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Sample records for circumference cut-off values

  1. Cut off values of waist circumference & associated cardiovascular risk in egyptians

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    Ibrahim M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent guidelines stressed the need to adopt different values of waist circumference (WC measurements to define abdominal obesity in different ethnic groups. The aim of this study is to identify WC cutoff points in normotensive and hypertensive subjects which are diagnostic of abdominal obesity in a Middle Eastern population and the prevalence of abdominal obesity in a nationwide sample. Methods Data were collected during phase-2 of the Egyptians National Hypertension Project survey. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements and laboratory studies were performed according to a standardized protocol by trained personnel. To derive the cutoff points for WC, we applied the factor analysis on CV risk factors: diabetes mellitus, decrease in HDL-C and increase in LDL-C, triglycerides and left ventricular mass index by echocardiography. Results The sample included 2313 individuals above the age of 25 years. WC values (mean ± SD were 88 ± 14 cm and 95 ± 14 cm for normotensive (NT and hypertensive (HT men respectively, and 89.6 ± 14.7 cm and 95.7 ± 15.9 cm for NT and HT women respectively. Applying factor analysis, the weighted average cutoff points were 93.5 cm for both NT and HT men and 91.5 and 92.5 cm for NT and HT women respectively. Based on these thresholds, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 48% in men and 51.5% in women. Conclusion This is the first report of specific abdominal obesity cutoff points in a Middle Eastern country. The cutoff points were different from the Europid standards. There is a high prevalence rate of abdominal obesity among Egyptians which is associated with increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

  2. Waist circumference cut-off values for the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors clustering in Chinese school-aged children: a cross-sectional study

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    Xu Ying

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waist circumference has been identified as a valuable predictor of cardiovascular risk in children. The development of waist circumference percentiles and cut-offs for various ethnic groups are necessary because of differences in body composition. The purpose of this study was to develop waist circumference percentiles for Chinese children and to explore optimal waist circumference cut-off values for predicting cardiovascular risk factors clustering in this population. Methods Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured in 5529 children (2830 boys and 2699 girls aged 6-12 years randomly selected from southern and northern China. Blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose were obtained in a subsample (n = 1845. Smoothed percentile curves were produced using the LMS method. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to derive the optimal age- and gender-specific waist circumference thresholds for predicting the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. Results Gender-specific waist circumference percentiles were constructed. The waist circumference thresholds were at the 90th and 84th percentiles for Chinese boys and girls respectively, with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 67% to 83%. The odds ratio of a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among boys and girls with a higher value than cut-off points was 10.349 (95% confidence interval 4.466 to 23.979 and 8.084 (95% confidence interval 3.147 to 20.767 compared with their counterparts. Conclusions Percentile curves for waist circumference of Chinese children are provided. The cut-off point for waist circumference to predict cardiovascular risk factors clustering is at the 90th and 84th percentiles for Chinese boys and girls, respectively.

  3. Optimal Waist Circumference Cut-off values for Identifying Metabolic Risk Factors in Middle-aged and Elderly Subjects in Shandong Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xin Guo; ZHANG Xiu Ping; JIANG Mei; WANG Wei Qing; NING Guang; ZHENG Hui Zhen; MA Ai Xia; SUN Yu; SONG Jun; LIN Peng; LIANG Kai; WANG Chuan; LIU Fu Qiang; LI Wen Juan; XIAO Juan; GONG Lei; WANG Mei Jian; LIU Ji Dong; YAN Fei; YANG Jun Peng; WANG Ling Shu; TIAN Meng; MA Ze Qiang; ZHAO Ru Xing; JIANG Ling; CHEN Li; YANG Wei Fang; WANG Ji Xiang; LI Cheng Qiao; WANG Yu Lian; LIU Shu Min; Hu Xiu Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the optimal waist circumference (WC) cut-off values for identifying metabolic risk factors in middle-aged and elderly subjects in Shandong Province of China. Methods A total of 2 873 men and 5 559 women were included in this cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was diagnosed according to the definition of Chinese Diabetes Society in 2004. The relation between WC and MetS was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The optimal WC cut-off values were identified using the area under the ROC curve and the different diagnostic criteria for central obesity were compared. Results The WC was the risk factor for MetS independent of BMI, blood glucose, blood lipid, and blood pressure. The optimal WC cut-off value was 83.8 cm and 91.1 cm for identifying MetS in women and men, respectively. Compared with 80 cm and 85 cm for women and men, 85 cm and 90 cm had a higher Youden index for identifying all metabolic risk factors and MetS in women and men. Conclusion The appropriate WC cut-off value is 85 cm and 90 cm for identifying central obesity and MetS in women and men in Shandong Province of China.

  4. Effectiveness of Different Waist Circumference Cut-off Values in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence and Risk Factors in Adults in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hai Cheng; TIAN Hao Ming; JI Qiu He; ZHU Da Long; CHEN Li; GUO Xiao Hui; ZHAO Zhi Gang; Li Qiang; ZHOU Zhi Guang; GE Jia Pu; SHAN Guang Liang; LAI Ya Xin; SHAN Zhong Yan; JIA Wei Ping; YANG Wen Ying; LU Ju Ming; WENG Jian Ping; JI Li Nong; LIU Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effectiveness of waist circumference cut-off values in predicting the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and risk factors in adults in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was condcuted in 14 provinces (autonomous region, municipality) in China. A total of 47 325 adults aged ≥20 years were selected by multistage stratified sampling, and questionnaire survey and physical and clinical examination were conducted among them. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and modified IDF criteria. Results The age-standardized prevalence of MetS was 24.2%(22.1%in men and 25.8%in women) and 19.5% (22.1% in men and 18.0% in women) according to the IDF criteria and modified IDF criteria respectively. The age-standardized prevalence of pre-MetS was 8.1%(8.6%in men and 7.8%in women) according to the modified IDF criteria. The prevalence of MetS was higher in urban residents than rural residents and in northern China residents than in southern China residents. The prevalence of central obesity was about 30% in both men and women according to the ethnicity-specific cut-off values of waist circumference for central obesity (90 cm for men and 85 cm for women). Multivariate regression analysis revealed no significant difference in risk factors between the two MetS definitions. Conclusion Using both the modified IDF criteria and ethnicity-specific cut-off values of waist circumference can provide more useful information about the prevalence of MetS in China.

  5. Predictive Values of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference for Risk Factors of Certain Related Diseases in Chinese Adults - Study on Optimal Cut-off Points of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For prevention of obesity in Chinese population, it is necessary to define the optimal range of healthy weight and the appropriate cut-off points of BMI and waist circumference for Chinese adults. The Working Group on Obesity in China under the support of International Life Sciences Institute Focal point in China organized a meta-analysis on the relation between BMI, waist circumference and risk factors of related chronic diseases (e. g.,high diabetes, diabetes mellitus, and lipoprotein disorders). Methods 13 population studies in all met the criteria for enrollment, with data of 239 972 adults (20-70 year) surveyed in the 1990s. Data on waist circumference was available for 111411 persons and data on serum lipids and glucose were available for more than 80 000. The study populations located in 21provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in mainland China as well as in Taiwan. Each enrolled study provided data according to a common protocol and uniform format. The Center for data management in Department of Epidemiology, Fu Wai Hospital was responsible for statistical analysis. Results and conclusion The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of risk factors all increased with increasing levels of BMI or waist circumference. BMI at 24 with best sensitivity and specificity for identification of the risk factors, was recommended as the cut-off point for overweight, BMI at 28 which may identify the risk factors with specificity around 90 % was recommended as the cut-off point for obesity. Waist circumference beyond 85 cm for men and beyond 80 cm for women were recommended as the cut-off points for central obesity.Analysis of population attributable risk percent illustrated that reducing BMI to normal range (<24) could prevent 45%-50% clustering of risk factors. Treatment of obese persons (BMI ≥ 28)with drugs could prevent 15%-17% clustering of risk factors. The waist circumference controlled under 85 cm for men and under 80 cm for

  6. Hemoglobin cut-off values in healthy Turkish infants

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    Ahmet Arvas; Emel Gür; DurmuşDoğan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to determine the cut-off value of hemoglobin for infant anemia. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out at well-baby clinics of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 1484 healthy infants aged between 4 to 24 months were included in the study. The relationship of hemoglobin (Hb) levels with mother age, birth weight, weight gain rate, feeding, and gender was evaluated. Results: The Hb levels were assessed in four age groups (4 months, 6 months, 9-12 months, and 15-24 months) and the cut-off values of Hb were determined. Hb cut-off values (5th percentile for age) were detected as 97 g/L and 93 g/L at 4 months and 6 months, respectively. In older infants, the 5th percentile was 90.5 g/L and 93.4 g/L at 9-12 months and 15-24 months, respectively. The two values were lower than the World Health Organization criteria for anemia, which could partly due to the lack of information on iron status in our population. However, this difference highlights the need for further studies on normal Hb levels in healthy infants in developing countries. Hb levels of females were higher in all age groups; however, a statistically significant difference was found in gender in only 6 month-old infants. No statistically significant difference was found among Hb levels, mother's age, birth weight, weight gain rate, and nutritional status. Conclusion: Hb cut-off values in infants should be re-evaluated and be compatible with growth and development of children in that community.

  7. Determining the waist circumference cut off which best predicts the metabolic syndrome components in urban Africans: the SABPA study

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    Malan, Leone; Potgieter, Johannes Cornelis; Steyn, Hendrik Stefanus; J. Prinsloo; De Ridder, Johannes Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have shown that the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and abdominal obesity is age, gender as well as ethnicity-dependent. WC criteria for Sub Saharan Africans have not been defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). The aim was to determine which WC cut off best predicted Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in a group of urban African teachers (80 males and 93 females). We determined sphygmomanometer blood pressure, WC, glucose, high density lipoprotein cholest...

  8. Optimal Waist Circumference Cut-Off Point for Multiple Risk Factor Aggregation: Results from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study

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    Valmore Bermúdez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine optimal waist circumference (WC cut-off values for the detection of multiple risk factor aggregation in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela. Participants and Methods. A total of 1,902 adult individuals of both genders belonging to MMSPS were included. Complete physical, laboratory, and anthropometric examination were done to evaluate Metabolic Syndrome (MS components and insulin resistance. ROC curves were plotted for risk factor aggregation in order to assess WC cut-off point. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess risk factors associated with the WC. Results. There were 52.2% females and 47.8% males, with WC of 90.7±13.7 cm and 98.2±15.9 cm, respectively. ROC curves exhibited a WC cut-off point for women of 90.25 cm (68.4% sensitivity, 65.8% specificity and 95.15 cm (71.1% sensitivity, 67.4% specificity for men. HOMA2-IR and high blood pressure were associated with a WC over these cut-off points, as well as 2.5-fold risk increase for multiple risk factor aggregation (OR 2.56; CI 95%: 2.05–3.20; P<0.01. Conclusions. These population-specific WC cut-offs are readily applicable tools for detection of risk factor aggregation. Insulin resistance is closely associated with this definition of abdominal obesity, which may serve as a surrogate for its assessment.

  9. Cut-Off Values of Visceral Adiposity to Predict NAFLD in Brazilian Obese Adolescents

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    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study aimed at determining cut-off points of visceral fat to predict NAFLD and analyzed metabolic disorders of obese adolescents. Methods. Cross-sectional study involved 165 obese adolescents ranged in age from 15 to 19 years. Glycemia, hepatic transaminases, lipid profile, and insulin resistance were analyzed. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasound and body composition by plesthysmography. Results. The NAFLD adolescents had significantly higher values for body mass, BMI-for-age, BMI, total fat, waist circumference, and visceral fat when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents in both genders. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between visceral fat with the variables BMI-for-age (r=0.325,, TG (r=0.277, AST (r=0.509, ALT (r=0.519, WC (r=0.390, and visceral/subcutaneous ratio (r=0.790 for NAFLD group. Total fat, triglycerides, and visceral fat were the independent predictors to NAFLD. Analysis of the ROC curves revealed cut-off points of visceral fat of 4.47 cm for girls and 4.21 cm for boys. Conclusions. The results may suggest that abdominal ultrasonography procedure may be a safe alternative method of assessing visceral adiposity aiming to be considered to the development of preventive and treatment strategies in obese individuals. This clinial trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT01358773.

  10. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol

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    Smith, P.; Endris, R.; Kronvall, G.;

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values were developed for application to antibiotic susceptibility data for Flavobacterium psychrophilum generated by standard CLSI test protocols. The MIC values for ten antibiotic agents against Flavobacterium psychrophilum were determined in two laboratories. For five...

  11. Establishing Streptomycin Epidemiological Cut-Off Values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Sunde, Marianne; Karlsmose, Susanne;

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32 mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates...

  12. Cut-off values of blessed dementia rating scale and its clinical application in elderly Taiwanese.

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    Yang, Yuan-Han; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Tai, Chih-Ta; Liu, Ching-Kuan

    2006-08-01

    Although the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale (BDRS), a clinical screening instrument, has been applied extensively, no suitable cut-off values and clinical application have been proposed, particularly in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the precursor of dementia. The BDRS, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) were administrated in people aged 65 years and above, who were enrolled from southern Taiwan with multistep stratified random sampling and followed-up for 2 years. All subjects (total number = 3,027), with new onset of MCI (defined as CDR = 0.5) in the first year and dementia (defined as CDR > or = 1) in the second and third years were subjected to statistical analysis. In distinguishing normal from MCI, except in the literate group aged 65-74 years, MMSE was superior to BDRS, with cut-off values of 1 in both literate groups aged 65-74 years and > or = 75 years, and 1.5 and 2 in less educated groups aged 65-74 and > or = 75 years, respectively. In distinguishing MCI from dementia, BDRS had cut-off values of 2.5 in both literate groups aged 65-74 and > or = 75 years, and 2.5 and 3 in less educated groups aged 65-74 and > or = 75 years, respectively. These values were better than those for MMSE in all groups. BDRS might be considered as a better tool than MMSE to screen for MCI and dementia in the increasing proportion of literate elderly aged 65-74 years in the aging population. PMID:16911919

  13. Lowering the cut off value of an automated chlamydia enzyme immunoassay and confirmation by PCR and direct immunofluorescent antibody test.

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    Tong, C Y; Donnelly, C; Hood, N

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To increase the sensitivity of an automated chlamydia enzyme immunoassay by significantly lowering its cut off value, and to maintain specificity by confirmation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct immunofluorescent antibody test (DFA). METHODS: Over five months, the cut off value of the enzyme immunoassay used to screen urogenital samples for chlamydia antigen was reduced from 80 to 10. Samples with a test value of 10 or above were further tested with a commercial PCR assay...

  14. Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti

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    EL Mabchour A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asma EL Mabchour,1 Hélène Delisle,1 Colette Vilgrain,2 Philippe Larco,2 Roger Sodjinou,3 Malek Batal1 1Transition Nutritionnelle (TRANSNUT, WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition Changes and Development, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Haitian Foundation for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases (FHADIMAC, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; 3West Africa Health Organization (WAHO, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Purpose: Waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR are widely used as indicators of abdominal adiposity and the cut-off values have been validated primarily in Caucasians. In this study we identified the WC and WHtR cut-off points that best predicted cardiometabolic risk (CMR in groups of African (Benin and African ancestry (Haiti Black subjects. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 452 apparently healthy subjects from Cotonou (Benin and Port-au-Prince (Haiti, 217 women and 235 men from 25 to 60 years. CMR biomarkers were the metabolic syndrome components. Additional CMR biomarkers were a high atherogenicity index (total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4 in women and ≥5 in men; insulin resistance set at the 75th percentile of the calculated Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA-IR; and inflammation defined as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP concentrations between 3 and 10 mg/L. WC and WHtR were tested as predictors of two out of the three most prevalent CMR biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, Youden's index, and likelihood ratios were used to assess the performance of specific WC and WHtR cut-offs. Results: High atherogenicity index (59.5%, high blood pressure (23.2%, and insulin resistance (25% by definition were the most prevalent CMR biomarkers in the study groups. WC and WHtR were equally valid as predictors of CMR. Optimal WC cut-offs were 80 cm and 94 cm in men and women, respectively, which is exactly

  15. Susceptibility profile and epidemiological cut-off values of Cryptococcus neoformans species complex from Argentina.

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    Córdoba, Susana; Isla, Maria G; Szusz, Wanda; Vivot, Walter; Altamirano, Rodrigo; Davel, Graciela

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values (ECVs) based on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution have been recently proposed for some antifungal drug/Cryptococcus neoformans combinations. However, these ECVs vary according to the species studied, being serotypes and the geographical origin of strains, variables to be considered. The aims were to define the wild-type (WT) population of the C. neoformans species complex (C. neoformans) isolated from patients living in Argentina, and to propose ECVs for six antifungal drugs. A total of 707 unique C. neoformans isolates obtained from HIV patients suffering cryptococcal meningitis were studied. The MIC of amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole was determined according to the EDef 7.2 (EUCAST) reference document. The MIC distribution, MIC50 , MIC90 and ECV for each of these drugs were calculated. The highest ECV, which included ≥95% of the WT population modelled, was observed for flucytosine and fluconazole (32 μg ml(-1) each). For amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole, the ECVs were: 0.5, 0.5, 0.5 and 0.06 μg ml(-1) respectively. The ECVs determined in this study may aid in identifying the C. neoformans strains circulating in Argentina with decreased susceptibility to the antifungal drugs tested. PMID:26865081

  16. Cut-Off Value for Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire in Predicting Surgical Success in Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation

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    Azimi, Parisa; Benzel, Edward C.

    2016-01-01

    Various factors related to predict surgical success were studied; however, a standard cut-off point for the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) measure has not yet been established for a favorable surgical outcome for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). This study was to find the optimal cut-off point on the PSQ to distinguish surgical success in patients with LDH. A total of 154 patients with LDH consecutively referred to our clinic were enrolled into this prospective study between February 2011 and January 2014. All participants completed the PSQ. Patients completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score before surgery, and at 2 years after surgery. Surgical success was defined as a 13-point improvement from the baseline ODI scores. The cut-off value for PSQ was determined by the receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC). The mean age of patients was 49.3±9.6 years, and there were 80 women. The mean time for follow-up assessment was 31±5 months (range 24–35). Post-surgical success was 79.9% (n = 123) at 2 years follow up. The mean score for the total PSQ, PSQ-minor, and PSQ-moderate were 6.0 (SD = 1.6), 5.4 (SD = 1.9) and 6.5 (SD = 1.7), respectively. Total PSQ score was also significantly correlated with the total scores of the ODI. The optimal total PSQ cut-off point was determined as > 5.2 to predict surgical success in LDH patients, with 80.0% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity (AUC-0.814, 95% CI 0.703–0.926). This study showed that the PSQ could be considered a parameter for predicting surgical success in patients with LDH, and can be useful in clinical practice. PMID:27494617

  17. Metabolic syndrome: no internationally defined standard cut-off value for waist circumference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olabode Oladeinde

    2007-01-01

    @@ The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin - metabolic risk factors that appear to directly promote the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and increase the risk of development of type 2 diabetes.

  18. Immunity status against poliomyelitis in Germany: Determination of cut-off values in International Units

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    Schreier Eckart

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To prevent importations of wild polioviruses into a polio free region a high level of population immunity must be kept. Standard methodology for determination of polio antibodies is a feature aimed at obtaining consistent results. An International Standard Serum for polio antibodies exists, but no protective level in International Units is defined. Methods A representative study was carried out in order to determine the serological status against poliomyelitis in Germany (n = 2564, age 18–79 years. Furthermore, sera from persons aged less than 18 years were included (n = 881. Microneutralization test has been used for determination of antibody levels. Results have been expressed in International Units. Results The results of this study indicate that the cut-off level for polio antibodies is 0.075 IU/ml for Polio 1, 0.180 IU/ml for Polio 2 and 0.080 IU/ml for Polio 3. Neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus type 1, 2 and 3 were detected in 96.2%, 96.8% and 89.6% of samples, respectively. Conclusions Overall, this seroprevalence indicates a very high level of immunity of the general population. It must be kept after the switch of immunization strategy from attenuated to inactivated vaccine in Germany.

  19. The assessment of anorexia in patients with cancer: cut-off values for the FAACT–A/CS and the VAS for appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, S.; Ruijgrok, C.; Ostelo, R. W.; de Vet, H. C. W.; Verheul, H.M.W.; de van der Schueren, M. A. E.; Langius, J. A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anorexia is a frequently observed symptom in patients with cancer and is associated with limited food intake and decreased quality of life. Diagnostic instruments such as the Anorexia/Cachexia Subscale (A/CS) of the Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) questionnaire and the visual analog scale (VAS) for appetite have been recommended in the assessment of anorexia, but validated cut-off values are lacking. This study aimed to obtain cut-off values of these instrum...

  20. Accuracy of cut-off value by measurement of third molar index: Study of a Colombian sample.

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    De Luca, Stefano; Aguilar, Lina; Rivera, Marcela; Palacio, Luz Andrea Velandia; Riccomi, Giulia; Bestetti, Fiorella; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to test the accuracy of cut-off value of 0.08 by measurement of third molar index (I3M) in assessing legal adult age of 18 years in a sample of Colombian children and young adults. Digital orthopantomographs of 288 Colombian children and young adults (163 girls and 125 boys), aged between 13 and 22 years, were analysed. Concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and κ statistics (Cohen's Kappa coefficient) showed that repeatability and reproducibility are high for both intra- and inter-observer error. κ statistics for intra- and inter-observer agreement in decision on adult or minor was 0.913 and 0.877, respectively. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both girls and boys. For girls, the sensitivity test was 95.1% (95% CI 87.1%-95%) and specificity was 93.8% (95% CI 87.1%-98.8%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 95.1%. For boys, the sensitivity test was 91.7% (95% CI 85.1%-96.8%) and specificity was 90.6% (95% CI 82.1%-97.8%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 89.7%. The cut-off value of 0.08 is highly useful to determine if a subject is 18 years of age or older or not. PMID:26898677

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile using EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values and disk diffusion correlates.

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    Erikstrup, L T; Danielsen, T K L; Hall, V; Olsen, K E P; Kristensen, B; Kahlmeter, G; Fuursted, K; Justesen, U S

    2012-08-01

    With the emergence of reduced susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to metronidazole and vancomycin the value of antimicrobial susceptibility testing has increased. The aim of our study was to evaluate disk diffusion for susceptibility testing of C. difficile by comparing disk diffusion results with MICs from gradient tests and to propose zone diameter breakpoint correlates for the EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) recently published. We tested 211 clinical isolates of C. difficile, from patients with diarrhoea hospitalized at Aarhus and Odense University Hospitals, Denmark. Furthermore, ten clinical isolates of C. difficile from the Anaerobe Reference Laboratory, University Hospital of Wales, with known reduced susceptibility to either metronidazole or vancomycin, were included. Isolates were tested with Etest gradient strips and disk diffusion towards metronidazole, vancomycin and moxifloxacin on Brucella Blood Agar supplemented with hemin and vitamin K. We found an excellent agreement between inhibition zone diameter and MICs. For each MIC value, the inhibition zones varied from 0 to 8 mm, with 93% of values within 6 mm for metronidazole, 95% of values within 4 mm for vancomycin, and 98% of values within 4 mm for moxifloxacin. With proposed zone diameter breakpoints for metronidazole, vancomycin and moxifloxacin of WT ≥ 23 mm, WT ≥ 19 and WT ≥ 20 mm, respectively, we found no very major errors and only major errors below 2%. In conclusion, we suggest that disk diffusion is an option for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of C. difficile. PMID:22672504

  2. Optimal Elasticity cut-off value for discriminating Healthy to Pathological Fibrotic patients employing Fuzzy C-Means automatic segmentation in Liver Shear Wave Elastography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, Ilias; Tsantis, Stavros; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini; Theotokas, Ioannis; Zoumpoulis, Pavlos S.; Kagadis, George C.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine an optimal elasticity cut-off value for discriminating Healthy from Pathological fibrotic patients by means of Fuzzy C-Means automatic segmentation and maximum participation cluster mean value employment in Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) images. The clinical dataset comprised 32 subjects (16 Healthy and 16 histological or Fibroscan verified Chronic Liver Disease). An experienced Radiologist performed SWE measurement placing a region of interest (ROI) on each subject's right liver lobe providing a SWE image for each patient. Subsequently Fuzzy C-Means clustering was performed on every SWE image utilizing 5 clusters. Mean Stiffness value and pixels number of each cluster were calculated. The mean stiffness value feature of the cluster with maximum pixels number was then fed as input for ROC analysis. The selected Mean Stiffness value feature an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.8633 with Optimum Cut-off value of 7.5 kPa with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.8438 and 0.875 and balanced accuracy of 0.8594. Examiner's classification measurements exhibited sensitivity, specificity and balanced accuracy value of 0.8125 with 7.1 kPa cutoff value. A new promising automatic algorithm was implemented with more objective criteria of defining optimum elasticity cut-off values for discriminating fibrosis stages for SWE. More subjects are needed in order to define if this algorithm is an objective tool to outperform manual ROI selection.

  3. Cut off values for abdominal obesity as a criterion of metabolic syndrome in an ethnic Kyrgyz population (Central Asian region)

    OpenAIRE

    Mirrakhimov Aibek E; Lunegova Olga S; Kerimkulova Alina S; Moldokeeva Cholpon B; Nabiev Malik P; Mirrakhimov Erkin M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background People of different racial and ethnic backgrounds have a distinct pattern of central fat deposition, thus making it necessary to devise a race based approach for the diagnosis and evaluation of abdominal obesity (AO). This is the first study to determine the optimal waist circumference (WC) cutoff values for definition of AO in an ethnic Kyrgyz population. Methods 323 persons of Kyrgyz ethnicity (183 women and 140 men), with a mean age of 51.8 ± 9.5 years old were included...

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin analysis in neuropediatric patients: establishment of a new cut off-value for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Molero-Luis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A high level of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF neopterin is a marker of central nervous system inflammatory-immune mediated processes. We aimed to assess data from 606 neuropediatric patients, describing the clinical and biochemical features of those neurological disorders presenting CSF neopterin values above a new cut-off value that was defined in our laboratory. METHODS: To establish the new CSF neopterin cut-off value, we studied two groups of patients: Group 1 comprised 68 patients with meningoencephalitis, and Group 2 comprised 52 children with a confirmed peripheral infection and no central nervous system involvement. We studied 606 CSF samples from neuropediatric patients who were classified into 3 groups: genetic diagnosis (A, acquired/unknown etiologic neurologic diseases (B and inflammatory-immune mediated processes (C. RESULTS: The CSF neopterin cut-off value was 61 nmol/L. Out of 606 cases, 56 presented a CSF neopterin level above this value. Group C had significantly higher CSF neopterin, protein and leukocyte values than the other groups. Sixteen of twenty-three patients in this group had a CSF neopterin level above the cut-off, whereas three and seven patients presented increased leukocyte and protein values, respectively. A significant association was found among CSF neopterin, proteins and leukocytes in the 606 patients. White matter disturbances were associated with high CSF neopterin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Although children with inflammatory-immune mediated processes presented higher CSF neopterin values, patients with other neurological disorders also showed increased CSF neopterin concentrations. These results stress the importance of CSF neopterin analysis for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

  5. High cut-off value of a chimeric TSH receptor (Mc4)-based bioassay may improve prediction of relapse in Graves' disease for 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sena; Shin, Dong Yeob; Song, Mi Kyung; Lee, Eun Jig

    2015-02-01

    There are scarce reports regarding a functional prognostic value of thyroid-stimulating autoantibody (TSAb) levels using a thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor chimera (Mc4) in Graves' disease (GD) in iodine sufficient area. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Mc4-TSAb can predict GD remission/relapse after antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment and to compare Mc4-TSAb with a binding assay using M22 monoclonal antibody (M22-TRAb) in GD patients. We retrospectively reviewed the results of M22-TRAb and Mc4-TSAb in GD patients treated with ATD for 12 months. GD patients who underwent ATD treatment for at least 12 months were included. We compared the predictive values of M22-TRAb and Mc4-TSAb for GD remission and relapse. Of the 92 patients, 60 (65.2%) achieved remission and 32 (34.8%) relapsed within 12 months. In receiver operating characteristic analysis, there were no significant differences in the area under the curves (AUCs) between Mc4-TSAb [AUC=0.79 (95% CI 0.69-0.89)] and M22-TRAb [AUC=0.69 (95% CI 0.58-0.81)]. The optimal predictive cut-off values of M22-TRAb and Mc4-TSAb were 2.23 IU/L and 230%, respectively. At a high Mc4-TSAb cut-off, the better specificity of 85.0% and positive predictive value (PPV) of 69.0% were shown compared with those at the best cut-off for M22-TRAb. In conclusion, a high cut-off for an Mc4 assay may improve the predictive value of relapse with superior specificity and PPV compared with M22-TRAb in treated GD. PMID:24968734

  6. CA-125 cut-off value as a predictor for complete interval debulking surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Furukawa, Naoto; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Shigemitsu, Aiko; AKASAKA, JURIA; Kanayama, Seiji; Kawaguchi, Ryuji; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Objective In the present study, we evaluated changes in CA-125 cut-off values predictive of complete interval debulking surgery (IDS) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Methods This retrospective single-institution study included patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III epithelial ovarian cancer and a pre-NAC serum CA-125 level of greater than 40 U/mL who were treated with neoadjuvant platinu...

  7. The Cut-Off Values of Anthropometric Indices for Identifying Subjects at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Elderly Men

    OpenAIRE

    Mojgan Gharipour; Masoumeh Sadeghi; Minoo Dianatkhah; Shirin Bidmeshgi; Alireza Ahmadi; Marzieh Tahri; Nizal Sarrafzadegan

    2014-01-01

    Aim. This study aimed to investigate which anthropometric indices could be a better predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the cut-off points for these surrogates to appropriately differentiate MetS in the Iranian elderly. Method. The present cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII). In total, 206 elderly subjects with MetS criteria were selected. Anthropometric indices were ...

  8. Determination of Diastolic Dysfunction Cut-Off Value by Tissue Doppler Imaging in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older: A Comparative Analysis of Pulsed-Wave and Color-Coded Tissue Doppler Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Hee-Kyung; Park, Tae-Ho; Park, Sun-Yi; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Seo, Jeong-Min; Kim, Woo-Jae; Nam, Young-Hee; Kim, Moo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Dae

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives The cut-off value of diastolic dysfunction by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is affected by aging and modalities used (pulsed-wave vs. color-coded). The purpose of this study was to investigate the diastolic function of healthy elderly people and to determine the appropriate cut-off value of diastolic dysfunction in elderly individuals. Subjects and Methods Healthy volunteers (n=76) and patients with hypertension (n=51) aged ≥70 years underwent 2-dimensional and Dopple...

  9. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women

    OpenAIRE

    Zadeh-Vakili Azita; Tehrani Fahimeh R; Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC) for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, ...

  10. Cut off values for abdominal obesity as a criterion of metabolic syndrome in an ethnic Kyrgyz population (Central Asian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirrakhimov Aibek E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People of different racial and ethnic backgrounds have a distinct pattern of central fat deposition, thus making it necessary to devise a race based approach for the diagnosis and evaluation of abdominal obesity (AO. This is the first study to determine the optimal waist circumference (WC cutoff values for definition of AO in an ethnic Kyrgyz population. Methods 323 persons of Kyrgyz ethnicity (183 women and 140 men, with a mean age of 51.8 ± 9.5 years old were included in the study. Measurement of blood pressure (BP, anthropometric data (including body mass index calculation and WC measurement, fasting blood sugar, serum lipid parameters and insulin were performed in all examined individuals. Insulin resistance (IR was considered as HOMA index (insulin × fasting glucose/22.5 ≥ 2.77. Sensitivity and specificity for the presence of IR or two other criteria of MS (according to the international classification, 2009 were calculated by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves for men and women separately. Results The optimal sensitivity and specificity obtained from the ROC curves for IR were 88 cm in women (sensitivity of 0.85, 95%CI (0.72-0.93, specificity of 0.58, 95%CI (0.49-0.66 and 94 cm for men (sensitivity of 0.8, 95% CI (0.65-0.91, specificity of 0.61, 95% CI (0.51-0.71. The data from the ROC curve for any two other MS criteria confirmed the results and the WC 88 cm in women (sensitivity of 0.82, 95% CI (0.72-0.9, specificity of 0.72, 95% CI (0.62-0.8 and 94 cm in men (sensitivity of 0.74, 95% CI (0.62-0.84, specificity of 0.73, 95% CI (0.61-0.83 were corresponded to the optimal sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion WC ≥ 88 cm and ≥ 94 cm should be used as a criterion for the diagnosis of AO for Kyrgyz women and men respectively based on these results.

  11. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with PAboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile using EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values and disk diffusion correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, L T; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Kahlmeter, G;

    2012-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: With the emergence of reduced susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to metronidazole and vancomycin the value of antimicrobial susceptibility testing has increased. The aim of our study was to evaluate disk diffusion for susceptibility testing of C. difficile by ...

  13. BMI, Waist Circumference Reference Values for Chinese School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peige; Li, Xue; Gasevic, Danijela; Flores, Ana Borges; Yu, Zengli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 5062 anthropometric records for children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 years (2679 boys and 2383 girls) were included for analysis. The participants were recruited as part of the national representative “China Health and Nutrition Survey” (CHNS). Age, gender, weight, height, and WC were assessed. Smoothed BMI and WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed by using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method. The prevalence estimates of the overall and abdominal obesity were calculated by using the cut-offs from our CHNS study and the previous “Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health” (CNSSCH) study, respectively. The difference between prevalence estimates was tested by a McNemar test, and the agreement between these prevalence estimates was calculated by using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The prevalence values of overall obesity based on the cut-offs from CHNS and CNSSCH studies were at an almost perfect agreement level in boys (κ = 0.93). However, among girls, the overall obesity prevalence differed between the studies (p children and adolescents aged 7–18 years, which can be adopted in future researches. Large longitudinal study is still needed to reveal the childhood growth pattern and validate the inconsistence between different percentile studies

  14. Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Morrissey

    Full Text Available To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N = 1635 and Salmonella spp. (N = 901 but also including Escherichia coli (N = 368, Candida albicans (N = 200, Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 60, Enterobacter spp. (N = 54, Enterococcus faecium (N = 53, and Enterococcus faecalis (N = 56. From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC, E. coli (MBC and MIC and S. aureus (MBC and MIC. There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.

  15. Waterlow量表对重症患者压疮的预测价值及诊断界值分析%Predictive Value of Waterlow Scale for Pressure Ulcers for Critically Ill Patients and Its Cut-off Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓艳; 赵小利; 韩娟; 石秦东; 李昊

    2015-01-01

    目的:界定Waterlow量表对重症患者压疮的预测价值及诊断界值。方法回顾性分析765例重症患者的压疮风险评估资料,使用受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线评价Waterlow量表的预测性能和最佳诊断界值。结果由ROC分析结果可知,Waterlow评分曲线下面积为0.694,与0.5相比,具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。 Waterlow量表分界值为20分时,其灵敏度(0.880)、特异度(0.480)具有最好的平衡性。结论 Waterlow量表在预测重症患者压疮中具有较高的灵敏度和特异度,可将分界值提高至20分。%Objective To explore the predictive value of Waterlow scale for pressure ulcers for critically ill patients and its cut-off value. Methods A retrospective analysis of evaluation data of pressure ulcer risk of 765 critically ill inpatients was conducted and predictive value and cut-off value of Waterlow scale was assessed by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic). Results ROC indicated that the area under curve was 0.694, which showed statistical significance ( P<0.01). When cut-off value of Waterlow sacle reached 20, the sensitivity (0.880) and specificity (0.480) of the scale reached a good balance. Conclusion Waterlow scale has high sensitivity and specificity in predicting pressure ulcers for critically ill patients and its cut-off value could be raised to 20.

  16. Glycolipid metabolic status of overweight/obese adolescents aged 9- to 15-year-old and the BMI-SDS/BMI cut-off value of predicting dyslipidemiain boys, Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Chun-dan; Wu, Qiao-ling; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Zheng-yan; Peng, Yong-mei

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of adolescents’ obesity and overweight has dramatically elevated in China. Obese children were likely to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, which are risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. However there was no cut-off point of anthropometric values to predict the risk factors in Chinese adolescents. The present study was to investigate glycolipid metabolism status of adolescents in Shanghai and to explore the correlations between body mass index standard deviatio...

  17. Exploration of cut-off value of TSH during screening of congenital hypothyroidism in the newborns%新生儿先天性甲状腺功能减退症筛查中TSH切值的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈肖肖; 秦玉峰; 曲一平; 毛华庆; 施玉华; 赵正言

    2008-01-01

    新生儿筛查中发现,TSH水平与先天性甲状腺功能减退症(CH)检出率呈直线正相关.当TSH切值点分别为9、10、15和20 mU/L时,CH阳性检测敏感度分别 99.77%、96.80%、81.25%和71.88%.TSH>9 mU/L是较好的切点.%Positive linear correlation was found between TSH level and detection rate of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). When measured with a cut-off point at 9, 10, 15 and 20 mU/L of TSH, the sensitivity of positive detection rate for CH was 99.77%, 96.80%, 81.25% and 71.88%, respectively. TSH > 9 mU/L seems to be a reasonable cut-off value.

  18. Which are the cut-off values of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) liver stiffness measurements predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sporea, Ioan, E-mail: isporea@umft.ro; Bota, Simona, E-mail: bota_simona1982@yahoo.com; Gradinaru-Taşcău, Oana, E-mail: bluonmyown@yahoo.com; Şirli, Roxana, E-mail: roxanasirli@gmail.com; Popescu, Alina, E-mail: alinamircea.popescu@gmail.com; Jurchiş, Ana, E-mail: ana.jurchis@yahoo.com

    2014-03-15

    Introduction: To identify liver stiffness (LS) cut-off values assessed by means of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method. Methods: Our prospective study included 383 consecutive subjects, with or without hepatopathies, in which LS was evaluated by means of TE and 2D-SWE. To discriminate between various stages of fibrosis by TE we used the following LS cut-offs (kPa): F1-6, F2-7.2, F3-9.6 and F4-14.5. Results: The rate of reliable LS measurements was similar for TE and 2D-SWE: 73.9% vs. 79.9%, p = 0.06. Older age and higher BMI were associated for both TE and 2D-SWE with the impossibility to obtain reliable LS measurements. Reliable LS measurements by both elastographic methods were obtained in 65.2% of patients. A significant correlation was found between TE and 2D-SWE measurements (r = 0.68). The best LS cut-off values assessed by 2D-SWE for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis were: F ≥ 1: >7.1 kPa (AUROC = 0.825); F ≥ 2: >7.8 kPa (AUROC = 0.859); F ≥ 3: >8 kPa (AUROC = 0.897) and for F = 4: >11.5 kPa (AUROC = 0.914). Conclusions: 2D-SWE is a reliable method for the non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis, considering TE as the reference method. The accuracy of 2D-SWE measurements increased with the severity of liver fibrosis.

  19. Which are the cut-off values of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) liver stiffness measurements predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: To identify liver stiffness (LS) cut-off values assessed by means of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method. Methods: Our prospective study included 383 consecutive subjects, with or without hepatopathies, in which LS was evaluated by means of TE and 2D-SWE. To discriminate between various stages of fibrosis by TE we used the following LS cut-offs (kPa): F1-6, F2-7.2, F3-9.6 and F4-14.5. Results: The rate of reliable LS measurements was similar for TE and 2D-SWE: 73.9% vs. 79.9%, p = 0.06. Older age and higher BMI were associated for both TE and 2D-SWE with the impossibility to obtain reliable LS measurements. Reliable LS measurements by both elastographic methods were obtained in 65.2% of patients. A significant correlation was found between TE and 2D-SWE measurements (r = 0.68). The best LS cut-off values assessed by 2D-SWE for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis were: F ≥ 1: >7.1 kPa (AUROC = 0.825); F ≥ 2: >7.8 kPa (AUROC = 0.859); F ≥ 3: >8 kPa (AUROC = 0.897) and for F = 4: >11.5 kPa (AUROC = 0.914). Conclusions: 2D-SWE is a reliable method for the non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis, considering TE as the reference method. The accuracy of 2D-SWE measurements increased with the severity of liver fibrosis

  20. Anti-mullerian hormone cut-off values for predicting poor ovarian response to exogenous ovarian stimulation in in-vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruma Satwik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (a To establish the cut-off levels for anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH in a population of Indian women that would determine poor response. (b To determine which among the three ie.,: age, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, or AMH, is the better determinant of ovarian reserve. Study Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: In vitro fertilization (IVF unit of a tertiary hospital. Materials and Methods: The inclusion criterion was all women who presented to the center for in-vitro fertilization/Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. The exclusion criteria were age >45 years, major medical illnesses precluding IVF or pregnancy, FSH more than 20 IU/L, and failure to obtain consent. The interventions including baseline pelvic scan, day 2/3 FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol estimations, and AMH measurement on any random day of cycle were done. Subjects underwent IVF according to long agonist or antagonist protocol regimen. Oocyte recovery was correlated with studied variables. The primary outcome measure was the number of oocytes aspirated (OCR. Three categories of ovarian response were defined: poor response, OCR ≤ 3; average response, OCR between 4 and 15; hyperresponse, OCR > 15. Results: Of the 198 patients enrolled, poor, average, and hyperresponse were observed in 23%, 63%, and 14% respectively. Correlation coefficient for AMH with ovarian response was r = 0.591. Area under the curve (AUCs for poor response for AMH, subject′s age, and FSH were 0.768, 0.624, and 0.635, respectively. The discriminatory level of AMH for prediction of absolute poor response was 2 pmoL/l, with 98% specificity and 20% sensitivity. Conclusions: AMH fares better than age and FSH in predicting the overall ovarian response and poor response, though it cannot be the absolute predictor of non-responder status. A level of 2 pmol/l is discriminatory for poor response.

  1. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai, Mohammad Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Hadibarhaghtalab, Maryam; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Salehi, Alireza; Askari, Alireza; Homayounfar, Reza

    2016-01-01

    specificity of 69% and 62%, respectively. This cut-off had a positive predictive value of 54% and a negative predictive value of 76%. When we excluded waist circumference, the optimum BMI cut-off for acquiring metabolic risk factors in males decreased to 25.7 kg/m2 (Acc = 67%) and increased for women to 27.05 kg/m2 (Acc = 66%). Iranians are at higher risks of morbidity related to metabolic factors at a lower BMI cut-off and prompt action and preventive health policy are required to prevent and educate Iranians regarding diseases associated with obesity. PMID:27509026

  2. The cut-off value of waist-to-height ratio in detecting central obesity in Chinese adult population%中国成人中心性肥胖腰围身高比值的适宜切点的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵连成; 李莹; 彭亚光; 张林峰; 郭敏; 武阳丰

    2012-01-01

    to detect clustering of risk factors cluster in male, female and the whole population were 0. 49, 0. 50, and 0. 49, respectively. Keeping WHtR less than 0. 50 could prevent about 2/5 hypertension, 1/5 abnormal glucose and high TC, 1/3 low HDL-C, and one half clustering of risk factors. Conclusions WHtR≥0. 50 could be the optimal cut-off value for detecting central obesity in Chinese adult population. "Keep waist circumference half of your height" should be the target of control central obesity to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening and the cut-off level for hybrid capture 2 tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Njor, Sisse Helle; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co).......To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co)....

  4. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for Metabolic Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria in a Korean Rural Population

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Jang Hyun; Koh, Sang Baek; Lee, Mi Young; Jung, Pil Moon; Kim, Bo Hwan; Shin, Jang Yel; Shin, Young Goo; Ryu, So Yeon; Lee, Tae Yong; Park, Jong Ku; Chung, Choon Hee

    2010-01-01

    The Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO) has defined the waist circumference cutoff value of central obesity as 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the corresponding waist circumference values. A total of 3,508 persons in the Korean Rural Genomic Cohort Study were enrolled in this survey. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to find appropriate waist circumference cutoff values in relation to insulin resist...

  5. 四川省新生儿 CH筛查切值的探讨%Exploration of cut-off value of TSH during screening of congenital hypothyroidism in the newborns in Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婧瑶; 欧明才; 罗晓菊; 张钰; 胡琦; 陈雪莲; 杨丽娟; 王蕊; 李婷

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨四川省新生儿疾病筛查中心实验室先天性甲状腺功能减低症( CH)筛查切值,减少漏诊率,降低假阳性率。方法对四川省新生儿疾病筛查中心片区市县2011至2012年活产婴儿出生72小时并充分哺乳6次后取其足跟血,采用时间分辨荧光免疫法检测血中促甲状腺激素( TSH)浓度。结果2011至2012年度共测定525941例标本,其TSH浓度呈偏态分布,其中正常新生儿人数为525554,确诊CH患儿230例,高TSH血症患儿157例。当筛查切值定为8.0mIU/L和定为8.9mIU/L时,灵敏度χ2=10.188,P<0.05;特异度χ2=458.460,P<0.05,制定出四川省新生儿疾病筛查中心实验室时间分辨荧光免疫法筛查CH参考切值为8.0mIU/L。结论四川省新生儿疾病筛查中心制定的CH筛查切值是适宜的、有依据的,为更大规模开展的新生儿CH筛查提供了决策依据。%Objective To explore the positive cut-off value in neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in the Centre of Neonatal Screening of Sichuan , so as to improve screening efficiency and reduce false positive rate .Methods DELFIA was applied to detect the concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone ( TSH) in heel blood samples which were collected from the newborns 72 hours after birth and having drunk enough milk for at least 6 times.These neonates were born in 2011-2012 in counties and cities managed by the Centre of Neonatal Screening of Sichuan .Results Totally 525 941 blood samples were screened . The TSH concentration showed a skewed distribution .Among them 525 554 newborns were normal , 230 neonates were diagnosed with CH , and 157 with high TSH hyperlipidemia . When the positive cut-off value was 8.0mIU/L and 8.9mIU/L, the sensitivity χ2 was 10.188 ( P <0.05 ) and the specificity χ2 was 458.460 (P<0.05).The cut-off value of screening was 8.0mIU/L by DELFIA in the Centre of Neonatal Screening of Sichuan

  6. Defining obesity cut-off points for migrant South Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Gray

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used to define cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk. We aimed to derive appropriate BMI and WC obesity cut-off points in a migrant South Asian population. METHODS: 4688 White Europeans and 1333 South Asians resident in the UK aged 40-75 years inclusive were screened for type 2 diabetes. Principal components analysis was used to derive a glycaemia, lipid, and a blood pressure factor. Regression models for each factor, adjusted for age and stratified by sex, were used to identify BMI and WC cut-off points in South Asians that correspond to those defined for White Europeans. FINDINGS: For South Asian males, derived BMI obesity cut-off points equivalent to 30.0 kg/m(2 in White Europeans were 22.6 kg/m(2 (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI 20.7 kg/m(2 to 24.5 kg/m(2 for the glycaemia factor, 26.0 kg/m(2 (95% CI 24.7 kg/m(2 to 27.3 kg/m(2 for the lipid factor, and 28.4 kg/m(2 (95% CI 26.5 kg/m(2 to 30.4 kg/m(2 for the blood pressure factor. For WC, derived cut-off points for South Asian males equivalent to 102 cm in White Europeans were 83.8 cm (95% CI 79.3 cm to 88.2 cm for the glycaemia factor, 91.4 cm (95% CI 86.9 cm to 95.8 cm for the lipid factor, and 99.3 cm (95% CI 93.3 cm to 105.2 cm for the blood pressure factor. Lower ethnicity cut-off points were seen for females for both BMI and WC. CONCLUSIONS: Substantially lower obesity cut-off points are needed in South Asians to detect an equivalent level of dysglycemia and dyslipidemia as observed in White Europeans. South Asian ethnicity could be considered as a similar level of risk as obesity (in White Europeans for the development of type 2 diabetes.

  7. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a community based cross sectional study on reproductive aged Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadeh-Vakili Azita

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method 1036 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. Following implementation of exclusion criteria, complete data for 907 women remained for analysis. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and its cut off value was defined as the 95th percentile of HOMA-IR value for 129 subjects, without any metabolic abnormality. The optimal cut-off of WC in relation to HOMA-IR was calculated based on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis using the Youden index and the area under curve (AUC. Results The mean age of the total sample of 907 subjects was 34.4 ± 7.6 years (range, 18 - 45 years. After adjustment for age the odds ratios (OR of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference; the age adjusted OR of IR for women with WC > 95 cm in comparison to those subjects with WC Conclusions Waist circumference is directly related to insulin resistance and the optimal cut-off value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 88.5 cm for reproductive aged Iranian women.

  8. Pressurized liquid extraction for the determination of cannabinoids and metabolites in hair: Detection of cut-off values by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Camilla; Simeoni, Maria Chiara; Vannutelli, Gabriele; Gregori, Adolfo; Ripani, Luigi; Sergi, Manuel; Compagnone, Dario; Curini, Roberta

    2015-08-01

    Hair analysis has become a routine procedure in most forensic laboratories since this alternative matrix presents clear advantages over classical matrices; particularly wider time window, non-invasive sampling and good stability of the analytes over time. There are, however, some major challenges for the analysis of cannabinoids in hair, mainly related to the low concentrations of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), that is the major metabolite. In this study a fast, accurate and sensitive method for the determination of cannabinol, cannabidiol, THC and THC-COOH in hair has been developed. The extraction of analytes from hair (50mg) is based on an automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using water modified with the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate as eluent phase. PLE extract is then cleaned up by SPE using polymeric reversed phase cartridges Strata XL before the injection in the HPLC-HRMS/MS system. Chromatographic conditions obtained with a fused-core column allowed a good separation of the analytes in less than 4min. The whole procedure has been validated according to SWGTOX guidelines. The LLOQs obtained for THC-COOH and the other analytes were respectively 0.1 and 2pg/mg. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first LC-MS/MS based method that allows the detection of THC-COOH in hair at values lower than the cut-off. PMID:26118805

  9. Comparison of VerifyNow-P2Y12 test and Flow Cytometry for monitoring individual platelet response to clopidogrel. What is the cut-off value for identifying patients who are low responders to clopidogrel therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castelli Alfredo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine (DAT is used to prevent stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Low response to clopidogrel therapy (LR occurs, but laboratory tests have a controversial role in the identification of this condition. Methods We studied LR in patients with stable angina undergoing elective PCI, all on DAT for at least 7 days, by comparing: 1 Flow cytometry (FC to measure platelet membrane expression of P-selectin (CD62P and PAC-1 binding following double stimulation with ADP and collagen type I either in the presence of prostaglandin (PG E1; 2 VerifyNow-P2Y12 test, in which results are reported as absolute P2Y12-Reaction-Units (PRU or % of inhibition (% inhibition. Results Thirty controls and 52 patients were analyzed. The median percentage of platelets exhibiting CD62P expression and PAC-1 binding by FC evaluation after stimulation in the presence of PG E1 was 25.4% (IQR: 21.4–33.1% and 3.5% (1.7–9.4%, respectively. Only 6 patients receiving DAT (11.5% had both values above the 1st quartile of controls, and were defined as LR. Evaluation of the same patients with the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test revealed that the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC curve was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84–0.98, p 213 PRU gave the maximum accuracy for the detection of patients defined as having LR by FC. Conclusion In conclusion our findings show that a cut-off value of ≤ 15% inhibition or > 213 PRU in the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test may provide the best accuracy for the identification of patients with LR.

  10. Cut-off frequency of magnetostrictive materials based on permeability spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Hao; Zhang Tianli [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Jiang Chengbao, E-mail: jiangcb@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-06-15

    The loss behavior and cut-off frequency of TbDyFe alloy and TbDyFe/epoxy composite have been investigated by measuring their permeability spectra. The loss factor of TbDyFe alloy increases exponentially as the frequency goes up, while it is almost unchanged for the TbDyFe/epoxy composite. The loss factor value for the TbDyFe composite is only 4.3% of that for the monolithic TbDyFe alloy at high frequency of 10 kHz under the peak magnetic induction of 10 mT. The cut-off frequency of TbDyFe/epoxy composite is 6800 kHz, 3 orders of magnitude larger than that of TbDyFe alloy. The cut-off frequency is found to be the ferromagnetic resonance frequency and can be calculated from Snoek's law. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cut-off frequency of TbDyFe alloy and TbDyFe/epoxy composite has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permeability spectra are used to study loss behavior and cut-off frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mathematic formula is deduced to predict the cut-off frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TbDyFe/epoxy composite presents high cut-off frequency of 6800 kHz.

  11. Chest and occipito-frontal circumference measurements in the detection of low birth weight among Nigerian newborns of Igbo ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ndu, Ikenna K; Ibeziako, Stella N; Obidike, Egbuna O; Adimora, Gilbert N.; Edelu, Benedict O.; Chinawa, Josephat M.; Asinobi, Isaac N; Uleanya, Nwachinemere D

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organisation has recommended the use of anthropometric measurements as birth weight surrogates. However, it has been found that cut-off points for these anthropometric measurements vary across nations and ethnic groups. Objectives To determine the predictive values of chest circumference (CC), occipito-frontal circumference (OFC) and their combinations for low birth weight (LBW) detection in Igbo newborns. Methods Live newborns of Igbo origin were recruited within ...

  12. 吉林省新生儿先天性甲状腺功能减低症筛查切值研究%A research on cut off value of thyroid stimulating hormone for newborn congenital hypothyroidism screening in Jilin province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万立新; 张雯艳; 刘颖; 郝鹏楷; 赵迅; 张桂荣

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立吉林省新生儿先天性甲状腺功能减低症(CH)筛查TSH实验切值.方法 新生儿出生72 h后,并充分哺乳,采集足跟血滴于专用滤纸上,采用时间分辨荧光免疫分析方法,检测滤纸干血片TSH浓度.结果 测定新生儿足跟血TSH共计30 000例,确定本实验室新生儿TSH切值为9.0 mIU/L.结论 TSH切值为9.0 mIU/L是适合吉林省实际情况的.TSH切值的确定为吉林省今后开展大规模的新生儿CH筛查提供了依据.%Objective To determine cut off value of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) for screening of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) of newborn in Jilin province.Methods The foot blood samples were obtained at 72 hours after birth and sufficient breast feeding to detect the content of TSH.Results 30 000 neonates were screened,the cut off value of TSH for screening of congenital hypothyroidism of newborn in Jilin was 9.0 mIU/L.Conclusion The TSH cut off value was adjusted to 9.0 mIU/L.The determination of TSH cut off value provided a basis for screening of congenital hypothyroidism among the newborns in Jilin.

  13. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F; Wachmann, Carsten Henrik; Ottesen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This...

  14. Corresponding waist circumference and body mass index values based on 10-year absolute type 2 diabetes risk in an Australian Aboriginal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbija, Odewumi; Hoy, Wendy E; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a lack of waist circumference (WC) thresholds to identify Aboriginal individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes. We generated gender-specific WC values with equivalent 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes as body mass index (BMI) points in an Australian Aboriginal community to contribute to guidelines needed for establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginals. Research design and methods A cohort of 803 adult participants free from type 2 diabetes in an Aboriginal community was followed up for up to 20 years. We derived WC values with absolute risks equivalent for the development of type 2 diabetes as BMI values (20–35 kg/m2) using the Weibull accelerated failure-time model. Results After a mean follow-up of 15.7 years, 110 participants developed type 2 diabetes. Absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased as WC increased, ranging from 3.52% (WC=77.5 cm) to 14.14% (WC=119.9 cm) in males, and 5.04% (WC=79.5 cm) to 24.25% (WC=113.7 cm) in females. In males, WC values with same absolute risks of type 2 diabetes as BMI values were 77.5 cm for BMI=20 kg/m2, 91.5 cm for BMI=25 kg/m2 (overweight threshold), 105.7 cm for BMI=30 kg/m2 (obesity threshold) and 119.9 cm for BMI=35 kg/m2. In females, WC values were 79.5 cm for BMI=20 kg/m2, 90.9 cm for BMI=25 kg/m2, 102.3 cm for BMI=30 kg/m2 and 113.7 cm for BMI=35 kg/m2. Interaction between WC and gender was not statistically significant (p=0.53). Conclusions The absolute risk of type 2 diabetes increased with higher WC measured at baseline screening. Males were not significantly different from females in the association between WC and type 2 diabetes. Our findings are useful contributions for future establishment of WC cut-off points for identifying high-risk individuals in Aboriginal people. PMID:26405557

  15. Automatic velocity control in cutting-off machines

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Carlos; Fonseca, Jaime C.; Mendes, José A.

    2003-01-01

    Usually, automatic cutting-off machines, of metallic pipes or bars, use constant cutting velocity. This mode of operation, constant cutting velocity combined with different profiles of materials to be cut, causes variable cutting forces to be applied to the saw. As a result, the cutting off machine is generally set for the worst expected conditions, otherwise excessive wear of the saw and machine will occur. Further, traditional cutting-off machines require adjustments to be made in order to ...

  16. Intelligent cutting-off of pipes and bars

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Carlos; Mendes, José A.; Fonseca, Jaime C.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, automatic cutting-off machines, of metallic pipes or bars, use a constant cutting velocity mode. This mode of operation, constant cutting velocity combined with different profiles of materials to be cut, exposes the cutting saw to variable cutting forces. Therefore, the cutting off machine is usually set for the worst expected conditions, otherwise excessive wear of the saw and machine will occur. Further, traditional cutting-off machines require the adjust...

  17. Effectiveness and Cut off Points of Anthropometric Measurements in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome in Turkish Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Keskin Demircan1

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Examination of the anthropometric methods and cut off points that are most appropriate to predict metabolic syndrome (MS for the female Turkish population. Methods: Waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, body mass index (BMI, arm circumference (AC, total skin thickness (TST using caliper, body fat percentage (BFP and fat free mass (FFM using bioelectrical impedance were taken in 202 female patients. Blood glucose, lipid panel and blood pressure were also checked. We defined two different MS excluding anthropometric measurements. Low HDL and high triglyceride were separate criteria in the first definition; dyslipidemia was defined one criteria as low HDL and/or high triglyceride and/or triglyceride/HDL≥3 in the second. Efficiency, sensitivity and specificity of anthropometric measurements in predicting MS criteria were assessed using ROC analysis. Results: When compared in determining three or more of the MS parameters of dysglicemia, low HDL, high triglyceride and hypertension, BMI, WC, BFP, WHR and AC were found to be significant (p<0.0001. TST was significant as well (p=0.001. FFM was insignificant (p=0.337. Cut off points for BMI, WC and WHR in predicting MS were 27.7 kg/m2, 92.5 cm, 0.86. When dyslipidemia was defined in one criteria, cut off points were found similarly 27.8 kg/m2, 92.5 cm, 0.86. Conclusion: BMI, WHR, BFP and WC were more valuable than TST and AC in predicting MS but they had no statistically significant superiority over each other. However, with a 95% confidence interval, predictive cut off points were significantly above those observed in western populations.

  18. Calculating broad neutron resonances in a cut-off Woods-Saxon potential

    CERN Document Server

    Baran, Á; Salamon, P; Vertse, T

    2015-01-01

    In a cut-off Woods-Saxon potential with realistic depth $S$-matrix poles being far from the imaginary wave number axis form a sequence where the distances of the consecutive resonances are inversely proportional with the cut-off radius value. Other poles lying closer to the imaginary wave number axis might have trajectories with irregular shapes as the depth of the potential increases. Poles being close repel each other, and their repulsion is responsible for the changes of the directions of the corresponding trajectories. The interaction is extremely sensitive to the cut-off radius value. The repulsion might cause that certain resonances become antibound and later resonances again when they collide on the imaginary axis.

