron oscillation as well as by a transverse RF field. From this point of view, a fast beam cut-off method has been proposed and verified by both simulations and experiments. The maximum delay from the beam cut-off signal to beam-off has been improved to around 60 mu s from 700 mu s by a usual method. Unwanted dose has been considerably reduced by around a factor of 10 compared with that by the usual method.

  13. "Cut-off" effect of antioxidants and/or probes of variable lipophilicity in microheterogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, Carolina; López de Arbina, Amaia; Rezende, Marcos Caroli

    2016-09-01

    The activities of two hydrophilic (ascorbic acid and Trolox) and two hydrophobic (α-tocopherol and BHT) antioxidants were measured by reaction with a series of 4-alkanoyloxyTEMPO radical probes 1 in buffered (pH 7), aqueous, micellar solutions of reduced Triton-X 100. In all cases, a cut-off effect was observed, in line with previous observations of the same effect for the partitioning of probe series 1 in this medium. These results support an interpretation of the cut-off effect in food emulsions, based on the "amphiphobic" nature of either the antioxidants or probes: competition between two molecular moieties, for the micellar hydrophobic core, tends to expose a reacting fragment differently to a more hydrophilic microenvironment, as the probe or antioxidant hydrophobicity increases. PMID:27041306

  14. Measurement of effective sheath width around the cutoff probe based on electromagnetic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. W.; You, S. J.; Kim, J. H.; Chang, H. Y.; Yoon, J.-S.; Oh, W. Y.

    2016-05-01

    We inferred the effective sheath width using the cutoff probe and incorporating a full-wave three-dimensional electromagnetic (EM) simulation. The EM simulation reproduced the experimentally obtained plasma-sheath resonance (PSR) on the microwave transmission (S21) spectrum well. The PSR frequency has a one-to-one correspondence with the width of the vacuum layer assumed to be the effective sheath in the EM simulation model. The sheath width was estimated by matching the S21 spectra of the experiment and the EM simulation for different widths of the sheath. We found that the inferred sheath widths quantitatively and qualitatively agree with the sheath width measured by incorporating an equivalent circuit model. These results demonstrate the excellent potential of the cutoff probe for inferring the effective sheath width from its experimental spectrum data.

  15. Synthesis of Two-Color Laser Pulses for the Harmonic Cutoff Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Li; Zhou, Li-Hua; Zhao, Song-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Xin

    2016-05-01

    Increasing simultaneously both the cutoff energy and efficiency is a big challenge to all applications of high-order harmonic generation (HHG). For this purpose, the shaping of the waveform of driving pulse is an alternative approach. Here, we show that the harmonic cutoff can be extended by about two times without reducing harmonic yield after considering macroscopic propagation effects, by adopting a practical way to synthesize two-color fields with fixed energy. Our results, combined with the experimental techniques, show the great potential of HHG as a tabletop light source. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11264036, 11164025, 11364038, the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China under Grant No. 20116203120001, and the Basic Scientific Research Foundation for Institution of Higher Learning of Gansu Province

  16. Cosmic ray cut-off rigidities as function of zenithal and azimuthal directions of arrival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dependences of cut-off rigidities for slantingly incident cosmic rays on the direction of their arrival into the Earth magnetic field caused by internal and external sources are investigated for Irkutsk station under the conditions of magnetosphere different geomagnetic activity. It is shown that with the increase of Kp index from 0 up to 4 the cut-off rigidities of slantingly incident cosmic rays decrease in succession, whereupon the effect of external sources (currents within the magnetopause, tail current and ring currents) results in different changes of geomagnetic thresholds for different directions of charged particle arrival. Thus, for example, cut-off-rigidities reduce by 6% for particles which arrive from southwest at 360 deg zenith angle, while for westparticles this difference constitutes only 0.6%

  17. Edge plasmons and cut-off behavior of graphene nano-ribbon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Haowen; Teng, Jinghua; Palacios, Tomás; Chua, Soojin

    2016-07-01

    Graphene nano-ribbon waveguides with ultra-short plasmon wavelength are a promising candidate for nanoscale photonic applications. Graphene edge plasmons are the fundamental and lowest losses mode. Through finite element method, edge plasmons show large effective refractive index and strong field confinement on nanoscale ribbons. The edge plasmons follow a k1/2 dispersion relation. The wavelengths of the edge plasmons and center plasmons differ by a fixed factor. The width of edge plasmon is inversely proportional to wave vector of edge plasmon kedge. Edge defects associate with graphene nano-ribbon induce extra losses and reduce the propagation length. Cut-off width of edge plasmons reduces with increasing frequency. Cut-off width of center plasmon is enlarged by edge component but the enlargement effect diminishing with the increase of kedge. The results are important for the application of graphene plasmon towards ultra-compact photonic devices.

  18. Interacting Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy and IR Cut-Off Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, J.; Pourhassan, B.; Abbaspour Moghaddam, Z.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider holographic dark energy model with corrected holographic energy density and show that this model may be equivalent to the modified Chaplygin gas model. Then we obtain relation between entropy corrected holographic dark energy model and scalar field models. We do these works by using choices of IR cut-off length proportional to the Hubble radius, the event horizon radius, the Ricci length, and the Granda-Oliveros length.

