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Sample records for circulation pump test

  1. Proper Sizing of Circulation Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust......, but the results can be applied to Europe in general. Despite the small sample of houses involved in the test, 15 houses, some rather safe conclusions can be drawn from the results, which showed that newly developed pumps with power consumption around 5-8 W, can perform the task of circulating the water...... sufficiently to keep the houses satisfactorily warm during the heating season of the test. The old replaced pumps used 5-10 times more power. In Europe alone, a gradual replacement of the present vastly oversized pumps with such small but sufficient pumps can save the construction of 17 large power plants...

  2. Tests of Shaft Seal Systems of Circulation Pumps during Station Blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beisiegel, A.; Foppe, F.; Wich, M.

    2014-07-01

    AREVA GmbH operates a unique Thermal-hydraulic plat form in Germany, France and USA. It is recognised as a test body according to ISO 17025. The Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle GmbH (DAkkS - German Society for Accreditation) has also certified the Thermal-hydraulic platform as an independent inspection body Type C according to ISO 17020. A part of this platform is the Component Laboratory located in Karlstein, Germany which is in operation since more than 50 years. The testing activities cover a wide range as: Critical Heat Flux Tests, Valve Testing and Environmental Qualification for safety related components. Since 2011 the Component Qualification Karlstein extended their testing scope for different types of Shaft Seal Systems. (Author)

  3. Heating circulation pump disassembly process improved with augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegeltija Srđan S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to introduce possibilities of implementation of augmented reality (AR concept in disassembly process. Basic concept of AR implementation in various applications, as well as developed concept in disassembly system is presented. Main objective of this paper was to test the influence of implementation of AR in disassembly process with the goal to shorten overall duration of disassembly process. In this paper the experimental setup of developed concept in disassembly system for heating circulation pump that was conducted in laboratory conditions is shown, and conclusions are presented.

  4. Circulating pumps. Mastering consumptions; Circulateurs. Maitriser les consommations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document, written by the French scientific and technical committee of air-conditioning industries (CoSTIC), gathers the necessary technical information to understand, dimension, select and use circulating pumps. The applications concern first the pumps used in space heating water loops. Some mathematical models are proposed for more elaborate calculations. The first goal of this document is to inform the professionals about the mastery of the energy consumptions of these devices. Significant energy savings can be performed when space heating installations are properly designed with no useless over-dimensioning, and when efficient circulating pumps are used and properly controlled. (J.S.)

  5. Campaign for A-rated circulator pumps - a proven strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueders, Christian; Wilke, Goeran (The Danish Electricity Saving Trust (Denmark)); Dam Wied, Martin (Wormslev - NRGi Raadgivning A/S (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    1.2 million households in Denmark have a central heating circulator pump. An estimated 800,000 pumps installed are old and inefficient. Potential savings per year of 400 GWh and 200,000 tons of CO{sub 2} can be achieved by replacing these obsolete pumps. However, many consumers and installers have neither an opinion about, nor play an active role in choosing a circulator pump. This paper documents how it is possible to promote the wider use of A-rated circulator pumps via an offensive campaign strategy to get both consumers and installers to participate actively in the choice of pump, thereby increasing the market share of A-rated pumps sold. The campaign is based on a broadly-based push-pull strategy which aims to influence both consumers and suppliers simultaneously. The strategy consists of the following elements: Involvement of the supply side via voluntary agreements with producers, wholesalers, installers, and their trade organisations; Partnerships with installers in order to secure fixed price installations for A-rated pumps; Influencing consumers through magazine advertisements and TV commercials. The market share for A-rated circulator pumps in Denmark grew from 15-60% in the period January 2006 to the end of October 2008. In a new phase, the strategy is switching the focus to OEM and boiler producers, and producers of heat exchangers for district and underfloor heating systems. The aim of the current phase was for A pumps to have accounted for 60% of the Danish market by the end of 2008

  6. Comparison of modified chandler, roller pump, and ball valve circulation models for in vitro testing in high blood flow conditions: application in thrombogenicity testing of different materials for vascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oeveren, Wim; Tielliu, Ignace F; de Hart, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Three different models, a modified Chandler loop, roller pump, and a new ball valve model (Hemobile), were compared with regard to intrinsic damage of blood components and activation of platelets. The Hemobile was used for testing of polymer tubes. High flow was not possible with the Chandler loop. The roller pump and the Hemobile could be adjusted to high flow, but he pump induced hemolysis. Platelet numbers were reduced in the roller pump and Chandler loop (P Dyneema Purity UHMWPE fiber and PET fiber based tubes, all showed hemolysis below 0.2% and reduced platelet count and function. Binding of fibrin and platelets was higer on PET, inflammatory markers were lowest on Dyneema Purity UHMWPE. We concluded that the Hemobile minimally affects blood and could be adjusted to high blood flows, simulating arterial shear stress. The Hemobile was used to measure hemocompatibility of graft material and showed Dyneema Purity UHMWPE fiber in many ways more hemocompatible than ePTFE and PET.

  7. Circular pump support of blood circulation in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, A. E.; Fomin, V. M.; Prikhodko, Yu. M.; Cherniavskiy, A. M.; Fomichev, V. P.; Fomichev, A. V.; Chekhov, V. P.; Ruzmatov, T. M.

    2016-10-01

    The need of circulatory support systems in the treatment of chronic heart failure is increasing constantly, as 20% of patients in the waiting list die every year. Despite the great need for mechanical heart support systems, using of available systems is limited by the expensiveness. In addition, there is no one system that is 100% responsible to all medical and technical requirements, and would be completely safe for patient. Therefore, further research in the field of circu-latory support systems, considering health and technical requirements is relevant. One of the new directions in the study are disc pumps of viscous friction for liquid transporting, based on the Tesla pump principle. The operation principle of pumps based on the phenomenon of the boundary layer which is formed on the disk rotating in a fluid. There are experimental studies results of models with different variants of the rotor suspension, the various forms and the number of disks, forms the pump housing. However, none of the above samples was not brought to clinical trials. Furthermore, despite the promise of this model is still used today in some circulatory support systems are no similar type pump. Published data provide a basis for further development and testing of the pump model and allow to hope for leveling a number of significant shortcomings of modern left ventricular bypass systems.

  8. Nutrient pumping by submesoscale circulations in the mauritanian upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosegood, P. J.; Nightingale, P. D.; Rees, A. P.; Widdicombe, C. E.; Woodward, E. M. S.; Clark, D. R.; Torres, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Observations made within a cold filament in the Mauritanian upwelling system demonstrate that intense submesoscale circulations at the peripheral edges of the filament are likely responsible for anomalously high levels of observed primary productivity by resupplying nutrients to the euphotic zone. Measurements made on the shelf within the recently upwelled water reveal that primary production (PP) of 8.2 gC/m-2 day-1 was supported by nitrate concentrations (NC) of 8 mmol m-3. Towards the front that defined the edge of the filament containing the upwelled water as it was transported offshore, PP dropped to 1.6 gC m-2 day-1 whilst NC dropped to 5.5 mmol m-3. Thus, whilst the observed nutrients on the shelf accounted for 90% of new production, this value dropped to ∼60% near the filament's front after accounting for vertical turbulent fluxes and Ekman pumping. We demonstrate that the N15 was likely to have been supplied at the front by submesoscale circulations that were directly measured as intense vertical velocities ⩾100 m day-1 by a drifting acoustic Doppler current profiler that crossed a submesoscale surface temperature front. At the same time, a recently released tracer was subducted out of the mixed layer within 24 h of release, providing direct evidence that the frontal circulations were capable of accessing the reservoir of nutrients beneath the pycnocline. The susceptibility of the filament edge to submesoscale instabilities was demonstrated by O(1) Rossby numbers at horizontal scales of 1-10 km. The frontal circulations are consistent with instabilities arising from a wind-driven nonlinear Ekman buoyancy flux generated by the persistent northerly wind stress that has a down-front component at the northern edge of the inshore section of the filament. The prevalence of submesoscale instabilities and their associated vertical circulations are proposed to be a key mechanism operating at sub-grid scales and sustaining new production throughout the upwelling

  9. HSB 84A pumping test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, W.

    2000-03-06

    Two constant discharge, multiple well pumping tests were performed in the Congaree aquifer at the H-Area seepage basins during the weeks of April 30 through May 11. The purpose of the tests was to collect information that might determine the source of groundwater contamination in the Congaree aquifer and to estimate the hydraulic parameters of the aquifer. Transmissivity estimates from data collected in Test One ranged from 1,644 ft{sup 2}/day to 2,253 ft{sup 2}/day with an average of 2,013 ft{sup 2}/day and from 1,812 ft{sup 2}/day to 2,562 ft{sup 2}/day with an average of 2,269 ft{sup 2}/day in Test Two. Some leakage through the confining bed was apparent in the vicinity of observation well HSB 69A. This report includes the data collected, the analyses, results and interpretation of the pumping tests performed at HSB 84A. It should serve as a good baseline for future studies on the subject of contaminant migration in the Congaree aquifer on the Savannah River Site.

  10. Development of Electronic Circulating Pump by Axial Air-gap Type Brush less Motor for Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Uk; Lee, Chang Eon; Kim, Young Seok; Yim, Chang Soon [Inha University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Chun [Pyung Taek Technical Junior College (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Sung Won [Bupyung Technical High School (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-30

    Canned type household circulating pump in the country almost depends on the act of imports, however it has disadvantage of low efficiency because an air gap of between rotor and stator is large and when the boiler is not used in a period of summer, a can and a rotor become adhered each other. Accordingly the pump is impossible to drive the initial state, and a lifetime of the pump gets shortening. To overcome these defects a electronic circulating pump by axial air-gap type brush less motor which is completely depart from the general idea for the conventional pump is developed. This paper is verified through experiments that the developed pump has good performance for reduction of size and noise, retrenchment of cost, and improvement of efficiency in comparison with the conventional pump. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  11. Vibroacoustic diagnostics of main circulating pump of primary coolant circuit of WWER reactor power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarin, A.A.; Adamenkov, K.A.

    1983-02-01

    The theoretical foundations are briefly described of the method and the noise sources given. Measurements on the main circulating pumps of the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant have shown that the range of frequencies of structural noises of the main circulating pumps lies within 10 and 20,000 Hz. These vibrations and noise have a broad band random character and therefore the mathematical apparatus of the theory of random processes is used for processing measured data. The ''signature'' method is used for diagnostics of the main circulating pumps - this is an analytical method consisting in that the measured spectrum is compared with a spectrum measured in a failure-free state. Experience with practical applications shows that a poor state of the main circulating pump is always accompanied by changes in noise spectrum.

  12. Numerical calculation and optimal design of a hot water circulation pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Y Kong, F.; Xia, B.; Tan, L. W.

    2013-12-01

    The problem of hot water circulation pump head shortage is common. In this paper, numerical simulation technology, combined with orthogonal experimental design, was used to research optimal designs to improve the hot water circulation pump's head. CFX software was used to calculate the flow field in the pump, and the head-flow rate curve could be achieved. The accuracy of CFD was validated through comparison between numerical and experimental data. According to the experience, the number of impeller blades, thickness and width of impeller outlet were changed to improve the hot water circulation pump's head. A three factors and level values of model pump orthogonal experiment was designed, and numerical simulation of whole flow field based on CFX was adopted to implement the orthogonal experiment. Finally, the best designed scheme for model pump was obtained. The analysis of results indicates that the head of hot water circulation pump has increased by 7.77% at rated conditions. The distribution in impellers' internal flow field is symmetrical, and accords with the law of fluids flow in the common centrifugal pump.

  13. Restoration of metal properties of circulation pump blades by the method of surface ultrasonic impact treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povarov, V. P.; Urazov, O. V.; Bakirov, M. B.; Pakhomov, S. S.; Belunik, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    During the transition period to a market economy, the works producing equipment for the nuclear industry became lame duck companies. The market of heavy industry equipment reduced dramatically, and quality control requirements imposed to goods became lower. Deviations from regulations' requirements and technical specifications for equipment manufacture results in inevitable decrease of reliability during operation but also to failure during check tests. It is not always possible to replace promptly ill-conditioned equipment; in such cases, it is necessary to carry out compensatory measures for restoring working properties up to an acceptable level in order to ensure operational reliability due to the strength improvement of the components of machines and constructions during the whole service life or up to the scheduled date of equipment replacement. This paper is dedicated to development and practical implementation of restorative technology of strengthening ultrasonic treatment used for the metal of the blades of impellers of 16DPA10-28 circulation pumps of 10URS unit pump station located at Novovoronezh NPP-2. The dynamic surface treatment was implemented for compensating the technological defects of the metal of blades. It was revealed that the impact elastic-plastic deformation has a comprehensive compensation effect on the metal of blades in the initial state of delivery and creates the surface-strengthening layer with higher strength properties (strain hardening) of the depth up to 1.5 mm. The surface strain hardening increases the cyclic strength, re-distributes beneficially the residual technological and repair stresses, and heals small surface cracks improving the surface quality. The developed technology was used for treatment of 32 blades of impellers of 10PAC01AP001, 10PAC02AP001, 10PAC03AP001, 10PAC04AP001 circulation pumps. The implemented 100-h full-scale test of the pumps revealed the high efficiency of the developed technology and made it possible

  14. Investigation of the correlation between noise and vibration characteristics and unsteady flow in a circulator pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Denghao; Ren, Yun; Mou, Jiegang; Gu, Yunqing [Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-05-15

    Circulator pumps have wide engineering applications but the acoustics, vibration and unsteady flow structures of the circulator pump are still not fully understood. We investigated the noise and vibration characteristics and unsteady flow structures in a circulator pump at different flow rates. Three-dimensional, unsteady RANS equations were solved on high-quality structured meshes with SST k-ω turbulence model numerically. Measurements were made in a semi-anechoic chamber to get an overview of noise and vibration level of a pump at different flow rates. The 1/3 octave-band filter technique was applied to obtain the explicit frequency spectra of sound, pressure fluctuations and vibration signals and their principal frequencies were identified successfully. The air-borne noise level of the designed condition is lower than that of the off-design conditions, and the highest sound pressure level is found at part-load condition. The acoustic emission from the pump is mainly caused by unsteady flow structures and pressure fluctuations. In addition, both the link between air- borne noise and pressure fluctuation, and the correlation between vibration and unsteady hydrodynamic forces, were quantitatively examined and verified. This work offers good data to understand noise and vibration characteristics of circulator pumps and the relationships among the noise, vibration and unsteady flow structures.

  15. Optimal design and performance analysis of an external circulation un-contact rotor pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H. S.; Yang, G. L.; Zhang, L. Q.; Fang, C. H.; Li, R. N.

    2013-12-01

    It's difficult to calculate the flow pulsation and efficiency of an un-contact rotor pump as there's a gap between the two rotors and internal leakage exists during the operation process. We analyze the primary cause that affects the volumetric efficiency of external circulation un-contact rotor pumps and discuss its gap leakage mechanisms. We establish the pump's 3d model, by using the calculation method and physical model provided from FLUENT software, and moving mesh grid and UDF technology are adopted in the unsteady flow field numerical simulation of the pump. Two rotors were set as rotating entities with fixed rotational speeds, while the boundary of the flow field calculation area changed as the rotors rotated, picking up each iterative step of the two rotors by the size of the moment and the outlet velocity through the function, and depositing them into the text file. The relationship between the two rotors' gap quantity, the rotor and the pump body's gap quantity, the transient flow characteristics and the pressure distribution of the pump's body were studied. The calculation results show that pump efficiency is the highest when the two rotors' minimum gap quantity is 0.17 millimetre, the rotor and the pump body's minimum axial gap quantity is 0.1 millimetre.

  16. AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Qualification Test Procedures (QTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THOMAS, W.K.

    2000-01-10

    Describes the Qualification test procedure for the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Data Acquisition System (DAS). The purpose of this Qualification Test Procedure (QTP) is to confirm that the AZ-101 Mixer Pump System has been properly programmed and hardware configured correctly. This QTP will test the software setpoints for the alarms and also check the wiring configuration from the SIMcart to the HMI. An Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP), similar to this QTP will be performed to test field devices and connections from the field.

  17. Optimization of a Centrifugal Boiler Circulating Pump's Casing Based on CFD and FEM Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zuo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate the economic efficiency of boiler circulating pumps in manufacturing process from the manufacturers' point of view. The possibility of optimizing the pump casing with respect to structural pressure integrity and hydraulic performance was discussed. CFD analyses of pump models with different pump casing sizes were firstly carried out for the hydraulic performance evaluation. The effects of the working temperature and the sealing ring on the hydraulic efficiency were discussed. A model with casing diameter of 0.875D40 was selected for further analyses. FEM analyses were then carried out on different combinations of casing sizes, casing wall thickness, and materials, to evaluate its safety related to pressure integrity, with respect to both static and fatigue strength analyses. Two models with forging and cast materials were selected as final results.

  18. VCO Production from Fresh Old Coconut Bunch by Circulating and Pumping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil is one of coco-diesel source, made without high heating and chemicals. Commercial processes production, such fermentation and centrifugation usually need more time and expensive in cost and investment. Circulating by pumping through a nozzle is a new process method invented to produce VCO. The process followed by coalescence method, breaking emulsion by hitting particles through pipe and nozzle. The problem of this method was that the product gave lower yield than another method and not yet qualified. This research was purposed to discover correlation between pressure and time of circulation variables against yield and content (FFA, Peroxide, water content represented by SNI (national Indonesian standard. Producing VCO initiated by producing coconut milk from fresh old coconut, then each 1 litre milk were pumped through the pipe and nozzle with variation of circulations pressures and time. The results were decanted for 10 hours so the oil and water would be separated. The oil at upper layer was taken as final product. Then the last step was analysed the oils and oil cake (blondo. The results showed that pressure and time of circulating variables gave impact to the yield. On optimum variables, 2 atm pressure and 15 minutes of circulating gave better results with 97% yield. This operating variables also affecting oil quality. The minimum water content is 0.1%, free fatty acid is 0.18% and peroxide value is 2 mg/kg eq. The results showed that all of parameters meet the SNI standard.

  19. VCO Production from Fresh Old Coconut Bunch by Circulating and Pumping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil is one of coco-diesel source, made without high heating and chemicals. Commercial processes production, such fermentation and centrifugation usually need more time and expensive in cost and investment. Circulating by pumping through a nozzle is a new process method invented to produce VCO. The process followed by coalescence method, breaking emulsion by hitting particles through pipe and nozzle. The problem of this method was that the product gave lower yield than another method and not yet qualified. This research was purposed to discover correlation between pressure and time of circulation variables against yield and content (FFA, Peroxide, water content represented by SNI (national Indonesian standard. Producing VCO initiated by producing coconut milk from fresh old coconut, then each 1 litre milk were pumped through the pipe and nozzle with variation of circulations pressures and time. The results were decanted for 10 hours so the oil and water would be separated. The oil at upper layer was taken as final product. Then the last step was analysed the oils and oil cake (blondo. The results showed that pressure and time of circulating variables gave impact to the yield. On optimum variables, 2 atm pressure and 15 minutes of circulating gave better results with 97% yield. This operating variables also affecting oil quality. The minimum water content is 0.1%, free fatty acid is 0.18% and peroxide value is 2 mg/kg eq. The results showed that all of parameters meet the SNI standard.

  20. Monitoring of aquifer pump tests with Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herckenrath, Daan; Auken, Esben; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2009-01-01

    method, which calculates the MRS-signal generated by an aquifer pump test. A synthetic MRS-dataset was subsequently used to determine the hydrogeological parameters in an inverse parameter estimation approach. This was done for a pump test with a partially and fully penetrating well. With the MRS data we...... to pump tests in which a partially penetrating pumping well is used, because the limited drawdown around the extraction well causes smaller changes in received signal compared to a fully penetrating well....

  1. Decant pump assembly and controls qualification testing - test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehr, T.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-02

    This report summarizes the results of the qualification testing of the supernate decant pump and controls system to be used for in-tank sludge washing in aging waste tank AZ-101. The test was successful and all components are qualified for installation and use in the tank.

  2. Closed-loop helium circulation system for actuation of a continuously operating heart catheter pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabegovic, Alen; Hinteregger, Markus; Janeczek, Christoph; Mohl, Werner; Gföhler, Margit

    2017-06-09

    Currently available, pneumatic-based medical devices are operated using closed-loop pulsatile or open continuous systems. Medical devices utilizing gases with a low atomic number in a continuous closed loop stream have not been documented to date. This work presents the construction of a portable helium circulation addressing the need for actuating a novel, pneumatically operated catheter pump. The design of its control system puts emphasis on the performance, safety and low running cost of the catheter pump. Static and dynamic characteristics of individual elements in the circulation are analyzed to ensure a proper operation of the system. The pneumatic circulation maximizes the working range of the drive unit inside the catheter pump while reducing the total size and noise production.Separate flow and pressure controllers position the turbine's working point into the stable region of the pressure creation element. A subsystem for rapid gas evacuation significantly decreases the duration of helium removal after a leak, reaching subatmospheric pressure in the intracorporeal catheter within several milliseconds. The system presented in the study offers an easy control of helium mass flow while ensuring stable behavior of its internal components.

  3. Testing new submersible pumps for proper sizing and reduced costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, W.P.; O' Brien, J.B.

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to improve overall submersible pump performance by Thums Long Beach Co., acting as contractor for the City of Long Beach, operator of the Long Beach Unit. Thums Long Beach Co. currently operates 700 submersible pump installations located on four manmade islands and one landfill pier location. The program began with spot testing of submersible pumps for Thums' use. It has evolved to 100% pump testing and the stipulation that only pumps with newly manufactured parts are acceptable. The primary goals of this program are to increase well production and to lower lifting costs. Critical to these goals is increasing the average length of run by using accurate pump-performance data to design equipment and by rejecting defective pumps before they are run. Increased production is realized from better designs. Lower lifting costs result from using more efficient pumps and a reduced frequency of pulling submersible equipment.

  4. Testing new submersible pumps for proper sizing and reduced costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, W.P.; O' Brien, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to improve overall submersible pump performance by Thums Long Beach Company, acting as Contractor of the City of Long Beach, Operator of the Long Beach Unit. Thums Long Beach Company currently operates 700 submersible pump installations located on four man-made islands and one land fill pier location. The program began with spot testing of submersible pumps for Thums' use. It has evolved to 100 percent pump testing and the stipulation that only pumps with newly manufactured parts are acceptable. The primary goals of this program are to increase well production and lower lifting costs. Critical to these goals is increasing the average length of run by using accurate pump performance data to design equipment and by rejecting defective pumps before they are run. Increased production is realized from better designs. Lower lifting costs result from utilizing higher efficiency pumps and a reduced frequency of pulling submersible equipment.

  5. Gas cooled fast breeder reactor design for a circulator test facility (modified HTGR circulator test facility)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    A GCFR helium circulator test facility sized for full design conditions is proposed for meeting the above requirements. The circulator will be mounted in a large vessel containing high pressure helium which will permit testing at the same power, speed, pressure, temperature and flow conditions intended in the demonstration plant. The electric drive motor for the circulator will obtain its power from an electric supply and distribution system in which electric power will be taken from a local utility. The conceptual design decribed in this report is the result of close interaction between the General Atomic Company (GA), designer of the GCFR, and The Ralph M. Parson Company, architect/engineer for the test facility. A realistic estimate of total project cost is presented, together with a schedule for design, procurement, construction, and inspection.

  6. Research on enhancement of natural circulation capability in lead–bismuth alloy cooled reactor by using gas-lift pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Juanli, E-mail: Jenyzuo@163.com; Tian, Wenxi, E-mail: wxtian@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Ronghua, E-mail: ronghua.chen@stu.xjtu.edu.cn; Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui, E-mail: ghsu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The gas-lift pump has been adopted to enhance the natural circulation capability. • LENAC code is developed in my study. • The calculation results by LENAC code show good agreement with experiment results. • Gas mass flow rate, bubble diameter, rising pipe length are important parameters. -- Abstract: The gas-lift pump has been adopted to enhance the natural circulation capability in the type of lead–bismuth alloy cooled reactors such as Accelerator Driven System (ADS) and Liquid–metal Fast Reactor (LMFR). The natural circulation ability and the system safety are obviously influenced by the two phase flow characteristics of liquid metal–inert gas. In this study, LENAC (LEad bismuth alloy NAtural Circulation capability) code has been developed to evaluate the natural circulation capability of lead–bismuth cooled ADS with gas-lift pump. The drift flow theory, void fraction prediction model and friction pressure drop prediction model have been incorporated into LENAC code. The calculation results by LENAC code show good agreement with experiment results of CIRCulation Experiment (CIRCE) facility. The effects of the gas mass flow rate, void fraction, gas quality, bubble diameter and the rising pipe height or the potential difference between heat exchanger and reactor core on natural circulation capability of gas-lift pump have been analyzed. The results showed that in bubbly flow pattern, for a fixed value of gas mass flow rate, the natural circulation capability increased with the decrease of the bubble diameter. In the bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow and annular flow pattern, with the gas mass flow rate increasing, the natural circulation capability initially increased and then declined. And the flow parameters influenced the thermal hydraulic characteristics of the reactor core significantly. The present work is helpful for revealing the law of enhancing the natural circulation capability by gas-lift pump, and providing theoretical

  7. Mechanical circulatory support of a univentricular Fontan circulation with a continuous axial-flow pump in a piglet model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xufeng; Sanchez, Pablo G; Liu, Yang; Li, Tieluo; Watkins, A Claire; Wu, Zhongjun J; Griffith, Bartley P

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant contribution of the Fontan procedure to the therapy of complex congenital heart diseases, many patients progress to failure of their Fontan circulation. The use of ventricular assist devices to provide circulatory support to these patients remains challenging. In the current study, a continuous axial-flow pump was used to support a univentricular Fontan circulation. A modified Fontan circulation (atrio-pulmonary connection) was constructed in six Yorkshire piglets (8-14 kg). A Dacron conduit (12 mm) with two branches was constructed to serve as a complete atrio-pulmonary connection without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. The Impella pump was inserted into the conduit through an additional Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft in five animals. Hemodynamic data were collected for 6 hours under the supported Fontan circulation. The control animal died after initiating the Fontan circulation independent of resuscitation. Four pump supported animals remained hemodynamically stable for 6 hours with pump speeds between 18,000 rpm and 22,000 rpm (P1-P3). Oxygen saturation was maintained between 95% and 100%. Normal organ perfusion was illustrated by blood gas analysis and biochemical assays. A continuous axial-flow pump can be used for temporal circulatory support to the failing Fontan circulation as "bridge" to heart transplantation or recovery.

  8. Hydraulic properties from pumping tests data of aquifers in Azare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydraulic properties from pumping tests data of aquifers in Azare area, North Eastern Nigeria. AC Tse, PA Amadi. Abstract. Pumping test data from twelve boreholes in Azare area were analysed to determine the hydraulic properties of the aquifers, and the availability of water to meet the conjugate demands of the increasing ...

  9. Orthogonal test and experimental study on fire floating pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. R.; Zheng, J. F.; Fu, D. P.; Wang, P.

    2013-12-01

    In order to develop high efficiency fire floating pump, 250YYB-250 fire floating pump was taken as an example. The orthogonal experiment of L9 (34), which contains factors with three levels of blade numbers of impeller, outlet angle, impeller fold-angle, was performed to design nine types of impellers. Numerical simulation of whole flow field based on Fluent was adopted to perform an orthogonal test, the order of geometric parameters affects the performance of fire floating pump with complex impeller. The best design scheme for pump model was acquired. Meanwhile, the optimized design scheme was determined, and corresponding test was carried out. It demonstrated that the efficiency of the final optimal design model pump at rated flow point is of 85%. The efficiency is higher than the national standards, which verified the feasibility of the method of orthogonal design in pump design.

  10. The Performance test of Mechanical Sodium Pump with Water Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chungho; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Bock Seong; Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Yoon Sang [SAM JIN Industrial Co. LTD., Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As contrasted with PWR(Pressurized light Water Reactor) using water as a coolant, sodium is used as a coolant in SFR because of its low melting temperature, high thermal conductivity, the high boiling temperature allowing the reactors to operate at ambient pressure, and low neutron absorption cross section which is required to achieve a high neutron flux. But, sodium is violently reactive with water or oxygen like the other alkali metal. So Very strict requirements are demanded to design and fabricate of sodium experimental facilities. Furthermore, performance testing in high temperature sodium environments is more expensive and time consuming and need an extra precautions because operating and maintaining of sodium experimental facilities are very difficult. The present paper describes performance test results of mechanical sodium pump with water which has been performed with some design changes using water test facility in SAM JIN Industrial Co. To compare the hydraulic characteristic of model pump with water and sodium, the performance test of model pump were performed using vender's experimental facility for mechanical sodium pump. To accommodate non-uniform thermal expansion and to secure the operability and the safety, the gap size of some parts of original model pump was modified. Performance tests of modified mechanical sodium pump with water were successfully performed. Water is therefore often selected as a surrogate test fluid because it is not only cheap, easily available and easy to handle but also its important hydraulic properties (density and kinematic viscosity) are very similar to that of the sodium. Normal practice to thoroughly test a design or component before applied or installed in reactor is important to ensure the safety and operability in the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). So, in order to estimate the hydraulic behavior of the PHTS pump of DSFR (600 MWe Demonstraion SFR), the performance tests of the model pump such as performance

  11. Acceptance test report: Field test of mixer pump for 241-AN-107 caustic addition project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1997-05-16

    The field acceptance test of a 75 HP mixer pump (Hazleton serial number N-20801) installed in Tank 241-AN-107 was conducted from October 1995 thru February 1996. The objectives defined in the acceptance test were successfully met, with two exceptions recorded. The acceptance test encompassed field verification of mixer pump turntable rotation set-up and operation, verification that the pump instrumentation functions within established limits, facilitation of baseline data collection from the mixer pump mounted ultrasonic instrumentation, verification of mixer pump water flush system operation and validation of a procedure for its operation, and several brief test runs (bump) of the mixer pump.