  19. Calculating broad neutron resonances in a cut-off Woods-Saxon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, A.; Noszaly, Cs. [Faculty of Informatics, University of Debrecen, PO Box 12, Debrecen (Hungary); Salamon, P. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Institute for Nuclear Research, PO Box 51, Debrecen (Hungary); Vertse, T. [Faculty of Informatics, University of Debrecen, PO Box 12, Debrecen (Hungary); Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Institute for Nuclear Research, PO Box 51, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-07-15

    In a cut-off Woods-Saxon (CWS) potential with realistic depth S -matrix poles being far from the imaginary wave number axis form a sequence where the distances of the consecutive resonances are inversely proportional with the cut-off radius value, which is an unphysical parameter. Other poles lying closer to the imaginary wave number axis might have trajectories with irregular shapes as the depth of the potential increases. Poles being close repel each other, and their repulsion is responsible for the changes of the directions of the corresponding trajectories. The repulsion might cause that certain resonances become antibound and later resonances again when they collide on the imaginary axis. The interaction is extremely sensitive to the cut-off radius value, which is an apparent handicap of the CWS potential. (orig.)

  20. Physical and cut-off effects of heavy sea quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Knechtli, Francesco; Bruno, Mattia; Finkenrath, Jacob; Leder, Björn; Marinkovic, Marina; Sommer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We simulate a theory with two dynamical O($a$) improved Wilson quarks whose mass $M$ ranges from a factor eight up to a factor two below the charm quark mass and at three values of the lattice spacing ranging from 0.066 to 0.034 fm. This theory is a prototype to study the decoupling of heavy quarks. We measure the mass and cut-off dependence of ratios of gluonic observables defined from the Wilson flow or the static potential. The size of the 1/$M$ corrections can be determined and disentangled from the lattice artifacts. The difference with the pure gauge theory is at the percent level when two quarks with a mass of the charm quark are present.

  1. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F;

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This...... constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  2. Cut-off parameters in the one-dimensional two-fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the usual cut-off procedure (α cut-off parameter) employed in the boson representation of the fermion field opepators of the one-djmensional two-fermion model (TFM) is an incorrect one as the computator of the hermitean-conjugate field operators at the same space-point fails to fulfil a certain relationship which was pointed out long ago by Jordan. The complete form of the boson representation (including the zero-mode) of a single fermion field and the correct values of the cut-off parameter α is reviewed following Jordan and generalized to the TFM. The cut-off parameter α corresponds to a bandwidth cut-off and Jordan's boson representation is exact only in the limit α → 0. The additional zero-mode terms make the exact solution of the backscattering and umklapp scattering problem to be valid only if a supplementary condition is imposed on the coupling constants. Using the present bosonization technique all the inconsistencies of the TFM are removed. The one-particle Green's function and response functions of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model (TLM) are calculated and found to be identical with those obtained by direct diagram summation. The energy gap appearing in the spectrum of the TFM with backscattering and umklapp scattering for certain values of the coupling constants is shown to be proportional to the momentum transfer cut-off γ-1 which has to be kept finite while α goes to zero. Under such conditions the anticommunication relations and Jordan's commutator are invariant under the canonical transformation on the boson operators that diagonalizes the Hamiltonian of the TLM. The charge-density response function of the TFM with backscattering is perturbationally calculated up to the first order. The cut-off α-1 applies in the same way to terms which differ only by their spin indices in the expression of this response function. The charge-density response function is also evaluated at low frequencies for the exactly soluble TFM with

  3. Chronic kidney disease : Defining clinical cut-offs for albumin:creatinine ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Stephan J L

    2013-01-01

    Albuminuria is rapidly gaining recognition as a marker of the presence and of the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a new study, Naresh et al. attempt to define cut-off values for percentage change in urinary albumin:creatinine ratio that reflect changes in CKD status rather than rando

  4. The INTEGRAL high energy cut-off distribution of Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, Angela; Ubertini, Pietro; Bird, Antony; Bazzano, Angela; Stephen, John; Molina, Manuela; Bassani, Loredana

    We present the primary continuum parameters, the photon index and the high energy cut-off, of Seyfert galaxies extracted from the INTEGRAL complete sample of AGN. We performed a broad band (0.3-100 keV) spectral analysis by fitting simultaneously the soft and hard X-ray spectra obtained by XMM and INTEGRAL/IBIS-Swift/BAT respectively in order to investigate the general properties of these parameters in particular their distribution and mean values. We present the mean photon index for the t type 1 and type 2 objects of the whole sample as well as their mean high energy cut-off. This is the first time that the cut-off energy is constrained in a such large number of AGN. Using the main parameters of the primary continuum, we are able to obtain the actual physical parameters of the Comptonizing region i.e. the plasma temperature kTe the optical depth tau. Finally, with the high S/N spectra starting to come from NuSTAR it will soon be possible to better constrain the cut-off values in many AGN, allowing the determination of more physical models and so to better understand the continuum emission and geometry of the region surrounding black holes.

  5. The INTEGRAL high energy cut-off distribution of type 1 AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Malizia, A; Bassani, L; Stephen, J B; Bazzano, A; Ubertini, P; Bird, A J

    2014-01-01

    In this letter we present the primary continuum parameters, the photon index Gamma and the high energy cut-off Ec, of 41 type-1 Seyfert galaxies extracted from the INTEGRAL complete sample of AGN. We performed a broad band (0.3-100 keV) spectral analysis by fitting simultaneously the soft and hard X-ray spectra obtained by XMM and INTEGRAL/IBIS-Swift/BAT respectively in order to investigate the general properties of these parameters in particular their distribution and mean values. We find a mean photon index for the whole sample of 1.73 with a standard deviation of 0.17 and a mean high energy cut-off of 128 keV with a standard deviation of 46 keV. This is the first time that the cut-off energy is constrained in a such large number of AGN. We have 26 measurements of the cut-off, which corresponds to 63% of the entire sample, distributed between 50 and 200 keV. There are a further 11 lower limits mostly below 300 keV. Using the main parameters of the primary continuum, we have been able to obtain the actual ph...

  6. Determination and Application of the cut-off values of RBC Indexes in Screening for Silent α-Thalassemias Carriers%静止型α-地中海贫血红细胞指标临界值的确定及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伟山; 周玉球; 张永良; 肖奇志

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cut-off values of RBC indexes in screening silent alpha-thalassemias carriers and to evaluate clinical application of the cut-off values. Methods RBC indexes of 77 cases with silent α-thalassaemia and 151 healthy adults (as normal control group)were retrospected,β-thalassaemias and iron deficiency were excluded in the above mentioned individuals.The receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve was used for identifying the useful RBC index and determining the cut-off values in the screening for silent α-thalassaemias. Results (1)The area under ROC curve of MCV、MCH、MCHC were 0. 857、0. 858 and 0. 740, respectively. Those indexes were of value to screen for silent α-thalassaemias carriers; (2)The cut-off values of MCV、 MC H、MCHC were 82.0 fl and 28.0pg as well as 341.5 g/L; (3)The sensitivity and specificity of the parallel test of either MCV or MCH were 93. 5 % and 72.8 %, respectively. Five silent α-thalassemia carriers failed to detect by the parallel test, resulting in a rate of 6.49%(5/77) for failure of detection, the risk of failure of detection was decreased 12 times when compared with recommended standard by TIF. They were much better than other tests. Conclusion The parallel test of either MCV≤82.0 fl or MCH≤28.0 pg can screen silent α-thalassaemia carriers effectively. The results provide the scientific basis of clinical value for clinics performing genetic counseling in the high prevalent area of thalassaemia,especially in the areas where thalassaemias can not be genotyped.%目的 探讨并评估红细胞相关指标及其临界值用于筛查静止型α-地中海贫血(α-地贫)的临床价值.方法 以77例单纯性静止型α-地贫患者和151例健康成人为研究对象,采用受试者工作特征曲线(ROC曲线)确定静止型α-地贫筛查指标及其临界值.结果 MCV、MCH、MCHC的 ROC曲线下面积分别为0.857,0.858,0.740,均有筛查价值,其最佳临界值分别为82.0 fl、28

  7. The INTEGRAL High-energy Cut-off Distribution of Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, A.; Molina, M.; Bassani, L.; Stephen, J. B.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; Bird, A. J.

    2014-02-01

    In this Letter we present the primary continuum parameters, the photon index Γ, and the high-energy cut-off E c of 41 type-1 Seyfert galaxies extracted from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) complete sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We performed broadband (0.3-100 keV) spectral analysis by simultaneously fitting the soft and hard X-ray spectra obtained by XMM and INTEGRAL/IBIS-Swift/BAT, respectively, in order to investigate the general properties of these parameters, in particular their distribution and mean values. We find a mean photon index of 1.73 with a standard deviation of 0.17 and a mean high-energy cut-off of 128 keV with a standard deviation of 46 keV for the whole sample. This is the first time that the cut-off energy is constrained in such a large number of AGNs. We have 26 measurements of the cut-off, which corresponds to 63% of the entire sample, distributed between 50 and 200 keV. There are a further 11 lower limits mostly below 300 keV. Using the main parameters of the primary continuum, we have been able to obtain the actual physical parameters of the Comptonizing region, i.e., the plasma temperature kT e from 20 to 100 keV and the optical depth τ < 4. Finally, with the high signal-to-noise ratio spectra starting to come from NuSTAR it will soon be possible to better constrain the cut-off values in many AGNs, allowing the determination of more physical models and thus better understand the continuum emission and geometry of the region surrounding black holes.

  8. Influence of different body mass index cut-off values in assessing the nutritional status of adolescents in a household survey Influência de distintos valores críticos do índice de massa corporal na avaliação do estado nutricional de adolescentes em inquérito domiciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio da Silva Gomes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric nutritional status of the adolescent population of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and the influence of changes in the adopted body mass index (BMI cut-offs in the nutritional status assessment of the adolescent population. A population-based survey conducted in 2003 obtained data from a probabilistic sample of 1,734 households and 523 adolescents. The multiple proportions test and prevalence ratios were used to analyze differences between estimates obtained from different BMI cut-offs. Changes in cut-off values from the old to the new recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO resulted in a significant increase in overweight prevalence among total, male and female adolescent population (25%, 27% and 23%, respectively (p Este artigo tem por objetivo avaliar o estado nutricional antropométrico da população adolescente residente em Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, bem como a influência das mudanças nos valores críticos de índice de massa corporal (IMC na avaliação do estado nutricional dessa população. Uma pesquisa amostral probabilística de base populacional conduzida em 2003 obteve dados de 1.734 domicílios e 523 adolescentes. Testes para múltiplas proporções e razões de prevalência foram utilizados para analisar as diferenças entre estimativas obtidas segundo distintos valores críticos de IMC. Mudanças nos pontos de corte da antiga para a atual recomendação da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS resultaram em aumentos significativos nas prevalências de sobrepeso entre o total de adolescentes, meninos e meninas (25%, 27% e 23%, respectivamente (p < 0,05. A proposta da International Obesity Task Force resultou em uma redução significativa de 29% e 39% na prevalência de baixo-IMC-para-idade entre o total de adolescentes e meninos, respectivamente, quando comparada à recomendação atual da OMS (p < 0,05. Foi evidenciado que uma simples

  9. Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties (MSQ-Job): definition of the cut-off score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavolin, Silvia; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Leonardi, Matilde; Brenna, Greta; Brambilla, Laura; Confalonieri, Paolo; Frangiamore, Rita; Mantegazza, Renato; Moscatelli, Marco; Clerici, Valentina Torri; Cortese, Francesca; Covelli, Venusia; Ponzio, Michela; Zaratin, Paola; Raggi, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) mainly affects people of working age. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties (MSQ-Job) was designed to measure difficulties in work-related tasks. Our aim is to define cut-off score of MSQ-Job to identify potential critical situations that might require specific attention. A sample of patients with MS completed the MSQ-Job, WHODAS 2.0 and MSQOL-54 respectively for work difficulties, disability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) evaluation. K-means Cluster Analysis was used to divide the sample in three groups on the basis of HRQoL and disability. ANOVA test was performed to compare the response pattern between these groups. The cut-off score was defined using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses for MSQ-Job total and count of MSQ-Job items scores ≥3: a score value corresponding to the maximum of the sensitivity-to-specificity ratio was chosen as the cut-off. Out of 180 patients enrolled, twenty were clustered in the higher severity group. The area under the ROC curve was 0.845 for the MSQ-Job total and 0.859 for the count of MSQ-Job items scores ≥3 while the cut-off score was 15.8 for MSQ-Job total and 8 for count of items scored ≥3. We recommend the use of MSQ-Job with this calculation as cut-off for identifying critical situations, e.g. in vocational rehabilitation services, where work-related difficulties have a significant impact in terms of lower quality of life and higher disability. PMID:26842465

  10. Designing the sound of a cut-off drum

    CERN Document Server

    Martinetti, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The spectral action in noncommutative geometry naturally implements an ultraviolet cut-off, by counting the eigenvalues of a (generalized) Dirac operator lower than an energy of unification. Inverting the well known question "how to hear the shape of a drum ?", we ask what drum can be designed by hearing the truncated music of the spectral action ? This makes sense because the same Dirac operator also determines the metric, via Connes distance. The latter thus offers an original way to implement the high-momentum cut-off of the spectral action as a short distance cut-off on space. This is a non-technical presentation of the results of http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.2605

  11. On cosmic-ray cut-off terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of cosmic-ray access to location within the geomagnetic field has evolved over the past fifty years. Cosmic-ray cut-off terminology, originally developed to describe particle access and cut-off rigidities, has not evolved with the scientific advances in the field, and misunderstandings and misapplications of historical work have occurred. This paper is an attempt to remedy this situation by clarifying the areas in which changes have occurred and by providing a cross reference between the historical terms and those terms now in use for innovative cosmic-ray studies which are underway in several laboratories

  12. Optimal waist circumference cutoff values for the diagnosis of abdominal obesity in korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeong Sook; Oh, Sang Woo

    2014-12-29

    Abdominal obesity is associated closely with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Waist circumference (WC) is a useful surrogate marker commonly used for abdominal adiposity. The determination of WC cutoff levels is important in the prevention and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases. Recent epidemiological evidence suggested that appropriate optimal cutoffs for Koreans ranged over 80 to 89.8 cm in males and 76.1 to 86.5 cm in females. We analyzed the data from two large cohorts using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with the incidences of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarct, angina, coronary artery disease, and multiple metabolic risk factors as outcome variables. Optimal WC cutoff points for Koreans were 85 cm in males and 80 cm in females. However, considering the prevalence of abdominal obesity and the health costs for its prevention and management, 90 cm in males and 85 cm in females are probably more appropriate thresholds for abdominal obesity. These values may be modified once better research is performed through prospective studies using representative populations, common health outcomes, and proper analytical approaches. PMID:25559570

  13. Cut-off wall construction at the Peribonka hydroelectric project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellette, C.; Morency, J.Y.; Bigras, A.; Hammamji, Y. [Hydro-Quebec Equipment, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Gagne, B. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Rattue, A. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Energy Division

    2007-07-01

    The Peribonka hydroelectric development, located in Quebec includes a 80 metre high dam and two dikes consisting of zoned earth and rock fills with a till core, an underground power house, a diversion tunnel and a spillway. The project is in its final stages of construction and presented several challenges related to the presence of a deep canyon under the river bed filled with alluvial sand, gravel, cobbles and boulders. The design included an approximately 10 metre high working platform in the river and the construction of a plastic concrete cut-off wall down to bedrock. The construction of a 116 metre deep single cut-off wall that is at the limit of precedent in terms of present knowledge and equipment capacity was the main challenge for the project. In addition, a 52 metre deep plastic concrete cut-off wall was built under a dyke. This conference discussed the cut-off wall construction experience, as well as the challenges encountered and how they were addressed. The paper presented a description of the site conditions and the scope of the work, as well as the typical specifications of the cut-offs. The paper also provided an overview of an extensive quality control program that was implemented for all phases of the project construction and results of the project. Last, the paper described the challenges, problems encountered and the modifications from the initial design and specifications. It was concluded that the topography at the Peribonka dam site showed a deep narrow gully filled with alluvial material comprising sand, gravel, cobbles and boulders. Elaborate quality control was essential to ensure that excavation and concreting were done to satisfactory standards. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  14. oA novel nonparametric approach for estimating cut-offs in continuous risk indicators with application to diabetes epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferger Dietmar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological and clinical studies, often including anthropometric measures, have established obesity as a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Appropriate cut-off values for anthropometric parameters are necessary for prediction or decision purposes. The cut-off corresponding to the Youden-Index is often applied in epidemiology and biomedical literature for dichotomizing a continuous risk indicator. Methods Using data from a representative large multistage longitudinal epidemiological study in a primary care setting in Germany, this paper explores a novel approach for estimating optimal cut-offs of anthropomorphic parameters for predicting type 2 diabetes based on a discontinuity of a regression function in a nonparametric regression framework. Results The resulting cut-off corresponded to values obtained by the Youden Index (maximum of the sum of sensitivity and specificity, minus one, often considered the optimal cut-off in epidemiological and biomedical research. The nonparametric regression based estimator was compared to results obtained by the established methods of the Receiver Operating Characteristic plot in various simulation scenarios and based on bias and root mean square error, yielded excellent finite sample properties. Conclusion It is thus recommended that this nonparametric regression approach be considered as valuable alternative when a continuous indicator has to be dichotomized at the Youden Index for prediction or decision purposes.

  15. Cut-off proposal for the detection of ketamine in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, A; Gerace, E; Diana, P; Romeo, M; Malvaso, V; Di Corcia, D; Vincenti, M

    2015-03-01

    Ketamine is a powerful anesthetic drug used in both human and veterinary surgery, but it is also commonly misused because of its psychotropic properties. Since the abuse of this drug has been reported in many countries worldwide, its determination in hair samples is offered as a specialist test by hundreds of laboratories. However, unlike other common drugs of abuse, a cut-off level for ketamine in hair has not been fixed yet. Therefore, aim of this study is to propose a concentration value for ketamine in hair analysis, in order to discriminate between chronic and occasional use, and between active use and external contamination. After considering the chemical properties of this molecule, and the experimental data collected in our laboratory or reported in several other published studies, we propose a cut-off level of 0.5ng/mg, as indicative of repeated exposure to ketamine. Additionally, we suggest that the detection of the metabolite norketamine should be mandatory to prove active intake and exclude false positive result from external contamination. Thus, a reasonable cut-off value for norketamine could be fixed at 0.1ng/mg, while the minimal concentration ratio norketamine/ketamine may be positively established at 0.05. PMID:25616219

  16. Neck circumference as a predictor of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and low-grade systemic inflammation in children: the ACFIES study

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Camacho, Paul Anthony; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Saavedra-Cortes, Sandra; Lopez-Lopez, Cristina; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Background The current study aims to evaluate the association between neck circumference (NC) and several cardio-metabolic risk factors, to compare it with well-established anthropometric indices, and to determine the cut-off point value of NC for predicting children at increased risk of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and low-grade systemic inflammation. Methods A total of 669 school children, aged 8–14, were recruited. Demographic, clinical, anthropometric and biochemical data from a...

  17. Distributions of the S-matrix poles in Woods-Saxon and cut-off Woods-Saxon potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, P.; Baran, Á.; Vertse, T.

    2016-08-01

    The positions of the l = 0S-matrix poles are calculated in generalized Woods-Saxon (GWS) potential and in cut-off generalized Woods-Saxon (CGWS) potential. The solutions of the radial equations are calculated numerically for the CGWS potential and analytically for GWS using the formalism of Gy. Bencze [1]. We calculate CGWS and GWS cases at small non-zero values of the diffuseness in order to approach the square well potential and to be able to separate effects of the radius parameter and the cut-off radius parameter. In the case of the GWS potential the wave functions are reflected at the nuclear radius therefore the distances of the resonant poles depend on the radius parameter of the potential. In CGWS potential the wave function can be reflected at larger distance where the potential is cut to zero and the derivative of the potential does not exist. The positions of most of the resonant poles do depend strongly on the cut-off radius of the potential, which is an unphysical parameter. Only the positions of the few narrow resonances in potentials with barrier are not sensitive to the cut-off distance. For the broad resonances the effect of the cut-off cannot be corrected by using a suggested analytical form of the first order perturbation correction.

  18. A PROBLEM OF CUTTING OFF THE LAMINATED SEMIS TYPE PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Ciofu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A problem often coped on many domains such as wood manufacturing, glass, plastics and metallic platework industry, is the shaping or cutting off a big plate in many pieces. With this purpose there are algorithms of optimizing for positioning the parts following to be cut off from a row plate. From mathematical point of view, in positioning the parts on a raw plate the number of solutions increase four times evrey time a new part is added, and in case of finding the best solution for about few hundreds of pieces or parts would require years of processing on the most performant computers nowadays – for an analogy remember the famous story with the rice beads which the King had to pay to the master teaching him the chess: twice more for each square of the chessboard; for the total quantity assessment, King ascertained that the crops in his whole life wouldn’t have been enough.

  19. Overcoming cut-off restrictions in multimorbidity prevalence estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Holzer, Barbara M.; Siebenhuener, Klarissa; Bopp, Matthias; Minder, Christoph E

    2014-01-01

    Background Presently, there is no consensus on how to define multimorbidity. In this paper we investigate the connection between prevalence estimates for two or more and three or more chronic conditions to improve comparability of multimorbidity studies with different cut-offs. Methods In a systematic review of the literature published between January, 1990 and December, 2011, we found 52 suitable studies, many providing prevalence estimates for several age groups. A total of 31 studies repor...

  20. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for the Diagnosis of Abdominal Obesity in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Yeong Sook; Oh, Sang Woo

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated closely with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Waist circumference (WC) is a useful surrogate marker commonly used for abdominal adiposity. The determination of WC cutoff levels is important in the prevention and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases. Recent epidemiological evidence suggested that appropriate optimal cutoffs for Koreans ranged over 80 to 89.8 cm in males and 76.1 to 86.5 cm in females...

  1. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Agersø, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia; Zachariasen, Camilla; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Hammerum, Anette M.; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) population distributions for colistin for Salmonella on subtype level. Furthermore, we wanted to determine if differences in MIC for colistin could be explained by mutations in pmrA or pmrB encoding proteins involved in processes that influence the binding of colistin to the cell membrane. During 2008–2011, 6,583 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates of human origin and 1931 isolates of animal/meat o...

  2. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia; Zachariasen, Camilla;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) population distributions for colistin for Salmonella on subtype level. Furthermore, we wanted to determine if differences in MIC for colistin could be explained by mutations in pmrA or pmrB encoding proteins...... involved in processes that influence the binding of colistin to the cell membrane. During 2008–2011, 6,583 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates of human origin and 1931 isolates of animal/meat origin were collected. The isolates were serotyped, and susceptibility was tested towards colistin (range...... 1–16 mg/L). Moreover, 37 isolates were tested for mutations in pmrA and pmrB by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. MIC distribution for colistin at serotype level showed that Salmonella Dublin (n=198) followed by Salmonella Enteritidis (n=1247) were less susceptible than “other...

  3. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Based on Insulin Resistance and Visceral Obesity in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Soo Lim; Young Ju Choi; Soo-Kyung Kim; Byoung Wook Huh; Eun Jig Lee; Kap Bum Huh

    2015-01-01

    Background Visceral obesity is the most powerful contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases. In light of visceral obesity, however, there is a paucity of data on the appropriate cutoff point of waist circumference (WC) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal cutoff value for WC that signals insulin resistance (IR) and visceral obesity in Koreans with type 2 diabetes. Methods We evaluated 4,252 patients...

  4. Resonance and cut-off surfaces in the ion cyclotron frequency range in toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonances and cut-offs of the fast Alfven and ion-cyclotron waves have been studied for a multicomponent plasma in a toroidal axisymmetric geometry. The resonance and cut-off frequencies are given by eigenvalues of ordinary differential equations on the rosonance and cut-off sufaces, respectively. These surfaces coincide with magnetic surfaces. (author)

  5. ELISA Cut-off Point for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis; a Comparison with Serum Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a world-wide disease, which has a diverse clinical manifestation, and its diagnosis has to be proven by laboratory data. Serum agglutination test (SAT is the most-widely used test for diagnosing brucellosis. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA can also determine specific antibody classes against brucella. It is a sensitive, simple and rapid test, which could be an acceptable alternative to SAT with fewer limitations, however, like any other new test it should be further evaluated and standardized for various populations. This study was planned to determine an optimal cut-off point, for ELISA which would offer maximum sensitivity and specificity for the test when compared to SAT.Methods: Four hundred and seven patients with fever and other compatible symptoms of brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Serum agglutination test, 2-Mercaptoethanol test, and ELISA were performed on their sera. Results: The cut-off point of 53 IU/ml of ELISA-IgG yielded the maximal sensitivity and specificity comparing to the other levels of ELISA-IgG, and was considered the best cut off-point of ELISA-IgG to diagnose acute brucellosis. At this cut-off, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 84.09%, 85.38%, 62.20, 94.90, 5.75, 0.18, respectively.Conclusion: The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG is 53 IU/ml, which yields the maximal sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute brucellosis.

  6. Effective Potential in Curved Space and Cut-Off Regularizations

    CERN Document Server

    Sobreira, Flavia; Shapiro, Ilya L

    2011-01-01

    We consider derivation of the effective potential for a scalar field in curved space-time within the physical regularization scheme, using two sorts of covariant cut-off regularizations. The first one is based on the local momentum representation and Riemann normal coordinates and the second is operatorial regularization, based on the Fock-Schwinger-DeWitt proper-time representation. We show, on the example of a self-interacting scalar field, that these two methods produce equal results for divergences, but the first one gives more detailed information about the finite part. Furthermore, we calculate the contribution from a massive fermion loop and discuss renormalization group equations and their interpretation for the multi-mass theories.

  7. Negative effective mass below a cut-off frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Shanshan; Hu, Gengkai

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials with negative effective mass below a cut-off frequency are studied. An equivalent mass-spring structure is firstly proposed for such metamaterials, the effective mass is found to follow the Drude model: being negative below a specific frequency. The peculiar behavior is then verified by transmission experiments operating in the low-frequency regime. Inspired by the mass-spring model, we investigate the two-dimensional elastic waveguide with clamped boundaries and attribute the bandgap occurring below a critical frequency to negative effective mass density. The finding helps us to design a new acoustic Drude metamaterial, which enables shearing and bending deformations, in contrast to the membrane-type ones. Both simulation and experimental results show that the proposed metamaterial exhibits negative effective mass below 1200 Hz, thus opening broadband applications in vibration and noise controls.

  8. Short-range Cut-Off of the Summed-Up van der Waals Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Abhirup; Perdew, John P.

    2015-03-01

    van der Waals interactions are important in typical van der Waals-bound systems such as noble-gas, hydrocarbon, alkali and alkaline-earth dimers. The summed-up van der Waals series works well and gives an accurate result at large separation between two atoms. But it has a strong singularity at short non-zero separation, where the two atoms touch. In this work we remove that singularity with a reasonable and physical choice of the cut-off distance. Only one fitting parameter has been introduced for the short-range cut off. The parameter in our model has been optimized for each system, and a system-averaged value has been used to get the final binding energy curves. When this correction is added to the binding energy curve from the semilocal density functional meta-GGA-MS2, we get vdW- corrected binding energy curve. These curves are compared with the results of other vdW-corrected methods such as PBE-D2 and vdW-DF2 .Binding energy curves are in reasonable agreement with those from experiment. These curves also predict reasonably good equilibrium bond length. Supported by NSF (DMR).

  9. Dual cut-off dc-tunable microwave low-pass filter on superconducting Nb microstrips with asymmetric nanogrooves

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V.; Huth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present a dual cut-off, dc-tunable low-pass microwave filter on a superconducting Nb microstrip with uniaxial asymmetric nanogrooves. The frequency response of the device was measured in the range $300$\\,KHz to $14$\\,GHz at different temperatures, magnetic fields, and dc current values. The microwave loss is most effectively reduced when the Abrikosov vortex lattice spatially matches the underlying washboard pinning landscape. The forward transmission coefficient $S_{21}(f)$ of the microst...

  10. Emission Enhancement in a Plasmonic Waveguide at Cut-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alù

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of molecular emission is usually obtained by coupling small optical emitters with external resonant structures and systems, as first established by Purcell several decades ago, and verified in several recent investigations using molecules or quantum dots coupled with plasmonic nanoantennas. Here we theoretically investigate in detail a different mechanism for emission enhancement, based on our recent idea of a plasmonic nanolauncher [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2009, 103, 043902], i.e., a metamaterial-inspired ultranarrow waveguide channel operating near its cut-off frequency. Such system is not necessarily at resonance, but its peculiar operation may provide enhanced emission over a relatively broad physical area, which may allow enhancement of emission independent of the position of an individual or of a group of molecules along such plasmonic channel, and the possibility to bend and route the emitted energy with large flexibility. We present here extensive theoretical and numerical results that confirm this intuition and may envision a novel method for molecular emission enhancement at the nanoscale, with more flexibility than the conventional Purcell resonance techniques.

  11. Interacting logarithmic entropy-corrected holographic dark energy model with different cut-offs in Brans-Dicke cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Darabi, F

    2015-01-01

    We study the Interacting Logarithmic Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy model with different cut-offs in Brans-Dicke cosmology and obtain the equation of state and the squared of sound speed for each cut-off. The former is used to describe the accelerating or decelerating behaviour and the later is used to describe the classical stability or instability of the universe. The correspondence between the scalar field models and the logarithmic entropy-corrected holographic dark energy densities allows us to reconstruct the potentials and the dynamics of the quintessence and tachyon scalar field models in Brans-Dicke cosmology. We show that these models can describe the observed accelerated expansion of our universe with a parameter space consistent with the most recent observational data. However, it turns out that there is fine-tuning problem concerning the value of Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega$ at early universe which casts doubt on the viability of these dark energy models.

  12. The Association Between Epicardial Adipose Tissue and Coronary Artery Disease: an Echocardiographic Cut-off Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Toufan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: EAT is an independent factor in coronary artery disease (CAD. The objective of the current study was to define an echocardiographic cut-off point for EAT and to determine its diagnostic value in predicting the increase in CAD risk. Methods: Two hundred patients underwent coronary artery angiography for diagnosis of CAD and transthoracic echocardiography for measurement of EAT on the right ventricle (RV, RV apex and RV outlet tract. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of the EAT cut-off points in the three above-mentioned areas for predicting the severity of CAD were measured. The relation between the EAT and CAD risk factors was evaluated as well. Results: EAT was independent from gender, height, hypertension, diabetes, HDL, total cholesterol, ejection fraction, acute coronary syndrome, and the location of the coronary artery stenosis in the coronary artery in all three anatomical areas. EAT on RV and RV apex had a significant relation with CAD (P ≤ 0.05. Overall, RV EAT≥ 10 mm and RV apex EAT ≥ 8 mm had sensitivity and PPV of more than 70% in predicting coronary stenosis ≥ 50% and acute coronary syndrome (ACS and RVOT EAT ≥ 13 mm is of PPV=83.5% for predicting coronary stenosis ≥ 50%. Conclusion: EAT thickness has an acceptable diagnostic value for predicting severe coronary artery stenosis and ACS. Therefore, non-invasive EAT thickness measurement could be of great assistance to clinicians for detecting the patients at risk and helping them to undergo supplementary evaluations with invasive approaches.

  13. Singularity of macroscopic variables near boundary for gases with cut-off inverse-power potential

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, I-Kun; Hsia, Chun-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the boundary singularity for stationary solutions of the linearized Boltzmann equation with cut-off inverse power potential is analyzed. In particular, for cut-off hard-potential cases, we establish the asymptotic approximation for the gradient of the moments. Our analysis indicates the logarithmic singularity of the gradient of the moments.

  14. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcibíades Bustamante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers.

  15. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Based on Insulin Resistance and Visceral Obesity in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Soo Lim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVisceral obesity is the most powerful contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and cardiovascular diseases. In light of visceral obesity, however, there is a paucity of data on the appropriate cutoff point of waist circumference (WC in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal cutoff value for WC that signals insulin resistance (IR and visceral obesity in Koreans with type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe evaluated 4,252 patients with type 2 diabetes (male 2,220, female 2,032, mean age 57.24 years who visited our clinic between January 2003 and June 2009. WC was measured at the midpoint between the lower rib and the iliac crest, and insulin sensitivity was assessed by the rate constant of plasma glucose disappearance (Kitt %/min using an insulin tolerance test. Visceral fat thickness was measured using ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic curve.ResultsThe optimal cutoff points for WC for identifying the presence of IR and visceral obesity, as well as two or more metabolic components, were 87 cm for men and 81 cm for women. Moreover, these cutoff points had the highest predictive powers for the presence of visceral obesity. The MetS defined by new criteria correlated with the increased carotid intima-media thickness in female subjects.ConclusionOur results suggest that the optimal cutoff values for WC in Koreans with type 2 diabetes should be reestablished based on IR and visceral obesity.

  16. Transmission characteristics of the wave cut-off probe with parallel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Yu-Sin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2012-10-01

    A cut-off probe has been used to obtain an absolute electron density from a plasma frequency. A cut-off probe with parallel plates was constructed to investigate the transmission characteristics of electromagnetic waves and electrostatic waves at various gaps, pressures and powers. It is found that a clear cut-off peak at a plasma frequency and many other peaks due to plasma sheath series resonance, cavity resonance and transmission line are observed. By using circuit model of plasma and transmission line theory, the various peaks was analyzed and discussed.

  17. Spin cut-off factor in SPA and SPA + RPA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spin cut-off factor (σ) is an important parameter needed in Bethe's formula for the fixed-J level density. The parameter σ is also required to relate the theoretical calculated state density with the experimentally observed level density

  18. Surface effect theory in binary alloys: surfaces with cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A surface effect theory in binary alloys which ore ordered with surfaces with cut-off is presented. This theory is based in a model of pair interaction between first neighbours and includes long and short range effects. The (120) surface with sup(-) (110) monoatomic cut-off and terrace in the (110) planes of an alloy with body centered cubic structure is presented as example. Results for the concentrations in all the different surface sites are given. (L.C.)

  19. Phase properties of the cut-off high-order harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Khokhlova, M A

    2015-01-01

    The cut-off regime of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) by atoms in an intense laser field is studied numerically and analytically. We find that the cut-off regime is characterized by equal dephasing between the successive harmonics. The change of the harmonic phase-locking when HHG evolves from the cut-off to the plateau regime determines the optimal bandwidth of the spectral region which should be used for attosecond pulse generation via amplitude gating technique. The cut-off regime is also characterized by a linear dependence of the harmonic phase on the fundamental intensity. The proportionality coefficient grows as the cube of the fundamental wavelength, thus this dependence becomes very important for the HHG by mid-infrared fields. Moreover, for every high harmonic there is a {\\it range} of laser intensities providing the generation in the cut-off regime and the atomic response magnitude in this regime can be greater than that in the plateau regime. Thus the cut-off regime substantially contributes ...

  20. Detection of relevant colonic neoplasms with PET/CT: promising accuracy with minimal CT dose and a standardised PET cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luboldt, Wolfgang [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Volker, Teresa; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg [University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Wiedemann, Baerbel [University Hospital Dresden, Institute of Medical Informatics and Biometrics, Dresden (Germany); Wehrmann, Ursula [University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Surgery, Dresden (Germany); Koch, Arne; Abolmaali, Nasreddin [University Hospital Dresden, Oncoray, Dresden (Germany); Toussaint, Todd; Luboldt, Hans-Joachim [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); Middendorp, Markus; Gruenwald, Frank [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt (Germany); Aust, Daniela [University Hospital Dresden, Department of Pathology, Dresden (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    To determine the performance of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of relevant colorectal neoplasms (adenomas {>=}10 mm, with high-grade dysplasia, cancer) in relation to CT dose and contrast administration and to find a PET cut-off. 84 patients, who underwent PET/CT and colonoscopy (n=79)/sigmoidoscopy (n=5) for (79 x 6+5 x 2)=484 colonic segments, were included in a retrospective study. The accuracy of low-dose PET/CT in detecting mass-positive segments was evaluated by ROC analysis by two blinded independent reviewers relative to contrast-enhanced PET/CT. On a per-lesion basis characteristic PET values were tested as cut-offs. Low-dose PET/CT and contrast-enhanced PET/CT provide similar accuracies (area under the curve for the average ROC ratings 0.925 vs. 0.929, respectively). PET demonstrated all carcinomas (n=23) and 83% (30/36) of relevant adenomas. In all carcinomas and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (n=10) the SUV{sub max} was {>=}5. This cut-off resulted in a better per-segment sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) than the average PET/CT reviews (sensitivity: 89% vs. 82%; NPV: 99% vs. 98%). All other tested cut-offs were inferior to the SUV{sub max}. FDG-PET/CT provides promising accuracy for colorectal mass detection. Low dose and lack of iodine contrast in the CT component do not impact the accuracy. The PET cut-off SUV{sub max}{>=} 5 improves the accuracy. (orig.)

  1. An optimal cut-off point for the calving interval may be used as an indicator of bovine abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier

    2015-10-01

    The bovine abortion surveillance system in France aims to detect as early as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification and testing of each aborting cow, but under-reporting is high. This research uses a new and simple approach which considers the calving interval (CI) as a "diagnostic test" to determine optimal cut-off point c and estimate diagnostic performance of the CI to identify aborting cows, and herds with multiple abortions (i.e. three or more aborting cows per calving season). The period between two artificial inseminations (AI) was considered as a "gold standard". During the 2006-2010 calving seasons, the mean optimal CI cut-off point for identifying aborting cows was 691 days for dairy cows and 703 days for beef cows. Depending on the calving season, production type and scale at which c was computed (individual or herd), the average sensitivity of the CI varied from 42.6% to 64.4%; its average specificity from 96.7% to 99.7%; its average positive predictive value from 27.6% to 65.4%; and its average negative predictive value from 98.7% to 99.8%. When applied to the French bovine population as a whole, this indicator identified 2-3% of cows suspected to have aborted, and 10-15% of herds suspected of multiple abortions. The optimal cut-off point and CI performance were consistent over calving seasons. By applying an optimal CI cut-off point to the cattle demographics database, it becomes possible to identify herds with multiple abortions, carry out retrospective investigations to find the cause of these abortions and monitor a posteriori compliance of farmers with their obligation to report abortions for brucellosis surveillance needs. Therefore, the CI could be used as an indicator of abortions to help improve the current mandatory notification surveillance system. PMID:26318526

  2. FACTORS AFFECTING THE HYDRAULIC BARRIER PERFORMANCE OF SOIL-BENTONITE MIXTURE CUT-OFF WALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Atsushi; Inui, Toru; Katsumi, Takeshi; Kamon, Masashi; Araki, Susumu

    Containment technique using cut-off walls is a valid method against contaminants in subsurface soil and/or groundwater. This paper states laboratory testing results on hydraulic barrier performance of Soil-Bentonite (SB), which is made by mixing bentonite with in-situ soil. Since the bentonite swelling is sensitive to chemicals, chemical compatibility is important for the hydraulic barrier performance of SB. Hydraulic conductivity tests using flexible-wall permeameter were conducted on SB specimens with various types and concentrations of chemicals in the pore water and/or in the permeant and with various bentonite powder contents. As a result, hydraulic barrier performance of SB was influenced by the chemical concentration in the pore water of original soil and bentonite powder content. In the case that SB specimens have damage parallel to the permeating direction, no significant leakage in the SB occurs by the self-sealing property of SB. In addition, the hydraulic conductivity values of SB have excellent correlation with their plastic indexes and swelling pr essures, thus these properties of SB have some possibility to be indicators for estimation of the hydraulic barrier performance of SB.

  3. Determination of the optimal cut-off point for ELISA test for diagnosis of brucellosis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Finding a reliable diagnostic method for brucellosis is the most challengeable problem. In this study we determined the optimal diagnostic cut-off point for ELISA test."n"nMethods: We gathered 56 confirmed cases of brucellosis. Furthermore blood samples from 126 controls including 73 healthy controls and 53 without brucellosis febrile patients were collected. In all of the cases and controls ELISA Ig G and ELISA Ig M levels were measured and compared with each other by Box plot graph and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA Ig G and Ig M were fixed in different cut-off values and Ig G and Ig M levels yielding maximal sensitivity plus specificity were selected for determination of optimal cut-off point."n"nResults: The nineteen patients had positive blood cultures for Brucella melitensis. The standard agglutination test results were 1/160 or more in 54 patients. The Box plot graph indicated a high degree of dispersion for Ig G and Ig M data in patients with brucellosis compared with febrile patients without brucellosis and healthy controls. We observed partial overlap for Ig M data (not for Ig G between cases and controls. The area under ROC curve for

  4. Investigation of the negative-mass behaviors occurring below a cut-off frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shanshan; Zhou, Xiaoming; Hu, Gengkai

    2010-10-01

    Negative-mass phenomena occurring below a cut-off frequency are examined using both theoretical and experimental methods. The paper begins with an investigation of a mass-spring structure, the effective mass of which is shown to be negative below a specific frequency. Due to the decaying nature of lattice waves in the negative-mass system, the transmission drop induced by negative effective mass is demonstrated experimentally. Further investigation is conducted for a rectangular solid waveguide with clamped boundary conditions. It is shown that the lowest bandgap mode of the clamped waveguide can be attributed to negative effective mass below a cut-off frequency. Based on this observation, elastic metamaterials made of a steel grid filled with styrene butadiene rubber are designed and fabricated. Both the simulation and experimental analyses demonstrate that the designed metamaterials have negative effective mass below a cut-off frequency.

  5. Cosmic ray cut-off rigidities as function of zenithal and azimuthal directions of arrival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dependences of cut-off rigidities for slantingly incident cosmic rays on the direction of their arrival into the Earth magnetic field caused by internal and external sources are investigated for Irkutsk station under the conditions of magnetosphere different geomagnetic activity. It is shown that with the increase of Kp index from 0 up to 4 the cut-off rigidities of slantingly incident cosmic rays decrease in succession, whereupon the effect of external sources (currents within the magnetopause, tail current and ring currents) results in different changes of geomagnetic thresholds for different directions of charged particle arrival. Thus, for example, cut-off-rigidities reduce by 6% for particles which arrive from southwest at 360 deg zenith angle, while for westparticles this difference constitutes only 0.6%

  6. Localization of fluctuation measurement by wave scattering close to a cut off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tokamaks several fluctuation diagnostics are based on the scattering of an electromagnetic wave close to a cut off layer. For example measurement of density fluctuations (n) by reflectometry and magnetic fluctuations (B) by cross polarization scattering. For such a configuration the eikonal approximation does not remain valid to describe the pump wave although it is valid to describe n(r) and B(r). In this paper we shall consider a linear density profile. An unidimensional exact analysis has been performed. Spatial and spectral localization of scattering process close to the cut off layer is investigated and a modified Bragg rule is derived. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs

  7. Duality Bounds on the Cut-Off Rate with Applications to Ricean Fading

    OpenAIRE

    Lapidoth, Amos; Miliou, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    We propose a technique to derive upper bounds on Gallager's cost-constrained random coding exponent function. Applying this technique to the non-coherent peak-power or average-power limited discrete time memoryless Ricean fading channel, we obtain the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) expansion of this channel's cut-off rate. At high SNR the gap between channel capacity and the cut-off rate approaches a finite limit. This limit is approximately 0.26 nats per channel-use for zero specular compo...

  8. Cut-off rate calculations for the outer channel in a concatenated cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herro, M. A.; Costello, D. J., Jr.; Hu, L.

    1984-01-01

    Concatenated codes were long used as a practical means of achieving long block or constraint lengths for combating errors on very noisy channels. The inner and outer encoders are normally separated by an interleaver, so that decoded error bursts coming from the inner decoder are randomized before entering the outer decoder. The effectiveness of this interleaver is examined by calculating the cut-off rate of the outer channel seen by the outer decoder with and without interleaving. Interleaving never hurts the performance of a concatenated code, and when the inner code rate is near the cut-off rate of the inner channel, interleaving significantly improves code performance.

  9. Determination of the accuracy and optimal cut-off point for ELISA test in diagnosis of human brucellosis in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hasibi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In endemic area the most challenging problem for brucellosis is to find a reliable diagnostic method. In this case-control study, we investigated the accuracy of ELISA test for diagnosis of human brucellosis and determined the optimal cut-off value for ELISA results in Iran. The laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis was performed by blood isolation of Brucella organism with a BACTEC 9240 system and/or detection of Brucella antibodies by standard agglutination test (titer ≥ 1:160. Serum level of ELISA IgG and ELISA IgM from 56 confirmed cases of brucellosis and 126 controls were compared with each other by Box plot graph and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. Box plot graphs showed the high degree of dispersion for IgG and IgM data in patients compared with all controls. We observed partially overlapping for IgM data (not for IgG between cases and controls in graphs. The area under ROC curve for distinguishing between cases and controls was larger for IgG compared to IgM. Based on results of this study, ELISA IgG test was more reliable than ELISA IgM test in diagnosis of human brucellosis in Iran. Using a cut-off of 10 IU/ml and 50 IU/ml had most sensitivity (92.9% and most specificity (100% for ELISA IgG test, respectively.

  10. CFT dual of the AdS Dirichlet problem : Fluid/Gravity on cut-off surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Brattan, Daniel K; Loganayagam, R; Rangamani, Mukund

    2011-01-01

    We study the gravitational Dirichlet problem in AdS spacetimes with a view to understanding the boundary CFT interpretation. We define the problem as bulk Einstein's equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions on fixed timelike cut-off hypersurface. Using the fluid/gravity correspondence, we argue that one can determine non-linear solutions to this problem in the long wavelength regime. On the boundary we find a conformal fluid with Dirichlet constitutive relations, viz., the fluid propagates on a `dynamical' background metric which depends on the local fluid velocities and temperature. This boundary fluid can be re-expressed as an emergent hypersurface fluid which is non-conformal but has the same value of the shear viscosity as the boundary fluid. The hypersurface dynamics arises as a collective effect, wherein effects of the background are transmuted into the fluid degrees of freedom. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this collective fluid is forced to be non-relativistic below a critical cut-off radius in...

  11. Suppressing the weakly bound states in the photoassociation dynamics by using a frequency cut-off laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoassociation dynamics of ultracold lithium atoms controlled by a cut-off pulse has been investigated theoretically by solving numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation using the mapped Fourier grid method. The frequency components of the laser pulse close to the atomic resonance are partly cut off. Compared with the typical Gauss-type pulses, the cut-off pulse is helpful to suppress efficiently the weakly bound states and prepare the associated molecules in the lower vibrational states. Especially, the dependence of photoassociation probability on the cut-off position of the laser pulse is explored. (atomic and molecular physics)

  12. WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE AS INDICATOR COMPONENTS OF METABOLIC SYNDROME IN THE SIBERIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Simonova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Object of research: to determine the cut-off point of waist circumference (WC identify the components of metabolic syndrome (MS in a large industrial center of Western Siberia.In the period from 2003 to 2005 in the screening population surveyed 9362 people, including 4268 men (45.6% and 5094 women (54.4%.The response rate was 61%. The study protocol included a sociodemographic data, measurement of blood pressure (BP, anthropometry (height, weight, WC, the definition of biochemical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed using the package SPSS. To determine the cut-off points of the used ROC model.In the group with ≥2 components of MS cut-off point WC from the men was 93.3 cm (sensitivity 72%, specificity 83%, women – 90.2 cm (sensitivity 72%, specificity 62%.The lowest cut-off point WC marked BP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg for men – 90 cm (sensitivity 66.8%, specificity 58.1%, for women – 86.5 cm (sensitivity 71.0%, specificity 55.7%. The highest cut-off point from the defined patients with diabetes for men was 99.0 cm (sensitivity 61%, specificity 70.2%, for women – cm (sensitivity 64.1%, specificity 65.9%.Conclusions: Cut-off point from the persons with the presence of ≥2 MS components in Siberian population 45–69 years, in accordance with the ROC analysis are 93.3 cm for men and 90.2 cm for women. The lowest cut-off point WC marked BP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg for men – 90 cm, for women – 86.5 cm. The highest cut-off point from the defined patients with diabetes for men was 99.0 cm, for women – 95 cm.

  13. Cut-off points of the visceral adiposity index (VAI identifying a visceral adipose dysfunction associated with cardiometabolic risk in a Caucasian Sicilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amato Marco C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI is a sex-specific mathematical index, based on Waist Circumference (WC, Body Mass Index (BMI, triglycerides (TG and HDL cholesterol (HDL levels, indirectly expressing visceral adipose function and insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to find the optimal cut-off points of VAI identifying a visceral adipose dysfunction (VAD associated with cardiometabolic risk in a Caucasian Sicilian population. Methods Medical check-up data of 1,764 Primary Care patients (PC patients were retrospectively and cross-sectionally examined using a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve to determine appropriate stratified-for-age cut-off of VAI, for the identification of PC patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS according to the NCEP-ATP III criteria. The PC patients with higher VAI scores were subdivided into three groups according to VAI tertiles (i.e. PC patients with mild VAD, moderate VAD or severe VAD. Finally, VAD classes were compared to classical cardio- and cerebrovascular risk factors as independent predictors of coronary heart disease and/or myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack and/or ischemic stroke. Results Moderate and severe VADs proved to be independently associated with cardiovascular events [(OR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.92-14.87; p = 0.001 and (OR: 7.46; 95% CI: 2.64-21.05; p Conclusions Our study suggests that among Caucasian Sicilian subjects there are clear cut-off points of VAI able to identify a VAD strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk.

  14. Poverty and cutting off the power: Evaluation of the social contract of the Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures put in place by the French Electric Utility, Electricite de France (EDF) to assist those in default of payment of their electricity bills are evaluated. When introduced in 1996, it was expected that the new measures would reduce the necessity of cutting off power to the poor by one third. Notwithstanding these expectations and some progress in reducing the rate of power cut-off, the number of instances where service was denied, has risen. The evaluation is based on the annual survey of poor clients of the EDF undertaken by the Polling Institute Lavialle. The annual survey concerns itself chiefly with the attitude towards the service and the quality of dialogue between the Utility and its clients. The analysis resulted in three conclusions: (1) EDF appears to make progress in dealing with the problem based on evidence of higher client satisfaction and lower rate of cutting off power; (2) there is evidence of important beneficial changes in the policies of local EDF centres; and (3) there is noticeable evidence of improved coordination with social services agencies and higher quality of information made available; both these factors should contribute to higher client satisfaction. In general, EDF is to be congratulated for their efforts to date, for commissioning the survey and for participating in the evaluation. Nevertheless, in France the instances of cutting off electricity to poor households is still a fact of life, despite the commitment and the new measures put in place by EDF. 21 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  16. Cut-off period for slow magnetoacoustic waves in coronal plasma structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, A. N.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Context. There is abundant observational evidence of longitudinal compressive waves in plasma structures of the solar corona, which are confidently interpreted in terms of slow magnetoacoustic waves. The uses of coronal slow waves in plasma diagnostics, as well as analysis of their possible contribution to coronal heating and the solar wind acceleration, require detailed theoretical modelling. Aims: We investigate the effects of obliqueness, magnetic field, and non-uniformity of the medium on the evolution of long-wavelength slow magnetoacoustic waves guided by field-aligned plasma non-uniformities, also called tube waves. Special attention is paid to the cut-off effect due to the gravity stratification of the coronal plasma. Methods: We study the behaviour of linear tube waves in a vertical untwisted straight field-aligned isothermal plasma cylinder. We apply the thin flux tube approximation, taking into account effects of stratification caused by gravity. The dispersion due to the finite radius of the flux tube is neglected. We analyse the behaviour of the cut-off period for an exponentially divergent magnetic flux tube filled in with a stratified plasma. The results obtained are compared with the known cases of the constant Alfven speed and the pure acoustic wave. Results: We derive the wave equation for tube waves and reduce it to the form of the Klein-Gordon equation with varying coefficients, which explicitly contains the cut-off frequency. The cut-off period is found to vary with height, decreasing significantly in the low-beta plasma and in the plasma with the beta of the order of unity. The depressions in the cut-off period profiles can affect the propagation of longitudinal waves along coronal plasma structures towards the higher corona and can form coronal resonators.

  17. Potential interface slip analysis of Peribonka Dam plastic concrete cut-off wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morency, J.Y.; Chahde, J.; Bigras, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Garand, P.; Rattue, A. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The Peribonka hydroelectric development is currently under construction near the confluence of the Manouane River with the Peribonka River in Quebec. It includes an 80 m high dam and two dykes of zoned earth fills with a till core, an underground power house with an installed capacity of 385 MW, a diversion tunnel and a spillway. The Peribonka dam will be built on a highly permeable alluvial foundation. The design includes a 10 m high working platform in the river between the cofferdams and a plastic concrete cut-off wall (COW) down to bedrock. The maximum depth of the COW in a narrow canyon will be 115 m. A bi-dimensional finite element stress and deformation analysis software (SDAS) was used to model the stress-strain behaviour of the foundation soils and the COW under the dam. The SDAS software made it possible to determine the vertical deformations as well as the horizontal stress distribution in the foundation soils. It was shown that due to the oedometric nature of the loading of the soil, no significant shear stress was generated due to the soil deformations in the foundation below the axis of the dam. However, the finite element program did not allow hyperbolic model slip elements. As such, it was not possible to evaluate if negative skin friction occurred at the soilplastic concrete interface. For that reason, a one-dimensional model allowing the simulation of negative or positive friction between the soil and the COW was developed. This model considered the elastic-plastic behaviour of the COW using a hyperbolic model. It showed that nowhere, except in the upper 2 to 3 m of the COW embedment in the core, was negative friction able to mobilize the full value of the internal friction angle of the soil. 4 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  18. Excitation energy and angular momentum dependence of nuclear level densities and spin cut-off factor in SPA and SPA + RPA approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the excitation energy (E*) and angular momentum (J) dependence of nuclear level density and spin cut-off factor (σ) within microscopic approaches based on SPA and its extension SPA+RPA representation of the grand partition function for quadrupole-quadrupole interaction model Hamiltonian. For 110Sn, we find that excitation energy dependence of the total level density obtained within these approaches is significantly different. On the other hand, these approaches yield similar behaviour for J-dependence of the level density at fixed values of E*. Values of σSPA+RPA at low E* are found to be slightly smaller than σSPA but they tend to become almost the same at higher E* (>30 MeV). We also find that Bethe's formula for fixed-J level density based on the spin cut-off approximation can be used to compute ρ(E*,J) near the yrast line provided one uses an appropriate value of the spin cut-off factor. (orig.)

  19. Mathematical model of processes in cut-off leaking steam generator as a part of operating ship reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model of processes in cut-off leaking steam generator of an operating ship reactor was presented. The model describes the coolant pressure increasing when filling the heat pipes system of cut-off leaking direct-flow steam generator, and allows estimating the time lag before putting restrictions on power maneuvering of the ship reactor

  20. On a holographic dark energy model with a Nojiri-Odintsov cut-off in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Khurshudyan, M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider the models of the accelerated expanding large scale universe~(according to general relativity) containing a generalized holographic dark energy with a Nojiri - Odintsov cut - off. The second component of the darkness is assumed to be the pressureless cold dark matter according to observed symmetries of the large scale universe. Moreover, we assume specific forms of the interaction between these two components and besides the cosmographic analysis, we discuss appropriate results from $Om$ and $Om3$ analysis and organize a closer look to the models via the statefinder hierarchy analysis, too. In this way we study mainly impact of the interaction on the dynamics of the background of our universe~(within specific forms of interaction). To complete the cosmographic analysis, the present day values of the statefinder parameters $(r,s)$ and $(\\omega^{\\prime}_{de}, \\omega_{de})$ has been estimated for all cases and the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics is demonstrated....

  1. Optimal Ki67 cut-off for luminal breast cancer prognostic evaluation: a large case series study with a long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustreo, Sara; Osella-Abate, Simona; Cassoni, Paola; Donadio, Michela; Airoldi, Mario; Pedani, Fulvia; Papotti, Mauro; Sapino, Anna; Castellano, Isabella

    2016-06-01

    Although Ki67 index suffers from poor reproducibility, it is one of the most important prognostic markers used by oncologists to select the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer patients. In this study, we aim to establish the optimal Ki67 cut-offs for stratifying patient prognosis and to create a comprehensive prognostic index for clinical applications. A mono-institutional cohort of 1.577 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative/ER+ breast cancer patients having complete clinical, histological, and follow-up data was collected. The 14 and 20 % Ki67 cut-offs were correlated to disease-free interval (DFI) and disease-specific survival (DSS). To create a comprehensive prognostic index, we used independent variables selected by uni/multivariate analyses. In terms of DFI and DSS, patients bearing tumors with Ki67  20 % showed the poorest prognosis. Moreover, to tumor size, the number of metastatic lymph nodes and Ki67 > 20 % was given a score value, varying depending on definite cut-offs and used to create a prognostic index, which was applied to the population. Patients with a prognostic index ≥3 were characterized by significant risk of relapse [DFI: Hazard Ratio (HR) = 4.74, p < 0.001] and death (DSS: HR = 5.03, p < 0.001). We confirm that the 20 % Ki67 cut-off is the best to stratify high-risk patients in luminal breast cancers, and we suggest to integrate it with other prognostic factors, to better stratify patients at risk of adverse outcome. PMID:27155668

  2. Optimal waist-to-height ratio values for cardiometabolic risk screening in an ethnically diverse sample of South African urban and rural school boys and girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandi E Matsha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The proposed waist-to-height ratio (WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less optimal for cardiometabolic risk screening in children in many settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal WHtR for children from South Africa, and investigate variations by gender, ethnicity and residence in the achieved value. METHODS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS components were measured in 1272 randomly selected learners, aged 10-16 years, comprising of 446 black Africans, 696 mixed-ancestry and 130 Caucasians. The Youden's index and the closest-top-left (CTL point approaches were used to derive WHtR cut-offs for diagnosing any two MetS components, excluding the waist circumference. RESULTS: The two approaches yielded similar cut-off in girls, 0.465 (sensitivity 50.0, specificity 69.5, but two different values in boys, 0.455 (42.9, 88.4 and 0.425 (60.3, 67.7 based on the Youden's index and the CTL point, respectively. Furthermore, WHtR cut-off values derived differed substantially amongst the regions and ethnic groups investigated, whereby the highest cut-off was observed in semi-rural and white children, respectively, Youden's index0.505 (31.6, 87.1 and CTL point 0.475 (44.4, 75.9. CONCLUSION: The WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less accurate for screening cardiovascular risk in South African children. The optimal value in this setting is likely gender and ethnicity-specific and sensitive to urbanization.

  3. Fast beam cut-off method in RF-knockout extraction for spot-scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, T

    2002-01-01

    An irradiation method with magnetic scanning has been developed in order to provide accurate irradiation even for an irregular target shape. The scanning method has strongly required a lower ripple of the beam spill and a faster response to beam-on/off in slow extraction from a synchrotron ring. At HIMAC, RF-knockout extraction has utilized a bunched beam to reduce the beam-spill ripple. Therefore, particles near the resonance can be spilled out from the separatrices by synchrotron oscillation as well as by a transverse RF field. From this point of view, a fast beam cut-off method has been proposed and verified by both simulations and experiments. The maximum delay from the beam cut-off signal to beam-off has been improved to around 60 mu s from 700 mu s by a usual method. Unwanted dose has been considerably reduced by around a factor of 10 compared with that by the usual method.

  4. "Cut-off" effect of antioxidants and/or probes of variable lipophilicity in microheterogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, Carolina; López de Arbina, Amaia; Rezende, Marcos Caroli

    2016-09-01

    The activities of two hydrophilic (ascorbic acid and Trolox) and two hydrophobic (α-tocopherol and BHT) antioxidants were measured by reaction with a series of 4-alkanoyloxyTEMPO radical probes 1 in buffered (pH 7), aqueous, micellar solutions of reduced Triton-X 100. In all cases, a cut-off effect was observed, in line with previous observations of the same effect for the partitioning of probe series 1 in this medium. These results support an interpretation of the cut-off effect in food emulsions, based on the "amphiphobic" nature of either the antioxidants or probes: competition between two molecular moieties, for the micellar hydrophobic core, tends to expose a reacting fragment differently to a more hydrophilic microenvironment, as the probe or antioxidant hydrophobicity increases. PMID:27041306

  5. Edge plasmons and cut-off behavior of graphene nano-ribbon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Haowen; Teng, Jinghua; Palacios, Tomás; Chua, Soojin

    2016-07-01

    Graphene nano-ribbon waveguides with ultra-short plasmon wavelength are a promising candidate for nanoscale photonic applications. Graphene edge plasmons are the fundamental and lowest losses mode. Through finite element method, edge plasmons show large effective refractive index and strong field confinement on nanoscale ribbons. The edge plasmons follow a k1/2 dispersion relation. The wavelengths of the edge plasmons and center plasmons differ by a fixed factor. The width of edge plasmon is inversely proportional to wave vector of edge plasmon kedge. Edge defects associate with graphene nano-ribbon induce extra losses and reduce the propagation length. Cut-off width of edge plasmons reduces with increasing frequency. Cut-off width of center plasmon is enlarged by edge component but the enlargement effect diminishing with the increase of kedge. The results are important for the application of graphene plasmon towards ultra-compact photonic devices.