  19. Interacting Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy and IR Cut-Off Length

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeghi, J; Moghaddam, Z Abbaspour

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider holographic dark energy model with corrected holographic energy density and show that this model may be equivalent to the modified Chaplygin gas model. Then we obtain relation between entropy corrected holographic dark energy model and scalar field models. We do these works by using choices of IR cut-off length proportional to the Hubble radius, the event horizon radius, the Ricci length, and the Granda-Oliveros length.

  20. On the classical limit of self-interacting quantum field Hamiltonians with cutoffs

    OpenAIRE

    AMMARI, Zied; Zerzeri, Maher

    2012-01-01

    We study, using Hepp's method, the propagation of coherent states for a general class of self interacting bosonic quantum field theories with spatial cutoffs. This includes models with non-polynomial interactions in the field variables. We show indeed that the time evolution of coherent states, in the classical limit, is well approximated by time-dependent affine Bogoliubov unitary transformations. Our analysis relies on a non-polynomial Wick quantization and a specific hypercontractive estim...

  1. Measurement and interpretation of current transmission in a crossed-field diode below cutoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements on the current-voltage-magnetic field characteristics of a space-charge-limited cylindrical cross-field diode below cutoff are presented. The measured current is found to be lower than predicted by simple cold-fluid theory. This reduction combined with observed oscillations in the current can be explained by secondary electron emission from the anode, leading to an increase of space charge in the diode. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. Measurement and interpretation of current transmission in a crossed-field diode below cutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderberg, B.H.; Eninger, J.E. [Department of Industrial Electrotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    Measurements on the current-voltage-magnetic field characteristics of a space-charge-limited cylindrical cross-field diode below cutoff are presented. The measured current is found to be lower than predicted by simple cold-fluid theory. This reduction combined with observed oscillations in the current can be explained by secondary electron emission from the anode, leading to an increase of space charge in the diode. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. The Incompressible Navier-Stokes Limit of the Boltzmann Equation for Hard Cutoff Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Golse, François; Saint-Raymond, Laure

    2008-01-01

    The present paper proves that all limit points of sequences of renormalized solutions of the Boltzmann equation in the limit of small, asymptotically equivalent Mach and Knudsen numbers are governed by Leray solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. This convergence result holds for hard cutoff potentials in the sense of H. Grad, and therefore completes earlier results by the same authors [Invent. Math. 155, 81-161 (2004)] for Maxwell molecules.

  4. Measurement and interpretation of current transmission in a crossed-field diode below cutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderberg, Bo H.; Eninger, Jan E.

    1997-02-01

    Measurements on the current-voltage-magnetic field characteristics of a space-charge-limited cylindrical cross-field diode below cutoff are presented. The measured current is found to be lower than predicted by simple cold-fluid theory. This reduction combined with observed oscillations in the current can be explained by secondary electron emission from the anode, leading to an increase of space charge in the diode.

  5. The influence of membrane molecular weight cutoff on a novel bioartificial liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Shi, Xiao-lei; Han, Bing; Gu, Jin-yang; Chu, Xue-hui; Xiao, Jiang-qiang; Ren, Hao-zhen; Tan, Jiao-jun; Ding, Yi-tao

    2012-01-01

    Given the xenogeneic immune reaction relevant to the molecular weight cutoff of the membrane of a bioartificial liver (BAL) system, we investigated the influence of membrane molecular weight cutoff in our BAL system in this study. Acute liver failure in beagles was induced by d-galactosamine administration. Eight beagles were divided into two groups by the membrane molecular weight cutoff of the plasma component separator. Group 1 beagles were treated with BAL containing 200 kDa retention rating membrane. Group 2 beagles were treated with BAL containing 1200 kDa retention rating membrane. Each group underwent two 6-h BAL treatments that were performed on day 1 and day 21. The hemodynamic and hematologic response, humoral immune responses, and cytotoxic immune response to BAL therapy were studied before and after treatments. All beagles remained hemodynamically and hematologically stable during BAL treatments. BAL treatment was associated with a significant decline in levels of complement; however, a longer time of level maintenance was observed in Group 2. Group 2 beagles experienced a significant increase in levels of IgG and IgM after two BAL treatments. Significant levels of canine proteins were detected in BAL medium from Group 2; only trace levels of canine proteins were detected in BAL medium from Group 1. The posttreatment viability of co-culture cells in Group 2 was lower compared with Group 1, and the viability of co-culture cells after treatments was associated with deposition of canine proteins on the cells. Xenogeneic immune response was influenced by membrane molecular weight cutoff in the BAL. PMID:21819437

  6. Validity of Alternative Cut-Off Scores for the Back-Saver Sit and Reach Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Gilbert, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if currently used FITNESSGRAM[R] cut-off scores for the Back Saver Sit and Reach Test had the best criterion-referenced validity evidence for 6-12 year old children. Secondary analyses of an existing data set focused on the passive straight leg raise and Back Saver Sit and Reach Test flexibility scores of…

  7. Sierpinski Pyramidal Antenna Loaded With a Cutoff Open-Ended Waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    Hebib, Sami; Aubert, Hervé; Pascal, Olivier; Fonseca, Nelson; Ries, Lionel; Lopez, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    International audience A new pyramidal antenna for satellite application is presented. Sierpinski triangle antennas are chosen as radiating elements for their multiband features. The ground plane of the antenna is perforated and loaded with a cutoff open-ended waveguide: this original configuration leads to a good tradeoff between rear radiation and impedance matching. Ideal trap-loads are used to improve the multiband operation of the Sierpinski radiating elements. The antenna radiates ci...