  12. Preconceptual design of the new production reactor circulator test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, G.

    1990-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study of a new circulator test facility for the New Production Reactor Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. The report addresses the preconceptual design of a stand-alone test facility with all the required equipment to test the Main Circulator/shutoff valve and Shutdown Cooling Circulator/shutoff valve. Each type of circulator will be tested in its own full flow, full power helium test loop. Testing will cover the entire operating range of each unit. The loop will include a test vessel, in which the circulator/valve will be mounted, and external piping. The external flow piping will include a throttle valve, flowmeter, and heat exchanger. Subsystems will include helium handling, helium purification, and cooling water. A computer-based data acquisition and control system will be provided. The estimated costs for the design and construction of this facility are included. 2 refs., 15 figs.

  13. Development and test of a plastic deep-well pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. H.; Gao, X. F.; Xu, Y.; Shi, W. D.; Lu, W. G.; Liu, W.

    2013-12-01

    To develop a plastic deep-well pump, three methods are proposed on structural and forming technique. First, the major hydraulic components are constructed by plastics, and the connection component is constructed by steel. Thus the pump structure is more concise and slim, greatly reducing its weight and easing its transportation, installation, and maintenance. Second, the impeller is designed by maximum diameter method. Using same pump casing, the stage head is greatly increased. Third, a sealing is formed by impeller front end face and steel end face, and two slots are designed on the impeller front end face, thus when the two end faces approach, a lubricating pair is formed, leading to an effective sealing. With above methods, the pump's axial length is greatly reduced, and its stage head is larger and more efficient. Especially, the pump's axial force is effectively balanced. To examine the above proposals, a prototype pump is constructed, and its testing results show that the pump efficiency exceeds the national standard by 6%, and the stage head is improved by 41%, meanwhile, its structure is more concise and ease of transportation. Development of this pump would provide useful experiences for further popularity of plastic deep-well pumps.

  14. The sulphate-reduction alkalinity pump tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Patrick; Petrishcheva, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Carbonate precipitation has been suggested to be induced by alkalinity increase during sulphate reduction under anoxic conditions. This mechanism may explain the formation of carbonate deposits in shallow marine environments, either within a redox stratified sediment inhabited by phototrophic microbial mats or in shallow water within the photic zone where sulphidic water is upwelling onto the shelf. The alkalinity pump may work as long as the sulphide is not reoxidized to sulphate, a process that would acidify the surrounding. The alkalinity effect of sulphate reduction was recently tested by Aloisi (2008) for microbial mats using a model approach. He found that sulphate reduction does not significantly increase or even decrease carbonate saturation and is unlikely to have played a significant role through Earth history. The model considers many environmental factors, including the effect of carbonate precipitation itself on the carbonate equilbrium and on the alkalinity. We used a modified version of Aloisi's (2008) model to simulate the saturation states of aragonite, calcite and dolomite without the effects of carbonate precipitation. This is necessary to evaluate the effect of microbial metabolisms exclusively on carbonate saturation, since carbonate precipitation is only the consequence, but not the cause of oversaturation. First results show that the saturation state is increased in the zone of phototrophic CO2 uptake. In contrast, the saturation state is strongly decreased in the zone where dissolved oxygen overlaps with dissolved sulphide. Aerobic sulphide oxidation consumes most of the HS- and dissipates most of the alkalinity produced in the sulphate reduction zone below. Hence, our results are consistent with the findings of Aloisi (2008), and they even more clearly show that sulphate reduction does not induce carbonate precipitation nor contributes to carbonate precipitation in combination with phototrophic CO2 uptake. The alkalinity effect of sulphate

  15. Custom Unit Pump Design and Testing for the EVA PLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design and test a pre-flight prototype pump for use in the Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump must accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting non-condensable gas without becoming air locked. The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the pre-flight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES verified that the pump meets the design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure drop, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, gas ingestion , and restart capability under both ambient and vacuum conditions. The pump operated between 40 and 240 lbm/hr flowrate, 35 to 100 F

  16. Test Procedure - pumping system for caustic addition project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1994-10-01

    This test procedure provides the requirements for sub-system testing and integrated operational testing of the submersible mixer pump and caustic addition equipment by WHC and Kaiser personnel at the Rotating Equipment Shop run-in pit (Bldg. 272E).

  17. Two-phase flow patterns recognition and parameters estimation through natural circulation test loop image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, R.N.; Libardi, R.M.P.; Masotti, P.H.F.; Sabundjian, G.; Andrade, D.A.; Umbehaun, P.E.; Torres, W.M.; Conti, T.N.; Macedo, L.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Center], e-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Visualization of natural circulation test loop cycles is used to study two-phase flow patterns associated with phase transients and static instabilities of flow. Experimental studies on natural circulation flow were originally related to accidents and transient simulations relative to nuclear reactor systems with light water refrigeration. In this regime, fluid circulation is mainly caused by a driving force ('thermal head') which arises from density differences due to temperature gradient. Natural circulation phenomenon has been important to provide residual heat removal in cases of 'loss of pump power' or plant shutdown in nuclear power plant accidents. The new generation of compact nuclear reactors includes natural circulation of their refrigerant fluid as a security mechanism in their projects. Two-phase flow patterns have been studied for many decades, and the related instabilities have been object of special attention recently. Experimental facility is an all glass-made cylindrical tubes loop which contains about twelve demineralized water liters, a heat source by an electrical resistor immersion heater controlled by a Variac, and a helicoidal heat exchanger working as cold source. Data is obtained through thermo-pairs distributed over the loop and CCD cameras. Artificial intelligence based algorithms are used to improve (bubble) border detection and patterns recognition, in order to estimate and characterize, phase transitions patterns and correlate them with the periodic static instability (chugging) cycle observed in this circuit. Most of initial results show good agreement with previous numerical studies in this same facility. (author)

  18. Extending Theis' solution to incorporate heterogeneity into pumping test analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sebastian; Zech, Alraune; Heße, Falk; Attinger, Sabine

    2017-04-01

    A framework for interpreting transient pumping tests in heterogeneous transmissivity fields is developed to infer the overall geostatistical parameters of the medium without reconstructing the specific heterogeneous structure point wise. This method is applied to the field sites "Horkheimer Insel" and "Lauswiesen" (South-West Germany) to estimate the respective parameters of heterogeneity from pumping test data of each site. The methodology is based on the upscaling approach Radial Coarse Graining which is applied to deduce an effective radial description of multi-Gaussian transmissivity. It was used to derive an Effective Well Flow Solution for transient flow conditions including not only the storativity, but also the geometric mean, the variance, and the correlation length of log-transmissivity. This solution is shown to be appropriate to characterize the pumping test drawdown behavior in heterogeneous transmissivity fields making use of ensembles of simulated pumping tests with multiple combinations of statistical parameters. The whole procedure is described in detail in Zech et al. 2016 (doi: 10.1002/2015WR018509).

  19. Detailed Design of the Safety Residual Heat Removal System and a Circulation Pump for the KIJANG Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyungi; Seo, Kyoungwoo; Kim, Seonghoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Primary cooling system (PCS) circulates the coolant from the reactor core to the heat exchanger. Therefore the heat generated from the fuel assembly in the reactor core is removed continuously. The PCS is designed based on the required thermal design flow rate of the reactor core, uncertainty of measuring instruments and the safe functions. Primary coolant is generally dumped into the pool and goes to the reactor core through the flow guide. The fission heat generated from the fuel assembly is transferred to the coolant, and then heated coolant goes to the PCS equipment room in order to remove the heat through the heat exchanger. SRHSR is designed based on the required flow rate and system constraints. Centrifugal pump of Case 1 with a non-dimensional specific speed of 0.97 [-] and specific diameter of 3.33 [-] is chosen as the SRHRS pump for the KJRR.

  20. A Simple Method for Determining Specific Yield from Pumping Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsahoye, L.E.; Lang, Solomon Max

    1961-01-01

    A simpler solution which greatly reduces the time necessary to compute the specific yield by the pumping-test method of Remson and Lang (1955) is presented. The method consists of computing the volume of dewatered material in the cone of depression and comparing it with the total volume of discharged water. The original method entails the use of a slowly converging series to compute the volume of dewatered material. The solution given herein is derived directly from Darcy's law.

  1. Innovation-enabling policy and regime transformation towards increased energy efficiency: The case of the circulator pump industry in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    2015-01-01

    of the industry envisioned and worked for a voluntary energy label, bringing technological innovation, new business and energy savings of approx. 85% for each new circulator pump. The case study explores the complexities of innovation processes where technology, market, actors and policy co-evolve over time...... to transform an existing socio-technical regime. The paper highlights the importance of policies to reduce barriers towards innovation and energy efficiency and shows that it is not always policy-makers that establish the crucial policies that change the innovation dynamics for the benefit of the environment...

  2. Pressure Regulator With Internal Ejector Circulation Pump, Flow and Pressure Measurement Porting, and Fuel Cell System Integration Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    An advanced reactant pressure regulator with an internal ejector reactant circulation pump has been developed to support NASA's future fuel cell power systems needs. These needs include reliable and safe operation in variable-gravity environments, and for exploration activities with both manned and un manned vehicles. This product was developed for use in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) power plant reactant circulation systems, but the design could also be applied to other fuel cell system types, (e.g., solid-oxide or alkaline) or for other gas pressure regulation and circulation needs. The regulator design includes porting for measurement of flow and pressure at key points in the system, and also includes several fuel cell system integration options. NASA has recognized ejectors as a viable alternative to mechanical pumps for use in spacecraft fuel cell power systems. The ejector motive force is provided by a variable, high-pressure supply gas that travels through the ejector s jet nozzle, whereby the pressure energy of the fluid stream is converted to kinetic energy in the gas jet. The ejector can produce circulation-to-consumption-flow ratios that are relatively high (2-3 times), and this phenomenon can potentially (with proper consideration of the remainder of the fuel cell system s design) be used to provide completely for reactant pre-humidification and product water removal in a fuel cell system. Specifically, a custom pressure regulator has been developed that includes: (1) an ejector reactant circulation pump (with interchangeable jet nozzles and mixer sections, gas-tight sliding and static seals in required locations, and internal fluid porting for pressure-sensing at the regulator's control elements) and (2) internal fluid porting to allow for flow rate and system pressure measurements. The fluid porting also allows for inclusion of purge, relief, and vacuum-breaker check valves on the regulator assembly. In addition, this regulator could also

  3. Information fusion in regularized inversion of tomographic pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohling, G.C.; ,

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate a simple approach to incorporating geophysical information into the analysis of tomographic pumping tests for characterization of the hydraulic conductivity (K) field in an aquifer. A number of authors have suggested a tomographic approach to the analysis of hydraulic tests in aquifers - essentially simultaneous analysis of multiple tests or stresses on the flow system - in order to improve the resolution of the estimated parameter fields. However, even with a large amount of hydraulic data in hand, the inverse problem is still plagued by non-uniqueness and ill-conditioning and the parameter space for the inversion needs to be constrained in some sensible fashion in order to obtain plausible estimates of aquifer properties. For seismic and radar tomography problems, the parameter space is often constrained through the application of regularization terms that impose penalties on deviations of the estimated parameters from a prior or background model, with the tradeoff between data fit and model norm explored through systematic analysis of results for different levels of weighting on the regularization terms. In this study we apply systematic regularized inversion to analysis of tomographic pumping tests in an alluvial aquifer, taking advantage of the steady-shape flow regime exhibited in these tests to expedite the inversion process. In addition, we explore the possibility of incorporating geophysical information into the inversion through a regularization term relating the estimated K distribution to ground penetrating radar velocity and attenuation distributions through a smoothing spline model. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  4. Test Report for Acceptance Test Procedure for Pumping Instrumentation and Control Skid M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOCH, M.R.

    1999-12-13

    This is a Test Report for Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) RPP-5073. This test report provides the results of the inspection and testing of the new Pumping Instrumentation and Control (PIC) skid designed as ''M''. The ATP was successfully completed. A copy of the completed ATP is in the Appendix of this document.

  5. Test Report for Acceptance Test Procedure for Pumping and Instrumentation Control Skid ''K''

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, B R

    1999-01-01

    This is a Test Report for Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) HNF-4276. This test report provides the results of the inspection and testing of the new Pumping and Instrumentation Control (PIC) skid designed as ''K''. The ATP was successfully completed. A copy of the completed ATP is in the Appendix of this document.

  6. Production circulator fabrication and testing for core flow test loop. Final report, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    The performance testing of two production helium circulators utilizing gas film lubrication is described. These two centrifugal-type circulators plus an identical circulator prototype will be arranged in series to provide the helium flow requirements for the Core Flow Test Loop which is part of the Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Program (GCFR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report presents the results of the Phase III performance and supplemental tests, which were carried out by MTI during the period of December 18, 1980 through March 19, 1981. Specific test procedures are outlined and described, as are individual tests for measuring the performance of the circulators. Test data and run descriptions are presented.

  7. Sodium testing of intermediate-size inducer pump in SPTF at ETEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfouts, J.O.

    1979-03-24

    The overall test program includes pump assembly, installation, testing, removal from the test loop, disassembly and final inspection of the entire pump. Testing will include checkout tests, head/flow and efficiency characterizations at selected speeds and sodium temperatures, suction performance determination, a 2000 hour design point endurance test, a 300 hour off design endurance test, and thermal transient tests. The pump will be cleaned of sodium, disassembled, and examined before the 2000 hour endurance test and after the thermal transient tests to determine the effects that long-term operation at 200 percent NPSH margin and off design operation at the same flow and NPSH have on the pump components.

  8. Sodium testing of intermediate-size inducer pump in SPTF at ETEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfouts, J.O.

    1978-08-04

    The overall test program includes pump assembly, installation, testing, removal from the test loop, disassembly and final inspection of the entire pump. Testing will include checkout tests, head/flow and efficiency characterizations at selected speeds and sodium temperatures, suction performance determination, a 2000 hour design point endurance test, a 300 hour off design endurance test, and thermal transient tests. The pump will be cleaned of sodium, disassembled, and examined before the 2000 hour endurance test and after the thermal transient tests to determine the effects that long-term operation at 200 percent NPSH margin and off design operation at the same flow and NPSH have on the pump components.

  9. Design of Pump as Turbine Experimental Test Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zariatin D. L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design process of experimental test facility for pump as turbine hydropower system. Three design possibilities that related to the PAT condition of operation was developed and analyzed by using CFD Software. It is found that the First Variant with a straight flow to the PAT will produce higher velocity, which is needed to generate more rotation of the shaft generator, in order to generate more electric power. The strength of PAT construction was analyzed by using FEM software. It was found that the maximum stress is 6 MPa and can be concluded that the construction is appropriate to the design requirement.

  10. Test System for Node Efficiency of Progressive Cavity Pump Based on Wireless Communication Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tingjun Yan; Haoqiang Ti; Xianmin Wu

    2013-01-01

      In order to acquire the data of the energy consumption and operation efficiency of progressive cavity pump wells, a new test system for node efficiency of progressive cavity pump based on wireless...

  11. On-line PWR RHR pump performance testing following motor and impeller replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiMarzo, J.T.

    1996-12-01

    On-line maintenance and replacement of safety-related pumps requires the performance of an inservice test to determine and confirm the operational readiness of the pumps. In 1995, major maintenance was performed on two Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Residual Heat Removal (RHR) Pumps. A refurbished spare motor was overhauled with a new mechanical seal, new motor bearings and equipped with pump`s `B` impeller. The spare was installed into the `B` train. The motor had never been run in the system before. A pump performance test was developed to verify it`s operational readiness and determine the in-situ pump performance curve. Since the unit was operating, emphasis was placed on conducting a highly accurate pump performance test that would ensure that it satisfied the NSSS vendors accident analysis minimum acceptance curve. The design of the RHR System allowed testing of one train while the other was aligned for normal operation. A test flow path was established from the Refueling Water Storage Tank (RWST) through the pump (under test) and back to the RWST. This allowed staff to conduct a full flow range pump performance test. Each train was analyzed and an expression developed that included an error vector term for the TDH (ft), pressure (psig), and flow rate (gpm) using the variance error vector methodology. This method allowed the engineers to select a test instrumentation system that would yield accurate readings and minimal measurement errors, for data taken in the measurement of TDH (P,Q) versus Pump Flow Rate (Q). Test results for the `B` Train showed performance well in excess of the minimum required. The motor that was originally in the `B` train was similarly overhauled and equipped with `A` pump`s original impeller, re-installed in the `A` train, and tested. Analysis of the `A` train results indicate that the RHR pump`s performance was also well in excess of the vendors requirements.

  12. Fluid circulating pump operated by same incident solar energy which heats energy collection fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    The application of using a spacecraft solar powered pump terrestrially to reduce or eliminate the need for fossil fuel generated electricity for domestic solar hot water systems was investigated. A breadboard prototype model was constructed utilizing bimetals to convert thermal energy into mechanical motion by means of a toggle operated shutter mechanism. Although it did not meet expected thermal efficiency, the prototype model was sufficient to demonstrate the mechanical concept.

  13. Pre-test analysis of protected loss of primary pump transients in CIRCE-HERO facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narcisi, V.; Giannetti, F.; Del Nevo, A.; Tarantino, M.; Caruso, G.

    2017-11-01

    In the frame of LEADER project (Lead-cooled European Advanced Demonstration Reactor), a new configuration of the steam generator for ALFRED (Advanced Lead Fast Reactor European Demonstrator) was proposed. The new concept is a super-heated steam generator, double wall bayonet tube type with leakage monitoring [1]. In order to support the new steam generator concept, in the framework of Horizon 2020 SESAME project (thermal hydraulics Simulations and Experiments for the Safety Assessment of MEtal cooled reactors), the ENEA CIRCE pool facility will be refurbished to host the HERO (Heavy liquid mEtal pRessurized water cOoled tubes) test section to investigate a bundle of seven full scale bayonet tubes in ALFRED-like thermal hydraulics conditions. The aim of this work is to verify thermo-fluid dynamic performance of HERO during the transition from nominal to natural circulation condition. The simulations have been performed with RELAP5-3D© by using the validated geometrical model of the previous CIRCE-ICE test section [2], in which the preceding heat exchanger has been replaced by the new bayonet bundle model. Several calculations have been carried out to identify thermal hydraulics performance in different steady state conditions. The previous calculations represent the starting points of transient tests aimed at investigating the operation in natural circulation. The transient tests consist of the protected loss of primary pump, obtained by reducing feed-water mass flow to simulate the activation of DHR (Decay Heat Removal) system, and of the loss of DHR function in hot conditions, where feed-water mass flow rate is absent. According to simulations, in nominal conditions, HERO bayonet bundle offers excellent thermal hydraulic behavior and, moreover, it allows the operation in natural circulation.

  14. The cryogenic pumping section of KATRIN and the test experiment TRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Eichelhardt, F

    2011-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) employs a Cryogenic Pumping Section (CPS) at ~ 4.5 K to suppress the tritium penetration into the spectrometers. A test experiment (TRAP - Tritium Argon frost Pump) has been set up to investigate the tritium pumping performance of the CPS.

  15. Sodium testing of intermediate-size inducer pump in SPTF at ETEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfouts, J.O.

    1978-08-04

    The overall test program includes pump assembly, installation, testing, removal from the test loop, disassembly and final inspection of the entire pump. Testing will include checkout tests, head/flow and efficiency characterizations at selected speeds and sodium temperatures, suction performance determination, a 2000 hour endurance test, and thermal transient tests. The pump will be cleaned of sodium, disassembled, and examined before the 2000 hour endurance test and after the thermal transient tests to determine the effects that long-term operation at 200 percent NPSH margin has on the pump components. The testing will be done at Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC). Assembly, sodium removal, disassembly, and initial inspection will be performed at Component Handling and Cleaning Facility (CHCF) and sodium testing will be done at Sodium Pump Test Facility (SPTF).

  16. Implementation of Moderator Circulation Test Temperature Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yeong Muk; Hong, Seok Boong; Kim, Min Seok; Choi, Hwa Rim [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Shin [Chungnam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Moderator Circulation Test(MCT) facility is 1/4 scale facility designed to reproduce the important characteristics of moderator circulation in a CANDU6 calandria under a range of operating conditions. MCT is an equipment with 380 acrylic pipes instead of the heater rods and a preliminary measurement of velocity field using PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) is performed under the iso-thermal test conditions. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started implementation of MCT Temperature Measurement System (TMS) using multiple infrared sensors. To control multiple infrared sensors, MCT TMS is implemented using National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW programming language. The MCT TMS is implemented to measure sensor data of multiple infrared sensors using the LabVIEW. The 35 sensor pipes of MCT TMS are divided into 2 ports to meet the minimum measurement time of 0.2 seconds. The software of MCT TMS is designed using collection function and processing function. The MCT TMS has the function of monitoring the states of multiple infrared sensors. The GUI screen of MCT TMS is composed of sensor pipe categories for user.

  17. SNS Cryogenic Test Facility Kinney Vacuum Pump Commissioning and Operation at 2 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraff, B.; Howell, M.; Kim, S.; Neustadt, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has built and commissioned an independent Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) in support of testing in the Radio-frequency Test Facility (RFTF). Superconducting Radio-frequency Cavity (SRF) testing was initially conducted with the CTF cold box at 4.5 K. A Kinney vacuum pump skid consisting of a roots blower with a liquid ring backing pump was recently added to the CTF system to provide testing capabilities at 2 K. System design, pump refurbishment and installation of the Kinney pump will be presented. During the commissioning and initial testing period with the Kinney pump, several barriers to achieve reliable operation were experienced. Details of these lessons learned and improvements to skid operations will be presented. Pump capacity data will also be presented.

  18. System model of a natural circulation integral test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Mark R.

    The Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics (NE/RHP) at Oregon State University (OSU) has been developing an innovative modular reactor plant concept since being initiated with a Department of Energy (DoE) grant in 1999. This concept, the Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR), is an integral pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant that utilizes natural circulation flow in the primary and employs advanced passive safety features. The OSU MASLWR test facility is an electrically heated integral effects facility, scaled from the MASLWR concept design, that has been previously used to assess the feasibility of the concept design safety approach. To assist in evaluating operational scenarios, a simulation tool that models the test facility and is based on both test facility experimental data and analytical methods has been developed. The tool models both the test facility electric core and a simulated nuclear core, allowing evaluation of a broad spectrum of operational scenarios to identify those scenarios that should be explored experimentally using the test facility or design-quality multi-physics tools. Using the simulation tool, the total cost of experimentation and analysis can be reduced by directing time and resources towards the operational scenarios of interest.

  19. Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps. Test and technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2008-12-15

    Heat pumps may be the next step in gas-fired residential space heating. Together with solar energy it is an option to combine natural gas and renewable energy. Heat pumps for residential space heating are likely to be based on the absorption or adsorption process, i.e. sorption heat pumps. Manufacturers claim that the efficiency could reach 140-160%. The annual efficiency will be lower but it is clear that gas-fired heat pumps can involve an efficiency and technology step equal to the transition from non-condensing gas boilers with atmospheric burners to condensing boilers. This report contains a review of the current sorption gas-fired heat pumps for residential space heating and also the visible development trends. A prototype heat pump has been laboratory tested. Field test results from Germany and the Netherlands are also used for a technology evaluation. The tested heat pump unit combines a small heat pump and a supplementary condensing gas boiler. Field tests show an average annual efficiency of 120% for this prototype design. The manufacturer abandoned the tested design during the project period and the current development concentrates on a heat pump design only comprising the heat pump, although larger. The heat pump development at three manufacturers in Germany indicates a commercial stage around 2010-2011. A fairly high electricity consumption compared to traditional condensing boilers was observed in the tested heat pump. Based on current prices for natural gas and electricity the cost savings were estimated to 12% and 27% for heat pumps with 120% and 150% annual efficiency respectively. There is currently no widespread performance testing procedure useful for annual efficiency calculations of gas-fired heat pumps. The situation seems to be clearer for electric compression heat pumps regarding proposed testing and calculation procedures. A German environmental label exists and gasfired sorption heat pumps are also slightly treated in the Eco-design work

  20. Monitoring of aquifer pump tests with Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS): a synthetic case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herckenrath, Daan; Auken, E.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2011-01-01

    calculates the MRS-signal generated by an aquifer pump test. A synthetic MRS-dataset was subsequently used to determine the hydrogeological parameters in an inverse parameter estimation approach. This was done for a virtual pump test with a partially and a fully penetrating well. With the MRS data we were...... able to retrieve the hydrogeological parameters of the aquifer. However, the differences in MRS signal in time were small compared to the electromagnetic noise. This limits the applicability of the MRS technique for pump tests in which a partially penetrating pumping well is used, as the limited...

  1. In-vitro investigation of the hemodynamic responses of the cerebral, coronary and renal circulations with a rotary blood pump installed in the descending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaienia, M A; Paul, G; Avital, E J; Mozafari, S; Rothman, M; Korakianitis, T

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the hemodynamic responses of the cardiovascular system when a rotary blood pump is operating in the descending aorta, with a focus on the cerebral, coronary and renal autoregulation, using our in-house cardiovascular emulator. Several improvements have been made from our previous studies. A novel coronary system was developed to replicate the native coronary perfusion. Three pinch valves actuated by stepper motors were used to simulate the regional autoregulation systems of the native cerebral, coronary and renal circulations. A rotary pump was installed in the descending aorta, in series with the heart, and the hemodynamic responses of the cardiovascular system were investigated with a focus on cerebral, coronary and renal circulation over a wide range of pump rotor speeds. Experiments were performed twice, once with the autoregulation systems active and once with the autoregulation systems inactive, to reflect that there will be some impairment of autoregulatory systems in a patient with heart failure. It was shown that by increasing the rotor speed to 3000 rpm, the cardiac output was improved from 2.9 to 4.1 L/min as a result of an afterload reduction induced by the pressure drop upstream of the pump. The magnitudes of changes in perfusion in the cerebral, coronary and renal circulations were recorded with regional autoregulation systems active and inactive. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Design of cryosorption pumps for TEST BEDS of ITER relevant Neutral Beam Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dremel, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: matthias.dremel@itp.fzk.de; Day, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mack, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jensen, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Speth, E. [IPP CSU-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasma Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Falter, H.D. [IPP CSU-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasma Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Riedl, R. [IPP CSU-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasma Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cordier, J.J. [Association EURATOM-CEA, DSM/Departement Recherche Fusion Controlee, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108, Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Gravil, B. [Association EURATOM-CEA, DSM/Departement Recherche Fusion Controlee, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108, Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Henry, D. [Association EURATOM-CEA, DSM/Departement Recherche Fusion Controlee, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108, Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Zaccaria, P. [CONSORZIO RFX Association EURATOM-ENEA, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)

    2005-11-15

    This paper presents the results of the design investigations and the manufacturing of cryosorption pumps for the Neutral Beam Test Facility 'MANITU' at Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) and the cryopump design analyses performed for the development of a test facility for the first ITER Neutral Beam Injector. The two identical cryopumps for IPP are foreseen to pump a hydrogen-throughput of 3 Pa m{sup 3}/s (H{sub 2}) with a pumping speed of 350 m{sup 3}/s per pump. The pressure conditions must be maintained over 4 h pumping without regeneration of the cryopanels. For the ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility, design calculations to assess heat loads and pumping parameters of the cryopumps will be briefly described.

  3. Experimental test on impeller clocking effect in a multistage centrifugal pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minggao Tan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the effects of clocking effect on performance and vibration intensity of a five-stage centrifugal pump were investigated by experimental tests. The vibration characteristics of five positions in the pump were measured, including axial direction of the pump and horizontal and vertical directions of pump inlet and outlet. There are eight clocking schemes between the impellers in the test, which are arranged by orthogonal experimental design. The test results show that the clocking effect of impellers has little effect on the head and efficiency of the five-stage pump in the whole flow rate. Compared with the results of 0° stagger angle clocking scheme between each impeller, in the whole flow rate, the pulsation of pump head and efficiency is just 1.5% and 1.3%, respectively, under other clocking schemes of impellers. Instead, the impeller clocking has a significant effect on the vibration characteristics of the model pump. The maximum vibration intensity of the five-stage pump locates in the vertical direction of pump inlet within the whole flow rate. Under the best clocking scheme of impellers, the maximum vibration intensity of the pump can decrease by 23.1% and the mean vibration intensity can decrease by 17.3%.