  6. Interacting Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy and IR Cut-Off Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, J.; Pourhassan, B.; Abbaspour Moghaddam, Z.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider holographic dark energy model with corrected holographic energy density and show that this model may be equivalent to the modified Chaplygin gas model. Then we obtain relation between entropy corrected holographic dark energy model and scalar field models. We do these works by using choices of IR cut-off length proportional to the Hubble radius, the event horizon radius, the Ricci length, and the Granda-Oliveros length.

  7. Interacting Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy and IR Cut-Off Length

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeghi, J; Moghaddam, Z Abbaspour

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider holographic dark energy model with corrected holographic energy density and show that this model may be equivalent to the modified Chaplygin gas model. Then we obtain relation between entropy corrected holographic dark energy model and scalar field models. We do these works by using choices of IR cut-off length proportional to the Hubble radius, the event horizon radius, the Ricci length, and the Granda-Oliveros length.

  8. Validity of Alternative Cut-Off Scores for the Back-Saver Sit and Reach Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Gilbert, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if currently used FITNESSGRAM[R] cut-off scores for the Back Saver Sit and Reach Test had the best criterion-referenced validity evidence for 6-12 year old children. Secondary analyses of an existing data set focused on the passive straight leg raise and Back Saver Sit and Reach Test flexibility scores of…

  9. Sensitivity studies of spin cut-off models on fission fragment observables

    OpenAIRE

    Thulliez L.; Litaize O.; Serot O.

    2016-01-01

    A fission fragment de-excitation code, FIFRELIN, is being developed at CEA Cadarache. It allows probing the characteristics of the prompt emitted particles, neutrons and gammas, during the de-excitation process of fully accelerated fission fragments. The knowledge of the initial states of the fragments is important to accurately reproduce the fission fragment observables. In this paper a sensitivity study of various spin cut-off models, completely defining the initial fission fragment angular...

  10. Spectral geometry with a cut-off: topological and metric aspects

    CERN Document Server

    D'Andrea, Francesco; Martinetti, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by regularization in quantum field theory, we study topological and metric properties of spaces in which a cut-off is introduced. We work in the framework of noncommutative geometry, and focus on Connes distance associated to a spectral triple (A,H,D). A high momentum (short distance) cut-off is implemented by the action of a projection P on the Dirac operator D and/or on the algebra A. This action induces two new distances. We first individuate conditions making them equivalent to the original distance. We then study the Gromov-Hausdorff limit of the set of truncated states, first for quantum metric spaces in the sense of Rieffel, and then for arbitrary spectral triples. In the commutative case, we show that the cut-off induces a minimal length between points, which is infinite if P has finite rank. When P is a spectral projection of D, we work out an approximation of points by non-pure states that are at finite distance from each other. We apply the results to Moyal plane and to the fuzzy sphere, o...

  11. Impact of cut-off probability on emergency planning zone sizing for advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, NRC performed an evaluation of emergency planning for the evolutionary and advanced light water reactors, and indicated that no changes to emergency planning (EP) requirements were warranted in the existing technical framework. How- ever, NRC also recognized if the lower probability of severe accidents or the longer time period between accident initiation and release of radioactive material was considered, the changes to EP requirements for advanced light water reactors might be warranted and the emergency planning zone (EPZ) sizing might be reduced. This means that if the accidents which probabilities are lower than a cut-off probability are not considered, there may be a significant impact on the EPZ sizing. AP1000 was selected as an example in this study and the probable impacts of different cut-off probabilities were studied by using MACCS code in accordance with the NUREG-0396 method. The results show that, only if the cut-off probability is higher than the occurrence probability of the accident which has relatively serious consequence and high probability, there will be a significant impact on the EPZ sizing for the advanced light water reactor. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of novel large cut-off ultrafiltration membranes for adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5 concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piergiuseppe Nestola

    Full Text Available The purification of virus particles and viral vectors for vaccine and gene therapy applications is gaining increasing importance in order to deliver a fast, efficient, and reliable production process. Ultrafiltration (UF is a widely employed unit operation in bioprocessing and its use is present in several steps of the downstream purification train of biopharmaceuticals. However, to date few studies have thoroughly investigated the performance of several membrane materials and cut-offs for virus concentration/diafiltration. The present study aimed at developing a novel class of UF cassettes for virus concentration/diafiltration. A detailed study was conducted to evaluate the effects of (i membrane materials, namely polyethersulfone (PES, regenerated cellulose (RC, and highly cross-linked RC (xRC, (ii nominal cut-off, and (iii UF device geometry at different production scales. The results indicate that the xRC cassettes with a cut-off of approximately 500 kDa are able to achieve a 10-fold concentration factor with 100% recovery of particles with a process time twice as fast as that of a commercially available hollow fiber. DNA and host cell protein clearances, as well as hydraulic permeability and fouling behavior, were also assessed.

  13. On-site raw gas cut-off during the shut down of Baosteel phase I coke ovens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Haizhong

    2015-01-01

    The preparation and implementation of raw coke oven gas cut-off,which was the key process involved with shutting down the Baosteel phase I coke ovens,were investigated,and the main technical points and countermeasures are presented.

  14. Ultrahigh energy neutrinos scattering off relic light neutrinos to explain UHECR above GZK cut off and thin blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, D; Fargion, Daniele; Mele, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    UHE neutrinos may transfer highest cosmic-rays energies overcoming $2.75K^\\circ$ BBR and radio-waves opacities (the GZK cut off) from most distant AGN sources at the age of the Universe. These UHE $\

  15. Aligning DNA on Si surface and cutting off by tips of atomic force microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    DNA is a kind of promising molecule as nano-lead to build or connect nano-devices due to its stable linear structure and certain conductivity. Many methods have been applied to constructing nano-patterns by using DNA molecule. In this report it is presented that (-DNA was aligned on Si substrate by using the free-flowing method and then imaged by an atomic force microscope (AFM). After the second liquid flow, a catenary-like pattern and a crossed network of -DNA were formed. In addition, the aligned (-DNA was successfully cut off by tips of AFM.

  16. Sensitivity studies of spin cut-off models on fission fragment observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulliez L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A fission fragment de-excitation code, FIFRELIN, is being developed at CEA Cadarache. It allows probing the characteristics of the prompt emitted particles, neutrons and gammas, during the de-excitation process of fully accelerated fission fragments. The knowledge of the initial states of the fragments is important to accurately reproduce the fission fragment observables. In this paper a sensitivity study of various spin cut-off models, completely defining the initial fission fragment angular momentum distribution has been performed. This study shows that the choice of the model has a significant impact on gamma observables such as spectrum and multiplicity and almost none on the neutron observables.

  17. Sensitivity studies of spin cut-off models on fission fragment observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulliez, L.; Litaize, O.; Serot, O.

    2016-03-01

    A fission fragment de-excitation code, FIFRELIN, is being developed at CEA Cadarache. It allows probing the characteristics of the prompt emitted particles, neutrons and gammas, during the de-excitation process of fully accelerated fission fragments. The knowledge of the initial states of the fragments is important to accurately reproduce the fission fragment observables. In this paper a sensitivity study of various spin cut-off models, completely defining the initial fission fragment angular momentum distribution has been performed. This study shows that the choice of the model has a significant impact on gamma observables such as spectrum and multiplicity and almost none on the neutron observables.

  18. On the discovery of the Greisen–Zatzepin–Kuzmin cut-off

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tadeusz Wibig

    2009-11-01

    The recent claim of the `5 sigma' observation of the Greisen–Zatzepin–Kuzmin cut-off by the HiRes group based on their nine years data is a significant step towards the eventual solution of one of the most intriguing questions in physics for more than 40 years. Recent results from Pierre Auger Observatory seem to confirm the statement. However, the word `significance' is used in the mentioned paper in a sense which is not quite obvious. In the present paper we argue that this claim is a little premature.

  19. European quality assurance and quality control for cut-off walls and caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cut-off walls and caps both may be seriously compromised by small areas of substandard materials or work. Quality assurance/quality control is therefore of crucial importance and the paper sets out the issues that need to be addressed when designing a quality plan for a containment. Consideration is given to the purpose of the containment, the parameters to be controlled, specifications and standards and tests on raw and manufactured materials and on the in-situ containment. It is not the purpose of the paper to give detailed test procedures but rather to identify the questions that must be answered to develop a quality plan

  20. Observation and calculation of trapped modes near cut-off in the ALS bellow-shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observed heating of the RF shields in the bellows of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring has led to studies of possible causes. One such possibility is resonant impedances near the cut-off frequency of the beam-pipe that arise from small, localized, enlargements of the beampipe cross-section. Calculations of trapped modes in the elliptical-section vacuum chamber, approximated by a rectangular geometry, are described. Measurements of a bellows-shield in the test laboratory are also described, as are temperature measurements of a flexband in the storage ring

  1. Relation between wall motion and scintigraphic uptake altered by the cut-off level on technetium-99m sestamibi tomographic imaging. The preferable cut-off levels according to tomographic uptake correlated with the wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether technetium-99m sestamibi imaging can evaluate myocardial viability is still obscure. It may be partially because the preferable cut-off level for evaluation of the viability is not known. This study was aimed to investigate which cut-off level should be used for estimation of the contractile function, and verify whether technetium-99m sestamibi tomographic imaging can evaluate myocardial viability. We studied 45 patients who had myocardial infarction. They underwent technetium-99m sestamibi imaging, echocardiography, and cardiac catheterization. The myocardial image was divided into 16 segments, each of which was scored according to wall motion on echocardiography with a 4-point scale. The segmental technetium-99m uptake was also scored with a 4-point scale. We investigated the correlation between wall motion and scintigraphic uptake with the use of 7 cut off levels (from 35% to 65%, in 5% increments). The correlation ranks were compared among patient groups with a number of stenotic vessels. Irrespective of the number of stenotic vessels, the defect score was similarly enlarged according to cut-off levels. The patient groups had the maximum correlation ranks with different cut-off levels, which were 40% for 1-vessel disease (ρ=0.512, n=160, p=0.0001), 50% for 2-vessel disease (ρ=0.424, n=208, p=0.0001), and 60% for 3-vessel disease (ρ=0.540, n=272, p=0.0001). The correlation ranks for all groups were stable, whereas not high, throughout various cut-off levels. Technetium-99m sestamibi imaging can approximately estimate myocardial viability from the point of view of function, which may be corrected by the careful choice of cut off levels according to the number of the stenotic vessels (40% for 1-vessel disease, 50% for 2-vessel disease, 60% for 3-vessel disease). (author)

  2. Effect of the magnetospheric DCF and DR current systems of on cosmic ray geomagnetic cut-off rigidities in Forbush effect event periods in June and August 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of magnetospheric DCF and DR current systems on regidity of geomagnetic cut-off of cosmic rays (CR) in the periods of Forbush effect in June and August,1972 is considered. It is shown that magnetospheric CR effects conditioned by DCF and DR current fields are opposite in sign and comparable in value during strong disturbances of solar wind velocity. Belts of the most probable current localization in the process of development and evolution of magnetospheric DR current exist in the distances: 4R3(R3-Earth radius) and GR3 in the June event and about 2R3, 4R3 and GR3 in the August event

  3. Revisiting AdS/CFT at a finite radial cut-off

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We revisit AdS/CFT at finite radial cut-off, specifically in the context of double trace perturbations, $\\mathbb{O}_n$= $\\mathbb{O}(x) (\\partial^2)^{n} {\\mathcal O}(x)$, with arbitrary $n$. As well-known, the standard GKPW prescription, applied to a finite radial cut-off, leads to contact terms in correlators. de Haro et al \\cite{deHaro:2000vlm} introduced bulk counterterms to remove these. However, this prescription yields additional terms in the correlator corresponding to spurious double trace deformations. Further, if we view GKPW prescription coupled with the prescription in \\cite{deHaro:2000vlm}, in terms of a boundary wavefunction, we find that it is incompatible with radial Schrodinger evolution (in the spirit of holographic Wilsonian RG). We consider a more general wavefunction satisfying the Schrodinger equation, and find that generically such wavefunctions generate both (a) double trace deformations and (b) contact terms. However, we find that there exist special choices of these wavefunctions, amo...

  4. Open Skies and monitoring a fissile materials cut-off treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Treaty on Open Skies (Open Skies) is intended among other things to provide, in the words of its preamble, means ''to facilitate the monitoring of compliance with existing or future arms control agreements.'' Open Skies permits overflights of the territory of member states by aircraft equipped with an array of sensors of various types. Their types and capabilities are treaty-limited. To find useful application in monitoring a cut-off treaty Open Skies would need to be amended. The number of signatories would need to be expanded so as to provide greater geographical coverage, and restrictions on sensor-array capabilities would need to be relaxed. To facilitate the detection of impending violations of a cut-off convention by Open Skies overflights, the data base provided by parties to the former should include among other things an enumeration of existing and former fuel cycle and research facilities including those converted to other uses, their precise geographic location, and a site plan

  5. Proceedings from the Fissile Material Cut-off seminar in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbman, G. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Establishment hosted an international expert seminar on the subject of verifying a prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons purpose (cut-off) in Stockholm, June 3-5 1998. The objective of the seminar was to provide an opportunity for informal discussions among scientific and technical experts on various technical matters relating to the verification of a future Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). A stated aim of the seminar was to keep issues of scope to a minimum. Invited speakers and commentators were given an opportunity to present their views as written contributions. The present seminar proceedings are essentially the result of these views. In addition, short summaries of the discussions following each session are included. Although an attempt was made to be as complete and accurate as possible in reproducing these discussions, the editors apologise if some important points or statements have been omitted. If so, the main reason is that the documentation of the discussions were based on written notes, not taped recordings. Eight longer contributions have been separately indexed.

  6. The cut-off criterion for a positive hydrogen breath test in children: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, N W; Barillas, C

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-three preschool children with adequate nutritional status underwent interval-sampling, 3-hour breath-hydrogen carbohydrate absorption tests after consuming either 240 ml of intact milk (containing 12 g of lactose) or the same volume of milk with 90-95% of its lactose prehydrolyzed in vitro (containing less than 1 g lactose, with the remaining sugar as glucose and galactose). Results were examined in a reappraisal of the cut-off criterion for the rise of breath H2 concentration signifying biologically incomplete absorption. If the greater than or equal to 10-ppm criterion advocated by some investigators is used, 83% of our subjects would have been classified as incomplete lactose digesters and 30% would have their tests with the monosaccharide-rich milk classified as positive. With the greater than or equal to 20 ppm criterion used in our laboratory and others, the prevalence of lactose maldigestion in the sample becomes 60% and only 4% of subjects have apparent monosaccharide absorption, 96% having a rise below the cut-off level with prehydrolyzed milk. At least in Guatemalan preschoolers, the 20-ppm criterion for a positive breath H2 test provides a superior specificity-sensitivity balance and more reasonable diagnostic conclusions. PMID:3794911

  7. Proceedings from the Fissile Material Cut-off seminar in Stockholm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Defence Research Establishment hosted an international expert seminar on the subject of verifying a prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons purpose (cut-off) in Stockholm, June 3-5 1998. The objective of the seminar was to provide an opportunity for informal discussions among scientific and technical experts on various technical matters relating to the verification of a future Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). A stated aim of the seminar was to keep issues of scope to a minimum. Invited speakers and commentators were given an opportunity to present their views as written contributions. The present seminar proceedings are essentially the result of these views. In addition, short summaries of the discussions following each session are included. Although an attempt was made to be as complete and accurate as possible in reproducing these discussions, the editors apologise if some important points or statements have been omitted. If so, the main reason is that the documentation of the discussions were based on written notes, not taped recordings. Eight longer contributions have been separately indexed

  8. Open Skies and monitoring a fissile materials cut-off treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allentuck, J.; Lemley, J.R.

    1995-09-01

    The Treaty on Open Skies (Open Skies) is intended among other things to provide, in the words of its preamble, means ``to facilitate the monitoring of compliance with existing or future arms control agreements.`` Open Skies permits overflights of the territory of member states by aircraft equipped with an array of sensors of various types. Their types and capabilities are treaty-limited. To find useful application in monitoring a cut-off treaty Open Skies would need to be amended. The number of signatories would need to be expanded so as to provide greater geographical coverage, and restrictions on sensor-array capabilities would need to be relaxed. To facilitate the detection of impending violations of a cut-off convention by Open Skies overflights, the data base provided by parties to the former should include among other things an enumeration of existing and former fuel cycle and research facilities including those converted to other uses, their precise geographic location, and a site plan.

  9. Optimal cut-off points on the health anxiety inventory, illness attitude scales and whiteley index to identify severe health anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hedman

    Full Text Available Health anxiety can be viewed as a dimensional phenomenon where severe health anxiety in form of DSM-IV hypochondriasis represents a cut-off where the health anxiety becomes clinically significant. Three of the most reliable and used self-report measures of health anxiety are the Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI, the Illness Attitude Scales (IAS and the Whiteley Index (WI. Identifying the optimal cut-offs for classification of presence of a diagnosis of severe health anxiety on these measures has several advantages in clinical and research settings. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the HAI, IAS and WI as proximal diagnostic instruments for severe health anxiety defined as DSM-IV hypochondriasis.We investigated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value on the HAI, IAS and WI using a total of 347 adult participants of whom 158 had a diagnosis of severe health anxiety, 97 had obsessive-compulsive disorder and 92 were healthy non-clinical controls. Diagnostic assessments were conducted using the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule.Optimal cut-offs for identifying a diagnosis of severe health anxiety was 67 on the HAI, 47 on the IAS, and 5 on the WI. Sensitivity and specificity were high, ranging from 92.6 to 99.4%. Positive and negative predictive values ranged from 91.6 to 99.4% using unadjusted prevalence rates.The HAI, IAS and WI have very good properties as diagnostic indicators of severe health anxiety and can be used as cost-efficient proximal estimates of the diagnosis.

  10. Therapeutic significance of a D-dimer cut-off level of >3 μg/ml in colorectal cancer patients treated with standard chemotherapy plus bevacizumab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of venous thromboembolism has been reported to increase when receiving bevacizumab. Many cancer patients are reported to have elevated D-dimer levels. It is not clear what D-dimer level might indicate an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in the colorectal cancer patients treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy. The D-dimer levels and any event concurrent with an elevated D-dimer level were evaluated in patients receiving bevacizumab. The D-dimer cut-off level was determined using the receiver-operating characteristic analysis. The selection criteria were as follows: histologically proven metastatic and unresectable colorectal adenocarcinoma; no prior chemotherapy containing bevacizumab; D-dimer test performed repetitively on the baseline and during bevacizumab administration; no venous thromboembolism identified at the baseline; and enhanced computed tomographic scan performed every 2 months. Sixty-nine patients were included. The chemotherapy regimens with bevacizumab included the regimen of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), the regimen of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and irinotecan (FOLFIRI), and leucovorin-modulated 5-fluorouracil. The median baseline D-dimer level was 1.2 μg/ml. The appropriate D-dimer cut-off level was 3 μg/ml with the negative predictive value of 98% and relative risk of 6.9. Twenty-one of 69 patients showed elevated D-dimer levels of >3 μg/ml, with 11 patients for unknown reasons, 6 with tumor progression, 3 with venous thromboembolism and 1 with sepsis. In the remaining 48 patients whose D-dimer levels were ≤3 μg/ml, only one patient developed a venous thromboembolism. A D-dimer cut-off level of 3 μg/ml might be a useful indicator level to exclude venous thromboembolism or show an increased risk for venous thromboembolism in colorectal cancer patients treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy. (author)

  11. Appropriate body mass index cut-offs to determine thinness, overweight and obesity in South Asian children in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen A de Wilde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asian populations have an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders at a lower body mass index (BMI than other ethnic groups. Therefore, lower adult BMI cut-offs to determine overweight and obesity are recommended to assess the associated health risks for Asian (23 and 27.5 kg/m(2 respectively and Asian Indian (23, 25 kg/m(2 populations. The objective of this study was to develop BMI cut-offs for thinness, overweight, and obesity for South Asian children in the Netherlands, and to compare the BMI cut-offs and distribution with an Asian Indian reference, the WHO Child Growth Reference, and universal BMI cut-offs. METHODS: A reference cohort of 546 Surinamese South Asian boys and 521 girls, born between 1974-1976 (during the pre-obesity era with 3408 and 3267 BMI measurements respectively, was retrospectively analysed. BMI-for-age charts were created with the LMS method. BMI centile curves passing through the cut-off points of 15 (thinness, 23 (overweight, 25 and 27.5 kg/m(2 (obesity at 18y were drawn as cut-off levels. RESULTS: The BMI of Surinamese South Asian children had a similar distribution to the Asian Indian reference, apart from a lower mean and less variation. The BMI distribution differed considerably from the WHO reference and universal BMI criteria. The calculated BMI cut-offs corresponding to a BMI of 15, 23, 25, and 27.5 kg/m(2 at 18y were at the 7.1, 81.1, 89.8, and 95.5 percentile respectively in boys, and at the 2.7, 79.5, 89.2, and 95.2 percentile in girls. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study proposing BMI cut-offs for South Asian children based on measurements from a prosperous population unaffected by the obesity epidemic. We recommend the use of these cut-offs in South Asian children in the Netherlands as these better reflect the health risks associated with thinness, overweight and obesity, and therefore may prevent the development of cardiometabolic disorders.

  12. On a holographic dark energy model with a Nojiri-Odintsov cut-off in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshudyan, Martiros

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we consider the models of the accelerated expanding large scale universe (according to general relativity) containing a generalized holographic dark energy with a Nojiri-Odintsov cut-off. The second component of the darkness is assumed to be the pressureless cold dark matter according to observed symmetries of the large scale universe. Moreover, we assume specific forms of the interaction between these two components and besides the cosmographic analysis, we discuss appropriate results from Om and Om3 analysis and organize a closer look to the models via the statefinder hierarchy analysis, too. In this way we study mainly impact of the interaction on the dynamics of the background of our universe (within specific forms of interaction). To complete the cosmographic analysis, the present day values of the statefinder parameters (r,s) and (ω^'_{de}, ω_{de}) has been estimated for all cases and the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics is demonstrated. Our study showed that theoretical results from considered phenomenological models are consistent with the available observational data and symmetries.

  13. High-speed video of competing and cut-off leaders prior to "upward illumination-type" lightning ground strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Marshall, Thomas; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Karunarathna, Nadeeka; Warner, Tom; Orville, Richard

    2013-04-01

    This study presents evidence to test a hypothesis regarding the physical mechanism resulting in very weak "upward illumination" (UI) type ground strokes occurring within a few milliseconds after a normal return stroke (RS) of a negative lightning flash. As described in previous work [Stolzenburg et al., JGR D15203, 2012], these short duration (strokes form a new ground connection, without apparent connection to the main RS, over their relatively short (strokes averages -5.0 kA, about one-third the average value for the preceding RS. In 15 cases the video data show a distinct stepped leader to the UI which develops concurrently with the stepped leader to the main RS. Estimated altitude of the UI leader tip just before the main RS occurs ranges from 0 to 610 m, and in 7 cases steps are visible in the UI leader after the main RS. In most of the examples the RS and UI appear as separate channels for their entire visible portion, but in 5 cases there is a junction indicating the UI leader is a cut-off branch from the main leader. A generalized schematic of the seven main luminosity stages in a typical UI, along with video examples showing each of these stages and electric field change data, will be presented.

  14. On the newtonian limit and cut--off scales of isothermal dark matter halos with cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Sussman, R A; Sussman, Roberto A.; Hernandez, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    We examine isothermal dark matter halos in hydrostatic equilibrium with a cosmological constant Lambda =Omega_\\Lambda rho_{crit}c^2, where Omega_\\Lambda=0.7, and rho_{crit} is the present value of the critical density with h=0.65. The Newtonian limit of General Relativity yields equilibrium equations that are different from those arising by merely coupling an ``isothermal sphere'' to the Lambda-field within a Newtonian framework. The conditions for the existence and stability of circular geodesic orbits show the existence of (I) an ``isothermal region'' (0r_1) dominated by the Lambda-field, where the Newtonian potential oscillates and circular orbits exist in disconnected patches of the domain of r; (III) a ``transition region'' (r_20.008 M_\\odot {pc}^3, in agreement with rotation curve studies of dwarf galaxies. Since r_2 marks the largest radius of a stable circular orbit, it provides a ``cut off'' radius. For current estimates of rho_c and velocity dispersion of galactic structures, this is around five tim...

  15. Dynamical behavior and cut-off frequency of Si/SiGe microcoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzahri, Y.; Dilhaire, S.; Patiño-Lopez, L. D.; Grauby, S.; Claeys, W.; Bian, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Shakouri, A.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state microcoolers offer an attractive way to solve some of the problems related to temperature stabilisation and control, not only in optoelectronic and microelectronic applications, but also in biological applications where specimens require cooling. One of the important parameters of these coolers is their transient response or their cut-off frequency. We studied how this parameter is influenced by material properties (e.g., substrate and superlattice layer thermal diffusivities), and by geometrical factors (e.g., microcooler cross sectional area or thickness). Our models are based on a modified Thermal Quadrupole Method, which only takes the Peltier effect into account; the reason behind the modification is that the Peltier and Joule effects are uncorrelated in the frequency domain, so their contributions can be studied separately. The thermophysical properties of the microcooler are assumed to be temperature independent. The effect of the top side heat leakage on the performance of the microcooler is also presented.

  16. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  17. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5–80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  18. The cutoff values of visceral fat area and waist circumference for identifying subjects at risk for metabolic syndrome in elderly Korean: Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Young

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Korea, the cutoff values of waist circumference (WC for the identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS were suggested to be 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women based on the analysis mainly in middle-aged adults. As aging is associated with increased fat, especially abdominal visceral fat, the cutoff value of WC may differ according to age. In addition, the usefulness of visceral abdominal fat area (VFA to predict MetS in the elderly has not been studied yet. We aimed to suggest WC and VFA criteria and to compare the predictability of WC and VFA to identify people at risk for MetS. Methods A total of 689 elderly subjects aged ≥63 years (308 men, 381 women were chosen in this cross-sectional study from an ongoing, prospective, population-based study, the Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study. VFA was measured by single slice abdominal computed tomography scanning. The metabolic risk factors except WC (plasma glucose, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels were defined using modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. We estimated the accuracy of VFA and WC for identifying at least two of these factors by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results Two hundred three of 308 men and 280 of 381 women had ≥2 metabolic risk factors. The area under the ROC curve (AUC value for VFA to predict the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors was not significantly different from that for WC (men, 0.735 and 0.750; women, 0.715 and 0.682; AUC values for VFA and WC, respectively. The optimal cutoff points for VFA and WC for predicting the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors were 92.6 cm2 and 86.5 cm for men and 88.9 cm2 and 86.5 cm for women. Conclusion WC had comparable power with VFA to identify elderly people who are at risk for MetS. Elderly Korean men and women had very similar cutoff points for both VFA and WC measurements for estimating the risk of MetS. Age-specific cutoff point for WC might be

  19. Influence of the Lift-Off Effect on the Cut-Off Frequency of the EMAT-Generated Rayleigh Wave Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxing Yi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT, a non-contact NDT tool with large lift-off, is becoming an attractive method for detecting the cracks in the metal parts. However, the lift-off of the transducer has a direct effect on the feature that is used to characterize the defects. A detailed investigation on the relationship between the feature and the lift-off of the EMAT is crucial in the detection process. This paper investigates the lift-off effect on the feature, cut-off frequency of EMAT in the Rayleigh wave. The study can be divided into two parts. Firstly, with a multi-field coupling environment, 2-D electromagnetic and wave generation EMAT models are built to simulate the interaction of the Rayleigh wave with the surface crack. Then, the lift-off effect on the cut-off frequency is investigated through simulation and experiment. Compared to the previous studies, it is found that lift-off would cause a negative result when the lift-off varies in the testing process. Besides, the calibration obtained from the tests at a random lift-off value can be used in other tests with any different lift off value provided that the lift-off is kept as a constant during the detection process.

  20. Role of neutron and proton system in spin cut off parameter and entropy of {sup 89,90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmatinejad, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, R., E-mail: rrazavin@ihu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Imam Hossein Comprehensive University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kakavand, T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The nuclear level densities, entropies and spin cut off parameters have been determined in {sup 89,90}Y nuclei using the BCS model with inclusion of pairing interaction. The results have a good agreement with the recent experimental data on the level densities measured by the Oslo group. In addition, the entropy excess of {sup 90}Y compared to {sup 89}Y as a function of temperature has been extracted. Also, the role of neutron and proton systems in the entropy excess as well as the spin cut off excess have been investigated using the entropy excess ratio and spin cut off excess ratio introduced in our previous publication. The role of the neutron system at low temperatures, the temperatures below critical temperature, in the semi-magic nucleus {sup 89}Y is similar compared to the closed shell proton system in the tin isotopes.

  1. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Reflecting Insulin Resistance as a Diagnostic Criterion of Metabolic Syndrome in a Nondiabetic Korean Population Aged 40 Years and Over: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yong-Moon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Lim, Sun Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Son, Ho-Young; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We aimed at determining the cutoff value of waist circumference with respect to its ability to reflect insulin resistance in a Korean population. Materials and Methods A total of 8,817 subjects aged 40 years and over were analyzed. Insulin resistant individuals were defined as those who had the highest quartile value of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a non-diabetic population. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and multiple logi...

  2. Fixed Cut-Off for FEV1/FEV6 and FEV6 in Detection of Obstructive and Restrictive Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Aghili, Rokhsareh; Kia, Maryam; Meysamie, Alipasha; Aghili, Seyed Mojtaba; Paknejad, Omalbanin

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) have been defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as irreversible conditions which are diagnosed by fixed cut-off points of FEV1/FVC. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the cut-off points for FEV1/FEV6 ratio and FEV6 as alternatives for FEV1/FVC and FVC in detection of airway obstruction and lung restriction, respectively. Materials and Methods A total of 318 Spiro metric examinations o...

  3. Shear avalanches in metallic glasses under nanoindentation: Deformation units and rate dependent strain burst cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indented metallic glasses at the nanoscale deform via strain bursts. Conventional continuum descriptions are not appropriate for such highly stochastic, intermittent deformations. In this study, after a statistical analysis of strain bursts in five metallic glasses, the dependence of the cut-off of the strain burst size on deformation units and loading rate is established. For soft metallic glasses with smaller deformation units, cut-off of the strain burst size truncates the scale-free behavior at larger strain burst sizes. For hard metallic glasses, scale-free behavior occurs in a wide range of strain burst sizes

  4. Mid-upper Arm Circumference Based Undernutrition among Bengalee Children of Chapra, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaruddin Biswas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate age and sex variations in undernutrition using mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC cut-off values among 2016 (930 boys and 1086 girls. 3-5 years old rural children of Bengalee ethnicity at 66 Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Centers of Nadia District, West Bengal, India.Methods:In a cross sectional study in west Bengal of India, MUAC was measured using standard technique. A total of 2028 children (935 boys and 1093 girls from 66 ICDS centers were enrolled in this study. The response rate was approximately 95%.Findings:Mean MUAC among boys was higher than girls at all ages except 5 years. Significant sex differences were not observed over ages. The age-combined rates of overall (moderate and severe undernutrition among boys (38.49% was higher than among girls (32.22%.The age-combined rates of moderate undernutrition were 36.34% and 31.03% among boys and girls, respectively. The rates of severe undernutrition were 2.15% and 1.20% among boys and girls, respectively. There were sex differences in both moderate and severe undernutrition. In general, there was an increasing trend in the rates of overall undernutrition from 3 to 5 years in both sexes.Conclusion:These children were experiencing severe nutritional stress.

  5. Mid-Upper Arm Circumference Based Undernutrition Among Bengalee Children of Chapra, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Mukhopadhyay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To investigate age and sex variations in undernutrition using mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC cut-off values among 2016 (930 boys and 1086 girls. 3-5 years old rural children of Bengalee ethnicity at 66 Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Centers of Nadia District, West Bengal, India. Methods:In a cross sectional study in west Bengal of India, MUAC was measured using standard technique. A total of 2028 children (935 boys and 1093 girls from 66 ICDS centers were enrolled in this study. The response rate was approximately 95%. Findings:Mean MUAC among boys was higher than girls at all ages except 5 years. Significant sex differences were not observed over ages. The age-combined rates of overall (moderate and severe undernutrition among boys (38.49% was higher than among girls (32.22%.The age-combined rates of moderate undernutrition were 36.34% and 31.03% among boys and girls, respectively. The rates of severe undernutrition were 2.15% and 1.20% among boys and girls, respectively. There were sex differences in both moderate and severe undernutrition. In general, there was an increasing trend in the rates of overall undernutrition from 3 to 5 years in both sexes. Conclusion:These children were experiencing severe nutritional stress.

  6. Cut-off Characterisation of Energy Spectra of Bright Fermi Sources: Current instrument limits and future possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Romoli, C; Aharonian, F

    2016-01-01

    In this paper some of the brightest GeV sources observed by the Fermi-LAT were analysed, focusing on their spectral cut-off region. The sources chosen for this investigation were the brightest blazar flares of 3C 454.3 and 3C 279 and the Vela pulsar using catalogue data and reanalysis with the latest Fermi-LAT software. For the study the spectral cut-off we first explored the Vela pulsar spectrum, whose statistics in the 3FGL catalog allowed strong constraints to be obtained on the parameters. We subsequently performed a new analysis of the flaring blazar SEDs. For these sources we obtained constraints on the cut-off parameters under the assumption that their underlying spectral distribution is described by a power-law with a stretched exponential cut-off. We then highlighted the significant potential improvements on such constraints by observations with next generation ground based Cherenkov telescopes, represented in our study by the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Adopting currently available simulations ...

  7. Appropriate body mass index cut-offs to determine thinness, overweight and obesity in South Asian children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Dommelen, P. van; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asian populations have an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders at a lower body mass index (BMI) than other ethnic groups. Therefore, lower adult BMI cut-offs to determine overweight and obesity are recommended to assess the associated health risks for Asian (23 and 27.5

  8. Design and construction of a soil bentonite cut-off wall for Suncor's South Tailings Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, B. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Bowron, M. [Suncor Energy Inc., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Commissioned in July 2006, Suncor's South Tailings Pond (STP) is an external oil sands tailings storage facility with a footprint of 2300 hectares including infrastructure. The Southwest cut-off wall was completed in 2008, forming one of four principal seepage management systems for the STP. The cut-off wall consists of soil bentonite backfill from native materials from the wall excavation. Construction of the wall utilized both a long-stick back-hoe and crane mounted clamshell to excavate the wall under bentonite slurry. This paper discussed the construction of the cut-off wall as well as the the field and laboratory testing programs that determined the soil-bentonite mix. It also described the quality assurance and quality control programs conducted during construction. Last, the paper provided a brief discussion of the design and construction issues specific to seepage cut-off walls in the oil sands region. It was concluded that while construction of a soil-bentonite wall is a simple process, a professional experienced in the construction of deep walls is essential to achieve a quality product. Technical site support is also needed by the construction team in order to confirm geology, material properties and design assumptions. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  9. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  10. Mechanically robust 39 GHz cut-off frequency graphene field effect transistors on flexible substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Pallecchi, Emiliano; Haque, Samiul; Borini, Stefano; Avramovic, Vanessa; Centeno, Alba; Amaia, Zurutuza; Happy, Henri

    2016-08-01

    Graphene has been regarded as a promising candidate channel material for flexible devices operating at radio-frequency (RF). In this work we fabricated and fully characterized double bottom-gate graphene field effect transistors on flexible polymer substrates for high frequency applications. We report a record high as-measured current gain cut-off frequency (ft) of 39 GHz. The corresponding maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) is 13.5 GHz. These state of the art high frequency performances are stable against bending, with a typical variation of around 10%, for a bending radius of up to 12 mm. To demonstrate the reliability of our devices, we performed a fatigue stress test for RF-GFETs which were dynamically bend tested 1000 times at 1 Hz. The devices are mechanically robust, and performances are stable with typical variations of 15%. Finally we investigate thermal dissipation, which is a critical parameter for flexible electronics. We show that at the optimum polarization the normalized power dissipated by the GFETs is about 0.35 mW μm(-2) and that the substrate temperature is around 200 degree centigrade. At a higher power, irreversible degradations of the performances are observed. Our study on state of the art flexible GFETs demonstrates mechanical robustness and stability upon heating, two important elements to assess the potential of GFETs for flexible electronics. PMID:27396243

  11. Higher-spin realization of a dS static patch/cut-off CFT correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Karch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    We derive a holographic relation for the dS static patch with the dual field theory defined on the observer horizon. The starting point is the duality of higher-spin theory on AdS_4 and the O(N) vector model. We build on a similar analytic continuation as used recently to obtain a realization of dS/CFT, and adapt it to the static patch. The resulting duality relates higher-spin theory on the dS_4 static patch to a cut-off CFT on the cylinder RxS^2. The construction permits a derivation of the finite thermodynamic entropy associated to the horizon of the static patch from the dual field theory. As a further brick we recover the spectrum of quasinormal frequencies from the correlation functions of the boundary theory. In the last part we incorporate the dS/dS correspondence as an independent proposal for holography on dS and show that a concrete realization can be obtained by similar reasoning.

  12. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  13. Solute removal capacity of high cut-off membrane plasma separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Atsushi; Kurashima, Naoki; Nakamura, Ayako; Miyamoto, Satoko; Iimori, Soichiro; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2013-10-01

    In vitro blood filtration was performed by a closed circuit using high cut-off membrane plasma separators, EVACURE EC-2A10 (EC-2A) and EVACURE EC-4A10 (EC-4A). Samples were obtained from sampling sites before the plasma separator, after each plasma separator, and from the ultrafiltrate of each separator. The sieving coefficient (S.C.) of total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), IgG, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), fibrinogen (Fib), antithrombin III (AT-III), and coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) were calculated. The S.C. of each solute using EC-2A and EC-A4 were as follows; TP: 0.25 and 0.56, Alb: 0.32 and 0.73, IgG: 0.16 and 0.50, IL-6:0.73 and 0.95, IL-8:0.85 and 0.82, TNF-α: 1.07 and 0.99, Fib: 0 and 0, FXIII: 0.07 and 0.17, respectively. When compared with the conventional type of membrane plasma separators, EVACURE could efficiently remove cytokines while retaining coagulation factors such as fibrinogen. Moreover, EC-2A prevented protein loss, whereas EC-4A could remove approximately 50% of IgG. PMID:24107276

  14. Dynamics of magnetostatic wave solitons in the vicinity of frequency cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonlinear dynamics of one-dimensional pulses of exchangeless backward volume magnetostatic waves propagating in thin ferrite films with a thickness 2l=(3-10) μm is studied numerically. The Whitham's approach of taking into account the exact wave dispersion is utilized. It has been found that in the case of small wave numbers (0.020l≤0.05), even under a validity of quasi-stationary approximation, a commonly used polynomial approximation for the wave dispersion gives only rough description for nonlinear pulse dynamics. The reason is a presence of cut-off at higher frequencies. For greater wave numbers (k0l≥0.1), the nonlinear wave dynamics coincides with results obtained earlier in the parabolic approximation for the wave dispersion. Two-dimensional dynamics of nonlinear pulses is also investigated briefly in the full dispersion approach. The collapse-like phenomena have been found there when the central wave number is chosen as k0l≥0.04

  15. Comparing the Cervista HPV HR test and Hybrid Capture 2 assay in a Dutch screening population: improved specificity of the Cervista HPV HR test by changing the cut-off.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniek Boers

    Full Text Available The diagnostic performance of the widely-used Cervista HPV HR test was compared to the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 test in a Dutch population-based cervical cancer screening program. In 900 scrapings of women with normal cytomorphology, specificity was 90% (95%CI: 87.84-91.87 for the Cervista HPV HR test and 96% (95%CI: 94.76-97.37 for the HC2 test with 93% agreement between both tests (κ = 0.5, p<0.001. The sensitivity for CIN2+ using 65 scrapings of women with histological-confirmed CIN2+ was 91% (95%CI: 80.97-96.51 for the Cervista HPV HR test and 92% (95%CI: 82.94-97.43 for the HC2 test with 95% agreement between both tests (κ = 0.7, p<0.001. Fifty-seven of 60 HC2 negative/Cervista positive cases tested HPV-negative with PCR-based HPV assays; of these cases 56% were defined as Cervista triple-positive with FOZ values in all 3 mixes higher than the second cut-off of 1.93 (as set by manufacturer. By setting this cut-off at 5.0, specificity improved significantly without affecting sensitivity. External validation of this new cut-off at 5.0 in triple-positive scrapings of women selected from the SHENCCASTII database revealed that 22/24 histological normal cases now tested HPV-negative in the Cervista HPV HR test, while CIN2+ lesions remained HPV-positive. The intra-laboratory reproducibility of the Cervista HPV HR test (n = 510 showed a concordance of 92% and 93% for cut-off 1.93 and 5.0 (κ = 0.83 and κ = 0.84, p<0.001 and inter-laboratory agreement of the Cervista HPV HR test was 90% and 93% for cut-off 1.93 and 5.0 (κ = 0.80 and κ = 0.85, p<0.001. In conclusion, the specificity of the Cervista HPV HR test could be improved significantly by increasing the second cut-off from 1.93 to 5.0, without affecting the sensitivity of the test in a population-based screening setting.

  16. The Objective Borderline Method (OBM): A Probability-Based Model for Setting up an Objective Pass/Fail Cut-Off Score in Medical Programme Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulruf, Boaz; Turner, Rolf; Poole, Phillippa; Wilkinson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The decision to pass or fail a medical student is a "high stakes" one. The aim of this study is to introduce and demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of a new objective standard-setting method for determining the pass/fail cut-off score from borderline grades. Three methods for setting up pass/fail cut-off scores were compared: the…

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of sixty four multi-slice CT angiography in assessment of arterial cut-off and run-off in comparison with surgical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate anatomic mapping and determination of the severity of arterial disease, an important health problem of the elderly, is of great significance. We aimed to determine the diagnostic value of 64-multislice CT angiography in run-off and cut-off sites of arterial disease. Patients and Methods: Throughout the study, multislice CT angiography followed by an operative intervention was carried out on a total of 38 patients with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of arterial disease all of whom had the indication for vascular surgery. The mean age of patients was 34±15.86 (range, 23 to 93) years. Multislice CT angiography was executed using a 64-slice CT scanner, during the arterial phase of injecting the nonionic, contrast medium with a power injector at the rate of 5 ml/sec into the antecubital vein and exploration and revascularization of peripheral arterial disease was performed intraoperatively. Results: Atherosclerosis and arterial disease, the most common causes of vascular occlusion, were more common in the lower extremities. According to multislice CT angiography findings, the most frequent site of stenosis was the superficial femoral artery. Spear man's correlation coefficient showed a high degree of agreement amongst the raters. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and the accuracy of multislice CT angiography compared to surgery were 83.8%, 96%, 96.8%, 81.3% and 89%, respectively. Multislice CT angiography findings were compared with surgery as a standard of reference, which showed concordance in the majority of cases (81.6%). Cut-off sites were correctly identified by multislice CT angiography in 97.3% of the patients and the most common sites of discordance were the run-off sites (18.2%). Conclusion: multislice CT angiography angiography as a novel diagnostic modality may be a suitable alternative and a viable choice for routine clinical diagnosis.

  18. Mechanically robust 39 GHz cut-off frequency graphene field effect transistors on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Pallecchi, Emiliano; Haque, Samiul; Borini, Stefano; Avramovic, Vanessa; Centeno, Alba; Amaia, Zurutuza; Happy, Henri

    2016-07-01

    Graphene has been regarded as a promising candidate channel material for flexible devices operating at radio-frequency (RF). In this work we fabricated and fully characterized double bottom-gate graphene field effect transistors on flexible polymer substrates for high frequency applications. We report a record high as-measured current gain cut-off frequency (ft) of 39 GHz. The corresponding maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) is 13.5 GHz. These state of the art high frequency performances are stable against bending, with a typical variation of around 10%, for a bending radius of up to 12 mm. To demonstrate the reliability of our devices, we performed a fatigue stress test for RF-GFETs which were dynamically bend tested 1000 times at 1 Hz. The devices are mechanically robust, and performances are stable with typical variations of 15%. Finally we investigate thermal dissipation, which is a critical parameter for flexible electronics. We show that at the optimum polarization the normalized power dissipated by the GFETs is about 0.35 mW μm-2 and that the substrate temperature is around 200 degree centigrade. At a higher power, irreversible degradations of the performances are observed. Our study on state of the art flexible GFETs demonstrates mechanical robustness and stability upon heating, two important elements to assess the potential of GFETs for flexible electronics.Graphene has been regarded as a promising candidate channel material for flexible devices operating at radio-frequency (RF). In this work we fabricated and fully characterized double bottom-gate graphene field effect transistors on flexible polymer substrates for high frequency applications. We report a record high as-measured current gain cut-off frequency (ft) of 39 GHz. The corresponding maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) is 13.5 GHz. These state of the art high frequency performances are stable against bending, with a typical variation of around 10%, for a bending radius of up to 12 mm. To

  19. Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio distributions in polish and german schoolchildren: Comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Nawarycz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To analyze differences in the distributions of waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR between Polish (PL and German (GE children and adolescents. Methods: Two samples of children and adolescents aged 7-18 y: From PL ( n = 11,326 GE ( n = 8,218 participated. The two WC cut-off points (WC1 as central fat distribution and WC2 as central obesity corresponding at age 18 to the adult criteria were determined. Furthermore, the mean WC cut-off points (WC1m, WC2m for boys and girls aged 14-18 from both countries were evaluated. For the WHtR, values over 0.5 were used as a definition of central fat distribution. The effect of different WC and WHtR criteria on the prevalence of abdominal obesity in both study groups was evaluated. Results: The mean and percentile values of WC and WHtR were generally higher in all German children as compared to their peers from Poland. When WC1m is used, the mean (95% CI prevalence of central fat distribution in the 14-18 y Polish groups was lower ( P 0.5, the results were similar for boys - 6.7% (5.9-7.5 vs. 8.5% (8.1-8.9; they were significantly ( P < 0.05 lower for Polish and German girls: 5.3% (5.0-5.6 vs. 12.7% (9.7-16.4. The prevalence of central obesity using WC2m as a criterion in the Polish vs. German groups was as follows: (boys - 1.1% (0.8-1.4 vs. 3.1% (2.2-4.0, P < 0.05; girls - 3.1% (2.5-3.7 vs. 10.2% (8.4-12.0, P < 0.05. Conclusions: The results highlight the greater central obesity associated with the German children, both in terms of WC and WHtR, in comparison to their peers from Poland. The prevalence of AO is significantly associated with the criteria used. The results demonstrate the need for the development of international WC references for pediatric subjects.

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of Sixty Four Multi-Slice CT Angiography in Assessment of Arterial Cut-Off and Run-Off in Comparison with Surgical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noaparast

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The accurate anatomic mapping and determination of the severity of arterial disease, an important health problem of the elderly, is of great significance. We aimed todetermine the diagnostic value of 64-multislice CT angiography (MSCTA in run-off and cut-off sites of arterial disease.Patients and Methods: Throughout the study, MSCTA followed by an operative intervention was carried out on a total of 38 patients with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of arterialdisease (AD all of whom had the indication for vascular surgery. The mean age of patients was 34±15.86 (range, 23 to 93 years. MSCTA was executed using a 64-slice CT scanner, during the arterial phase of injecting the nonionic, contrast medium with a power injector at the rate of 5 ml/sec into the antecubital vein and exploration and revascularization of peripheral arterial disease was performed intraoperatively.Results: Atherosclerosis and arterial disease, the most common causes of vascular occlusion,were more common in the lower extremities. According to MSCTA findings, the most frequentsite of stenosis was the superficial femoral artery. Spearman’s correlation coefficient showed a high degree of agreement amongst the raters. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictivevalue (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and the accuracy of MSCTA compared to surgery were 83.8%, 96%, 96.8%, 81.3% and 89%, respectively. MSCTA findings were compared with surgeryas a standard of reference, which showed concordance in the majority of cases (81.6%. Cut-off sites were correctly identified by MSCTA in 97.3% of the patients and the most common sites of discordance were the run-off sites (18.2%.Conclusion: MSCTA angiography as a novel diagnostic modality may be a suitable alternative and a viable choice for routine clinical diagnosis.

  1. Factors in selecting serum samples for use in determining the positive/negative threshold (cut-off) in ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threshold (cut-off) that defines whether a test result is seropositive or seronegative is calculated by testing serum samples from a subpopulation of animals that is assumed to represent the target population in all aspects. For this proposition to be true, it is essential to consider the variables in the target population that must be represented in the subpopulation. Without representation of the variables in the subpopulation, it is likely that the cut-off selected for the test will be errant and will misclassify animals as to their infection status. The purpose of this paper is to identify a few of the principal variables that need to be taken into account when selecting a subpopulation of animals for test validation. (author)

  2. Cut-Off Scores of the Children's Depression Inventory for Screening and Rating Severity in Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Young Rong; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Sung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim was to establish an optimal cut-off score of the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) for detecting depression and rating severity in Korean adolescents. Methods A total of 468 students aged 12-16 years from 8 middle schools in Busan, Korea participated in this study. The Korean version of the CDI and Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version were used to evaluate depressive symptoms. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) anal...

  3. On a holographic dark energy model with a Nojiri-Odintsov cut-off in general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Khurshudyan, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider the models of the accelerated expanding large scale universe~(according to general relativity) containing a generalized holographic dark energy with a Nojiri - Odintsov cut - off. The second component of the darkness is assumed to be the pressureless cold dark matter according to observed symmetries of the large scale universe. Moreover, we assume specific forms of the interaction between these two components and besides the cosmographic analysis, we discuss appropri...

  4. Successful use of combined high cut-off haemodialysis and bortezomib for acute kidney injury associated with myeloma cast nephropathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, F

    2012-05-01

    We present the case of a 58-year old female with de novo dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to myeloma cast nephropathy. The patient underwent extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD), in conjunction with bortezomib-based chemotherapy, and soon became dialysis independent with normal renal function. To our knowledge, this is the first time this treatment strategy has been employed successfully in an Irish centre.

  5. Reconfigurable pyramidal antenna loaded by a cut-off waveguide-application to ARNS/RNSS services

    OpenAIRE

    Hebib, Sami; Aubert, Hervé; Pascal, Olivier; Fonseca, Nelson; Ries, Lionel; Lopez, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    International audience A novel reconfigurable and circularly polarized antenna topology for satellite application services, based on a pyramidal geometry, is proposed. Frequency agility is simply obtained by loading the radiating elements by Radio-Frequency switches. The ground plane of the antenna is perforated and loaded by a cut-off and open-ended waveguide. The length of this waveguide is adjusted to achieve a good trade-off between rear radiation and impedance matching. A specific app...

  6. Sinus cut-off sign: A helpful sign in the CT diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture associated with pleural effusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Seyda Ors [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Denizli (Turkey)]. E-mail: skaya@pamukkale.edu.tr; Karabulut, Nevzat [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Denizli (Turkey); Yuncu, Gokhan [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Denizli (Turkey); Sevinc, Serpil [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Denizli (Turkey); Kiroglu, Yilmaz [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Denizli (Turkey)

    2006-08-15

    The objective of our study was to describe the 'sinus cut-off' sign at CT in the diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture in patients with blunt abdominal trauma complicated with pleural effusion, and evaluate its utility in an experimental model. Between January 2004 and March 2005, we observed an unusual interruption of costophrenic sinus at CT in three patients with blunt abdominal trauma accompanied with pleural effusion. This observation prompted us to evaluate the utility of this sign in an experimental model. Laparotomically, we created 2 cm diapragmatic lacerations at each hemidiaphragm in two rabbits and pushed up the abdominal viscera with omentum through the defect. To simulate hemothorax, we also injected 5-10 mL of diluted contrast material into the pleural space. Using a dual-slice helical CT scanner, limited thoracoabdominal CT examination was performed before and after injection of intrapleural contrast material. The images were analyzed for the presence of CT signs for diaphragmatic injury. The left posterior costophrenic sulcus was interrupted in all of the three patients with left pleural effusion. While it was associated with other findings of diaphragmatic injury, the 'sinus cut-off sign' was the sole finding in one patient. The sinus cut-off sign was observed on the CT scans of 100% of the rabbits with a left and right sided diaphragmatic rupture. The 'sinus cut-off sign' is useful and can increase the CT detection of acute diaphragmatic injury associated with pleural effusion.

  7. Influence of age and purpose for testing on the cut-off selection of serological methods in bovine neosporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-García, Gema; Collantes-Fernández, Esther; Costas, Eduardo; Rebordosa, Xabier; Ortega-Mora, Luis

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the need for different cut-off points, according to animal age and the purpose of testing, for two of the most widely used serological techniques in bovine neosporosis, IFAT and a crude antigen ELISA (Civtest®, HIPRA). Therefore, the population reference sera used were defined using a combination of multiple criteria such as epidemiological/clinical and histopathological parameters and an immunoblot test. Firstly, foetuses and breeding cattle (heifers ...

  8. Extension of the cut-off in high-harmonic generation using two delayed pulses of the same colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a novel technique for an extension of the cut-off frequency in high-harmonic generation using a shaped field, consisting of two delayed pulses, identical in all parameters except a carrier envelope phase shift of π. We obtain high harmonics up to an energy of 5.5Up + Ip, surpassing the conventional limit of 3.17Up + Ip. For high intensities approaching the threshold for barrier suppression ionization, beyond which no harmonics are generated, this mechanism acquires practical importance as a means to overcome the limit imposed by saturation. We analyse the underlying mechanism using both classical and quantum approaches, and highlight the role of the shaped field in modifying the electron trajectories in the continuum to enhance the collection of kinetic energy from the driving field. Of greatest importance are the trajectories describing electrons ionized across the first peak of the laser field which receive the enhanced kinetic energies responsible for the cut-off extension above the conventional limit. Interestingly, the most energetic trajectories do not contribute to the harmonic cut-off in the single pulse case. We conclude with a discussion of the sub-cycle structure of the emitted harmonic radiation and possible applications of the technique.

  9. Adaptive determination of cut-off frequencies for filtering the in-cylinder pressure in diesel engines combustion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-cylinder pressure analysis is a key tool for engine research and diagnosis and it has been object of study from the beginning of the internal combustion engines. One of its most useful application is combustion analysis on the basis of the First Law of Thermodynamics. However, heat release law calculations use the in-cylinder pressure derivative signal. Hence, the noise is increased and pressure filtering becomes necessary to remove high frequency noise, thus allowing for accurate combustion analyses. In this work, a methodology to set the cut-off frequency of a low-pass filter is proposed. Statistical criteria are used to separate the signal from the noise through the calculation of the Discrete Fourier Transform of several consecutive in-cylinder pressures cycles. Thus, only physically meaningful information is preserved. The proposed methodology is compared with some adaptive and non-adaptive algorithms used to select the cut-off frequencies, and it shows a good ability to adapt to different engine operating conditions. - Highlights: →Combustion analysis is performed by means of in-cylinder pressure measurement. →Filtering is necessary due to high noise and dispersion in the measurement. →A proposed methodology to select cut-off frequencies is proposed. →The methodology is compared with other filters, showing a better behaviour.

  10. Power-Law Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz Cosmology with Granda-Oliveros Cut-off

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqua, Antonio(Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Via Valerio, No. 2, 34127 Trieste, Italy); Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Power Law Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy (PLECHDE) model in the framework of a non-flat Universe and of Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz cosmology with infrared cut-off given by recently proposed Granda-Oliveros cut-off, which contains one term proportional to the Hubble parameter squared $H^2$ and one term proportional to the first time derivative of the Hubble parameter $\\dot{H}$. Moreover, this cut-off is characterized by two constant parameters, $\\alpha$ and $\\be...

  11. Power-law and Logarithmic Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy Models in Brans-Dicke Cosmology with Granda-Oliveros Cut-Off

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqua, Antonio(Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Via Valerio, No. 2, 34127 Trieste, Italy); Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the cosmological implications of the Power Law Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy (PLECHDE) and the Logarithmic Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy (LECHDE) models in the context of Brans-Dicke (BD) cosmology for both non-interacting and interacting DE and Dark Matter (DM) are studied. As the system infrared cut-off, we choose the recently proposed Granda-Oliveros cut-off, which contains a term proportional to the first time derivative of the Hubble parameter and o...

  12. Optimal Cut-Off Points on the Health Anxiety Inventory, Illness Attitude Scales and Whiteley Index to Identify Severe Health Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Hedman; Mats Lekander; Brjánn Ljótsson; Nils Lindefors; Christian Rück; Gerhard Andersson; Erik Andersson

    2015-01-01

    Background Health anxiety can be viewed as a dimensional phenomenon where severe health anxiety in form of DSM-IV hypochondriasis represents a cut-off where the health anxiety becomes clinically significant. Three of the most reliable and used self-report measures of health anxiety are the Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI), the Illness Attitude Scales (IAS) and the Whiteley Index (WI). Identifying the optimal cut-offs for classification of presence of a diagnosis of severe health anxiety on thes...

  13. Interpretation of increments in serial tumour biomarker concentrations depends on the distance of the baseline concentration from the cut-off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Söletormos, Georg; Frejstrup Pedersen, Merete;

    2011-01-01

    In the management of breast cancer, several algorithms for interpretation of measured concentrations during monitoring have been introduced, without objective evaluation of their performance regarding the distance of the starting concentration from the cut-off concentration.......In the management of breast cancer, several algorithms for interpretation of measured concentrations during monitoring have been introduced, without objective evaluation of their performance regarding the distance of the starting concentration from the cut-off concentration....

  14. The entropy functional measure on trajectories of a Markov diffusion process and its estimation by the process' cut off applying the impulse control

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Vladimir S

    2012-01-01

    The paper extends conventional Shannon entropy' measure of a random state on an integral information measure of the Markov diffusion process on its trajectories- solutions of Ito's controllable stochastic equation. The introduced method of cutting off the process by applying an impulse control estimates the cut off information, accumulated by the process' inner connections between its states. It has shown that such a functional information measure contains more information than the sum of Shannon's entropies counted for all process' separated states.

  15. The use of vertical cut-off rigidities in computations of cosmic ray spectra on the Earth's orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simplified assumptions for computing spectral probabilities of cosmic rays transmission into the geomagnetic field are used to estimate their flux and energy spectra on low altitude orbits. For this purpose, three types of planetary tables of vertical cut-off rigidities and two approaches are used for their extrapolations from the Earth's surface to the altitude of satellite. A comparison of the results leads to errors insignificant in estimation of the radiation exposure by cosmic rays influenced by the geomagnetic field at low altitudes. (author)

  16. 18F-FDG PET/CT for detection of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: tumour-to-liver ratio is superior to an SUVmax cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of normalising intra-tumour tracer accumulation on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to reference tissue uptake for characterisation of peripheral nerve sheath tumours (PNSTs) in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) compared with the established maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) cut-off of >3.5. Forty-nine patients underwent FDG PET/CT. Intra-tumour tracer uptake (SUVmax) was normalised to three different reference tissues (tumour-to-liver, tumour-to-muscle and tumour-to-fat ratios). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used out to assess the diagnostic performance. Histopathology and follow-up served as the reference standard. Intra-tumour tracer uptake correlated significantly with liver uptake (rs = 0.58, P = 0.016). On ROC analysis, the optimum threshold for tumour-to-liver ratio was >2.6 (AUC = 0.9735). Both the SUVmax cut-off value of >3.5 and a tumour-to-liver ratio >2.6 provided a sensitivity of 100 %, but specificity was significantly higher for the latter (90.3 % vs 79.8 %; P = 0.013). In patients with NF1, quantitative 18F-FDG PET imaging may identify malignant change in neurofibromas with high accuracy. Specificity could be significantly increased by using the tumour-to-liver ratio. The authors recommend further evaluation of a tumour-to-liver ratio cut-off value of >2.6 for diagnostic intervention planning. (orig.)