  8. Multiband Pyramidal Antenna Loaded With a Cutoff Open-Ended Waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    Hebib, Sami; Aubert, Hervé; Pascal, Olivier; Fonseca, Nelson; Ries, Lionel; Lopez, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    International audience An original and flexible pyramidal antenna for satellite or terrestrial application services is presented. The ground plane of the antenna is perforated and loaded with a cutoff open-ended waveguide: this original configuration leads to a good tradeoff between rear radiation and impedance matching. Trap-loads are used to achieve multiband operation while frequency agility may be simply obtained by loading the radiating element by radio-frequency switches. The antenna...

  9. Sensitivity studies of spin cut-off models on fission fragment observables

    OpenAIRE

    Thulliez L.; Litaize O.; Serot O.

    2016-01-01

    A fission fragment de-excitation code, FIFRELIN, is being developed at CEA Cadarache. It allows probing the characteristics of the prompt emitted particles, neutrons and gammas, during the de-excitation process of fully accelerated fission fragments. The knowledge of the initial states of the fragments is important to accurately reproduce the fission fragment observables. In this paper a sensitivity study of various spin cut-off models, completely defining the initial fission fragment angular...

  10. On cutoff effects in lattice QCD from short to long distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss kinematical enhancements of cutoff effects at short and intermediate distances. Starting from a pedagogical example with periodic boundary conditions, we switch to the case of the Schroedinger functional, where the theoretical analysis is checked by precise numerical data with Nf=2 dynamical O(a)-improved Wilson quarks. Finally we present an improved determination of the renormalization of the axial current in that theory. (orig.)

  11. Statefinder diagnostic of logarithmic entropy corrected holographic dark energy with Granda-Oliveros IR cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodam-Mohammadi, A.; Pasqua, Antonio; Malekjani, M.; Khomenko, Iuliia; Monshizadeh, M.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we have studied the logarithmic entropy corrected holographic dark energy (LECHDE) model with Granda-Oliveros (G-O) IR cutoff. The evolution of dark energy (DE) density {\\varOmega}'D, the deceleration parameter, q, and equation of state parameter (EoS), ω Λ , are calculated. We show that the phantom divide may be crossed by choosing proper model parameters, even in absence of any interaction between dark energy and dark matter. By studying the statefinder diagnostic and ω_{{\\varLambda}}-ω_{{\\varLambda}}^' analysis, the pair parameters { r, s} and (ω_{{\\varLambda}}-ω_{{\\varLambda}}^') is calculated for flat GO-LECHDE universe. At present time, the pair { r, s} can mimic the ΛCDM scenario for a value of α/ β≃0.87, which is lower than the corresponding one for observational data ( α/ β=1.76) and for Ricci scale ( α/ β=2). We find that at present, by taking the various values of ( α/ β), the different points in r- s and (ω_{{\\varLambda}}-ω_{{\\varLambda}}^') plans are given. Moreover, in the limiting case for a flat dark dominated universe at infinity ( t→∞), we calculate { r, s} at G-O scale. For Ricci scale ( α=2, β=1) we obtain { r=0, s=2/3}.

  12. Statefinder diagnostic of logarithmic entropy corrected holographic dark energy with Granda-Oliveros IR cut-off

    CERN Document Server

    Khodam-Mohammadi, A; Malekjani, M; Khomenko, Iuliia

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the logarithmic entropy corrected holographic dark energy (LECHDE) model with Granda-Oliveros (G-O) IR cutoff. The evolution of dark energy (DE) density $\\Omega'_D$, the deceleration parameter, $q$, and equation of state parameter (EoS), $\\omega_{\\Lambda}$, are calculated. We show that the phantom divide may be crossed by choosing proper model parameters, even in absence of any interaction between dark energy and dark matter. By studying the statefinder diagnostic and $\\omega_{\\Lambda}-\\omega_{\\Lambda}^{\\prime}$ analysis, the pair parameters $\\{r,s\\}$ and $(\\omega_{\\Lambda}-\\omega_{\\Lambda}^{\\prime})$ is calculated for flat GO-LECHDE universe. At present time, the pair $\\{r,s\\}$ can mimic the $\\Lambda$CDM scenario for a value of $\\alpha/\\beta\\simeq 0.87$, which is lower than the corresponding one for observational data ($\\alpha/\\beta=1.76$) and for Ricci scale ($\\alpha/\\beta=2$). We find that at present, by taking the various values of ($\\alpha/\\beta$), the different points in $r...