  4. SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR TANK 241-AZ-101 MIXER PUMP PROCESS TEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAMMOND DM; HARRIS JP; MOUETTE P

    1997-06-09

    This document contains the completed safety analysis which establishes the safety envelope for performing the mixer pump process test in Tank 241-AZ-101. This process test is described in TF-210-OTP-001. All equipment necessary for the mixer pump test has been installed by Project W-151. The purpose of this document is to describe and analyze the mixer pump test for Aging Waste Facility (AWF) Tank 241-AZ-101 and to address the 'yes/maybe' responses marked for evaluation questions identified in Unreviewed Safety Question Evaluation (USQE) TF-94-0266. The scope of this document is limited to the performance of the mixer pump test for Tank 241-AZ-101. Unreviewed Safety Question Determination (USQD) TF-96-0018 verified that the installation of two mixer pumps into Tank 241-AZ-101 was within the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Authorization Basis. USQDs TF-96-0461, TF-96-0448, and TF-96-0805 verified that the installation of the in-tank video camera, thermocouples, and Ultrasonic Interface Level Analyzer (URSILLA), respectively, were within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. USQD TF-96-1041 verified that the checkout testing of the installed equipment was within the current TWRS Authorization Basis. Installation of the pumps and equipment has been completed. An evaluation of safety considerations associated with operation of the mixer pumps for the mixer pump test is provided in this document. This document augments the existing AWF authorization basis as defined in the Interim Safety Basis (Stahl 1997), and as such, will use the existing Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) of Heubach 1996 to adequately control the mixer pump test. The hazard and accident analysis is limited to the scope and impact of the mixer pump test, and therefore does not address hazards already addressed by the current AWF authorization basis. This document does not evaluate removal of the mixer pumps. Safety considerations for removal of the pumps will be

  5. Automated analysis of pumping tests; Analise automatizada de testes de bombeamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugahara, Luiz Alberto Nozaki

    1996-01-01

    An automated procedure for analysis of pumping test data performed in groundwater wells is described. A computer software was developed to be used under the Windows operational system. The software allows the choice of 3 mathematical models for representing the aquifer behavior, which are: Confined aquifer (Theis model); Leaky aquifer (Hantush model); unconfined aquifer (Boulton model). The analysis of pumping test data using the proper aquifer model, allows for the determination of the model parameters such as transmissivity, storage coefficient, leakage coefficient and delay index. The computer program can be used for the analysis of data obtained from both pumping tests, with one or more pumping rates, and recovery tests. In the multiple rate case, a de superposition procedure has been implemented in order to obtain the equivalent aquifer response for the first flow rate, which is used in obtaining an initial estimate of the model parameters. Such initial estimate is required in the non-linear regression analysis method. The solutions to the partial differential equations describing the aquifer behavior were obtained in Laplace space, followed by numerical inversion of the transformed solution using the Stehfest algorithm. The data analysis procedure is based on a non-linear regression method by matching the field data to the theoretical response of a selected aquifer model, for a given type of test. A least squared regression analysis method was implemented using either Gauss-Newton or Levenberg-Marquardt procedures for minimization of a objective function. The computer software can also be applied to multiple rate test data in order to determine the non-linear well coefficient, allowing for the computation of the well inflow performance curve. (author)

  6. Low-flow operation and testing of pumps in nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    Low-flow operation of centrifugal pumps introduces hydraulic instability and other factors that can cause damage to these machines. The resulting degradation has been studied and recorded for pumps in electric power plants. The objectives of this paper are to (1) describe the damage-producing phenomena, including their sources and consequences; (2) relate these observations to expectations for damage caused by low-flow operation of pumps in nuclear power plants; and (3) assess the utility of low-flow testing. Hydraulic behavior during low-flow operation is reviewed for a typical centrifugal pump stage, and the damage-producing mechanisms are described. Pump monitoring practices, in conjunction with pump performance characteristics, are considered; experience data are reviewed; and the effectiveness of low-flow surveillance monitoring is examined. Degradation caused by low-flow operation is shown to be an important factor, and low-flow surveillance testing is shown to be inadequate. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Reactor coolant pump testing using motor current signatures analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burstein, N.; Bellamy, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes reactor coolant pump motor testing carried out at Florida Power Corporation`s Crystal River plant using Framatome Technologies` new EMPATH (Electric Motor Performance Analysis and Trending Hardware) system. EMPATH{trademark} uses an improved form of Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA), technology, originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, for detecting deterioration in the rotors of AC induction motors. Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA) is a monitoring tool for motor driven equipment that provides a non-intrusive means for detecting the presence of mechanical and electrical abnormalities in the motor and the driven equipment. The base technology was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a means for determining the affects of aging and service wear specifically on motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plant safety systems, but it is applicable to a broad range of electric machinery. MCSA is based on the recognition that an electric motor (ac or dc) driving a mechanical load acts as an efficient and permanently available transducer by sensing mechanical load variations, large and small, long-term and rapid, and converting them into variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. The motor current variations, resulting from changes in load caused by gears, pulleys, friction, bearings, and other conditions that may change over the life of the motor, are carried by the electrical cables powering the motor and are extracted at any convenient location along the motor lead. These variations modulate the 60 Hz carrier frequency and appear as sidebands in the spectral plot.

  8. PUCA pump and IABP comparison : analysis of hemodynamic and energetic effects using a digital computer model of the circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fresiello, Libera; Gu, Y. John; Ferrari, Gianfranco; Di Molfetta, Arianna; Rakhorst, Gerhard

    The pulsatile catheter pump (PUCA pump) is a left ventricular assist device that provides additional flow to the left ventricle. It is usually run in order to ensure a counterpulsation effect, as in the case of the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP). Because of this similarity, a comparison between

  9. Reduced-scale water test of natural circulation for decay heat removal in loop-type sodium-cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, T., E-mail: murakami@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1646 Abiko, Chiba (Japan); Eguchi, Y., E-mail: eguchi@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1646 Abiko, Chiba (Japan); Oyama, K., E-mail: kazuhiro_oyama@mfbr.mhi.co.jp [Mitsubishi FBR Systems, Inc., 2-34-17 Jinguumae, Shibuya, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, O., E-mail: osamu4_watanabe@mfbr.mhi.co.jp [Mitsubishi FBR Systems, Inc., 2-34-17 Jinguumae, Shibuya, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The natural circulation characteristics of a loop-type SFR are examined by a water test. • The performance of decay heat removal system is evaluated using a similarity law. • The effects of flow deviation in the parallel piping of a primary loop are clarified. • The reproducibility of the natural circulation test is confirmed. - Abstract: Water tests of a loop-type sodium-cooled fast reactor have been conducted to physically evaluate the natural circulation characteristics. The water test apparatus was manufactured as a 1/10-scale mock-up of the Japan Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor, which adopts a decay heat removal system (DHRS) utilizing natural circulation. Tests simulating a variety of events and operation conditions clarified the thermal hydraulic characteristics and core-cooling performance of the natural circulation in the primary loop. Operation conditions such as the duration of the pump flow coast-down and the activation time of the DHRS affect the natural circulation characteristics. A long pump flow coast-down cools the upper plenum of the reactor vessel (RV). This causes the loss of the buoyant force in the RV. The test result indicates that a long pump flow coast-down tends to result in a rapid increase in the core temperature because of the loss of the buoyant force. The delayed activation of the DHRS causes a decrease in the natural circulation flow rate and a temperature rise in the RV. Flow rate deviation and a reverse flow appear in the parallel cold-leg piping in some events, which cause thermal stratification in the cold-leg piping. The DHRS prevents the core temperature from fatally rise even for the most severe design-basis event, in which sodium leakage in a secondary loop of the DHRS and the opening failure of a single damper of the air cooler occur simultaneously. In the water test for the case of siphon break in the primary loop, which is one of the design extension conditions, a circulation flow consisting of ascendant

  10. The Start-up Test of Mechanical Sodium Pump installed in STELLA-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chungho; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Kim, Byeongyeon; Cho, Youngil; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Lee, Yong Bum; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Testing at the high temperature sodium environments is more expensive and time consuming because of difficulties of operating and maintaining of sodium experimental facilities. Consequent upon those problems, water is often selected as a surrogate test fluid because its important hydraulic properties such as a density and a kinematic viscosity are not only very similar to that of the sodium but also it is cheap, easily available and easy to handle. SFR NSSS System Design Division of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is performing a development and demonstration of sodium technology using various sodium experimental facilities, especially STELLA-1. STELLA-1 (Sodium inTegral Effect test Loop for safety simuLation and Assessment) is a large-scale separated effect test facility for demonstrating the thermal-hydraulic performances of major components such as a Sodium-to-Sodium heat exchanger (DHX), Sodium-to-Air heat exchanger (AHX) of the decay heat removal system, and mechanical sodium pump of the primary heat transport system (PHTS). The result of start-up test, most of the instruments and components except for flow control valve are functionally work. Also, we confirmed that performance test of mechanical sodium pump is unable at the high flow rate with lower RPM because pressure drops of pump performance test loop are bigger than the pump head of some cases. To confirm the safety and operability of major components in the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), demonstration of component performance should be carried out before its installation in reactor. So, in order to estimate the hydraulic behavior of the mechanical sodium pump, the performance tests of the model pump with water environment was carried out using a pump vender's experimental facility. Also, to compare the hydraulic characteristic of model pump with water and sodium, the performance test of model pump with sodium environment were performed using STELLA-1. The present paper describes

  11. Proceedings of the symposium on inservice testing of pumps and valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The 1990 Symposium on Inservice Testing of Pumps and Valves, jointly sponsored by the Board on Nuclear Codes and Standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, provided a forum for the discussion of current programs and methods for inservice testing at nuclear power plants. The symposium also provided an opportunity to discuss the need to improve inservice testing in order to ensure the reliable performance of pumps and valves. The participation of industry representatives, regulators, and consultants resulted in the discussion of a broad spectrum of ideas and perspectives regarding the improvement of inservice testing of pumps and valves at nuclear power plants.

  12. What we learn from surveillance testing of standby turbine driven and motor driven pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, B.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes a comparison of the performance information collected by the author and the respective system engineers from five standby turbine driven pumps at four commercial nuclear electric generating units in the United States and from two standby motor driven pumps at two of these generating units. Information was collected from surveillance testing and from Non-Test actuations. Most of the performance information (97%) came from surveillance testing. {open_quotes}Conditional Probabilities{close_quotes} of the pumps ability to respond to a random demand were calculated for each of the seven standby pumps and compared to the historical record of the Non-Test actuations. It appears that the Conditional Probabilities are comparable to the rate of success for Non-Test actuations. The Conditional Probabilities of the standby motor driven pumps (approximately 99%) are better than the Conditional Probabilities of the standby turbine driven pumps (82%-96% range). Recommendations were made to improve the Conditional Probabilities of the standby turbine driven pumps.

  13. Optimization of testing system and experiment research for pump turbine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Li, D.; Wang, H. J.; Zhao, J. L.; Gong, R. Z.; Wei, X. Z.; Qin, D. Q.

    2013-12-01

    The pump turbine is key component of Pump Storage Power Plants. Moreover, the model testing proves significant guidance on design of pump turbine. Since pump turbine model testing is different from turbine model resulting from four quadrant experiment, point acquisition for transient operation conditions and special data processing, the optimization is made for these technological difficulties. In order to obtain a higher efficiency, a higher precision and a high degree of automation, the system of data acquisition is designed, in which the PXI platform was adopted, and the virtual instrument software LabVIEW was employed. And this system was successfully applied for the testing platform of Harbin Institute of Large Electric Machinery which achieves functions of transient conditions acquisition, measurement for positive and negative flow and speed, data processing, generating report, analysis for pressure fluctuation and so on. Finally four quadrant experiment was carried out in this test platform, results show that steady for the experiment operation conditions and repeatability for data which can better reflect the characteristic for "S-shaped" and reverse pump conditions. The system of pump turbine model test is significant for the research of pump turbine and has some guiding significance for the application of engineering.

  14. The Performance Test Procedure for the Mechanical Sodium Pump installed in STELLA-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chungho; Han, Ji-Woong; Kim, Tae-Joon; Hwang, Inkoo; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Lee, Jewhan; Kim, Jong-Man; Cho, Youngil; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Jeong, Ji-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    STELLA-1 (Sodium inTegral Effect test Loop for safety simuLation and Assessment) is a large-scale separate effect test facility for demonstrating the thermal-hydraulic performances of major components such as a Sodium-to-Sodium heat exchanger (DHX), Sodium-to-Air heat exchanger (AHX) of the decay heat removal system, and mechanical sodium pump of the primary heat transport system, which are important to ensure the safety of the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). A mechanical sodium pump, the test component, was scaled down to preserve the major thermal-hydraulic phenomena according to the related similarity criteria using the corresponding prototype pump of the 600 MWe demonstration SFR (DSFR). The vertical submersible prototypic pump had a rated flow rate of 17,415 m{sup 3}/h, a rated pressure head of 62.9 m, and a rated rotational speed of 433 rpm, and the model pump was scaled down while keeping the same specific speed. The model pump had a rated flow rate of 510 m{sup 3}/h, a rated pressure head of 50.3 m, and a rated rotational speed of 2,140 rpm. The present paper describes the performance test procedures for the mechanical sodium pump installed in STELLA-1.

  15. Development, testing, and certification of Calmac Mfg. Corp. solar collector and solar operated pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Development of a rubber tube solar collector and solar operated pump for use with solar heating and cooling systems is discussed. The development hardware, problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and certification statements of performance are included.

  16. Determination of aquifer parameters using geoelectrical sounding and pumping test data in Khanewal District, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter Gulraiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the groundwater resources and potentials of the Khanewal District of Pakistan, a geophysical method in combination with pumping test data were used. An analytical relationship between the aquifer parameters interpreted from surface geoelectrical method and pumping test was established in order to estimate aquifer parameters from surface measurements where no pumping tests exist. For the said purpose, 48 geoelectric investigations were carried out using Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding (VES. Seven of the soundings were conducted where pumping tests had been carried out at borehole sites. The vertical electrical sounding stations were interpreted, and resistivities and thickness parameters were calculated. The values of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity were calculated using the Dar Zarrouk parameter. Transmissivity values obtained from pumping test data and the VES method range between 954 – 4263 m2/day and 200 – 5600 m2/day respectively. Hydraulic conductivity values determined from pumping test data and geoelectrical technique range between 15.9 – 60.9 m/day and 29.76 - 72.3 m/day respectively. The low values of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity indicate clay or shale while high values are due to the presence of sand or gravel. A comparison of the transmissivity values obtained from pumping test data and surface geoelectrical method shows a positive correlation (R2 =0.90. Similarly, the regression between hydraulic conductivity determined from the pumping test data and the geoelectrical method is also positively correlated (R2 =0.96. The results provide a quick and useful estimation of aquifer properties and potentials.

  17. Determination of aquifer parameters using geoelectrical sounding and pumping test data in Khanewal District, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Gulraiz; Hasan, M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the groundwater resources and potentials of the Khanewal District of Pakistan, a geophysical method in combination with pumping test data were used. An analytical relationship between the aquifer parameters interpreted from surface geoelectrical method and pumping test was established in order to estimate aquifer parameters from surface measurements where no pumping tests exist. For the said purpose, 48 geoelectric investigations were carried out using Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding (VES). Seven of the soundings were conducted where pumping tests had been carried out at borehole sites. The vertical electrical sounding stations were interpreted, and resistivities and thickness parameters were calculated. The values of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity were calculated using the Dar Zarrouk parameter. Transmissivity values obtained from pumping test data and the VES method range between 954 - 4263 m2/day and 200 - 5600 m2/day respectively. Hydraulic conductivity values determined from pumping test data and geoelectrical technique range between 15.9 - 60.9 m/day and 29.76 - 72.3 m/day respectively. The low values of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity indicate clay or shale while high values are due to the presence of sand or gravel. A comparison of the transmissivity values obtained from pumping test data and surface geoelectrical method shows a positive correlation (R2 =0.90). Similarly, the regression between hydraulic conductivity determined from the pumping test data and the geoelectrical method is also positively correlated (R2 =0.96). The results provide a quick and useful estimation of aquifer properties and potentials.

  18. Design development and testing of a solar PV pump based drip system for orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, P.C.; Singh, A.K.; Ansari, S.; Vyas, S.K.; Dave, B.K. [Central Arid Zone Research Inst., Jodhpur (India)

    2003-03-01

    A Solar Photovoltaic (PV) pump operated drip irrigation system has been designed and developed for growing orchards in arid region considering different design parameters like pumps size, water requirements, the diurnal variation in the pressure of the pump due to change in irradiance and pressure compensation in the drippers. The system comprising a PV pump with 900 W{sub p} PV array and 800 W dc motor-pump mono-block, microfilter, main and sub-mains and three open-able low-pressure compensating drippers on each plant was field tested. The emission uniformity was observed to be 92-94% with discharge of 3.8 l/h in the pressure range of 70-100 kPa provided by the pump and thus the system could irrigate some 1 ha area within 2 h. Based on the performance of the PV pump and the drip system, it was inferred that about 5 ha area of orchard could be covered. The projected benefit-cost ratio for growing pomegranate orchards with such a system was evaluated to be above 2 even with the costly PV pump and therefore the system was considered to be an appropriate technology for the development of arid region. (Author)

  19. Application of multiple-point geostatistics on modelling pumping tests and tracer tests in heterogeneous environments with complex geological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysmans, Marijke; Dassargues, Alain

    2014-05-01

    In heterogeneous environments with complex geological structures, analysis of pumping and tracer tests is often problematic. Standard interpretation methods do not account for heterogeneity or simulate this heterogeneity introducing empirical zonation of the calibrated parameters or using variogram-based geostatistical techniques that are often not able to describe realistic heterogeneity in complex geological environments where e.g. sedimentary structures, multi-facies deposits, structures with large connectivity or curvi-linear structures can be present. Multiple-point geostatistics aims to overcome the limitations of the variogram and can be applied in different research domains to simulate heterogeneity in complex environments. In this project, multiple-point geostatistics is applied to the interpretation of pumping tests and a tracer test in an actual case of a sandy heterogeneous aquifer. This study allows to deduce the main advantages and disadvantages of this technique compared to variogram-based techniques for interpretation of pumping tests and tracer tests. A pumping test and a tracer test were performed in the same sandbar deposit consisting of cross-bedded units composed of materials with different grain sizes and hydraulic conductivities. The pumping test and the tracer test are analyzed with a local 3D groundwater model in which fine-scale sedimentary heterogeneity is modelled using multiple-point geostatistics. To reduce CPU and RAM requirements of the multiple-point geostatistical simulation steps, edge properties indicating the presence of irregularly-shaped surfaces are directly simulated. Results show that for the pumping test as well as for the tracer test, incorporating heterogeneity results in a better fit between observed and calculated drawdowns/concentrations. The improvement of the fit is however not as large as expected. In this paper, the reasons for these somewhat unsatisfactory results are explored and recommendations for future

  20. Diagnosis of feed water, condensate and circulation pumps in electric power plants; Diagnostico de bombas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Castellanos, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    This article encompasses the analysis and the diagnosis of the pump`s performance that belong to the feed water, condensate and circulation systems of a fossil fuel power plant (FFPP). For this analysis pressure, temperature and flow data were collected by means of field installed instrumentation, as well as these pumps` motors current consumption and voltage values. Later on, the capacity and the pump efficiency are calculated and compared with the design values, to obtain the actual performance of the equipment with the aid of their characteristic curves (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etc.). [Espanol] Este articulo comprende el analisis y el diagnostico de comportamiento de las bombas, las cuales forman parte de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de una central termoelectrica (CT). Para el analisis se recopilan datos de presion, temperatura y flujo de la instrumentacion instalada en campo, asi como de los valores de consumo de corriente y de voltaje en los motores de dichas bombas. Posteriormente, se calcula la capacidad y la eficiencia de las bombas en operacion real y se comparan con los valores de diseno, para obtener el comportamiento real del equipo con ayuda de las curvas caracteristicas (Q vs {Delta}H, Q vs {pi}, etcetera).

  1. Performance test of a laboratory pump liquid transfer based on the fountain effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W. E. W.; Frederking, T. H. K.; Helper, W. A.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory scale pump has been tested in detail in order to determine the flow characteristics of a heater-activated all-metal thermomechanical pump (fountain effect pump, FEP). The emphasis is on the functional dependence of the fountain pressure difference versus mass throughput. A modified Vote et al. (1971) power law approximation is employed for a simplified description of the flow rate as a function of the driving force. Flow rates of up to 10 liters/(hr/sq cm) have been obtained despite a large nominal pore size of the porous plug of 2 microns (filtration rating) used for the FEP.

  2. Rotating and positive-displacement pumps for low-thrust rocket engines. Volume 2: Fabrication and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csomor, A.

    1974-01-01

    Rotating and positive displacement pumps of various types were studied for pumping liquid fluorine for low thrust high performance rocket engines. Included in the analysis were: centrifugal, pitot, Barske, Tesla, drag, gear, vane, axial piston, radial piston, diaphragm and helirotor pump concepts. The centrifugal and gear pumps were carried through detail design and fabrication. After preliminary testing in Freon 12, the centrifugal pump was selected for further testing and development. It was tested in Freon 12 to obtain the hydrodynamic performance. Tests were also conducted in liquid fluorine to demonstrate chemical compatibility.

  3. Pumping test analysis using a layered cylindrical grid numerical model in a complex, heterogeneous chalk aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, M. M.; Hughes, A. G.; Spink, A. E. F.; Riches, J.

    2011-04-01

    SummaryA groundwater investigation including several pumping tests has been carried out by Thames Water Utilities Limited (TWUL) to improve the understanding of the distribution of hydraulic properties of the Chalk in the Swanscombe area of Kent in south-eastern England. The pumping test behaviour is complicated by: the fractured condition of the Chalk, simultaneous pumping from adjacent boreholes, and variable pumping rates during the test. In addition, the groundwater flow system is complicated by quarrying of the Chalk. Analytical solutions for pumping test analysis fail to represent these complex flow processes and cannot reproduce the observed time-drawdown curves. A layered cylindrical grid numerical model has been applied to the results of the Swanscombe pumping test. This model can represent the heterogeneity of the aquifer and the detailed flow processes close to the abstraction borehole such as well storage, seepage face and well losses. It also includes a numerical representation of the moving water-table using a grid that deforms to eliminate numerical instabilities. The analyses of the test results demonstrate that they are significantly influenced by fracture flow, which needs to be included to improve the simulation of the groundwater system; not withstanding this, the layered cylindrical grid numerical model reproduced many of the features in observed time-drawdown, which allowed an assessment of the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer as well as the investigation of the impact of quarries on the test results. This has demonstrated that the numerical model is a powerful tool that can be used to analyse complex pumping tests and aid to improvement of the conceptual understanding of a groundwater system.

  4. Testing the process of steam pumping by thermohydrnDynamic methods in the Starogroznensk field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, V.A.; Kuz' michev, N.D.

    1984-01-01

    Factual data from measurements of the temperature and static levels are presented. An analysis is performed of the data from thermohydrodynamic investigations in pumping (N) wells for identifying the ranges of absorption of the heat carrier and their technical condition. A conclusion is drawn on the basis of the conducted investigations about the potentials of thermohydrodynamic studies for testing the process of steam pumping; is is demonstrated that they may ensure the required control of the processes.

  5. Engineering, Manufacture and Preliminary Testing of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rista, P. E. C.; Shull, J.; Sargent, S.

    2015-12-01

    The ITER cryodistribution system provides the supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling to the magnet system using cold circulators. The cold circulators are located in each of five separate auxiliary cold boxes planned for use in the facility. Barber-Nichols Inc. has been awarded a contract from ITER-India for engineering, manufacture and testing of the Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator. The cold circulator will be extensively tested at Barber-Nichols’ facility prior to delivery for qualification testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) test facility at Naka, Japan. The TF Cold Circulator integrates features and technical requirements which Barber-Nichols has utilized when supplying helium cold circulators worldwide over a period of 35 years. Features include a vacuum-jacketed hermetically sealed design with a very low helium leak rate, a heat shield for use with both nitrogen & helium cold sources, a broad operating range with a guaranteed isentropic efficiency over 70%, and impeller design features for high efficiency. The cold circulator will be designed to meet MTBM of 17,500 hours and MTBF of 36,000 hours. Vibration and speed monitoring are integrated into a compact package on the rotating assembly with operation and health monitoring in a multi-drop PROFIBUS communication environment using an electrical cabinet with critical features and full local and network PLC interface and control. For the testing in Japan and eventual installation in Europe, the cold circulator must be certified to the Japanese High Pressure Gas Safety Act (JHPGSA) and CE marked in compliance with the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) including Essential Safety Requirements (ESR). The test methodology utilized at Barber-Nichols’ facility and the resulting test data, validating the high efficiency of the TF Cold Circulator across a broad operating range, are important features of this paper.

  6. PUCA pump and IABP comparison: analysis of hemodynamic and energetic effects using a digital computer model of the circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresiello, Libera; Gu, Y John; Ferrari, Gianfranco; Di Molfetta, Arianna; Rakhorst, Gerhard

    2011-05-01

    The pulsatile catheter pump (PUCA pump) is a left ventricular assist device that provides additional flow to the left ventricle. It is usually run in order to ensure a counterpulsation effect, as in the case of the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP). Because of this similarity, a comparison between the PUCA pump and the IABP was conducted from both the hemodynamic and energetic points of view. Numerical models of the two devices were created and connected to the CARDIOSIM cardiovascular simulator. The PUCA and IABP models were then verified using in vivo experimental data and literature data, respectively. Numerical experiments were conducted for different values of left ventricular end systolic elastance (Els) and systemic arterial compliance (Csa). The energetic comparison was conducted taking into account the diastolic pressure time index and the endocardial viability ratio. Hemodynamic results expressed as cardiac output (CO) and mean coronary blood flow (CBF) show that both the IABP and the PUCA pump efficacy decrease with higher values of Els and Csa. The IABP especially shows higher sensitivity to these parameters, to the extent that in some cases CO actually drops and CBF does not increase. On the other hand, for lower values of Csa, IABP performance improves so much that the PUCA pump flow needs to be increased in order to ensure a hemodynamic effect comparable to that of the IABP. Energetic results show a trend similar to the hemodynamic ones. The study will be continued by investigating other energetic variables and the autonomic response of the cardiovascular system.

  7. Model test research on effect of flow accelerating-board in a pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuan; Li, TongChun; Liu, XiaoQing; Guo, Yun; Zhou, MinZhe

    2017-09-01

    Generally, the sedimentation in the forebay of pumping station may result in bad flow patterns, which will decrease efficiency of pump device and cause the vibration of pump house and units, or other safety problems. To research the improvement of this impact in an actual project, a physical model test was established for the original scheme of one pumping station. One part of results show that the flow velocity in the channel of regulating-pool is low under the high-water level condition, and it's easy to cause the sedimentation in the regulating-pool. According to this problem, we propose a flow accelerating-board scheme for the regulating-pool. The final results show that this scheme could effectively increase the flow velocity at the bottom and reduce the sedimentation in the regulating-pool. Although the hydraulic loss of regulating-pool increased, it could be able to satisfy the design requirements.

  8. Experimental testing of centrifugal pump: small and medium sized enterprise product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Paddiyatu, F.; Khafidh, M.; Nugroho, S.; Sugiyanto, S.; Jamari, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental testing for centrifugal pump for fisherman ship, manufactured by small and medium sized enterprises in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research covers material analysis, component observation, endurance and vibration test. Six centrifugal pumps are tested and three main pump components are discussed: shaft, bearings and seals. The results show that the material of the shaft is predicted to support and transmit the load from the engine to impeller. The problem found in the tolerance and geometry accuracy of the shaft which causes difficulties during assembling process, excessive wear and leakage during testing. From the endurance and vibration test, the ball bearings fail and lock the shaft due to the fatigue on the rolling elements and raceways. The oil seal and water seal also fail in maintaining the oil and water in the chamber and induce the unlubricated system for the ball bearings. Some suggestions are delivered to improve the product quality of the centrifugal pump. A good quality of the centrifugal pump for fishermen ship and long life span is expected to be produced by local SMEs to win the free trade competition in the Indonesian market.

  9. Test results of a combined distributed ion pump/non-evaporable getter pump design developed as a proposed alternative pumping system for the PEP-II asymmetric B-Factory collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdener, F.; Behne, D.; Hathaway, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-24

    The authors have built and tested an all-in-one combination plate-type distributed ion pump/non-evaporable getter pump design (DIP/NEG) considered as a proposed alternative pumping system for the PEP-II B-Factory High Energy Ring (HER). The DIP portion of the design used a Penning cell hole size of 12 mm in a mostly uniform magnetic field of 0.18 T. The NEG portion of the design used commercially available non-evaporable getter material type St-707{trademark}. A detailed description of the design is presented along with results of pumping speed measurements.

  10. Application of drag-reducing polymer solutions as test fluids for in vitro evaluation of potential blood damage in blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda R; Sobajima, Hideo; Olia, Salim E; Takatani, Setsuo; Kameneva, Marina V

    2010-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of the potential of a circulatory-assist device to damage blood cells has generally been performed using blood from various species. Problems with this approach include the variability of blood sensitivity to mechanical stress in different species, preparation of blood including the adjustment of hematocrit to a standard value, changes in the mechanical properties of blood that occur during storage, and necessity to pool blood samples to obtain an adequate amount of blood for in vitro circulating systems. We investigated whether the mechanical degradation of a drag-reducing polymer (DRP) solution resulting in the loss of drag-reducing ability can indicate the degree of shear-induced blood damage within blood pumps. DRP solution (polyethylene oxide, 4,500 kDa, 1,000 ppm) or porcine blood were driven through a turbulent flow system by a centrifugal pump, either the Bio-Pump BPX-80 (Medtronic, Inc.) or CentriMag (Levitronix LLC) at a constant pressure gradient of 300 mm Hg for 120 minutes. DRP mechanical degradation was evaluated by reduction of flow rate and solution viscosity. A proposed index of DRP mechanical degradation (PDI) is similar to the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) typically used to quantify the results of in vitro testing of blood pumps. Results indicate that the mechanical degradation of DRP solutions may provide a sensitive standard method for the evaluation of potential blood trauma produced by blood pumps without the use of blood.