  17. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for detection of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: tumour-to-liver ratio is superior to an SUV{sub max} cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, Johannes [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Centre Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Apostolova, Ivayla [Otto-von-Guericke University, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Bannas, Peter; Yamamura, Jin; Herrmann, Jochen; Adam, Gerhard; Derlin, Thorsten [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Friedrich, Reinhard E. [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Mautner, Victor F. [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of normalising intra-tumour tracer accumulation on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to reference tissue uptake for characterisation of peripheral nerve sheath tumours (PNSTs) in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) compared with the established maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) cut-off of >3.5. Forty-nine patients underwent FDG PET/CT. Intra-tumour tracer uptake (SUVmax) was normalised to three different reference tissues (tumour-to-liver, tumour-to-muscle and tumour-to-fat ratios). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used out to assess the diagnostic performance. Histopathology and follow-up served as the reference standard. Intra-tumour tracer uptake correlated significantly with liver uptake (r{sub s} = 0.58, P = 0.016). On ROC analysis, the optimum threshold for tumour-to-liver ratio was >2.6 (AUC = 0.9735). Both the SUVmax cut-off value of >3.5 and a tumour-to-liver ratio >2.6 provided a sensitivity of 100 %, but specificity was significantly higher for the latter (90.3 % vs 79.8 %; P = 0.013). In patients with NF1, quantitative {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging may identify malignant change in neurofibromas with high accuracy. Specificity could be significantly increased by using the tumour-to-liver ratio. The authors recommend further evaluation of a tumour-to-liver ratio cut-off value of >2.6 for diagnostic intervention planning. (orig.)

  18. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Augmented waist circumference (WC is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether bio-chemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ into stunted (−1 > HAZ ≥ −2 and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ −1 groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. Results: WC cut-off points of 58.25 cm and 67.2 cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively, the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts.

  19. Analysis of the acoustic cut-off frequency and HIPs in six Kepler stars with stochastically excited pulsations

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, A; Hernandez, F Perez; Mathur, S

    2015-01-01

    Gravito-acoustic modes in the Sun and other stars propagate in resonant cavities with a frequency below a given limit known as the cut-off frequency. At higher frequencies, waves are no longer trapped in the stellar interior and become traveller waves. In this article we study six pulsating solar-like stars at different evolutionary stages observed by the NASA Kepler mission. These high signal-to-noise targets show a peak structure that extends at very high frequencies and are good candidates for studying the transition region between the modes and the interference peaks or pseudo-modes. Following the same methodology successfully applied on Sun-as-a-star measurements, we uncover the existence of pseudo-modes in these stars with one or two dominant interference patterns depending on the evolutionary stage of the star. We also infer their cut-off frequency as the midpoint between the last eigenmode and the first peak of the interference patterns. By using ray theory we show that, while the period of one of the...

  20. Cut-off scaling of high-harmonic generation driven by a femtosecond visible optical parametric amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied high-harmonic generation (HHG) in Ar, Ne and He gas jets using a broadly tunable, high-energy optical parametric amplifier (OPA) in the visible wavelength range. We optimized the noncollinear OPA to deliver tunable, femtosecond pulses with 200-500 µJ energy at the 1 kHz repetition rate with excellent spatiotemporal properties, suitable for HHG experiments. By tuning the central wavelength of the OPA while keeping other parameters (energy, duration and beam size) constant, we experimentally studied the scaling law of cut-off energy with the driver wavelength in helium. Our measurements show a λ1.7+0.2 dependence of the HHG cut-off photon energy over the full visible range in agreement with previous experiments of near- and mid-IR wavelengths. By tuning the central wavelength of the driver source, the high-order harmonic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet cover the full range of photon energy between ∼25 and ∼100 eV. Due to the high coherence intrinsic in HHG, as well as the broad and continuous tunability in the extreme UV range, a high energy, high repetition rate version of this source might be an ideal seed for free electron lasers.

  1. Dynamic Changes, Cut-Off Points, Sensitivity, and Specificity of Laboratory Data to Differentiate Macrophage Activation Syndrome from Active Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Assari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the laboratory data and changes in these data between patients with MAS and patients with flare-up of the autoimmune diseases. Methods. In a prospective study, the static laboratory data and dynamic changes in the selected data in 17 consecutive patients with MAS and 53 patients with active disease of SJIA, PJIA, Kawasaki disease, and SLE were compared. The ROC curve analysis was used to evaluate cut-off points, sensitivity, and specificity of the static and dynamic laboratory data to differentiate between MAS and active disease. Results. In the MAS group, the mean CRP3, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, ferritin, LDH, PT, PTT, and INR were significantly higher and the mean WBC2, PMN2, Lymph2, Hgb1, 2, 3, ESR2, serum albumin, and sodium were significantly lower than in control group. Some of the important cut-off points were PLT2 38.5, ALT > 38, WBC 5277 ng/mL. Conclusion. The dynamic changes in some laboratory data, especially PLT, can differentiate between MAS and active disease. The changes in WBC, PMN, and ESR and the levels of the liver enzymes may also be helpful in the early differentiation. Very high levels of ferritin may also help the diagnosis along with other clinical and laboratory signs.

  2. STS-114: Engine Cut-Off Sensors Are a No-Go: Teaching Notes for NASA Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    This case study format is intended to simulate the experience of facing the same difficult challenges and making the same critical decisions as managers, engineers, and scientists in the Space Shuttle Program. It has been designed for use in the classroom setting to help students develop skills related to decision-making. Students will read about the engine cut-off sensor anomaly which created challenges during the STS-114 mission and have the opportunity to make decisions as lead NASA engineers and Mission Management Team members. Included within this document are three case study presentation options - class discussion, group activity, and open-ended research. Please read the full case prior to in-class presentation to allow ample time for students' analysis and reflection, as well as to prepare additional questions. activities or exercises, material selection, etc. Depending upon the setting of your presentation and the number of participants, please choose at least one presentation format beforehand and plan accordingly. You may expect the following learning objectives by using the proposed formats. Learning Objectives: To enable students to experience the responsibilities of NASA management, engineers, and analysis; to discover possible procedures for investigating system anomalies; to become familiar with the liquid hydrogen low level engine cut-off sensor, including its function, connecting components, and location within the Space Shuttle; and to encourage critical analysis and stimulating discussion of Space Shuttle mission challenges.

  3. Design and construction of a seepage cut off wall using the slurry trench technique in cold temperatures at the Horizon Dam project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, L.A.; Sobkowicz, J.C. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described the design and construction of a soil-cement-bentonite seepage cut off water that was constructed in 2007 as part of the Horizon Dam project at Canadian Natural Resources Ltd. Horizon oil sands site. The Horizon Dam is an earth retention structure which diverts the Tar River around the mine and plant site, and creates a man-made lake providing replacement fish habitat. It was necessary to build the cut off wall to control seepage through the native coarse grained alluvial deposits encountered under the dam and to minimize the risk of piping due to large hydraulic gradients created by the lake. This paper discussed the design of the dam and the field investigation using different geotechnical drilling methods, geophysics and in-situ testing to support design of the cut off wall. Specifically, the paper discussed a literature review and laboratory testing program that were carried out to assess the appropriate backfill mix to be used. The construction of the cut off wall took place at the end of winter using the slurry trench technique. As such, some unique constructability issues were encountered because of cold weather, the use of cement in the backfill, and the native soil conditions. It was concluded that although strict quality control/assurance measures were implemented, one defect in the cut off wall occurred, which required mitigation to provide a product that met the design intentions. 5 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  4. Near-elliptic core triangular-lattice and square-lattice PCFs: a comparison of birefringence, cut-off and GVD characteristics towards fiber device application

    CERN Document Server

    Maji, Partha Sona

    2014-01-01

    In this work, detailed numerical analysis of the near-elliptic core index-guiding triangular-lattice and square-lattice photonic crystal fiber (PCFs) are reported for birefringence, single mode, cut-off behavior, group velocity dispersion and effective area properties. For the same relative values of d/P, triangular-lattice PCFs show higher birefringence whereas the square-lattice PCFs show a wider range of single-mode operation. Square-lattice PCF was found to be endlessly single-mode for higher air-filling fraction (d/P). Smaller lengths of triangular-lattice PCF are required for dispersion compensation whereas PCFs with square-lattice with nearer relative dispersion slope (RDS) can better compensate the broadband dispersion. Square-lattice PCFs show ZDW red-shifted, making it preferable for mid-IR supercontinuum generation (SCG) with highly non-linear chalcogenide material. Square-lattice PCFs show higher dispersion slope that leads to compression of the broadband, thus accumulating more power in the pulse...

  5. Prevalence and cut-off point of vitamin D deficiency among secondary students of Arak, Iran in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Talaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin D has a basic role in bone growth and metabolism and has been noticed for its important role in many diseases, such as diabetes, depression, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Regarding some studies, detection of vitamin D deficiency in different places has important implication for health. This study determined prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Arak, a centrally located city in Iran. Materials and Methods: Based upon a cross-sectional study in 2010, 420 students 10--16 years old including 220 girls and 200 boys, studied at Arak secondary schools, were selected by a multistage sampling. The level of 25 (OH D and PTH (parathormone was measured and also the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in different intensities was evaluated and compared between girls and boys by the Student t-test. Vitamin D deficiency for the students was categorized into three intensities based on three levels of 25 (OH D: mild deficiency - 15 ≤ 25 (OH D < 20 ng/ml, moderate deficiency -- 8 ≤ 25 (OH < 15 ng/ml, severe deficiency - 25 (OH <8 ng/ml. The relationship between the 25 (OH D and PTH was assessed by Scatter chart to define cut-off points for vitamin D deficiency. Results: Based on 25 (OH D < 20 ng/ml, 84% of the students had vitamin D deficiency including 60.7% mild, 22.4% moderate, and 0.7% severe. Three local cut-off points including 13, 21, and 33 ng/ml were defined in the Scatter chart. The results showed that the deficiency of vitamin D in girls is much more than that in boys (P = 0.05. Conclusion: The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency could be probably a result of different etiologies. We recommended that people should be encouraged to take vitamin D and calcium supplements and also they should have more exposure to the sunlight.

  6. Absolute depth of myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer is superior to the currently used cut-off value of 50%

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, Y.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Berg-van Erp, S.H. van den; Snijders, M.P.; Bulten, J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In endometrial carcinoma, myometrial invasion is a well known predictor of recurrence, and important in the decision making for adjuvant treatment. According to the FIGO staging system, myometrial invasion is expressed as invasion of <50%> of the myometrium (50%MI). It has been sugg

  7. Test accuracy at different cut-offs when plasma concentrations of metabolic indicators are used to detect decreased fertility in dairy cows (Poster topic 01, Poster 27, p. 193)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Svensson, C;

    and BHBA were calculated and compared to each cow’s fertility status, measured as anestrous (ANEST) and delayed first AI (DFAI). Positive and negative predictive values (PV+; PV-) were calculated considering different levels of decreased fertility. Strata-specific Se and Sp and associations between...... test results and fertility parameters were investigated using logistic regressio n. For this analysis, cut-offs with Sp ~80% was used because a high Sp was considered of interest. This corresponded to a NEFA-cutoff at 400 µeqv./mL (Se≤0.44) and a BHBA-cut-off at 1.8 mM (Se ≤0.32). Sp was generally...... higher when the test was used in heifers compared to older cows. With a prevalence of ANEST of 28% PV+ were 0.25 and PV- nearly 0.90. With a DFAI prevalence of 35%, PV+ were <0.38 and PV- nearly 0.90. The results indicate that overall test performance is low when metabolic indicators measured 0-21 days...

  8. Impact of High-Cut-Off Dialysis on Renal Recovery in Dialysis-Dependent Multiple Myeloma Patients: Results from a Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans U Gerth

    Full Text Available High-cut-off hemodialysis (HCO-HD can effectively reduce high concentrations of circulating serum free light chains (sFLC in patients with dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI due to multiple myeloma (MM. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze renal recovery in a retrospective single-center cohort of dialysis-dependent MM patients treated with either conventional HD (conv. HD or HCO-HD.The final cohort consisted of 59 patients treated with HCO-HD (n = 42 or conv. HD (n = 17. A sustained sFLC response was detected in a significantly higher proportion of HCO-HD patients (83.3% compared with conv. HD patients (29.4%; p = 0.007. The median duration of sFLC required to reach values <1000 mg/l was 14.5 days in the HCO-HD group and 36 days in the conv. HD group. The corresponding rates of renal recovery were 64.3% and 29.4%, respectively (chi-squared test, p = 0.014. Multivariate regression and decision tree analysis (recursive partitioning revealed HCO-HD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 6.1 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.5-24.5], p = 0.011 and low initial uric acid values (adjusted OR 1.3 [95%CI 1.0-1.7], p = 0.045 as independent and paramount variables associated with a favorable renal outcome.In summary, the results from this retrospective case-control study suggest in addition to novel agent-based chemotherapy a benefit of HCO-HD in sFLC removal and renal outcome in dialysis-dependent AKI secondary to MM. This finding was especially pertinent in patients with low initial uric acid values, resulting in a promising renal recovery rate of 71.9%. Further prospective studies are warranted.

  9. Serum Cholesterol Level Nomograms for Iranian Population; Suggestion for National Cut-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Hosseini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: High cholesterol levels are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Understanding the distribution of serum cholesterol levels in each country is valuable index for use in public health planning. This study aimed to construct nomograms of total cholesterol (TC levels and establish the cut-points specific to Iranian population.Methods: Data on serum TC levels of 19,630 non-institutionalized individuals aged 25-64 years from third national survey on non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD in 2007 were used to construct cholesterol nomograms. We proposed cutoff values for borderline and high TC levels based on rounded 75th and 90th percentiles in three age groups (25-34, 35-44 and 45-64 respectively.Results: Average yearly increase of TC for males up to the age of 45 and females up to 64 were 1.15 and 1.03 mg/dl, respectively. TC levels were higher in females. In males, cutoff values for "borderline and high" TC levels were 195 and 220 mg/dl in 25-34, 210 and 240 mg/d in 35-44 and 215 and 245 mg/dl in 45-64 years old individuals. In women, these values were 200 and 225 mg/dl in 25-34,215 and 240 mg/dl in 35-44 and 235 and 265 mg/dl in 45-64 years old individuals respectively.Conclusion: Since TC levels are different in two sexes and change with age, we proposed different cutoffs for sex and age group. We think these cutoffs could be used in national public health planning.

  10. Interstellar Flow Longitude from the Symmetry of the Pickup Ion Cut-off at 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, E.; Lee, M. A.; Drews, C.

    2015-12-01

    We provide a proof of concept that the pickup ion (PUI) cutoff speed variation with ecliptic longitude can provide the interstellar neutral (ISN) flow longitude {λ }{ISN∞ } outside the heliosphere with a precision of the order of 0.°1. We compare 2007-2014 STEREO A PLASTIC observations in the solar wind frame with a simple analytical cutoff model and perform a Pearson correlation of the cutoff as a function of longitude with those values mirrored about a location λM that slides in longitude. The resulting maximum correlation at λM = 255.°21 ± 0.°04 reflects the ISN upwind direction with a purely statistical uncertainty. This result is consistent with recent ISN flow longitude values, but a precision determination requires the evaluation of underlying systematic effects. Obtaining a precision ISN flow longitude is highly complementary to the IBEX ISN observations, which return a narrow tube in the ISN parameter space that couples flow speed and longitude tightly, but leaves a substantially larger error bar along the tube. The ISN flow provides one cardinal axis of the heliosphere, with a strong leverage on the plane subtended by the ISN velocity and the interstellar magnetic field vector, which controls the shape of the heliosphere and its interaction with the interstellar medium. In addition, a discussion about potential temporal variations of the ISN flow has started. Both issues require a precision determination of the ISN flow velocity over decade-long time intervals. ACE SWICS, STEREO PLASTIC, and SOHO CTOF PUI data allow such long-term studies over almost two decades.

  11. Age-dependent D-dimer cut-off to avoid unnecessary CT-exams for ruling-out pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of an age-dependent D-Dimer cut-off in patients who underwent a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Retrospective application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off (age/100 in patients aged over 50) in 530 consecutive patients, both in- and outpatients, aged over 18, who underwent CTPA for suspected PE according to the guidelines. The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off showed a now negative test-result in 17 of 530 patients (3.2 %). The proportion was 4.1 % (17 of 418) in patients aged over 50. None of these 17 cases was diagnosed with PE in CTPA, the false-negative rate was 0 %. The effect could be seen in outpatients (14 of 377 [3.7 %]) as well as in inpatients(3 of 153 [2.0 %]) with no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off as part of the guideline-based algorithm for suspected PE reduced the number of necessary CTPA in outpatients as well as in inpatients.

  12. Investigation of the performance of cement-bentonite cut-off walls in aggressive ground at a disused gasworks site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been an increased use of cement-bentonite slurry trench cut-off walls to control the lateral migration of pollution in the UK. Concerns inevitably exist about their performance in chemically aggressive ground particularly in the long term. To address some of the uncertainties a programme of field and laboratory research is being undertaken at a disused gasworks in the UK. Elevated levels of sulphate and other contaminants are present on the site and could potentially change the properties of the cement-bentonite. Two boxes, 10m square in plan, by 5m deep have been constructed, one with and one without an HDPE membrane, to isolate parts of the site. Local hydraulic gradients across the walls have been created by pumping from within the boxes. Isolated lengths of wall have been constructed which are being used to assess and develop in-situ testing techniques such as the piezocone for measuring permeability, strength and overall integrity of the wall

  13. Collector optimization for tradeoff between breakdown voltage and cut-off frequency in SiGe HBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As is well known, there exists a tradeoff between the breakdown voltage BVCEO and the cut-off frequency fT for a standard heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). In this paper, this tradeoff is alleviated by collector doping engineering in the SiGe HBT by utilizing a novel composite of P+ and N− doping layers inside the collector-base (CB) space-charge region (SCR). Compared with the single N-type collector, the introduction of the thin P+ layers provides a reverse electric field weakening the electric field near the CB metallurgical junction without changing the field direction, and the thin N− layer further effectively lowers the electric field near the CB metallurgical junction. As a result, the electron temperature near the CB metallurgical junction is lowered, consequently suppressing the impact ionization, thus BVCEO is improved with a slight degradation in fT. The results show that the product of fT × BVCEO is improved from 309.51 GHz·V to 326.35 GHz·V. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  14. Traveling Wave MRI at 21.1 T: Propagation below Cut-off for Ultrahigh Field Vertical Bore System

    CERN Document Server

    Tonyushkin, Alexey A; Grant, Samuel C; Kiruluta, Andrew JM

    2014-01-01

    At high magnetic field strengths (> 4 T), the propagation wave vector of the excitation field B1 can no longer be ignored as the wavelength becomes commensurate or smaller than the imaging field of view (FOV), particularly for high dielectric media. The emergence of this propagation wave vector renders the excitation field variant in both time and space. In this paper, the propagation of RF excitation waves in a high field vertical NMR system is demonstrated for the first time with an appropriate screened dielectric waveguide excited by a simple loop coil to enable below cutoff propagation for imaging in the far field. Uniquely, aqueous samples provide the high permittivity required to modify the cut-off requirements of this transmission system. Theory and simulations corroborate the observed propagating modes field patterns. The ease of construction and implementation of this setup permits use in a variety of high field systems. At a minimum, this design provides a larger FOV that is limited primarily by the...

  15. Cut off from supplies - sulfate exhaustion and implications for methane emissions in a brackish rewetted peatland after separation from the coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebsch, Franziska; Liu, Bo; Schmiedinger, Iris; Spitzy, Alejandro; Köhler, Stefan; Koch, Marian; Jurasinski, Gerald; Gehre, Matthias; Sachs, Torsten; Böttcher, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Coastal ecosystems are at the interface between marine and freshwater and exhibit a special geochemistry. We investigate the S and C geochemistry of a coastal, degraded fen peatland. The site has been cut off from the Baltic Sea since 1995 and was rewetted with freshwater from the surrounding catchment in 2010. Despite of locally high pore water sulfate (SO42-) concentrations, the fen turned into a strong source for methane (CH4) with annual budgets up to 0.26±0.06 kg m-2 (Hahn et al. 2015). To reconcile this apparent contradiction we use concentration patterns and stable isotope signatures of water, SO42-, pyrite, dissolved carbon, and CH4 (δ2H, δ13C, δ18O, δ34S) along a transect with increasing distance to the Baltic coastline (300-1500 m). The current peatland geochemistry is characterized by a combination of relict signals reflecting former brackish water intrusion events and indicators of recent human activities such as internal eutrophication and increasing freshwater contribution. The shallow peat layer (depth mostly ≤ 55 cm) exhibited a pronounced vertical gradient with a freshwater-front lying on top of the brackish water layer. S geochemistry was decoupled from present brackish water distribution as marine SO42- was almost completely biotically reduced and converted to pyrite. The remaining pore water SO42- pool was remarkably 34S-enriched in relation to Baltic Sea SO42- (up to +86.4 and +21‰, respectively) and also δ34S-values of pyrite were comparatively high (+4.8‰), thereby demonstrating a distinct reservoir effect under closed-system conditions. However, one of the profiles situated 1150 m from the Baltic Sea coast line exhibited a contrasting S pattern with pronounced excess of isotopically lighter SO42- at depth (up to 32.8 mM and +22.7‰). We hypothesize, that local groundwater seeps might provide electron acceptors such as NO3- for the contemporary oxidation of pyrite. δ13C in DIC exhibited a pronounced vertical shift from -23.9

  16. Body mass index cut-offs for overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents aged 2-18 years%中国2~18岁儿童青少年超重和肥胖筛查体重指数界值点的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 宗心南; 季成叶; 米杰

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the body cut-offs of mass index (BMI) for the purpose of screening overweight and obesity for Chinese children and adolescents aged 2-18 years. Methods Based on the BMI growth reference values for Chinese children aged 0-18, using the common methods to establish the BMI cut-offs for screening overweight and obesity. These methods were having the same empirical percentile or Z scores and the BMI value at 18 years consistent with adults.Three sets of BMI cut-offs, including (BMI24, BMI28) , (P85, P95) and (Z1, Z2) , were initially identified. Differences were compared on different cut-off points and prevalence rates of overweight and obesity with different BMI reference, different values and "prevalence" of overweight and obesity based on "2004 Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Study ". Cut-offs standards which recommended by the Chinese Working Group on Obesity for Children (WGOC) and by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) were also used. Finally the appropriate cut-offs were defined. Results Three sets of BMI cut-offs for screening overweight and obesity for Chinese children and adolescents aged 2-18 years were obtained according to the above mentioned methods for selection. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity defined by those cut-offs appeared not to be significantly different. Compared with the WGOC, the BMI cut-off points for screening overweight and obesity for both boys and girls from our study were very close to the WGOC', but cut-off points for screening overweight for girls aged 8.5-15.5 y was 0.3-1.0 kg/m2 lower than the WGOC'. Going through the database on screening of "2004 Beijing Children's Metabolic Syndrome Survey ", the prevalence of overweight for girls was about 3.4% higher than using the cut-offs of WGOC. Conclusion Results from this study suggested that the BMI cut-offs passed through the cut-off point of BMI24 and BMI28 at 18 years was appropriate for screening overweight and obesity in

  17. Cut-Off Levels of Anti-Mullerian Hormone for The Prediction of Ovarian Response, In Vitro Fertilization Outcome and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salmassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH cut-off levels in assisted reproductive technology (ART as predictive factor for individualization of stimulation protocols and to avoid ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, 177 infertile patients were assessed for AMH in serum and follicular fluid (FF on the day of follicular puncture (FP, between 2012 and 2013 in Kiel, Germany. AMH levels and pregnancy rates were compared between low, moderate and high responders and cut-off levels of low and high responders. AMH cut-off levels in pathological cases were evaluated in analysis 1 (OHSS and in analysis 2 [polycystic ovarian syndrome, (PCOS] and compared in analysis 3 to normal endocrinological parameters. Results: AMH levels in FF were higher than in serum (P<0.001. AMH levels in serum and FF increased from low through moderate to high responders (P<0.001. Pregnancy rates were 14.7, 23.3 and 44.9% (P=0.009, respectively. AMH cut-off level for poor responders was 0.61 ng/ml in serum with a pregnancy rate of 13.8 and 37.1% for below and above of this level, respectively. For FF, it was 1.43 ng/ml. AMH levels in analysis 1 and 2 were significantly higher than in analysis 3 (P=0.001. AMH cut-off level for OHSS was 1.5 ng/ml in serum with OHSS rates of 80.8 and 19.2 % for above and below of the level, respectively. For FF, it was 2.7 ng/ml. PCOS patients had an AMH cut-off level of 3.9 ng/ml in serum and 6.8 ng/ml in FF, resulting in a PCOS rate of 100% above this level. Conclusion: AMH levels can help to assess ovarian response potential and guide ovarian stimulation while avoiding OHSS.

  18. Combined Effect of an Atmospheric River and a Cut-off Low in Hiroshima Flooding Event on August 19, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayabu, Y. N.; Hirota, N.; Kato, M.; Arakane, S.

    2015-12-01

    An extraordinary precipitation over 100 mmhr-1in Hiroshima on August 19, 2014, caused a flash flood which resulted in 74 fatalities and collapse of 330 houses. In order to examine the meteorological background of this flooding event, we carried out a detailed analysis utilizing rain gauge data, satellite precipitation dataset, and a meso scale and a global scale objective analyses provided from the Japan Meteorological Agency. Then, we performed numerical experiments using a nonhydrostatic compressible equation model called the Cloud-Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS). As a result, a combined effect of an atmospheric river (AR) and a cut-off low (COL) in this flooding event was elucidated. During the event, a filamentary transport of moisture extending from the Indochina Peninsula to the Japanese Islands was observed along the southern side of the subtropical jet, forming an AR. This AR had a deep structure with an amount of free tropospheric moisture comparable to that of the boundary layer. Concurrently, there was a COL, detached from the Mid-Pacific Trough, moving northwestward toward the Japanese Archipelago. With various sensitivity experiments, we concluded that a mid-tropospheric instability associated with the cold core of the COL and a dynamical ascent induced in its foreside, collaboratively worked with the anomalous moisture in the free troposphere associated with the AR, to extraordinarily enhance the precipitation over Hiroshima region. An orographic effect to concentrate the precipitation in this region was also confirmed. An implication on a difference in effects of AR in this event with a climatologically moist boundary layer, from those in the US west coast with a very dry environment, was also obtained. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (2-1503) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, and by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  19. Comparative study of food transfers in the three castes of the honeybee (Apis mellifica ligustica S.) in which four distal sections of both antennae have been cut off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of food transfers between the three castes of Apis mellifica ligustica S., in which four distal sections have been cut off, has been carried out by means of a radioactive tracer 198Au, which cannot be metabolized. The begging behavior of queens with cut off antennae towards 4-day-old worker Bees and workers of unknown age is not changed. So it is with drones and operated worker Bees which beg food of a worker Bee, that is 4 days old and undamaged. On the other hand the begging behavior of drones and workers of unknown age is reduced towards other worker Bees of unknown age that are undamaged. The two-sided amputation of antennal sections of donor worker Bees of both categories does not change their behavior towards undamaged worker Bees

  20. Neck circumference as a potential marker of metabolic syndrome among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Christina Rodrigues Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to relate neck circumference with metabolic syndrome and its criteria among college students.METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted with 702 college students in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil from September 2010 to June 2011. Socio-demographic data, waist circumference and neck circumference were collected together with blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride levels, and HDL-C.RESULTS: 1.7% of the studied sample presented metabolic syndrome. Of these, 58.3% presented altered neck circumference (p<0.006. As neck circumference decreases, pressure levels improve (p<0.001. Additionally, college students with high fasting blood sugar (p=0.003 and high triglyceride levels (p<0.001 presented higher values of neck circumference.CONCLUSION: neck circumference is a potential predictive marker in the detection of metabolic syndrome and its components among college students.

  1. Interacting power-law and logarithmic entropy-corrected holographic dark energy models with different cut-offs in Brans-Dicke cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Darabi, F.; Felegary, F.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of Brans-Dicke cosmology, we have studied the interacting power-law and logarithmic entropy-corrected holographic dark energy models with different cut-offs. The Brans-Dicke parameter is investigated versus the conditions for the acceleration and phantom phases to show that which entropy corrected model can exhibit acceleration with or without the phantom phase at early and present time universes. Moreover, the classical stability or instability of the interacting power-law a...

  2. Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination and Individual Domain Cut-Off Scores for Discriminating between Different Cognitive Subtypes of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Berankova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The main aim of this study was to verify the sensitivity and specificity of Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R in discriminating between Parkinson’s disease (PD with normal cognition (PD-NC and PD with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and between PD-MCI and PD with dementia (PD-D. We also evaluated how ACE-R correlates with neuropsychological cognitive tests in PD. Methods. We examined three age-matched groups of PD patients diagnosed according to the Movement Disorder Society Task Force criteria: PD-NC, PD-MCI, and PD-D. ROC analysis was used to establish specific cut-off scores of ACE-R and its domains. Correlation analyses were performed between ACE-R and its subtests with relevant neuropsychological tests. Results. Statistically significant differences between groups were demonstrated in global ACE-R scores and subscores, except in the language domain. ACE-R cut-off score of 88.5 points discriminated best between PD-MCI and PD-NC (sensitivity 0.68, specificity 0.91; ACE-R of 82.5 points distinguished best between PD-MCI and PD-D (sensitivity 0.70, specificity 0.73. The verbal fluency domain of ACE-R demonstrated the best discrimination between PD-NC and PD-MCI (cut-off score 11.5; sensitivity 0.70, specificity 0.73 while the orientation/attention subscore was best between PD-MCI and PD-D (cut-off score 15.5; sensitivity 0.90, specificity 0.97. ACE-R scores except for ACE-R language correlated with specific cognitive tests of interest.

  3. Cut-off scores for the Minimal Eating Observation and Nutrition Form – Version II (MEONF-II) among hospital inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Westergren, Albert; Norberg, Erika; Vallén, Christina; Hagell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective: The newly developed Minimal Eating Observation and Nutrition Form - Version II (MEONF-II) has shown promising sensitivity and specificity in relation to the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). However, the suggested MEONF-II cut-off scores for deciding low/moderate and high risk for undernutrition (UN) (>2 and >4, respectively) have not been decided based on statistical criteria but on clinical reasoning. The objective of this study was to identify the optimal c...

  4. Serological diagnosis of pneumococcal infection in children with pneumonia using protein antigens: A study of cut-offs with positive and negative controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Dafne Carvalho; Borges, Igor Carmo; Ivaska, Lauri; Peltola, Ville; Meinke, Andreas; Barral, Aldina; Käyhty, Helena; Ruuskanen, Olli; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana Maria

    2016-06-01

    The etiological diagnosis of infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children is difficult, and the use of indirect techniques is frequently warranted. We aimed to study the use of pneumococcal proteins for the serological diagnosis of pneumococcal infection in children with pneumonia. We analyzed paired serum samples from 13 Brazilian children with invasive pneumococcal pneumonia (positive control group) and 23 Finnish children with viral pharyngitis (negative control group), all aged pharyngitis were evaluated for oropharyngeal colonization, and none of them carried S. pneumoniae. We used a multiplex bead-based assay with eight proteins: Ply, CbpA, PspA1 and 2, PcpA, PhtD, StkP and PcsB. The optimal cut-off for increase in antibody level for the diagnosis of pneumococcal infection was determined for each antigen by ROC curve analysis. The positive control group had a significantly higher rate of ≥2-fold rise in antibody levels against all pneumococcal proteins, except Ply, compared to the negative controls. The cut-off of ≥2-fold increase in antibody levels was accurate for pneumococcal infection diagnosis for all investigated antigens. However, there was a substantial increase in the accuracy of the test with a cut-off of ≥1.52-fold rise in antibody levels for PcpA. When using the investigated protein antigens for the diagnosis of pneumococcal infection, the detection of response against at least one antigen was highly sensitive (92.31%) and specific (91.30%). The use of serology with pneumococcal proteins is a promising method for the diagnosis of pneumococcal infection in children with pneumonia. The use of a ≥2-fold increase cut-off is adequate for most pneumococcal proteins. PMID:26928648

  5. Optimal Cut-Off Points for Two-Step Strategy in Screening of Undiagnosed Diabetes: A Population-Based Study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Zhen; Cong, Liming; Ding, Gangqiang; Yu, Min; Zhang, Xinwei; Hu, Ruying; Wu, Jianjun; Fang, Le; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Jie; He, Qingfang; Su, Danting; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Lixin; GONG, WEIWEI

    2014-01-01

    To identify optimal cut-off points of fasting plasma glucose for two-step strategy in screening of undiagnosed diabetes in Chinese people, data were selected from two cross-sectional studies of Metabolic Syndrome in Zhejiang Province of China, Zhejiang Statistical Yearbook (2010), and published literatures. Two-step strategy was used among 17437 subjects sampled from population to screen undiagnosed diabetes. Effectiveness (proportion of cases identified), costs (including medical and non-med...

  6. Pontos de corte para a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a triagem de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares na infância Cardiorespiratory fitness cut offs points and cardiovascular risk factors screening at infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gustavo Bergmann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a validade e propor novos pontos de corte para aptidão cardiorrespiratória de escolares de sete a 12 anos de idade. A amostra foi constituída por 1.413 escolares. A aptidão cardiorrespiratória foi medida através do teste de corrida/caminhada de nove minutos. O colesterol total e as pressões arterial sistólica e diastólica foram medidas e através delas foram criadas referências de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Através da curva receiver operating characteristic entre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e as referências de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares foram identificados os valores dos pontos de corte. Adicionalmente foi utilizada a análise bivariada seguida do cálculo de razão de chances (odds ratio-OR para identificar quanto os indivíduos que não atenderam os pontos de corte propostos tinham a mais de chance de apresentar fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Os resultados indicaram que, dentre as propostas analisadas, a que foi sugerida neste estudo apresentou melhores ajustamentos entre sensibilidade e especificidade. Os resultados da análise bivariada mostraram que indivíduos que não atenderam os pontos de corte propostos têm maiores chances de apresentarem fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares.The main objective of the study was to analyze and propose news cardiorespiratory fitness cut offs points for 7 to 12-year old school students. The sample was composed of 1,413 students. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by the 9-minutes walking/running test. Total cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured and with their results cardiovascular risk factors reference were designed. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve between cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors reference identified the cut offs point values. The bivariate analysis and odds ratio (OR calculation was used to

  7. Obesity Index That Better Predict Metabolic Syndrome: Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist Hip Ratio, or Waist Height Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to compare body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist hip ratio (WHR, and waist height ratio (WHtR to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS among Qatari adult population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey from April 2011 to December 2012. Data was collected from 1552 participants followed by blood sampling. MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis was performed. Results. Among men, WC followed by WHR and WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC (0.78; 95% CI 0.74–0.82 and 0.75; 95% CI 0.71–0.79, resp.. Among women, WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest AUC (0.81; 95% CI 0.78–0.85 & 0.79; 95% CI 0.76–0.83, resp.. Among men, WC at a cut-off 99.5 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 81.6% and 63.9% specificity. Among women, WC at a cut-off 91 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% and 64.7%, respectively. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in both genders. Conclusion. WC at cut-off 99.5 cm in men and 91 cm in women was the best predictor of MetS in Qatar.

  8. Waist-to-Height Ratio Is a Better Anthropometric Index than Waist Circumference and BMI in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome among Obese Mexican Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel Rafael Rodea-Montero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the degree of association between anthropometric indices and components of metabolic syndrome (MS and to determine optimal cut-off points of these indices for predicting MS in obese adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study with a sample of (n=110 Mexican obese adolescents grouped by sex and the presence/absence of MS. BMI percentile, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR were tested. ROC curves of the anthropometric indices were created to identify whether an index was a significant predictor of MS. Results. BMI percentile, WC, and WHtR were significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. As predictors of MS overall patients, the BMI percentile generated an area under curve (AUC of 0.651 (P=0.008, cut-off point above the 99th percentile. WC generated an AUC of 0.704 (P<0.001, cut-off point of ≥90 cm. WHtR demonstrated an AUC of 0.652 (P=0.008, cut-off point of 0.60. WHtR ≥0.62 and WHtR ≥0.61 generate AUC of 0.737 (P=0.006 and AUC of 0.717 (P=0.014 for predicting hypertension and insulin resistance, respectively, in females. Conclusion. WHtR is a better tool than WC and BMI for identifying cardiometabolic risk. The overall criterion (WHtR ≥ 0.6 could be appropriate for predicting MS in obese Mexican adolescents.

  9. Importância relativa do Índice de Massa Corporal e da circunferência abdominal na predição da hipertensão arterial Relative importance of body mass index and waist circumference for hypertension in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Sarno

    2007-10-01

    importance of Body Mass Index (BMI and waist circumference for the determination of hypertension in adults. METHODS: Cross sectional analysis of a sample of employees (N=1,584, aged 18 to 64 years, from a private general hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data collection included the application of a structured questionnaire and blood pressure, weight, high, and waist circumference measurements. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure levels > 140/90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication. The relative importance of BMI and waist circumference was evaluated by calculating the attributable fraction of hypertension corresponding to each anthropometric indicator, employing both the usual cut-off points as well as cut-off points based on the observed distribution of the indicator in the population. In addition, an indicator combining simultaneously BMI and abdominal circumference values was also developed. RESULTS: Prevalence of hypertension was 18.9% (26.9% in men and 12.5% in women. In men, the fraction of hypertension attributable to BMI exceeded the fraction attributable to waist circumference based on the usual cut-off points for the indicators (56% vs. 48%, respectively and also considering the quartiles of the observed distribution for these indicators (73% vs. 69%, respectively. In women, the fraction of hypertension attributable to waist circumference was slightly higher than the fraction attributable to BMI based on the usual cut off points for both indicators (44% vs. 41%, but the reverse was true when quartiles of the observed distribution were used (41% vs. 57%, respectively. In women only, the fraction of hypertension attributable to the indicator combining BMI and waist circumference (64% was higher that observed using each indicator alone. CONCLUSIONS: Both BMI and abdominal circumference were positively and independently associated with the occurrence of arterial hypertension, the influence of BMI being higher among men.

  10. Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in the Highlands of Cameroon: Seroprevalence Estimates and Rates of Tuberculin Skin Test Reactors at Modified Cut-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Awah-Ndukum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain epidemiological estimates of bovine tuberculosis (TB prevalence in cattle in the highlands of Cameroon using two population-based tuberculin skin test (TST surveys in the years 2009 and 2010. However, prior to the TST survey in 2010, blood was collected from already chosen cattle for serological assay. Anti-bovine TB antibodies was detected in 37.17% of tested animals and bovine TB prevalence estimates were 3.59%–7.48%, 8.92%–13.25%, 11.77%–17.26% and 13.14%–18.35% for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and single TST, respectively. The agreement between TST and lateral flow was generally higher in TST positive than in TST negative subjects. The K coefficients were 0.119, 0.234, 0.251 and 0.254 for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and the single TST groups, respectively. Chi square statistics revealed that strong (P48 associations existed between seroprevalence rates and TST reactors. The study suggested that using lateral flow assay and TST at severe interpretations could improve the perception of bovine TB in Cameroon. The importance of defining TST at modified cut-offs and disease status by post-mortem detection and mycobacterial culture of TB lesions in local environments cannot be overemphasised.

  11. High speed tool steel cut off dies made using powder metallurgy techniques; Fabricacion de matrices de corte con aceros rapidos para herramientas mediante metalurgia de polvos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talacchia, S.; Amador, J.; Urcola, J. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Navarra, San Sebastian (Spain)

    1996-06-01

    The present work summarises the results obtained by compacting water atomized powders of T42 modifed carbon and vanadium, M3/2 and M2 high speed steels. The powders were compacted under complex forms (cut off dies) and sintered under a 90 N{sub 2}-9 H{sub 2}-1 CH{sub 4} industrial atmosphere. Heat treatments in different severity media were performed. hardness of 1,100 HV can be obtained in the case of T42 modified steel. Also, the shrinking of the sintered specimens was study. (Author) 6 refs.

  12. Influence of the Lift-Off Effect on the Cut-Off Frequency of the EMAT-Generated Rayleigh Wave Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Pengxing Yi; Kang Zhang; Yahui Li; Xuming Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT), a non-contact NDT tool with large lift-off, is becoming an attractive method for detecting the cracks in the metal parts. However, the lift-off of the transducer has a direct effect on the feature that is used to characterize the defects. A detailed investigation on the relationship between the feature and the lift-off of the EMAT is crucial in the detection process. This paper investigates the lift-off effect on the feature, cut-off frequency o...

  13. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  14. Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    EL Mabchour A; Delisle H; Vilgrain C; Larco P; Sodjinou R; Batal M

    2015-01-01

    Asma EL Mabchour,1 Hélène Delisle,1 Colette Vilgrain,2 Philippe Larco,2 Roger Sodjinou,3 Malek Batal1 1Transition Nutritionnelle (TRANSNUT), WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition Changes and Development, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Haitian Foundation for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases (FHADIMAC), Port-au-Prince, Haiti; 3West Africa Health Organization (WAHO), Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Purpose: Waist circu...

  15. Power-law and Logarithmic Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy Models in Brans-Dicke Cosmology with Granda-Oliveros Cut-Off

    CERN Document Server

    Pasqua, Antonio; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the cosmological implications of the Power Law Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy (PLECHDE) and the Logarithmic Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy (LECHDE) models in the context of Brans-Dicke (BD) cosmology for both non-interacting and interacting DE and Dark Matter (DM) are studied. As the system infrared cut-off, we choose the recently proposed Granda-Oliveros cut-off, which contains a term proportional to the first time derivative of the Hubble parameter and one term proportional to $H^2$, i.e. the Hubble parameter squared. We obtain the expressions of three quantities, i.e. the Equation of State (EoS) parameter $\\omega_D$, the deceleration parameter $q$ and the evolutionary form of the energy density parameter $\\Omega'_D$ of the PLECHDE and LECHDE models in a non-flat Universe for non-interacting and interacting DE and DM as well. Moreover, we investigate the limiting cases corresponding to: a) absence of entropy corrections; b) Einstein's gravity; and c) concomitantly absenc...

  16. Power-Law Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz Cosmology with Granda-Oliveros Cut-off

    CERN Document Server

    Pasqua, Antonio; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we decided to study the Power Law Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy (PLECHDE) model in the framework of a spatially non-flat Universe and in the framework of Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz cosmology with infrared (IR) cut-off given by recently proposed Granda-Oliveros cut-off which contains one term proportional to the Hubble parameter squared and one proportional to the time derivative of the Hubble parameter. For the two cases corresponding to non-interacting and interacting DE and Dark Matter (DM), we derive the evolutionary form of the energy density of DE, the Equation of State (EoS) parameter $\\omega_D$, the evolutionary form of the fractional energy density $\\Omega_D'$ and the deceleration parameter $q$. Using the parametrization of the EoS parameter $\\omega_D\\left(z\\right)=\\omega_0+\\omega_1 z$, we obtain the expressions of $\\omega_0$ and $\\omega_1$ for both non-interacting and interacting Dark Sectors. We also study the statefinder parameters $\\left\\{ r,s \\right\\}$, the properties of some c...

  17. 截锥形直杆的动力稳定性研究%Research on the dynamic stability of cut-off-cone bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏鹭平

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of dynamic stability of cut-off-cone bar under vertical vibration force. The influence of cut-off-cone bar and equal section bar on the dynamic property of bars is analyzed respectively. A theoretical method of analyzing the dynamic stability of bars is presented. Some suggestions are made about reducing the unfavourable effect in practical engineering. The work here may be useful to the dynamic analysis and design in practical engineering.%研究了截锥形直杆在竖向振动力作用下,杆件参数共振和动力稳定性问题,分析了截锥形直杆和等截面直杆对杆件动力性能的影响,提出了一种分析杆件动力稳定性的理论方法,方法简明易用,便于掌握,并提出了在实际工程中减小共振的一些措施,为结构的动力分析与设计提供参考依据。

  18. Analysis of the acoustic cut-off frequency and high-frequency peaks in six Kepler stars with stochastically excited pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, A.; García, R. A.; Pérez Hernández, F.; Mathur, S.

    2015-11-01

    Gravito-acoustic modes in the Sun and other stars propagate in resonant cavities with a frequency below a given limit known as the cut-off frequency. At higher frequencies, waves are no longer trapped in the stellar interior and become traveller waves. In this article, we study six pulsating solar-like stars at different evolutionary stages observed by the NASA Kepler mission. These high signal-to-noise targets show a peak structure that extends at very high frequencies and are good candidates for studying the transition region between the modes and interference peaks or pseudo-modes. Following the same methodology successfully applied on Sun-as-a-star measurements, we uncover the existence of pseudo-modes in these stars with one or two dominant interference patterns depending on the evolutionary stage of the star. We also infer their cut-off frequency as the midpoint between the last eigenmode and the first peak of the interference patterns. Using ray theory we show that, while the period of one of the interference patterns is very close to half the large separation, the period of the other interference pattern depends on the time phase of mixed waves, thus carrying additional information on the stellar structure and evolution. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. 应用ROC曲线评价癌症患者心理压力量表的临界值研究%Using ROC curve to evaluate cut-off points of Psychological Distress Scale of Cancer Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽燕; 陆宇晗

    2016-01-01

    目的:应用ROC曲线测定癌症患者心理压力量表各维度的临界值,为临床应用提供依据。方法调查北京肿瘤医院的癌症患者364例,填写癌症患者心理压力量表和症状自评量表(SCL-90),应用ROC曲线探索此量表各维度的临界值。结果以SCL-90相应维度为参照标准,癌症患者心理压力量表各维度ROC曲线下面积分别为:焦虑(0.815,P<0.01),抑郁(0.790,P<0.01),人际障碍(0.829,P<0.01),怀疑(0.670,P<0.01)。各维度在以下临界值时可获得最佳的敏感性和特异性:焦虑11分,抑郁14分,人际障碍7分,怀疑4分。结论癌症患者心理压力量表对焦虑、抑郁、人际障碍有较好的诊断价值,对怀疑的诊断价值较弱。它具有较好的诊断价值,有助于临床进行癌症患者的心理问题评价。%Objective To determine the cut-off points of Psychological Distress Scale of Cancer Patients by using the ROC curve, in order to provide reference for clinical application of it. Methods A questionnaire containing both the Psychological Distress Scale of Cancer Patients and Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) were filled by 364 cancer patients in Beijing Cancer Hospital. Later the cut-off points of the four latitudes of the Scale were evaluated by ROC curve through comparing the two scales. Results By using the latitudes of the SCL-90 scale as a reference, the areas of all the four latitudes of the Scale were:anxiety (0.815, P<0.01); depression (0.790, P<0.01); interpersonal disability (0.829, P<0.01);suspiciousness (0.670, P<0.01) respectively. The following cut-off points could result in the most ideal sensitivity and specificity: 11 for anxiety; 14 for depression; 7 for interpersonal disability and 4 for suspiciousness. Conclusions The Psychological Distress Scale of Cancer Patients can provide great values to the diagnosis of psychological problems related with anxiety, depression, and interpersonal

  20. Accuracy of sagittal abdominal diameter as predictor of abdominal fat among Brazilian adults: a comparation with waist circumference Precisión de diámetro abdominal sagital como predictor de la grasa abdominal en brasileños adultos: una comparación con la circunferencia de la cintura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Duarte Pimentel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aim was to compare the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD with waist circumference (WC as a predictor of central obesity among adults and to identify the sensitivity and specificity of the best cut-off point for SAD. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 266 Brazilians adults (euthrophic and overweight, aged 31-84 years old, of which 89 men and 177 women, was carried out. Anthropometric measurements such as SAD, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, waist and hip ratio, body mass index, body fat percentage were performed. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curve was used to identify the sensitivity and specificity of the best cut off point for SAD as a predictor of central obesity. Statistical analysis were considered significant with a value of p Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo es comparar el diámetro abdominal sagital (DAS con la circunferencia de la cintura (CC como predictor de la obesidad central entre los adultos y para determinar la sensibilidad y la especificidad de la mejor punto de corte para el DAS. Métodos: Estudio transversal de 266 adultos brasileños (eutróficos y con sobrepeso, de entre 31-84 años de edad, de los cuales 89 hombres y 177 mujeres, se llevó a cabo. Las medidas antropométricas como la DAS, peso, talla, circunferencia de la cintura y cadera, relación cintura-cadera, índice de masa corporal, porcentaje de grasa corporal se llevaron a cabo. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curva se utilizó para determinar la sensibilidad y la especificidad del mejor punto de corte para el DAS como predictor de la obesidad central. El análisis estadístico se consideró significativo un valor de p < 0,05. Resultados: La medición del DAS se correlacionó positivamente con CC para ambos sexos, aunque más fuerte entre las mujeres con sobrepeso y obesidad (r = 0,71, p < 0,001, r = 0,79, p < 0,001, respectivamente que los hombres. De curvas ROC identificado las mejores puntos de corte para el DAS de 23.1 cm y 20

  1. Bivariate distributions in statistical spectroscopy studies: Fixed-J level densities, fixed-J averages and spin cut-off factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical studies with the TBRE ensemble, supplemented by numerical calcultions with realistic interactions show that for large particle numbers, the bivariate cumulants (ksub(rs)) defined for the Hamiltonian operator (H) and the Jsub(z) operator, are very small; vertical strokeksub(rs)vertical stroke< or approx.0.3 for 3<=r+s<=6. As a result the expansions around a bivariate normal density are meaningful for the fixed-M densities (rho(E,M)). We adopt a bivariate Edgeworth expansion for rho(E,M) and give a compact form for the same. Finally using this rho(E,M) (which also define fixed-J densities uniquely), new series expansions are given for fixed-M (and hence for fixed-J) averages of the powers of H and also for the spin cut-off factors. (orig.)

  2. Application of High-Density Seismic Image in Nondestructive Exploration of Cut-off Cement-Soil Wall in Earth Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jing; WANG Jianhua; ZHANG Xianmin

    2005-01-01

    In order to quickly explore the quality of cut-off wall in dams, a new method of high-density seismic image was adopted and estimated by model and in-situ wall tests.The vibration exciter was employed and several parameters such as hypocentral distance, length of signal record and sampling space in signal collection were determined, which are 8 m, 0.25 ms and 128 ms respectively. Through time and frequency field signal analyses, it is concluded that, the smaller arrival times of reflected longitudinal and surface waves, and the higher their main frequencies, the higher the strength of the wall, vice versa. Accordingly the construction quality of the wall can be evaluated quickly by high-density seismic image.

  3. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population. PMID:17568760

  4. EARLY APPLICATION OF HIGH CUT-OFF HAEMODYALISIS FOR DE-NOVO MYELOMA NEPHROPATHY IS ASSOCIATED WITH LONG-TERM DIALYSIS-INDEPENDENCY AND RENAL RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhossain A. Khalafallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Multiple myeloma (MM is a haematological malignancy associated with kidney injury resulting from cast nephropathy, which can be caused by monoclonal free light chains (FLC. It has been demonstrated that reduction of FLC can lead to a higher proportion of patients recovering renal function with a better outcome, especially if extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD combined with chemotherapy is used. Patients and Methods In this study, four cases of MM nephropathy were treated with HCO-HD and chemotherapy at a single institution during the period from August 2009 to August 2011. All of the patients presented with acute renal failure and high serum FLC. All patients underwent a bone marrow biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of MM, according to the WHO criteria. Three patients had de-novo MM and one patient had relapsed light chain myeloma disease. All patients underwent HCO-HD concomitantly with specific myeloma therapy once the diagnosis or relapse of MM was established. Results After a median follow up of 26 months, (range, 13-36 our data showed that all patients had a significant decrease in serum FLC through HCO-HD, proving the effectiveness of HCO-HD in managing MM. De-novo MM patients restored their renal function and achieved low-level FLC early on the treatment and become dialysis-independent. One patient with relapsed myeloma remained dialysis dependant. Conclusion Our study suggests that if myeloma nephropathy associated with light-chain disease, HCO-HD should be initiated as early as possible. At the same time a specific MM treatment should be initiated to gain control of the disease and salvage the kidneys in order to achieve dialysis-independency. Further trials to confirm our results are warranted. Key Words: Multiple myeloma, renal failure, High cut-off haemodialysis, chemotherapy, outcome.

  5. EFFECT OF KAPALBHATI PRANAYAMA ON WAIST AND HIP CIRCUMFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT (BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rapid industrialization, environmental pollution, overcrowding, sedentary lifestyle and var ious stress factors are responsible for the deterioration of the physical health of a person. Als o, prevalence of obesity in developing countries is believed to be on the rise. This requi res special and specific techniques to transcend the limits of our physical and mental abilities exper ienced in everyday life. Hence, in the present study beneficial effect of Kapalbhati pranayama on wa ist circumference and hip circumference was studied in overweight individuals. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This study was conducted in a well-known tertiary hospital in Mumbai after th e institutional ethical clearance and written consent from each participant. A total of 60 overweig ht resident doctors were recruited in this study. The participants were divided into study and c ontrol groups, each group containing 30 subjects of both sexes. The study group was asked to perform Kapalbhati pranayama. The duration of the study was eight weeks. Waist circum ference and hip circumference were assessed in both the groups. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Paired t- test was applied for statistical analysis and p value <0.05 was considered the level of significance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In study group, waist circumference and hip circumfe rence decreased significantly as compared to that of control group. T his shows that Kapalbhati pranayama has reducing impact on waist circumference and hip circum ference in overweight individuals. The neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system mechani sms might be involved in the effects of Kapalbhati pranayama, which need further study.

  6. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study of Japanese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamachi Tadamichi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral obesity is positively related to insulin resistance. The nature of the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance has not been known in Japanese populations. This study examined the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance and evaluated the optimal cutoff point for waist circumference in relation to insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. Methods Study subjects included 4800 Japanese men aged 39 to 60 years. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The relationship of waist circumference with HOMA-IR was assessed by use of adjusted means of HOMA-IR and odds ratios of elevated HOMA-IR defined as the highest quintile (≥2.00. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis using Youden index and the area under curve (AUC was employed to determine optimal cutoffs of waist circumference in relation to HOMA-IR. Results Adjusted geometric means of HOMA-IR and prevalence odds of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference. In the ROC curve analysis, the highest value of Youden index was obtained for a cutoff point of 85 cm in waist circumference across different values of HOMA-IR. Multiple logistic regression analysis also indicated that the AUC was consistently the largest for a waist circumference of 85 cm. Conclusion Waist circumference is linearly related to insulin resistance, and 85 cm in waist circumference is an optimal cutoff in predicting insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men.

  7. Optimal cut-off of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome: third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in Iran (SuRFNCD-2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Rashidi Armin; Nakhjavani Manouchehr; Zandieh Ali; Khalilzadeh Omid; Ashraf Haleh; Esteghamati Alireza; Haghazali Mehrdad; Asgari Fereshteh

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim We have recently determined the optimal cut-off of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance for the diagnosis of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in non-diabetic residents of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The aim of the present study is to establish the optimal cut-off at the national level in the Iranian population with and without diabetes. Methods Data of the third National Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases, available f...

  8. Statefinder diagnostic of logarithmic entropy corrected holographic dark energy with Granda-Oliveros IR cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodam-Mohammadi, A.; Pasqua, Antonio; Malekjani, M.; Khomenko, Iuliia; Monshizadeh, M.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we have studied the logarithmic entropy corrected holographic dark energy (LECHDE) model with Granda-Oliveros (G-O) IR cutoff. The evolution of dark energy (DE) density {\\varOmega}'D, the deceleration parameter, q, and equation of state parameter (EoS), ω Λ , are calculated. We show that the phantom divide may be crossed by choosing proper model parameters, even in absence of any interaction between dark energy and dark matter. By studying the statefinder diagnostic and ω_{{\\varLambda}}-ω_{{\\varLambda}}^' analysis, the pair parameters { r, s} and (ω_{{\\varLambda}}-ω_{{\\varLambda}}^') is calculated for flat GO-LECHDE universe. At present time, the pair { r, s} can mimic the ΛCDM scenario for a value of α/ β≃0.87, which is lower than the corresponding one for observational data ( α/ β=1.76) and for Ricci scale ( α/ β=2). We find that at present, by taking the various values of ( α/ β), the different points in r- s and (ω_{{\\varLambda}}-ω_{{\\varLambda}}^') plans are given. Moreover, in the limiting case for a flat dark dominated universe at infinity ( t→∞), we calculate { r, s} at G-O scale. For Ricci scale ( α=2, β=1) we obtain { r=0, s=2/3}.

  9. Statefinder diagnostic of logarithmic entropy corrected holographic dark energy with Granda-Oliveros IR cut-off

    CERN Document Server

    Khodam-Mohammadi, A; Malekjani, M; Khomenko, Iuliia

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the logarithmic entropy corrected holographic dark energy (LECHDE) model with Granda-Oliveros (G-O) IR cutoff. The evolution of dark energy (DE) density $\\Omega'_D$, the deceleration parameter, $q$, and equation of state parameter (EoS), $\\omega_{\\Lambda}$, are calculated. We show that the phantom divide may be crossed by choosing proper model parameters, even in absence of any interaction between dark energy and dark matter. By studying the statefinder diagnostic and $\\omega_{\\Lambda}-\\omega_{\\Lambda}^{\\prime}$ analysis, the pair parameters $\\{r,s\\}$ and $(\\omega_{\\Lambda}-\\omega_{\\Lambda}^{\\prime})$ is calculated for flat GO-LECHDE universe. At present time, the pair $\\{r,s\\}$ can mimic the $\\Lambda$CDM scenario for a value of $\\alpha/\\beta\\simeq 0.87$, which is lower than the corresponding one for observational data ($\\alpha/\\beta=1.76$) and for Ricci scale ($\\alpha/\\beta=2$). We find that at present, by taking the various values of ($\\alpha/\\beta$), the different points in $r...

  10. Direct Extraction of InP/GaAsSb/InP DHBT Equivalent-Circuit Elements From S-Parameters Measured at Cut-Off and Normal Bias Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Leblanc, Rémy; Poulain, Julien;

    2016-01-01

    A unique direct parameter extraction method for the small-signal equivalent-circuit model of InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) is presented. $S$-parameters measured at cut-off bias are used, at first, to extract the distribution factor $X_{0}$ for the base...

  11. Prevalence of swallowing and speech problems in daily life after chemoradiation for head and neck cancer based on cut-off scores of the patient-reported outcome measures SWAL-QOL and SHI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, Rico N; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Doornaert, Patricia; Buter, Jan; de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A; Aaronson, Neil K; Leemans, C René

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess swallowing and speech outcome after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer, based on the patient-reported outcome measures Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI), both provided with cut-off scores. This is

  12. Prevalence of swallowing and speech problems in daily life after chemoradiation for head and neck cancer based on cut-off scores of the patient-reported outcome measures SWAL-QOL and SHI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, Rico N.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Doornaert, Patricia; Buter, Jan; de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Leemans, C. Rene

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess swallowing and speech outcome after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer, based on the patient-reported outcome measures Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI), both provided with cut-off scores. This is

  13. Age-dependent D-dimer cut-off to avoid unnecessary CT-exams for ruling-out pulmonary embolism; Altersangepasste Anhebung des D-Dimer-Grenzwertes zur Vermeidung unnoetiger CT-Untersuchungen bei Verdacht auf Lungenarterienembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, M.M.; Hoehne, M.; Herold, T. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Radiology; Wrede, C.E. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Emergency Department; Peetz, D. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Laboratory Medicine; Stroszczynski, C. [University Medical Center, Radiology, Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of an age-dependent D-Dimer cut-off in patients who underwent a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Retrospective application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off (age/100 in patients aged over 50) in 530 consecutive patients, both in- and outpatients, aged over 18, who underwent CTPA for suspected PE according to the guidelines. The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off showed a now negative test-result in 17 of 530 patients (3.2 %). The proportion was 4.1 % (17 of 418) in patients aged over 50. None of these 17 cases was diagnosed with PE in CTPA, the false-negative rate was 0 %. The effect could be seen in outpatients (14 of 377 [3.7 %]) as well as in inpatients(3 of 153 [2.0 %]) with no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off as part of the guideline-based algorithm for suspected PE reduced the number of necessary CTPA in outpatients as well as in inpatients.