  13. Comparison of nutrient intakes from two selected diet plans considered healthful versus the cutoff points for green lights as defined by the UK's multiple traffic light scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H; Fern, E

    2016-02-01

    This study compared nutrient intakes from 7-day menus for the US MyPlate and DASH Eating Plan versus the cutoff points for green lights defined by the UK's multiple traffic light (MTL) scheme. For both diets, the foods achieved green lights for saturated fat and salt, and for beverages for total fat, saturated fat and salt. The other nutrients achieved amber lights but were within the range of the two diets. By contrast, the MTL threshold for salt in beverages was outside the range of the diets. The values for salt in beverages in the MyPlate and Dash diet plans were 0.06±0.07 and 0.19±0.01 (s.d.) g/100 ml, which are both considerably lower compared with the cutoff of 0.3 g/100 ml for an MTL green light. Adjusting the green MTL threshold values to the median values for a healthful diet could help make MTL labelling a more valid way of helping consumers choose a healthful diet. PMID:26242724

  14. Interacting entropy-corrected holographic dark energy with apparent horizon IR-Cutoff and thermodynamical description

    CERN Document Server

    Khodam-Mohammadi, A

    2011-01-01

    The interacting entropy-corrected holographic dark energy (ECHDE), created by both logarithmic correction and power-law corrected of entropy, so-called "ECHDE" and "power-law ECHDE (PLECHDE)" respectively, with apparent horizon as an IR-Cutoff (AH-IR-Cutoff) are studied in a non-flat universe enclosed by apparent horizon. The ECHDE model with AH-IR-cutoff may be considered as a generalization of ordinary HDE, presented by Sheykhi [A. Sheykhi, Class. Quant. Grav., \\textbf{27}, 025007 (2010)]. We show that in both models, the phantom divide may be crossed in a model with or without interaction. Also the effect of interaction are studied in both models. it is found that in both models, for large horizon radius, the accelerated expanding universe can be driven only by interacting case. We also show that the coincidence problem can be solved in both models. The thermodynamical description of dark energy is studied only in ECHDE model. Based on the first law of thermodynamics for dark energy sector in the nonintera...

  15. Spectral geometry with a cut-off: topological and metric aspects

    CERN Document Server

    D'Andrea, Francesco; Martinetti, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by regularization in quantum field theory, we study topological and metric properties of spaces in which a cut-off is introduced. We work in the framework of noncommutative geometry, and focus on Connes distance associated to a spectral triple (A,H,D). A high momentum (short distance) cut-off is implemented by the action of a projection P on the Dirac operator D and/or on the algebra A. This action induces two new distances. We first individuate conditions making them equivalent to the original distance. We then study the Gromov-Hausdorff limit of the set of truncated states, first for quantum metric spaces in the sense of Rieffel, and then for arbitrary spectral triples. In the commutative case, we show that the cut-off induces a minimal length between points, which is infinite if P has finite rank. When P is a spectral projection of D, we work out an approximation of points by non-pure states that are at finite distance from each other. We apply the results to Moyal plane and to the fuzzy sphere, o...

  16. Impact of cut-off probability on emergency planning zone sizing for advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, NRC performed an evaluation of emergency planning for the evolutionary and advanced light water reactors, and indicated that no changes to emergency planning (EP) requirements were warranted in the existing technical framework. How- ever, NRC also recognized if the lower probability of severe accidents or the longer time period between accident initiation and release of radioactive material was considered, the changes to EP requirements for advanced light water reactors might be warranted and the emergency planning zone (EPZ) sizing might be reduced. This means that if the accidents which probabilities are lower than a cut-off probability are not considered, there may be a significant impact on the EPZ sizing. AP1000 was selected as an example in this study and the probable impacts of different cut-off probabilities were studied by using MACCS code in accordance with the NUREG-0396 method. The results show that, only if the cut-off probability is higher than the occurrence probability of the accident which has relatively serious consequence and high probability, there will be a significant impact on the EPZ sizing for the advanced light water reactor. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of novel large cut-off ultrafiltration membranes for adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5 concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piergiuseppe Nestola

    Full Text Available The purification of virus particles and viral vectors for vaccine and gene therapy applications is gaining increasing importance in order to deliver a fast, efficient, and reliable production process. Ultrafiltration (UF is a widely employed unit operation in bioprocessing and its use is present in several steps of the downstream purification train of biopharmaceuticals. However, to date few studies have thoroughly investigated the performance of several membrane materials and cut-offs for virus concentration/diafiltration. The present study aimed at developing a novel class of UF cassettes for virus concentration/diafiltration. A detailed study was conducted to evaluate the effects of (i membrane materials, namely polyethersulfone (PES, regenerated cellulose (RC, and highly cross-linked RC (xRC, (ii nominal cut-off, and (iii UF device geometry at different production scales. The results indicate that the xRC cassettes with a cut-off of approximately 500 kDa are able to achieve a 10-fold concentration factor with 100% recovery of particles with a process time twice as fast as that of a commercially available hollow fiber. DNA and host cell protein clearances, as well as hydraulic permeability and fouling behavior, were also assessed.