  11. Scale Effect Features During Simulation Tests of 3D Printer-Made Vane Pump Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article "Scale effect features during simulation tests of 3D printer-made vane pump models" discusses the influence of scale effect on translation of pump parameters from models, made with 3D-prototyping methods, to full-scale pumps. Widely spread now 3D-printer production of pump model parts or entire layouts can be considered to be the main direction of vane pumps modeling. This is due to the widespread development of pumps in different CAD-systems and the significant cost reduction in manufacturing such layouts, as compared to casting and other traditional methods.The phenomenon of scale effect in vane hydraulic machines, i.e. violation of similarity conditions when translating pump parameters from model to full-scale pumps is studied in detail in the theory of similarity. However, as the experience in the 3d-printer manufacturing of models and their testing gains it becomes clear that accounting large-scale effect for such models has a number of differences from the conventional techniques. The reason for this is the features of micro and macro geometry of parts made in different kinds of 3D-printers (extrusive, and powder sintering methods, ultraviolet light, etc..The article considers the converting features of external and internal mechanical losses, leakages, and hydraulic losses, as well as the specifics of the balance tests for such models. It also presents the basic conversion formulas describing the factors affecting the value of these losses. It shows photographs of part surfaces of models, manufactured by 3D-printer and subjected to subsequent machining. The paper shows results of translation from several pump models (layouts to the full-scale ones, using the techniques described, and it also shows that the error in translation efficiency does not exceed 1.15%. The conclusion emphasizes the importance of the balance tests of models to accumulate statistical data on the scale effect for pump layouts made by different 3D

  12. Lethbridge wind research test site evaluation of wind and solar pumping systems, 1985 - 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, B.A. (Land Evaluation and Reclamation Branch, Alberta Agriculture, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)); Baker, D.R. (DRB Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)); Jensen, N.E. (Jensen Engineerging Ltd., Olds, AB (Canada))

    1988-01-01

    The performance of wind pumping systems has been evaluated over the past 3 years at a field test facility in Alberta. A total of eight wind turbines (6 mechanical and 2 electromechanical) and 2 photovoltaic-powered pumpers were tested. Data are presented on each machine's availability and reliability. Performance curves (pumping rate versus wind speed) are included. The data format is based on the International Enegry Agency's wind performance testing standard, so that extrapolation of the information world-wide is possible. The test procedures and the data acquisition and monitoring systems are also described. In addition, the applications and markets for wind pumps, notably in agriculture (land drainage, irrigation, livestock watering), are discussed. The results of the testing have been encouraging. Long-term reliability is a key factor which needs improvement, and which has been seen to be of much greater importance than overall performance numbers or improvements. The availability of water pumping systems tested at the site ranges from a low of 24% to a high of 100%. The test program has shown that full measurement of the overall availability and reliability of a machine requires that it be monitored at least 2-3 years. Most of the machines at the site have not met this requirement because of continuous changes and upgrading by the manufacturers, who are responsible for installation and maintenance of the wind turbine units. The exceptions to this are the 2 solar pumping systems, which have performed very reliably over the last 3 years, with very low maintenance requirements. Their disadvantage at present is a higher capital cost per unit of water pumped compared with the wind turbines. 43 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Water Flow Testing and Unsteady Pressure Analysis of a Two-Bladed Liquid Oxidizer Pump Inducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jordan B.; Mulder, Andrew; Zoladz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The unsteady fluid dynamic performance of a cavitating two-bladed oxidizer turbopump inducer was characterized through sub-scale water flow testing. While testing a novel inlet duct design that included a cavitation suppression groove, unusual high-frequency pressure oscillations were observed. With potential implications for inducer blade loads, these high-frequency components were analyzed extensively in order to understand their origins and impacts to blade loading. Water flow testing provides a technique to determine pump performance without the costs and hazards associated with handling cryogenic propellants. Water has a similar density and Reynolds number to liquid oxygen. In a 70%-scale water flow test, the inducer-only pump performance was evaluated. Over a range of flow rates, the pump inlet pressure was gradually reduced, causing the flow to cavitate near the pump inducer. A nominal, smooth inducer inlet was tested, followed by an inlet duct with a circumferential groove designed to suppress cavitation. A subsequent 52%-scale water flow test in another facility evaluated the combined inducer-impeller pump performance. With the nominal inlet design, the inducer showed traditional cavitation and surge characteristics. Significant bearing loads were created by large side loads on the inducer during synchronous cavitation. The grooved inlet successfully mitigated these loads by greatly reducing synchronous cavitation, however high-frequency pressure oscillations were observed over a range of frequencies. Analytical signal processing techniques showed these oscillations to be created by a rotating, multi-celled train of pressure pulses, and subsequent CFD analysis suggested that such pulses could be created by the interaction of rotating inducer blades with fluid trapped in a cavitation suppression groove. Despite their relatively low amplitude, these high-frequency pressure oscillations posed a design concern due to their sensitivity to flow conditions and

  14. Operational test for photovoltaic pumping systems; Procedimento para averiguacao operacional de sistemas fotovoltaicos de bombeamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedrizzi, Maria Cristina; Brito, Alaan Ubaiara; Zilles, Roberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Lab. de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos], e-mail: fedrizzi@iee.usp.br, e-mail: alaan@iee.usp.br, e-mail: zilles@iee.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents an operational test for photovoltaic pumping systems daily production, m{sup 3}/dia. The procedure does not involve expensive instrumentation and is easy to be applied in the field as acceptance and qualification tools. In this way, the paper presents the boundary conditions for operational test accomplishment that allows its application. (author)

  15. Test results for the Oasis 3C high performance water-pumping windmill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleston, D.M. [DME Engineering, Midland, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The WINDTech International, L.L.C. Oasis 3C, a 3 m diameter, high-performance water-pumping windmill, was tested at the DME Engineering Wind Test Site just south of Midland, Texas from August through December, 1996. This machine utilizes a 3:1 gearbox with rotating counterweights, similar to a conventional oilfield pumping unit, driven by a multibladed rotor. The rotating counterweight system balances most of the pumping loads and reduces gear loads and starting torque by a factor of at least two and often by a factor of four or more. The torque reduction substantially extends gear and bearing life, and reduces wind speeds required for starting by 30 to 50% or more. The O3C was tested pumping from a quiescent fluid depth of 12.2 m (40 ft) from a 28.3 m (93 ft)-deep well, with additional pumping depth simulated using a pressure regulator valve system. A 9.53 cm (3.75 in.) diameter Harbison-Fischer seal-less single-acting piston pump was used to eliminate pump seal friction as a variable, and standard O3C stroke lengths of 30.5 and 15.2 cm (12 and 6 inches) were used. The regulator spring was set to give a maximum stroke rate of 33 strokes per minute. The water pumped was returned to the well after flowing through a settling tank. The tests were performed in accordance with AWEA WECS testing standards. Instrumentation provided 16 channels of data to accurately measure machine performance, including starting wind speeds, flow rates, O3C azimuth, tail furl angle, wind direction tracking errors, RPM, sucker rod loads, and other variables. The most significant performance data is summarized herein. A mathematical model of machine performance was developed that fairly accurately predicts performance for each of three test conditions. The results verify that the O3C is capable of pumping water at wind speeds from 30% to more than 50% lower than comparable un-counterbalanced units.

  16. Circulating antigen tests and urine reagent strips for diagnosis of active schistosomiasis in endemic areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochodo, Eleanor A; Gopalakrishna, Gowri; Spek, Bea; Reitsma, Johannes B; van Lieshout, Lisette; Polman, Katja; Lamberton, Poppy; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Leeflang, Mariska M G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Point-of-care (POC) tests for diagnosing schistosomiasis include tests based on circulating antigen detection and urine reagent strip tests. If they had sufficient diagnostic accuracy they could replace conventional microscopy as they provide a quicker answer and are easier to use.

  17. Conditioning geostatistical simulations of a heterogeneous paleo-fluvial bedrock aquifer using lithologs and pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, A.; Bentley, L. R.; Hayashi, M.

    2016-12-01

    Geostatistical simulations are used to construct heterogeneous aquifer models. Optimally, such simulations should be conditioned with both lithologic and hydraulic data. We introduce an approach to condition lithologic geostatistical simulations of a paleo-fluvial bedrock aquifer consisting of relatively high permeable sandstone channels embedded in relatively low permeable mudstone using hydraulic data. The hydraulic data consist of two-hour single well pumping tests extracted from the public water well database for a 250-km2 watershed in Alberta, Canada. First, lithologic models of the entire watershed are simulated and conditioned with hard lithological data using transition probability - Markov chain geostatistics (TPROGS). Then, a segment of the simulation around a pumping well is used to populate a flow model (FEFLOW) with either sand or mudstone. The values of the hydraulic conductivity and specific storage of sand and mudstone are then adjusted to minimize the difference between simulated and actual pumping test data using the parameter estimation program PEST. If the simulated pumping test data do not adequately match the measured data, the lithologic model is updated by locally deforming the lithology distribution using the probability perturbation method and the model parameters are again updated with PEST. This procedure is repeated until the simulated and measured data agree within a pre-determined tolerance. The procedure is repeated for each well that has pumping test data. The method creates a local groundwater model that honors both the lithologic model and pumping test data and provides estimates of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Eventually, the simulations will be integrated into a watershed-scale groundwater model.

  18. Testing of an Annular Linear Induction Pump for the Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Webster, K.; Godfoy, T. J.; Bossard, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump that has been designed for integration into a fission surface power technology demonstration unit are presented. The pump electromagnetically pushes liquid metal (NaK) through a specially-designed apparatus that permits quantification of pump performance over a range of operating conditions. Testing was conducted for frequencies of 40, 55, and 70 Hz, liquid metal temperatures of 125, 325, and 525 C, and input voltages from 30 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.3 to 3.1 L/s (4.8 to 49 gpm), and pressure heads of three-phase power at 40 and 55 Hz using a variable-frequency motor drive, while power at 55 and 70 Hz was supplied using a variable-frequency power supply. Measured performance of the pump at 55 Hz using either supply exhibited good quantitative agreement. For a given temperature, the peak in efficiency occurred at different flow rates as the frequency was changed, but the maximum value of efficiency was relative insensitive within 0.3% over the frequency range tested, including a scan from 45 to 78 Hz. The objectives of the FSP technology project are as follows:5 • Develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options. • Establish a nonnuclear hardware-based technical foundation for FSP design concepts to reduce overall development risk. • Reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates. • Generate the key nonnuclear products to allow Agency decision makers to consider FSP as a viable option for potential future flight development. The pump must be compatible with the liquid NaK coolant and have adequate performance to enable a viable flight system. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was tasked with the design and fabrication of an ALIP suitable for the FSP reference mission. Under the program, a quarter-scale FSP technology

  19. A Simple Data Analysis Method for a Pumping Test with Skin and Wellbore Storage Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Shyun Chen Chuan-Gui Lan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a pumping test conducted in a con fined aquifer in northern Taiwan, drawdown in the observation well was subject to wellbore storage of its own and the combined effect of wellbore storage and skin of the nearby pumping well. For such a complicated pumping test condition, the appropriate well hydraulics solutions are complicated in mathematics and involve five unknown a priori parameters; namely, the aquifer transmissivity, the aquifer storage coefficient, the skin factor of the pumping well, and the wellbore storage co efficients of the pumping and observation wells. The conventional trial-and-er ror procedure for a simul taneous determination of these five parameters is not easy to apply. Here, a simple data analysis method is de veloped, which takes advantage of the late-time characteristics of drawdown data and the late-time asymptotic behavior of the appropriate wellhy draulics solutions. As a re sult, some currently available graphic techniques are proven us ful for the determination of these parameters. Validity of this approach is verified by the excellent agree ment between the calculated drawdown using the appropriate well hydraulics solutions with the parameter estimates obtained from the field drawdown data.

  20. Conditioning geostatistical simulations of a bedrock fluvial aquifer using single well pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, A.; Bentley, L. R.; Hayashi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Geostatistical simulation is a powerful tool to explore the uncertainty associated with heterogeneity in groundwater and reservoir studies. Nonetheless, conditioning simulations merely with lithological information does not utilize all of the available information and so some workers additionally condition simulations with flow data. In this study, we introduce an approach to condition geostatistical simulations of the Paskapoo Formation, which is a paleo-fluvial system consisting of sandstone channels embedded in mudstone. The conditioning data consist of two-hour single well pumping tests extracted from the public water well database in Alberta, Canada. In this approach, lithologic models of an entire watershed are simulated and conditioned with hard lithological data using transition probability geostatistics (TPROGS). Then, a segment of the simulation around a pumping well was used to populate a flow model (FEFLOW) with either sand or mudstone. The values of the hydraulic conductivity and specific storage of sand and mudstone were then adjusted to minimize the difference between simulated and actual pumping test data using the parameter estimation program PEST. If the simulated data do not adequately match the measured data, the lithologic model is updated by locally deforming the lithology distribution using the probability perturbation method (PPM) and the model parameters are again updated with PEST. This procedure is repeated until the simulated and measured data agree within a pre-determined tolerance. The procedure is repeated for each pumping well that has pumping test data. The method constrains the lithological simulations and provides estimates of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage that are consistent with the pumping test data. Eventually, the simulations will be combined in watershed scale groundwater models.

  1. Fire Pumps: Time to Change NFPA 25 Weekly Churn Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, John F.; Davis, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    APPA, through its Code Advocacy Task Force (CATF), is active with code organizations such as the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). This article reviews some of the recent work on NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, by the CATF and some members of the NFPA 25 Technical…

  2. Pumping tests in networks of multilevel sampling wells: Motivation and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J.J.; McElwee, C.D.; Bohling, G.C.

    1999-01-01

    The identification of spatial variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) on a scale of relevance for transport investigations has proven to be a considerable challenge. Recently, a new field method for the estimation of interwell variations in K has been proposed. This method, hydraulic tomography, essentially consists of a series of short-term pumping tests performed in a tomographic-like arrangement. In order to fully realize the potential of this approach, information about lateral and vertical variations in pumping-induced head changes (drawdown) is required with detail that has previously been unobtainable in the field. Pumping tests performed in networks of multilevel sampling (MLS) wells can provide data of the needed density if drawdown can accurately and rapidly be measured in the small-diameter tubing used in such wells. Field and laboratory experiments show that accurate transient drawdown data can be obtained in the small-diameter MLS tubing either directly with miniature fiber-optic pressure sensors or indirectly using air-pressure transducers. As with data from many types of hydraulic tests, the quality of drawdown measurements from MLS tubing is quite dependent on the effectiveness of well development activities. Since MLS ports of the standard design are prone to clogging and are difficult to develop, alternate designs are necessary to ensure accurate drawdown measurements. Initial field experiments indicate that drawdown measurements obtained from pumping tests performed in MLS networks have considerable potential for providing valuable information about spatial variations in hydraulic conductivity.

  3. A practical approach for implementing risk-based inservice testing of pumps at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, R.S. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maret, D.; Seniuk, P.; Smith, L.

    1996-12-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development`s (CRTD) Research Task Force on Risk-Based Inservice Testing has developed guidelines for risk-based inservice testing (IST) of pumps and valves. These guidelines are intended to help the ASME Operation and Maintenance (OM) Committee to enhance plant safety while focussing appropriate testing resources on critical components. This paper describes a practical approach for implementing those guidelines for pumps at nuclear power plants. The approach, as described in this paper, relies on input, direction, and assistance from several entities such as the ASME Code Committees, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the National Laboratories, as well as industry groups and personnel with applicable expertise. Key parts of the risk-based IST process that are addressed here include: identification of important failure modes, identification of significant failure causes, assessing the effectiveness of testing and maintenance activities, development of alternative testing and maintenance strategies, and assessing the effectiveness of alternative testing strategies with present ASME Code requirements. Finally, the paper suggests a method of implementing this process into the ASME OM Code for pump testing.

  4. Review of Test Procedure for Determining HSPFs of Residential Variable-Speed Heat Pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report reviews the suitability of the existing Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) ratings and testing requirements for the current generation of variable-speed (VS) air-source heat pumps. Recent field test results indicate larger discrepancies between rated HSPF and field-observed HSPF for VS models than for single-speed models in the same houses. These findings suggest that the heating season test and ratings procedure should be revisited for VS heat pumps. The ratings and testing procedures are described in ANSI/AHRI 210/240 (2008) for single-speed, two-capacity, and variable-speed units. Analysis of manufacturer and independent test performance data on VS units reveals why the current VS testing/ratings procedure results in overly optimistic HSPF ratings for some VS units relative to other types of heat pumps. This is due to a combination of extrapolation of low speed test data beyond the originally anticipated ambient temperature operating range and the constraints of unit controls, which prevent low speed operation over the range of ambient temperatures assumed in the procedure for low speed. As a result, the HSPFs of such units are being overpredicted relative to those for single- and two-capacity designs. This overprediction has been found to be significantly reduced by use in the HSPF ratings procedure of an alternative higher-load heating load line, described in a companion report (Rice et al., 2015).

  5. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIi of... - Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL.... IIII, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump...

  6. ROTARY FUEL INJECTION PUMP WEAR TESTING USING A 30 %/ 70% ATJ/F-24 FUEL BLEND

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-30

    moderate wear. 4. The additional 5% ATJ in the test blend may have improved injection pump wear resistance due to a slight viscosity improvement...Reaction D1094 Volume Change of Aqueous Layer mL 1.0 1.0 Interface Condition rating 1B 1B Separation -- 2 2 MSEP D3948 rating 62 67 Fuel... changed at 250-hour intervals. The laboratory scale wear performed on the test fuels was the Ball on Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator procedure

  7. Use of a downhole mud motor as a pump for drillstem testing. [Navi-Drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, J.S.

    1982-04-01

    To drillstem test wells that do not flow to the surface, use has been made of the Christensen Inc. Navi-Drill, a downhole mud motor used for directional drilling, modified to act as a pump and run by the drilling rig. This method was used first on an exploration well in south Oman to produce oil from a zone that had shown only water in a conventional drillstem test.

  8. Finalize field testing of cold climate heat pump (CCHP) based on tandem vapor injection compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the system diagram and control algorithm of a prototype air-source cold climate heat pump (CCHP) using tandem vapor injection (VI) compressors. The prototype was installed in Fairbanks, Alaska and underwent field testing starting in 09/2016. The field testing results of the past six months, including compressor run time fractions, measured COPs and heating capacities, etc., are presented as a function of the ambient temperature. Two lessons learned are also reported.

  9. Existing and Past Methods of Test and Rating Standards Related to Integrated Heat Pump Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, Wayne R. [Sentech, Inc.

    2010-07-01

    This report evaluates existing and past US methods of test and rating standards related to electrically operated air, water, and ground source air conditioners and heat pumps, 65,000 Btu/hr and under in capacity, that potentiality incorporate a potable water heating function. Two AHRI (formerly ARI) standards and three DOE waivers were identified as directly related. Six other AHRI standards related to the test and rating of base units were identified as of interest, as they would form the basis of any new comprehensive test procedure. Numerous other AHRI and ASHRAE component test standards were also identified as perhaps being of help in developing a comprehensive test procedure.

  10. Research on the performance of low-lift diving tubular pumping system by CFD and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chenzhi; Cheng, Li; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Jiren; Tang, Fangping; Jin, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Post-diving tubular pump is always used in large-discharge & low-head irrigation or storm drainage pumping station, its impeller and motor share the same shaft. Considering diving tubular pump system's excellent hydraulic performance, compact structure, good noise resistance and low operating cost, it is used in Chinese pump stations. To study the hydraulic performance and pressure fluctuation of inlet and outlet passage in diving tubular pump system, both of steady and unsteady full flow fields are numerically simulated at three flow rate conditions by using CFD commercial software. The asymmetry of the longitudinal structure of inlet passage affects the flow pattern on outlet. Especially at small flow rate condition, structural asymmetry will result in the uneven velocity distribution on the outlet of passage inlet. The axial velocity distribution uniformity increases as the flow rate increases on the inlet of passage inlet, and there is a positive correlation between hydraulic loss in the passage inlet and flow rate's quadratic. The axial velocity distribution uniformity on the outlet of passage inlet is 90% at design flow rate condition. The predicted result shows the same trend with test result, and the range of high efficiency area between predicted result and test result is almost identical. The dominant frequency of pressure pulsation is low frequency in inlet passage at design condition. The dominant frequency is high frequency in inlet passage at small and large flow rate condition. At large flow rate condition, the flow pattern is significantly affected by the rotation of impeller in inlet passage. At off-design condition, the pressure pulsation is strong at outlet passage. At design condition, the dominant frequency is 35.57Hz, which is double rotation frequency.

  11. Design, Development and Testing of a Drillable Straddle Packer for Lost Circulation Control in Geothermal Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon, J.; Glowka, D.A.; Gronewald, P.; Knudsen, S.D.; Raymond, D.W.; Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wise, J.L.; Wright, E.K.

    1999-04-01

    Lost Circulation is a widespread problem encountered when drilling geothermal wells, and often represents a substantial portion of the cost of drilling a well. The U.S. Department of Energy sponsors research and development work at Sandia National Laboratories in an effort to reduce these lost circulation expenditures. Sandia has developed a down hole tool that improves the effectiveness and reduces th cost of lost circulation cement treatment while drilling geothermal wells. This tool, the Drillable Straddle Packer, is a low-cost disposable device that is used to isolate the loss zone and emplace the cement treatment directly into the region of concern. This report documents the design and development of the Drillabe Straddle Packer, the laboratory and field test results, and the design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

  12. Aquifer pumping test report for the burn site groundwater area of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelly, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ferry, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Aquifer Pumping Test Report for the Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern is being submitted by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration to describe the results of the aquifer pumping test program and related field activities that were completed at the BSG Area of Concern. This report summarizes the results of the field work and data analyses, and is being submitted to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous Waste Bureau, as required by the April 14, 2016 letter, Summary of Agreements and Proposed Milestones Pursuant to the Meeting of July 20, 2015, (NMED April 2016).

  13. Design, development and test of a capillary pump loop heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroliczek, E. J.; Ku, J.; Ollendorf, S.

    1984-06-01

    The development of a capillary pump loop (CPL) heat pipe, including computer modeling and breadboard testing, is presented. The computer model is a SINDA-type thermal analyzer, combined with a pressure analyzer, which predicts the transients of the CPL heat pipe during operation. The breadboard is an aluminum/ammonia transport system which contains multiple parallel evaporator and condenser zones within a single loop. Test results have demonstrated the practicality and reliability of such a design, including heat load sharing among evaporators, liquid inventory/temperature control feature, and priming under load. Transport capability for this system is 65 KW-M with individual evaporator pumps managing up to 1.7 KW at a heat flux of 15 W/sq cm. The prediction of the computer model for heat transport capabilities is in good agreement with experimental results.

  14. A compact cryogenic pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gang; Caldwell, Shane; Clark, Jason A.; Gulick, Sidney; Hecht, Adam; Lascar, Daniel D.; Levand, Tony; Morgan, Graeme; Orford, Rodney; Savard, Guy; Sharma, Kumar S.; Van Schelt, Jonathon

    2016-04-01

    A centrifugal cryogenic pump has been designed at Argonne National Laboratory to circulate liquid nitrogen (LN2) in a closed circuit allowing the recovery of excess fluid. The pump can circulate LN2 at rates of 2-10 L/min, into a head of 0.5-3 m. Over four years of laboratory use the pump has proven capable of operating continuously for 50-100 days without maintenance.

  15. Operational Test Report (OTR) for U-102 Pumping and Instrumentation and Control (PIC) Skid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOCH, M.R.

    2000-02-28

    Attached is the completed Operation Test Procedure (OTP-200-004, Rev. A-19 and Rev. A-20). OTP includes a print out of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Ladder Diagram. Ladder Diagram was designed for installation in the PLC used to monitor and control pumping activity for Tank Farm 241-U-102. The completed OTP and OTR are referenced in the IS PIC Skid Configuration Drawing (H-2-829998).

  16. Operational Test Report (OTR) for U-103 Pumping and Instrumentation and Control (PIC) Skid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOCH, M.R.

    2000-02-28

    Attached is the completed Operation Test Procedure (OTP-200-004, Rev. A-16). OTP includes a print out of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Ladder Diagram. Ladder Diagram was designed for installation in the PLC used to monitor and control pumping activity for Tank Farm 241-U-103. The completed OTP and OTR are referenced in the 25 PIC Skid Configuration Drawing (H-2-829998).

  17. Operational Test Report (OTR) for U-105 Pumping and Instrumentation and Control (PIC) Skid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOCH, M.R.

    2000-02-28

    Attached is the completed Operation Test Procedure (OTP-200-004, Rev. A-18). OTP includes a print out of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Ladder Diagram. Ladder Diagram was designed for installation in the PLC used to monitor and control pumping activity for Tank Farm 241-U-105. The completed OTP and OTR are referenced in the IS PIC Skid Configuration Drawing (H-2-829998).

  18. AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration and Tests Data Management Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOUGLAS, D.G.

    2000-02-22

    This document provides a plan for the analysis of the data collected during the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration and Tests. This document was prepared after a review of the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Plan (Revision 4) [1] and other materials. The plan emphasizes a structured and well-ordered approach towards handling and examining the data. This plan presumes that the data will be collected and organized into a unified body of data, well annotated and bearing the date and time of each record. The analysis of this data will follow a methodical series of steps that are focused on well-defined objectives. Section 2 of this plan describes how the data analysis will proceed from the real-time monitoring of some of the key sensor data to the final analysis of the three-dimensional distribution of suspended solids. This section also identifies the various sensors or sensor systems and associates them with the various functions they serve during the test program. Section 3 provides an overview of the objectives of the AZ-101 test program and describes the data that will be analyzed to support that test. The objectives are: (1) to demonstrate that the mixer pumps can be operated within the operating requirements; (2) to demonstrate that the mixer pumps can mobilize the sludge in sufficient quantities to provide feed to the private contractor facility, and (3) to determine if the in-tank instrumentation is sufficient to monitor sludge mobilization and mixer pump operation. Section 3 also describes the interim analysis that organizes the data during the test, so the analysis can be more readily accomplished. Section 4 describes the spatial orientation of the various sensors in the tank. This section is useful in visualizing the relationship of the Sensors in terms of their location in the tank and how the data from these sensors may be related to the data from other sensors. Section 5 provides a summary of the various analyses that will be performed on the data during the test

  19. Experimental testing of a new left ventricular assist device--the microdiagonal blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Stefan; Demircan, Lütfü; Kwant, Paul B; Akdis, Mustafa; Rex, Steffen; Buhre, Wolfgang; Langebartels, Georg; Kuruc, Norbert; Nikolin, Stefan; Reul, Helmut; Autschbach, Rüdiger

    2004-01-01

    All existing ventricular assist devices are associated with a considerable number of serious complications. This article reports on the first animal tests with a newly developed microdiagonal blood pump (MDP). Six adult female sheep weighing 80 to 90 kg underwent implantation of the microdiagonal blood pump. The inflow and outflow conduits were anastomosed to the left atrium and the descending aorta. Pump flow was adjusted to 2-3 L/minute. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic data, as well as blood samples, were measured over the entire test period of 7 days. All internal organs and the pump were explanted for thorough examination at the end of the trial. Mean arterial (range 88.5 +/- 13.1-103.7 +/- 10.7 mm Hg) and mean pulmonary arterial (18.3 +/- 2.7-21.6 +/- 20.5 mm Hg) pressures, as well as the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (14.2 +/- 3.0 - 16.6 +/- 4.0 mm Hg), remained stable during the whole test period. Cardiac output (4.9 +/- 0.7 --> 3.2 +/- 0.5 L/minute) decreased postoperatively caused by partial unloading of the heart. Left ventricular end diastolic (4.1 +/- 0.5 --> 3.6 +/- 0.3 cm) and end systolic (3.2 +/- 0.4 --> 2.8 +/- 0.5 cm) diameters, as well as the ejection fraction (57 +/- 9 --> 42 +/- 5%), decreased after MDP implantation and did not change during the test period. Mean number of platelets (428 +/- 54 --> 286 +/- 66 x 10(3)/microL) and hemoglobin (9.8 +/- 1.3 --> 6.3 +/- 0.8 g/dL) decreased perioperatively because of surgical reasons and increased continuously in the postoperative course (platelet count and hemoglobin on day 7:441 +/- 74 x 10(3)/microL and 7.2 +/- 1.1 g/dL, respectively). Free hemoglobin was not enhanced in the postoperative course (mean value during the test period: 18.8 mmoL/L). Histologic examination of the organs did not demonstrate any infarctions of internal organs other than typical operative sequelae such as chronic pericarditis and some degree of atelectasis of the left lungs. These results demonstrate that the

  20. Sensitivity and resolution of tomographic pumping tests in an alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohling, G.C.