  14. Removal of methadone by extended dialysis using a high cut-off dialyzer: implications for the treatment of overdose and for pain management in patients undergoing light chain removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arelin, Viktor; Schmidt, Julius J; Kayser, Nathalie; Kühn-Velten, W Nikolaus; Suhling, Hendrik; Eden, Gabriele; Kielstein, Jan T

    2016-06-01

    The synthetic opioid methadone hydrochloride has a low molecular weight of 346 D, a high volume of distribution (4 - 7 L/kg), and is lipophilic. It is used as an analgesic and for the maintenance treatment of opiate dependence. In drug addicts, methadone is frequently involved in mixed intoxications that can lead to death. Here we present the case of a drug addict in whom a high cut-off dialysis membrane together with extended dialysis was used in the setting of suspected overdose and acute kidney injury. Although the observed dialyzer plasma clearance (31.5 mL/min) and reduction ratio (38%) were higher than previously reported for standard hemodialysis, the total amount of methadone in the spent dialysate after 1 extended dialysis session was quite low. Hence, even extended dialysis with a high cut-off membrane does not seem to offer a clinically relevant benefit in the setting of overdose for enhanced methadone removal. On the other hand, in patients undergoing high cut-off dialysis for the removal of light chains, methadone could still be used as an analgesic without an additional dose after high cut-off hemodialysis. PMID:27116939

  15. Raising cut-off value of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for biopsy in symptomatic men in India to reduce unnecessary biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Shalini Agnihotri; Mittal, R. D.; Kapoor, R; Anil Mandhani

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: The characteristics of prostate specific antigen (PSA) for trans-rectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are not well defined. This study was carried out to analyse the threshold of PSA for biopsy in symptomatic men in India. Methods: From January 2000 to June 2011, consecutive patients who had digital rectal examination (DRE) and PSA testing done for LUTS were included in this study. PSA was done with ELISA te...

  16. Optimal cut-off of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome: third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in Iran (SuRFNCD-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidi Armin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim We have recently determined the optimal cut-off of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance for the diagnosis of insulin resistance (IR and metabolic syndrome (MetS in non-diabetic residents of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The aim of the present study is to establish the optimal cut-off at the national level in the Iranian population with and without diabetes. Methods Data of the third National Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases, available for 3,071 adult Iranian individuals aging 25-64 years were analyzed. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. HOMA-IR cut-offs from the 50th to the 95th percentile were calculated and sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio for MetS diagnosis were determined. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves of HOMA-IR for MetS diagnosis were depicted, and the optimal cut-offs were determined by two different methods: Youden index, and the shortest distance from the top left corner of the curve. Results The area under the curve (AUC (95%CI was 0.650 (0.631-0.670 for IDF-defined MetS and 0.683 (0.664-0.703 with the ATPIII definition. The optimal HOMA-IR cut-off for the diagnosis of IDF- and ATPIII-defined MetS in non-diabetic individuals was 1.775 (sensitivity: 57.3%, specificity: 65.3%, with ATPIII; sensitivity: 55.9%, specificity: 64.7%, with IDF. The optimal cut-offs in diabetic individuals were 3.875 (sensitivity: 49.7%, specificity: 69.6% and 4.325 (sensitivity: 45.4%, specificity: 69.0% for ATPIII- and IDF-defined MetS, respectively. Conclusion We determined the optimal HOMA-IR cut-off points for the diagnosis of MetS in the Iranian population with and without diabetes.

  17. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study Referencias antropométricas de los adolescentes bolivianos de 12 a 18 años: estatura, peso, circunferencia del brazo, muñeca y abdominal, índice de masa corporal: Percentiles de adolescentes bolivianos (PAB) del estudio MESA

    OpenAIRE

    A. Baya Botti; Pérez-Cueto, F.J.A.; P. A. Vasquez Monllor; P. W. Kolsteren

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policymaking at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA) study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clust...

  18. Logarithmic Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy in Hořava-Lifshitz cosmology with Granda-Oliveros cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqua, Antonio; Chattopadhyay, Surajit

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we studied the Logarithmic Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy (LECHDE) model in a spatially non-flat universe and in the framework of Hořava-Lifshitz cosmology. As infrared cutoff of the system we considered the cut-off recently proposed by Granda and Oliveros which contains two terms, one proportional to H 2 and one to . For the two cases containing non-interacting and interacting Dark Energy (DE) and Dark Matter (DM), we obtained the exact differential equation that determines the evolution of the density parameter. Moreover, we derived the expressions of the deceleration parameter q and, using a parametrization of the equation of state (EoS) parameter ω D of our model as ω D ( z)= ω 0+ ω 1 z, we derived both the expressions of ω 0 and ω 1 for both non-interacting and interacting cases. All derivations made in this work are done in small redshift approximation and for low redshift expansion of the equation of state (EoS) parameter.

  19. UV Filtering of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Effects of Varying the UV Cut-Off upon Cell Performance and Incident Photon-to-Electron Conversion Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Carnie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With current technology, UV filters are essential to ensure long-term dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC stability. Blocking photons, however, will have an obvious effect on device performance and upon its incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE. Filters have been applied to DSC devices with a range of cut-off wavelengths in order to assess how different levels of filtering affect the performance and IPCE of devices made with three different dyes, namely N719, Z907, and N749. It is shown that dyes that extend their IPCE further into the NIR region suffer lesser relative efficiency losses due to UV filtering than dyes with narrower action spectra. Furthermore, the results are encouraging to those working towards the industrialisation of DSC technology. From the results presented it can be estimated that filtering at a level intended to prevent direct band gap excitation of the TiO2 semiconductor should cause a relative drop in cell efficiency of no more than 10% in forward illuminated devices and no more than 2% in reverse illuminated devices.

  20. Water cut-off construction for bulkhead of very deep waste treatment plant using premixed cohesive soil. Premix nenseido ni yoru daisuishin haikibutsu shorijo gogan no shisuiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, I. (Toa Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-25

    Recently waste treatment plants have been developed in the suburban coastal area or off shore, requiring controlled-type revetment or reclamation for the circumferential sea area. This report describes the outline of premix water cutoff construction having been applied to the center-partitioned revetment in the reclaiming construction work in Minami-Honmoku Pier Area, Yokohama. The premix water cut-off method is a construction method where packed sediment is mixed with a small amount of cement and a separation-preventive agent and then is thrown to develop ground. This time, to effectively re-use dredged soil and cohesive soil, these soils were mixed with a caking agent and placed onto the sea floor. The total length of construction was ca. 450m; the maximum water depth was 30m; and the placed amount was 79705m[sup 3]. Four 50m[sup 3]/h-class mud treating machines were mounted on two ships, to which a slurry plant ship and a mud treating plant were joined to make-up a fleet. The forced pump feed method was adopted for placing and construction was completed with a control system perfect in workmanship and quality. 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Feed Cam Mechanism Design of Cut-off Saws Based on ANSYS%基于ANSYS的林间锯段机进料凸轮机构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战丽; 宫乙帅; 王毅亮

    2012-01-01

    A feeding mechanism is one of the main components of forest self-propelled small-scale cut-off saws, and its rational design determines the efficiency of the entire cutting process. The exact cutting speed is determined through the comparative analysis of theoretical calculation and actual processing empirical value, based on which feed speed is calculated. In order to ensure steady processing, a feed cam is designed and finite element analysis of it is made using ANSYS software to verify the stiffness and strength of the feed mechanism. The mechanism is rationally optimized in order to provide a theoretical basis for the design of the feed mechanism of sawing operation.%进料机构是林间自走式小型锯段机的主要部件之一,其设计的合理与否影响整个锯切加工过程。通过理论计算值与实际加工经验值的对比分析确定切削速度,进而计算出进料速度。为保证加工平稳设计了进料凸轮机构,并利用ANSYS软件对其进行有限元分析,验证凸轮机构的刚度与强度。对该结构进行合理优化,为锯切进料机构的设计提供理论依据。

  2. The value of added opposed/in phase MRI sequences in characterization of the focal vertebral bone marrow lesions in oncology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda A. El-Kareem A. El-Samie

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The added opposed/in phase MRI sequences with SIR cut-off value of 1, were proved to be a non-invasive sensitive tool to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in oncology patients.

  3. The impact of cut-off lows on ozone in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over Changchun from ozonesonde observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yushan; Lü, Daren; Li, Qian; Bian, Jianchun; Wu, Xue; Li, Dan

    2016-02-01

    In situ measurements of the vertical structure of ozone were made in Changchun (43.53°N, 125.13°E), China, by the Institute of Atmosphere Physics, in the summers of 2010-13. Analysis of the 89 validated ozone profiles shows the variation of ozone concentration in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) caused by cut-off lows (COLs) over Changchun. During the COL events, an increase of the ozone concentration and a lower height of the tropopause are observed. Backward simulations with a trajectory model show that the ozone-rich airmass brought by the COL is from Siberia. A case study proves that stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) occurs in the COL. The ozone-rich air mass transported from the stratosphere to the troposphere first becomes unstable, then loses its high ozone concentration. This process usually happens during the decay stage of COLs. In order to understand the influence of COLs on the ozone in the UTLS, statistical analysis of the ozone profiles within COLs, and other profiles, are employed. The results indicate that the ozone concentrations of the in-COL profiles are significantly higher than those of the other profiles between ±4 km around the tropopause. The COLs induce an increase in UTLS column ozone by 32% on average. Meanwhile, the COLs depress the lapse-rate tropopause (LRT)/dynamical tropopause height by 1.4/1.7 km and cause the atmosphere above the tropopause to be less stable. The influence of COLs is durable because the increased ozone concentration lasts at least one day after the COL has passed over Changchun. Furthermore, the relative coefficient between LRT height and lower stratosphere (LS) column ozone is -0.62, which implies a positive correlation between COL strength and LS ozone concentration.

  4. Limb circumference and performance in junior tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Nuhmani, Shibili; Shaphe, MD Abu; Waseem, MD

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the correlation of limb circumference with functional performance of junior tennis players Design: correlation design Setting: Tennis academies all over Delhi and National Capital Region Subjects: 100 junior tennis players Measurement: The limb circumferences (thigh circumference and calf circumference) of each athlete have measured and have been correlated with all the three functional performance tests. Result and conclusion: Pearson's correlation test was used to cor...

  5. Modeling and simulation of dual three phase induction machine in fault condition (two phase cut off) and propose a new approach of R.F.O vector control approach for torque oscillation reducing in fault mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milli Monfared, J.; Abbaszadeh, K.; Fallah, E. [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Indonesia)

    2000-08-01

    From the energy conversion point of view, structure of all electrical machines can be simplified to an equivalent two-phase machine. At normal operation this equivalent machine has a balanced structure which is the base of vector control equations at this mode. Similarly at phase - cut off condition this equivalent model has an unbalanced structure, which can be used to obtain vector control equations at this faulty mode. In this paper at first a dual three-phase induction machine has been modeled while two phase of stator is cut off, then vector control equations has been obtained from d-q model of machine. On the basis of these equations a new 'rotor field oriented control' approach is presented which indicate How the conventional R.F.0 control can be adapted with fault condition. Finally a computer simulation has been presented to compare the operation of conventional R.F.0 control with improved R.F.0 control, while two phase of machine is cut off. Results show considerable improvement in drive performance especially in torque oscillating reduction. (orig.)

  6. Decreasing "circumference" for increasing "radius" in axially symmetric gravitating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lubo, M

    2001-01-01

    Apart from the flat space with an angular deficit, Einstein general relativity possesses another cylindrically symmetric solution. Because this configuration displays circles whose "circumferences" tend to zero when their "radius" go to infinity, it has not received much attention in the past. We propose a geometric interpretation of this feature and find that it implies field boundary conditions different from the ones found in the literature if one considers a source consisting of the scalar and the vector fields of a U(1) system . To obtain a non increasing energy density the gauge symmetry must be unbroken . For the Higgs potential this is achieved only with a vanishing vacuum expectation value but then the solution has a null scalar field. A non trivial scalar behaviour is exhibited for a potential of sixth order. The trajectories of test particles in this geometry are studied, its causal structure discussed. We find that this bosonic background can support a normalizable fermionic condensate but not suc...

  7. Waist circumference reference values in Beijing versus the national values in detecting cardiovascular risk factors in 7-18 years old children%北京与全国7~18岁儿童青少年腰围适宜界值对心血管危险因素筛查效度的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟玲慧; 罗纳; 程红; 侯冬青; 赵小元; 米杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较北京与全国7~18岁儿童青少年腰围(WC)适宜界值对心血管危险因素的筛查效度和预测价值.方法 采用LMS曲线拟合法拟合北京市21 787名3~18岁儿童青少年WC百分位曲线,以性别、年龄别第75百分位数(P75)及第90百分位数(P90)作为北京市7~18岁儿童青少年WC适宜界值.在4927名7~18岁儿童青少年组成的验证人群中,比较北京和全国7~18岁儿童青少年WC适宜界值对高血压、脂代谢紊乱、糖耐量受损及非酒精性脂肪肝(NAFLD)等心血管危险因素诊断的特异度和灵敏度,通过回归分析比较该2个界值对心血管危险因素的预测价值.结果 北京市3~18岁儿童青少年WC适宜界值分别为:男童:P75为51.8~78.2 cm,P90为54.0~86.0 cm;女童:P75为50.8~72.1 cm,P90为53.3~77.3 cm.北京与全国界值筛查心血管危险因素的灵敏度分别为:高血压:男童分别为0.74和0.82,女童分别为0.68和0.73;低高密度脂蛋白胆固醇:男童分别为0.69和0.80,女童分别为0.64和0.71;NAFLD:男童分别为0.98和1.00,女童均为0.93.北京与全国界值筛查心血管危险因素的特异度分别为:高血压:男童分别为0.62和0.53,女童分别为0.68和0.63;低高密度脂蛋白胆固醇:男童分别为0.59和0.50,女童分别为0.66和0.61;NAFLD:男童分别为0.60和0.50,女童分别为0.56和0.51.北京和全国7~18岁儿童青少年WC的P90适宜界值预测心血管危险因素的OR(95%CI)值分别为:高血压分别为6.3(5.2~7.7)和6.0(4.9~7.4);空腹血糖受损均为1.3(1.1~1.5);脂代谢紊乱均为2.9(2.5~3.4);NAFLD分别为49.1(12.0~201.6)和69.8(9.7~504.2).结论 北京市7~18岁儿童青少年WC适宜界值可提高对心血管危险因素筛查的特异度;除对NAFLD预测价值低于全国界值外,北京界值对其他心血管危险因素的预测价值与全国界值没有明显差别.%Objective To compare the optimal references of waist circumference (WC) between

  8. Optimal cut-off point of BMI on age at menarche among Han nationality girls%汉族女生月经初潮年龄BMI最佳临界值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏婕; 朱丁; 徐勇; 沈惠芬; 钱红丹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze body mass index (BMI) and weight by using receiver operating curve(ROC) among girls of Han nationality, and to find the optimal cut-off point of BMI on age at menarche. Methods With the stratified cluster sampling, 10-14 years old Chinese girls were questionnaired. Both retrospective and prospective ways were used to investigate the age at menarche. Questionnaire also included the students' age at menarche, height and weight. Then the ROC was operated to analyze the areas under curve(ADC) and the sensitivity and specificity of optimal cut-off point of BMI and weight were calculated. Results The average age of menarche was 12.26, the AUC of BMI and weight were 0.68 and 0. 73. The optimal cut-off point of weight on different age groups were different, but the optimal cut-off point of BMI on age at menarche tended to be uniform. Conclusion The optimal cut-off point of BMI is applicable in predicting the age of menarche, and more verification should be carried out in the future when applying this optimal cut-off point.%目的 应用受试者工作特征ROC曲线分析BMI、体重曲线下面积,探讨女性月经初潮BMI的最佳临界值.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,对无锡市10~14岁7 300名汉族女生进行问卷调杳,了解月经初潮年龄及身高、体重.绘制ROC曲线,观察曲线下面积,计算BMI、体重最佳临界值的灵敏度和特异度.结果 女生月经来潮率为40.45% (2 953/7 300),月经初潮平均年龄为12.26岁;不同年龄组已潮组和未潮组女生体重、BMI差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).BMI、体重的ROC曲线下面积分别为0.68和0.73;不同年龄组女生体重有不同的最佳临界值,但不同年龄组BMI最佳临界值趋于一致.结论BMI最佳临界值对预测是否来潮有重要的应用价值,但其效果有待在实际应用中加以进一步验证.

  9. Thigh circumference and risk of heart disease and premature death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder

    2009-01-01

    of follow-up for total death. RESULTS: A small thigh circumference was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases and total mortality in both men and women. A threshold effect for thigh circumference was evident, with greatly increased risk of premature death...... circumference seems to be associated with an increased risk of developing heart disease or premature death. The adverse effects of small thighs might be related to too little muscle mass in the region. The measure of thigh circumference might be a relevant anthropometric measure to help general practitioners in...... early identification of individuals at an increased risk of premature morbidity and mortality....

  10. The Brazilian hazard-based cut-off criteria for pesticide registration: a critical appraisal / Critérios de exclusão baseados em perigo adotados no Brasil para registro de pesticidas: Uma avalição crítica

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2013-01-01

    Brazil, the world’s top consumer of agricultural pesticides, adopts a unique hazard-based cut-off approach to pesticide registration. Cut-off criteria for mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, hormonal disturbances and damage to reproductive organs were introduced by the Pesticide Law enacted in 1989. As far as health is concerned, law enforcement is additionally regulated by rules issued by the federal health authority (National Agency for Health Surveillance – ANVISA). Contrasting ...

  11. Circunferência da cintura e índice de massa corporal como preditores da hipertensão arterial Waist circumference and body mass index as predictors of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário Gondim Peixoto

    2006-10-01

    hypertension was defined as systolic pressure > 140 mmHg, or diastolic pressure > 90 mmHg, or utilization of hypotensive drugs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations between anthropometric indexes and hypertension. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of BMI (> 30 and level 2 WC as predictive factors of hypertension, and to determine the best predictive cut-off points for hypertension. RESULTS: WC was associated with hypertension in both genders. Level 2 WC and BMI >30 kg/m² showed a low sensitivity in identifying hypertension. The best predictive cut-off points for hypertension coincided with level 1 WC (> 80 cm and with BMI >25 kg/m² (overweight for women, and were lower than the values of level 1 WC and of overweight for men. CONCLUSION: Level 2 WC and BMI > 30 kg/m² are not adequate to identify the groups at the highest risk of hypertension, since this risk rises with small increases in adiposity.

  12. A CORRELATION BETWEEN HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE AND CHEST, WAIST AND HIP CIRCUMFERENCES IN YOUNG POPULATION OF KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitra S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The head and body measurements in human body vary because of differences in anatomical features which may be influenced by environmental or geographical factors. This also brings about differences in their bony structure and fat distribution. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between the Head circumference and Chest, Waist & Hip circumferences. METHODS: Head, Chest, Waist, and Hip circumferences were taken for 347 subjects. Then the subjects were classified as Total sample, Males and Females. Data was tabulated and statistical analysis (unpaired t test was carried out to find if any statistical significance between Cephalometric and Anthropometric measurements existed. The correlation co - efficient between head measurement and body measurements was determined using Karl Pearson’s formula. RESULTS: Statistically significant difference was observed for all parameters. Statistically significant correlations were observed in Total sample, Males and Females. CONCLUSION: These measurements will serve as a future frame work for comparing the craniofacial dimensions for differentiation of other racial groups. These are also useful in, anthropometric studies, cosmetology, and reconstructive surgery as well as garment industries. This is also an attempt to help a forensic scientist to identify the individual from dismembered and mutilated body parts in forensic examinations.

  13. Does the relationship between waist circumference, morbidity and mortality depend on measurement protocol for waist circumference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, R; Berentzen, T; Bradshaw, A J; Janssen, I; Kahn, H S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Kuk, J L; Seidell, J C; Snijder, M B; Sørensen, T I A; Després, J-P

    2008-01-01

    There is currently no consensus regarding the optimal protocol for measurement of waist circumference (WC), and no scientific rationale is provided for any of the WC protocols recommended by leading health authorities. A panel of experts conducted a systematic review of 120 studies (236 samples) to...... WC protocols performed measurement at the minimal waist (33%), midpoint (26%) and umbilicus (27%). Non-significant associations were reported for 27% (64) of the samples. Most of these protocols measured WC at the midpoint (36%), umbilicus (28%) or minimal waist (25%). Significant associations were...

  14. Age of Equalization of Head and Chest Circumference in Term Normal and Small for Gestational Age Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Bhalla

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the timing of equalization of the head and chest circumference in full-term 74 normal Punjabi and 200 small for gestational age (SGA infants of the two sexes born to parents representing upper socio-economic strata was serially studied. A regular increase in both the head and chest circumference of normal Punjabi and SGA infants of the two sexes was noticed between 1 to 12 months of age. Normal Punjabi infants of the two sexes as compared to their SGA counterparts possessed significantly (p=0.001 larger head and chest circumference during first year of life. In general, both Punjabi and SGA male infants possessed greater head and chest circumference values than their respective female peers throughout the study span. Amongst normal male and female Punjabi infants equalization of head and chest circumference took place by 4 and 5 months of age respectively. While, the equalization of head and chest circumference never occurred amongst SGA of both the sexes between 1 to 12 months of age. This clearly shows that SGA infants as compared to normal Punjabi peers remain undernourished during infancy and failed to compensate for the effect of earlier nutritional insult experienced by them during pre-natal life.

  15. Stressful life events in pregnancy and head circumference at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    A strong association between stress in pregnancy and small head circumference in infants at birth was reported in 1994. This important finding has never been replicated. In a follow-up study of 4211 participants with singleton pregnancies, information on life events was collected twice during...... pregnancy and head circumference measured shortly after birth following standard procedures. No association was found between experienced or perceived stress as a result of life events during pregnancy and head circumference in the infants. In conclusion, stress in pregnancy may influence foetal brain...... development in many ways, but we found no support for an effect on the size of the brain as measured by head circumference at birth. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Dec...

  16. Waist and hip circumferences and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, J; Frederiksen, K; Tjønneland, A; Thomsen, B L; Overvad, K; Heitmann, B L; Sørensen, T I A

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether waist and hip circumferences, in addition to body mass index (BMI), are related to all-cause mortality. We studied these associations and tested the usefulness of the waist-to-hip ratio for mortality prediction. DESIGN: A Danish prospective cohort study with data...... inverse for both men and women, but only after adjustment for waist circumference, or BMI, or both. The mortality rate ratios of mutually adjusted waist and hip circumferences were 0.63 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.71), and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.79) times higher per 10% larger hip circumference in men and women......, respectively, and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.34, 1.57) and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.31) times higher per 10% larger waist circumference. The adequacy of the waist-to-hip ratio as a substitute for separate measurements of waist and hip circumferences depended on which other variables the analysis was adjusted for, indicating...

  17. Change in neck circumference after shoulder arthroscopy: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrividya Chellam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Shoulder arthroscopy requires fluid irrigation, which causes soft-tissue oedema around chest, neck, and arm intraoperatively, leading to postoperative airway complications. We decided to study the incidence of increase in the neck circumference in shoulder arthroscopy and its effects on the airway. Methods: We studied 32 cases of shoulder arthroscopies over a period of 1-year, performed under general anaesthesia with interscalene block. The neck circumference of patients before and after the procedure was measured along with other parameters. The endotracheal tube cuff was deflated at the end of surgery to determine air leak around the tube. The negative leak test suggested airway oedema. Results: Thirty out of 32 patients showed positive air leak test. The average change in neck circumference was 1.17 ± 1.16 cm and all could be extubated uneventfully. Two showed negative leak test with an increase in neck circumference by 4.5 and 6.4 cm and were not extubated. Multiple regression analysis for risk factors showed intraoperative hypertension as a single predictor for an increase in neck circumference. Conclusion: Change in the neck circumference beyond 4 cm may suggest airway compromise and below 4 cm, airway compromise is unlikely even in the presence of extensive soft-tissue oedema around the shoulder, upper arm and chest.

  18. Nutritional profile of the elderly - Relationship obesity and waist circumference sixty years after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramara Kadija Fonseca Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aging process the metabolic changes can cause changes in health, including nutritional status, making the absorption of nutrients or promoting the accumulation of adipose tissue. Given this, this study aimed to assess the nutritional status of the participants in an open design for the elderly, through documentary analysis of values of Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC. The analyzed results show a relationship between aging and the accumulation of visceral fat, since individuals considered eutrophic demonstrated a strong CC, as the data below, in which 11.53% of the data showed that subjects with low birth weight, 42,32 % normal weight, overweight and 46.5%, comparing with 80.76% of the values with large waist circumference, increasing the risk of developing some type of metabolic disease.

  19. Prevalence of swallowing and speech problems in daily life after chemoradiation for head and neck cancer based on cut-off scores of the patient-reported outcome measures SWAL-QOL and SHI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Rico N; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Doornaert, Patricia; Buter, Jan; de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A; Aaronson, Neil K; Leemans, C René

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess swallowing and speech outcome after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer, based on the patient-reported outcome measures Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI), both provided with cut-off scores. This is a cross-sectional study. Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery of a University Medical Center. Sixty patients, 6 months to 5 years after chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and SHI, both validated in Dutch and provided with cut-off scores. Associations were tested between the outcome measures and independent variables (age, gender, tumor stage and site, and radiotherapy technique, time since treatment, comorbidity and food intake). Fifty-two patients returned the SWAL-QOL and 47 the SHI (response rate 87 and 78 %, respectively). Swallowing and speech problems were present in 79 and 55 %, respectively. Normal food intake was noticed in 45, 35 % had a soft diet and 20 % tube feeding. Patients with soft diet and tube feeding reported more swallowing problems compared to patients with normal oral intake. Tumor subsite was significantly associated with swallowing outcome (less problems in larynx/hypopharynx compared to oral/oropharynx). Radiation technique was significantly associated with psychosocial speech problems (less problems in patients treated with IMRT). Swallowing and (to a lesser extent) speech problems in daily life are frequently present after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Future prospective studies will give more insight into the course of speech and swallowing problems after chemoradiation and into efficacy of new radiation techniques and swallowing and speech rehabilitation programs. PMID:26071622

  20. Methods for identifying the cost effective case definition cut-off for sequential monitoring tests: an extension of Phelps and Mushlin

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Roberta; Baxter, Paul; Hall, Peter; Hewison, Jenny; Afshar, Mehran; Hall, Geoff; McCabe, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of personalized medicine in the clinic means that treatment decisions will increasingly rely on test results. The challenge of limited health care resources means that the dissemination of these technologies will be dependent on their value in relation to their cost; i.e. their cost effectiveness. Phelps and Mushlin have described how to optimize tests to meet cost effectiveness target. However, when tests are applied repeatedly the case mix of the patients tested changes with eac...

  1. Methods for Identifying the Cost-effective Case Definition Cut-off for Sequential Monitoring Tests: an Extension of Phelps and Mushlin

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher McCabe; Paul Baxter; Roberta Longo; Peter Hall; Jenny Hewison; Mehran Afshar; Geoff Hall

    2013-01-01

    The arrival of personalized medicine in the clinic means that treatment decisions will increasingly rely on test results. The challenge of limited health care resources means that the dissemination of these technologies will be dependent on their value in relation to their cost; i.e. their cost effectiveness. Phelps and Mushlin have described how to optimize tests to meet cost effectiveness target. However, when tests are applied repeatedly the case mix of the patients tested changes with eac...

  2. Learning circumference concepts from the didactical situations theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Sousa Cavalcanti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The circumference study, as its importance, it is one of the most relevant contents in the Analytical Geometry curriculum. However, the complexity of related concepts to this theme linked to the content fragmentation, it difficulties the students thinking of transforming geometrical problems into equations solution, systems or inequations. Within, in this article we present a partial report of a master research work, of qualitative mode, which aimed to develop and to evaluate an alternative methodology by using musical parody composition to the teaching of Mathematics in trying to contribute to the circumference concepts learning process. For that, we carried out a case study with 36 third year high school students of a public school from the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba. The research work was based and discussed on Brousseau Didactical Situation Theory. It was chosen triangulation technique for the data analyses, collected from interviews, questionnaires and a list of mathematical exercises. We concluded that the parody composition resource allowed the students better understand the concepts of center, ratio, cord and the definition of the general circumference equation, as they were capable to identify the relative positions which a circumference assumes in relation to an equation of a straight line and between two circumferences in the various concepts that differentiated them. Thus, we can state that the musical parody composition as a didactical resource can contribute to the learning of mathematical contents.

  3. Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio percentiles and central obesity among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central obesity has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in children and anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. South Asian children have higher body fat distribution in the trunk region but the literature regarding WC and related indices is scarce in this region. The study was aimed to provide age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed percentiles, and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity, among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 primary school children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed percentile curves were constructed for WC, WHR and WHtR by the LMS method. Central obesity was defined as having both age- and gender-specific WC percentile ≥90th and WHtR ≥0.5. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of central obesity and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% CI were obtained. Linear regression was used to explore the independent determinants of WC and WHtR. Statistical significance was considered at P Results First ever age- and gender-specific smoothed WC, WHR and WHtR reference curves for Pakistani children aged five to twelve years are presented. WC increased with age among both boys and girls. Fiftieth WC percentile curves for Pakistani children were higher as compared to those for Hong Kong and British children, and were lower as compared to those for Iranian, German and Swiss children. WHR showed a plateau pattern among boys while plateau among girls until nine years of age and decreased afterwards. WHtR was age-independent among both boys and girls, and WHtR cut-off of ≥0.5 for defining central obesity corresponded

  4. Neck Circumference as a Useful Marker for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mehri; Kajbaf, Tahereh Ziaei; Taheri, Mohammad-Reza; Aminzadeh, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Overweight and obesity at an early age are an important criterion for predicting chronic diseases. Each anthropometric method available to assess obesity has its limitations. Recently, one of the indices proposed to better detect this complication is neck circumference (NC). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between NC, and body mass index (BMI), and to find a cutoff NC size to identify children with a high BMI. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 864 students aged 6–17 years from the schools in Ahvaz, Iran. Measurements, including height, weight, neck, mid-arm, and waist circumference (WC), and clinical information were collected by trained physicians. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated between NC and other obesity indices, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the best cutoff value of NC in predicting high BMI. Results NC in both genders was significantly correlated with BMI, WC, and mid-arm circumference. The best cutoff value of NC to identify boys with a high BMI was 27.5–38.3 cm, and for girls was 26.7–33.4 cm. Conclusions NC is significantly correlated with overweight and obesity. It can be used with great reliability to screen overweight and obesity in children, and to identify those with a high BMI. PMID:27162586

  5. 1670 ER-LOCK: NEXT GENERATION AUTO THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM USING SMART GRAVITATIONAL LOCK VEHICLE TRACKING WITH GPS FENCING AND REMOTE FUEL CUT-OFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Philomina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction trendy technology, here we have a tendency to incorporating parts of mechanical, electrical, electronic, code and safety engineering as applied to the look, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, vehicles, buses and trucks. Recently we've got to implement a contemporary technology throughout the vehicles on a daily basis. Among those advanced feature is preventing the vehicle thievery by the unknown person. during this paper we have a tendency to visit a straightforward value effective technique of preventing vehicle thievery victimization GSM and GPS.

  6. Dietary predictors of 5-year changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjaer, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim;

    2009-01-01

    , whereas snack foods intake was positively associated. Sex differences occurred for vegetables, high-fat dairy products, and processed meat. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a diet low in fruits and red meat and high in snack foods was associated with larger waist circumference gains in both sexes......, baseline diet (192 items food frequency questionnaire), body mass index, and selected potential confounders (eg, smoking status, sport activities, and intake of alcoholic beverages). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: For women, 5-year difference in waist circumference was...... inversely related to intake from red meat, vegetables, fruit, butter, and high-fat dairy products, whereas intake from potatoes, processed meat, poultry, and snack foods was positively associated. For men, red meat and fruit intakes were inversely associated with 5-year difference in waist circumference...

  7. Long-term exposure to residential traffic noise and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe S.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2015-01-01

    in waist circumference. We found baseline BMI (p<0.001) and waist circumference (p=0.001) to be significant effect modifiers for the association between road traffic noise and waist circumference, with gain in waist circumference only among the obese (BMI≥30) participants (1.20mm/year (95% CI: 0...... obese participants....

  8. Hyperinsulinemia and waist circumference in childhood metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the characteristics of obese children presenting at a tertiary care hospital and the frequency of metabolic syndrome (MS) in them using two paediatric definitions. A total of 262 obese children aged 4-16 years, with BMI greater than 95 percentile were included. Children having obesity due to syndromes, medications causing weight gain, chronic illness and developmental disability were excluded. Blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, HDL, insulin and glucose levels were obtained. Obesity was defined as BMI > 95 percentile for age and gender according to the UK growth reference charts. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated using to the De Ferrantis and Lambert definitions. The frequency of MS varied between 16% and 52% depending on whether insulin levels were included in the definition. There was a significant positive correlation(r) when the metabolic parameters were correlated with waist circumference and insulin levels, except HDL which was negatively correlated. All the metabolic parameters like waist circumference, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure increased considerably across the insulin quartile (p < 0.05). The most noteworthy anthropometric and metabolic abnormality were the waist circumference (46.5%) and insulin levels (58%) respectively. There was a marked difference in the frequency of metabolic syndrome according to the definition used. The waist circumference and hyperinsulinemia are significant correlates of MS in obese children. There is a need for establishing normal insulin ranges according to age, gender and pubertal status. The clinical examination and investigations ought to include waist circumference and insulin levels together as a part of the definition of MS, for early detection and intervention of childhood obesity. (author)

  9. Predictive value of combined measurements of body mass index and waist circumference for the risk of cardiovascular disease%体质指数与腰围指标联合应用对心血管病危险的预测作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇; 赵冬; 孙佳艺; 刘静; 刘军; 秦兰萍; 吴兆苏

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the predictive value of the combined measurements of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) for the risk of cardiometabolic diseases (including diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia ) and ischemic cardiovascular disease.Method A total of 30 378 Chinese people from 11 provinces were studied in this prospective study conducted from 1992 to 2003.Multivariable logistic and Cox regression were used respectively to determine the predictive value of WC for cardiometabolic diseases and ischemic cardiovascular disease within each BMI categories.Results (1) The prevalence of obesity were 10% defined by BMI.Among them, 76.4% had abdominal obesity defined by WC.The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 17.5% by WC categories, and 43.4% of them were classified as obesity by BMI.(2) The prevalence rates of cardiometabolic diseases were higher in individuals with elevated WC within each BMI category.(3) Compared with subjects with normal BMI and WC, the risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease increased by 38% ( RR = 1.383, 95% CI 1.083-1.765 ) in overweight subjects with elevated WC and by 57% ( RR = 1.570, 95% CI 1.226-2.010) in obese subjects with elevated WC.conclusion Combined measurements of BMI and WC provide a better prediction for the risk of cardiometabolic diseases and ischemic cardiovascular disease.%目的 分析和评价在体质指数(BMI)分层基础上,增加腰围指标对心血管病危险因素的检出作用以及对心血管病发病危险的预测作用.方法 以1992年建立的中国多省市前瞻性队列35~64岁共30 378人数据为依据,在基线BMI分为正常、超重和肥胖的基础上,分析和评价加入腰围指标对心血管病代谢因素的检出作用以及心血管病发病危险的预测作用.诊断标准分别参照中的BMI切点和中的腹部肥胖切点.结果 (1)联合应用BMI和腰围指标诊断肥胖时,呈现交叉重叠情况.以BMI为标准,队列人群肥胖率是10%,其中76.4%

  10. Membrane molecular weight cut off impacts immunological safety of a novel bioartificial liver system%膜截流分子量在新型生物人工肝免疫安全性中的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦; 施晓雷; 韩冰; 顾劲扬; 褚薛慧; 肖江强; 任昊桢; 檀家俊; 丁义涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of membrane molecular weight cut off in our bioartificial liver(BAL)system.Methods Beagle dogs were used for a model of acute liver failure through D-galactosamine administration.The acute liver failure Beagles were divided into two groups by the membrane molecular weight cut off.Group A was treated with BAL containing 200 kDa retention rating membrane.Group B was treated with BAL containing 1200 kDa retention rating membrane.Each group underwent two six-hour BAL treatments that were performed on day 1 and day 21.BAL medium were examined and levels of IgG,IgM,and complement hemolytic unit of 50%(CH50)antibodies were measured in all Beagles and.Results BAL treatment was associated with a significant decline in levels of CH50.1200 kDa group experienced a significant increase in levels of IgG and IgM after two BAL treatments.Significant levels of canine proteins were detected in BAL medium from 1200 kDa group.Conclusions Xenogeneic immune response in the BAL system was influenced by membrane molecular weight cut off.%目的 探讨膜截流分子量对新型生物人工肝(bioartificial liver,BAL)支持系统免疫安全性的影响.方法 应用D氨基半乳糖静脉滴注比格犬建立肝功能衰竭模型.急性肝功能衰竭犬根据BAL隔离膜截流分子量的大小分为两组:A组:200 kD组;B组:1200 kD组.两组均接受新型2次BAL治疗,每次6h.观察各组体内IgG、IgM、50%补体溶血单位(CH50)变化及反应器内抗体漏过情况.结果 在第一次BAL治疗后两组的IgG和IgM水平均没有发生明显的变化.在第2次治疗后第7天,1200 kD组的IgG和IgM水平明显升高,200 kD组IgG和IgM水平仍未出现明显上升或下降.在第一次BAL治疗后,两组CH50都出现暂时性的下降,在治疗后1h达到最低值,而后缓步上升,在7d后恢复至治疗前水平.反应器内培养液中IgG、IgM及CH50检测结果显示,1200 kD组在治疗结束后IgG、IgM及CH50

  11. Effect of Body Mass Index on All-cause Mortality and Incidence of Cardiovascular Diseases - Report for Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies on Optimal Cut-off Points of Body Mass Index in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To verify the optimal cut-off points for overweight and obesity in Chinese adults based on the relationship of baseline body mass index (BMI) to all-cause mortality, and incidence of cardiovascular diseases from pooled data of Chinese cohorts. Methods The prospective study data of existing cohort studies in China were collected, and the age-adjusted all-cause mortality stratified by BMI were estimated. The similar analysis was repeated after excluding deaths within the first three years of follow-up and after excluding smokers. The incidence of age-adjusted coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke stratified by BMI were also analyzed. Multiple Cox regression coefficients of BMI for the incidence of CHD and stroke after controlling other risk factors were pooled utilizing the methods of weighting by inverse of variance to reveal whether BMI had independent effect and its strength on the incidence of CHD and stroke. Results The data of 4 cohorts including 76 227persons, with 745 346 person-years of follow-up were collected and analyzed. The age-adjusted allcause mortality stratified by BMI showed a U-shaped curve, even after excluding deaths within the first three years of follow-up and excluding smokers. Age-adjusted all-cause mortality increased when BMI was lower than 18.5 and higher than 28. The incidence of CHD and stroke, especially ishemic stroke increased with increasing BMI, this was consistent with parallel increasing of risk factors. Cox regression analysis showed that BMI was an independent risk factor for both CHD and stroke. Each amount of 2 kg/m2 increase in baseline BMI might cause 15.4%, 6.1% and 18.8 % increase in relative risk of CHD, total stroke and ischemic stroke. Reduction of BMI to under 24 might prevent the incidence of CHD by 11% and that of stroke by15 % for men, and 22 % of both diseases for women. Conclusion BMI ≤18.5, 24-27.9 and ≥28 (kg/m2) is the appropriate cut-off points for underweight, overweight and obesity in

  12. Waist circumference and body composition in relation to all-cause mortality in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, J; Frederiksen, K; Tjønneland, A; Thomsen, B L; Overvad, K; Heitmann, B L; Sørensen, T I A

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Waist circumference is directly related to all-cause mortality when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). Body fat and fat-free body mass, when mutually adjusted, show with increasing values an increasing and decreasing relation to all-cause mortality. We investigated the association of ...

  13. A quasi-discreteness approximation is employed to study analytically spatially localized voltage oscillations in a discrete electrical lattice. We show that the system may support new types of gap solitons as well as upper cut-off solitons (intrinsic localized modes), both nonlinear localized modes having a zero group velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quasi-discreteness approximation is employed to study analytically spatially localized voltage oscillations in a discrete electrical lattice. We show that the system may support new types of gap solitons as well as upper cut-off solitons (intrinsic localized modes), both nonlinear localized modes having a zero group velocity. (author)

  14. The PCA3 test for guiding repeat biopsy of prostate cancer and its cut-off score: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Luo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The specificity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA for early intervention in repeat biopsy is unsatisfactory. Prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3 may be more accurate in outcome prediction than other methods for the early detection of prostate cancer (PCa. However, the results were inconsistent in repeated biopsies. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the role of PCA3 in outcome prediction. A systematic bibliographic search was conducted for articles published before April 2013, using PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Embase and other databases from health technology assessment agencies. The quality of the studies was assessed on the basis of QUADAS criteria. Eleven studies of diagnostic tests with moderate to high quality were selected. A meta-analysis was carried out to synthesize the results. The results of the meta-analyses were heterogeneous among studies. We performed a subgroup analysis (with or without inclusion of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN and atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP. Using a PCA3 cutoff of 20 or 35, in the two sub-groups, the global sensitivity values were 0.93 or 0.80 and 0.79 or 0.75, specificities were 0.65 or 0.44 and 0.78 or 0.70, positive likelihood ratios were 1.86 or 1.58 and 2.49 or 1.78, negative likelihood ratios were 0.81 or 0.43 and 0.91 or 0.82 and diagnostic odd ratios (ORs were 5.73 or 3.45 and 7.13 or 4.11, respectively. The areas under the curve (AUCs of the summary receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.85 or 0.72 and 0.81 or 0.69, respectively. PCA3 can be used for repeat biopsy of the prostate to improve accuracy of PCa detection. Unnecessary biopsies can be avoided by using a PCa cutoff score of 20.

  15. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study Referencias antropométricas de los adolescentes bolivianos de 12 a 18 años: estatura, peso, circunferencia del brazo, muñeca y abdominal, índice de masa corporal: Percentiles de adolescentes bolivianos (PAB del estudio MESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baya Botti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policymaking at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clusters from urban and rural areas were selected randomly considering population proportions, 3445 school going adolescents, 12 to 18 y, 45% males; 55% females underwent anthropometric evaluation by trained personnel using standardized protocols for all interviews and examinations. Weight, height, wrist, arm and abdominal circumference data were collected. Body Mass Index was calculated. Smoothed age- and gender specific 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th Bolivian adolescent percentiles(BAP and Charts(BAC where derived using LMS regression. Percentile-based reference data for the antropometrics of for Bolivian Adolescents are presented for the first time.La antropometría es una herramienta clínica importante para el seguimiento individual de los pacientes así como para la planificación de políticas públicas. En Bolivia no existen referencias antropométricas nacionales para adolescentes. El objetivo de este estudio transversal fue de desarrollar percentiles y diagramas de crecimiento para peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, circunferencia de muñeca, brazo y abdominal de adolescentes bolivianos. Los datos antropométricos en el estudio MESA (Síndrome metabólico en adolescentes bolivianos fueron obtenidos a partir de 32 unidades muestrales, considerando proporcionalidad muestral con reposición. Fueron evaluados 3445 adolescentes de 12 a 18, 45% hombres; 55% mujeres, de colegios de

  16. Head Circumferences in Twins with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Wendy; Cleveland, Sue; Torres, Andrea; Phillips, Jennifer; Cohen, Brianne; Torigoe, Tiffany; Miller, Janet; Fedele, Angie; Collins, Jack; Smith, Karen; Lotspeich, Linda; Croen, Lisa A.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lajonchere, Clara; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    To determine the genetic relationship between head circumference (HC) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Twin pairs with at least one twin with an ASD were assessed. HCs in affected and unaffected individuals were compared, as were HC correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs. 404 subjects, ages 4-18, were included. 20% of males and 27%…

  17. Measurement error of waist circumference: gaps in knowledge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Proper, K.I.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is not clear whether measuring waist circumference in clinical practice is problematic because the measurement error is unclear, as well as what constitutes a clinically relevant change. The present study aimed to summarize what is known from state-of-the-art research. Design: To ident

  18. Measurement error of waist circumference: Gaps in knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Proper, K.I.; Hulshof, C.T.; Mechelen, W.V. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective It is not clear whether measuring waist circumference in clinical practice is problematic because the measurement error is unclear, as well as what constitutes a clinically relevant change. The present study aimed to summarize what is known from state-of-the-art research. Design To identif

  19. Head Circumference in Autism, Asperger Syndrome and ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Occipitofrontal circumference (OFC, measured at birth and after 16 months of age, was compared in 50 consecutive patients with Asperger syndrome, 50 diagnosed with autistic disorder, and 50 with ADHD and followed at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Goteborg University, Sweden.

  20. Head Circumference in Autism, Asperger Syndrome and ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    Occipitofrontal circumference (OFC), measured at birth and after 16 months of age, was compared in 50 consecutive patients with Asperger syndrome, 50 diagnosed with autistic disorder, and 50 with ADHD and followed at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Goteborg University, Sweden.

  1. Methodology for adjusting scrotal circumference to 365 or 452 days of age and correlations of scrotal circumference with growth traits in beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D J; Spitzer, J C; Bridges, W C; Olson, L W

    1996-09-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted on data collected from 1983 through 1991, where weight and hip height were measured at start of test and every 28 d on 604 bulls completing a 224-d forage-based gain test. Scrotal circumference (SC) was measured at start of test, and at either end of test or end of the weigh period after individual bulls reached 365 d of age. Over 3 yr of this study, SC was additionally measured every 28 d. Bulls were representatives of 5 breed groups: Angus, Santa Gertrudis, Simmental, Continental (predominantly Charolais), and Zebu (predominantly Simbrah). Adjusted 365-d SC and adjusted 452-d SC were calculated by regression analysis and from formulas based on SC growth of individuals to 140 and 224 d on test, respectively. Breed group differences were observed for age of dam, birth weight, hip height, weight per day of age, average daily gain and SC at start of test, 140 d, and end of test (224 d). Scrotal circumference was positively correlated with all growth traits. Scrotal circumference was related to breed group, age, weight, hip height, average daily gain, weight per day of age, age by year, and age-by-breed group (P<0.05), as determined by regression analysis. However, omitting weight, hip height, average daily gain, and weight per day of age from the regression model did not significantly affect R2 value. Scrotal circumference growth was linear to 140 d on test; however, SC growth to 224 d on test was curvilinear. The 365-d SC predicted from the formula and from regression analysis differed for Simmental and Zebu by 0.3 and 0.4 cm, respectively (P<0.05). The 452-d SC differed for Santa Gertrudis and Zebu by 0.5 and 0.6 cm, respectively (P<0.05). Formulas based on SC growth of individuals are reasonably accurate predictors of SC at 365 and 452 d of age, when compared with more complex regression analysis. Basing SC adjustments on individual growth appears to account for variables known to affect yearling SC. PMID:16727931

  2. Cutting off Mediation. Agamben as Master Thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Deuber-Mankowsky

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Agamben’s Homo Sacer turns centrally upon “bare life”. However, the following subjects are not thematized: natality, gender, sexuality, the relation of the sexes, the heterosexual character of the symbolic order and political culture, the interest of women in the reproduction of life. The entire question of sexual difference —like that of the difference between victim and perpetrator, between witnesses and those born afterwards— is banned from Agamben’s horizon. Thus a deep unease remains, which this paper is intended to explore. It will first present the methodological and theoretical inspirations, which Homo Sacer owes to the thought of Carl Schmitt. Secondly it will show that Schmitt’s concepts of nomos and the state of exception cannot provide a suitable basis for rewriting Foucault’s concept of biopolitics.

  3. Congenital Hypothyroidism: An Audit and Study of Different Cord Blood Screening TSH Values in a Tertiary Medical Centre in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Lyn Jeanne Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mothers are often discharged within 24 hours in most Asian countries. Therefore, our screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism (CH must consider the value of cord blood TSH. Our objectives were to compare the incidence of CH, positive predictive values, and recall rates using different cord blood TSH values. We also reviewed the results of the second-screening program for premature babies. 99.7% (n=25,757 of all newborns were screened from 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2013. Babies with cord blood TSH > 25 mIU/L or 20–25 mIU/L and FT430 mIU/L and six had values 25.1–30 mIU/L. Lowering the recall cut-off value to 20 mIU/L would double the recall rate from 0.63% (n=163 to 1.3% (n=340 with no additional cases detected, whereas using 30 mIU/L would have missed 35% of cases. The incidence of CH was similar, 1:1515, when using either cut-off 20 mIU/L or cut-off 25 mIU/L but lower, 1:2380, when using 30 mIU/L. We recommend the screening cord blood TSH cut-off should be 25 mIU/L and screening for premature babies should be continued.

  4. Clinical significance in squamous cell lung cancer patients with serum CYFRA21-1 and SCC by ROC curve and cut-off theory%肺鳞癌患者血清CYFRA21-1和SCC检测及ROC曲线和截断点的理论分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 刘彬; 朱莉莉; 张薇

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨血清细胞角蛋白19片段(CYFRA21-1)抗原和鳞癌抗原(SCC)对肺鳞癌的临床意义.方法:将研究对象分组,试验组为102例肺鳞癌患者,对照组为53例良性肺病患者.分别采用电化学发光法和酶联免疫法检测血清CYFRA21-1及SCC,测定值用t检验,率比较用x2检验.接受者工作特征(ROC)曲线及截断点选择理论评估CYFRA21-1及SCC的临床价值.结果:肺鳞癌组与良性肺病组CYFRA21-1和SCC水平差异有统计学意义;CYFRA21-1以3.3 ng/mL、SCC以1.5 ng/mL为诊断临界点,CYFRA21-1诊断肺鳞癌敏感性为57.84%,特异性为92.45%,准确性为69.68%,ROC曲线下面积为0.788;SCC诊断肺鳞癌敏感性为33.33%,特异性为92.45%,准确性为53.55%,ROC曲线下面积为0.691;CYFRA21-1诊断肺鳞癌最佳截断点为2.485或2.365 ng/mL,对应敏感性和特异性分别为65.7%、92.5%和67.6%、90.6%;SCC诊断肺鳞癌最佳截断点为0.55 ng/mL,对应敏感性和特异性分别为72.5%和62.3%.随肺鳞癌分期增高,CYFRA21-1和SCC浓度增高差异有统计学意义,CYFRA21-1敏感性增高差异有统计学意义,SCC敏感性无明显变化.结论:CYFRA21-1对肺鳞癌的诊断具有较高的临床价值,而SCC对肺鳞癌的诊断价值较低.%OBJECTIVE: To make further efforts and investigate the clinical significance of cytokeratin fragment 19 (CYFRA21-l)and squamous cell carcinoma antigen(SCC) of serum tumor markers (TM) in the diagnosis of squamous cell lung cancer patients. METHODS: The subjects were divided into two groups: the squamous cell lung cancer group (102 patients) and the benign lung disease group(53 patients). The electric chemisty irradiance was used to examine blood serum CYFRA21-1 and SCC was examined by ELISA. The results were examined by z-test, and the rate comparison were examined by Chi-square test. Receiver operator characteristic curve and cut-off choice theory were used to value the results. RESULTS: Significant

  5. Neck circumference as an anthropometric measure of obesity in diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Jagadamba Aswathappa; Sumit Garg; Karthiyanee Kutty; Vinutha Shankar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with visceral subcutaneous fat content. Neck circumference (NC) is a marker of upper body subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare NC in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate NC with other anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 350 type 2 diabetics and 350 non-diabetics of >30 years of age. Anthro...

  6. Circumference and COD control algorithm of NewSUBARU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We renewed a closed orbit correction program for NewSUBARU. We use a new horizontal orbit correction algorithm with a circumference control. A response matrix in the program is calculated using the correct equation of the response in an electron storage ring. It made the correction process faster and more stable. It also eliminated an interference with the control program of RF frequency. (author)

  7. Association of older women’s limb circumferences and muscle mass as estimated with bioelectrical impedance

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannon, Richard W; Chu, Johnson; Steffl, Michal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between three practical measures used to characterize muscle mass: mid-arm circumference, maximum calf circumference, and muscle mass index determined using bioimpedance analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight ambulatory women residing in a senior center (mean age, 83 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mid-arm circumference and maximum calf circumference were measured bilaterally and they all unde...

  8. Evaluation of neck circumference as a predictor of central obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xuhong; Zhang, Ning; Yu, Caiguo; Ji, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether neck circumference (NC) could be used as a valid and effective method for identifying obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 3307 adults aged 20-65 years were randomly recruited from two communities of Tongzhou, Beijing. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), neck circumference (NC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerid...

  9. Hip circumference and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Frederiksen, Peder; Lissner, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    waist circumference, predicted less incidence of CVD, CHD, and total death in women. This was not the case in men; BMI and waist circumference were the strongest independent predictors. DISCUSSION: A large hip circumference seems to have independent and positive effects on CVD and CHD morbidity and...

  10. Evaluation of the reference value for the Montenegro skin test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cissiara Manetti Skraba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:INTRODUCTION:The Montenegro skin test (MST has good clinical applicability and low cost for the diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL. However, no studies have validated the reference value (5mm typically used to discriminate positive and negative results. We investigated MST results and evaluated its performance using different cut-off points.METHODS:The results of laboratory tests for 4,256 patients with suspected ATL were analyzed, and 1,182 individuals were found to fulfill the established criteria. Two groups were formed. The positive cutaneous leishmaniasis (PCL group included patients with skin lesions and positive direct search for parasites (DS results. The negative cutaneous leishmaniasis (NCL group included patients with skin lesions with evolution up to 2 months, negative DS results, and negative indirect immunofluorescence assay results who were residents of urban areas that were reported to be probable sites of infection at domiciles and peridomiciles.RESULTS:The PCL and NCL groups included 769 and 413 individuals, respectively. The mean ± standard deviation MST in the PCL group was 12.62 ± 5.91mm [95% confidence interval (CI: 12.20-13.04], and that in the NCL group was 1.43 ± 2.17mm (95% CI: 1.23-1.63. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis indicated 97.4% sensitivity and 93.9% specificity for a cut-off of 5mm and 95.8% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity for a cut-off of 6mm.CONCLUSIONS:Either 5mm or 6mm could be used as the cut-off value for diagnosing ATL, as both values had high sensitivity and specificity.

  11. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI, Body Adiposity Index (BAI, Waist Circumference (WC, Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR and Waist-To-Height Ratio (WHtR as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Chih Chiang Lam

    Full Text Available Excess adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Amongst the various measures of adiposity, the best one to help predict these risk factors remains contentious. A novel index of adiposity, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI was proposed in 2011, and has not been extensively studied in all populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR, Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR, Body Adiposity Index (BAI and CVD risk factors in the local adult population.This is a cross sectional study involving 1,891 subjects (Chinese 59.1% Malay 22.2%, Indian 18.7%, aged 21-74 years, based on an employee health screening (2012 undertaken at a hospital in Singapore. Anthropometric indices and CVD risk factor variables were measured, and Spearman correlation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves and multiple logistic regressions were used. BAI consistently had the lower correlation, area under ROC and odd ratio values when compared with BMI, WC and WHtR, although differences were often small with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for BMI, BAI did not further increase the odds of CVD risk factors, unlike WC and WHtR (for all except hypertension and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. When subjects with the various CVD risk factors were grouped according to established cut-offs, a BMI of ≥23.0 kg/m2 and/or WHtR ≥0.5 identified the highest proportion for all the CVD risk factors in both genders, even higher than a combination of BMI and WC.BAI may function as a measure of overall adiposity but it is unlikely to be better than BMI. A combination of BMI and WHtR could have the best clinical utility in identifying patients with CVD risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

  12. Association of Neck Circumference with Obesity in Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandreou, Dimitrios; Noor, Zujaja Tul; Rashed, Maitha; Jaberi, Hadeel Al

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity levels have been dramatically increased in the United Arab Emirates over the last few years. High levels of body Mass Index, waist circumference, and percent of total body fat as a measure of obesity have found to be related to cardiovascular risk factors and other diseases. Neck circumference is a new tool that has been linked to obesity. However, no studies in UAE have been conducted yet. AIM: The purpose of this study was to measure the obesity levels in a college population and to correlate them with NC and other anthropometrical indexes. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: Two hundred forty three (243) female students aged 18-25 were conveniently selected to participate in the study. Anthropometrical indexes were obtained from all subjects e after fasting. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity together was found to be 28.4 % (n = 69). Pearson correlation showed that WC, NC and BF (%) were significantly positively related to obesity, (r = 0.790; r = 0.758; r = 0.767, p < 0.001), respectively. In multiple regression analysis, only NC (Beta: 1.627, 95 %CI: 0.370, 2.846, p < 0.001) and WC (Beta: 0.464, 95 %CI: 0.135, 0.664, p < 0.001) were found to be independently associated with obesity. CONCLUSION: NC was found to be independently associated with obesity levels in Emirati college students.

  13. Standardized reference of waist circumference among children and adolescents in Beijing using the LMS Method%北京市儿童青少年腰围正常值LMS法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕若然; 孟灵慧; 孙颖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the standardized reference of waist circumference (WC) among children and adolescents in Beijing.Method Stratified by rural and urban areas,level of economic status,a total of 9 421 students aged in 6-22years from 40 primary and middle schools and 2 colleges in 6 districts of Beijing were investigated.The reference intervals were calculated using the LMS method.Results WC was increasing by age in boys aged 7-22 years old; the same trend was in girls before 12 years old.At 18 years old,average WC was 76.62 cm in boys and 72.55 cm in girls.The WC was highest in obese students,followed by overweight and normal-weight students.WC cut-off values for screening overweight and obesity was 79.72 cm and 89.35 cm in boys aged 18 and 74.38 cm and 84.40 cm in girls,respectively.Conclusion Standardized reference of WC for screening overweight and obesity by using the LMS method is reliable.It can be used in Beijing.%目的 通过分析2010年北京市学生体质健康调研结果,建立北京市儿童腰围筛查分类标准.方法 按城乡、经济水平分层,调查北京市6个区40所中小学校和2所大学的7 ~ 22岁大中小学生8 795名.按照《2010年全国学生体质健康调研工作手册》规定的方法进行身体测量,以LMS法计算性别年龄别腰围各百分位数值,并绘制LMS曲线,建立北京市儿童青少年腰围正常值.结果 北京市7 ~22岁男生腰围随年龄的增加而增大,女生在12岁以前呈现同样趋势,但之后趋于稳定.18岁男、女生腰围分别为76.62 cm和72.55 cm.不同BMI组别间腰围均值不同,肥胖组>超重组>正常组.北京市18岁男生超重/肥胖的腰围筛查标准是79.72 cm和89.31 cm,女生分别是74.38 cm和84.40 cm.结论 LMS法建立的北京市儿童青少年腰围筛查标准准确,可以在北京地区推广使用.