  18. Evaluating the effects of cutoffs and treatment of long-range electrostatics in protein folding simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Piana

    Full Text Available The use of molecular dynamics simulations to provide atomic-level descriptions of biological processes tends to be computationally demanding, and a number of approximations are thus commonly employed to improve computational efficiency. In the past, the effect of these approximations on macromolecular structure and stability has been evaluated mostly through quantitative studies of small-molecule systems or qualitative observations of short-timescale simulations of biological macromolecules. Here we present a quantitative evaluation of two commonly employed approximations, using a test system that has been the subject of a number of previous protein folding studies--the villin headpiece. In particular, we examined the effect of (i the use of a cutoff-based force-shifting technique rather than an Ewald summation for the treatment of electrostatic interactions, and (ii the length of the cutoff used to determine how many pairwise interactions are included in the calculation of both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Our results show that the free energy of folding is relatively insensitive to the choice of cutoff beyond 9 Å, and to whether an Ewald method is used to account for long-range electrostatic interactions. In contrast, we find that the structural properties of the unfolded state depend more strongly on the two approximations examined here.

  19. The relationship of violence and traumatic stress to changes in weight and waist circumference: longitudinal analyses from the study of women's health across the nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Clark, Cari Jo; Bromberger, Joyce; Gold, Ellen B

    2014-05-01

    This article investigates the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2,870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years, and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes, and confounders. At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese, and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.28-4.47]), weight loss (OR = 3.54, 95% CI = [1.73-7.22]), and gain (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = [1.37-4.37]) or loss (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = [1.23-5.77]) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women were associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  20. The Relationship of Violence and Traumatic Stress to Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Longitudinal Analyses from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Gold, Ellen B; Clark, Cari; Bromberger, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. Methods The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes and confounders. Results At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (OR=2.39, 95% CI= 1.28, 4.47), weight loss (OR=3.54, 95% CI=1.73, 7.22), and gain (OR=2.44, 95% CI =1.37, 4.37) or loss (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.23, 5.77) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Conclusion Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women was associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  1. Association of birthweight and head circumference at birth to cognitive performance in 9- to 10-year-old children in South India: prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Wills, Andrew K; Kurpad, Anura V; Muthayya, Sumithra; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Nagarajaiah, Kiran K; Fall, Caroline H D; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether birthweight and head circumference at birth are associated with childhood cognitive ability in South India, cognitive function was assessed using three core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, and visuospatial and verbal abilities among 505 full-term born children (mean age 9.7 y). In multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, gestation, socioeconomic status, parent's education, maternal age, parity, body mass index, height, rural/urban residence, and time of testing, Atlantis score (learning ability/long-term storage and retrieval) rose by 0.1 SD per SD increase in newborn weight and head circumference, respectively (p < 0.05 for all), and Kohs' block design score (visuospatial ability) increased by 0.1 SD per SD increase in birthweight (p < 0.05). The associations were reduced after further adjustment for current head circumference. There were no associations of birthweight and/or head circumference with measures of short-term memory, fluid reasoning, verbal abilities, and attention and concentration. In conclusion, higher birthweight and larger head circumference at birth are associated with better childhood cognitive ability. The effect may be specific to learning, long-term storage and retrieval, and visuospatial abilities, but this requires confirmation by further research. PMID:20032815

  2. Relationship Between Scrotal Circumference, Testicular Growth and Semen Quality Parameters in Guzerat Breed Bulls, from Puberty to 36 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Pérez Osorio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the association between scrotal circumference size and sperm characteristics in 194 males of Guzerat breed. Methods: The bulls were divided by age groups from 12 to 36 months of age. The length and width of the testicle and scrotal circumference were measured. Semen was collected from the animals that showed a circumference ≥ 19 cm through transrectal electrostimulation in order to induce ejaculation. The characteristics assessed in the semen were motility, speed, sperm concentration and presence of rounded cells. Results: the correlation between the scrotal circumference with the sperm motility by group of age was positive (r = 0.94; p < 0.005. The present study showed that the presence of proximal cytoplasmic droplet, the rounded cells in the semen and the defects on the head of the spermatozoids are objective evaluation features, which can be used for early selection of sperm production in Guzerat males. Conclusions: The production of sperm with normal rates in the Guzerat breed is achieved when males reach the age of 28 months and a scrotal circumference close to 30 cm.

  3. Optimal cut-off points on the health anxiety inventory, illness attitude scales and whiteley index to identify severe health anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hedman

    Full Text Available Health anxiety can be viewed as a dimensional phenomenon where severe health anxiety in form of DSM-IV hypochondriasis represents a cut-off where the health anxiety becomes clinically significant. Three of the most reliable and used self-report measures of health anxiety are the Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI, the Illness Attitude Scales (IAS and the Whiteley Index (WI. Identifying the optimal cut-offs for classification of presence of a diagnosis of severe health anxiety on these measures has several advantages in clinical and research settings. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the HAI, IAS and WI as proximal diagnostic instruments for severe health anxiety defined as DSM-IV hypochondriasis.We investigated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value on the HAI, IAS and WI using a total of 347 adult participants of whom 158 had a diagnosis of severe health anxiety, 97 had obsessive-compulsive disorder and 92 were healthy non-clinical controls. Diagnostic assessments were conducted using the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule.Optimal cut-offs for identifying a diagnosis of severe health anxiety was 67 on the HAI, 47 on the IAS, and 5 on the WI. Sensitivity and specificity were high, ranging from 92.6 to 99.4%. Positive and negative predictive values ranged from 91.6 to 99.4% using unadjusted prevalence rates.The HAI, IAS and WI have very good properties as diagnostic indicators of severe health anxiety and can be used as cost-efficient proximal estimates of the diagnosis.