    2009-01-01

    Various investigators have proposed hydraulic tomography, the simultaneous analysis of responses to multiple well tests, as a means to obtain a high-resolution characterization of aquifer flow properties. This study assesses the information content of drawdown records from a set of tomographic pumping tests in an alluvial aquifer, comparing the parameter sensitivity and resolution associated with transient and steady-shape formulations of the objective function for the parameter estimation problem. The steady-shape approach takes advantage of the rapid establishment of constant gradients within the region surrounding a pumping well, comparing observed drawdown differences within this region with drawdown differences predicted by a steady state model. Both the transient and steady-shape approaches resolve K variations only within a limited distance of the pumping intervals and observation points. Relative to the transient approach, the steady-shape approach reduces the influence of poorly resolved property variations, including K variations outside the region of investigation and storage coefficient variations throughout the model domain. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Influence of non-linear flow on the pumping tests in karstified and fractured aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas-Karay, Gyöngyi; Birk, Steffen; Vasvári, Vilmos; Hajnal, Géza; Mayaud, Cyril

    2017-04-01

    When evaluating pumping test data in karstified or fractured aquifers remarkable deviations from the theoretically estimated curves can be observed. The assumptions of the commonly used evaluation methods (Theis, Cooper-Jacob, Papadopulus-Cooper) usually do not fit to properties in hard rock aquifers, where often non-linear, heterogeneous and non-isotropic conditions can appear. The analysis of the effect of these conditions helps to better evaluate the pumping test data and to avoid the mistakes caused by the use of traditional methods. In this study the influence of non-linear flow was analysed based on field data and computer-generated time series. Using Non-Linear Flow Process for MODFLOW (Mayaud, C., Walker, P., Hergarten, S. and Birk, S., 2015, Nonlinear Flow Process: A New Package to Compute Nonlinear Flow in MODFLOW. Groundwater, 53: 645-650) allowed the simulation of non-linear flow in aquifers based on the Forchheimer equation. The analysis showed that the detection of non-linear flow can be subserved by separate evaluation of drawdown and recovery time series or by using additional observation wells. Recovery data and data from observation wells far enough from the pumped well are not disturbed by nonlinearity; the comparison with drawdown data of observation wells and the pumped well therefore can show whether or not non-linear flow appears. In particular, proper results of aquifer parameters can be obtained from recovery data. If only drawdown data from the pumped well are available it is helpful to replace the losses caused by non-linear flow by non-linear well losses (see also Mathias, S. A., and L. C. Todman, 2010, Step-drawdown tests and the Forchheimer equation, Water Resour. Res., 46, W07514). The applicability of the Jacob's step-drawdown-test evaluation in Forchheimer-flow cases is demonstrated by comparison with the numerical non-linear flow model. Inaccurate parameter estimates resulting from neglecting non-linear flow demonstrate the

  2. Effect Analysis of Geometric Parameters on Stainless Steel Stamping Multistage Pump by Experimental Test and Numerical Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of stainless steel stamping multistage pump, quadratic regression orthogonal test, hydraulic design, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD are used to analyze the effect of pump geometric parameters. Sixteen impellers are designed based on the quadratic regression orthogonal test, which have three factors including impeller outlet slope, impeller blade outlet stagger angle, and impeller blade outlet width. Through quadratic regression equation, the function relationship between efficiency values and three factors is established. The optimal combination of geometric parameters is found through the analysis of the regression equation. To further study the influence of blade thickness on the performance of multistage pump, numerical simulations of multistage pump with different blade thicknesses are carried out. The influence law of blade thickness on pump performance is built from the external characteristics and internal flow field. In conclusion, with the increase of blade thickness, the best efficiency point of the pump shifts to the small flow rate direction, and the vortex regions inside the pump at rated flow gradually increase, which is the main reason that pump efficiency decreases along with the increase of the blade thickness at rated flow.

  3. Pumping-Test Evaluation of Fault-Zone Hydraulic Properties in a Fractured Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N. M.

    2014-12-01

    Subzones of both reduced and enhanced permeability are often ascribed to fault zones, consistent with a fault-core/damage-zone conceptualization, with associated implications for assessing potential contaminant transport. Within this context, a 31-day pumping test was conducted in relation to a relatively minor, 2000 m long fault zone cutting fractured Cretaceous sandstone interbedded with siltstone and shale at a groundwater remediation site in the Simi Hills of southern California during March-April 2013. Our objective was to evaluate the potential hydrogeologic influence of the fault zone on groundwater movement across and along it by observing the spatial patterns of drawdown and estimated hydraulic properties. A 122 m deep open borehole was pumped at a constant rate of approximately 112 L/min while monitoring hydraulic heads in 14 observation wells, two completed with multi-level systems, within 750 m of the pumping well. Hydraulic heads were monitored for more than 9 months before, during, and after the test. Prior to the test, we used the site's three-dimensional, equivalent-porous-media groundwater flow model to anticipate the potential response of alternative fault-zone permeability structures. The results suggest that the fault zone may be slightly more permeable (by a factor of about 2 or less) and less confined than the fractured sandstone away from the fault, and is not a significant barrier to groundwater flow across it. Within the areal extent of observed drawdown, the site's hydrostratigraphic structures exhibited a relatively greater hydraulic influence. The pattern and magnitude of observed drawdown lie within the range of pre-test model simulations, and the test results are now being used to revise and recalibrate the model.

  4. Performing Pumping Test Data Analysis Applying Cooper-Jacob’s Method for Estimating of the Aquifer Parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khider Mawlood Dana; Sabah Mustafa Jwan

    2016-01-01

    ... Transmissivity, but the other parameter which is Storativity is overestimated, so the aim of this study is to analyze four pumping test data located in KAWRGOSK area by using cooper-Jacob’s (1946...

  5. Transient drawdown solution for a constant pumping test in finite two-zone confined aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-T. Wang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The drawdown solution has been widely used to analyze pumping test data for the determination of aquifer parameters when coupled with an optimization scheme. The solution can also be used to predict the drawdown due to pumping and design the dewatering system. The drawdown solution for flow toward a finite-radius well with a skin zone in a confined aquifer of infinite extent in radial direction had been developed before. To our best knowledge, the drawdown solution in confined aquifers of finite extent with a skin zone so far has never before been presented in the groundwater literature. This article presents a mathematical model for describing the drawdown distribution due to a constant-flux pumping from a finite-radius well with a skin zone in confined aquifers of finite extent. The analytical solution of the model is developed by applying the methods of Laplace transforms, Bromwich contour integral, and residue theorem. This solution can be used to investigate the effects of finite boundary and conductivity ratio on the drawdown distribution. In addition, the inverse relationship between Laplace- and time-domain variables is used to develop the large time solution which can reduce to the Thiem solution if there is no skin zone.

  6. A Step Towards Electric Propulsion Testing Standards: Pressure Measurements and Effective Pumping Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Swiatek, Michael W.; Yim, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The electric propulsion community has been implored to establish and implement a set of universally applicable test standards during the research, development, and qualification of electric propulsion systems. Existing practices are fallible and result in testing variations which leads to suspicious results, large margins in application, or aversion to mission infusion. Performance measurements and life testing under appropriate conditions can be costly and lengthy. Measurement practices must be consistent, accurate, and repeatable. Additionally, the measurements must be universally transportable across facilities throughout the development, qualification, spacecraft integration and on-orbit performance. A preliminary step to progress towards universally applicable testing standards is outlined for facility pressure measurements and effective pumping speed calculations. The standard has been applied to multiple facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Test results and analyses of universality of measurements are presented herein.

  7. Quasi-steady state conditions in heterogeneous aquifers during pumping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yuanyuan; Yeh, Tian-Chyi J.; Shi, Liangsheng; Huang, Shao-Yang; Wang, Wenke; Wen, Jet-Chau

    2017-08-01

    Classical Thiem's well hydraulic theory, other aquifer test analyses, and flow modeling efforts often assume the existence of ;quasi-steady; state conditions. That is, while drawdowns due to pumping continue to grow, the hydraulic gradient in the vicinity of the pumping well does not change significantly. These conditions have built upon two-dimensional and equivalent homogeneous conceptual models, but few field data have been available to affirm the existence of these conditions. Moreover, effects of heterogeneity and three-dimensional flow on this quasi-steady state concept have not been thoroughly investigated and discussed before. In this study, we first present a quantitative definition of quasi-steady state (or steady-shape conditions) and steady state conditions based on the analytical solution of two- or three-dimensional flow induced by pumping in unbounded, homogeneous aquifers. Afterward, we use a stochastic analysis to investigate the influence of heterogeneity on the quasi-steady state concept in heterogeneous aquifers. The results of the analysis indicate that the time to reach an approximate quasi-steady state in a heterogeneous aquifer could be quite different from that estimated based on a homogeneous model. We find that heterogeneity of aquifer properties, especially hydraulic conductivity, impedes the development of the quasi-steady state condition before the flow reaching steady state. Finally, 280 drawdown-time data from the hydraulic tomographic survey conducted at a field site corroborate our finding that the quasi-steady state condition likely would not take place in heterogeneous aquifers unless pumping tests last a long period. Research significance (1) Approximate quasi-steady and steady state conditions are defined for two- or three-dimensional flow induced by pumping in unbounded, equivalent homogeneous aquifers. (2) Analysis demonstrates effects of boundary condition, well screen interval, and heterogeneity of parameters on the

  8. Joint Estimation of Hydraulic and Poroelastic Parameters from a Pumping Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Steven J; Illman, Walter A; Mok, Chin Man W

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of hydraulic and poroelastic processes is critical in predicting processes involving the deformation of the geologic medium in response to fluid extraction or injection. Numerical models that consider the coupling of hydraulic and poroelastic processes require the knowledge of relevant parameters for both aquifer and aquitard units. In this study, we jointly estimated hydraulic and poroelastic parameters from pumping test data exhibiting "reverse water level fluctuations," known as the Noordbergum effect, in aquitards adjacent to a pumped aquifer. The joint estimation was performed by coupling BIOT2, a finite element, two-dimensional, axisymmetric, groundwater model that considers poroelastic effects with the parameter estimation code PEST. We first tested our approach using a synthetic data set with known parameters. Results of the synthetic case showed that for a simple layered system, it was possible to reproduce accurately both the hydraulic and poroelastic properties for each layer. We next applied the approach to pumping test data collected at the North Campus Research Site (NCRS) on the University of Waterloo (UW) campus. Based on the detailed knowledge of stratigraphy, a five-layer system was modeled. Parameter estimation was performed by: (1) matching drawdown data individually from each observation port and (2) matching drawdown data from all ports at a single well simultaneously. The estimated hydraulic parameters were compared to those obtained by other means at the site yielding good agreement. However, the estimated shear modulus was higher than the static shear modulus, but was within the range of dynamic shear modulus reported in the literature, potentially suggesting a loading rate effect. © 2014, National GroundWater Association.

  9. Hydraulic characterisation of carbonate aquifers with pumping tests - comparison of analytical and numerical data evaluation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baierl, M.; Kordilla, J.; Reimann, T.; Dörfliger, N.; Sauter, M.; Geyer, T.

    2012-04-01

    This work deals with the analysis of pumping tests in strongly heterogeneous media. Pumping tests were performed in the catchment area of the Lez spring (South of France), which is composed of carbonate rocks. Pumping rates for the different tests varied between 0.04 l/s - 0.7 l/s, i.e. the radius of influence of the cone of depression is small. The investigated boreholes are characterised by tight rocks, moderate fractures and karstified zones. The observed drawdown curves are clearly influenced by the rock characteristics. Single drawdown curves show S-shape character. Data evaluation was performed with the solution approaches of Theis (1935) and Gringarten-Ramey (1974), which are implemented in the employed software AQTESOLV (Pro 4.0). Parameters were varied in reliable data ranges with consideration of reported values in the literature. The Theis method analyses unsteady flow in homogeneous confined aquifers. The Gringarten-Ramey solution describes the drawdown in a well connected to a single horizontal fracture. The Theis curve fails to represent the characteristics for nearly all of the measured drawdown curves, while the Gringarten-Ramey method shows moderate graphical fits with a small residual sum of squares between fitted and observed drawdown curves. This highlights the importance of heterogeneities in the hydraulic parameter field at local scale. The determined hydraulic conductivities of the rock are in reasonable ranges varying between 1E-04 m/s and 1E-08 m/s. Wellbore skin effects need to be discussed further in detail. While the analytical solutions are only valid for specific geometrical and hydraulic configurations, numerical models can be applied to simulate pumping tests in complex heterogeneous media with different boundary conditions. For that reason, a two dimensional, axisymmetric numerical model, using COMSOL (Multiphysics 4.1), is set up. In a first step, the model is validated with the simulated curves from the analytical solutions under

  10. Dynamic heat-pump test - Validation of a model and development of a testing process; Dynamischer Waermepumpentest. Validierung des Modellansatzes und Entwicklung einer Pruefprozedur: Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubacher, B.; Ehrbach, M.

    2001-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of a test procedure for the determination of losses caused by the switching on and off of heat pumps. The first part of the work described concerns the validation of an algorithm developed in an earlier phase of the project using experimental methods. Tests performed in a twin climatic chamber on a 10 kW heat pump are described. The resulting equations for the temperature and time-dependent functions used in determining the performance-reduction for the heat pump caused by on-off cycling are described. The second part of the work is also described that involved the development of procedures for determining the constants for the adaptation of the equations to the testing procedures. Details are given on the appropriate test procedures to be used at the Swiss heat pump testing centre at Toess.

  11. Performance Testing of a Liquid Metal Pump for In-Space Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Fission surface power (FSP) systems could be used to provide power on the surface of the moon, Mars, or other planets and moons of our solar system. Fission power systems could provide excellent performance at any location, including those near the poles or other permanently shaded regions, and offer the capability to provide on demand power at any time, even at large distances from the sun. Fission-based systems also offer the potential for outposts, crew and science instruments to operate in a power-rich environment. NASA has been exploring technologies with the goal of reducing the cost and technical risk of employing FSP systems. A reference 40 kWe option has been devised that is cost-competitive with alternatives while providing more power for less mass anywhere on the lunar surface. The reference FSP system is also readily extensible for use on Mars, where it would be capable of operating through global dust storms and providing year-round power at any Martian latitude. Detailed development of the FSP concept and the reference mission are documented in various other reports. The development discussed in this paper prepares the way for testing of the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU), which is a 10 kWe end-to-end test of FSP technologies intended to raise the entire FSP system to technology readiness level (TRL) 6. The Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) was established by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to provide a capability for performing hardware-directed activities to support multiple in-space nuclear reactor concepts by using a nonnuclear test methodology. This includes fabrication and testing at both the module/component level and at near prototypic reactor components and configurations allowing for realistic thermal-hydraulic evaluations of systems. The liquid-metal pump associated with the FSP system must be compatible with the liquid NaK coolant and have adequate performance to enable a viable flight system. Idaho National

  12. Testing a Quantum Heat Pump with a Two-Level Spin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Correa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Once in its non-equilibrium steady state, a nanoscale system coupled to several heat baths may be thought of as a “quantum heat pump”. Depending on the direction of its stationary heat flows, it may function as, e.g., a refrigerator or a heat transformer. These continuous heat devices can be arbitrarily complex multipartite systems, and yet, their working principle is always the same: they are made up of several elementary three-level stages operating in parallel. As a result, it is possible to devise external “black-box” testing strategies to learn about their functionality and performance regardless of any internal details. In particular, one such heat pump can be tested by coupling a two-level spin to one of its “contact transitions”. The steady state of this external probe contains information about the presence of heat leaks and internal dissipation in the device and, also, about the direction of its steady-state heat currents. Provided that the irreversibility of the heat pump is low, one can further estimate its coefficient of performance. These techniques may find applications in the emerging field of quantum thermal engineering, as they facilitate the diagnosis and design optimization of complex thermodynamic cycles.

  13. Research of factors influencing centrifugal pump external characteristics based on orthogonal test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X. B.; Liu, Z. Q.

    2013-12-01

    In order to investigate the impact on external characteristics of single-stage and single-suction centrifugal pump, four parameters: cutwater gap(δ), blade number(z), impeller outlet width(b) and blade outlet angle(β) were taken into account. Orthogonal test method is a method which can make a comprehensive comparison among factors we are interested in. Thereby, it can't be more appropriate to adopt this approach to study the influence of the four factors referred above. Based on the prototype pump's geometric parameters, each of these factors took four levels. According to the principle of selecting orthogonal array, the L16(45) array was selected and 16 models were designed. After that, commercial CFD software CFX was used to calculate the head and efficiency under different conditions to determine the optimal operating condition Qr. The 16 models' rated flow rates were basically smaller than the prototype's. Considering this difference, in order to analyze the influence on the head under similar condition, the flow rate was made dimensionless and 3 conditions are chosen(Qr/Q=1, 1.25 and 1.375). Through the analysis of averaged respond head and efficiency, the laws of head and efficiency changing with the variation of the factors were obtained. Commonly, if a dependent's change cause by a independent variable is smaller than 5%, we can neglect the independent variable's effect. Thus the paper presents a research showing the factors' changing limitations considering the head changing by a percentage smaller than 5%. The conclusion of this article has important reference value for design of centrifugal pumps.

  14. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  15. Exploratory use of periodic pumping tests for hydraulic characterization of faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan; Renner, Joerg

    2018-01-01

    Periodic pumping tests were conducted using a double-packer probe placed at four different depth levels in borehole GDP-1 at Grimselpass, Central Swiss Alps, penetrating a hydrothermally active fault. The tests had the general objective to explore the potential of periodic testing for hydraulic characterization of faults, representing inherently complex heterogeneous hydraulic features that pose problems for conventional approaches. Site selection reflects the specific question regarding the value of this test type for quality control of hydraulic stimulations of potential geothermal reservoirs. The performed evaluation of amplitude ratio and phase shift between pressure and flow rate in the pumping interval employed analytical solutions for various flow regimes. In addition to the previously presented 1-D and radial-flow models, we extended the one for radial flow in a system of concentric shells with varying hydraulic properties and newly developed one for bilinear flow. In addition to these injectivity analyses, we pursued a vertical-interference analysis resting on observed amplitude ratio and phase shift between the periodic pressure signals above or below packers and in the interval by numerical modeling of the non-radial-flow situation. When relying on the same model the order of magnitude of transmissivity values derived from the analyses of periodic tests agrees with that gained from conventional hydraulic tests. The field campaign confirmed several advantages of the periodic testing, for example, reduced constraints on testing time relative to conventional tests since a periodic signal can easily be separated from changing background pressure by detrending and Fourier transformation. The discrepancies between aspects of the results from the periodic tests and the predictions of the considered simplified models indicate a hydraulically complex subsurface at the drill site that exhibits also hydromechanical features in accord with structural information

  16. Development and testing of a planar, silicon mini-capillary pumped loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Kirk L.; Pettigrew, Kenneth; Smith, Brian; Gamlen, Carol; Liepmann, Dorian

    2002-01-01

    A planar, silicon mini-capillary pumped loop (CPL) was designed, built, and tested using recent MEMS technology to provide integral cooling and temperature control for electronics. This design featured three silicon fusion bonded wafers incorporating an evaporator, condenser, liquid line and vapor line, all of which were dry plasma etched. Grooves were etched in the condenser and evaporator to provide passive capillary pumping. The finished device was bonded to an external reservoir via a through hole and was filled with a working fluid of water. The evaporator was bonded directly to an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with a calorimeter epoxied above the condenser to control the temperature and monitor heat removal by the CPL. The mini-CPL was operated with an input heat load ranging from 3 to 10 W resulting in the junction temperature of the IGBT being reduced approximately 15 degrees Celsius from that of a solid Si substrate. The mini-CPL also performed as a thermal diode, turning on or off depending on the reservoir temperature. Work is in progress to understand the dynamics observed in the CPL as well as improve the CPL's performance. .

  17. Absorption heat pump for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan; Simon, William E.; Warrier, Gopinath R.; Woramontri, Woranun

    1993-01-01

    In the first part, the performance of the Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) with water-sulfuric acid and water-magnesium chloride as two new refrigerant-absorbent fluid pairs was investigated. A model was proposed for the analysis of the new working pairs in a heat pump system, subject to different temperature lifts. Computer codes were developed to calculate the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system with the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids obtained from the literature. The study shows the potential of water-sulfuric acid as a satisfactory replacement for water-lithium bromide in the targeted temperature range. The performance of the AHP using water-magnesium chloride as refrigerant-absorbent pair does not compare well with those obtained using water-lithium bromide. The second part concentrated on the design and testing of a simple ElectroHydrodynamic (EHD) Pump. A theoretical design model based on continuum electromechanics was analyzed to predict the performance characteristics of the EHD pump to circulate the fluid in the absorption heat pump. A numerical method of solving the governing equations was established to predict the velocity profile, pressure - flow rate relationship and efficiency of the pump. The predicted operational characteristics of the EHD pump is comparable to that of turbomachinery hardware; however, the overall efficiency of the electromagnetic pump is much lower. An experimental investigation to verify the numerical results was conducted. The pressure - flow rate performance characteristics and overall efficiency of the pump obtained experimentally agree well with the theoretical model.

  18. Absorption heat pump for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan; Simon, William E.; Warrier, Gopinath R.; Woramontri, Woranun

    1993-12-01

    In the first part, the performance of the Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) with water-sulfuric acid and water-magnesium chloride as two new refrigerant-absorbent fluid pairs was investigated. A model was proposed for the analysis of the new working pairs in a heat pump system, subject to different temperature lifts. Computer codes were developed to calculate the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system with the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids obtained from the literature. The study shows the potential of water-sulfuric acid as a satisfactory replacement for water-lithium bromide in the targeted temperature range. The performance of the AHP using water-magnesium chloride as refrigerant-absorbent pair does not compare well with those obtained using water-lithium bromide. The second part concentrated on the design and testing of a simple ElectroHydrodynamic (EHD) Pump. A theoretical design model based on continuum electromechanics was analyzed to predict the performance characteristics of the EHD pump to circulate the fluid in the absorption heat pump. A numerical method of solving the governing equations was established to predict the velocity profile, pressure - flow rate relationship and efficiency of the pump. The predicted operational characteristics of the EHD pump is comparable to that of turbomachinery hardware; however, the overall efficiency of the electromagnetic pump is much lower. An experimental investigation to verify the numerical results was conducted. The pressure - flow rate performance characteristics and overall efficiency of the pump obtained experimentally agree well with the theoretical model.

  19. Preliminary experiences with material testing at the oxyfuel pilot plant at Schwarze Pumpe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoernhede, Anders [Vattenfall Power, Gothenborg (Sweden); Montgomery, Melanie [Technical Univ. Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Inst. for Mekanisk Teknologi; Vattenfall Heat Nordic, Lyngby (Denmark); Bjurman, Martin; Henderson, Pamela [Vattenfall AB (Sweden). Research and Development; Gerhardt, Alexander [Vattenfall AB, Berlin (Germany). Research and Development

    2010-07-01

    Several material related issues may arise from oxyfuel combustion of coal due to the presence of CO{sub 2} but also as an effect of the partial recirculation of the flue gas. Two examples are increased corrosion and carburisation which may limit steam data, hence limiting the efficiency. A number of corrosion tests, in both conventional air-firing and oxyfuel mode, have been made in Vattenfalls 30 MW oxyfuel pilot plant located in Schwarze Pumpe, Germany. Internally cooled corrosion probes, equipped with ferritic, austenitic, super austenitic steels as well as Ni-based and FeCrAl alloys, simulating superheaters, economisers and air preheaters were exposed for up to 1500 hrs. The analyses show an indication of higher material wastage in oxyfuel compared to air combustion especially at the lower exposure temperatures. This may be due to increased sulphur concentration in corrosion front, increased heat flux, carburisation or other precipitate formations on austenitic steels and Ni-based alloys. (orig.)

  20. Performing Pumping Test Data Analysis Applying Cooper-Jacob’s Method for Estimating of the Aquifer Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Khider Mawlood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Single well test is more common than aquifer test with having observation well, since the advantage of single well test is that the pumping test can be conducted on the production well with the absence of observation well. A kind of single well test, which is step-drawdown test used to determine the efficiency and specific capacity of the well, however in case of single well test it is possible to estimate Transmissivity, but the other parameter which is Storativity is overestimated, so the aim of this study is to analyze four pumping test data located in KAWRGOSK area by using cooper-Jacob’s (1946 time drawdown approximation of Theis method to estimate the aquifer parameters, also in order to determine the reasons which are affecting the reliability of the Storativity value and obtain the important aspect behind that in practice.

  1. A serendipitous, long-term infiltration experiment: Water and tritium circulation beneath the CAMBRIC trench at the Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed M.; Tompson, Andrew F. B.; Kollet, Stefan

    2009-08-01

    Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used subsequently to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. In 1965, a unique, 16-year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in the saturated zone beneath Frenchman Flat, Nevada, USA, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport in a heterogeneous subsurface, tailored specifically for large-scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate tritium travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the trench and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the trench, the water table, and monitoring and pumping wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing more accurate interpretations of contaminant migration processes.

  2. Experimental circulation loss study

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Sigurd

    2013-01-01

    Circulation losses could occur during any operation that involves pumping into a well. As of today, it is recognized as one of the most costly drilling problems. In some situation it might be hard to stop, and usually takes precious rig time to deal with the problem. In order to mitigate the risk of circulation loss solid pa...

  3. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Withdrawal from Proposed Pumping Near the Southeastern Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.W.H. Carroll; R.L.Hershey; G.M. Pohll

    2006-04-25

    Current modeling of the southeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) with a refined U.S. Geological Survey Death Valley regional groundwater flow system model shows that impacts from pumping by proposed Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) and Vidler Water Company (VWC) wells can be substantial over 75 years of operation. Results suggest that significant drawdown at proposed well sites will occur with depths of drawdown ranging from 8 m to nearly 1,600 m. The areal extent of 0.5 m of drawdown is also significant, impacting Mercury Valley, Amargosa, Indian Springs, Three Lakes, and Frenchman Flat basins. Drawdown will impact Army No.1 Water Well in Mercury Valley by lowering water levels 2.1 m but will not impact other NTS production wells. It is also predicted that flowpaths from detonation sites within the NTS will be altered with the potential to move material out of the NTS. Impacts to both springs and regions of groundwater evapotranspiration (modeled as MODFLOW drain cells) appear very minimal, with an estimated 0.2-percent reduction in flow to these regions. This amounts to a loss of more that 55,000 m3/year (45 acre-ft/year), or more than 4,000,000 m3 (3,400 acre-ft) during 75 years of groundwater withdrawal by pumping at proposed SNWA and VWC wells. Whether the reduced flow will impact specific springs more than any others, or if the reduction in flow is enough to have significant ecological implications, was not addressed in this study.

  4. Development and testing of mini heat pump for low-energy houses. Final report; Udvikling og test af minivarmepumpe til lavenergihuse. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Per Henrik; Madsen, Claus; Frederiksen, Klaus; Andreasen, Marcin Blazniak (Teknologisk Institut, Koele- og Varmepumpeteknik, Taastrup (Denmark))

    2010-11-15

    New residential houses are better insulated, and this reduces the need for heat during the winter period. In addition to this many new houses have floor heating systems. This combination is favourable for small heat pumps which can produce heat to central water systems with low water temperatures in the area 25 to 35 C. 4 prototypes of mini heat pumps of the brine/water type was build and tested in the refrigeration laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). The prototypes are using a variable speed compressor (Danfoss SLV12) which originally is developed for plug-in supermarket cabinets. The heating capacity of the prototypes can vary between 1.0 and 2.1 kW. The refrigerant charge is 150 grams of R290 (propane). Two prototypes are charged with 375 grams of R134a. Tests were conducted following EN14511 at 0/+35 C and COP was measured to between 3.2 and 3.6 depending of the compressor speed and the type of plate heat exchangers used. This is quite good for such small machines. One of the prototypes was installed in the Energy Flex House which is a new highly insulated test house build at the DTI. The house was equipped with two heat pumps: 1. An exhaust air heat pump taking energy from exhaust air and producing hot tap water and heating the intake air; 2. A mini heat pump for floor heating taking energy from ground source outside the house. A family with four persons lives in the house. During the cold winter 2009/2010 the mini heat pump showed good performance and the COP varies between 2.0 and 4.0. The lower value was caused by a fault in the floor heating hoses, which made it necessary to increase the temperature of the central heating water, which decreased the efficiency of the heat pump during the coldest winter period. The floor heating system has been repaired, and a new prototype heat pump with a slightly bigger compressor has been installed for the heating season 2010/2011. A heat pump manufacturer is now producing this combination of exhaust

  5. Performance test results of helium gas circulator of mock-up test facility with full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Akira; Kato, Michio; Hayashi, Koji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane will be connected to the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) against development of nuclear heat utilization system. To obtain design and safety database of the HTTR hydrogen production system, mock-up test facility with full-scale reaction was constructed in FY 2001 and hydrogen of 120m{sup 3}N{sub /}h was successfully produced in overall performance test. This report describes performance test results of a helium gas circulator in this facility. The circulator performance curves regarding to pressure-rise, input power and adiabatic thermal efficiency at standard revolution number were made based on the measured flow-rate, temperature and pressure data in overall performance test. The circulator performance prediction code was made based on these performance curves. The code can calculate revolution number, electric power and temperature-rise of the circulator using flow-rate, inlet temperature, inlet pressure and pressure-rise data. The verification of the code was carried out with the test data in FY 2002. Total pressure loss of the helium gas circulation loop was also evaluated. The circulator should be operated in conditions such as pressure from 2.7MPa to 4.0MPa and flow-rate from 250g/s to 400g/s and at maximum pressure-rise of 250 kPa in test operation. It was confirmed in above verification and evaluations that the circulator had performance to satisfy above conditions within operation limitation of the circulator such as maximum input-power of 150 kW and maximum revolution number of 12,000 rpm. (author)

  6. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfire...