  14. Negative predictive value of procalcitonin in medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo Kyung; Guéchot, Jérôme; Vaubourdolle, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Calcitonin (CT), the major biochemical marker in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is prone to in vitro instability and suffers from scarcity of clinical laboratory platforms. Procalcitonin (PCT), the precursor of CT, free of these shortcomings, has been reported as a potential MTC marker. The aim of this study was to assess the negative predictive value (NPV) of PCT as a first-line marker in MTC. 476 serum samples referred to our laboratory for CT measurements were analyzed for PCT. NPVs of PCT were assessed at 3 cut-offs (0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 ng/mL) and the diagnosis of MTC was based on CT levels. PCT and CT levels were correlated (r=0.7554 for CT levels above 10 pg/mL, n=66). Accepting the CT cut-off based on the upper reference limit the NPV of PCT were 98.1% (0.05 ng/mL), 96.3% (0.10 ng/mL) and 95.4% (0.15 ng/mL) respectively. For a CT cut-off of 100 pg/mL the NPVs of PCT were 100% for all PCT thresholds. Serum PCT has a strong NPV and could be a good candidate for a first-line screening test to exclude MTC in patients with suspicious thyroid nodules or suggestive symptoms. Larger prospective studies are necessary to confirm our results. PMID:26806393

  15. A STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WEIGHT, HEIGHT, HEAD & CHEST CIRCUMFERENCE IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 3 TO 5 YEARS IN THE MALWA REGION OF MADHYA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wankhede

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : The growth & development are the important attributes of childhood. The studies on physical development & growth of infants & children are important as they are determinants of a nation’s health. The appr eciation of progress of any country in the field of health can be made from time to time with the help of such studies. The principal aim of the nutritional assessment of a community is to map out the magnitude & geographic distribution of malnutrition & a public health problem to find out the ecological factor & where possible to suggest appropriate corrective measures. AIMS & OBJECTIVES : To determine the anthropometric measurements of the pre - school age children in both sexes, to study the growth spurt & velocity of growth in the children between 3 & 5 years, to construct selected percentiles of the various measurements for boys & girls in Malwa region & to compare the figures obtained by anthropometric studies with those determined by other workers in th e different regions. MATERIALS & METHOD: A cross sectional study of weight, height, circumference of head, chest & arm of school going children ranging from 3 to 5 years in age was carried out in the city of Indore. Total 1, 000 children, belonging to both low & high socio - economic status, were examined. OBSERVATIONS: The mean values of head & chest circumferences shows a gradual increase with in both sexes. The mean value of the mid - arm circumference also shows an increase with increasing age on both sexes . As regards the height, the mean value is a bit higher in females at 3 . 5 years & 4 . 5 years as compared to Males at 3, 3 . 5, 4 & 5 years of age. The mean values of weight are more in females than males at the age of 4, 4 . 5 & 5 years. SUMMARY & CONCLUSION : A nthropometric studies were carried out in all children uniformly by determining weight, height and circumferences of head, chest & mid - arm. The head & chest circumferences equalizes at the age of 3

  16. Neck circumference as a potential marker of metabolic syndrome among college students1

    OpenAIRE

    Dayse Christina Rodrigues Pereira; Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo; Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire de Freitas; Carla Regina de Souza Teixeira; Maria Lúcia Zanetti; Marta Maria Coelho Damasceno

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to relate neck circumference with metabolic syndrome and its criteria among college students. METHOD: cross-sectional study conducted with 702 college students in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil from September 2010 to June 2011. Socio-demographic data, waist circumference and neck circumference were collected together with blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride levels, and HDL-C. RESULTS: 1.7% of the studied sample presented metabolic syndrome. Of these, 58.3% presented altered ne...

  17. Waist circumference and insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study of Japanese men

    OpenAIRE

    Hamachi Tadamichi; Yoshimitsu Shinichiro; Tabata Shinji; Abe Hiroshi; Ohnaka Keizo; Kono Suminori

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Visceral obesity is positively related to insulin resistance. The nature of the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance has not been known in Japanese populations. This study examined the relationship between waist circumference and insulin resistance and evaluated the optimal cutoff point for waist circumference in relation to insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. Methods Study subjects included 4800 Japanese men aged 39 to 60 years. Insu...

  18. Clinical utility of calf front hoof circumference and maternal intrapelvic area in predicting dystocia in 103 late gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Mark W H; Megahed, Ameer A; Townsend, Jonathan R; Singleton, Wayne L; Constable, Peter D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical utility of measuring calf front hoof circumference, maternal intrapelvic area, and selected morphometric values in predicting dystocia in dairy cattle. An observational study using a convenience sample of 103 late-gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows was performed. Intrapelvic height and width of the dam were measured using a pelvimeter, and the intrapelvic area was calculated. Calf front hoof circumference and birth weight were also measured. Data were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs), Mann-Whitney U test, and binary or ordered logistic regression; P 0.068 cm/cm(2)). Determining the ratio of calf front hoof circumference to maternal intrapelvic area has clinical utility in predicting the calving difficulty score in Holstein-Friesian cattle. PMID:26474687

  19. The Brazilian hazard-based cut-off criteria for pesticide registration: a critical appraisal / Critérios de exclusão baseados em perigo adotados no Brasil para registro de pesticidas: Uma avalição crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, the world’s top consumer of agricultural pesticides, adopts a unique hazard-based cut-off approach to pesticide registration. Cut-off criteria for mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, hormonal disturbances and damage to reproductive organs were introduced by the Pesticide Law enacted in 1989. As far as health is concerned, law enforcement is additionally regulated by rules issued by the federal health authority (National Agency for Health Surveillance – ANVISA. Contrasting to the European Union’s hazard-based cut-off criteria for pesticides, Brazilian rules do not make an exception for “negligible” exposures. Moreover, Brazilian regulations have shortcomings (e.g. no reference to relevance of Mode of Action to humans that make cut-off criteria difficult to be put into effect. The deficiencies of regulations and difficulties to consistently apply the hazard-based cut-off criteria are appraised in this article. Adoption of a risk assessment approach or cut-off criteria based on classification into the Globally Harmonized System’s hazard categories 1A and 1B is suggested. Resumo O Brasil, líder mundial do consumo de agro-químicos, adota uma singular abordagem para registro de agrotóxicos que é baseada em critérios de exclusão quanto à periculosidade. Critérios de exclusão para mutagenicidade, carcinogenicidade, teratogenicidade, distúrbios hormonais e dano a órgãos reprodutivos foram introduzidos pela Lei de Agrotóxicos promulgada em 1989. Em relação à saúde, a aplicação da lei é também regulada por portarias publicadas pela autoridade sanitária federal (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária – ANVISA. Em contraste com os critérios de exclusão baseados na periculosidade que a União Européia usa para agrotóxicos, a regulamentação brasileira não faz exceção para exposições insignificantes. Além disso, a regulamentação brasileira apresenta deficiências (e.g., não faz men

  20. Comparison of Relative Waist Circumference between Asian Indian and US Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet S. Bajaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Relative to Europeans, Asian Indians have higher rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Whether differences in body composition may underlie these population differences remains unclear. Methods. We compared directly measured anthropometric data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES survey of southern Indians (I with those from three US ethnic groups (C: Caucasians, A: African Americans, and M: Mexican Americans from NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 15,733 subjects from CURES and 5,975 from NHANES III met inclusion criteria (age 20–39, no known diabetes. Results. Asian Indian men and women had substantially lower body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and body surface area relative to US groups (P values <0.0001. In contrast, the mean (±se waist-weight ratio was significantly higher (P<0.001 in I (men 1.35 ± 0.002 and women 1.45 ± 0.002 than in all the US groups (1.09, 1.21, and 1.14 in A, M, and C men; 1.23, 1.33, and 1.26 in A, M, and C women (se ranged from 0.005 to 0.006. Conclusions. Compared to the US, the waist-weight ratio is significantly higher in men and women from Chennai, India. These results support the hypothesis that Southeast Asian Indians are particularly predisposed toward central adiposity.

  1. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Gómez-Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of waist circumference (WC is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders.

  2. Body mass index a better predictor of insulin resistance than waist circumference in normoglycemics

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    B.L. Preethi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body Mass Index (BMI is the most common method of measuring obesity. Many studies have reported that waist circumference is a stronger predictor of insulin resistance in non-type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was to investigate whether waist circumference (WC or body mass index (BMI is a better predictor insulin resistance. Method: 79 normal young adult volunteers in the age range of 18 to 25 years were enrolled for the Study. All subjects underwent a detailed general physical examination including Blood Pressure, body weight, height, hip & waist circumference. BMI (Body Mass Index, waist and hip circumference & waist hip ratio calculated. 2hr OGTT with serum Insulin was performed and Insulin resistance calculated. Result: Simple clinical measures of obesity like height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and their indexes like BMI (body mass index, WHR (waist hip ratio were evaluated and correlated with the measures of Insulin resistance (IR and insulin sensitivity. BMI was found to significantly correlate with most of the IR parameters and there was a trend towards significance with weight. Waist circumference did not correlate significantly with IR parameters. Conclusion: Body Mass Index (BMI is a useful tool in evaluating obesity in normoglycemic subjects. BMI is a better predictor of Insulin Resistance and risk stratification than waist circumference.

  3. A Study on Causes and Types of Abnormal Increase in Infants’ Head Circumference in Kashan/Iran

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    Ahmad TALEBIAN

    2013-08-01

    , Erzen C. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of benign macrocephaly in children. J Child Neurol 1999;14(10:678-82.13. Smith R, Leonidas JC, Maytal J. The value of head ultrasound in infants with macrocephaly. Pediatr Radiol 1998;28(3:143-6.14. Day RE, Schutt WH. Normal children with large heads benign familial megalencephaly. Arch Dis Child 1979;54(7:512-7.15. Kumar R. External hydrocephalus in small children. Childs Nerv Syst 2006;22(10:1237-41.16. Rollins JD, Collins JS, Holden KR. United states head circumference growth reference charts: birth to 21 years. J Pediatr 2010;156(6:907-13.17. Medina LS, Frawley K, Zurakowski D, Buttros D, DeGrauw AJ, Crone KR. Children with macrocrania: Clinical and imaging predictors of disorders requiring surgery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001;22(3:564-70.18. Lorber J, Priestly BL. Children with large heads: a practical approach to diagnosis in 557 children, with special reference to 109 children with megalencephaly. Dev Med Child Neurol 1981;23(4:494-504.19. Zahl SM, Wester K. Routine measurement of head circumference as a tool for detecting intracranial expansion in infants: what is the gain? A nationwide survey. Pediatrics 2008;121(3:e416-20.20. Alvarez LA, Maytal J, Shinnar S. Idiopathic external hydrocephalus: natural history and relationship to benignfamilial macrocephaly. Pediatrics 1986;77(6:901-7.21. Yew AY, Maher CO, Muraszko KM, garton HJ. Longterm health status in benign external hydrocephalus. Pediatr Neurosurg 2011;47(1:1-6.22. Muenchberger H, Assad N, Joy P, Brunsdon R, Shores EA. Idiopathic macrocephaly in the infant: long-term neurological and neuropsychological outcome. Childs Nerv Syst 2006;22(10:1242-48.

  4. Amplitude no fósforo microbiano em um Argissolo em pastagem nativa submetida à roçada e à introdução de espécies forrageiras com fertilização fosfatada em diferentes épocas = Microbial phosphorus fluctuation in a Hapludalf under natural pasture, with cut off and forage species introduction, fertilized in different times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo dos Santos Rheinheimer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Em solos com elevado grau de intemperismo, a imobilização temporária de fósforo pela biomassa microbiana do solo (BMS pode ser um mecanismo de retardamento das reações de adsorção. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a amplitude no fósforo microbiano (Pmem um Argissolo em pastagem nativa submetida à roçada, introdução de forrageiras exóticas e adubadas com fertilizantes fosfatados. O estudo foi desenvolvido a partir de um experimento instalado em 1997 que constava de cinco tratamentos de fosfato e calagem (testemunha semfósforo; hiperfosfato de gafsa; superfosfato triplo; superfosfato triplo + calcário e superfosfato simples + calcário, distribuídos em quatro blocos ao acaso. Em junho de 2002, a pastagem nativaremanescente foi roçada, semeada a pastagem de inverno e as parcelas originais foram divididas em três subparcelas. A reposição dos fertilizantes fosfatados foi feita em três épocas, uma em cadasubparcela: sem reaplicação; reaplicação após a roçada da pastagem nativa remanescente (outonojunho; e reaplicação após a roçada da forrageira hibernal (primavera-novembro. A primeira avaliação do Pm foi feita 16 dias antes da primeira roçada, considerando o reinício doexperimento (0 dia. A partir daí, coletaram-se amostras de solo aos 25, 36, 55, 82, 111, 139, 163, 171, 181, 197, 219, 229, 248, 274 e 316 dias após o reinício do experimento. O corte das forrageiras induziu à imobilização de fósforo pela biomassa microbiana do solo. Parte do fósforo adicionado, via fertilizantes, foi imobilizado temporariamente pela biomassa microbiana do solo.In very weathered soils, the temporary phosphorus immobilization by soil microbial biomass (SMB could be a mechanism to reduce P adsorption. This study was carried out to evaluate the microbial phosphorus (Pm content fluctuation in a Hapludalf under natural pasture with cut off and exotic forage species introduction and fertilized with phosphorus fertilizers

  5. Prognostic Value of Gc-Globulin in Chinese Patients with Acute-On-Chronic Hepatitis B Liver Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine dynamic Gc-globulin level change in Acute-on-Chronic Hepatitis B Liver Failure (ACHBLF) patients, and evaluate the prognostic value of Gc-globulin. Study Design: An analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, from January 2010 to December 2012. Methodology: A total of 54 consecutive Chinese ACHBLF patients and 30 healthy volunteers as controls were recruited from 2010 to 2012. The patients were divided into improved group and aggravated group. Gc-globulin levels were determined in both groups and mean values compared with significance at p < 0.05. Cut-off value was also determined. Results: The Gc-globulin level was significantly decreased in ACHBLF patients (p < 0.001). Gc-globulin levels were significantly higher in improved patients than in aggravated patients, and a 215 mg/L cut-off value carried the best prognostic information. On longitudinal observations, Gc-globulin gradually elevated in improved groups. However, in aggravated groups, the Gc-globulin levels were always below normal levels and no significant change was observed before or after the treatment (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Gc-globulin monitoring offers a rapid and accurate method to estimate treatment outcomes on admission and an effective temporal indicator of curative effects in ACHBLF patients at an optimal cut-off value of 215 mg/L. (author)

  6. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis Polymeris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20–83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25–29.9 as overweight and with BMI ≥ 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (r=0.95, P 44.0 cm could be recognized as having BMI ≥ 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1 cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ≥ 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI.

  7. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeris, Antonis; Papapetrou, Peter D; Katsoulis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20-83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25-29.9 as overweight and with BMI ≥ 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC) of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (r = 0.95, P 44.0 cm could be recognized as having BMI ≥ 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1 cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ≥ 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI. PMID:26556418

  8. Identifying Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Using Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Camhi, PhD

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionMetabolic syndrome is increasing among adolescents. We examined the utility of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference to identify metabolic syndrome in adolescent girls.MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 185 predominantly African American girls who were a median age of 14 years. Participants were designated as having metabolic syndrome if they met criteria for 3 of 5 variables: 1 high blood pressure, 2 low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, 3 high fasting blood glucose level, 4 high waist circumference, and 5 high triglyceride level. We predicted the likelihood of the presence of metabolic syndrome by using previously established cutpoints of BMI and waist circumference. We used stepwise regression analysis to determine whether anthropometric measurements significantly predicted metabolic syndrome.ResultsOf total participants, 18% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. BMI for 118 (64% participants was above the cutpoint. Of these participants, 25% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, whereas only 4% of participants with a BMI below the cutpoint met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (P <.001. Girls with a BMI above the cutpoint were more likely than girls with a BMI below the cutpoint to have metabolic syndrome (P = .002. The waist circumference for 104 (56% participants was above the cutpoint. Of these participants, 28% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, whereas only 1% of participants with a waist circumference below the cutpoint met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (P <.001. Girls with a waist circumference above the cutpoint were more likely than girls with a waist circumference below the cutpoint to have metabolic syndrome (P = .002. Stepwise regression showed that only waist circumference significantly predicted metabolic syndrome.ConclusionBoth anthropometric measures were useful screening tools to identify metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference was a better predictor of

  9. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Antonis Polymeris; Peter D. Papapetrou; Georgios Katsoulis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20–83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25–29.9 as...

  10. Waist circumference as a marker for screening nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Dal Molin, Bárbara; de Carvalho-Ferreira, Joana Pereira; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Tock, Lian; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the relationship between the degree of waist circumference (WC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese adolescents of both genders, analyzed according to quartiles of WC. Methods: Cross-sectional study that involved 247 obese adolescents aged 12–19 years. Mean values of the nutritional parameters and serum analyses were compared with the groups using the independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship of the parameters studied. Chi-square test for trend was used to determine the relationship between the prevalence of the NAFLD and WC quartile by gender. Results: NAFLD were presented in 60% of the study participants. Obese adolescents in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of WC presented higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared with that in the 1st quartile in both genders. The NAFLD patients had significantly higher values for body weight, BMI (body mass index), BAZ-score (BMI-for-age z-scores), total fat (% and kg), WC, visceral fat, insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that an increase in WC can reliably predict the risk of NAFLD in obese adolescents. This is a low cost and easy-to-use tool that can help in screening in adolescents. PMID:26830602

  11. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC, as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011, and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026 were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

  12. The relation between drinking pattern and body mass index and waist and hip circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J S; Heitmann, B. L.; Tjønneland, A M; Overvad, O K; Sørensen, T I A; Grønbaek, M N

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the association between alcohol drinking pattern and obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population study with assessment of quantity and frequency of alcohol intake, waist and hip circumference, height, weight, and lifestyle factors including diet. SUBJECTS: In all, 25 325 men...... and 24 552 women aged 50-65 y from the Diet, Cancer and Health Study, Denmark, 1993-1997 participated in the study. MEASUREMENTS: Drinking frequency, total alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and waist and hip circumference. RESULTS: Among men, total alcohol intake was positively associated with...... high BMI (>/=30 kg/m(2)), large waist circumference (>/=102 cm) and inversely associated with small hip circumference (<100 cm). Among women, the total alcohol was associated with high BMI, large waist (>/=88 cm), and small hips only for the highest intake (28+ drinks/week). The most frequent drinkers...

  13. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  14. Combined influence of leisure time physical activity and hip circumference on all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Grønbæk, Morten; Ängquist, Lars Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    Hip circumference has been shown to be inversely associated with mortality. Muscle atrophy in the gluteofemoral region may be a possible explanation and thus physical activity is likely to play an important role....

  15. Effective cross section values for well-moderated thermal reactor spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document replaces the earlier versions (CRRP-680 and CRRP-787) and now employs the σ (E) information contained in Supplement 1 (1960) of the 2nd edition of BNL-325 and other data privately collected to a cut-off date of April 1, 1960. The compilation is also enlarged to include higher temperatures (thus superseding CRRP-862) and for the first time also includes s-factors calculated using the epithermal cut-off functions exhibiting a maximum at just above the cut-off energy, which have recently been indicated by Swedish and U.K. measurements, as well as by analysis of some calculated spectra. As in the earlier compilation, the notation of the author's Geneva Conference (1958) paper is used, the effective cross section σ being given in terms of the 2200 m/sec. value σo by the relation σ σo (g + rs), where g and s are the factors listed in this compilation and r is a measure of the proportion of epithermal neutrons in the reactor spectrum. (author)

  16. The cross-sectional shape and circumference of the human trachea.

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, S; Myat, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    To design a large-volume, low-pressure cuff it is essential to take into consideration cross-sectional shape and circumference of human trachea. Two hundred adult tracheas were dissected and autopsy specimens examined. Cross-sectional tracheal shapes were studied and their circumference measured. There was a definite correlation between sex and the tracheal shapes studied. Forty five per cent of female tracheas were elliptical in shape and 38% were C shaped. The most common cross-sectional tr...

  17. Human sensory nerve compound action potential amplitude: variation with sex and finger circumference.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, C F; Carter, K M

    1980-01-01

    The amplitude of human, antidromic, sensory compound action potentials (CAP) recorded from median and ulnar digital nerves is greater in females than males. This sex difference is probably due entirely to females having digits of smaller circumference, resulting in digital nerves being closer to the recording ring electrode enclosing the digit. The negative linear correlation between CAP amplitude and circumference holds true for persons of the same sex.

  18. Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management.

    OpenAIRE

    Lean, M E; Han, T.S.; Morrison, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that a single measurement, waist circumference, might be used to identify people at health risk both from being overweight and from having a central fat distribution. DESIGN--A community derived random sample of men and women and a second, validation sample. SETTING--North Glasgow. SUBJECT--904 men and 1014 women (first sample); 86 men and 202 women (validation sample). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Waist circumference, body mass index, waist:hip ratio. RESULTS--Wai...

  19. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Augmented waist circumference (WC) is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether bio-chemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 206 s...

  20. Rendimento da pupunheira em função da densidade de plantio, diâmetro de corte e manejo dos perfilhos no Vale do São Francisco Effect of density, cut-off diameter classes and shoot number on production and yield of irrigated plant peach palm at San Francisco River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Egidio Flori

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o rendimento de palmito de pupunheira irrigada em função da densidade de plantio, diâmetro de corte do estipe e o manejo dos perfilhos, instalou-se um experimento na Estação Experimental de Bebedouro da Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina, PE. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as parcelas constituídas por dois espaçamentos (2,0 x 1,0 m - E1 e 2,0 x 2,0 m - E2 e as subparcelas em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2, compreendendo dois manejos de perfilhos e duas classes de diâmetros de corte. As colheitas foram feitas a partir de 16 meses até os 69 meses após o plantio e realizadas com intervalos consecutivos de mais ou menos três meses. Pelos resultados, evidenciaram-se efeitos significativos para espaçamento, manejo de perfilhos e classe de diâmetro de corte. Não foram constatadas interações entre os tratamentos. Houve efeito significativo de espaçamento sobre o rendimento, diâmetro de corte, comprimento e peso médio do palmito. O rendimento e o peso do palmito da pupunheira foram de 545 e 434 kg ha-1 ano-1 e 147 g e 180 g nos espaçamentos E1 e E2, respectivamente. O diâmetro de corte afetou a altura da planta e peso médio do palmito. O manejo de perfilho afetou o rendimento e o peso médio do palmito, com 532 e 446 kg ha-1 e 177 e 149 g de palmito, respectivamente, no manejo de quatro e todos os perfilhos por planta. Pelos resultados, infere-se, como orientação técnica para os produtores de áreas irrigadas do Submédio São Francisco, o cultivo da pupunha no espaçamento de 2 m x 1 m, o manejo de quatro perfilhos por planta e o corte da planta com diâmetro variando de 10 a 12 cm, a 30 cm do nível do solo.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of planting density, cut-off diameter classes and shoot number on heart of palm production on irrigated peach palm. The experimental layout was a randomized split-plot design with a factorial arrangement

  1. Bacterial brain abscesses: prognostic value of an imaging severity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To assess the correlation between imaging findings [computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and neurological status before and after the treatment of bacterial brain abscesses. Materials and methods: CT and MRI images of 96 patients with brain abscesses were retrospectively evaluated in terms of the number, location and size of lesions, and the presence and extent of perilesional oedema and midline shift. An imaging severity index (ISI) based on these different radiological parameters was calculated. Initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and ISI were assessed and the prognostic value of these two indices was calculated. The Pearson correlation test, Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, together with comparison of ROC analyses and Fisher's exact test were used. Results: There was a negative correlation between ISI and the initial GCS values: ISI increased as the GCS score decreased, indicating an inverse relationship (r = -0.51, p < 0.0001). There was a significant difference between the ISI and GCS scores of patients with an adverse event compared with patients with good recovery. Outcome was significantly worse in patients with initial ISI over the calculated cut-off values of 8 points or GCS scores under the cut-off value of 13 points. Conclusion: ISI is a useful prognostic indicator for bacterial brain abscess patients and correlates strongly with the patient outcome for all parameters studied. ISI score had a better prognostic value than GCS

  2. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez; Paul A Camacho; Daniel D. Cohen; Katherine Rincón-Romero; Laura Alvarado-Jurado; Sandra Pinzón; John Duperly; Patricio López-Jaramillo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents fro...

  3. The prognostic value of pre-operative serum tetranectin, CA-125 and a combined index in women with primary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Claus K; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Mogensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    cancer. Evaluation was by univariate life-tables analyses and the multivariate Cox analysis. In the Cox analyses, the variables were tested respectively in actual values and as dichotomy variables with different cut-off levels: 6.7, 7.3 and 8.2 mg/l for TN, 35, 65, 100 and 165 U/ml for CA125. RESULTS: In...... stages I+II only CA125 was found to be significantly prognostic, whereas TN was of no prognostic value by univariate statistics. For stages III+IV patients significantly better survivals were found for patients with TN levels above the respective cut-offs compared to patients with low TN levels, whereas...... no significant value was found for CA125 by univariate statistics. In the Cox analyses, FIGO stage was the strongest and TN the second most prognostic variable, followed by age. CA125, Index1 and tumor types were of no prognostic value. The strongest prognostic value for TN was found at the cut-off...

  4. Waist circumference does not predict circulating adiponectin levels in sub-Saharan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of previously reported ethnic differences in determinants and markers of obesity and related metabolic disorders, we sought to investigate circulating levels of adiponectin and their correlates in a sub-Saharan African (sSA population. Subjects and Methods We studied 70 non-diabetic volunteers (33M/37F living in Yaoundé, Cameroon, aged 24–69 yr, with BMI 20–42 kg/m2. In all participants we measured waist circumference and total body fat by bioimpedance, and obtained a fasting venous blood sample for measurement of plasma glucose, serum insulin and adiponectin concentrations. We performed a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp in 1/4 subjects, and HOMAIR was used as surrogate of fasting insulin sensitivity index since it best correlates to clamp measurements. Results Males had lower adiponectin levels than females (8.8 ± 4.3 vs. 11.8 ± 5.5 μg/L. There was no significant correlation between adiponectin and total body fat (rs = -0.03; NS, whereas adiponectin was inversely correlated with waist circumference (rs = -0.39; p = 0.001. Adiponectin correlated negatively with insulin resistance (rs = -0.35; p = 0.01. In a regression analysis using fasting adiponectin concentration as the dependent variable, and age, HOMAIR, waist circumference, and fat mass as predictors, waist circumference (β = -3.30; p = 0.002, fat mass (β = -2.68; p = 0.01, and insulin resistance (β = -2.38; p = 0.02 but not age (β = 1.11; p = 0.27 were independent predictors of adiponectin. When considering gender, these relations persisted with the exception of waist circumference in females. Conclusion Adiponectin correlates in this study population are comparable to those observed in Caucasians with the exception of waist circumference in women. The metabolic significance of waist circumference is therefore questioned in sSA women.

  5. 辨认和控制能力精神医学评定量表划界标准与实证效度%Cut-off point and empirical validity of psychiatric assessment scale of cognitive and volition capacity in crime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅; 高北陵; 胡峰; 李学武; 王轶; 吴冬凌

    2014-01-01

    目的 检验辨认和控制能力精神医学评定量表(Psychiatric Assessment Scale of Cognitive and Volition Capacity in crime,PASCVC)的实证效度,并制定全国常模.方法 于2009年8月至2011年12月间在全国七大行政区的十五家司法鉴定机构共收集评定辨认和控制能力的司法精神鉴定案例1 000例,由量表评定者用PASCVC、精神病人限定刑事责任能力评定量表(Diminished Criminal Responsibility Rating Scale,DCRRS)和暴力作案行为人刑事责任能力评定量表(Criminal Responsibility Rating Scale of Violence,CRRSV)进行评分,所有案例均由鉴定人做出辨认和控制能力完全丧失、大部分丧失、部分丧失、小部分丧失、稍有受损和正常的六个等级判断.结果 ①依据频数分布表的结果得出:辨认和控制能力完全丧失的划界分为≤56、大部分丧失为57~ 66、部分丧失为67~76、小部分丧失为77~ 87、稍有受损为88~ 100、正常为≥101.②六级划界分评定的等级划分结果与专家鉴定意见的相关为0.939 (P=0.001).③PASCVC与DCRRS和CRRSV的一致性Kappa值分别为0.838和0.835 (P<0.001).④PASCVC量表评定和专家评定两种方法分别建立判别函数,回代判别量表与专家判断的正确率分别为86.9%和85.1%;两种分级结果的一致性Kappa值为0.857 (P<0.001).结论 该量表具有较好的实证效度,可作为辨认和控制能力司法鉴定的客观评定工具.%Objective To test the cut-off point and empirical validity of psychiatric assessment scale of cognitive and volition capacity for suspects in crime (PASCVC).Methods One thousand of forensic psychiatry cases from fifteen bodies of the seven administrative regions in China were collected for forensic assessment by the three scales of PASCVC,DCRRS and CRRSV in August 2009 to December 201 l.in all cases by the appraiser to make six grade judgment of the cognitive and volition capacity including completely lost

  6. Relação da cintura abdominal com a condição nutricional, perfil lipídico e pressão arterial em pré-escolares de baixo estrato socioeconômico Relationship between waist circumference and nutritional status, lipid profile and blood pressure in low socioeconomic level pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Saccardo Sarni

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o diagnóstico nutricional, o perfil lipídico, os níveis pressóricos e a medida de cintura em pré-escolares. Pretende-se ainda verificar se a medida de cintura está associada com índices antropométricos usuais no diagnóstico nutricional, perfil lipídico e pressão arterial em crianças obesas e eutróficas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 65 pré-escolares de baixo estrato socioeconômico, em escola municipal de Santo André. As avaliações clínico-laboratoriais consistiram em: medida de PA (Task Force, 1996, peso (P e estatura (E expressos como escore z (OMS, 1995 e IMC (índice de massa corpórea; níveis séricos de triglicérides, colesterol total e frações (VLDL-c, HDL-c, LDL-c (Kwiterowich e AHA. Análise estatística: Teste exato de Fisher e correlação. RESULTADOS: Observamos alto porcentual de inadequação da PA e lipídios séricos, independentemente da condição nutricional. A medida de cintura mostrou correlação positiva e significante com IMC e ZPE (r = 0,87 e r = 0,83; p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate anthropometric data, blood lipid levels, blood pressure (BP and waist circumference (WC in preschool children. To relate WC with blood lipid levels and BP in obese and non-obese children. METHODS: In a transversal study we investigated 65 preschool children of low socioeconomic level in Santo André, São Paulo. The evaluation consisted of BP measurement (Task Force, 1996, weight (W, height (H expressed as z score (WHO,1995 and body mass index (BMI, triglycerides, total and fractions of cholesterol blood levels (Kwiterovich and AHA. Statistical analysis: Fisher test and correlations. RESULTS: We observed high BP and lipid levels unrelated to nutritional status. WC was significantly and positively correlated to BMI and ZWH (r = 0,87 and r = 0,83, respectively. Using as a cut-off 75 percentile of WC we found an accuracy of 89,1% with 87,2% specificity and 70,6% sensitivity and predictive value

  7. 疑似糖尿病患者中HbA1c诊断糖尿病应用价值及其切点研究%Validity and Cut-off Point of HbA1c for Early Detection of Suspected Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国威; 何美琳; 徐旭; 邵冬华

    2012-01-01

    % ). Analysis by Receiver operator characteristic curve for diabetes diagnosis, showed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.881 of HbAl c (95% CI: 0.861 -0.900), which was equivalent to that of fasting blood glucose (FPG) (AUC: 0.899, 95% CI; 0.880-0.9160, P=0.205). The sensitivity of using HbAlc ≥ 6. 2% (79.2% ) as the diabetes diagnosis criterion was significantly higher than using FPG≥7.0 mmol/L (65.8% ) or HbAlc≥6.5% (67.4% ). Conclusion HbAlc measurement is suitable for diabetes diagnosis when FPG or OGTT is not available. An HbAl c threshold of 6. 2% is an optimal cut - off point for diabetes diagnosis.

  8. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Halkjaer, J.; Heitmann, B.L.; Tjonneland, A.M.; Overvad, K.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Grønbæk, Morten

    2008-01-01

    drinking, drinking on 1, 2-4, 5-6, and 7 d/wk, respectively, compared with men who drank alcohol on <1 d/wk (P for trend < 0.0001). Results for women were similar. Adjustment for the amount of alcohol intake or total energy intake did not affect results considerably. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking pattern may be......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from a...... prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined as...

  9. Evaluation of marginal circumference and marginal thickness changes in precrimped stainless steel crowns, after recrimping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar H

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The need for recrimping precrimped stainless steel crowns by the dentist in clinic is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the rate of marginal circumference and marginal thickness change of precrimped stainless steel crowns after recrimping. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 primary photos were taken from margins of 30 S.S.Cs (3M, Ni-Cr related to tooth 85 with a digital camera fixed at a determined distance. Margins of crowns were crimped by 114 and 137 pliers with a controlled force (0.2 N and then 30 secondary photos were taken in the same conditions. The circumference of crown margins in primary (group A and secondary (group B photos were assessed by a digitizer system. Comparing the circumferences of crown margins in primary and secondary photos showed a significant decrease after crimping. Thickness of 30 random points on the crown margins of a crown similar to mentioned cases was measured by SEM (×150. Then similar procedures including taking a primary photo, crimping and taking a secondary photo was done for the sample crown. After significant reduction in margin circumference, thickness of 30 other random points on the crown margin were measured by SEM. Data were analyzed by paired sample t-test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The mean marginal circumference of precrimped stainless steel crowns was reduced by 7.3% which was significant (P<0.001. On the other hand the mean marginal thickness of sample stainless steel crown showed 18µ increase. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, marginal circumference of precrimped stainless steel crowns (3M, Ni-Cr showed a significant decrease after crimping. It is concluded that crimping the stainless steel crowns even for precrimped ones seems necessary.

  10. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI......) and changes in weight and waist circumference. We also investigated effect modification by sex and dietary intake. Data of 6,287 individuals participating in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition were included in the analyses. Data on weight and waist circumference were...

  11. Gene expression profiling of differentially expressed genes in bull testicle between different scrotal circumference using DDRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify tissue-specific expression gene in testicle of differential scrotal circumference bulls and analyze the function of the specific gene on the development of the bull's scrotum in this study. The DDRT-PCR and Reverse Northern Blot Analysis were used to identify tissue-specific expression genes in bulls with differential scrotal circumference. The experiment was designed sixty 6-month-old crossbreeds (Charolais with indigenous Fuzhou female). These were raised under the same age, cross generation, raising condition and management. When the feeding was over after 6 months, the scrotal circumferences of bulls were measured. Four bulls were selected and classified into two groups, and the difference of scrotal circumference is significant between the two groups (P < 0.01). A group was consisted of two bulls with larger scrotal circumference 26±2.5cm. The control group was two crossbreed bulls with smaller scrotal circumference 17±2.2 cm. When the scrotal circumferences were measured, the bulls were castrated by surgical operations. A piece of tissue (2 by 2 by 2 cm) was removed from the deeper area of the testis and stored in liquid nitrogen. A small section (0.5 by 0.5 by 0.5 cm) was used for total RNA extraction by using the TRIZOL reagent kit (GIBCO/BRL, Bethesda, MA, USA). The RNA was prepared for DDRT-PCR experiments and quantitative real-time PCR. The results were shown that six genes corresponded to genes of known or inferred function; either the bovine gene or the likely human orthologue and three genes or ESTs were unknown. Bos taurus similar to galactosidase, beta 1-like; Bos taurus similar to Kinesin heavy chain isoform 5C; Bos taurus similar to ankyrin repeat domain protein 15 isoform and Bos taurus ebd-P2 pseudogene were founded both highly expressed in bulls which had bigger scrotal circumference by qRT-PCR. Their functions may be involved with sperm maturation in the epididymis, sperm protection and preventing the ascent of microorganisms

  12. Diagnostic values of cerebrospinal fluid t-tau and Aβ42 using Meso Scale Discovery assays for Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Catherine; Korff, Ané; Galasko, Douglas; Ginghina, Carmen; Peskind, Elaine; Li, Ge; Quinn, Joseph; Montine, Thomas J.; Cain, Kevin; Shi, Min; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) recently established electrochemiluminescence-based assays to measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of total tau (t-tau) and amyloid beta 1–42 peptide (Aβ42) that can aid in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The goal of this investigation is to independently evaluate this platform and establish cut-off values of these biomarkers for AD diagnosis. Objective To validate the analytical and clinical performance of the MSD t-tau and Aβ42 kits and propose diagnostic cut-off values for the field. Methods The analytical performance of the CSF t-tau and Aβ42 assays was determined, followed by assessment of diagnostic performance of CSF t-tau, Aβ42 and t-tau/Aβ42 in three clinically characterized cohorts. Results Both MSD assays demonstrated consistent and stable analytical performance, as well as resistance to several important pre-analytic variables. Diagnostically, t-tau/Aβ42 performed the best. Conclusions Our results independently confirm the analytical and clinical performance of the MSD CSF t-tau and Aβ42 assays. Based on a large, multi-center, clinically diagnosed cohort, we propose for the first time candidate diagnostic cut-offs for MSD measured CSF t-tau, Aβ42 and t-tau/Aβ42. However, these values needs to be refined as more subjects are included and the assays are tested by other laboratories. PMID:25613100

  13. The Diagnostic Value of Pressure Algometry for Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Więckiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the diagnostic value of pressure algometry in temporomandibular disorders. Two hundred volunteers aged 19.3 to 27.8 (mean 21.50, SD 0.97 participated in this study. An analogue pressure algometer was used for the evaluation of muscle tenderness of the following masticatory muscles: superficial and deep parts of the masseter muscle; anterior and posterior parts of the temporal muscle; and the tissues adjacent to the lateral and dorsal part of the temporomandibular joint capsule. Each patient described the algometry result for the individual components of the masticatory motor system, by selecting each time the intensity of pain on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS ruler. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, indicating the discriminatory efficiency for asymptomatic subjects and patients with temporomandibular dysfunction according to the dysfunction Di index, was the largest for the mean pain value (AUC = 0.8572; SEM = 0.0531. The 7.4 VAS cut-off point marked 95.3% specificity for this variable in identifying healthy subjects and 58.4% sensitivity in identifying patients with symptoms of dysfunctions (accuracy 68.1%. Assuming comparable sensitivity (74.9% and specificity (74.2% for a diagnostic test, there was test accuracy of 74.5% at the 4.2 VAS cut-off point.

  14. Diagnostic value of procalcitonin in acutely hospitalized elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steichen, O; Bouvard, E; Grateau, G; Bailleul, S; Capeau, J; Lefèvre, G

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate procalcitonin as an adjunct to diagnose bacterial infections in older patients. One hundred seventy-two patients admitted to an acute-care geriatric unit during a 6-month period were prospectively included, 39 of them with an invasive bacterial infection. The best cut-off value to rule in a bacterial infection was 0.51 microg/l with sensitivity 64% and specificity 94%. The best cut-off value to rule out a bacterial infection was 0.08 microg/l with sensitivity 97% and specificity 20%. Procalcitonin was inconclusive (between 0.08 and 0.51 microg/l) for 112 admissions. Procalcitonin over 0.51 microg/l was useless 22 times out of 33 (infection already ruled in on clinical grounds) and misleading in eight of the 11 remaining cases (no infection). Procalcitonin below 0.08 microg/l was useless 23 times out of 27 (infection already ruled out on clinical grounds) and misleading in one of the four remaining cases (infection). Despite a good overall diagnostic accuracy, the clinical usefulness of PCT to diagnose invasive bacterial infections in elderly patients hospitalized in an acute geriatric ward appears to be very limited. PMID:19727867

  15. Glycemic index and glycemic load of thirteen year old children whose waist circumference (WC ≥ 90 percentile dependent on BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the reasons for the accumulation of fat tissue (including visceral fat tissue in the body is an unbalanced diet in respect of the amount and the structure of carbohydrates and the value of the glycemic index (GI and the glycemic load (GL. The research describing the dependence between the BMI (Body Mass Index, WC (Waist Circumference, WHtR (Waist-to-Height Ratio, and GI and GL indexes in adults exists but only a limited number of works discuss children during the pubertal spurt. Therefore the objective of this research is the evaluation of the state of nutrition of 13-year-old children with waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile with various BMI, taking into consideration GL and GL of their meals. Material and methods.The state of nutrition (BMI, WC, WHtR of 871 thirteen-year-old children of both sexes was evaluated and 230 children with WC ≥ 90 percentile were selected (26.4% of the total number examined and divided into three groups regarding the BMI. In 71 children (30.9% of the selected group the method of nutrition, energy and nutritive value of menus, structure of consumption of food groups and GI and GL value were evaluated, on the basis of the analysis of their three day menus, which had been documented. Results.Significantly higher values of BMI and WC were ascertained in boys than in girls. No essential differences in values of WHtR index were ascertained between boys and girls. The analysis of children’s menus, in both sexes with a waist circumference ≥ 90 percentile showed, regardless of BMI value, a low realisation of recommended energetic value of the diet and low realisation of recommended supply of: dietary fibre, fat, mineral components (K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, vitamins (E, B1, PP and liquids with simultaneous occurrence of protein in general and animal protein, sodium and vitamins (A, B2, B6 supply. A significantly higher supply of the most of aforementioned ingredients was ascertained in the

  16. The diagnostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: The exact place for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the diagnosis and management of thyroid tumors is still under debate. We performed the study to analyze and compare the parameters generated from DCE-MRI for thyroid lesions. Materials and methods: For each thyroid lesion, time intensity curves (TIC), time of peak enhancement (Tpeak), maximum enhancement ratio (ERmax) and maximum rise slope (Slopemax) were plotted and calculated. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis was conducted to assess the diagnostic ability and appropriate cut-off value. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) and the confidence intervals (CIs) were also assessed. Results: Forty-two patients were consecutively included. All 21 lesions demonstrated the rapid inflow and washout pattern (type-I) were benign. The 12 cases with delayed inflow pattern (type-III) were all malignant. When compared with the benign lesions, the thyroid carcinoma showed significantly lower Slopemax and higher Tpeak (P max was found between malignant and benign ones (P = 0.15). The AUC of ERmax, Slopemax and Tpeak in differentiating benign thyroid lesions from malignant ones were 0.63, 0.93and 1, respectively. The ERmax cut-off value of 73.86 (sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 64.3%), Slopemax cut-off value of 2.4126 (sensitivity, 92.9%; specificity, 82.1%) and Tpeak value of 28 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 100%) offered the best diagnostic performances. Conclusions: DCE-MRI, especially the pattern of TIC and the value of Slopemax and Tpeak, could be helpful in differentiating thyroid carcinoma from benign thyroid lesions.

  17. The diagnostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for thyroid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Ying [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Affiliated to JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Yue, Xiu-Hui [Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Tao, Xiao-Feng, E-mail: cjr.taoxiaofeng@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Affiliated to JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Background and purpose: The exact place for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the diagnosis and management of thyroid tumors is still under debate. We performed the study to analyze and compare the parameters generated from DCE-MRI for thyroid lesions. Materials and methods: For each thyroid lesion, time intensity curves (TIC), time of peak enhancement (T{sub peak}), maximum enhancement ratio (ER{sub max}) and maximum rise slope (Slope{sub max}) were plotted and calculated. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis was conducted to assess the diagnostic ability and appropriate cut-off value. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) and the confidence intervals (CIs) were also assessed. Results: Forty-two patients were consecutively included. All 21 lesions demonstrated the rapid inflow and washout pattern (type-I) were benign. The 12 cases with delayed inflow pattern (type-III) were all malignant. When compared with the benign lesions, the thyroid carcinoma showed significantly lower Slope{sub max} and higher T{sub peak} (P < 0.05). No statistical difference of ER{sub max} was found between malignant and benign ones (P = 0.15). The AUC of ER{sub max}, Slope{sub max} and T{sub peak} in differentiating benign thyroid lesions from malignant ones were 0.63, 0.93and 1, respectively. The ER{sub max} cut-off value of 73.86 (sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 64.3%), Slope{sub max} cut-off value of 2.4126 (sensitivity, 92.9%; specificity, 82.1%) and T{sub peak} value of 28 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 100%) offered the best diagnostic performances. Conclusions: DCE-MRI, especially the pattern of TIC and the value of Slope{sub max} and T{sub peak}, could be helpful in differentiating thyroid carcinoma from benign thyroid lesions.

  18. Approaches for predicting long-term sickness absence. Re: Schouten et al. "Screening manual and office workers for risk of long-term sickness absence: cut-off points for the Work Ability Index".

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amelsvoort, Ludovic Gpm; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, I Jmert

    2015-05-01

    an overestimation of the predictive value. A methodological approach of related issues is provided in the works of Glymour et al (5) and Hamilton et al (6). This phenomenon is even more clearly illustrated by the predictive properties of the workability index, as described by Alavinia et al (7, page 328), which reported that "when adjusted for individual characteristics, lifestyle factors, and work characteristics, two dimensions of the WAI were significant predictors for both moderate and long durations of sickness absence: (i) the presence of sickness absence in the past 12 months prior to the medical examination and (ii) experienced limitations due to health problems." So, when applied to the study by Schouten et al (1), this means that most of the predictive value would be related to the factors "sickness absence in the past 12 months". In addition, we object to the use of the term "screening" in the Schouten et al study as it includes workers with the intended outcome (long-term sickness absence). One can identify three separate aims to study the longitudinal association between risk factors and subsequent long-term sickness absence: (i) to establish causal risk factors for long-term sickness absence, often to find clues for primary preventive strategies (beyond the scope here); (ii) to identify high-risk workers who are still at work and might benefit from an intervention before sickness absence occurs (secondary prevention); and (iii) to identify workers on sick leave who might suffer a below-average return-to-work rate or have a high risk for the recurrence of (long-term) sickness absence and might benefit from intensification or optimization of the return-to-work process (tertiary prevention). In this light, one needs to separate screening instruments from predictive instruments and reserve the term "screening" for the situation as defined by Wilson and Junger (8, page 7): "The object of screening for disease is to discover those among the apparently well

  19. Comparative study to see the relationship between stimulated Tg values and WBS in treated DTC patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Aims and objectives: This prospective study was done to see the relationship between stimulated Tg values and WBS in treated DTC patients, so that diagnostic WBS can be done only when indicated and thus unnecessary radiation to the patient can be avoided. Materials and method: For this purpose 127 patients were studied. Tg-off LT4 levels (after 3 weeks withdrawal of LT4) and WBS (after 4 weeks withdrawal of LT4) were done one year after radio-iodine therapy in the DTC patients having total thyroidectomy. The cut -off value for Tg-off LT4 values was taken as 10 ng/ml.The Tg-off LT4 values were recorded and were compared with the positive and negative findings of WBS.Result: 94.49% (120 cases) of the total patients with Tg-off LT4 values within the cut-off values were found to be correlated with WBS findings and only 5.51% (7 cases) did not show any correlation. Conclusion: Treated DTC Patients with stimulated Tg values below 10 ng/ml can be considered as negative for recurrence or metastasis and do not need WBS unless clinically indicated. Stimulated Tg values above 10 ng/ml should be considered as positive for recurrence or metastasis and WBS can be avoided if needed before giving next radio-iodine therapy. (author)

  20. Changes in waist circumference and mortality in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte;

    2010-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) adjusted for body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with mortality, but the association with changes in WC is less clear. We investigated the association between changes in WC and mortality in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent...

  1. Changes in waist circumference and the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte;

    2011-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass...

  2. Physical activity in leisure-time is not associated with 10-year changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, T.; Petersen, L.; Schnohr, P.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    To examine whether physical activity (PA) is associated with changes in waist circumference (WC), and changes in WC given changes in body mass index (BMI). Longitudinal population-based study including 2026 men and 2782 women aged 21-81 years. Subjects were examined in 1991-1993 (baseline) and 2001...

  3. Does change in hip circumference predict cardiovascular disease and overall mortality in Danish and Swedish women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanfer, Anne; Mehlig, Kirsten; Heitmann, Berit L; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence consistently shows that small hip circumference (HC) is related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease, diabetes, and premature death in women. This study aims to clarify whether this inverse association can be found in both normal- and ove...... overweight individuals and if change in HC over time relates to morbidity and mortality risk....

  4. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Halkjaer, Jytte; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tjønneland, Anne M; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Grønbæk, Morten

    2008-01-01

    circumference in men. Drinking frequency was unassociated with major waist loss but was inversely associated with major waist gain: odds ratios among men were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.28), 0.95 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.12), 0.88 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.99), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.71, -0.95), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.9) for never......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from a...... prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined as...

  5. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Longitudinal Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Angquist, Lars; Moldovan, Max; Huikari, Ville; Sebert, Sylvain; Cavadino, Alana; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Skaaby, Tea; Linneberg, Allan; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.; Toft, Ulla; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Power, Chris; Hypponen, Elina; Heitmann, Berit L.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2016-01-01

    body weight (ΔBW) or waist circumference (ΔWC), and whether the associations were modified by genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI). The study was based on 10,898 individuals from the Danish Inter99, the 1958 British Birth Cohort and the Northern Finland...

  6. Association of older women's limb circumferences and muscle mass as estimated with bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Richard W; Chu, Johnson; Steffl, Michal

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between three practical measures used to characterize muscle mass: mid-arm circumference, maximum calf circumference, and muscle mass index determined using bioimpedance analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight ambulatory women residing in a senior center (mean age, 83 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mid-arm circumference and maximum calf circumference were measured bilaterally and they all underwent bioimpedance analysis. Relationships were examined by using Pearson (r) correlations, Cronbach's alpha, and factor analysis. [Results] Circumferential measures correlated significantly with one another (r = 0.745-0.968) and with the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis (r = 0.480-0.628). The Cronbach's alpha for the measures was 0.905. Factor analysis confirmed that all of the measures were reflective of a common construct. [Conclusion] On the basis of their correlations with one another and the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis, circumferential measures of the mid-arm or calf may be considered crude indicators of reduced muscle mass. PMID:27134404

  7. Association of older women’s limb circumferences and muscle mass as estimated with bioelectrical impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Richard W.; Chu, Johnson; Steffl, Michal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between three practical measures used to characterize muscle mass: mid-arm circumference, maximum calf circumference, and muscle mass index determined using bioimpedance analysis. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight ambulatory women residing in a senior center (mean age, 83 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mid-arm circumference and maximum calf circumference were measured bilaterally and they all underwent bioimpedance analysis. Relationships were examined by using Pearson (r) correlations, Cronbach’s alpha, and factor analysis. [Results] Circumferential measures correlated significantly with one another (r = 0.745–0.968) and with the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis (r = 0.480–0.628). The Cronbach’s alpha for the measures was 0.905. Factor analysis confirmed that all of the measures were reflective of a common construct. [Conclusion] On the basis of their correlations with one another and the muscle mass index determined with bioimpedance analysis, circumferential measures of the mid-arm or calf may be considered crude indicators of reduced muscle mass.

  8. Yogurt consumption is associated with longitudinal changes of body weight and waist circumference: the framingham study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogurt, as a low-fat, nutrient-dense dairy product, may be beneficial in preventing weight gain. We aimed to examine the longitudinal association between yogurt consumption and annualized change in weight and waist circumference (WC) among adults. We included 3,285 adults (11,169 observations) parti...

  9. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Angquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  10. Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Richard W; Taylor, Amy E; Fluharty, Meg E;

    2015-01-01

    Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio. RESULTS: The data included up to 66,809 never-smokers, 43,009 former smokers and 38,913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric...

  11. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Halkjaer, Jytte; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of abdominal obese persons among frequent drinkers than among nonfrequent drinkers. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that drinking frequency is associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference. DESIGN: Data come from...

  12. Waist Circumference and Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Rural School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Coelho e Silva, Manuel J.; Ribeiro, Luís P.; Fernandes, Romulo; Mota, Jorge; Malina, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on relationships between lifestyle behaviors and adiposity in school youth is potentially important for identifying subgroups at risk. This study evaluates the associations between waist circumference (WC) and objective measures of sedentary behavior (SB) in a sample of rural school adolescents. Methods: The sample included…

  13. Neck circumference as predictor of excess body fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether neck circumference can predict cardiovascular risk factors and excess body fat in adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included male and female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years from Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The following data were collected: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, percentage of body fat according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. The anthropometric measurements were used for calculating indices and assessing nutritional status. The receiver operating characteristic curve tested whether neck circumference could predict cardiovascular risk. We also investigated how neck circumference related to the study parameters. The significance level was set at 5% (p0.5; p<0.05, varying from 0.610 for high-density lipoprotein to 0.817 for blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Neck circumference was capable of predicting excess fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents.

  14. Relationships between neonatal weight, limb lengths, skinfold thicknesses, body breadths and circumferences in an Australian cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. METHODS: We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. RESULTS: Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative

  15. Detection of occult vertebral fractures by quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To determine a cut-off value of Hounsfield attenuation units (HU) at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for valid and reliable detection of bone marrow oedema (BME) related to occult vertebral fractures. Methods: 36 patients underwent both MDCT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for evaluation of vertebral fractures of the thoracolumbar spine and were included in this retrospective study. Two readers independently assessed HU values at MDCT in a total of 196 vertebrae. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman analysis. For each patient we determined the vertebra with the lowest HU value and calculated the HU-difference to each other vertebral body. HU-differences were subjected to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to determine the diagnostic accuracy for detection of BME as determined by MRI, which served as the reference standard. Results of HU-measurements were compared with standard visual evaluation of MDCT. Results: HU measurements demonstrated a high interrater reliability (ICC = 0.984). ROC curve analysis (AUC = 0.978) exhibited an ideal cut-off value of 29.6 HU for detection of BME associated with vertebral fractures with an accuracy of 97.4% as compared to 93.4% accuracy of visual evaluation. Particularly, HU-measurements increased the sensitivity for detection of vertebral fractures from 78.0% to 92.7% due to the detection of 7 of 9 occult fractures that were missed by visual evaluation alone. Conclusions: Assessing bone marrow density by HU measurements using the cut-off of 29.6 HU is a valid and reliable tool for detection of BME related to occult vertebral fractures in MDCT. The introduced technique may allow more accurate treatment decisions and may make further diagnostic work-up with MRI unnecessary

  16. Detection of occult vertebral fractures by quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henes, Frank Oliver, E-mail: f.henes@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Center for Radiology and Endoscopy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Groth, Michael [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Center for Radiology and Endoscopy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Kramer, Harald [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Clinical Science Center, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Schaefer, Christian [Department of Trauma-, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, Spine Center, Center for Surgical Sciences, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Regier, Marc; Derlin, Thorsten; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Center for Radiology and Endoscopy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Objectives: To determine a cut-off value of Hounsfield attenuation units (HU) at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for valid and reliable detection of bone marrow oedema (BME) related to occult vertebral fractures. Methods: 36 patients underwent both MDCT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for evaluation of vertebral fractures of the thoracolumbar spine and were included in this retrospective study. Two readers independently assessed HU values at MDCT in a total of 196 vertebrae. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman analysis. For each patient we determined the vertebra with the lowest HU value and calculated the HU-difference to each other vertebral body. HU-differences were subjected to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to determine the diagnostic accuracy for detection of BME as determined by MRI, which served as the reference standard. Results of HU-measurements were compared with standard visual evaluation of MDCT. Results: HU measurements demonstrated a high interrater reliability (ICC = 0.984). ROC curve analysis (AUC = 0.978) exhibited an ideal cut-off value of 29.6 HU for detection of BME associated with vertebral fractures with an accuracy of 97.4% as compared to 93.4% accuracy of visual evaluation. Particularly, HU-measurements increased the sensitivity for detection of vertebral fractures from 78.0% to 92.7% due to the detection of 7 of 9 occult fractures that were missed by visual evaluation alone. Conclusions: Assessing bone marrow density by HU measurements using the cut-off of 29.6 HU is a valid and reliable tool for detection of BME related to occult vertebral fractures in MDCT. The introduced technique may allow more accurate treatment decisions and may make further diagnostic work-up with MRI unnecessary.

  17. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer; Olsen, Marie; Bandholm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Two of the most utilized outcome measures to assess knee joint range of motion (ROM) and intra-articular effusion are goniometry and circumference, respectively. Neither goniometry nor circumference of the knee joint have been examined for both intra-tester and inter-teste...

  18. Man Cuts Off Penis in Fit of Religious Fervor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱土英

    2002-01-01

    一位菲律宾的男子自残,用利刃割下了自己的阳物。主要原因是其妻离他而去。到首都马尼拉去做保姆(housemaid)了。他想象自己的阳物正像眼镜蛇一样逼近其他女性(his penis as a"cobra"(眼镜蛇)drawing him towardwomen),而《马太福音》曾云:If your hand or your foot causes you to sin,cut it offand throw it away.于是,此君对自己下了“毒手”。可幸的是,手术成功,割下的阳物又被接上。只是短了20%……

  19. The UV cut-off and trans-Planckian physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Physics at ultra high energies, far above those presently probed, is unknown. It is expected that modifications of the field equations become relevant at some point. Besides, it would be positive if field modes could get less relevant as bigger energies are at play. Many possible approaches to this subject, based either on some kind of refashioning of the laws of Physics, like String Theory and remaking of gravity, or on pure phenomenological grounds, are being now discussed. There does not seem to be a consensus in the literature concerning the possible outcome of these changes, nor in the near future. Moreover, one must find some observable effect of this new Physics. As such energies are not reached by experiments at hand, one needs to seek for results relevant at low energies. We address the possibility of introducing an Ultraviolet attenuation of the occupation of high modes by verifying its effects on inflationary perturbations and Hawking radiation. We consider the changes to be the outcome of an unknown modification of the physics at very high energies (Trans-Planckian Physics). The spectrum of inflationary perturbations is shown to be in agreement with observations, and the consequences for the Hawking radiation are being analyzed. (author)

  20. A cut-off tubular geometry of loop space

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the computation of loop space quantum mechanics as indicated in [7], here we seek a better understanding of the tubular geometry of loop space ${\\cal L}{\\cal M}$ corresponding to a Riemannian manifold ${\\cal M}$ around the submanifold of vanishing loops. Our approach is to first compute the tubular metric of $({\\cal M}^{2N+1})_{C}$ around the diagonal submanifold, where $({\\cal M}^N)_{C}$ is the Cartesian product of $N$ copies of ${\\cal M}$ with a cyclic ordering. This gives an infinite sequence of tubular metrics such that the one relevant to ${\\cal L}{\\cal M}$ can be obtained by taking the limit $N\\to \\infty$. Such metrics are computed by adopting an indirect method where the general tubular expansion theorem of [12] is crucially used. We discuss how the complete reparametrization isometry of loop space arises in the large-$N$ limit and verify that the corresponding Killing equation is satisfied to all orders in tubular expansion. These tubular metrics can alternatively be interpreted as some n...

  1. Independent prognostic value of preoperative serum markers CA 242, specific tissue polypeptide antigen and human chorionic gonadotrophin beta, but not of carcinoembryonic antigen or tissue polypeptide antigen in colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Carpelan-Holmström, M; Haglund, C.; Lundin, J; Alfthan, H.; Stenman, U H; Roberts, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The prognostic value of preoperative serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 242, tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), specific tissue polypeptide antigen (TPS) and human chorionic gonadotrophin beta (hCG beta) in 251 patients with colorectal cancer (39 Dukes' A, 98 Dukes' B, 56 Dukes' C and 58 Dukes' D) was investigated. When using the cut-off levels recommended for diagnostic purposes, there was a significantly longer overall survival in patients with low tumour marker level...