  4. Optimal cutoff points for the detection of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults Puntos de corte óptimos para la detección de diabetes tipo 2, hipertensión y síndrome metabólico no diagnosticados en adultos mexicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Rojas-Martínez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the waist circumference cutoff points established by the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI with those of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF for the screening of diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome in Mexican adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study comprised a subsample of the ENSANUT 2006. Subjects without diabetes and hypertension and non-pregnant women were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were compared using AUC and the positive likelihood ratio test [LR(+]. RESULTS: In subjects aged ≥40 years, sensitivity for detection of diabetes and hypertension was higher for the IDF thresholds (85.34 and 86.87%, respectively compared with those of the AHA/NHLBI (59.49 and 52.41%, respectively. LR(+ were higher for IDF thresholds compared with AHA/NHLBI. Similar results in subjects aged ≥65 years were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of abdominal obesity defined by the IDF was a better screening tool for diabetes and hypertension, considering that initially a high sensitivity and low cost tool at population level is required.OBJETIVO: Comparar los puntos de corte de circunferencia de cintura de la American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI y la International Diabetes Federation (IDF para escrutinio de diabetes, hipertensión arterial y síndrome metabólico en adultos mexicanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó una submuestra de la ENSANUT 2006 incluyendo sujetos sin diabetes o hipertensión y mujeres no embarazadas. Se comparó la sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos mediante AUC y la razón de verosimilitudes positiva [LR(+]. RESULTADOS: En personas ≥40 años, la sensibilidad para detección de diabetes e hipertensión usando el criterio de la IDF fue de 85.34% (LR(+=1.1 y 86.87% (LR(+=1.1; mientras que para el criterio de la AHA/NHLBI fue de 59.49% (LR(+=1.34 y 52

  5. Reasons for changes in the value of unit pressure of compression products supporting external treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, K.; Ilska, A.; Kłonowska, M.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents the basics of modelling compression products with intended values of unit pressure for body circumferences with fixed and variable radius of curvature. The derived relationships referring to the dimensions of the fabric's circumferences in a relaxed state of the product were based on Laplace law, local values of the radius of curvature, and the characteristics of stretching and relaxing (deformation) of the knitted fabric, described by experimental relation for the stress and relaxation phase for the 6th hysteresis loop, taking into account confidence intervals. The article indicates the possibilities of using 3D scanning techniques of the human body to identify the radius of curvature of various circumference of the human silhouette, for which the intended value of the unit pressure is designed, and quantitative changes in the body deformation due to compression. Classic method of modelling and design of compression products, based on a cylindrical model of the human body does not provide in each case the intended value of unit pressure, according to specific normative requirements, because it neglects the effect of different values of the radius of curvature of the body circumference and the properties of the viscoelastic knitted fabrics. The model and experimental research allowed for a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the reasons for the changes in the value of unit pressure of compression products supporting the process of external treatment.

  6. Umbilical Cord Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Relation to Birthweight, Head Circumference and Infant Length at Age 14 Days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Steuerwald, Ulrike;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insufficient supply of vitamin D during early development may negatively affect offspring growth. METHODS: We examined the association between umbilical cord (UC) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and infant size in a study of two Faroese birth cohorts of 1038 singleton...... linear regression models with adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI, sex, parity, gestational age, or infant age at examination, season of birth, smoking, gestational diabetes, examiner, and cohort identity, we found no relationship between birthweight or head circumference and UC 25(OH)D. However, infants...... with vitamin D status <12 nmol/L had a 0.49 (95% confidence interval 0.05, 0.93) cm lower length than infants with vitamin D status >50 nmol/L in models further adjusted for birthweight. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that umbilical cord serum 25(OH)D concentrations are positively associated with infant...

  7. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.;

    physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...... MetS-markers in 8-11-year-olds at nine Danish schools without existing school meal programmes. Methods In a cluster-randomized cross-over design we assigned 834 third and fourth graders to school lunch and snacks based on the New Nordic Diet and usual home-packed lunch (control) for 3 months. We...... measured blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance based on the Homeostasis Model of Assessment (HOMA-IR), anthropometry and body composition at baseline, month 3 and 6. Results Seventy-six% of the children were normalweight; 10% were underweight and 14% overweight/obese. The NND school meals did...

  8. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla P.; Berentzen, Tina L.; Østergaard, Jane N.;

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) plays a role in the development of obesity. The proportions of adipose tissue fatty acids not synthesised endogenously in humans, such as TFA, usually correlate well with the dietary intake. Hence, the use of these...... biomarkers may provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than that obtained with dietary questionnaires. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC......% central range 0·98, 2·19) in men and 1·47% (1·01, 2·19) in women. No significant associations were observed between the proportions of total 18 : 1t, 18:1 D6-10t, vaccenic acid or rumenic acid and changes in weight or WC. The present study suggests that the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue...