  7. Combining situated Cognitive Engineering with a novel testing method in a case study comparing two infusion pump interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnittker, R.; Schmettow, Martin; Verhoeven, F.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    We validated the usability of a new infusion pump interface designed with a situated Cognitive Engineering approach by comparing it to a reference interface using a novel testing method employing repeated measurements and process measures, in addition to traditional outcome measures. The sample

  8. Application of integral pumping tests to investigate the influence of a losing stream on groundwater quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Leschik

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Losing streams that are influenced by wastewater treatment plant effluents and combined sewer overflows (CSOs can be a source of groundwater contamination. Released micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, endocrine disrupters and other ecotoxicologically relevant substances as well as inorganic wastewater constituents can reach the groundwater, where they may deteriorate groundwater quality. This paper presents a method to quantify exfiltration mass flow rates per stream length unit Mex of wastewater constituents from losing streams by the operation of integral pumping tests (IPTs up- and downstream of a target section. Due to the large sampled water volume during IPTs the results are more reliable than those from conventional point sampling. We applied the method at a test site in Leipzig (Germany. Wastewater constituents K+ and NO3 showed Mex values of 1241 to 4315 and 749 to 924 mg mstream−1 d−1, respectively, while Cl (16.8 to 47.3 g mstream−1 d−1 and SO42− (20.3 to 32.2 g mstream−1 d−1 revealed the highest observed Mex values at the test site. The micropollutants caffeine and technical-nonylphenol were dominated by elimination processes in the groundwater between upstream and downstream wells. Additional concentration measurements in the stream and a connected sewer at the test site were performed to identify relevant processes that influence the concentrations at the IPT wells.

  9. [What is the utility of proton pump inhibitor testing in non-cardiac chest pain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamán, José Wálter; Aliaga, Verónica; Domenech, Gemma; Videla, Sebastián; Saperas, Esteban

    2014-10-01

    Noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) often represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Given that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common cause of NCCP, initial treatment with proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) has been proposed for all patients (PPI testing), reserving esophageal function testing solely for non-responders. The aim of the present study was to provide evidence on the clinical utility of PPI testing with high-dose pantoprazole in patients with NCCP. We carried out a study of diagnostic performance with a cohort design in patients with NCCP, who had been assessed by the Cardiology Service. All patients underwent upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and 24h esophageal pH monitoring before PPI testing with pantoprazole 40 mg every 12h for 1 month. Before and after treatment, we assessed the severity (intensity and frequency) of chest pain, quality of life, and anxiety and depression by means of specific questionnaires. The diagnosis of GERD was based on a pathological finding of esophageal pH monitoring. A positive response to PPI testing was defined as an improvement in chest pain >50% compared with the baseline score after 1 month of PPI therapy. We included 30 consecutive patients (17 men/13 women) with a mean age of 49 years. Of these 30 patients, 20 with NCCP had GERD (67%, 95%CI: 47%-83%). A positive response to PPI therapy was observed in 13 of the 30 (43%) patients with NCCP: 11 of the 20 (55%) patients in the GERD-positive group and 2 of the 10 (20%) in the GERD-negative group. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of PPI testing was 55%, 80%, 85%, 47% and 63%, respectively. A significant reduction in chest pain after pantoprazole therapy (P=.003) and a slight non significant improvement in anxiety and depression was achieved in the GERD-positive group as compared to the GERD-negative group. In NCCP, PPI testing with pantoprazole has a low sensitivity for the diagnosis of

  10. Design, development and testing of a solar-powered multi-family residential size prototype turbocompressor heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    A program described to design, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing of a prototype solar-powered Rankine cycle turbocompressor heat pump module for a multi-family residential building is presented. A solar system designed to use the turbocompressor heat pump module including all of the subsystems required and the various system operating modes is described in Section I. Section II includes the preliminary design analyses conducted to select the heat pump module components and operating features, working fluid, configuration, size and performance goals, and estimated performance levels in the cooling and heating modes. Section III provides a detailed description of the other subsystems and components required for a complete solar installation. Using realistic performance and cost characteristics for all subsystems, the seasonal performance of the UTC heat pump is described in various US locations. In addition, the estimated energy savings and an assessment of the economic viability of the solar system is presented in Section III. The detailed design of the heat pump module and the arrangement of components and controls selected to conduct the laboratory performance tests are described in Section IV. Section V provides a description of the special laboratory test facility, including the subsystems to simulate the collectors and storage tanks for building load and ambient conditions and the instrumentation, monitoring, and data acquisition equipment. The test results and sample computer analyses and comparisons with predicted performance levels are presented in Section VI. Various appendices provide supplementary and background information concerning working fluid selection (A), configuration selection (B), capacity control concepts (C), building models (D), computer programs used to determine component and system performance and total system economics (E), and weather data (F).

  11. Cancer therapy. Ex vivo culture of circulating breast tumor cells for individualized testing of drug susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Bardia, Aditya; Aceto, Nicola; Bersani, Francesca; Madden, Marissa W; Donaldson, Maria C; Desai, Rushil; Zhu, Huili; Comaills, Valentine; Zheng, Zongli; Wittner, Ben S; Stojanov, Petar; Brachtel, Elena; Sgroi, Dennis; Kapur, Ravi; Shioda, Toshihiro; Ting, David T; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Getz, Gad; Iafrate, A John; Benes, Cyril; Toner, Mehmet; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A

    2014-07-11

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are present at low concentrations in the peripheral blood of patients with solid tumors. It has been proposed that the isolation, ex vivo culture, and characterization of CTCs may provide an opportunity to noninvasively monitor the changing patterns of drug susceptibility in individual patients as their tumors acquire new mutations. In a proof-of-concept study, we established CTC cultures from six patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Three of five CTC lines tested were tumorigenic in mice. Genome sequencing of the CTC lines revealed preexisting mutations in the PIK3CA gene and newly acquired mutations in the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1), PIK3CA gene, and fibroblast growth factor receptor gene (FGFR2), among others. Drug sensitivity testing of CTC lines with multiple mutations revealed potential new therapeutic targets. With optimization of CTC culture conditions, this strategy may help identify the best therapies for individual cancer patients over the course of their disease. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. In vitro detection of cardiotoxins or neurotoxins affecting ion channels or pumps using beating cardiomyocytes as alternative for animal testing

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas, J.A.Y.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; de Haan,; Koning, R.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Bovee, T.F.H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated if and to what extent murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies can be used as a broad screening in vitro assay for neurotoxicity testing, replacing for example in vivo tests for marine neurotoxins. Effect of nine model compounds, acting on either the Na+, K+, or Ca2+ channels or the Na+/K+ ATP-ase pump, on the beating was assessed. Diphenhydramine, veratridine, isradipine, verapamil and ouabain induced specific beating arrests that ...

  13. Boiler circulation calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Natural circulation water tube and fire tube boilers are widely used in the chemical process industry. These are preferred to forced-circulation boilers where a circulation pump ensures flow of a steam/water mixture through the tubes. In addition to being an operating expense, a pump failure can have serious consequences in such systems. The motive force driving the steam/water mixture through the tubes (water tube boilers) or over tubes (fire tube boilers) in natural-circulation systems is the difference in density between cooler water in the downcomer circuits and the steam/water mixture in the riser tubes. This flow must be adequate to cool the tubes and prevent overheating. This article explains how circulation ratio or the ratio of steam/water mixture to steam flow may be evaluated.

  14. Data from pumping and injection tests and chemical sampling in the geothermal aquifer at Klamath Falls, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, S.M.; Janik, C.J.; Long, D.C.; Solbau, R.D.; Lienau, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    A seven-week pumping and injection tests in the geothermal aquifer at Klamath Falls, Oregon, in 1983 provided new information on hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The Open-File Data Report on the tests includes graphs of water levels measured in 50 wells, temperature measurement in 17 wells , daily air-temperatures in relation to discharge of thermal water from more than 70 pumped and artesian wells, tables of monthly mean air temperatures and estimates of discharges of thermal water during a normal year, and tables of chemical and isotopic analyses on samples from 12 wells. The water-level measurements reflect the effects of pumping, injection, and recovery over about 1.7 square miles of the hot-well area of Klamath Falls. The pumped well, City Well No 1, and the injection well at the Klamath County Museum are components of a proposed District Heating Plan. The study was funded principally under contracts from the U.S. Department of Energy to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Stanford University, and the Oregon Institute of Technology, with coordination and chemical sampling provided under the Geothermal Research Program, U.S. Geological Survey. Support was received from the City of Klamath Falls, Klamath County Chamber of Commerce, Citizens for Responsible Geothermal Development, and many citizen volunteers. (USGS)

  15. Pierre Gorce working on a helium pump.

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This type of pump was designed by Mario Morpurgo, to circulate liquid helium in superconducting magnets wound with hollow conductors. M. Morpurgo, Design and construction of a pump for liquid helium, CRYIOGENICS, February 1977, p. 91

  16. Thrust Removal Scheme for the FAST-MAC Circulation Control Model Tested in the National Transonic Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David T.; Milholen, William E., II; Jones, Gregory S.; Goodliff, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    A second wind tunnel test of the FAST-MAC circulation control semi-span model was recently completed in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The model allowed independent control of four circulation control plenums producing a high momentum jet from a blowing slot near the wing trailing edge that was directed over a 15% chord simple-hinged flap. The model was configured for transonic testing of the cruise configuration with 0deg flap deflection to determine the potential for drag reduction with the circulation control blowing. Encouraging results from analysis of wing surface pressures suggested that the circulation control blowing was effective in reducing the transonic drag on the configuration, however this could not be quantified until the thrust generated by the blowing slot was correctly removed from the force and moment balance data. This paper will present the thrust removal methodology used for the FAST-MAC circulation control model and describe the experimental measurements and techniques used to develop the methodology. A discussion on the impact to the force and moment data as a result of removing the thrust from the blowing slot will also be presented for the cruise configuration, where at some Mach and Reynolds number conditions, the thrust-removed corrected data showed that a drag reduction was realized as a consequence of the blowing.

  17. A hierarchical framework for coupling surface fluxes to atompsheric general circulation models: The homogeneity test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    The atmosphere and the biosphere are inherently coupled to one another. Atmospheric surface state variables such as temperature, winds, water vapor, precipitation, and radiation control biophysical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes at the surface and subsurface. At the same time, surface fluxes of momentum, moisture, heat, and trace gases act as time-dependent boundary conditions providing feedback on atmospheric processes. To understand such phenomena, a coupled set of interactive models is required. Costs are still prohibitive for computing surface/subsurface fluxes directly for medium-resolution atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs), but a technique has been developed for testing large-scale homogeneity and accessing surface parameterizations and models to reduce this computational cost and maintain accuracy. This modeling system potentially bridges the observed spatial and temporal ranges yet allows the incorporation of necessary details about individual ecological community types or biomes and simulates the net momentum, heat, moisture, and trace gas fluxes. This suite of coupled models is defined here as the hierarchical systems flux scheme (HSFS).

  18. A hierarchical framework for coupling surface fluxes to atompsheric general circulation models: The homogeneity test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.L.

    1993-12-31

    The atmosphere and the biosphere are inherently coupled to one another. Atmospheric surface state variables such as temperature, winds, water vapor, precipitation, and radiation control biophysical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes at the surface and subsurface. At the same time, surface fluxes of momentum, moisture, heat, and trace gases act as time-dependent boundary conditions providing feedback on atmospheric processes. To understand such phenomena, a coupled set of interactive models is required. Costs are still prohibitive for computing surface/subsurface fluxes directly for medium-resolution atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs), but a technique has been developed for testing large-scale homogeneity and accessing surface parameterizations and models to reduce this computational cost and maintain accuracy. This modeling system potentially bridges the observed spatial and temporal ranges yet allows the incorporation of necessary details about individual ecological community types or biomes and simulates the net momentum, heat, moisture, and trace gas fluxes. This suite of coupled models is defined here as the hierarchical systems flux scheme (HSFS).

  19. Energy efficient ammonia heat pump. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Claus; Pijnenburg, B.; Schumann Grindorf, H. [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Christensen, Rolf [Alfa Laval, Lund (Sweden); Rasmussen, Bjarne D. [Grundfos, Bjerringbro (Denmark); Gram, S.; Fredborg Jakobsen, D. [Svedan Industri Koeleanlaeg, Greve (Denmark)

    2013-09-15

    The report describes the development of a highly effective ammonia heat pump. Heat pumps play an increasingly important role in the search for more effective use of energy in our society. Highly efficient heat pumps can contribute to reduced energy consumption and improved economy of the systems which they are a part of. An ammonia heat pump with high pressure reciprocating compressor and a novel split condenser was developed to prove potential for efficiency optimization. The split of the condenser in two parts can be utilized to obtain smaller temperature approaches and, thereby, improved heat pump efficiency at an equal heat exchanger area, when compared to the traditional solution with separate condenser and de-superheater. The split condenser design can also be exploited for heating a significant share of the total heating capacity to a temperature far above the condensing temperature. Furthermore, the prototype heat pump was equipped with a plate type evaporator combined with a U-turn separator with a minimum liquid height and a liquid pump with the purpose of creating optimum liquid circulation ratio for the highest possible heat transfer coefficients at the lowest possible pressure drop. The test results successfully confirmed the highest possible efficiency; a COP of 4.3 was obtained when heating water from 40 deg. C to 80 deg. C while operating with evaporating/condensing temperatures of +20 deg C/+73 deg C. (Author)

  20. Use of expert judgment in the development and evaluation of risk-based inservice testing strategies for pumps and valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, W.J.; Perdue, R.K.; Balkey, K.R.; Closky, N.B. [and others

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes a rigorous approach for quantitatively evaluating inservice testing effectiveness that evolved from two pilot plant studies. These studies prototyped methodologies for designing and selecting inservice testing (IST) strategies in a manner structured to insure that the targeted components will perform their required safety functions while minimizing life cycle inservice testing costs. The paper concentrates on the use of expert judgment in developing test effectiveness measures that move risk-based methods beyond ranking to optimization of plant IST programs. Selected results for check valves and pumps are shown to illustrate the practical significance of the approach.

  1. Performance test of a laboratory pump for liquid transfer based on the fountain effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W. E. W.; Frederking, T. H. K.; Helper, W. A.

    1988-01-01

    A laboratory scale pump which determines the flow characteristics of a heater-activated all-metal thermomechanical fountain-effect pump (FEP) is evaluated. Results are presented on the functional dependence of the fountain pressure difference versus mass throughput. A modified Vote et al. (1971) power law approximation is used to obtain the flow rate as a function of the driving force. Despite a large nominal pore size of the porous plug used for the FEP, flow rates of up to 10 liter/hr sq cm have been obtained.

  2. A field comparison of BTEX mass flow rates based on integral pumping tests and point scale measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Michael; Dietrich, Peter

    2011-03-25

    Measuring contaminant flow rates at control cross sections is the most accurate method to evaluate natural attenuation processes in the saturated subsurface. In most instances, point scale measurement is the method of choice due to practical reasons and cost factors. However, at many field sites, the monitoring network is too sparse for a reliable estimation of contaminant and groundwater flow rates. Therefore, integral pumping tests have been developed as an alternative. In this study, we compare mass flow rates obtained by integral pumping test results and point scale data. We compare results of both methods with regard to uncertainties due to estimation errors and mass flow estimations based on two different point scale networks. The differences between benzene and groundwater flow rate estimates resulting from point scale samples and integral pumping tests were 6.44% and 6.97%, respectively, demonstrating the applicability of both methods at the site. Point scale-based data, especially with use of cost efficient Direct-Push technique, can be applied to show the contaminant distribution at a site and may be followed by a denser point scale network or an integral method. Nevertheless, a combination of both methods decreases uncertainties. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In vivo testing of a magnetically suspended centrifugal pump designed for long-term use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Nishimura, K; Akamatsu, T; Tsukiya, T; Park, C H; Kono, S; Matsuda, K; Ban, T

    1997-10-01

    The life of currently-available centrifugal pumps is limited to no more than three days. As a magnetically suspended centrifugal pump (MSCP) contains no shaft or seal, it could be expected to have a longer life expectancy. The MSCP was evaluated in a chronic animal model using eight adult sheep. Left ventricular assist with the MSCP was instituted between the left atrium and the descending aorta. The flow rates ranged from 2.5 to 6.0 L/min. The duration of the experiments ranged from 14 to 60 days. No mechanical failure occurred. The plasma free hemoglobin levels remained within an acceptable range (3-19 mg/dL). No reduction in the counts of red blood cells or platelets was observed. Thrombus formation within the MSCP was recognized in one pump. The main reason for termination was thromboembolism derived from the circuits. Three types of regulation methods (constant rotational speed, constant motor current, and controlled motor current) were also investigated. Regulation by a constant motor current mode altered the pressure-flow (P-Q) characteristics, and thereby, a steadier pump flow was obtained compared with regulation in the constant rotational speed mode. Moreover, the controlled motor current mode can change the P-Q relationship. These results demonstrate that the MSCP is a promising device for long-term use.

  4. Central Control of Heat Pump for Smart Grid Purposes Tested on Single Family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2013-01-01

    A challenge in Denmark in the near future is to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. In this work a central control system using heat pumps in single family houses to help balancing the grid is investigated. The central...

  5. Limited ability of the proton-pump inhibitor test to identify patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytzer, Peter; Jones, Roger; Vakil, Nimish

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy often is assessed to determine whether patients' symptoms are acid-related and if patients have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), although the accuracy of this approach is questionable. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the PPI te...

  6. A Liquid-Liquid Thermoelectric Heat Exchanger as a Heat Pump for Testing Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik B.; Makinen, Janice; Le, Hung V.

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of the Phase Change HX payload on the International Space Station (ISS) is to test and demonstrate the viability and performance of Phase Change Material Heat Exchangers (PCM HX). The system was required to pump a working fluid through a PCM HX to promote the phase change material to freeze and thaw as expected on Orion's Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. Due to limitations on ISS's Internal Thermal Control System, a heat pump was needed on the Phase Change HX payload to help with reducing the working fluid's temperature to below 0degC (32degF). This paper will review the design and development of a TEC based liquid-liquid heat exchanger as a way to vary to fluid temperature for the freeze and thaw phase of the PCM HX. Specifically, the paper will review the design of custom coldplates and sizing for the required heat removal of the HX.

  7. Pump and probe damage testing for investigation of transient material modifications associated with laser damage in optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negres, R A; Feit, M D; DeMange, P; Bude, J D; Demos, S G

    2007-10-18

    Laser-induced breakdown in the bulk of transparent dielectric materials is associated with the generation of extreme localized conditions of temperatures and pressures. In this work, we perform pump and probe damage testing experiments to investigate the evolution of transient absorption by the host material arising from modifications following confined laser energy deposition in fused silica and DKDP materials. Specifically, we measure the size of the damage sites observed in the region of spatial overlap between the pump and probe pulses versus probe time delay and energy. Results of this proof-of-principle experimental work confirm that material modifications under extreme conditions created during a damage event include transient optical absorption. In addition, we found that the relaxation times of the induced absorption are very distinct for DKDP and SiO{sub 2} even under identical excitation conditions, on the order of 100 ns and 100 {micro}s, respectively.

  8. Overview of the system alone and system/CFD coupled calculations of the PHENIX Natural Circulation Test within the THINS project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pialla, David, E-mail: david.pialla@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), DEN/DM2S/STMF, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Tenchine, Denis [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), DEN/DM2S/STMF, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Li, Simon [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), DEN/DM2S/STMF, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gauthe, Paul; Vasile, Alfredo [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), DEN/DER/SESI, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baviere, Roland; Tauveron, Nicolas; Perdu, Fabien [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), DEN/DM2S/STMF, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Maas, Ludovic; Cocheme, François [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN/SEMIA/BAST, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Huber, Klaus; Cheng, Xu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Fusion and Reactor Technology (IFRT), Kaiserstraße 12, Building 07.08, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The PHENIX natural convection test performed during the end of life tests program. • The calculation with system codes and theirs limits. • The calculation with coupling CFD and system code, which allows better prediction. • The tasks of code validation have been done in the frame of the THINS project. - Abstract: The PHENIX sodium cooled fast reactor started operation in 1973 and was shut down in 2009. Before decommissioning, an ultimate test program was designed and performed to provide valuable data for the development of future sodium cooled fast reactors, as the so-called Astrid prototype in France. Among these ultimate tests, a thermal-hydraulic Natural Convection Test (NCT) was set-up in June 2009. Starting from a reduced power state of 120 MWt, the NCT consists of a loss of the heat sink combined with a reactor scram and a primary pumps trip leading to stabilized natural circulation in the primary sodium system. The thermal-hydraulics innovative system project (THINS project), sponsored by the European Community in the frame of the 7th FP has selected this transient for validation of both stand-alone system code simulations and coupled simulations using system and CFD codes. Participants from three organizations (CEA, IRSN and KIT) have addressed this transient using different system codes (CATHARE, DYN2B and ATHLET) and CFD codes (TRIO-U and OPEN FOAM). The present paper depicts the different modeling approaches, methodologies and compares the numerical results with the available experimental data. Finally, the main lessons learned from the work performed within the THINS project on the PHENIX NCT with respect to code development and validation are summarized.

  9. Evaluation of the Novel Centrifugal Pump, CAPIOX SL, in Chronic Large Animal Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Kei; Katagiri, Nobumasa; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Mizuno, Toshihide; Itamochi, Yosuke; Kumano, Kouko; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2018-02-12

    In the development of a new device for extracorporeal circulation, long-term durability and biocompatibility are required. The CAPIOX SL Pump (SL pump, Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), which is a centrifugal pump using a two-pivot bearing, was developed with the hope of suppressing pump thrombus formation around the bearings. This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo performance of the SL pump in the condition assumed severe clinical situation for long-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Extracorporeal circulation using the SL pump was installed in three goats, with drainage from the inferior vena cava and infusion into the right jugular artery. The animals were maintained with target pump flow of 2.0-3.0 L/min for 3 or 7 days. Anticoagulation was performed by continuous infusion of heparin with a target activated coagulation time (ACT) of 200 ± 50 s. Blood tests were performed regularly. After 3 or 7 days, autopsies were performed on all animals. The pumps were disassembled and observed for thrombus formation. The results were compared with those of our previous study of the current model of the centrifugal pump (SP pump). All animals were successfully managed within target pump flows and ACT values during the scheduled period, with no adverse events. No thrombus formation was found around the bearing of the SL pump. The blood tests showed normal major organ functions, and platelet consumption and hemolysis were significantly lower in this study compared to the previous study of the SP pump. The CAPIOX SL Pump showed excellent durability and biocompatibility in a large animal experiment. © 2018 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Basic tests of in-furnace desulfurization in a circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujima, Y.; Ichimura, S.; Ohshima, K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the relation between lime reactivity and the desulfurization efficiency achieved in a circulating fluidized bed equipped with lime injection. Theoretical calculations were made of the reaction between Ca and SO/sub 2/, based on the assumption that this reaction takes place in a dilute zone. The required reaction time for Ca particles was found to coincide closely with the residence time of particles in a dilute bed. The authors give an equation relating percentage desulfurization with the Ca particle circulation rate. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Energy saving in the auxiliaries consumption for circulation water pumps optimizing the thermal regime; Ahorro en el consumo de auxiliares por bombas de agua de circulacion optimando el regimen termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco Martinez, Roni [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A methodology is proposed that should be followed in any thermal electric power plant to determine the load value at which a unit requires a second circulation water pump without affecting the thermal regime and avoiding an excessive auxiliaries consumption in partial loads. In applying this method the power plant would have an energy saving equivalent to the auxiliaries consumption during an hour, when the unit as operating at full load. [Espanol] Se propone una metodologia que debe seguirse en cualquier central termoelectrica para determinar el valor de la carga en la cual una unidad requiere de la segunda bomba de agua de circulacion sin afectar el regimen termico y evitadose un excesivo consumo de auxiliares en cargas parciales. Al aplicar este metodo la central tendria un ahorro de energia equivalente al consumo de auxiliares durante una hora cuando la unidad esta generando su maxima carga.

  12. Experimental Study on Series Operation of Sliding Vane Pump and Centrifugal Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Li; Weiming Zhang; Ming Jiang; Zhengyang Li

    2013-01-01

    A platform for sliding vane pump and centrifugal pump tests is installed to study the series operation of them under different characteristics of pipeline. Firstly, the sliding vane pump and the centrifugal pump work independently, and the performance is recorded. Then, the two types of pumps are combined together, with the sliding vane pump acting as the feeding pump. Comparison is made between the performance of the independently working pump and the performance of series operation pump. Re...

  13. Champagne Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  14. High-Temperature Salt Pump Review and Guidelines - Phase I Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jain, Prashant K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hazelwood, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Fluoride salt cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) concepts include pumps for forced circulation of the primary and secondary coolants. As part of a cooperative research and development agreement between the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a research project was initiated to aid in the development of pumps for high-temperature salts. The objectives of the task included characterization of the behavior of an existing ORNL LSTL pump; design and test a modified impeller and volute for improved pump characteristics; and finally, provide lessons learned, recommendations, and guidelines for salt pump development and design. The pump included on the liquid salt test loop (LSTL) at ORNL served as a case study. This report summarizes the progress to date. The report is organized as follows. First, there is a review, focused on pumps, of the significant amount of work on salts at ORNL during the 1950s 1970s. The existing pump on the LSTL is then described. Plans for hot and cold testing of the pump are then discussed, including the design for a cold shakedown test stand and the required LSTL modifications for hot testing. Initial hydraulic and vibration modeling of the LSTL pump is documented. Later, test data from the LSTL will be used to validate the modeling approaches, which could then be used for future pump design efforts. Some initial insights and test data from the pump are then provided. Finally, some preliminary design goals and requirements for a future LSTL pump are provided as examples of salt pump design considerations.

  15. Climate Adaptivity and Field Test of the Space Heating Used Air-Source Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yulong; Ye, Zuliang; Cao, Feng

    2017-08-01

    In this study, an innovation of air-sourced transcritical CO2 heat pump which was employed in the space heating application was presented and discussed in order to solve the problem that the heating performances of the transcritical CO2 heat pump water heater deteriorated sharply with the augment in water feed temperature. An R134a cycle was adopted as a subcooling device in the proposed system. The prototype of the presented system was installed and supplied hot water for three places in northern China in winter. The field test results showed that the acceptable return water temperature can be increased up to 55°C, while the supply water temperature was raised rapidly by the presented prototype to up to 70°C directly, which was obviously appropriate to the various conditions of heating radiator in space heating application. Additionally, though the heating capacity and power dissipation decreased with the decline in ambient temperature or the augment in water temperature, the presented heat pump system performed efficiently whatever the climate and water feed temperature were. The real time COP of the presented system was generally more than 1.8 in the whole heating season, while the seasonal performance coefficient (SPC) was also appreciable, which signified that the economic efficiency of the presented system was more excellent than other space heating approaches such as fuel, gas, coal or electric boiler. As a result, the novel system will be a promising project to solve the energy issues in future space heating application.

  16. Hydraulic development of high specific-speed pump-turbines by means of an inverse design method, numerical flow-simulation (CFD) and model testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschberger, P; Gehrer, A, E-mail: peter.kerschberger@andritz.co [Andritz Hydro Graz A-8045 Graz, Reichsstrasse 68B (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    In recent years an increased interest in pump-turbines has been recognized in the market. The rapid availability of pumped storage schemes and the benefits to the power system by peak lopping, providing reserve and rapid response for frequency control are becoming of growing advantage. In that context it is requested to develop pump-turbines that reliably stand dynamic operation modes, fast changes of the discharge rate by adjusting the variable diffuser vanes as well as fast changes from pump to turbine operation. Within the present study various flow patterns linked to the operation of a pump-turbine system are discussed. In that context pump and turbine mode are presented separately and different load cases at both operation modes are shown. In order to achieve modern, competitive pump-turbine designs it is further explained which design challenges should be considered during the geometry definition of a pump-turbine impeller. Within the present study a runner-blade profile for a low head pump-turbine has been developed. For the initial hydraulic runner-blade design, an inverse design method has been applied. Within this design procedure, a first blade geometry is generated by imposing the pressure loading-distribution and by means of an inverse 3D potential-flow-solution. The hydraulic behavior of both, pump-mode and turbine-mode is then evaluated by solving the full 3D Navier-Stokes equations in combination with a robust turbulence model. Based on this initial design the blade profile has been further optimized and redesigned considering various hydraulic pump-turbine requirements. Finally, the progress in hydraulic design is demonstrated by model test results which show a significant improvement in hydraulic performance compared to an existing reference design.

  17. Pumps for medium sized solar systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of the electronically controlled circulation pump type UPE 2000 from Grundfos for large solar heating systems was elucidated.......The suitability of the electronically controlled circulation pump type UPE 2000 from Grundfos for large solar heating systems was elucidated....