  2. Neck circumference predicts renal function decline in overweight women: A community-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chang-Yun; Park, Jung Tak; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Kee, Youn Kyung; Seo, Changhwan; Lee, Misol; Cha, Min-Uk; Jung, Su-Young; Park, Seohyun; Yun, Hae-Ryong; Kwon, Young Eun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Upper-body subcutaneous fat, which is commonly estimated from the neck circumference (NC), was revealed to be the main reservoir of circulating nonesterified fatty acids in overweight patients. Despite a close association between NC and metabolic complications, the relationship of NC with renal function has not been fully investigated. In this study, the impact of NC on the development of incident CKD was elucidated.The data were retrieved from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study cohort. The subjects were followed at 2-year intervals from 2003 to 2011. Overweight was defined as a body mass index of ≥23 kg/m. A total of 4298 cohort subjects were screened. After exclusion, 2268 overweight subjects were included for the final analysis. The primary end point was incident CKD, which was defined as a composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m or the development of proteinuria.The mean patient age was 36.3 ± 3.0 years, and 1285 (56.7%) were men. They were divided into 2 groups according to the median NC in male and female subjects, separately. In both sexes, hypertension (men, P < 0.001; women, P = 0.009) and diabetes (men, P = 0.002; women, P < 0.001) were significantly more prevalent in the big NC group than in the small NC group. In contrast, eGFR was significantly lower only in male subjects of the big NC group (P < 0.001), whereas it was comparable between the small and big NC groups (P = 0.167). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, NC values were independently associated with incident CKD development in female subjects after adjusting for multiple confounding factors (per 1 cm increase, hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.159 [1.024-1.310], P = 0.019) but not in male subjects.NC is independently associated with the development of CKD in overweight female subjects, suggesting

  3. STUDY OF EFFECT OF BMI AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is undertaken to evaluate any association between BMI, WC and Blood pressure and any tendency to develop prehypertension. The study comprises of 100 medical students of NRI medical college, Sangivalasa near Visakhapatnam. It was carried out ongirl students with age of 17 ye ars. Their BMI, WC and Blood pressure were determined. The examination included measurement of weight, height of the student to determine BMI, measurement of waist circumference, and measurement of blood pressure by sphygmomanometer. In the present study t he results are consistent with early clinical studies reporting that there is elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure with increasing BMI and waist circumference and there is tendency to develop prehypertension in students with higher BMI. Modificat ion of life style factors should be emphasized.

  4. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Are Associated with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hexing; Ying ZHOU; Tang, Chuanxi; He, Yanhong; Wu, Jingui; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2013-01-01

    Background Lab studies have suggested that ubiquitous phthalate exposures are related to obesity, but relevant epidemiological studies are scarce, especially for children. Objective To investigate the association of phthalate exposures with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in Chinese school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three primary and three middle schools randomly selected from Changning District of Shanghai City of China in 2011–2012. Accordi...

  5. How well do we know the circumference of a storage ring?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M. [DESY (Germany); Ziemann, V., E-mail: volker.ziemann@physics.uu.se [Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2015-01-21

    High-precision nuclear physics experiments in storage rings require precise knowledge of the beam energy. In the absence of electron cooling, which provides this information, one can use the frequency of the radio-frequency system in conjunction with knowledge of the circumference of the ring. We investigate to which precision the latter can be determined in the presence of magnet misalignment and orbit correction.

  6. How well do we know the circumference of a storage ring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, M.; Ziemann, V.

    2015-01-01

    High-precision nuclear physics experiments in storage rings require precise knowledge of the beam energy. In the absence of electron cooling, which provides this information, one can use the frequency of the radio-frequency system in conjunction with knowledge of the circumference of the ring. We investigate to which precision the latter can be determined in the presence of magnet misalignment and orbit correction.

  7. Waist Circumference: A Key Determinant of Bone Mass in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Rapheeporn KHWANCHUEA; Sasithorn THANAPOP; Samuhasaneeto, Suchittra; Suree CHARTWAINGAM; Sirirak MUKEM

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess bone mineral density (BMD) status, and to explore association between lifestyle behaviors, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and BMD status of 217 students (55 males and 162 females) aged between 17 - 23 years studying at Walailak University. The BMD was measured at distal-third radius, and confirmed at mid-shaft tibia by Quantitative ultrasound analysis. BMI and WC were recorded to assess obesity, and lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a questio...

  8. Rate of Head Circumference Growth as a Function of Autism Diagnosis and History of Autistic Regression

    OpenAIRE

    WEBB, SARA JANE; Nalty, Theresa; Munson, Jeff; Brock, Catherine; Abbott, Robert; Dawson, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    Several reports indicate that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with increased rate of head growth in early childhood. Increased rate of growth may index aberrant processes during early development, may precede the onset of symptoms, and may predict severity of the disease course. We examined rate of change in occipitofrontal circumference measurements (abstracted from medical records) in 28 boys with ASD and in 8 boys with developmental delay without autism from birth to age 36 mo...

  9. Neck circumference as a predictor of obesity and overweight in rural central India

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar; Apurva Gupta; Shraddha Jain

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neck circumference is a simple screening measure for identifying overweight and obese patients. The present study is planned to determine if NC is a valid measure of obesity in rural Indian population. Aims: To determine whether a single measure of NC might be used to identify overweight patients and to define NC cutoff levels for overweight and obesity according to existing BMI cutoff levels. Settings and Design: A prospective cross-sectional study from rural medical ...

  10. Waist Circumference and Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Rural School Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; COELHO E SILVA, MANUEL J.; RIBEIRO, LUÍS P.; FERNANDES, ROMULO; Mota, Jorge; Malina, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research on relationships between lifestyle behaviors and adiposity in school youth is potentially importante for identifying subgroups at risk. This study evaluates the associations between waist circumference (WC) and objective measures of sedentary behavior (SB) in a sample of rural school adolescents. METHODS: The sample included 254 students (114 boys, 140 girls), 13-16 years of age, from rural regions of the Portuguese midlands.Height, weight, andWCwere measured. Cardiore...

  11. How well do we know the circumference of a storage ring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-precision nuclear physics experiments in storage rings require precise knowledge of the beam energy. In the absence of electron cooling, which provides this information, one can use the frequency of the radio-frequency system in conjunction with knowledge of the circumference of the ring. We investigate to which precision the latter can be determined in the presence of magnet misalignment and orbit correction

  12. Neck circumference as predictor of excess body fat and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves; Eliane Rodrigues de Faria; Sylvia Do Carmo Castro Franceschini; Silvia Eloiza Priore

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify whether neck circumference can predict cardiovascular risk factors and excess body fat in adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included male and female adolescents aged 10 to 14 years from Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The following data were collected: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, percentage of body fat according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipop...

  13. Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick Caroline

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between early childhood television viewing and physical fitness in school age children has not been extensively studied using objective outcome measures. Methods Using a sample of 1314 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between parental reports of weekly hours of television viewing, assessed at 29 and 53 months of age, and direct measures of second grade muscular fitness using performances on the standing long jump test (SLJ and fourth grade waist circumference. Results Controlling for many potentially confounding child and family variables, each hour per week of television watched at 29 months corresponded to a .361 cm decrease in SLJ, 95% CI between -.576 and -.145. A one hour increase in average weekly television exposure from 29 to 53 months was associated with a further .285 cm reduction in SLJ test performance, 95% CI between -.436 and -.134 cm and corresponded to a .047 cm increase in waistline circumference, 95% CI between .001 and .094 cm. Interpretation Watching television excessively in early childhood, may eventually compromise muscular fitness and waist circumference in children as they approach pubertal age.

  14. Assessing Factors Related to Waist Circumference and Obesity: Application of a Latent Variable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Dalvand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because the use of BMI (Body Mass Index alone as a measure of adiposity has been criticized, in the present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference (continuous outcome and obesity (binary outcome among Iranian adults. Methods. Data included 18,990 Iranian individuals aged 20–65 years that are derived from the third National Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factors in Iran. Using latent variable model, we estimated the relation of two correlated responses (waist circumference and obesity with independent variables including age, gender, PR (Place of Residence, PA (physical activity, smoking status, SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure, CHOL (cholesterol, FBG (Fasting Blood Glucose, diabetes, and FHD (family history of diabetes. Results. All variables were related to both obesity and waist circumference (WC. Older age, female sex, being an urban resident, physical inactivity, nonsmoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and having family history of diabetes were significant risk factors that increased WC and obesity. Conclusions. Findings from this study of Iranian adult settings offer more insights into factors associated with high WC and high prevalence of obesity in this population.

  15. Dietary ascorbic acid and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Angquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in anthropome......BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data suggests that a low level of plasma ascorbic acid positively associates with both Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). This leads to questions about a possible relationship between dietary intake of ascorbic acid and subsequent changes in...... anthropometry, and whether such associations may depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. Hence, we examined whether dietary ascorbic acid, possibly in interaction with the genetic predisposition to a high BMI, WC or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHR), associates with subsequent annual changes in weight...... (∆BW) and waist circumference (∆WC). METHODS: A total of 7,569 participants' from MONICA, the Diet Cancer and Health study and the INTER99 study were included in the study. We combined 50 obesity associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genetic scores: a score of all SNPs and a score...

  16. Common variants at 12q15 and 12q24 are associated with infant head circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taal, H Rob; St Pourcain, Beate; Thiering, Elisabeth;

    2012-01-01

    studies (combined N = 19,089). rs7980687 on chromosome 12q24 (P = 8.1 × 10(-9)) and rs1042725 on chromosome 12q15 (P = 2.8 × 10(-10)) were robustly associated with head circumference in infancy. Although these loci have previously been associated with adult height, their effects on infant head...... circumference were largely independent of height (P = 3.8 × 10(-7) for rs7980687 and P = 1.3 × 10(-7) for rs1042725 after adjustment for infant height). A third signal, rs11655470 on chromosome 17q21, showed suggestive evidence of association with head circumference (P = 3.9 × 10(-6)). SNPs correlated to the 17......q21 signal have shown genome-wide association with adult intracranial volume, Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, indicating that a common genetic variant in this region might link early brain growth with neurological disease in later life....

  17.  Trends in Waist Circumference and Central Obesity in Adults, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Tazik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: The main aim of this study is to determine the centralobesity trends during the period from 2006 to 2010 among 15-65years old people in Northern Iran.Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional studyconducted on 6466 subjects who had been chosen by a multistage cluster random sampling within five steps. The subjects wererandomly chosen from 325 clusters and each cluster included 20cases. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥102 cmand ≥88 cm in men and women, respectively.Results: Compared to 2010, the mean waist circumference in2006 changed from 87.2 cm to 88.1 cm in men (p=0.237, andfrom 90.3 cm to 88.6 cm in women (p=0.045. The comparisonbetween 2006 and 2010 revealed that the prevalence of centralobesity slightly decreased, 6.8�0and 2.4�0in urban women andmen, respectively. Generally, the mean of waist circumferencesignificantly decreased in urban women (by 0.069 cm in each year;p=0.020; however, the decrease of waist circumference in urbanmen was not significant (0.006 cm decrease each year; p=0.915.Conclusion: The prevalence of central obesity declined amongboth males and females in the urban area; however, there wasan attenuated increasing trend in the rural area. The disparity oftrends between the two regions should be considered for furtherstudy.

  18. Neck Circumference as a Predictor of Adiposity among Healthy and Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity, particularly in the upper part of body, is a major health problem. Because body mass index (BMI does not adequately describe regional adiposity, other indices of body fatness are being explored. OBJECTIVES: To determine if neck circumference is a valid measure of adiposity (fat distribution among group of Egyptian children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a cross sectional study, included 50 obese subjects, aged 7 - 12 years recruited from Endocrine, obesity and Metabolism Pediatric Unit at Children Hospital, Cairo University and 50 healthy children, age and sex matched. All children were subjected to blood pressure assessment (systolic SBP and diastolic DBP, and anthropometric assessment (body weight, height, neck circumference (NC, waist (WC and hip (HC circumferences, and skin fold thicknesses at three sites: biceps, triceps and sub scapular. BMI [weight (kg/height (m2] was calculated. RESULTS: In healthy females, significant associations were detected between NC and SBP, DBP and all anthropometric measurements. However, in healthy males NC was not significantly associated with BMI, SBP and DBP. In the obese group; both sexes; insignificant association was found between NC and SBP, DBP, BMI and skinfold thickness. CONCLUSION: NC is related to fat distribution among normal healthy female children. However, this relation disappears with increasing adiposity. The results do not support the use of NC as a useful screening tool for childhood obesity.

  19. Relationship between Waist Circumference and Elevation of Carotid Intima-media Thickness in Newly-diagnosed Diabetic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIA Wei Ping; SHEN Yun; ZHOU Jian; PAN Jie Min; YU Hao Yong; CHEN Hai Bing; LI Qing; LI Ming; BAO Yu Qian

    2014-01-01

    Objective Waist circumference, as a brief indicator of visceral obesity, is associated with multi-metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was aimed to find out the relationship between waist circumference and carotid intima media thickness (C-IMT), as well as the best waist circumference cutoff for identifying C-IMT elevation in Chinese male patients with newly-diagnosed diabetes. Methods Five hundred and seventy-eight patients from Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism in Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University were enrolled. Both physical examination (for measurement of waist circumference) and carotid ultrasonography (for measurement of C-IMT) were performed. Results After grouping according to the quartiles of C-IMT, the waist circumference increased across all its quartiles. The waist circumference in 3rd and 4th quartiles (90.7±9.8 cm and 90.8±9.6 cm) was significant higher than in 1st and 2nd quartiles (P Conclusion Among newly-diagnosed diabetic male patients, waist circumference over 90 cm not only reflects sub-clinical atherosclerosis in early stage, but also predicts the progression of atherosclerosis.

  20. Associations of built food environment with body mass index and waist circumference among youth with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamichhane Archana P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth with diabetes are at increased risk for obesity and cardiovascular disease complications. However, less is known about the influence of built food environment on health outcomes in this population. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of accessibility and availability of supermarkets and fast food outlets with Body Mass Index (BMI z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. Methods Information on residential location and adiposity measures (BMI z-score and waist circumference for 845 youths with diabetes residing in South Carolina was obtained from the South Carolina site of the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Food outlets data obtained from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and InfoUSA were merged based on names and addresses of the outlets. The comprehensive data on franchised supermarket and fast food outlets was then used to construct three accessibility and availability measures around each youth’s residence. Results Increased number and density of chain supermarkets around residence location were associated with lower BMI z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. For instance, for a female child of 10 years of age with height of 54.2 inches and weight of 70.4 pounds, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with about 2.8–3.2 pounds higher weight, when compared to female child of same age, height and weight with highest supermarket density around residence location. Similarly, lower supermarket density around residence location was associated with a 3.5–3.7 centimeter higher waist circumference, when compared to residence location with the highest supermarket density. The associations of number and density of chain fast food outlets with adiposity measures, however, were not significant. No significant associations were observed between distance to the nearest supermarket and adiposity measures

  1. Measurement of mid-arm muscle circumference and prognosis in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartari, Rafaela Festugatto; Ulbrich-Kulczynski, Jane Maria; Filho, Antônio Fabiano Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Overall survival (OS) varies widely in patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Strong prognostic factors are still needed to improve decision-making regarding standard treatment options, to stratify patients for inclusion in innovative therapeutic trials and to identify patients who would be best treated with palliative care rather than with systemic chemotherapy. Mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) is a bedside anthropometric measurement that estimates somatic protein reserve, an early indicator of nutritional depletion. This measurement is simple, non-invasive, objective and inexpensive to perform. We evaluated MAMC as a potential prognostic factor in patients with stage IV NSCLC. A total of 56 non-selected consecutive patients with stage IV NSCLC were evaluated. The MAMC measurement results for these patients were expressed as a percentage of the expected reference values, adjusted for gender and age. Patients were categorized as normal (MAMC ≥90%) or depleted (MAMC model). MAMC is a strong independent prognostic factor in stage IV NSCLC patients. Patients with MAMC <90% of the expected value had poor OS. PMID:23426523

  2. Trabecular-iris circumference volume in open angle eyes using swept-source fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigi, Mohammed; Blieden, Lauren S; Nguyen, Donna; Chuang, Alice Z; Baker, Laura A; Bell, Nicholas P; Lee, David A; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A; Feldman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV), which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan). Trabecular-iris space area (TISA) and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15) years (range 20-79). TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD) value of 4.75 µL (±2.30) for TICV500 and a mean (±SD) value of 8.90 µL (±3.88) for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P = 0.035). In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter. PMID:25210623

  3. Trabecular-Iris Circumference Volume in Open Angle Eyes Using Swept-Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rigi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV, which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan. Trabecular-iris space area (TISA and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15 years (range 20–79. TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD value of 4.75 µL (±2.30 for TICV500 and a mean (±SD value of 8.90 µL (±3.88 for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P=0.035. In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter.

  4. Predictive Value of IL-8 for Sepsis and Severe Infections after Burn Injury - A Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Finnerty, Celeste C; Cox, Robert A; Song, Juquan; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory response induced by burn injury contributes to increased incidence of infections, sepsis, organ failure, and mortality. Thus, monitoring post-burn inflammation is of paramount importance but so far there are no reliable biomarkers available to monitor and/or predict infectious complications after burn. As IL-8 is a major mediator for inflammatory responses, the aim of our study was to determine whether IL-8 expression can be used to predict post-burn sepsis, infections, and mortality other outcomes post-burn. Plasma cytokines, acute phase proteins, constitutive proteins, and hormones were analyzed during the first 60 days post injury from 468 pediatric burn patients. Demographics and clinical outcome variables (length of stay, infection, sepsis, multiorgan failure (MOF), and mortality were recorded. A cut-off level for IL-8 was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Statistical significance is set at (p<0.05). ROC analysis identified a cut-off level of 234 pg/ml for IL-8 for survival. Patients were grouped according to their average IL-8 levels relative to this cut off and stratified into high (H) (n=133) and low (L) (n=335) groups. In the L group, regression analysis revealed a significant predictive value of IL-8 to percent of total body surface area (TBSA) burned and incidence of MOF (p<0.001). In the H group IL-8 levels were able to predict sepsis (p<0.002). In the H group, elevated IL-8 was associated with increased inflammatory and acute phase responses compared to the L group (p<0.05). High levels of IL-8 correlated with increased MOF, sepsis, and mortality. These data suggest that serum levels of IL-8 may be a valid biomarker for monitoring sepsis, infections, and mortality in burn patients. PMID:25514427

  5. The Development Situation Investigation on the Waist Circumference and the Hip Circumference in Children and Adolescents of Qingdao%青岛市儿童青少年腰围臀围发育情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安乾; 陈暕; 高希宝; 于维森

    2015-01-01

    目的:掌握青岛市儿童青少年腰围和臀围发育情况,为制定全国标准提供参考。方法利用2014年全国学生体质健康调查研究所获得的腰围、臀围数据进行统计学分析。结果7~18岁儿童青少年腰围、臀围总的趋势是随年龄增长而增长;14岁以前,腰臀比随年龄的增长而增长,14岁以后趋于平稳。城市儿童青少年腰围、臀围高于乡村。不同体重状况儿童青少年的腰围、臀围发育水平均为肥胖组>超重组>体重正常组。结论儿童期的腰围和腰臀成为预测成人期肥胖及其相关健康危险的重要指标,青岛市儿童青少年腰围、臀围监测结果,可为制定全国统一的青少年腰围臀围标准提供参考,也为预防儿童肥胖和慢性病提供科学依据。%Objective To grasp the developmental state of the waist circumference and the hip circumference in children and ad -olescents of Qingdao ,so as to provide a reference for the national standard .Methods The statistical analysis was used to analyze the data of the waist circumference and the hip circumference which were obtained from the national student physical health research in 2014.Results The trend of the waist circumference and the hip circumference increased with the age in children and adolescents aged 7~18 years old ,and the same as the waist-hip ratio( WHR) before 14 years old,but stabilized after 14 years old.The waist circumference and the hip circumfer-ence in urban children were higher than the rural children'.The developmental level of the waist circumference and the hip circumference in children with different weight status was:obesity group>overweight group >normal group .Conclusion The waist circumference and the hip circumference have become important indicators to predict adult obesity and the related health hazards .The monitoring results of the waist circumference and the hip circumference in children of Qingdao provide not only a

  6. Neck circumference correlates with tumor size and lateral lymph node metastasis in men with small papillary thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi Ra; Kim, Sang Soo; Huh, Jung Eun; Lee, Byung Joo; Lee, Jin Choon; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seong Jang; Wang, Soo Geun; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, In Joo

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Obesity is correlated with numerous diseases, including thyroid cancer, but the clinical significance of obesity with regard to the clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer remains unclear. Neck circumference is an index of upper-body adipose tissue distribution. Methods In total, 401 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) measuring ≤ 2 cm were included. Neck circumference was measured horizontally at the level just below the thyroid cartilage on preoperative neck c...

  7. The predictive value of first day bilirubin levels for early discharged newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA TOLGA ÜNSÜR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early discharge of newborns is essential because of social, economic an medical reasons in our area, but it increases readmission rates especially for hyperbilirubinemia. Hence, predicting the high risk neonates for subsequent hyperbilirubinemia is required. This study was designed to investigate which level of total serum bilirubin (TSB at the first day could be used to predict hyperbilirubinemia .Methods: The venous blood samples obtained from 300 newborns at post-partum 24±6 hours for blood group, direct coomb’s, TSB and direct bilirubin level (DBL. These newborns were followed up during 5- day and TSB and DBLwere detected in 90 newborns with jaundice again according to Kramer dermal zones at 120±6 hours of age.Results: In 23.3% of 90 newborns phototherapy was needed. The cut off value of TSB at the first day to define newborns at high risk for subsequent hyperbilirubinemia was 6.50 mg/dl with positive predictive value 19.75%, negative predictive value 97.72%. At that point sensitivity was 76.19%, specificity was 76.70%.Conclusion: The cut-off point of 6.5 mg/dl of TSB at the first day might be used to predict subsequent hyperbilirubinemia risk at healthy, full-term early discharged newborns as the test is economic and available in all healthcare units.

  8. Screening for feeding disorders. Creating critical values using the behavioural pediatrics feeding assessment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Terence M; Jordan, Caroline; Aldridge, Victoria K; Martin, Clarissa I

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to discriminate between clinical and non-clinical samples on the Behavioural Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS). The objective was to present a cut-off value, that was derived statistically, which could be used to screen for feeding disorders. A sample of five hundred and seventy-three families with a target child ranging in age from 20 to 85 months took part in the current study. Sixty-four children had a known diagnosis of a feeding disorder and were embedded into a typically developing sample of families that had not sought professional intervention. All families completed the BPFAS in order to provide a known database to measure discriminative statistics. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the cut off value for the BPFAS was a Child Frequency score of 61 and a Child Problem score of six. This offered an 87% accuracy rate at these values. The current study offered definitive evidence that the BPFAS was accurate (both sensitive and specific) to determine differences between clinical and non-clinical samples in the United Kingdom. It is therefore advocated that BPFAS should be adopted in future studies exploring the impact of feeding disorders and problems in both clinical and research settings. PMID:23742944

  9. Comparison between body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness and mid-arm muscle circumference in Saudi adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolescence is an important period in an individual's life. Overweight and obesity are fraught with several health problems even late in life. The objective of this study was estimate the overweight, obesity, body fat and muscle content of Saudi adolescents as compared to a recognized reference population. Data were collected from a sample of Saudi adolescents in Jeddah from 42 boys' and 42 girls' school during the month of April 2000. Data collection was done by personal interviews to collect sociodemograhic factors and by direct measurement of weight, height, triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) and mid-arm circumference (MAC). The 50th, 85th and 95th percentiles(P50, P85 and P95) for body mass index (BMI) and triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) were taken, then the 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles (P50, P90 and P95) for the mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were calculated. These measurements were compared with corresponding values of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES I). The P85 and P95 for the BMI and TSF were higher for Saudi adolescents than the NHANES I and the difference was wider for P95. Conversely, there was a lower MAMC at P90 and P95thane the NHANES I reference population curves. The lower MAMC curves were less marked in girls than in boys. On the other hand Saudi boys and girls showed on average similar body mass index indicated by MBI at P50, which was misleading, since those adolescents showing similar body mass index had more fatness than of average reference population indicated by TSF and P50, and less muscularity on average than reference population indicated MAMC at P-50. Overweight and obesity with increased body fat content and decreased body muscle content appear to be widespread among Saudi adolescents even among those adolescents showing average body index. Public health interventions are required to improve quality of food, encourage physical, activity and exercise, as well as correct the perception of

  10. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Berentzen, T L; Halkjær, Jytte;

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective was to inv...... investigate the association between intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products and subsequent changes in weight and WC. Furthermore, potential effect modification by sex, age, body mass index and WC at baseline was investigated....

  11. Genetic associations between scrotal circumference and female reproductive traits in Nelore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakado, A P N; Boligon, A A; Baldi, F; Silva, J A I I V; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic associations between scrotal circumference obtained at 12 (SC12; mean of 21.46 ± 2.74 cm), 15 (SC15; mean of 25.31 ± 3.19 cm), and 18 mo of age (SC18; mean of 26.77 ± 2.95 cm) and reproductive traits measured directly in heifers (age at first calving [AFC]: mean of 1,062.06 ± 114.79 d; heifer pregnancy at 16 mo of age [HP]: mean of 15.4 ± 0.36%; and subsequent rebreeding of primiparous heifers [HR]: mean of 27.1 ± 0.44%) using Bayesian inference to evaluate the possible inclusion of these traits as selection criteria in beef cattle breeding programs. Genetic gains comparisons were also estimated. A total of 53,683 data of Nelore animals born between 1990 and 2006, obtained from the livestock archive of Agropecuária Jacarezinho Ltda. (Valparaíso, São Paulo, Brazil), were analyzed. Two-trait analysis provided heritability estimates of 0.35 ± 0.08, 0.40 ± 0.04, 0.37 ± 0.03, 0.21 ± 0.01, 0.55 ± 0.03, and 0.17 ± 0.03 for SC12, SC15, SC18, AFC, HP, and HR, respectively. The genetic correlations between scrotal circumference and AFC, HP, and HR were -0.42 ± 0.12, 0.43 ± 0.13, and -0.13 ± 0.17, respectively, for SC12; -0.25 ± 0.07, 0.26 ± 0.07, and -0.11 ± 0.10, respectively, for SC15; and -0.22 ± 0.06, 0.39 ± 0.06, and 0.11 ± 0.09, respectively, for SC18. The direct selection response for HP was 0.12%, but when HP is indirectly selected based on the scrotal circumferences, the gains on these correlated responses were higher (0.16, 0.16, and 0.22%) for selection based on SC12, SC15, and SC18, respectively. These findings suggest that the selection of animals for larger scrotal circumference, particularly at 12 mo of age, should result in higher rates of HP and younger AFC of Nelore females. PMID:26115258

  12. Short children with a low midupper arm circumference respond to food supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Phelan, Kevin P Q; Cichon, Bernardette;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The management of children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) is based on food supplementation in outpatient programs. When midupper arm circumference (MUAC) is used as the sole admission criterion, it is common practice to exclude children with lengths <67 cm from treatment. The ...... children <67 cm in supplementary feeding programs if their MUAC is between 115 and 124 mm and their WHZ is ≥-2. This could benefit millions of children currently excluded from supplementary feeding. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN42569496....

  13. Evaluation of marginal circumference and marginal thickness changes in precrimped stainless steel crowns, after recrimping

    OpenAIRE

    Afshar H; Mozafari Kojidi M

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aim: The need for recrimping precrimped stainless steel crowns by the dentist in clinic is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the rate of marginal circumference and marginal thickness change of precrimped stainless steel crowns after recrimping. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 primary photos were taken from margins of 30 S.S.Cs (3M, Ni-Cr) related to tooth 85 with a digital camera fixed at a determined distance. Margins of crowns were crimped by 1...

  14. Trends in Waist Circumference and Central Obesity in Adults, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Tazik; Abdolhamid Angizeh; Pooneh Moharloei; Samieh Banihashem; Mehdi Sedaghat; Gholamreza Veghari; Abbas Moghaddami

    2012-01-01

     Objectives: The main aim of this study is to determine the centralobesity trends during the period from 2006 to 2010 among 15-65years old people in Northern Iran.Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional studyconducted on 6466 subjects who had been chosen by a multistage cluster random sampling within five steps. The subjects wererandomly chosen from 325 clusters and each cluster included 20cases. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥102 cmand ≥88 cm in men and wome...

  15. The survey of School Circumference Hygiene in Area 2 Arak City and that’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ganji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe main goal of present research study condition of school circumference hygiene and that’s conformitywith national standard like: security, workshop and laberatory, buffet, enclosure, w.c, w.b,…the methodresearch is description and cross sectional that to register category data with diverts observation and censusand complete enumeration. There are many research results:- 58.33 percent of population is fit for girls' school and 41.66 percent is fit for son.53.44 percent is highschool and 46.55 percent is middle school.12.12 percent is one time school and 87.87 percent is two timesschool.- According to dimensions and indicators school circumference hygiene standard, average conformity in thisresearch is 45.04 percent and arrangement that conformity from up to down average conformity is:- The condition of repulse of sewage and rubbish is 100 percent.- The condition of enclosure is 55.38.- The condition of workshop and laboratory is 43.95- The condition of W.C, W.B and drinking cup is 38.43- The condition of security is 37.37- The condition of class is 37.13- The condition of buffet is 3.04

  16. The Significance of Macrocephaly or Enlarging Head Circumference in Infants With the Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Barnes, Patrick; Miller, Marvin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infants with the triad (neurologic dysfunction, subdural hematoma [SDH], and retinal hemorrhage) are often diagnosed as victims of shaken baby syndrome. Medical conditions/predisposing factors to developing the triad are often dismissed: short falls, birth-related SDH that enlarges, macrocephaly, sinus/cortical vein thrombosis, and others. Six infants with the triad are described in which child abuse was diagnosed, but parents denied wrongdoing. All 6 had either macrocephaly or enlarging head circumference, which suggested medical explanations. Three infants incurred short falls, 1 had a difficult delivery in which there was likely a rebleed of a birth-related SDH, 1 had a spontaneous SDH associated with increased extra-axial fluid spaces, and 1 had a sinus thrombosis. Following legal proceedings, all 6 infants were returned to their parents, and there has been no child maltreatment in follow-up, suggesting child abuse never happened. The results indicate that alternative medical explanations for causing the triad should be considered and that macrocephaly or an enlarging head circumference raises the possibility of a medical explanation. PMID:25893912

  17. Dipolar quantization and the infinite circumference limit of two-dimensional conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Elaborating on our previous presentation, where the term {\\it dipolar quantization} was introduced, we argue here that adopting $L_0-(L_1+L_{-1})/2+{\\bar L}_0-({\\bar L}_1+{\\bar L}_{-1})/2$ as the Hamiltonian instead of $L_0+{\\bar L}_0$ yields an infinite circumference limit in two-dimensional conformal field theory. The new Hamiltonian leads to dipolar quantization instead of radial quantization. As a result, the new theory exhibits a continuous and strongly degenerated spectrum in addition to the Virasoro algebra with a continuous index. Its Hilbert space exhibits a different inner product than that obtained in the original theory. The idiosyncrasy of this particular Hamiltonian is its relation to the so-called sine-square deformation, which is found in the study of a certain class of quantum statistical systems. The appearance of the infinite circumference explains why the vacuum states of sine-square deformed systems are coincident with those of the respective closed-boundary systems.

  18. VALIDITY OF USING WAIST AND HIP CIRCUMFERENCE MEASUREMENTS TO DETERMINE BODY COMPOSITION OF YOUNG SYRIAN MEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachir, Mahfouz; Ahmad, Husam

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the relation between waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and triceps skin-fold thickness and percentage body fat in young Syrian men. The aim was to develop equations that can use these anthropometric characteristics to estimate percentage body fat in this group of subjects. A total of 2470 healthy Syrian men aged 18-19 years were enrolled in the study in 2010-2011. The anthropometric characteristics of all subjects were measured. The percentage body fat of 213 of the subjects was determined using the deuterium dilution (DD) technique as a reference method. The validity of using WC, HC, WHpR and WHtR to calculate percentage body fat, in comparison with the reference method (DD technique), was assessed by calculating biases and limits of agreement. The estimates of percentage body fat using 'WC' and 'WC with triceps skin-fold' measurements ranged from 13.00±5.56% to 14.55±8.63%, and were lower than those determined using the reference method (21.32±6.42%). A better prediction equation is proposed for young adults, based on a multiple linear regression model using WC, HC and WHtR. PMID:26971838

  19. Determination of depot fat of children by measuring skin folds, body circumference and body distances as well as by the 40K-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    10 different anthropometric measurements were performed in 134 children (mean age 3 years). We measured at 4 sites the thickness of four skin folds. In addition six body distances and circumferences were determined by means of a measuring tape. By multiple linear regression analysis those values were calculated, which representatively indicate the total fat content. Simultaneously a second depot fat determination was performed on these children by means of the 40K method. Here, the total potassium content was determined by measuring the natural 40K radioactivity of the whole body. The comparison of these two fat values showed good correlation. Our results confirm the opinion of those authors, who also evaluated the significance of this method. The measurement of the subcutaneous fatty tissue by means of anthropometric methods permits the objective analysis and evaluation of the outer state of nutrition of children. (orig./MG)

  20. 北京市城乡学生腰围臀围腰臀比分析%Waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio among students in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬盛鑫; 夏天; 杨忠; 安康; 尹丽君; 王东江; 宋玉珍; 刘淑娟

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解2010年北京市7~18岁中小学生腰围臀围和腰臀比的年龄、性别特征,为学生体质健康研究资料提供有益补充.方法 对2010年北京市体质调研7~18岁中小学生的腰围、臀围和腰臀比进行描述性分析.结果 男生腰围均值、腰臀比高于女生;城区男生臀围均值高于女生,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05或P<0.01),郊区男、女生臀围差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).腰围均值12岁前有随年龄增长而增加的趋势.学生臀围均值有随着年龄的增长而增加的趋势,差异有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).城区男生腰围均值高于郊区男生(P<0.05);城区女生腰围均值与郊区女生差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);城区男女生臀围均值大于郊区学生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);城郊区男生腰臀比均值差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);郊区女生腰臀比均值高于城区女生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 北京城乡7 ~18岁学生腰围、臀围和腰臀比随年龄变化总趋势一致,但城乡各指标间年龄、性别特征存在差异.%Objective To study the characteristics of waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio among students( aged 7-18 years) of different ages and sexes in Beijing. Methods As part of the Beijing students Physical fitness study, a stratified cluster representative sample of total population aged 7-18 years was selected. Anthropometric measure including waist circumference, hip circumference and the waist-hip ratio, using T test analysis methods to study the Beijing city and suburb students aged 7 to 18 waist circumference, hip circumference and the waist-hip ratio by age, gender differences in city and suburb areas. Results The boys' mean waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were higher than girls', the urban boys' mean hip circumference was higher than the urban girls( P 0.05). The mean waist circumference had an increasing trend with age before

  1. Determination of Best Cut off Value of Activity Count in Diagnosis Exercise Intensity of Adolescents by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve Analysis%应用ROC曲线确定活动计数在青春期少年运动强度诊断中的最佳临界值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳; 陈佩杰

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:运用ROC曲线确定青春期少年不同运动强度的活动计数最佳临界值,为准确评估日常体力活动水平提供支撑.研究方法:通过便携式气体代谢分析仪(Cosmed K4b2)和三轴运动传感器(ActiGraph GT3X)同步对80名11~14岁健康中学生(男性40名,女性40名)进行静息和8种常见体力活动的测试,通过ROC曲线下面积确定活动计数对于区分小、中、大活动强度的诊断能力;通过最大约登指数确定小、中、大运动强度的活动计数最佳临界点.结果:垂直轴在各种活动项目中占主要优势,ACxis1、VM2和VM3的变化趋势基本一致;ROC曲线可建立不同活动强度的ACxis1、VM2和VM3的活动计数最佳临界点(AUC∈[0.708,0.890],P<0.001);3 METs、6METs和9METs所对应的活动计数最佳临界点ACxis1为2 151 counts/min、3 761 counts/min、3 783 counts/min;VM2为4 935 counts/min、6 009 counts/min、6 169 counts/min; VM3为9 600 counts/min、9 900 counts/min、10 296counts/min.结论:ACxis1、VM2和VM3可有效反映人体运动状态,ACxis1、VM2和VM3的最佳临界值可有效诊断青春期少年的运动强度,小强度活动的活动计数最佳临界值为ACxis1<2 151 counts/min、VM2<3 761 counts/min、VM3<3 783 counts/min;中等强度最佳临界值为2 151 counts/min≤ACxis1<4 935 counts/min,3 761 counts/min≤VM2<6 009 counts/min、3 783 counts/min≤VM3<6 169 counts/min;大强度活动的最佳临界值为4 935 counts/min≤ACxis1<9 600 counts/min、6 009 counts/min≤VM2<9 900 counts/min、6 169 counts/min≤VM3<10 296 counts/min;剧烈运动的最佳临界值为ACxis1≥9 600 counts/min、VM2≥9 900counts/min、VM3≥10 296 counts/min.

  2. Revised cutoff values of ALT and HBV DNA level can better differentiate HBeAg (- chronic inactive HBV patients from active carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gull Sana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims ELISA is still used as primary test for diagnosis HBV disease. However, ELISA-positive patients were marked as HBV inactive after confirmation with PCR and vice versa. Our aim was to assess the performance of new cut-off value of ALT, HBV DNA load and significance of AST as screening tool for HBeAg (- chronic active or inactive patients in Pakistani population. Materials and methods In a cross-sectional, cohort study, 567 HBeAg (- patients followed for one year were selected. Patients with persistent elevated ALT than normal and HBV DNA ≥ 100,000 copies/mL were taken as active chronic. Diagnostic values for ALT, AST and HBV DNA load in HBV HBeAg (- chronic active and inactive patients compared using receiver operation characteristic (ROC curves. Results Of 567 HBeAg (- patients, 228 were classified as chronic inactive and 339 as active. HBV infection was dominant in male. Serum ALT, AST and HBV DNA levels showed significant and high AUROC to differentiate chronic HBeAg (- inactive patients from active. AUROC for Serum ALT, AST and HBV DNA were observed 0.997, 0.969 and 1.000, respectively. For revised cut off value for ALT (30 IU/L for male and 19 IU/L for female and HBV DNA load ≥100,000 copies/mL, a PPV of 97%, NPV of 94%, a sensitivity of 98%, and a specificity of 92% was observed to discriminate active carriers from inactive carriers. We also observed 93.5% specificity, 83.1% sensitivity, 82% PPV and 89.5% NPV for AST ≤20 IU/L to differentiate inactive carriers from active ones in our study group. Conclusions Revised cut off value of ALT and NIH derived HBV DNA value can better discriminate between HBeAg (- chronic active and inactive patients.

  3. The value of serum NGAL in determination of dialysis indication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate if Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin can be used or not as a biochemical marker to determine the indications for emergency dialysis treatment. Methods: The study was conducted at the Emergency Department of Numune Taraining and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, in 2012, and comprised 60 patients who had uraemic symptoms and abnormal laboratory tests, including elevated potassium, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine level or lowered pH and bicarbonate. They were divided in to 2 equal groups as those having indication for dialysis (Group 1) and those not having such indications (Group 2). Relevant values, including that of Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin, were compared between the two groups. To assess the utility of Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin measurements at varying cut-off values to predict indications for dialysis, a conventional receiver operating characteristic curve was generated and the area under the curve was calculated. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age of the 30 patients in Group 1 was 68.29+-16.9 years, while in Group 2 it was 66.47+-14.2 years (p<0.65). The mean Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin level was 817.65+-334.76ng/mL in Group 1 and 398.9 202.42ng/mL in Group 2 (p<0.001). The best cut-off level for Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin to predict emergency haemodialysis indication was 615ng/mL with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 80%, and the areas under curve was 0.84. Conclusion: Serum Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin level may be a determining parameter for indication of emergency haemodialysis. (author)

  4. Normal values for segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy in pediatric patients.

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    Maria Laura Avila

    Full Text Available Localized limb edema is a clinically relevant sign in diseases such as post-thrombotic syndrome and lymphedema. Quantitative evaluation of localized edema in children is mainly done by measuring the absolute difference in limb circumference, which includes fat and fat-free mass. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS provides information on the fluid volume of a body segment. Our objective was to determine normal ranges for segmental (arm and leg BIS measurements in healthy children. Additionally, we determined the normal ranges for the difference in arm and ankle circumference and explored the influence of handedness and the correlation between techniques.Healthy children aged 1-18 years were recruited. The ratio of extracellular fluid content between contralateral limbs (estimated as the inter-arm and inter-leg extracellular impedance ratio, and the ratio of extracellular to intracellular fluid content for each limb (estimated as the intracellular to extracellular impedance ratio were determined with a bioimpedance spectrometer. Arm and ankle circumference was determined with a Gulick II tape.We recruited 223 healthy children (48 infants, 54 preschoolers, 66 school-aged children, and 55 teenagers. Normal values for arm and leg BIS measurements, and for the difference in arm and ankle circumference were estimated for each age category. No influence of handedness was found. We found a statistically significant correlation between extracellular impedance ratio and circumference difference for arms among teenagers.We determined normal BIS ranges for arms and legs and for the difference in circumference between arms and between ankles in children. There was no statistically significant correlation between extracellular impedance ratio and difference in circumference, except in the case of arms in adolescents. This may indicate that limb circumference measures quantities other than fluid, challenging the adequacy of this technique to determine the presence

  5. Differences in body circumferences, skin-fold thicknesses and lipid profiles among HIV-infected African children on and not on stavudine

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    V Musiime

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study To compare body circumferences, skin-fold thickness (SFT and lipid levels (LL, as measures of lipodystrophy, among antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve and experienced children at enrolment into the CHAPAS-3 trial. Methods HIV-infected children in Uganda and Zambia, either ART-naïve or on stavudine (d4T for ≥2 years without clinical lipodystrophy, were randomised to receive d4T, abacavir (ABC or zidovudine (ZDV with lamivudine and efavirenz (EFV or nevirapine. At enrolment, mid-upper arm (MUAC and calf (CC circumferences, SFT (biceps, triceps, sub-scapular, supra-iliac and fasting lipids (total cholesterol (TC, low density lipo-protein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, triglycerides (TRIG were measured. Age/sex adjusted z-scores of MUAC, CC, SFT and the sum of SFT (SSF used Dutch reference data. ART-naïve and ART-experienced children were compared with t-tests using Stata v11.0. Summary of results Among 444 children, 224 (51% were male and 331 (74.5% ART-naïve. Mean (sd CD4% was 19.7% (10.2 versus (vs 34.2% (7.7 in ART-naïve vs ART-experienced children. The ART-naïve were younger than the ART-experienced children (median [IQR] age 2.5 [1.5, 4.0] vs 6.0 [5.5, 7.0] years, p<0.0001. Among the ART-experienced, 4/108 (3.7% were on EFV and median (IQR d4T use was 3.5 (2.7, 4.2 years. As expected, MUAC, CC, weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ z-scores were lower in the ART-naïve; the ART-experienced had lower SFT z-scores and higher TC and HDL, but lower TRIG (Table 1. Conclusions Failure-to-thrive likely contributed to lower circumference values in ART-naïve children. Among the ART-experienced, thinner SFT and higher TC values could be ART (particularly d4T-related. Normal values, currently unavailable for African children, are being collected. During trial follow-up, we will evaluate the effect of ABC, ZDV and d4T on development of lipodystrophy in naïve children and its reversibility in d4T-treated children

  6. Body mass index and abdominal circumference among teens in the countryside of Piauí, Brazil

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    Ionara Holanda de Moura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric techniques, establishing the diagnosis of overweight / obesity as body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, are increasingly important. With this research we aimed to learn about BMI and relate it to the WC of adolescent students in two institutions in Piaui. This descriptive cross-sectional study of quantitative prevalence. It carried out in two public schools in Picos - PI with 145 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years for both sexes. Data collection was performed through a form from the months of August to December 2010. The prevalence of overweight was 3.7%. Overweight was significantly associated with increased WC (<0.0001. These results emphasize the relevance of conducting prevention and control of excess weight so that the health of adolescents should be maintained.

  7. Comparison of head circumference in an Israeli child population with United States and British standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palti, H; Peritz, E; Flug, D; Gitlin, M; Adler, B

    1983-01-01

    The head circumference (HC) growth pattern of infants from 1 to 24 months of age was studied in a Jerusalem community. The means of HC of the study population are smaller for each age and sex group than those of the National Center of Health Statistics, USA reference population, London children and the Nellhaus standard. The regression of HC on length explains about 20% of the variance. In an analysis of variance controlling for social class, birth order and length, the differences by region of origin of the mother were not significant. The smaller HC of the study population is probably due to these children being shorter and lighter than the above-mentioned western populations. Malnutrition as a factor for small HC was excluded. PMID:6838166

  8. Food and drinking patterns as predictors of 6-year BMI-adjusted changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the prospective associations between diet or drinking patterns and abdominal obesity; we therefore investigated whether food and beverage groups or patterns predicted 6-year changes in waist circumference (WC) and whether these associations were independent of...... concurrent changes in BMI as a measure of general obesity. The subjects were 2300 middle-aged men and women with repeated measurements of dietary intake, BMI and WC from 1982 to 1993. Intakes from ten food groups and from coffee, tea, wine, beer and spirits were assessed; gender-specific food factors were...... associations were weakened, especially for women, after adjustment for BMI changes. None of the food factors was associated with WC changes. Based on the present study, we conclude that very few food items and no food patterns seem to predict changes in WC, whereas high intakes of beer and spirits among women...

  9. Waist circumference and body mass index as predictors of health care costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Betina; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Olsen, Kim Rose;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the present study we analyze the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) and future health care costs. On the basis of the relation between these anthropometric measures and mortality, we hypothesized that for all levels of BMI increased WC implies...... added future health care costs (Hypothesis 1) and for given levels of WC increased BMI entails reduced future health care costs (Hypothesis 2). We furthermore assessed whether a combination of the two measures predicts health care costs better than either individual measure. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY....../PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were obtained from the Danish prospective cohort study Diet, Cancer and Health. The population includes 15,334 men and 16,506 women 50 to 64 years old recruited in 1996 to 1997. The relationship between future health care costs and BMI and WC in combination was analyzed by use of categorized...

  10. Maternal prepregnancy waist circumference and BMI in relation to gestational weight gain and breastfeeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Nøhr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M;

    2015-01-01

    , affects GWG and breastfeeding behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how maternal prepregnancy fat distribution, described by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), is associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior. DESIGN: We analyzed 1371 live births to 1024 women after enrollment in the...... size was differently associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior depending on the location of the fat mass. Thus, maternal fat distribution may be a more important determinant of GWG and breastfeeding behavior than BMI alone.......BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that gestational weight gain (GWG) and breastfeeding behavior may influence long-term maternal abdominal fat mass. However, this could be confounded by abdominal fat mass before pregnancy because it is unknown whether abdominal fat mass, independently of body size...

  11. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer;

    2010-01-01

    -tester in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to determine the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference in patients with TKA when administered by physiotherapists (testers) with different clinical experience. METHOD......: The design was an intra-tester, inter-tester and intra-day reliability study. Nineteen outpatients (10 females) having received a TKA were examined by an inexperienced and an experienced physiotherapist. Following a standardized protocol, active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were...... and between physiotherapists (except passive knee extension). Changes in knee joint ROM of more than 6.6 degrees and 10 degrees (except active knee flexion) and knee joint circumference of more than 1.0 cm and 1.63 cm represent a real clinical improvement (SRD) or deterioration for a single individual within...

  12. Value of ABCD2 in predicting early ischemic stroke in patients diagnosed with transient ischemic attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Chardoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As a significant number of patients diagnosed with transient ischemic attack (TIA at emergency department are at risk to develop TIA or cerebral vascular accident (CVA, several attempts have been made to figure out a predictive method to detect those at higher risk of such attacks. We aimed to evaluate the role of ABCD2 scoring which includes age, blood pressure, clinical symptoms, diabetes mellitus, and duration of symptoms in predicting short term outcome of the patients presenting with TIA. One hundred consecutive patients visited between 2009 and 2010 in Hazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital and diagnosed with TIA were enrolled and their ABCD2 scores were registered. The incidence of death, CVA, or TIA during the first week after the attack was recorded. Eleven patients suffered new TIA/CVA after 1 week. Sensitivity and specificity of ABCD2 score for predicting CVA/TIA at cut-off point of 4 were 72.7% and 52.8%, respectively. At the same cut-off point for ABCD2, positive and negative predictive values were 16% and 94 %, respectively. Our results show that although patients with ABCD2 score greater than 4 were more likely to develop recurrent TIA/CVA in short term, those with lesser score still harbour a considerable risk for TIA/CVA. Though ABCD2 as an easily applicable tool is very helpful in management of TIA patients at emergency department, but it should not be the only measure to rely on in our decision making.

  13. Effects of selection for scrotal circumference in Limousin bulls on reproductive and growth traits of progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; McCann, M A; Kiser, T E

    1996-09-01

    Nine pairs of Limousin bulls from nine contemporary groups were acquired, with each pair consisting of one large scrotal circumference (SC) bull and one small SC bull. Average adjusted yearling scrotal circumferences were 36.3 cm (SD 1.6 cm) and 28.5 cm (SD .9 cm) for large SC (LP) and small SC (SP) bulls, respectively. In addition to the phenotypic grouping, non-parent SC EPD were used to group bulls into high (HE, > .53 cm), average (AE), and low (LE, Brangus x Hereford cows each yr for 1 to 3 yr. Birth weights, weaning and yearling weights and heights, and ultrasound measurements for backfat and ribeye measurements were taken on 407 progeny. Blood samples were collected on 210 heifer progeny when they averaged 11, 13, and 15 mo of age to determine whether they had reached puberty. When subjected to a breeding soundness exam (BSE), LP bulls scored higher (P < .01) for motility as well as total BSE score. The LP calves had heavier birth weights (P < .05) and greater testicular mass at weaning (P < .01) than SP calves. The HE and AE bull calves had greater (P < .02) testicular mass than did the LE bull calves. A greater (P < .05) percentage of HE heifers had reached puberty by the 11- and 13-mo measurements than either the AE or LE heifers. The HE heifers reached puberty at a younger age than AE (P < .01) or LE (P < .001) heifers. Selection using SC EPD was more effective than phenotypic selection in reducing age at puberty in daughters. PMID:8880405

  14. Determinação de escore e nota de corte do módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood para discriminação de adultos asmáticos em estudos epidemiológicos Determining the score and cut-off point that would identify asthmatic adults in epidemiological studies using the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elayne de Fátima Maçãira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Validar o questionário padronizado escrito do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, módulo sobre asma, para pesquisa de prevalência de asma, estabelecendo seu escore e a nota de corte para discriminação de adultos asmáticos. MÉTODOS: Entrevistamos pacientes ambulatoriais adultos, 40 asmáticos e 38 controles, pareados por sexo e idade, utilizando o módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, composto por oito aspectos dicotômicos de asma. Determinamos o escore e a nota de corte para discriminação de asmáticos, definindo sua sensibilidade, especificidade e índice de Youden. Validamos o método em contraposição ao diagnóstico clínico e funcional. A reprodutibilidade das questões individuais foi testada por meio de reentrevistas de metade dos pacientes após algumas semanas. RESULTADOS: O escore variou de 0 a 14 pontos. Um escore = 5 pontos permitiu discriminar pacientes asmáticos (sensibilidade = 93%, especificidade = 100% e índice de Youden = 0,93. A maioria das questões apresentou boa reprodutibilidade, observada em reentrevista após 48,2 ± 11,1 dias (Kappa e Kappa ponderado variando de 0,43 a 1,00 para as questões individuais. CONCLUSÃO: A validação de uma nota de corte permite uma interpretação alternativa às informações fornecidas pelo módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, levando em conta o conjunto das informações e não somente as respostas individuais de cada questão em estudos de prevalência de asma em adultos.OBJECTIVE: To validate, for use in asthma prevalence studies, the asthma module of the standardized written questionnaire developed for use in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, establishing the score and cut-off point that would identify asthmatic adults. METHODS: We interviewed 78 adult outpatients (40 adult asthmatics and 38 age-matched and gender-matched controls

  15. Diagnostic values for the viral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Michio; Kawada, Jun-Ichi; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus disease (CAEBV) is a distinct EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease with a poor prognosis. Although the viral load in blood samples has been widely used for diagnosing CAEBV, well-defined viral load thresholds to guide clinicians are currently lacking. The aim of the present study was to determine standardized diagnostic values for EBV load in blood samples of CAEBV patients using the World Health Organization international standard for reporting. Levels of EBV DNA in 103 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and 95 plasma/serum samples from 107 cases with CAEBV were quantified and expressed in international units. Receiver operating characteristic curves were analyzed to assess the most appropriate cut-off values for levels of EBV DNA to distinguish CAEBV from EBV-associated infectious mononucleosis (IM) and controls with past EBV infection. Levels of EBV DNA in PBMCs were significantly higher in the CAEBV group (median, 10(4.2) IU/μgDNA) compared to the IM (median, 10(2.1) IU/μgDNA) and control groups. An inconsistent qualitative result was seen in 13 of 86 CAEBV patients; in these, EBV-DNA was positive in PBMCs, but negative in plasma. Diagnostic cut-off values for viral load in PBMCs from CAEBV patients, as compared to those of healthy controls and IM patients, were 10(2.0) IU/μgDNA and 10(3.2) IU/μgDNA, respectively. For diagnostic purposes, the viral load of PBMCs was better than of plasma/serum. A diagnostic cut-off EBV load for CAEBV may be useful for the management of CAEBV patients. PMID:26712582

  16. Echocardiographic Partition Values and Prevalence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Hypertensive Jamaicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranjivi Potu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH detected by either electrocardiography or echo- cardiography has been shown to be an extremely strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with essential hypertension and in members of the general population. Alternative to LVH, left ventricular geometrical patterns offer incremental prognostic value beyond that provided by the other cardiovascular risk factors including left ventricular mass (LVM. Combination of LVM and relative wall thickness (RWT can be used to identify different left ventricular geometrical patterns. Various indexation methods normalised for LVM have been shown to offer prognostic significance. There was no prior study on the prevalence of LVH and geometric patterns in hypertensive patients in Jamaica using multiple partition values. Our study was designed to estimate the prevalence of LVH and geometrical patterns in a hypertensive Caribbean population in Jamaica using 10 different published cut-off values.

  17. ROC curves of obesity indicators have a predictive value for children hypertension aged 7-17 years

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    Li Tai-shun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to examine the distribution of integrated covariate and its association with blood pressure (BP among children in Anhui province, China, and assess the predictive value of integrated covariate to children hypertension. Methods: A total of 2,828 subjects (1,588 male and 1,240 female aged 7-17 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waistline, hipline and BP of all subjects were measured, obesity and overweight were defined by an international standard, specifying the measurement, the reference population, and the age and sex specific cut off points. High BP status was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP > 95th percentile for age and gender. Results: Our results revealed that the prevalence of children hypertension was 11.03%, the SBP and DBP of obesity group were significantly higher than that of normal group. Anthropometric obesity indices such as body mass index (BMI were positively correlated with SBP and DBP. Integrated covariate had a better performance than the single covariate in the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve, the cut-off value; the sensitivity and the specificity of the integrated covariate were 0.112, 0.577, 0.683, respectively. Conclusion: Integrated covariate is a simple and effective anthropometric index to identify childhood hypertension.

  18. Interactions of dietary protein and adiposity measures in relation to subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Angquist, Lars; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    dietary protein, whether replacing carbohydrate or fat, and weight change. However, individuals in the highest tertile of baseline BMI (irrespective of baseline WCBMI ) had significantly inverse change in waist circumference when protein replaced carbohydrate, but not when protein replaced fat. CONCLUSION......: Replacing carbohydrate with protein in the diet may prevent a relative increase in WC in individuals with a greater BMI....

  19. Dietary energy density in relation to subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Ginder, Vanessa;

    2009-01-01

    centers. After adjusting for baseline anthropometrics, demographic and lifestyle factors, follow-up duration and energy from beverages, ED was not associated with weight change, but significantly associated with waist circumference change overall. For 1 kcal/g ED, the annual weight change was -42 g...

  20. Waist Circumference, Weight, and Body Mass Index of Iranians Based on National Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Larijani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is an important and life-threatening disease, associated with different chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We sought to address the paucity of information on the trends of anthropometric indices such as weight, waist circumference, and body mass index in the adult population of Iran. Methods: We drew upon data from the First Non-communicable Disease Survey in Iran in 2005. In total, 79,611 participants between 20 and 64 years old were selected via the random multistage cluster sampling. The Lambda Median Scale method was applied to construct normal curves for anthropometric indices.Results: The mean of waist circumference in both genders increased with age and in all the age groups except those between 20 and 24 years old was higher in the women. The mean of body mass index was higher in all the age brackets in the women, but the means of weight and height were higher in the men. The association of theses indices with diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia was stronger in men. Conclusion: The ranges of waist circumference and body mass index in Iranian population are different from those of other countries. The higher body mass index and waist circumference in females and the direct association between obesity and chronic diseases, is advisable that the effects of this phenomenon be fully investigated and due heed be paid to the importance of lifestyle modification.

  1. The association of education with body mass index and waist circumference in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Hermann; S. Rohrmann; J. Linseisen; A.M. May; A. Kunst; H. Besson; D. Romaguera; N. Travier; M.J. Tormo; E. Molina; M. Dorronsoro; A. Barricarte; L. Rodriguez; F.L. Crowe; K.T. Khaw; N.J. Wareham; P.G.A. van Boeckel; H.B. Bueno-de-Mesquita; K. Overvad; M.U. Jakobsen; A. Tjonneland; J. Halkjaer; C. Agnoli; A. Mattiello; R. Tumino; G. Masala; P. Vineis; A. Naska; P. Orfanos; A. Trichopoulou; R. Kaaks; M.M. Bergmann; A. Steffen; B. van Guelpen; I. Johansson; S. Borgquist; J. Manjer; T. Braaten; G. Fagherazzi; F. Clavel-Chapelon; T. Mouw; T. Norat; E. Riboli; S. Rinaldi; N. Slimani; P.H.M. Peeters

    2011-01-01

    Background: To examine the association of education with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Method: This study included 141,230 male and 336,637 female EPIC-participants, who were recruited between 1992 and 2

  2. Head Circumference as an Early Predictor of Autism Symptoms in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Lauren M.; Dawson, Geraldine; Toth, Karen; Fein, Deborah; Munson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Siblings of children with autism have an increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). As children with autism often exhibit an atypical trajectory of head circumference (HC) growth, HC may be an indicator of vulnerability to autism. This study investigated whether infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 77) with an atypical trajectory of…

  3. Mid-upper arm circumference is associated with biochemically determined nutritional status indicators among adolescent girls in Central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja

    2016-08-01

    Biochemically determined nutritional status measurements in low-income countries are often too expensive. Therefore, we hypothesized that some anthropometrical or functional measurements (handgrip) could reflect nutritional status measured by specific biochemical indicators. We did a population-based study from 1 urban area and 2 rural districts in Zambézia Province of Mozambique. The participants (n=386) were non-pregnant adolescent girls between 15 and 18 years of age. 96% had a normal BMI-for-age score. Weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were highly correlated (r>0.8) with each other and with total body muscle mass, body mass index (BMI), and with waist circumference, as well as with skinfolds (r>0.6). Upper and total arm lengths were correlated (r>0.7) with height and with each other, and right and left handgrip were correlated only with each other, as were triceps and subscapular skinfolds (r>0.7). Serum albumin correlated negatively with waist circumference (Padolescent girls in low-income countries. When nutrition transition proceeds, waist circumference together with MUAC could form tools for the prediction of worsening of nutritional status. PMID:27440538

  4. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  5. Waist circumference as compared with body-mass index in predicting mortality from specific causes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Leitzmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether waist circumference provides clinically meaningful information not delivered by body-mass index regarding prediction of cause-specific death is uncertain. METHODS: We prospectively examined waist circumference (WC and body-mass index (BMI in relation to cause-specific death in 225,712 U.S. women and men. Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.1. RESULTS: During follow-up from 1996 through 2005, we documented 20,977 deaths. Increased WC consistently predicted risk of death due to any cause as well as major causes of death, including deaths from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and non-cancer/non-cardiovascular diseases, independent of BMI, age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and alcohol intake. When WC and BMI were mutually adjusted in a model, WC was related to 1.37 fold increased risk of death from any cancer and 1.82 fold increase risk of death from cardiovascular disease, comparing the highest versus lowest WC categories. Importantly, WC, but not BMI showed statistically significant positive associations with deaths from lung cancer and chronic respiratory disease. Participants in the highest versus lowest WC category had a relative risk of death from lung cancer of 1.77 (95% CI, 1.41 to 2.23 and of death from chronic respiratory disease of 2.77 (95% CI, 1.95 to 3.95. In contrast, subjects in the highest versus lowest BMI category had a relative risk of death from lung cancer of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.75 to 1.17 and of death from chronic respiratory disease of 1.18 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.56. CONCLUSIONS: Increased abdominal fat measured by WC was related to a higher risk of deaths from major specific causes, including deaths from lung cancer and chronic respiratory disease, independent of BMI.