  9. Interaction between genetic predisposition to adiposity and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    ) and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight (ΔBW) or change in WC (ΔWC). DESIGN: Three different Danish cohorts were used. In total 7,054 individuals constituted the study population with information on diet, 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI, WC or......BACKGROUND: Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI......-score: <0.1 mm/y/5 energy% protein/risk allele, [-0.1; 0.1]). Similar results were seen when protein replaced fat. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the genetic predisposition to general and abdominal adiposity, assessed by gene-scores, does not seem to modulate the influence of dietary protein on ΔBW...

  10. Interaction between genetic predisposition to obesity and dietary calcium in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether genetic predisposition...... to higher body mass index (BMI), WC, or waist-hip ratio (WHR) interacts with dietary calcium in relation to subsequent annual change in BW (ΔBW) and WC (ΔWC). DESIGN: The study was based on 7569 individuals from the MONItoring trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease Study, a sample from the...... Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study and the INTER99 study, with information on diet; 54 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI, WC, or WHR adjusted for BMI; and potential confounders. The SNPs were combined in 4 scores as indicators of genetic predisposition; all SNPs in a general...

  11. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Romaguera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the association of food groups/items consumption on prospective annual changes in "waist circumference for a given BMI" (WC(BMI, a proxy for abdominal adiposity. DESIGN: We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WC(BMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on BMI, and annual change in WC(BMI (ΔWC(BMI, cm/y was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between food groups/items and ΔWC(BMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. RESULTS: Higher fruit and dairy products consumption was associated with a lower gain in WC(BMI whereas the consumption of white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks was positively associated with ΔWC(BMI. When these six food groups/items were analyzed in combination using a summary score, those in the highest quartile of the score--indicating a more favourable dietary pattern--showed a ΔWC(BMI of -0.11 (95% CI -0.09 to -0.14 cm/y compared to those in the lowest quartile. CONCLUSION: A dietary pattern high in fruit and dairy and low in white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks may help to prevent abdominal fat accumulation.

  12. Combined use of waist and hip circumference to identify abdominally obese HIV-infected patients at increased health risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor O'Neill

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine whether for a given waist circumference (WC, a larger hip circumference (HC was associated with a reduced risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D, hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD in HIV-infected patients. A second objective was to determine whether, for a given WC, the addition of HC improved upon estimates of abdominal adiposity, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT, compared to those obtained by WC alone. METHODS: HIV-infected men (N = 1481 and women (N = 841 were recruited between 2005 and 2009. WC and HC were obtained using standard techniques and abdominal adiposity was measured using computed tomography. RESULTS: After control for WC and covariates, HC was negatively associated with risk of insulin resistance (p<0.05 and T2D [Men: OR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.96; Women: OR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84-0.98]. For a given WC, HC was also negatively associated with a lower risk of hypertension (p<0.05 and CVD [OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99] in men, but not women. Although HC was negatively associated with VAT in men and women after control for WC (p<0.05, the addition of HC did not substantially improve upon the prediction of VAT compared to WC alone. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of HIV-infected individuals at increased health risk by WC alone is substantially improved by the addition of HC. Estimates of visceral adipose tissue by WC are not substantially improved by the addition of HC and thus variation in visceral adiposity may not be the conduit by which HC identifies increased health risk.

  13. Study of Low-grade Chronic Inflammatory Markers in Men with Central Obesity: Cathepsin S was Correlated with Waist Circumference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Todingrante

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a prevalence increase of overweight and obesity in Indonesia. Central obesity can lead a variety of chronic diseases through the inflammatory process. There are some markers for low-grade chronic inflammatory, such as cathepsin S, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, interleukin-1- beta (IL-1β. To our current interest that central obesity can lead to various chronic diseases through the inflammatory process, we conducted a study to investigate correlation of Cathepsin S, hs-CRP, IL-1β in men with central obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Seventy-eight selected subjects were examined to collect anthropometric data and prepared for sample collection. Collected samples were processed for the following biochemical analyses: fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, cathepsin S, hs-CRP, and IL-1β. Data distribution and variable correlation were then statistically analyzed. RESULTS: There were significant correlations between waist circumference (WC and cathepsin S (p=0.030; r=0.214, hs-CRP and cathepsin S (p=0.007; r=0.276, triglyceride and IL-1β (p=0.019; r=-0.235, WC and systolic blood pressure (SBP (p=0.003; r=-0.312, WC and fasting glucose (p=0.000; r=0.380, WC and body mass index (BMI (p=0.000; r=0.708. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that cathepsin S was correlated with central obesity, suggesting that cathepsin S could be a potential inflammatory marker in central obesity in the future. KEYWORDS: obesity, inflammation, hs-CRP, cathepsin S, IL-1β, waist circumference.