  18. (abstract) Ekman Pumping/Suction and Wind-Driven Ocean Circulation from ERS-1 Scatterometer Measurements Over the Arabian Sea During October 1994-October 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, D.; Freilich, M. H.; Weller, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Spatial variations of the east-west and north-south components of surface wind stress are critical in studies of ocean circulation and biological-physical interactions because surface wind stress curl produces a vertical velocity in the upper ocean at the bottom of the Ekman Layer.The ERS-1 scatterometer provides reasonable coverage and direct measurements of vector of winds. Three schemes are evaluated relative to high-quality moored-bouy wind observations recorded in the central Arabian Sea, where high surface waves and high atmospheric water content during the southeast monsoon adversely affect the estimation of satellite-derived winds.

  19. Experimental circulation loss study

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Sigurd

    2013-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering Circulation losses could occur during any operation that involves pumping into a well. As of today, it is recognized as one of the most costly drilling problems. In some situation it might be hard to stop, and usually takes precious rig time to deal with the problem. In order to mitigate the risk...

  20. Break-In, Performance, and Endurance Tests Results on Fixed Displacement Hydraulic Fluid Power Vane Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-15

    where Q outlet flow gpm Td = Temperature difference acrossthe pump 0F (T - Ti ) S specific gravity of the oil O0g BTUs C specific heat of the oil ibF...heat energy of leakage BTU’s/min Wl ( 3.34) QI (Sg) (C) (Td) wher 1 = leakage flow in GPM S = specific gravity of the oil C = specific heat of the oil...53401 Rexroth Corp. Ted Lincoln 215/694/83002315 City Lirnu Rd. Industrial Hyd. Div. Box 2407 Bethlehem , PA 18018 Sperry Vickers Ashir Ahmed 313/280

  1. Masking of 13C urea breath test by proton pump inhibitors is dependent on type of medication: comparison between omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole and esomeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, A; Shevah, O; Shabat-Sehayek, V; Aeed, H; Boaz, M; Moss, S F; Niv, Y; Avni, Y; Shirin, H

    2004-07-01

    The need to withhold acid suppression therapy while awaiting urea breath test results is a common clinical problem in symptomatic patients. It is unclear at present if the dose or type of proton pump inhibitor or the type of test meal govern the apparent masking effect of proton pump inhibitors on the urea breath test. To prospectively evaluate Helicobacter pylori detection rates during treatment with four different proton pump inhibitors, utilizing a high-dose citric acid-based 13C urea breath test. Patients positive for Helicobacter pylori by urea breath test were randomized to receive either omeprazole 20 mg/day, pantoprazole 40 mg/day, lansoprazole 30 mg/day or esomeprazole 40 mg/day for 14 days. A repeat breath test was performed on day 14 of treatment. One hundred and seventy-nine patients, mean age 45.8 +/- 16.8, completed the study. Treatment with omeprazole or pantoprazole prior to urea breath test (UBT) was associated with low false negative results, while lansoprazole and esomeprazole caused clinically unacceptable high false negative rates (pantoprazole 2.2% vs. lansoprazole 16.6%, P = 0.02, vs. esomeprazole 13.6%, P = 0.05; omeprazole 4.1% vs. lansoprazole 16.6%, P = 0.05). Proton pump inhibitor-induced false negative results on high-dose citric acid based urea breath test vary with the type of proton pump inhibitor used. Selection of the appropriate test meal and proton pump inhibitor may allow symptomatic individuals to continue their proton pump inhibitors prior to performing a urea breath test.

  2. Penis Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appointment might be less involved. Choosing a penis pump Some penis pumps are available without a prescription, ... doesn't get caught in the ring. Penis pumps for penis enlargement Many advertisements in magazines and ...

  3. In vitro detection of cardiotoxins or neurotoxins affecting ion channels or pumps using beating cardiomyocytes as alternative for animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Peter J M; de Haan, Laura H J; Koning, Rosella; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Bovee, Toine F H

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated if and to what extent murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies can be used as a broad screening in vitro assay for neurotoxicity testing, replacing for example in vivo tests for marine neurotoxins. Effect of nine model compounds, acting on either the Na(+), K(+), or Ca(2+) channels or the Na(+)/K(+) ATP-ase pump, on the beating was assessed. Diphenhydramine, veratridine, isradipine, verapamil and ouabain induced specific beating arrests that were reversible and none of the concentrations tested induced cytotoxicity. Three K(+) channel blockers, amiodarone, clofilium and sematilide, and the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump inhibitor digoxin had no specific effect on the beating. In addition, two marine neurotoxins i.e. saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin elicited specific beating arrests in cardiomyocytes. Comparison of the results obtained with cardiomyocytes to those obtained with the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay revealed that the cardiomyocytes were generally somewhat more sensitive for the model compounds affecting Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, but less sensitive for the compounds affecting K(+) channels. The stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were not as sensitive as the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay for saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin. It is concluded that the murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes provide a sensitive model for detection of specific neurotoxins and that the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay may be a more promising cell-based assay for the screening of marine biotoxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydraulic Properties of a Strike-slip Fault Estimated from Periodic Pumping Tests in Borehole GDP-1 at Grimselpass, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Renner, J.

    2016-12-01

    Periodic pumping tests were conducted using a double-packer probe placed at four different depth levels in borehole GDP-1 at Grimselpass, Central Swiss Alps, penetrating a hydrothermally active fault. The tests had the objective to assess the use of periodic testing in the context for design and quality control of hydraulically stimulated geothermal reservoirs. We employed periods between 60 and 1080 s and nominal flow rates between 0 and 10 l/min. Amplitude ratio and phase shift between the pressure and flow rate in the pumping interval corrected for the storage capacity of the tubing are compared to analytical predictions of conventional 1D and radial flow models but also to those for bilinear flow and radial flow in a system composed of cylindrical shells with distinct hydraulic properties concentrically arranged around the well (injectivity analysis). The order of magnitude of derived transmissivity values agrees with that gained from conventional hydraulic tests. The field campaign revealed several advantages of the periodic testing, e.g., short testing time since a periodic signal can easily be separated from changing background pressure by detrending and Fourier transformation. The mismatch between test results and the considered analytical models indicates a hydraulically complex and heterogeneous subsurface. Attenuation and phase shift between the periodic pressure signals above or below packers and in the interval (interference analysis) are addressed by an exploratory numerical modelling of the non-radial flow situation. Interference analysis of a single well provides data that are not affected by uncertainties in the timing of flow-rate changes. The exploratory modeling shows consistent results and improves diffusivity estimation. Yet, more comprehensive modeling will be required to take full advantage of all the pressure records typically acquired when using a double-packer probe.

  5. Groundwater sampling in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki from borehole OL-KR6 during a long-term pumping test in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland); Hatanpaeae, E. [Consulting Engineers Paavo Ristola Ltd, Hollola (Finland); Ahokas, H. [Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    A long-term pumping test from borehole OL-KR6 in Olkiluoto was initiated in 2001. Since then, flow and in situ EC measurements, as well as groundwater sampling from specific sampling sections have been performed yearly. The aim of this study was to get information on the potential connections via fractures both to the sea and to deep saline groundwater during long-term pumping of the open borehole. In 2005 four groundwater samples were collected from four different sampling depths (98.5-100.5 m, 120-125 m, 135-137 m and 422-425 m) from borebole OL-KR6. The groundwater samples were taken from packed-off sections by means of PAVE equipment. The water types of groundwater samples from OL-KR6 were Na-Cl (for samples from 98.5-100.5 m and 135-137 m depths) and Na-Ca-Cl (for samples from 120-125 m and 422-425 m depths). The sample from depth 422-425 m was saline (TDS> 10000mg/L), while other waters were brackish (1000 mg < TDS <10000 mg/L). This study presents the sampling methods and the analysis results of groundwater samples from deep borehole OL-KR6. A comparison between the results of the in situ EC measurements and the EC results measured during groundwater sampling is presented. This report also contains a short comparison of the results obtained during the long-term pumping test during 2001-2005. (orig.)

  6. Modeling the effect of clay drapes on pumping test response in a cross-bedded aquifer using multiple-point geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysmans, Marijke; Dassargues, Alain

    2012-07-01

    SummaryThis study investigates whether fine-scale clay drapes can cause an anisotropic pumping test response at a much larger scale. A pumping test was performed in a sandbar deposit consisting of cross-bedded units composed of materials with different grain sizes and hydraulic conductivities. The measured drawdown values in the different observation wells reveal an anisotropic or elliptically-shaped pumping cone. The major axis of the pumping ellipse is parallel with the strike of cm to m-scale clay drapes that are observed in several outcrops. To determine (1) whether this large-scale anisotropy can be the result of fine-scale clay drapes and (2) whether application of multiple-point geostatistics can improve interpretation of pumping tests, this pumping test is analyzed with a local 3D groundwater model in which fine-scale sedimentary heterogeneity is modelled using multiple-point geostatistics. To reduce CPU and RAM demand of the multiple-point geostatistical simulation step, edge properties indicating the presence of irregularly-shaped surfaces are directly simulated. Results show that the anisotropic pumping cone can be attributed to the presence of the clay drapes. Incorporating fine-scale clay drapes results in a better fit between observed and calculated drawdowns. These results thus show that fine-scale clay drapes can cause an anisotropic pumping test response at a much larger scale and that the combined approach of multiple-point geostatistics and cell edge properties is an efficient method for integrating fine-scale features in larger scale models.

  7. Combining situated Cognitive Engineering with a novel testing method in a case study comparing two infusion pump interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittker, R; Schmettow, M; Verhoeven, F; Schraagen, J M C

    2016-07-01

    We validated the usability of a new infusion pump interface designed with a situated Cognitive Engineering approach by comparing it to a reference interface using a novel testing method employing repeated measurements and process measures, in addition to traditional outcome measures. The sample consisted of 25 nurses who performed eight critical tasks three times. Performance measures consisted of number and type of errors, deviations from a pre-established normative path solution, task completion times, number of keystrokes, mental effort and preferences in use. Results showed that interaction with the new interface resulted in 18% fewer errors, 90% fewer normative path deviations, 42% lower task completion times, 40% fewer keystrokes, 39% lower mental effort and 76% more subjective preferences in use. These outcomes suggest that within the scope of this case study, combining the situated Cognitive Engineering approach with a novel testing method addresses various shortcomings of earlier testing methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiphysics Modeling of an Annular Linear Induction Pump With Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbane, J.; Polzin, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    An annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that could be used for circulating liquid-metal coolant in a fission surface power reactor system is modeled in the present work using the computational COMSOL Multiphysics package. The pump is modeled using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric geometry and solved under conditions similar to those used during experimental pump testing. Real, nonlinear, temperature-dependent material properties can be incorporated into the model for both the electrically-conducting working fluid in the pump (NaK-78) and structural components of the pump. The intricate three-phase coil configuration of the pump is implemented in the model to produce an axially-traveling magnetic wave that is qualitatively similar to the measured magnetic wave. The model qualitatively captures the expected feature of a peak in efficiency as a function of flow rate.

  9. Results of heating mode performance tests of a solar-assisted heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1979-01-01

    The performance of a heat pump, utilizing 8.16 square meters of low-cost solar collectors as the evaporator in a Freon-114 refrigeration cycle, was determined under actual insolation conditions during the summer and fall of 1976. C.O.P.'s (coefficient of performance) greater than 3 were obtained with condensing temperatures around 78 C and evaporating temperatures around 27 C. Ambient temperatures were about 3 C above evaporating temperatures. Similar performance levels were obtained at other insolation and temperature conditions. Experience with the system has identified some component and system changes which should increase the obtainable C.O.P. to about 4.0. These are described along with the system's design rationale. The accumulated data are presented as an appendix.

  10. Proceedings of the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing. Volume 2, Session 3A--Session 4B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing, jointly sponsored by the Board of Nuclear Codes and Standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, provides a forum for the discussion of current programs and methods for inservice testing and motor-operated valve testing at nuclear power plants. The symposium also provides an opportunity to discuss the need to improve that testing in order to help ensure the reliable performance of pumps and valves. The participation of industry representatives, regulators, and consultants results in the discussion of a broad spectrum of ideas and perspectives regarding the improvement of inservice testing of pumps and valves at nuclear power plants. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  11. Proceedings of the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing. Session 1A--Session 2C: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing, jointly sponsored by the Board of Nuclear Codes and Standards of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, provides a forum for the discussion of current programs and methods for inservice testing and motor-operated valve testing at nuclear power plants. The symposium also provides an opportunity to discuss the need to improve that testing in order to help ensure the reliable performance of pumps and valves. The participation of industry representatives, regulators, and consultants results in the discussion of a broad spectrum of ideas and perspectives regarding the improvement of inservice testing of pumps and valves at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume 1, covers sessions 1A through session 2C. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  12. Evaluation of tantalum-alloy-clad uranium mononitride fuel specimens from 7500-hour, 1040 C pumped-lithium-loop test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, G. K.

    1974-01-01

    Simulated nuclear fuel element specimens, consisting of uranium mononitride (UN) fuel cylinders clad with tungsten-lined T-111, were exposed for up to 7500 hr at 1040 C (1900 F) in a pumped-lithium loop. The lithium flow velocity was 1.5 m/sec (5 ft/sec) in the specimen test section. No evidence of any compatibility problems between the specimens and the flowing lithium was found based on appearance, weight change, chemistry, and metallography. Direct exposure of the UN to the lithium through a simulated cladding crack resulted in some erosion of the UN in the area of the defect. The T-111 cladding was ductile after lithium exposure, but it was sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement during post-test handling.

  13. [Detection of circulating immune complexes with the polyethylene glycol precipitation test: advantages and limitations of the method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, L; Martini, F; Buzzonetti, A; Giuliani, E

    1981-11-01

    The precipitation test with 3.5% PEG has been used to reveal the presence of circulating immuno complexes (IC) in a sample of 130 blood donors. The asymmetry in the O.D. distribution has been corrected by the square root transformation. The positivity threshold has been fixed at the superior extreme of the 95% fiducial interval relative to the transformed data of the control sample, namely at 0.125 O.D.280nm. The correlation between O.D. values obtained with PEG-test and serum concentration of IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 has been studied in 50 of 130 blood donors, 53 patients with gastro-intestinal neoplasm, 73 patients with different forms of the rheumatic disease and 17 patients with cryoglobulinaemia. No significant correlation has been found in normal subjects. Instead, a positive correlation could be demonstrated between O.D. values and IgG concentration both in neoplastic, rheumatic and cryoglobulinemic patients, between O.D. values and IgM concentration in rheumatic patients only; a negative correlation has been found in rheumatic patients with regard to C4. The analytical results are, finally, discusses in relation to the reliability of the method as routine test for the detection of circulating IC.

  14. Sequential combined test, second trimester maternal serum markers, and circulating fetal cells to select women for invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Guanciali Franchi

    Full Text Available From January 1st 2013 to August 31st 2016, 24408 pregnant women received the first trimester Combined test and contingently offered second trimester maternal serum screening to identify those women who would most benefit from invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD. The screening was based on first trimester cut-offs of ≥1:30 (IPD indicated, 1:31 to 1:899 (second trimester screening indicated and ≤1:900 (no further action, and a second trimester cut-off of ≥1:250. From January 2014, analysis of fetal cells from peripheral maternal blood was also offered to women with positive screening results. For fetal Down syndrome, the overall detection rate was 96.8% for a false-positive rate of 2.8% resulting in an odds of being affected given a positive result (OAPR of 1:11, equivalent to a positive predictive value (PPV of 8.1%. Additional chromosome abnormalities were also identified resulting in an OAPR for any chromosome abnormality of 1:6.6 (PPV 11.9%. For a sub-set of cases with positive contingent test results, FISH analysis of circulating fetal cells in maternal circulation identified 7 abnormal and 39 as normal cases with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity. We conclude that contingent screening using conventional Combined and second trimester screening tests is effective but can potentially be considerably enhanced through the addition of fetal cell analysis.

  15. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  16. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1981-01-01

    Centrifugal Pumps describes the whole range of the centrifugal pump (mixed flow and axial flow pumps are dealt with more briefly), with emphasis on the development of the boiler feed pump. Organized into 46 chapters, this book discusses the general hydrodynamic principles, performance, dimensions, type number, flow, and efficiency of centrifugal pumps. This text also explains the pumps performance; entry conditions and cavitation; speed and dimensions for a given duty; and losses. Some chapters further describe centrifugal pump mechanical design, installation, monitoring, and maintenance. The

  17. Low head drip irrigation kits and treadle pumps for smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe: a technical evaluation based on laboratory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigerwe, Jeskia; Manjengwa, Norbert; van der Zaag, Pieter; Zhakata, W.; Rockström, Johan

    Most smallholder farmers in Southern Africa rely on rainfed agriculture and frequently face dry spells and droughts that affect agricultural productivity. Low head-low cost drip irrigation may be a viable alternative for smallholder farmers, who often lack sufficient water and energy resources to enable irrigation with more conventional irrigation technologies, as these require more water (lower efficiencies) and/or more energy inputs (e.g. sprinkler irrigation). This paper reports results from laboratory tests of four treadle pumps and eight drip kits currently available in Zimbabwe. The results show that it is viable to irrigate drip irrigation gardens up to a size of 1000 m 2, if the treadle pump and drip kit are well chosen. Such a garden will not only ensure food security of the farmers, but may also generate significant income. It is concluded that farmers can opt to invest in two distinctly different types of low-head drip systems; (i) systems with in-line emitters generating low emitter flow rates (appropriate for smallholder farmers, this study did not assess impacts on crop growth of different emitter rates and the relationship between emitter discharge and non-productive soil evaporation.

  18. Study and development of an air conditioning system operating on a magnetic heat pump cycle (design and testing of flow directors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the fabrication, design of flow director, fluid flow direction analysis and testing of flow director of a magnetic heat pump. The objectives of the project are: (1) to fabricate a demonstration magnetic heat pump prototype with flow directors installed; and (2) analysis and testing of flow director and to make sure working fluid loops flow through correct directions with minor mixing. The prototype was fabricated and tested at the Development Testing Laboratory of Kennedy Space Center. The magnetic heat pump uses rear earth metal plates rotate in and out of a magnetic field in a clear plastic housing with water flowing through the rotor plates to provide temperature lift. Obtaining the proper water flow direction has been a problem. Flow directors were installed as flow barriers between separating point of two parallel loops. Function of flow directors were proven to be excellent both analytically and experimentally.

  19. Development of an Immunochromatographic Test for Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis Based on Detection of a Circulating Antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-hua Gao

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a life-threatening disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania donovani complex. Early case detection followed by adequate treatment is essential to the control of VL. However, the available diagnostic tests are either invasive and require considerable expertise (parasitological demonstration of the parasite in tissue smears or unable to distinguish between past and active infection (serological methods. Therefore, we aimed to develop a lateral flow assay in the form of an immunochromatographic test (ICT device based on the detection of a circulating Leishmania antigen using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs.mAbs were produced by fusion of murine myeloma cells with splenocytes isolated from a mouse immunized with L. donovani soluble crude antigen. Out of 12 cloned hybridoma cell lines, two secreted mAbs recognizing the same leishmanial protein. These mAbs were used to produce an ICT as a sandwich assay for the detection of circulating antigen in serum and blood samples. The ICT was evaluated with 213 serum samples from VL patients living in VL endemic areas in China, and with 156 serum samples from patients with other diseases as well as 78 serum samples from healthy donors. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficiency of the new ICT was 95.8%, 98.7% and 97.3%, respectively. Compared with a commercially available antibody detecting ICT, our antigen-based ICT performed slightly better.The newly developed ICT is an easy to use and more accurate diagnostic tool which fulfils the performance and operational characteristics required for VL case detection under field and laboratory conditions. As our ICT detects a circulating antigen, it will also be useful in monitoring treatment success and diagnosing VL in immunocompromised patients.

  20. A miniaturized extracorporeal membrane oxygenator with integrated rotary blood pump: preclinical in vivo testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Ruedger; Bensberg, Ralf; Arens, Jutta; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Rossaint, Rolf; Henzler, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can achieve sufficient gas exchange in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. A highly integrated extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (HEXMO) was developed to reduce filling volume and simplify management. Six female pigs were connected to venovenous HEXMO with a total priming volume of 125 ml for 4 hours during hypoxemia induced by a hypoxic inspired gas mixture. Animals were anticoagulated with intravenous heparin. Gas exchange, hemodynamics, hemolysis, and coagulation activation were examined. One device failed at the magnetic motor coupling of the integrated diagonal pump. In the remaining five experiments, the oxygenation increased significantly (arterial oxygen saturation [SaO2] from 79 ± 5% before HEXMO to 92% ± 11% after 4 hours) facilitated by a mean oxygen transfer of 66 ± 29 ml/dl through the oxygenator. The CO2 elimination by the HEXMO reduced arterial PaCO2 only marginal. Extracorporeal blood flow was maintained at 32% ± 6% of cardiac output. Hemodynamic instability or hemolysis was not observed. The plasmatic coagulation was only mildly activated without significant platelet consumption. The HEXMO prototype provided sufficient gas exchange to prevent hypoxemia. This proof of concept study supports further development and design modifications to increase performance and to reduce coagulation activation for potential long-term application.

  1. Using the Resistivity Imaging Method to Monitor the Dynamic Effects on the Vadose Zone During Pumping Tests at the Pengtsuo Site in Pingtung, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Yu Chang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a time-lapse monitoring study during a well-pumping test at the Pengtsuo site in Pingtung, Taiwan. Water-level gauges were installed in four wells (P1, W1, O1, and O2 at the Pengtsuo site with different screen depths for the observation. We designed the pumping test to be executed in three phases: the background, the stepwise-pumping, and the continuous-pumping phases. The survey line crossed the four wells so that a comparison would be possible between the resistivity measurements and the water-level records. The resistivity differences relative to the pre-pumping background show that electrical resistivity imaging (ERI can resolve changes due to dewatering from pumping activity. The time-lapse resistivity images reveal that the maximum resistivity increase took place at the locations in the vadose zone instead of at the groundwater surface. The variation in the resistivity differences in the vadose zone correlated to the change in groundwater level in the stepwise phase. On the other hand, the resistivity-difference change was not fully consistent with the groundwater-level change in the continuous-pumping phase. We attribute the abnormal ERI signals to the dynamic non-equilibrium of the water movement in the vadose zone. The findings suggest that pumping designs can affect the changing resistivity differences and water-content distribution patterns. We show the potential of the ER method to reveal both the water flow and water-content changes in the vadose zone with different transient boundary conditions.

  2. Heat pump concepts for nZEB Technology developments, design tools and testing of heat pump systems for nZEB in the USA: Country report IEA HPT Annex 40 Task 2, Task 3 and Task 4 of the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Payne, W. Vance [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Ling, Jiazhen [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Radermacher, Reinhard [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The IEA HPT Annex 40 "Heat pump concepts for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings" deals with the application of heat pumps as a core component of the HVAC system for Nearly or Net Zero energy buildings (nZEB). This report covers Task 2 on the system comparison and optimisation and Task 3 dedicated to the development of adapted technologies for nZEB and field monitoring results of heat pump systems in nZEB. In the US team three institutions are involved and have worked on the following projects: The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will summarize development activities through the field demonstration stage for several integrated heat pump (IHP) systems electric ground-source (GS-IHP) and air-source (AS-IHP) versions and an engine driven AS-IHP version. The first commercial GS-IHP product was just introduced to the market in December 2012. This work is a contribution to Task 3 of the Annex. The University of Maryland will contribute a software development project to Task 2 of the Annex. The software ThermCom evaluates occupied space thermal comfort conditions accounting for all radiative and convective heat transfer effects as well as local air properties. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is working on a field study effort on the NIST Net Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF). This residential building was constructed on the NIST campus and officially opened in summer 2013. During the first year, between July 2013 and June 2014, baseline performance of the NZERTF was monitored under a simulated occupancy protocol. The house was equipped with an air-to-air heat pump which included a dedicated dehumidification operating mode. Outdoor conditions, internal loads and modes of heat pump operation were monitored. Field study results with respect to heat pump operation will be reported and recommendations on heat pump optimization for a net zero energy building will be provided. This work is a contribution to Task 3 of the Annex.

  3. Characterization of Pump-Induced Acoustics in Space Launch System Main Propulsion System Liquid Hydrogen Feedline Using Airflow Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, C. J.; Snellgrove, L. M.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity acoustic edgetones located upstream of the RS-25 Low Pressure Fuel Turbo Pump (LPFTP) were previously observed during Space Launch System (STS) airflow testing of a model Main Propulsion System (MPS) liquid hydrogen (LH2) feedline mated to a modified LPFTP. MPS hardware has been adapted to mitigate the problematic edgetones as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) program. A follow-on airflow test campaign has subjected the adapted hardware to tests mimicking STS-era airflow conditions, and this manuscript describes acoustic environment identification and characterization born from the latest test results. Fluid dynamics responsible for driving discrete excitations were well reproduced using legacy hardware. The modified design was found insensitive to high intensity edgetone-like discretes over the bandwidth of interest to SLS MPS unsteady environments. Rather, the natural acoustics of the test article were observed to respond in a narrowband-random/mixed discrete manner to broadband noise thought generated by the flow field. The intensity of these responses were several orders of magnitude reduced from those driven by edgetones.

  4. Flow characteristic of Hijiori HDR reservoir from circulation test in 1991; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru senbu choryuso shiken (1991 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiga, T.; Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports one example of flow analyses on a circulation test carried out in fiscal 1991 at the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field (Yamagata Prefecture). A fluid circulation model was proposed to simulate an HDR circulation system for a shallow reservoir (at a depth of about 1800 m) demonstrated in the circulation test by using an electric circuit network (which expresses continuity impedance in resistance and fluid storage in capacitance). Storage capacity of the reservoir was estimated by deriving time constant of the system from data of time-based change in reservoir pressure associated with transition phenomena during the circulation test. The storage capacity was estimated separately by dividing change of storage in the reservoir by change in the reservoir pressure. To derive the storage in the reservoir, a method to calculate non-recovered flows in the circulation test was utilized. The results of evaluating the reservoir capacity in the shallow reservoir using the above two independent methods were found substantially consistent. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. The Effect of Wind Forcing on Modeling Coastal Circulation at a Marine Renewable Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic circulation in estuaries is primarily driven by tides, river inflows and surface winds. While tidal and river data can be quite easily obtained for input to hydrodynamic models, sourcing accurate surface wind data is problematic. Inaccurate wind data can lead to inaccuracies in the surface currents computed by three-dimensional hydrodynamic models. In this research, a high-resolution wind model was coupled with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Galway Bay, a semi-enclosed estuary on the west coast of Ireland, to investigate the effect of wind forcing on model accuracy. Two wind-forcing conditions were investigated: (1 using wind data measured onshore on the NUI Galway campus (NUIG and (2 using offshore wind data provided by a high resolution wind model (HR. A scenario with no wind forcing (NW was also assessed. The onshore wind data varied with time but the speed and direction were applied across the full model domain. The modeled offshore wind fields varied with both time and space. The effect of wind forcing on modeled hydrodynamics was assessed via comparison of modeled surface currents with surface current measurements obtained from a High-Frequency (HF radar Coastal Ocean Dynamics Applications Radar (CODAR observation system. Results indicated that winds were most significant in simulating the north-south surface velocity component. The model using high resolution temporally- and spatially-varying wind data achieved better agreement with the CODAR surface currents than the model using the onshore wind measurements and the model without any wind forcing.

  6. Investigation of TASS/SMR Capability to Predict a Natural Circulation in the Test Facility for an Integral Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jong Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available System-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART is a small-sized advanced integral type pressurized water reactor (PWR with a rated thermal power of 330 MW. It can produce 100 MW of electricity or 90 MW of electricity and 40,000 ton of desalinated water concurrently, which is sufficient for 100,000 residents. The design features contributing to safety enhancement are basically inherent safety improvement and passive safety features. TASS/SMR code was developed for an analysis of design based events and accidents in an integral type reactor reflecting the characteristics of the SMART design. The main purpose of the code is to analyze all relevant phenomena and processes. The code should be validated using experimental data in order to confirm prediction capability. TASS/SMR predicts well the overall thermal-hydraulic behavior under various natural circulation conditions at the experimental test facility for an integral reactor. A pressure loss should be provided a function of Reynolds number at low velocity conditions in order to simulate the mass flow rate well under natural circulations.

  7. Liquid Hydrogen Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-11-01

    S V 15 8 Inlet Nozzle Profile for Inducer Impeller 17 9 LH2 Pump Inl- Characteristics vs TSH 18 10 LH2 Test Pump Inlet Edge Loading, 2-Degree Turning...boundary condition. The inlet nozzle profile is shown in Figure 8. Inducer Diameter A parametric investigation was made to determine the optimum inlet

  8. Food, stress, and circulating testosterone: Cue integration by the testes, not the brain, in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sharon E; Perfito, Nicole; Guardado, Daisy; Bentley, George E

    2015-05-01

    Food abundance is closely associated with reproductive readiness in vertebrates. Food scarcity can activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, decrease sex steroid secretion, and dampen reproductive behavior. However, the mechanisms underlying these transient effects are unclear. Gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a neuropeptide present in the brain and gonads, is also influenced by glucocorticoids and fasting in some species. We investigated whether fasting stress activated the GnIH system in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), with the potential for downstream effects on reproductive physiology and behavior. We fasted or fed males ad libitum for 10h. Fasting increased corticosterone and decreased testosterone in circulation. To assess whether the decrease in testosterone was mediated by changes in the hypothalamus and/or the gonads, we (1) quantified GnRH- and GnIH-positive neurons in the hypothalamus, (2) assessed hypothalamic gene expression for GnRH and GnIH, and (3) examined gene expression for proteins involved in testosterone synthesis in fasted and control birds. No measure of hypothalamic neuropeptides was related to treatment or circulating steroids. However, birds with higher corticosterone had higher testicular GnIH expression and lower testosterone. StAR and LHR expression were lower in the testes of fasted birds than controls. Thus, the decrease in testosterone was not likely mediated by hypothalamic GnIH, but rather by direct actions of fasting and/or corticosterone on the testes, indicating that the testes can integrate and respond to cues of stress directly. Such local inhibition of testosterone synthesis may allow for rapid and reversible changes in physiology and behavior when conditions are inappropriate for breeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple source heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  10. A test program to measure fluid mechanical whirl-excitation forces in centrifugal pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, C. E.; Acosta, A. J.; Caughey, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    The details of a test program for the measurement of the unsteady forces on centrifugal impellers are discussed. Various hydrodynamic flows are identified as possible contributors to these destabilizing forces.