  6. Appropriate body mass index and waist circumference cutoff for overweight and central obesity among adults in Cambodia.

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    Yom An

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used in risk assessment for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs worldwide. Within a Cambodian population, this study aimed to identify an appropriate BMI and WC cutoff to capture those individuals that are overweight and have an elevated risk of vascular disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the STEP survey conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Cambodia in 2010. In total, 5,015 subjects between age 25 and 64 years were included in the analyses. Chi-square, Fisher's Exact test and Student t-test, and multiple logistic regression were performed. Of total, 35.6% (n = 1,786 were men, and 64.4% (n = 3,229 were women. Mean age was 43.0 years (SD = 11.2 years and 43.6 years (SD = 10.9 years for men and women, respectively. Significant association of subjects with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was found in those with BMI ≥ 23.0 kg/m(2 and with WC >80.0 cm in both sexes. The Area Under the Curve (AUC from Receiver Operating Characteristic curves was significantly greater in both sexes (all p-values <0.001 when BMI of 23.0 kg/m(2 was used as the cutoff point for overweight compared to that using WHO BMI classification for overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m(2 for detecting the three cardiovascular risk factors. Similarly, AUC was also significantly higher in men (p-value <0.001 when using WC of 80.0 cm as the cutoff point for central obesity compared to that recommended by WHO (WC ≥ 94.0 cm in men. CONCLUSION: Lower cutoffs for BMI and WC should be used to identify of risks of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia for Cambodian aged between 25 and 64 years.

  7. Abdominal Obesity Indicators: Waist Circumference or Waist-to-hip Ratio in Malaysian Adults Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Norfazilah; Adam, Samia Ibrahim Mohamed; Nawi, Azmawati Mohammed; Hassan, Mohd Rohaizat; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Waist circumference (WC) is an accurate and simple measure of abdominal obesity as compared to waist–hip ratio (WHR). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) with WC and WHR and suggest cutoff points for WC among Rural Malaysian adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 669 respondents from three villages in Tanjung Karang, located in the district of Kuala Selangor. Data collection was carried out by guided questionnaires and anthropometric measures. Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity for BMI was almost similar for both gender across Caucasian and Asian BMI cutoff points. Based on Caucasian cutoff points, the prevalence of abdominal obesity for WC was 23.8% (male) and 66.4% (female) while for WHR was 6.2% (male) and 54.2% (female). Asian cutoff points gave higher prevalence of abdominal obesity compared to that of WC among male respondents and WHR for both genders. WC showed strong and positive correlation with BMI compared to WHR (in male WC r = 0.78, WHR r = 0.24 and in female WC r = 0.72, WHR r = 0.19; P analysis suggested WC cutoff points of 92.5 cm in men and 85.5 cm in women is the optimal number for detection of abdominal obesity. Conclusions: WC is the best indicator as compared with WHR for abdominal obesity for Malaysian adults.

  8. Association between Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and changes in weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Ängquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Romaguera, Dora; Larsen, Sofus C; Østergaard, Jane N; Halkjaer, Jytte; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Wareham, Nicolas J; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Palli, Domenico; Boer, Jolanda M A; van der A, Daphne L; Boeing, Heiner; Loos, Ruth J F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2014-01-01

    between diet and genetic predisposition to adiposity, studies should consider both diet and genetics. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether FTO rs9939609 and TCF7L2 rs7903146 modified the association between the MDS and Nordic diet score (NDS) and changes in weight (Δweight), waist circumference (ΔWC), and...... Δweight (P = 0.53). The NDS was not significantly associated with any outcome. There was a borderline significant interaction between the MDS and TCF7L2 rs7903146 on weight gain (P = 0.05), which suggested a beneficial effect of the MDS only in subjects who carried 1 or 2 risk alleles. FTO did not modify...... observed associations. CONCLUSIONS: A high MDS is associated with a lower ΔWC and ΔWCBMI, regardless of FTO and TCF7L2 risk alleles. For Δweight, findings were less clear, but the effect may depend on the TCF7L2 rs7903146 variant. The NDS was not associated with anthropometric changes during follow-up....

  9. Maternal factors influencing infant abdominal circumference and birth weight - a population based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Objective: 1) To examine the impact of maternal pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and smoking on infant abdominal circumference (AC) and birth weight. 2) To define reference curves for AC and birth weight in offspring of healthy, non-smoking, normal weight women. Design: Population-based study...... outcome measures: Birth AC and weight in relation to pregestational maternal BMI, maternal smoking and medical conditions (any). Results: Infant AC and birth weight increased significantly (p<0.0001) with increasing maternal BMI. Smoking was negatively associated with AC resulting in a reduction in AC (95......% CI) of 0.47 (0.49-0.45) cm and a reduction in birth weight of 173 (177-169) g. In offspring of healthy non-smoking mothers with normal pregestational BMI, mean AC (±2SD) ranged from 30.1 (25.9-34.3) cm at GA 35 weeks to 33.9 (30.1- 37.7) cm at GA 41 weeks (girls), and from 30.2 (25.8-34.6) cm at GA...

  10. Dietary Patterns of Young Females and Their Association With Waist Circumference as a Health Index in Northwest of Iran, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mohammad; Didarloo, Alireza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in western countries, the 50th and 95th percentile ranks for waist circumference in the Iranian young Females are higher than those of the western ones. Objectives: Identifying major dietary patterns in Iranian young females, which associate with central obesity, can probably explain the difference between Iranian young females’ pattern and those of their western peers regarding obesity. Patients and Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, a total of 257 young females aged 11 - 15 years old from Talaat Intelligent Guidance School, Tabriz, Iran (2007) were selected for the study using non-probability simple sampling method. Then, usual dietary intakes of all subjects were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist circumference, and Body Mass Index (BMI) using the standard protocols. Data were analyzed by inferential statistics (One-way ANOVA, Tukey test for Post-Hoc Analysis, Chi-square test, age-adjusted means, analysis of covariance with Bonferroni correction, correlation and partial correlation) by SPSS software. Results: In the current study, six major dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis method. Before and after controlling the age, subjects in the upper tertile of the Iranian Central Obesity Making Dietary Pattern (rich in cruciferous vegetables, green leafy vegetables, soft drinks, tomatoes, other vegetables and vegetable oils) had larger waist circumference in comparison with the ones in the lower tertile (before controlling for age: 64.2 ± 9 vs. 61.6 ± 7 P = 0.03; after: 64.5 ± 0.8 vs. 61.5 ± 0.8, P = 0.009). However in lacto vegetarian dietary pattern (rich in legumes, potato, other vegetables, dough, high-fat dairy products and margarine), individuals in the upper tertile had significantly lower weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with the ones

  11. Hypertriglyceridemia and waist circumference predict cardiovascular risk among HIV patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Janiszewski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although half of HIV-infected patients develop lipodystrophy and metabolic complications, there exists no simple clinical screening tool to discern the high from the low-risk HIV-infected patient. Thus, we evaluated the associations between waist circumference (WC combined with triglyceride (TG levels and the severity of lipodystrophy and cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected men and women. METHODS: 1481 HIV-infected men and 841 HIV-infected women were recruited between 2005 and 2009 at the metabolic clinic of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia in Italy. Within each gender, patients were categorized into 4 groups according to WC and TG levels. Total and regional fat and fat-free mass were assessed by duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT and abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT were quantified by computed tomography. Various cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in clinic after an overnight fast. RESULTS: The high TG/high WC men had the most VAT (208.0 ± 94.4 cm(2, as well as the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (42.2% and type-2 diabetes (16.2%, and the highest Framingham risk score (10.3 ± 6.5 in comparison to other groups (p<0.05 for all. High TG/high WC women also had elevated VAT (150.0 ± 97.9 cm(2 and a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (53.3%, hypertension (30.5% and type-2 diabetes (12.0%, and Framingham risk score(2.9 ± 2.8 by comparison to low TG/low WC women (p<0.05 for all. CONCLUSIONS: A simple tool combining WC and TG levels can discriminate high- from low-risk HIV-infected patients.

  12. Changes in waist circumference and the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Landsvig Berentzen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Waist circumference (WC is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass index (DBMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on 15,577 men and 20,066 women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study were analyzed. Anthropometry was assessed in 1993-97 and 1999-02. Information on diabetes was obtained from The Danish National Diabetes Register. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated from Cox' proportional hazard models with individuals considered at risk from 1999-02 until December 31 2006. During 5.4 years of follow-up, 1,027 and 876 new cases of diabetes occurred among men and women, respectively. WC was positively associated with diabetes in both sexes also with adjustment for covariates and BMI. DWC was positively associated with diabetes in women, but not in men (HR per 5 cm change = 1.09 (1.04:1.15 in women, and 1.00 (0.94, 1.07 in men with adjustment for covariates, baseline WC, BMI and DBMI. Associations with DWC were not notably different in sub-groups stratified according to baseline WC or DBMI, or when individuals with diseases or diabetes occurring within the first years of follow-up were excluded. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While this study confirmed that WC is positively associated with the risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, it surprisingly showed that changes in WC were not associated with the subsequent risk of diabetes in men, and only weakly positively associated with the risk of diabetes in women. Accordingly, these findings suggest that a reduction in WC may be a weak or insufficient or target for prevention of diabetes in middle-aged men and women.

  13. Association of Fetal Abdominal–Head Circumference Size Difference With Shoulder Dystocia: A Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loraine Endres

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This study aims to determine if shoulder dystocia is associated with a difference in the fetal abdominal (AC to head circumference (HC of 50 mm or more noted on antenatal ultrasound. Study Design - A multicenter matched case–control study was performed comparing women who had shoulder dystocia to controls who did not. Women with vaginal births of live born nonanomalous singletons ≥ 36 weeks of gestation with an antenatal ultrasound within 4 weeks of delivery were included. Controls were matched for gestational age, route of delivery, and diabetes status. Results - We identified 181 matched pairs. Only 5% of the fetuses had an AC to HC of ≥ 50 mm. The proportion of AC to HC difference of ≥ 50 mm was significantly higher in shoulder dystocia cases (8% than controls (1%, p = 0.002. With multivariate regression, the three significant factors associated with shoulder dystocia were AC to HC ≥ 50 mm (odds ratio [OR], 7.3; confidence interval [CI], 1.6–33.3; p = 0.010, femur length (OR, 1.1; CI, 1.0–1.2; p = 0.002, and induced labor (OR, 1.8; CI, 1.1–3.1; p = 0.027. Conclusion - A prenatal ultrasound finding of a difference in AC to HC of ≥ 50 mm while uncommon is associated with shoulder dystocia.

  14. Thigh and knee circumference, knee-extension strength, and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Husted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To (1) quantify changes in knee-extension strength and functional-performance at discharge after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA) and (2) investigate whether these changes correlate to changes in thigh and knee circumference (ie, swelling) or pain. DESIGN: A prospective......, descriptive, hypothesis-generating study. SETTING: A special unit for fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty operations at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four patients (20 women and 4 men; ages 69 ± 6.1 years) scheduled for primary unilateral THA. METHODS: All patients were evaluated before surgery...... and on the day of hospital discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Knee-extension strength, thigh and knee joint circumference, hip pain, and functional performance (Timed Up & Go, 30-Second Chair Stand, and 10-Meter Walk tests). RESULTS: All investigated variables changed significantly from before to after...

  15. Right to Left Ventricular Diameter Ratio ≥0.42 is the Warning Flag for Suspecting Atrial Septal Defect in Preschool Children: Age- and Body Surface Area-Related Reference Values Determined by M-Mode Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Ichida, Fukiko

    2016-04-01

    It is not always easy to observe and screen atrial septal defects (ASD) using echocardiography. In addition, there are no established echocardiographic reference indices for screening patients with ASDs. We retrospectively reviewed our database and recruited 151 isolated ASD patients and 2769 healthy subjects. In total, 307 echocardiographic studies were performed for ASD patients. Surgical repairs were done in 75 of the ASD patients. The ratio of right to left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions (RVD/LVD), which was determined by M-mode echocardiography, was used as an index of RV dilatation. After obtaining age- and body surface area (BSA)-related RVD/LVD nomograms in healthy subjects, we calculated the z-scores of RVD/LVD for all subjects and obtained the optimal cut-off values to differentiate patients with ASD from healthy subjects. The optimal cut-off values were high in neonates and gradually decreased with an increase in the age and BSA, but were almost constant in children aged >4 years or whose BSA was >0.65 m(2). The cut-off values of RVD/LVD for suspected ASD were ≥0.42 in children aged >4 years or those whose BSA was >0.65 m(2). Those for an ASD operation were ≥0.46 in those whose BSA > 0.65 m(2). The RVD/LVD determined by M-mode echocardiography is a useful index to evaluate RV dilatation in patients with ASDs. The RVD/LVD ≥ 0.42 is the warning flag for suspecting ASD in preschool children and that ≥0.46 may be a clinical important sign to determine ASD operation. PMID:26700967

  16. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Berentzen, T.L.; Østergaard, J.N.;

    Previous studies have suggested that intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may play a role in the development of obesity. For fatty acids not synthesized endogenously in humans, such as TFA, the proportions in adipose tissue tend to correlate well with the habitual dietary intake. Biomarkers may...... provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than dietary questionnaires. Our objective was to investigate the associations between specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference (WC)....

  17. Association between waist circumference and gray matter volume in 2344 individuals from two adult community-based samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, Deborah; Wittfeld, Katharina; Terock, Jan; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Völzke, Henry; Habes, Mohamad; Hosten, Norbert; Friedrich, Nele; Nauck, Matthias; Domanska, Grazyna; Grabe, Hans Jörgen

    2015-11-15

    We analyzed the putative association between abdominal obesity (measured in waist circumference) and gray matter volume (Study of Health in Pomerania: SHIP-2, N=758) adjusted for age and gender by applying volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with VBM8 to brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We sought replication in a second, independent population sample (SHIP-TREND, N=1586). In a combined analysis (SHIP-2 and SHIP-TREND) we investigated the impact of hypertension, type II diabetes and blood lipids on the association between waist circumference and gray matter. Volumetric analysis revealed a significant inverse association between waist circumference and gray matter volume. VBM in SHIP-2 indicated distinct inverse associations in the following structures for both hemispheres: frontal lobe, temporal lobes, pre- and postcentral gyrus, supplementary motor area, supramarginal gyrus, insula, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, olfactory sulcus, para-/hippocampus, gyrus rectus, amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, fusiform and lingual gyrus, (pre-) cuneus and thalamus. These areas were replicated in SHIP-TREND. More than 76% of the voxels with significant gray matter volume reduction in SHIP-2 were also distinct in TREND. These brain areas are involved in cognition, attention to interoceptive signals as satiety or reward and control food intake. Due to our cross-sectional design we cannot clarify the causal direction of the association. However, previous studies described an association between subjects with higher waist circumference and future cognitive decline suggesting a progressive brain alteration in obese subjects. Pathomechanisms may involve chronic inflammation, increased oxidative stress or cellular autophagy associated with obesity. PMID:26256530

  18. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Determination of the Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points in a Rural South African Community

    OpenAIRE

    Motala, Ayesha A.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Pirie, Fraser J.; Omar, Mahomed A.K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to define optimal ethnic-specific waist-circumference cutoff points in a rural South African black community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random-cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements taken, including a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement ...

  19. Dietary Patterns of Young Females and Their Association With Waist Circumference as a Health Index in Northwest of Iran, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Mohammad; Didarloo, Alireza; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people in western countries, the 50th and 95th percentile ranks for waist circumference in the Iranian young Females are higher than those of the western ones. Objectives: Identifying major dietary patterns in Iranian young females, which associate with central obesity, can probably explain the difference between Iranian young females’ pattern and those of their western peers regarding obesity. Patients and Method...

  20. Correlation of the Ratio of Upper Third to Lower Third Circumferences of the Chest with Obstructive Pattern in Spirometry

    OpenAIRE

    Alavi Foumani, Ali; Amin, Azin; Tangestani Nejad, Azita; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Salamat, Fatemeh; Massahnia, Sara; Hassankhani, Amir; Khoshgozaran, Lida; Mirfallah Nasiri, Akram; Mohammadi, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obstructive Lung Diseases (OLDs), could lead to progressive hyperinflation of the lungs that cause increased work of breathing, impaired gas exchanges and functional limitations in patients. In this study, thoracic circumference of patients in upper and lower third were measured directly and the association of the upper to lower third width of chest with spirometric parameters was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, five hundred twenty nine consecutive...

  1. Head Circumference as an Early Predictor of Autism Symptoms in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Elder, Lauren M.; Dawson, Geraldine; Toth, Karen; Fein, Deborah; Munson, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Siblings of children with autism have an increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). As children with autism often exhibit an atypical trajectory of head circumference (HC) growth, HC may be an indicator of vulnerability to autism. This study investigated whether infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 77) with an atypical trajectory of HC growth were more likely than those without an atypical HC trajectory to develop autism symptoms. Results showed that infants who had larger HC at...

  2. Pregestational body mass index is related to neonatal abdominal circumference at birth--a Danish population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, M; Wehberg, S; Vinter, C A; Joergensen, J S; Ovesen, Per Glud; Beck-Nielsen, H; Jensen, D M; Christesen, H T

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of maternal pregestational body mass index (BMI) and smoking on neonatal abdominal circumference (AC) and weight at birth. To define reference curves for birth AC and weight in offspring of healthy, nonsmoking, normal weight women. DESIGN: Population-based study...... MEASURES: Birth AC and weight in relation to pregestational maternal BMI, maternal smoking and medical conditions (any). RESULTS: Birth AC and weight increased with increasing pregestational BMI, and decreased with smoking (P ...

  3. Retrospective Analysis of the Relationship between Decline in FEV1 and Abdominal Circumference in Male Smokers: the Takahata Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Masamichi; Shibata, Yoko; Abe, Shuichi; Inoue, Sumito; IGARASHI Akira; Yamauchi, Keiko; Aida, Yasuko; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Nunomiya, Keiko; Nakano, Hiroshi; Sato, Kento; Watanabe, Tetsu; Konta, Tsuneo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (Mets) is reportedly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship between abdominal circumference (AC) and decline in FEV1 has not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate this relationship among male current smokers. Methods: Spirometry was performed on subjects (n = 3,257) ≥ 40 years of age, who participated in a community-based annual health check in Takahata, Japan, from 2004 through 2006 (visit 1). Spirometry was r...

  4. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What is the...... value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections of...... morals and morality.2 The main question is then, what the use of `value' as the key-term in moral discourses means to morality as such. Accepting ethics as a part of morality - since one cannot be moral without sometimes reflecting on the validity of the morality employed andexperienced - I have...

  5. Adding value(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carré, David

    2015-01-01

    Most economic inquires revolve around agents making decisions. Getting the ‘best value’, it is assumed, drives such decisions: gaining most while risking least. This assumption has been debunked by showing that people does not always choose neither maximum benefit nor less risk (Kahneman & Tversky......, 1992). In response, behavioral economics (Camerer, 1999) has shown that agents have values other than optimization underpinning their decisions. Therefore, concerns arose regarding which values are guiding the agent but not about how such values became relevant for the agent. In this presentation, I...... will explore the consequences of shifting to the latter perspective, i.e. looking for the generative framework of values. Here I argue that economic behavior should also be seen as a sense-making process, guided by values that are chosen/rejected along with fellow human beings, in specific socio...

  6. Foot Length, Chest Circumference, and Mid Upper Arm Circumference Are Good Predictors of Low Birth Weight and Prematurity in Ethnic Minority Newborns in Vietnam: A Hospital-Based Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Hai Nguyen; Khanh, Dung Khu Thi; Thu, Ha Le Thi; Thomas, Emma G.; Lee, Katherine J.; Russell, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The evaluation of tools to accurately identify low birth weight (LBW) and/or premature newborns in resource-limited countries is a research priority. We explored the use of foot length, chest circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measured within 24 h as diagnostic tools for identifying newborns who are LBW, premature, or both; and compared measurements taken at birth with those taken at five days of age. Materials and Methods An observational study was undertaken in Hoa Binh Province General Hospital, Vietnam, in ethnic minority newborns. Birth weight, foot length, chest circumference, and MUAC were measured within 24 h of birth and in a subset of 200, were repeated on day five of life. Gestational age was estimated using the New Ballard Score. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and optimal cut-points (the point with the highest sensitivity and specificity where the sensitivity was at least 0.8) were calculated, for predicting prematurity, LBW, and both. Measurements within 24 h and at five days of life were compared. Results 485 newborns were recruited. Chest circumference and MUAC measured within 24 h of birth were found to be highly predictive of LBW (both yielding area under the curve [AUC] of 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96–0.99), and performed marginally better than foot length (AUC 0.94, 95%CI 0.92–0.96). The optimal cut-points for measurements within 24 h of birth were ≤7.4cm for foot length; ≤30.4cm for chest circumference; and ≤ 9.0cm for MUAC. There was statistical evidence that anthropometric measurements taken within 24 h of birth were higher than measurements on day five (p<0.02 for all anthropometric measurements) but the magnitude of these differences was small (at most 2mm). Conclusions All measurements taken within 24 h of birth were good predictors of LBW, prematurity and both. Differences in measurements taken within 24 h and on day five were not clinically relevant. Further research will ensure

  7. Scale Marking Method on the Circumference of Circle Elements for Astronomical Instruments in the Early Joseon Dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young Sook; Lee, Yong Sam

    2015-03-01

    During the reign of King Sejong (世宗, 1418-1450) in the Joseon Dynasty, there were lots of astronomical instruments, including miniaturized ones. Those instruments utilized the technical know-how acquired through building contemporary astronomical instruments previously developed in the Song(宋), Jin(金), and Yuan(元) dynasties of China. In those days, many astronomical instruments had circles, rings, and spheres carved with a scale of 365.25, 100, and 24 parts, respectively, on their circumference. These were called the celestial-circumference degree, hundred-interval (Baekgak), and 24 direction, respectively. These scales are marked by the angular distance, not by the angle. Therefore, these circles, rings, and spheres had to be optimized in size to accomodate proper scales. Assuming that the scale system is composed of integer multiples of unit length, we studied the sizes of circles by referring to old articles and investigating existing artifacts. We discovered that the star chart of Cheonsang yeolcha bunyajido was drawn with a royal standard ruler (周尺) based on the unit length of 207 mm. Interestingly, its circumference was marked by the unit scale of 3 puns per 1 du (or degree) like Honsang (a celestial globe). We also found that Hyeonju ilgu (a equatorial sundial) has a Baekgak disk on a scale of 1 pun per 1 gak (that is an interval of time similar to a quarter). This study contributes to the analysis of specifications of numerous circular elements from old Korean astronomical instruments.

  8. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleliani de Cassia da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents.METHODS:Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist circumferences, and biochemical evaluation. The pubertal stage was obtained by self-assessment, and the blood pressure, by auscultation. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance. The correlation between two variables was evaluated by partial correlation coefficient adjusted for the percentage of body fat and pubertal stage. The performance of neck circumference to identify insulin resistance was tested by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve.RESULTS: After the adjustment for percentage body fat and pubertal stage, neck circumference correlated with waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and markers of insulin resistance in both genders.CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the neck circumference is a useful tool for the detection of insulin resistance and changes in the indicators of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. The easiness of application and low cost of this measure may allow its use in Public Health services.

  9. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF SERUM PROGRP31-98 IN PATIENTS WITH SMALL-CELL LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昂; 杨谨; 李旭; 李蓉; 王一理; 司履生

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical significance of serum level of pro-gastrin-releasing peptide 31-98 (ProGRP31-98) for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), in comparison with neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Methods Serum level of ProGRP31-98 and NSE was measured by ELISA respectively in 30 patients with SCLC, 30 with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 15 with benign lung diseases and 15 normal subjects, additionally, 10 SCLC patients after having treatment with chemotherapy were included. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to set the cut-off value and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Results The serum level of ProGRP31-98 was higher in patients with SCLC than that in other groups. The SCLC patients with extensive disease had a higher value than the patients with limited disease. In SCLC patients with distant metastases, it was also higher than in those without. Increase in serum ProGRP31-98 and NSE was both seen in SCLC patients, but for the former one, the increase was of much greater compared to the normal controls. Given the cut-off value for ProGRP31-98 was 40ng*L-1 and for NSE 8μg*L-1, their sensitivity of diagnosis in SCLC was 73% and 60%, respectively. The area under ROC curve of ProGRP31-98 was significantly larger than that of NSE. All patients responded to chemotherapy showed marked decrease in ProGRP31-98. Conclusion ProGRP31-98 is a more specific and sensitive marker than NSE in the diagnosis of SCLC.

  10. Value of assessing adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in differential diagnosis of hypercorticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penezić Zorana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome remains a challenge in clinical endocrinology. The aim of this study was to establish the value of assessing adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in differential diagnosis of hypercorticism using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. We have evaluated 114 patients with Cushing's syndrome testing the value of pathohistological examination and postoperative testing. The control group consisted of 53 obese healthy persons. ACTH level was determined using a commercial RIA (CIS, France. ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma was found in 56.14% examinees, ectopic secretion in 6.14%, cortisol secreting adrenal adenoma in 37.57%, and adrenal carcinoma in 6.14% of all patients with Cushing's syndrome. Basal ACTH level for pituitary adenoma was 107.29±75.69 pg/mL; for ectopic secretion 181.63±149.84 pg/mL; for adrenal adenoma 4.22±2.32 pg/mL; for adrenal carcinoma 5.50 ±7.72 pg/mL; and 34.76 ±10.07 pg/mL in control group. Testing the value of assessing ACTH the area under ROC curve was 0.9965±0.0071. Test sensitivity was 99.89% and test specificity was 97%. For ACTH cut-off level of 8 pg/mL, test sensitivity was 88.50%, with specificity of 99%. For ACTH cut-off level of 22 pg/mL, test sensitivity was 99.30%, with specificity of 98%. Our intermediate zone from 8 to 22 pg/mL confirms that assessment of ACTH level is a reliable tool in differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.

  11. Diagnostic Value of White Blood Cell and C-Reactive Protein in Pediatric Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Buyukbese Sarsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute appendicitis (AA associated with acute phase reaction is the most prevalent disease which requires emergency surgery. Its delayed diagnosis and unnecessarily performed appendectomies lead to numerous complications. In our study, we aimed to detect the role of WBC and CRP in the exclusion of acute and complicated appendicitis and diagnostic accuracy in pediatric age group. Methods. Appendectomized patient groups were constructed based on the results of histological evaluation. The area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC was performed to examine diagnostic accuracy. Results. When WBC and CRP were used in combination, based on cut-off values of ≥13.1 × 103/μL for WBC counts and ≥1.17 mg/dL for CRP level, diagnostic parameters were as follows: sensitivity, 98.7%; specificity, 71.3%; PPV, 50.6%; NPV, 99.5%; diagnostic accuracy, 77.6%; LR(+, 3.44; LR(−, 0.017. AUC values were 0.845 (95% CI 0.800–0.891 for WBC and 0.887 (95% CI 0.841–0.932 for CRP. Conclusions. For complicated appendicitis, CRP has the highest degree of diagnostic accuracy. The diagnosis of appendicitis should be made primarily based on clinical examination, and obviously more specific and systemic inflammatory markers are needed. Combined use of cut-off values of WBC (≥13100/μL and CRP (≥1.17 mg/L yields a higher sensitivity and NPV for the diagnosis of complicated appendicitis.

  12. Diagnostic performance and discriminative value of the serum ferritin level for predicting preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mino Movahedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The measuring serum ferritin level as a sensitive inflammatory biomarker might effectively predict preterm delivery, but the power and the best cut-off point of this biomarker for predicting preterm labor in Iranian population has not been substantially identified. Our purpose was to determine what concentrations of serum ferritin could identify patients at risk for preterm delivery in Iranian population for the first time. Materials and Methods: This case control study involved 222 singleton pregnancies that were referred to referral university hospitals clinics in Isfahan. Women with spontaneous preterm delivery before 24-26 weeks (preterm delivery group, n = 69 and those who delivered at term (term delivery group, n = 153 were compared with respect to serum ferritin concentration. Venous blood samples were analyzed for the serum ferritin level using the ferritin quantitative test system-sensitive for the normal ferritin range. Results: Women who delivered before 37 weeks had a higher mean serum ferritin concentration than those who delivered after 37 weeks of gestation (26.7 ± 5.5 ng/mL versus 19.8 ± 3.6 ng/mL, P<0.001. A serum ferritin level of 22.5 ng/mL yielded the best combination with sensitivity of 78.3%, specificity of 83.0%, positive predictive value of 67.5%, and negative predictive value of 89.4% for prediction of preterm delivery. Conclusion: The serum ferritin level provides an appropriate discrimination in predicting preterm delivery with an optimal cut-off value of 22.5 ng/mL in Iranian population.

  13. Waist Circumference and Waist-to-Hip Ratio in Adult Igbo’s of Nigeria: Interrelation with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Oladipo; P.A. Akande, K.C. Anugweje and I.G. Osogba

    2011-01-01

    Waist circumference and waist to hip ratio are used as indicators of abdominal obesity in population studies. This study was carried out to predict if the Igbo ethnic groups are at a risk of cardiovascular disease. A total of 800 subjects were randomly selected, 400 males and 400 females between age range 20-65 years. A measuring tape was used to measure their waist and hip circumference to get its ratio. Their blood pressure and body mass index were also determined. The mean waist circumfere...

  14. Evaluation of mid-upper arm circumference in pre-school children: comparison between NCHS/CDC-2000 and WHO-2006 references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Viviane G; Machado, Thais Costa; Bertoli, Ciro João; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E; Leone, Claudio

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the classification of arm circumference (AC) in pre-school children by using National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS/CDC-2000) and World Health Organization (WHO-2006) references. We evaluated 205 children: weight, height and AC were assessed and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The BMI values were classified into Z-scores by the WHO referential. The AC was classified into Z-cores by two references, comparing the whole-sample value and among groups (tercis) of BMI Z-score. The correlation was also evaluated between differences of AC with BMI Z-score. The WHO referential classified the AC in Z-scores greater than the NCHS/CDC, which is more specific and less sensitive than the NCHS/CDC for lean children and at the same time more sensitive and less specific for children with overweight. In conclusion, a significant difference in the AC classification occurs according to the referential used. PMID:20852256

  15. Changes in waist circumference relative to body mass index in Chinese adults, 1993–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Dalia; Smith, Lindsey P; Zhang, Bing; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background Although BMI and waist circumference (WC) are correlated, the relationship between WC and BMI may have changed over time. Objectives Describe temporal trends in BMI and WC distributions and quantify the increase in WC at a given BMI over time. Subjects/Methods Data on adults aged 20–59 years from two waves (1993 and 2009) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used in a pooled cross-sectional analysis. Quantile regression examined age-adjusted temporal trends in the distributions of BMI and WC. Linear regression examined changes in mean WC over time, adjusting for BMI, age at survey and survey year. All models were stratified by gender. Results There was a significant increase in BMI and WC over time, particularly at the 95th quantile: on average, men had 2.8 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.4, 3.3) and women 1.5 kg/m2 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.0) higher BMI in 2009 compared to their counterparts in 1993. WC increased by 9.0 cm (95% CI: 7.5, 10.1) and 5.0 cm (95% CI: 3.4, 6.6) for and women had a 3.2 cm (95% CI: 2.8, 3.7) and 2.1 cm (95% CI: 1.7, 2.5) higher WC in 2009 compared to their counterparts in 1993, holding BMI and age constant. WC adjusted for BMI increased to a larger extent amongst obese versus lean individuals and amongst younger versus older women. Conclusions For both genders, BMI and WC increased significantly over time, with particularly greatest increase in magnitude in the upper tail of the BMI and WC distributions. Furthermore, WC at equivalent BMI was higher in 2009, compared to their counterparts in 1993. Our findings suggest that even if BMI remained constant from 1993 to 2009, adults in 2009 might be at increased cardiometabolic risk as a result of their higher WC. PMID:24813367

  16. Neck circumference as a new anthropometric indicator for prediction of insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cleliani de Cassia da Silva; Mariana Porto Zambon; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Rodrigues, Ana Maria de B.; Daniella Fernandes Camilo; Maria Ângela R.G.M Antonio; Roberta Soares L. Cassani; Bruno Geloneze

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between neck circumference and insulin resistance and components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with different adiposity levels and pubertal stages, as well as to determine the usefulness of neck circumference to predict insulin resistance in adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 388 adolescents of both genders from ten to 19 years old. The adolescents underwent anthropometric and body composition assessment, including neck and waist cir...

  17. Combined use of waist and thigh circumference to identify high-risk, abdominally obese HIV+ patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T O'Neil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background We examined whether the combination of waist (WC and thigh (ThC circumference improves the prediction of visceral adipose tissue (VAT over WC and ThC independently in HIV-infected men and women after correction for age. We also examined the independent associations between VAT, and the combination of WC and ThC with metabolic risk factors, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and prior cardiovascular events in HIV-infected individuals. Methods Consecutive patients attending the metabolic clinic of the University of Modena in Italy between 2005 and 2009 were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Total and regional fat mass and lean mass were quantified using DEXA. A single CT image was taken for quantification of VAT and CAC. Prior cardiovascular events which occurred within a 5-year period of the clinical evaluation were analysed. A cross-fold test was used to explore different models in the ability to predict VAT in order to build an algorithm for VAT estimation (e-VAT. Regression analysis were performed to determine the univariate and multivariate relations between WC, ThC, and age with VAT. A comparison of beta coefficients for VAT and e-VAT to predict cardio-metabolic risk and events were performed using multivariable regression models after correction for BMI and age. Results 2322 HIV-infected patients were recruited: median duration of HIV infection was 182 months (IQR 126–236; median nadir and current CD4 were 172 (IQR 68–262 and 515.5 (IQR 369–700 and 75% of them had undetectable HIV1-VL. In this abstract only the results of men will be presented. Men (n=1481 had a mean age of 45.9±7.3 years, a BMI of 24.1 ± 3.8 kg/m2, a WC of 88.0±10.1 cm and a ThC of 47.8±4.3 cm. e-VAT algorithm for men was: (5.44*WC−(1.35*ThC−(1.70*age−348.1 In men, at multivariable regression models after correction for BMI and age, e-VAT was concordant to VAT in predicting HOMA, MetS Risk, prior cardiovascular events (OR=1

  18. Usefulness of Total PSA Value in Prostate Diseases Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prcic, Alden; Begic, Edin; Hiros, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Analysis of total value of prostate specific antigen (PSAT), with the unavoidable digital rectal examination (DRE) is the basis of prostate cancer detection. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the total value of PSAT in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The aim was also to determine the significance of PSAT in diagnosis of benign prostate hyperplasia, precancerous conditions and inflammatory and atrophic changes of the prostate. Material and methods: Data were collected from the “Register of PH biopsy” of Clinic of Urology, CCU Sarajevo. Results: Analysis of correlation between the diagnosis and the PSAT value shows statistically significant negative correlation (r =-0,186; p = 0.006) in the sense that the value of the PSAT is highest in cancer patients, and the lowest in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. PSAT increases with age (r = 0.152; p = 0.025). For prostate cancer optimal sensitivity and specificity for PSAT value occurs at cut off value of> 8.6 ng /mL. Values lower than 2 ng/mL and higher than 10 ng/mL are most specific, and PPV increases with increasing value of PSAT. PSAT at values of 10 ng/mL are at high levels of specificity, and value > 10 ng / mL is also of high sensitivity in the detection of prostate cancer, and in this moment these values represent the optimal mode for the subsequent treatment. Conclusion: PSAT has a relative significance in the detection of prostate cancer, and should not be used as a guideline without DRE. PMID:27482127

  19. 高血压儿童腰围发育曲线及其与高血压相关性的研究%Relationship between waist circumference development curve of children and hypertension and risk of hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鹏; 王法艳; 赵玉秋; 王磊; 唐青松; 陶芳标

    2012-01-01

    centile curves. Optimal WC cutoffs were determined by comparing the performance of different percentile sets of WC cutoffs in predicting hypertension risk factors.Results The fitted LMS curves of WC for the group of boys with hypertension deviate in parallel from that for the corresponding curve in the entire boy study population with higher WC.The WC curves for the group of girls with hypertension gradually upward deviated from the corresponding curve before 12 years of age and then gradually returned to the corresponding curve. WC of boys at the percentiles of 60 was already associated with an increased risk of hypertension and hazard ratio of WC at percentiles of 60,70,80,and 90 increased from 1.88 (95% CI: 1.18-2.99) to 4.87 (95% CI:3.31-7.16). WC of girls at the percentiles of 70 was already associated with an increased risk of hypertension and hazard ratio of WC at percentiles of 70,80,and 90 increased from 1.71 (95% CI: 1.07-2.73) to 3.32 ( 95% CI: 2.16-5.09 ). Conclusions The WC growth trajectory of children with hypertension varies with gender.WC is an independent predictor of childhood hypertension,even when it is well within what is now defined as the normal range of WC.Thus,it is helpful to prevent the risk of cardiovascular disease of children using the paramenter that WC cut-off level lower than 85th percentile.

  20. A new instrument for the measurement of rib cage and abdomen circumference variation in respiration at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortuna, C L; Passerini, L

    1995-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive new extensometer for measuring changes in chest wall circumference during human respiratory movements is presented. The instrument detects the delay between ultrasound emission and reception at opposite ends of two rubber tubes encircling the rib cage and abdomen. Assuming a two degree of freedom model of the chest wall and employing an isovolume procedure for determination of volume-motion coefficients, extensometer estimation of tidal volume (VT) from changes of rib cage and abdomen circumference was compared with spirometer measurements at rest and during exercise on a cycle ergometer (55-155 W) in six subjects and, in four of them, on a treadmill (4-12 km.h-1). In three subjects hypercapnic hyperpnoea at rest was also studied. The slopes of the linear relationship between extensometer and spirometer VT (litres) averaged 0.9967 (SD 0.0117) (r2 = 0.995-0.998; n = 90-143) for cycle ergometer exercise, 1.0072 (SD 0.0078) (r2 = 0.991-0.998; n = 75-93) for treadmill exercise and 0.9942 (SD 0.0188) (r2 = 0.997-0.998; n = 18-25) for hypercapnic hyperpnoea. In all instances the slope of the regression line was consistent with the model of the identity line (slope = 1). The changes in end-expiratory lung volume between respiration at rest and during exercise were determined by the extensometers, and were nearly identical (98.4% on average) to those measured with the spirometer (r2 = 0.945; n = 24). It is concluded that determination of chest wall circumference with this new instrument is suitable for quantitative measurement of ventilation and lung volume variations in humans under most physiological conditions. PMID:7588698

  1. Is high body fat estimated by body mass index and waist circumference a predictor of hypertension in adults? A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Diego Augusto Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of body fat percentage (%BF estimated by equations using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC to identify hypertension and estimate measures of association between high %BF and hypertension in adults. Methods This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted with 1,720 adults (20–59 years from Florianopolis, southern Brazil. The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios of cutoffs for %BF were calculated. The association between %BF and hypertension was analyzed using Poisson regression, estimating the unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CI. Results The %BF equations showed good discriminatory power for hypertension (area under the ROC curve > 0.50. Considering the entire sample, the cutoffs for %BF with better properties for screening hypertension were identified in the equation with BMI for men (%BF = 20.4 and with WC for women (%BF = 34.1. Adults with high %BF had a higher prevalence of hypertension. Conclusions The use of simple anthropometric measurements allowed identifying the %BF, diagnosing obesity, and screening people at risk of hypertension in order to refer them for more careful diagnostic evaluation.

  2. Pilates versus resistance exercise on the serum levels of hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference and body mass index (BMI in elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adesilda Silva Pestana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the elderly exhibit a subclinical state of inflammation associated with increased adipose tissue and several comorbidities. To compare the effects of mat Pilates based exercises and resistance exercise on the serum levels of reactive C protein of high sensitivity (hs-CRP, in the abdominal circumference (AC and the body mass index (BMI in the elderly. It is a randomised clinical trial with a sample of 78 elderly individuals (median age 69 years. The active independent variable investigated was nature of treatment intervention (Pilates mat based exercises vs resistance exercise, and the dependent variables were hs-CRP level, AC and BMI. The statistical analysis used Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests. The correlation between the continuous variables was assessed using Spearman’s coefficient of correlation. The data were analysed using SPSS software version 17.0, and probability values lower than 5% (p< 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Mat Pilates based exercises exhibited reductions in serum hs-CPR level (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -2.466, p = 0.01, BMI (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.295, p = 0.001 and AC (Wilcoxon signed rank test; z = -3.398, p = 0.01. Mat Pilates based exercises promoted a significant reduction of the serum hs-CRP levels and anthropometric measurements in elderly individuals.

  3. BLOOD SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVEL AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE AND SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALO BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SAJJAD, S. ALI, N. ULLAH1, M. ANWAR1, S. AKHTER AND S. M. H. ANDRABI1

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the blood serum testosterone level and its relationship with scrotal circumference and physical characteristics of semen in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Semen samples were collected weekly from three buffalo bulls of 14 years age for 12 weeks and were evaluated for physical characteristics i.e. ejaculatory volume, sperm motility, sperm concentration, pH and sperm abnormalities. Jugular blood samples were collected from each bull at weekly intervals and analyzed for serum testosterorse concentrations. Mean (+ SE blood serum testosterone level (ng/ml, scrotal circumference (cm, semen volume (ml, progressive sperm motility (%, sperm concentration (106/µl, semen pH and total sperm abnormalities (% observed were 0.69 ± 0.12, 34.6 ± 0.9, 3.59 ± 0.41, 51.53 ± 2.23, 0.99 ± 0.07, 7.01 ± 0.08 and 11.67 ± 0.90, respectively. Positive correlations between testosterone level and scrotal circumference (r=0.414 and ejaculatory volume (r=0.348 were observed. However, no correlation of testosterone level with sperm motility (r=0.145, sperm concentration (r=0.264, semen pH (r=-0.208 and total sperm abnormalities (r=-0.242 was found. Similary, ejaculatory volume did not show any correlation with sperm motility percentage (r=0.115, sperm concentration (r=0.045, semen pH (r=-0.015 and total sperm abnormalities (r=-0.135. Sperm motility percentage had positive correlation with sperm concentration (r=0.347 and negative correlation with semen pH (r=-0.670. Sperm concentration was negatively correlated with semen pH (r=-0.501. It was concluded that in 14 years old buffalo bulls the level of serum testosterone and scrotal circumference and ejaculatory volume were positively correlated. The other semen quality parameters including sperm motility, sperm concentration, semen pH and sperm abnormalities were not related with serum testosterone level.

  4. Anatomical location for waist circumference measurement in older adults: a preliminary study Localización anatómica para medición de la circunferencia de la cintura en ancianos: estudio preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Guerra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Different anatomical locations for measuring waist circumference are described in the literature but the best anatomical location for measuring waist circumference in older adults has yet to be established. Thus, an exploratory study was developed to examine which waist circumference best explains abdominal fat mass in older adults. Methods: Waist circumference was measured in the ten different anatomical locations from a sample of 51 older adults. The choice of which waist circumference measurement best associated with abdominal fat mass was evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA measurement of abdominal fat. Results: Mean waist circumference values varied from 81.9 (standard deviation (SD: 8.7 cm and 91.5 (SD: 11.2 cm for women and between 95.7 (SD: 8.2 cm and 101.5 (SD: 10.4 cm for men, according to the different anatomical locations. The coefficients of determination of the linear regression model varied from 0.545 to 0.698 (p Fundamento y objetivo: La literatura describe diferentes localizaciones anatómicas para medir la circunferencia de la cintura. Sin embargo, la mejor localización anatómica para tal medición en ancianos aun no se ha establecido. El presente estudio exploratorio pretende determinar cuál es el lugar anatómico que se asocia mejor entre la medida del perímetro de la cintura y el tejido adiposo abdominal en esta población. Método: Se midió la circunferencia de la cintura en diez lugares anatómicos diferentes, en una muestra de 51 ancianos. El tejido adiposo abdominal se determinó mediante absorciometría de doble energía de rayos X (DXA. Resultados: Los valores medios de la circunferencia de cintura, teniendo en cuenta las mediciones en distintos lugares anatómicos, variaron de 81,9 cm (desviación estándar (DE: 8,7 a 91,5 cm (DE: 11,2 entre las mujeres y de 95,7 cm (DE: 8,2 a 101,5 cm (DE: 10,4 entre los hombres. Los coeficientes de determinación del modelo de regresi

  5. When the diameter of the abdominal aorta should be considered as abnormal? A new ultrasonographic index using the wrist circumference as a body build reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To use US to evaluate the normal values of aortic diameter (AD), stratifying the population by age, gender and body build, as measured using wrist circumference (WC). Materials and methods: Between April 2010 and February 2012, consecutive patients ≥ 30 years of age, without history of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) were prospectively enrolled. They underwent an abdominal ultrasonography for reasons other than aorta evaluation. AD was measured at the infrarenal (AD1), intermediate (AD2), and iliac bifurcation (AD3) levels: a diameter ≥ 3 cm was considered as an aneurysm. The maximal aortic diameter (ADmax) was measured for AAA patients. WC was measured; AD/WC ratio was calculated and presented in percentage: the range of normal values was obtained excluding AAA cases and calculated as mean ± 1.96 × standard deviation. Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Results: We recruited 1200 patients, 15 (1.25%; age range = 64–86 years) had AAA. AD ranges of the other patients were: AD1 = 0.74–1.84 cm, AD2 = 0.78–1.85 cm, and AD3 = 0.68–1.76 cm for females; AD1 = 0.86–2.02 cm, AD2 = 0.91–2.08 cm, and AD3 = 0.84–1.95 cm for males. AD2/WC ratio of non-AAA patients range was 4–15%, with only one outlier at 18%, while ADmax/WC ratio of AAA patients range was 15–35% (p 1, r = 0.318, p 2 and r = 0.280, p 3). Conclusion: The definition of normal AD should consider body build. An AD2/WC ratio of 15% may be regarded as a threshold to differentiate AAA- from non-AAA patients. Patients with AD2/WC values comprised between 12% and 15% may be at risk for AAA

  6. On the Ratio of Circumference to Diameter for the Largest Observable Circles: An Empirical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Knox, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    I present here a measurement of pi as determined for the largest observable circles. Intriguingly, the value of 16/5 asserted by the House of Representatives of the State of Indiana in 1897 is still viable, although strongly disfavored relative to 22/7, another popular value. The oft-used `small-circle' value of 3 is ruled out at greater than 5\\sigma. We discuss connections with string theory, sterile neutrinos, and possibilities for (very large) lower limits to the size of the Universe.

  7. Prognostic value of interim 18F-FDG PET/CT in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhitao Ying; Xuejuan Wang; Yuqin Song; Wen Zheng; Xiaopei Wang; Yan Xie; Ningjing Lin

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease.The prognostic factor currently used is not accurate enough to predict the outcomes of patients with DLBCL.The prognostic significance of interim PET/CT in DLBCL remains controversial.The aim of this study is to determine the predictive value of interim 18F-FDG PET/CT after first-line treatment in patients with DLBCL.Methods:Thirty-two patients with DLBCL underwent baseline,interim and post-treatment 18F-FDG PET/CT scans.Imaging results were analyzed for the survival of patients via software SPSS 13.0,retrospectively.Results:Thirty-one of the 32 patients were treated with R-CHOP regimen,and interim 18F-FDG PET/CT of 24 patients was performed after 2 cycles of treatment.After a median follow-up period of 16.7 months,the 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were significandy different between the groups above and below SUVmax cut-off value of 2.5 (P=0.039).No significant differences were found in the 2-year PFS rates if SUVmax cut-offvalues were set as 2.0 and 3.0,respectively (P=0.360; P=0.113).Conclusions:Interim PET/CT could predict the prognosis of DLBCL patients with the SUVmax cut-off value of 2.5,but more clinical data should be concluded to confirm this conclusion.

  8. The diagnostic value of pleural effusion ferritin and the ratio of it to serum ferritin in differentiating exudates from transudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the diagnostic value of measuring the level of ferritin in pleural and peritoneal effusion for differentiating exudates from transudates, 128 effusion samples were initially detected for differentiating exudates from transudates by traditional method and Light's criteria. Ferritin in the effusions and serum ferritin were detected simultaneously, and the ratio of effusion ferritin (PFt) to serum ferritin (SFt) was counted. Based on the clinical data, the samples were divided into four groups and PFt and PFt/SFt were compared. At the same time, the sensitivity and specificity of PFt and PFt/SFt in differentiating exudates from transudates were compared with traditional method and Light's criteria. The results showed that in the groups of tuberculous pleurisy, non-tuberculous, benign pleurisy, and malignant tumor, the concentration of Ft in the effusions was significantly higher than that in the group of congestive heart failure and cirrhosis; and the Ft in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates (P0.05). If the cut-off value was set up for Ft in the effusion as 100 μg/L and PFt/SFt ratio as 0.5, respectively, the differentiating sensitivity and specificity were 94.2% and 87.0%, respectively. Conclusion was that the concentration of PFt and PFt/SFt in exudates are higher than 100 μg/L and 0.5, respectively. On the contrary, they are lower than the cut-off level in transudates. PFt and PFt/SFt have high sensitivity and high specificity in differentiating exudates from transudates, and have great diagnostic value

  9. [Predictive value of the hemogram for myelotoxicity induced by the association of carboplatin-fluorouracil on the 4th day of the therapeutic regimen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelaere, P; Fournier, C; Rolland, F; Meeus, L; Domenge, C; Krakowski, I; De Gislain, C; Chauvergne, J; Dufour-Esquerre, F; Pion, J M; Hecquet, B

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the value of haematological counts at the 4th day of a chemotherapy cycle, in order to foresee neutro and/or thrombocytopenia during the same chemotherapy cycle. One hundred and ten cycles of chemotherapeutic regimens with carboplatin (400 mg/m2, dl) and 5-fluorouracile (1 g/m2/d, by iv continuous infusion for 96 hours) every 3 weeks, were analyzed for 42 patients with locally advanced but non metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck, without prior chemotherapy. Lymphocyte counts were significantly decreased at the 4th day but normalized at the 8th day (P 2 neutropenia. The positive predictive value of lymphocyte or neutrophil counts is about 50% for some cut-off values but not high enough, with the schedule of chemotherapy in our study, to justify the systematic prophylactic therapy with haematopoietic growth factors. PMID:8868944

  10. The relationship of violence and traumatic stress to changes in weight and waist circumference: longitudinal analyses from the study of women's health across the nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Clark, Cari Jo; Bromberger, Joyce; Gold, Ellen B

    2014-05-01

    This article investigates the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2,870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years, and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes, and confounders. At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese, and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.28-4.47]), weight loss (OR = 3.54, 95% CI = [1.73-7.22]), and gain (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = [1.37-4.37]) or loss (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = [1.23-5.77]) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women were associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  11. The Relationship of Violence and Traumatic Stress to Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Longitudinal Analyses from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Gold, Ellen B; Clark, Cari; Bromberger, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. Methods The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes and confounders. Results At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (OR=2.39, 95% CI= 1.28, 4.47), weight loss (OR=3.54, 95% CI=1.73, 7.22), and gain (OR=2.44, 95% CI =1.37, 4.37) or loss (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.23, 5.77) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Conclusion Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women was associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  12. Association of birthweight and head circumference at birth to cognitive performance in 9- to 10-year-old children in South India: prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Wills, Andrew K; Kurpad, Anura V; Muthayya, Sumithra; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Nagarajaiah, Kiran K; Fall, Caroline H D; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether birthweight and head circumference at birth are associated with childhood cognitive ability in South India, cognitive function was assessed using three core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, and visuospatial and verbal abilities among 505 full-term born children (mean age 9.7 y). In multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, gestation, socioeconomic status, parent's education, maternal age, parity, body mass index, height, rural/urban residence, and time of testing, Atlantis score (learning ability/long-term storage and retrieval) rose by 0.1 SD per SD increase in newborn weight and head circumference, respectively (p < 0.05 for all), and Kohs' block design score (visuospatial ability) increased by 0.1 SD per SD increase in birthweight (p < 0.05). The associations were reduced after further adjustment for current head circumference. There were no associations of birthweight and/or head circumference with measures of short-term memory, fluid reasoning, verbal abilities, and attention and concentration. In conclusion, higher birthweight and larger head circumference at birth are associated with better childhood cognitive ability. The effect may be specific to learning, long-term storage and retrieval, and visuospatial abilities, but this requires confirmation by further research. PMID:20032815

  13. Relationship Between Scrotal Circumference, Testicular Growth and Semen Quality Parameters in Guzerat Breed Bulls, from Puberty to 36 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Pérez Osorio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the association between scrotal circumference size and sperm characteristics in 194 males of Guzerat breed. Methods: The bulls were divided by age groups from 12 to 36 months of age. The length and width of the testicle and scrotal circumference were measured. Semen was collected from the animals that showed a circumference ≥ 19 cm through transrectal electrostimulation in order to induce ejaculation. The characteristics assessed in the semen were motility, speed, sperm concentration and presence of rounded cells. Results: the correlation between the scrotal circumference with the sperm motility by group of age was positive (r = 0.94; p < 0.005. The present study showed that the presence of proximal cytoplasmic droplet, the rounded cells in the semen and the defects on the head of the spermatozoids are objective evaluation features, which can be used for early selection of sperm production in Guzerat males. Conclusions: The production of sperm with normal rates in the Guzerat breed is achieved when males reach the age of 28 months and a scrotal circumference close to 30 cm.

  14. Locally advanced rectal cancer: Value of ADC mapping in prediction of tumor response to radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements, in the assessment of the therapeutic response to chemo-radiation therapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, by analyzing post CRT values of ADC, in relation to tumor regression grade (TRG) obtained by histopathologic evaluation of the rectal specimen. Methods: This prospective study was approved by an Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Thirty-one patients with locally advanced rectal cancer underwent pre and post CRT MR imaging at 1.5 T. ADC values were measured in regions of interest (ROIs) drawn independently by two radiologists, blinded to the pathology results, on three slices of the pre and post CRT DW-MR image sets with the corresponding T2 weighted images (T2WI) available for anatomic reference. The two readers’ measurements were compared for differences in ADC values, inter-observer variability (measured as the intraclass correlation coefficient; ICC) and the ADC distributions of responders vs non-responders. The diagnostic performance of ADC in the prediction of the response to CRT was evaluated by calculating the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and the optimal cut-off values. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed. Results: The two readers showed an overall strong agreement in measuring ADC values. For both readers, no differences in ADC pre-treatment measurements were observed between responders and non-responders. For reader 1, the post-CRT ADC and the ΔADC presented the higher AUC (0.823 and 0.803, respectively), while Δ%ADC provided the lower AUC value (0.682). The optimal cutoff point was 1.294 s/mm2 for post-CRT measures (sensitivity = 86.4%, specificity = 66.7%, PPV = 86.4%, NPV = 66.7%), 0.500 for ΔADC (sensitivity = 81.8%, specificity = 66.7%, PPV = 85.7%, NPV = 60.0%) and 59.3% for

  15. Reasons for changes in the value of unit pressure of compression products supporting external treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, K.; Ilska, A.; Kłonowska, M.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents the basics of modelling compression products with intended values of unit pressure for body circumferences with fixed and variable radius of curvature. The derived relationships referring to the dimensions of the fabric's circumferences in a relaxed state of the product were based on Laplace law, local values of the radius of curvature, and the characteristics of stretching and relaxing (deformation) of the knitted fabric, described by experimental relation for the stress and relaxation phase for the 6th hysteresis loop, taking into account confidence intervals. The article indicates the possibilities of using 3D scanning techniques of the human body to identify the radius of curvature of various circumference of the human silhouette, for which the intended value of the unit pressure is designed, and quantitative changes in the body deformation due to compression. Classic method of modelling and design of compression products, based on a cylindrical model of the human body does not provide in each case the intended value of unit pressure, according to specific normative requirements, because it neglects the effect of different values of the radius of curvature of the body circumference and the properties of the viscoelastic knitted fabrics. The model and experimental research allowed for a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the reasons for the changes in the value of unit pressure of compression products supporting the process of external treatment.

  16. Umbilical Cord Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Relation to Birthweight, Head Circumference and Infant Length at Age 14 Days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Steuerwald, Ulrike;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insufficient supply of vitamin D during early development may negatively affect offspring growth. METHODS: We examined the association between umbilical cord (UC) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and infant size in a study of two Faroese birth cohorts of 1038 singleton...... linear regression models with adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI, sex, parity, gestational age, or infant age at examination, season of birth, smoking, gestational diabetes, examiner, and cohort identity, we found no relationship between birthweight or head circumference and UC 25(OH)D. However, infants...... with vitamin D status <12 nmol/L had a 0.49 (95% confidence interval 0.05, 0.93) cm lower length than infants with vitamin D status >50 nmol/L in models further adjusted for birthweight. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that umbilical cord serum 25(OH)D concentrations are positively associated with infant...

  17. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.;

    physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...... MetS-markers in 8-11-year-olds at nine Danish schools without existing school meal programmes. Methods In a cluster-randomized cross-over design we assigned 834 third and fourth graders to school lunch and snacks based on the New Nordic Diet and usual home-packed lunch (control) for 3 months. We...... measured blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance based on the Homeostasis Model of Assessment (HOMA-IR), anthropometry and body composition at baseline, month 3 and 6. Results Seventy-six% of the children were normalweight; 10% were underweight and 14% overweight/obese. The NND school meals did...

  18. Adipose tissue trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla P.; Berentzen, Tina L.; Østergaard, Jane N.;

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) plays a role in the development of obesity. The proportions of adipose tissue fatty acids not synthesised endogenously in humans, such as TFA, usually correlate well with the dietary intake. Hence, the use of these...... biomarkers may provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than that obtained with dietary questionnaires. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC......% central range 0·98, 2·19) in men and 1·47% (1·01, 2·19) in women. No significant associations were observed between the proportions of total 18 : 1t, 18:1 D6-10t, vaccenic acid or rumenic acid and changes in weight or WC. The present study suggests that the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue...

  19. Interaction between genetic predisposition to adiposity and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    ) and dietary protein in relation to subsequent change in body weight (ΔBW) or change in WC (ΔWC). DESIGN: Three different Danish cohorts were used. In total 7,054 individuals constituted the study population with information on diet, 50 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI, WC or......BACKGROUND: Genetic predisposition to adiposity may interact with dietary protein in relation to changes of anthropometry. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interaction between genetic predisposition to higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRBMI......-score: <0.1 mm/y/5 energy% protein/risk allele, [-0.1; 0.1]). Similar results were seen when protein replaced fat. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the genetic predisposition to general and abdominal adiposity, assessed by gene-scores, does not seem to modulate the influence of dietary protein on ΔBW...

  20. Interaction between genetic predisposition to obesity and dietary calcium in relation to subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies indicate an effect of dietary calcium on change in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC), but the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, a relation could depend on genetic predisposition to obesity. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether genetic predisposition...... to higher body mass index (BMI), WC, or waist-hip ratio (WHR) interacts with dietary calcium in relation to subsequent annual change in BW (ΔBW) and WC (ΔWC). DESIGN: The study was based on 7569 individuals from the MONItoring trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease Study, a sample from the...... Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study and the INTER99 study, with information on diet; 54 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BMI, WC, or WHR adjusted for BMI; and potential confounders. The SNPs were combined in 4 scores as indicators of genetic predisposition; all SNPs in a general...