  14. Power-law entropy corrected new holographic scalar field models of dark energy with modified IR-cutoff

    OpenAIRE

    Khodam-Mohammadi, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the PLECHDE model with Granda-Oliveros (G-O) IR-cutoff is studied. The evolution of dark energy density, deceleration and EoS parameters are calculated. I demonstrate that under a condition, our universe can accelerate near the phantom barrier at present time. We calculate these parameters also in PLECHDE at Ricci scale, when when $\\alpha=2$ and $\\beta=1$, and at last a comparison between Ricci scale, G-O cutoff and non-corrected HDE without matter field with G-O cutoff is done....

  15. Suppressing the weakly bound states in the photoassociation dynamics by using a frequency cut-off laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoassociation dynamics of ultracold lithium atoms controlled by a cut-off pulse has been investigated theoretically by solving numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation using the mapped Fourier grid method. The frequency components of the laser pulse close to the atomic resonance are partly cut off. Compared with the typical Gauss-type pulses, the cut-off pulse is helpful to suppress efficiently the weakly bound states and prepare the associated molecules in the lower vibrational states. Especially, the dependence of photoassociation probability on the cut-off position of the laser pulse is explored. (atomic and molecular physics)

  16. Body mass index, waist circumference, body adiposity index, and risk for type 2 diabetes in two populations in Brazil: general and Amerindian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Oliveira Alvim

    Full Text Available The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus.A total of 1,572 individuals from the general population of Vitoria City, Brazil and 620 Amerindians from the Aracruz Indian Reserve, Brazil were randomly selected. BMI, waist circumference, and BAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by the presence of fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or by the use of antidiabetic drugs.The area under the curve was similar for all anthropometric indices tested in the Amerindian population, but with very different sensitivities or specificities. In women from the general population, the area under the curve of waist circumference was significantly higher than that of the body adiposity index. Regarding risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the body adiposity index was a better risk predictor than body mass index and waist circumference in the Amerindian population and was the index with highest odds ratio for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men from the general population, while in women from the general population waist circumference was the best risk predictor.Body adiposity index was the best risk predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Amerindian population and men from the general population. Our data suggest that the body adiposity index is a useful tool for the risk assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in admixture populations.

  17. Curva de crescimento do diâmetro biparietal e da circunferência cefálica na gestação gemelar Growth curve of the biparietal diameter and head circumference in twin gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Marie Fujita

    1999-12-01

    examinations were performed each 2 or 3 weeks by a single observer. The parameters were compared with existing growth curves for singletons and twins. Results: curves and tables of biparietal diameter and head circumference in relation to gestational age were obtained. The study revealed difference in growth pattern mainly regarding the 3rd trimester in relation to singletons (Hadlock et al.15. The difference between the average values were 6 mm (biparietal diameter and 2.0 cm (head circumference at the 39th week of gestation. Also, some differences were observed relative to the twin studies. Conclusion: this study revealed that growth curves for average biparietal diameter and average head circumference of singletons are not appropriate to determine gestational age in twin gestations of the studiced population principally at the 3rd trimester

  18. Influence of the Lift-Off Effect on the Cut-Off Frequency of the EMAT-Generated Rayleigh Wave Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxing Yi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT, a non-contact NDT tool with large lift-off, is becoming an attractive method for detecting the cracks in the metal parts. However, the lift-off of the transducer has a direct effect on the feature that is used to characterize the defects. A detailed investigation on the relationship between the feature and the lift-off of the EMAT is crucial in the detection process. This paper investigates the lift-off effect on the feature, cut-off frequency of EMAT in the Rayleigh wave. The study can be divided into two parts. Firstly, with a multi-field coupling environment, 2-D electromagnetic and wave generation EMAT models are built to simulate the interaction of the Rayleigh wave with the surface crack. Then, the lift-off effect on the cut-off frequency is investigated through simulation and experiment. Compared to the previous studies, it is found that lift-off would cause a negative result when the lift-off varies in the testing process. Besides, the calibration obtained from the tests at a random lift-off value can be used in other tests with any different lift off value provided that the lift-off is kept as a constant during the detection process.

  19. Effect of 635nm Low-level Laser Therapy on Upper Arm Circumference Reduction: A Double-blind, Randomized, Sham-controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor, Mark S.; Zarraga, Matthew B.; Park, Hyunhee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of low-level laser therapy as a noninvasive method for reducing upper arm circumference. Design: Randomized, double-blind study whereby healthy subjects (N=40) with a body mass index of 20 to 35kg/m2 received three 20-minute low-level laser therapy (N=20) or sham treatments (N=20) each week for two weeks. Measurements: Upper arm circumference was measured after three and six treatments and two weeks post-treatment. Primary success criterion was the...

  20. Prediction Equations for Body-fat Percentage in Indian Infants and Young Children Using Skinfold Thickness and Mid-arm Circumference

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Bandana; Bose, Kaushik; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Mahalanabis, Dilip

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop prediction equations for fat-mass percentage in infants in India based on skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, and age. Skinfold thicknesses and mid-arm circumference of 46 apparently-healthy infants (27 girls and 19 boys), aged 6–24 months, from among the urban poor attending a well baby clinic of a hospital in Kolkata were measured. Their body-fat percentage was measured using the D2O dilution technique as the reference method. Equations for b...