  11. Design of a right ventricular mock circulation loop as a test bench for right ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Indra; Jansen-Park, So-Hyun; Neidlin, Michael; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Abel, Dirk; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Rossaint, Rolf; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Sonntag, Simon Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Right heart failure (RHF), e.g. due to pulmonary hypertension (PH), is a serious health issue with growing occurrence and high mortality rate. Limited efficacy of medication in advanced stages of the disease constitutes the need for mechanical circulatory support of the right ventricle (RV). An essential contribution to the process of developing right ventricular assist devices (RVADs) is the in vitro test bench, which simulates the hemodynamic behavior of the native circulatory system. To model healthy and diseased arterial-pulmonary hemodynamics in adults (mild and severe PH and RHF), a right heart mock circulation loop (MCL) was developed. Incorporating an anatomically shaped silicone RV and a silicone atrium, it not only enables investigations of hemodynamic values but also suction events or the handling of minimal invasive RVADs in an anatomical test environment. Ventricular pressure-volume loops of all simulated conditions as well as pressure and volume waveforms were recorded and compared to literature data. In an exemplary test, an RVAD was connected to the apex to further test the feasibility of studying such devices with the developed MCL. In conclusion, the hemodynamic behavior of the native system was well reproduced by the developed MCL, which is a useful basis for future RVAD tests.

  12. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  13. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  14. Semi-quantitative scoring of an immunochromatographic test for circulating filarial antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Missamou, François; Pion, Sébastien D S; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Majewski, Andrew C; Weil, Gary J; Boussinesq, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Abstract. The value of a semi-quantitative scoring of the filarial antigen test (Binax Now Filariasis card test, ICT) results was evaluated during a field survey in the Republic of Congo. One hundred and thirty-four (134) of 774 tests (17.3%) were clearly positive and were scored 1, 2, or 3; and 11 (1.4%) had questionable results. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae (mf) were detected in 41 of those 133 individuals with an ICT test score ≥ 1 who also had a night blood smear; none of the 11 individuals with questionable ICT results harbored night mf. Cuzick's test showed a significant trend for higher microfilarial densities in groups with higher ICT scores (P < 0.001). The ICT scores were also significantly correlated with blood mf counts. Because filarial antigen levels provide an indication of adult worm infection intensity, our results suggest that semi-quantitative reading of the ICT may be useful for grading the intensity of filarial infections in individuals and populations.

  15. Evaluating vibration performance of a subsea pump module by full-scale testing and numerical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, P.J.G. van; Pereboom, H.P.; Slot, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Prior to subsea installation, a subsea system has to be tested to verify whether it performs in accordance with specifications and component specific performance evaluation criteria. It is important to verify that the assembled components work in accordance with the assumptions and design criteria

  16. Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis by reagent strip test for detection of circulating cathodic antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van G.J.; Wichers, J.H.; Falcao Ferreira, T.M.; Ghati, D.; Amerongen, van A.; Deelder, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed reagent strip assay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis based on parasite antigen detection in urine of infected individuals was evaluated. The test uses the principle of lateral flow through a nitrocellulose strip of the sample mixed with a colloidal carbon conjugate of a

  17. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  18. [Detection of fetal nucleated red blood cells in the maternal circulation by Kleihauer test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Yu; Jin, Chun-Lian; Liu, Li-Ying; Lin, Chang-Kun; Wang, Yan; Sun, Kai-Lai

    2007-03-01

    Maternal blood was obtained from 18 pregnant women at 7 to 25 weeks of gestation. After Percoll discontinuous density gradient centifugation, the fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) were stained with Kleihauer test. Positive fetal cells appeared with an intense red cytoplasmic staining while maternal cells with adult haemoglobin were colourless. Individual positive NRBC was collected by micromanipulator and whole genome amplification was then performed to determine sex and STR status. This allowed the simultaneous verification of the fetal origin of NRBC and prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases. The non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis of 9 fetuses at high risk of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was completed successfully. The Kleihauer test is a rapid, simple and direct chemical staining method to select fetal cells and can be applied in prenatal diagnosis.

  19. Testing, adjusting and balancing for air distribution and hydronic circulation system of RIPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Duk; Bang, H. S

    2003-01-01

    This report is to perform T.A.B(Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing) for area of 7000 and 8000 zone in RIPF Building. According to code, standard and specification, T.A.B of air distribution and hydronic system are carried out and only written a general items. Owing to today's demanding the retrenchment in the energy, It is important that we perform our duties to test, adjust and balance air handle unit objectively and independently. Therefore, though the scientific and reasonable verification procedure, we must try to not only admit T.A.B. techniques which present societies demand, but also secure advanced technologies by means of accelerating the related techniques.

  20. Pre-test analysis for identification of natural circulation instabilities in TALL-3D facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kööp, Kaspar, E-mail: kaspar@safety.sci.kth.se; Jeltsov, Marti, E-mail: marti@safety.sci.kth.se; Grishchenko, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry@safety.sci.kth.se; Kudinov, Pavel, E-mail: pavel@safety.sci.kth.se

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Global optimum search method was used to identify a region of instability. • Parametric study was used for detailed investigation of system behavior modes. • The results include identification of sustained mass flow rate oscillations. • Recommendations are made for selection of optimal experimental conditions. - Abstract: TALL-3D facility is a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) thermal-hydraulic loop designed to provide experimental data on thermal-hydraulics phenomena for validation of stand-alone and coupled System Thermal Hydraulics (STH) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Pre-test analysis is crucial for proper choice of experimental conditions at which the experimental data would be most useful for code validation and benchmarking. The goal of this work is to identify these conditions at which the experiment is challenging for the STH codes yet minimizes the 3D-effects from the test section on the loop dynamics. The analysis is focused on the identification of limit cycle flow oscillations in the TALL-3D facility main heater leg using a global optimum search tool GA-NPO to find a general region in the parameter space where oscillatory behavior is expected. As a second step a grid study is conducted outlining the boundaries between different stability modes. Phenomena, simulation results and methodology for selection of the test parameters are discussed in detail and recommendations for experiments are provided.

  1. Extended Cold Testing of a Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, BE

    2002-12-23

    The effectiveness of a mixer is dependent on the size of the tank to be mixed, the characteristics of the waste, and the operating conditions. Waste tanks throughout the U.S. Department of Energy Complex require mixing and mobilization systems capable of (1) breaking up and suspending materials that are difficult to mix and pump, without introducing additional liquids into the tank; (2) complementing and augmenting the performance of other remotely operated and/or robotic waste retrieval systems; and (3) operating in tanks with various quantities of waste. The Oak Ridge Russian pulsating mixer pump (PMP) system was designed with the flexibility to permit deployment in a variety of cylindrical tanks. The PMP was installed at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assess the performance of the system over an extended range of operating conditions, including supply pressures up to 175 psig. Previously conducted cold tests proved the applicability of the PMP for deployment in ORNL gunite tank TH-4. The previous testing and hot demonstrations had been limited to operating at air supply pressures of <100 psig. The extended cold testing of the Russian PMP system showed that the system was capable of mobilizing waste simulants in tanks in excess of 20-ft diam. The waste simulant used in these tests was medium-grain quartz sand. The system was successfully installed, checked out, and operated for 406 pulse discharge cycles. Only minor problems (i.e., a sticking air distributor valve and a few system lockups) were noted. Some improvements to the design of the air distributor valve may be needed to improve reliability. The air supply requirements of the PMP during the discharge cycle necessitated the operation of the system in single pulse discharge cycles to allow time for the air supply reservoir to recharge to the required pressure. During the test program, the system was operated with sand depths of 2, 4, and 4.5 in.; at

  2. Improved Gait Performance in a Patient With Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia After a Continuous Intrathecal Baclofen Test Infusion and Subsequent Pump Implantation : A Case Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heetla, Herre W.; Halbertsma, Jan P.; Dekker, Rienk; Staal, Michiel J.; van Laar, Teus

    Objective: To show the benefits of a continuous intrathecal baclofen (ITB) test infusion in a patient with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), with an improved gait performance after ITB pump implantation. Design: Case report. Setting: University hospital. Participant: A 49-year old man with HSP

  3. Application of the re-circulating tracer well test method to determine nitrate reaction rates in shallow unconfined aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbery, Lee F; Flintoft, Mark J; Close, Murray E

    2013-02-01

    Five re-circulating tracer well tests (RCTWTs) have been conducted in a variety of aquifer settings, at four sites across New Zealand. The tests constitute the first practical assessment of the two-well RCTWT methodology described by Burbery and Wang (Journal of Hydrology, 2010; 382:163-173) and were aimed at evaluating nitrate reaction rates in situ. The performance of the RCTWTs differed significantly at the different sites. The RCTWT method performed well when it was applied to determine potential nitrate reaction rates in anoxic, electro-chemically reductive, nitrate-free aquifers of volcanic lithology, on the North Island, New Zealand. Regional groundwater flow was not fast-flowing in this setting. An effective first-order nitrate reaction rate in the region of 0.09 d(-1) to 0.26 d(-1) was determined from two RCTWTs applied at one site where a reaction rate of 0.37 d(-1) had previously been estimated from a push-pull test. The RCTWT method performed poorly, however, in a fast-flowing, nitrate-impacted fluvio-glacial gravel aquifer that was examined on the South Island, New Zealand. This setting was more akin to the hypothetical physiochemical problem described by Burbery and Wang (2010). Although aerobic conditions were identified as the primary reason for failure to measure any nitrate reaction in the gravel aquifer, failure to establish significant interflow in the re-circulation cell due to the heterogeneous nature of the aquifer structure, and natural variability exhibited in nitrate contaminant levels of the ambient groundwater further contributed to the poor performance of the test. Our findings suggest that in practice, environmental conditions are more complex than assumed by the RCTWT methodology, which compromises the practicability of the method as one for determining attenuation rates in groundwater based on tracing ambient contaminant levels. Although limited, there appears to be a scope for RCTWTs to provide useful information on potential

  4. Improved reliability of residential heat pumps; Foerbaettrad driftsaekerhet hos villavaermepumpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund Stignor, Caroline; Larsson, Kristin; Jensen, Sara; Larsson, Johan; Berg, Johan; Lidbom, Peter; Rolfsman, Lennart

    2012-07-01

    Today, heat pump heating systems are common in Swedish single-family houses. Many owners are pleased with their installation, but statistics show that a certain number of heat pumps break every year, resulting in high costs for both insurance companies and owners. On behalf of Laensfoersaekringars Forskningsfond, SP Energy Technology has studied the cause of the most common failures for residential heat pumps. The objective of the study was to suggest what measures to be taken to reduce the number of failures, i.e. improving the reliability of heat pumps. The methods used were analysis of public failure statistics and sales statistics and interviews with heat pump manufacturers, installers, service representatives and assessors at Laensfoersaekringar. In addition, heat pump manuals have been examined and literature searches for various methods for durability tests have been performed. Based on the outcome from the interviews the most common failures were categorized by if they; 1. Could have been prevented by better operation and maintenance of the heat pump. 2. Caused by a poorly performed installation. 3. Could have been prevented if certain parameters had been measured, recorded and followed up. 4. Are due to poor quality of components or systems. However, the results show that many of the common failures fall into several different categories and therefore, different types of measures must be taken to improve the operational reliability of residential heat pumps. The interviews tell that failures often are caused by poor installation, neglected maintenance and surveillance, and poor quality of standard components or that components are used outside their declared operating range. The quality of the installations could be improved by increasing installers' knowledge about heat pumps and by requiring that an installation protocol shall be filled-in. It is also important that the owner of the heat pump performs the preventive maintenance recommended by the

  5. Dual source heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  6. In vivo experimental testing of the FW axial blood pump for left ventricular support in Fu Wai Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hu, Sheng-Shou; Zhou, Jian-Ye; Sun, Han-Song; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Zhe; Li, Guo-Rong; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Gui, Xin-Min

    2009-01-01

    A fully implantable, axial flow blood pump has been developed in Fu Wai Hospital aiming for clinical use. This ventricular assist device (VAD), which was developed after numerous CFD analyses for the flow characteristics of the pump, is 58.5-mm long, 30-mm wide (including DC motor), and weighs 240 g. The pump can deliver 5 L/min for pressures of 100 mm Hg over 8,000 rpm. In this study, short-term hemocompatibility effects of the axial left ventricular assist device (LVAD) (FW blood pump) were evaluated in four healthy sheep. The device was implanted into the left ventricular apex of beating hearts. The outflow graft of each device was anastomosed to the descending aorta. The hemolysis, which was evaluated in vivo by free hemoglobin value, was below 30 mg/dL. Evaluation of serum biochemical data showed that implantation of the FW blood pump in sheep with normal hearts did not impair end organ function. Gross and microscopic sections of kidney, liver, and lung revealed no evidence of microemboli. Performance of the pump in vivo was considered sufficient for a LVAD, although further design improvement is necessary in terms of hemolysis and antithrombosis to improve biocompatibility of the pump.

  7. The Study of Lung Cancer Personalized Medicine Through Circulating Cell Free DNA Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Mingzhi

    -free donor DNA had been tested. The level of donor DNA from lung allograft recipient plasma diagnosed with clinical signs of accuracy 87.03±5.9%, sensitivity 80% and specificity 100%. Besides, the same whole genome sequencing data was also effective for pathogenic factor, especially for CMV infection. DNA......Dels, CNVs, and SV in 145 genes with FFPE clinical specimens. While, couple with relatively geological distributions of different subtypes, tumor microenvironment might contribute more to genetic instability and thus tumor evolutions. As for the therapy and rejection monitoring of lung cancer patients, cell...... well performance of malignant and benign with clinic pathology; while plasma DNA mutations may have been used to predict tumor mutation level by the tumor burden model and helps molecular pathological identification in early stage....

  8. Final Report IEA HPP Annex 28. Test procedure and seasonal performance calculation for residential heat pumps with combined space and domestic hot water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemhoener, C.; Afjei, T.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) - an executive summary - takes a look at testing procedures for compact heat pump units which combine the functions of space heating, domestic hot water preparation and - optionally - ventilation. The procedures were developed within the framework of Annex 28 of the International Energy Agency's IEA Heat Pump Programme entitled 'Test procedure and seasonal performance calculation for residential heat pumps with combined space and domestic hot water heating'. Work done at the Institute of Energy in Buildings at the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland is described. The results of a state-of-the-art survey are discussed and the resulting conclusions are presented. Further, testing procedures and calculation methods developed for the measurement of the seasonal performance factor of heat pumps are presented. Validation of these procedures is discussed and initial implementations based on the results obtained are presented. This work should lead later on to standardized procedures recognized by the standardization bodies.

  9. VENTRICLE ASSIST DEVICE: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE NONPULSATILE PUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Р. Itkin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the history of the non-pulsating type blood pumps for ventricular assist circulation and heart-lung machine. Disclosed the main advantages of these pumps before pulsating type, especially for implantable systems development. However, disadvantages of these pumps and the directions of minimize or eliminate ones have shown. Specific examples of our implantable centrifugal and axial pump developments are presented. Declare the ways to further improve the pumps

  10. A multi-center field study of two point-of-care tests for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Cédric B.; Awaca-Uvon, Naomi-Pitchouna; Bolay, Fatoma K.; Boussinesq, Michel; Fischer, Peter U.; Gankpala, Lincoln; Meite, Aboulaye; Missamou, François; Pion, Sébastien D.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis uses point-of-care tests for circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA) to map endemic areas and for monitoring and evaluating the success of mass drug administration (MDA) programs. We compared the performance of the reference BinaxNOW Filariasis card test (ICT, introduced in 1997) with the Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS, introduced in 2013) in 5 endemic study sites in Africa. Methodology The tests were compared prior to MDA in two study sites (Congo and Côte d'Ivoire) and in three sites that had received MDA (DRC and 2 sites in Liberia). Data were analyzed with regard to % positivity, % agreement, and heterogeneity. Models evaluated potential effects of age, gender, and blood microfilaria (Mf) counts in individuals and effects of endemicity and history of MDA at the village level as potential factors linked to higher sensitivity of the FTS. Lastly, we assessed relationships between CFA scores and Mf in pre- and post-MDA settings. Principal findings Paired test results were available for 3,682 individuals. Antigenemia rates were 8% and 22% higher by FTS than by ICT in pre-MDA and in post-MDA sites, respectively. FTS/ICT ratios were higher in areas with low infection rates. The probability of having microfilaremia was much higher in persons with CFA scores >1 in untreated areas. However, this was not true in post-MDA settings. Conclusions/Significance This study has provided extensive new information on the performance of the FTS compared to ICT in Africa and it has confirmed the increased sensitivity of FTS reported in prior studies. Variability in FTS/ICT was related in part to endemicity level, history of MDA, and perhaps to the medications used for MDA. These results suggest that FTS should be superior to ICT for mapping, for transmission assessment surveys, and for post-MDA surveillance. PMID:28892473

  11. A multi-center field study of two point-of-care tests for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Awaca-Uvon, Naomi-Pitchouna; Bolay, Fatoma K; Boussinesq, Michel; Fischer, Peter U; Gankpala, Lincoln; Meite, Aboulaye; Missamou, François; Pion, Sébastien D; Weil, Gary J

    2017-09-01

    The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis uses point-of-care tests for circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA) to map endemic areas and for monitoring and evaluating the success of mass drug administration (MDA) programs. We compared the performance of the reference BinaxNOW Filariasis card test (ICT, introduced in 1997) with the Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS, introduced in 2013) in 5 endemic study sites in Africa. The tests were compared prior to MDA in two study sites (Congo and Côte d'Ivoire) and in three sites that had received MDA (DRC and 2 sites in Liberia). Data were analyzed with regard to % positivity, % agreement, and heterogeneity. Models evaluated potential effects of age, gender, and blood microfilaria (Mf) counts in individuals and effects of endemicity and history of MDA at the village level as potential factors linked to higher sensitivity of the FTS. Lastly, we assessed relationships between CFA scores and Mf in pre- and post-MDA settings. Paired test results were available for 3,682 individuals. Antigenemia rates were 8% and 22% higher by FTS than by ICT in pre-MDA and in post-MDA sites, respectively. FTS/ICT ratios were higher in areas with low infection rates. The probability of having microfilaremia was much higher in persons with CFA scores >1 in untreated areas. However, this was not true in post-MDA settings. This study has provided extensive new information on the performance of the FTS compared to ICT in Africa and it has confirmed the increased sensitivity of FTS reported in prior studies. Variability in FTS/ICT was related in part to endemicity level, history of MDA, and perhaps to the medications used for MDA. These results suggest that FTS should be superior to ICT for mapping, for transmission assessment surveys, and for post-MDA surveillance.

  12. A multi-center field study of two point-of-care tests for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric B Chesnais

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis uses point-of-care tests for circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA to map endemic areas and for monitoring and evaluating the success of mass drug administration (MDA programs. We compared the performance of the reference BinaxNOW Filariasis card test (ICT, introduced in 1997 with the Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS, introduced in 2013 in 5 endemic study sites in Africa.The tests were compared prior to MDA in two study sites (Congo and Côte d'Ivoire and in three sites that had received MDA (DRC and 2 sites in Liberia. Data were analyzed with regard to % positivity, % agreement, and heterogeneity. Models evaluated potential effects of age, gender, and blood microfilaria (Mf counts in individuals and effects of endemicity and history of MDA at the village level as potential factors linked to higher sensitivity of the FTS. Lastly, we assessed relationships between CFA scores and Mf in pre- and post-MDA settings.Paired test results were available for 3,682 individuals. Antigenemia rates were 8% and 22% higher by FTS than by ICT in pre-MDA and in post-MDA sites, respectively. FTS/ICT ratios were higher in areas with low infection rates. The probability of having microfilaremia was much higher in persons with CFA scores >1 in untreated areas. However, this was not true in post-MDA settings.This study has provided extensive new information on the performance of the FTS compared to ICT in Africa and it has confirmed the increased sensitivity of FTS reported in prior studies. Variability in FTS/ICT was related in part to endemicity level, history of MDA, and perhaps to the medications used for MDA. These results suggest that FTS should be superior to ICT for mapping, for transmission assessment surveys, and for post-MDA surveillance.

  13. Pump Assisted Heat Pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Yoshiro; OSHIMA, Shigeto

    1987-01-01

    A labortory model of a pump assisted heat pipe has been fablicated and tested. An arterial heat pipe with axial grooves and a gear pump with a magnetic coupling have been developed for the model. The test has been carried out successfully. The reasonable thermal conductance has been obtained so far as the necessary working fluid flow rate is supplied. The necessary flow rate exceeds the theoretical one and the excess flow rate increases as the heat load increases.

  14. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Primary Coolant Pump and Motor Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-06-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  15. Small, submersible, centrifugal pump for liquid nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rustad, B.M.; Nielsen, A.; Passell, L.

    1965-01-01

    Full details are given of a pump designed to circulate several liters/min. It can be evacuated before use to exclude oxygen and may be used at pressures of several atmospheres.......Full details are given of a pump designed to circulate several liters/min. It can be evacuated before use to exclude oxygen and may be used at pressures of several atmospheres....

  16. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Gülich, Johann Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book gives an unparalleled, up-to-date, in-depth treatment of all kinds of flow phenomena encountered in centrifugal pumps including the complex interactions of fluid flow with vibrations and wear of materials. The scope includes all aspects of hydraulic design, 3D-flow phenomena and partload operation, cavitation, numerical flow calculations, hydraulic forces, pressure pulsations, noise, pump vibrations (notably bearing housing vibration diagnostics and remedies), pipe vibrations, pump characteristics and pump operation, design of intake structures, the effects of highly viscous flows, pumping of gas-liquid mixtures, hydraulic transport of solids, fatigue damage to impellers or diffusers, material selection under the aspects of fatigue, corrosion, erosion-corrosion or hydro-abrasive wear, pump selection, and hydraulic quality criteria. As a novelty, the 3rd ed. brings a fully analytical design method for radial impellers, which eliminates the arbitrary choices inherent to former design procedures. The d...

  17. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The name PUMPKIN may suggest a research centre focused on American Halloween traditions or the investigation of the growth of vegetables – however this would be misleading. Researchers at PUMPKIN, short for Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease, are in fact interested in a large family o......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  18. Desarrollo de un prototipo de bomba de flujo pulsátil para caracterizar las condiciones hidrodinámicas en un ambiente de circulación extracorpórea Development of a prototype of pulsatile flow pump for characterizing the hydrodinamic conditions in an extracorporeal circulation setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bustamante O

    2007-02-01

    flow system formed by a diffuse controller that captures data from the monitoring instruments of hydrodynamic variables through an acquisition interface and applies control signals to a pulsatile flow pump, was developed. This system allows making hydromechanical tests that give elements for interpreting the influence of the variables that take part in the pulsatile flow and emulate hemodynamic conditions in an extracorporeal setting. Through computed assisted design techniques, a pneumatically operated diaphragmatic pump was constructed. The controller was developed by the Fuzzi Control® technique, which regulates pulse and flow according to the data captured by the acquisition interface. The prototype tests were realized in a fluids laboratory by varying frequency, hydraulic resistance, viscosity and pulse pressure, emulating hemodynamic adult conditions, and using as work fluid an aqueous solution with 5 cPo at 37°C for mimicking blood viscosity at corporal temperature. The reproduction of a pump that serves for analyzing the effect of variables in the pulsatile flow may be used in the study of different intravascular devices and help to refine technical and functional aspects in the preliminary study of extracorporeal circulation machines.

  19. Damages on pumps and systems the handbook for the operation of centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Merkle, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Damage on Pumps and Systems. The Handbook for the Operation of Centrifugal Pumps offers a combination of the theoretical basics and practical experience for the operation of circulation pumps in the engineering industry. Centrifugal pumps and systems are extremely vulnerable to damage from a variety of causes, but the resulting breakdown can be prevented by ensuring that these pumps and systems are operated properly. This book provides a total overview of operating centrifugal pumps, including condition monitoring, preventive maintenance, life cycle costs, energy savings and economic aspects. Extra emphasis is given to the potential damage to these pumps and systems, and what can be done to prevent breakdown. Addresses specific issues about pumping of metal chips, sand, abrasive dust and other solids in fluidsEmphasis on economic and efficiency aspects of predictive maintenance and condition monitoring Uses life cycle costs (LCC) to evaluate and calculate the costs of pumping systems

  20. Cold Testing of a Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, BE

    2002-01-29

    Russian pulsating mixer pump (PMP) technology was identified in FY 1996 during technical exchanges between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Retrieval and Closure program, the DOE Environmental Management International Programs, and delegates from Russia as a technology that could be implemented in tank waste retrieval operations in the United States. The PMP is basically a jet mixer powered by a pressure/vacuum supply system. A prototype PMP was provided by the Russian Mining and Chemical Combine and evaluated as a potential retrieval tool in FY 1997 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Based on this evaluation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and DOE staff determined that a modified PMP would meet project needs for bulk mobilization of sludge from one or more of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at ORNL. In FY 1998, PMP technology was selected for deployment in one of the GAAT to mobilize settled solids. Deployment of the PMP was expected to reduce operation and maintenance costs required to utilize more expensive retrieval systems. The following series of cold tests and inspections were conducted on one of the three PMP units provided to verify the acceptability and readiness of the mixing system for operation in the GAATs at ORNL: (1) Inspections and measurements designed to evaluate the integrity of the equipment: Fabrication shop inspections, Equipment inspections, Vibration/oscillation measurements, Hydrostatic pressure tests. (2) Functionality of the system components: Tank riser interface functionality, Decontamination spray ring (DSR) functionality, Valves, actuator, sensors, and control system functionality, Support fixture tests; and Contamination control assessment. (3) Mixing and operational performance of the PMP system: DSR performance, PMP debris tolerance, PMP performance with water only, PMP cleaning radius determination, and PMP performance with sludge surrogates. The results from these tests indicate

  1. The effects of conventional extracorporeal circulation versus miniaturized extracorporeal circulation on microcirculation during cardiopulmonary bypass-assisted coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Koray; Bezemer, Rick; Euser, Mariska; Milstein, Dan M J; de Geus, Hilde H R; Scholten, Evert W; de Mol, Bas A J M; Ince, Can

    2012-09-01

    OBJECTIVES To reduce the complications associated with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery, many modifications have been made to conventional extracorporeal circulation systems. This trend has led to the development of miniaturized extracorporeal circulation systems. Cardiac surgery using conventional extracorporeal circulation systems has been associated with significantly reduced microcirculatory perfusion, but it remains unknown whether this could be prevented by an mECC system. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis that microcirculatory perfusion decreases with the use of a conventional extracorporeal circulation system and would be preserved with the use of an miniaturized extracorporeal circulation system. METHODS Microcirculatory density and perfusion were assessed using sublingual side stream dark-field imaging in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery before, during and after the use of either a conventional extracorporeal circulation system (n = 10) or a miniaturized extracorporeal circulation system (n = 10). In addition, plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and creatinine levels and creatinine clearance were assessed up to 5 days post-surgery to monitor renal function. RESULTS At the end of the CPB, one patient in the miniaturized extracorporeal circulation-treated group and five patients in the conventional extracorporeal circulation-treated group received one bag of packed red blood cells (300 ml). During the CPB, the haematocrit and haemoglobin levels were slightly higher in the miniaturized extracorporeal circulation-treated patients compared with the conventional extracorporeal circulation-treated patients (27.7 ± 3.3 vs 24.7 ± 2.0%; P = 0.03; and 6.42 ± 0.75 vs 5.41 ± 0.64 mmol/l; P circulation-treated group from 16.4 ± 3.8 to 12.8 ± 3.3 mm/mm(2) (P circulation-treated group (16.3 ± 2.7 and 15.2 ± 2.9 mm/mm(2) before and during the pump, respectively). Plasma neutrophil

  2. Performance testing of pumps in the framework of deep geothermic drilling for power generation; Leistungspumpversuche im Rahmen von tiefen Geothermiebohrungen zur Stromerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibellus, Berthold [H. Anger' s Soehne Bohr- und Brunnenbaugesellschaft mbH, Hessisch Lichtenau (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The energy content of the hot water is the key element of a geothermal power system. If either the water volume or the temperature are lower than expected, a project may fail because it is considered inefficient. Pump tests with volume flows up to 150 l/s, temperatures up to 150 degC, high steam volumes and injection temperatures of only 30 degC are therefore of utmost importance for the technical and safety-relevant design and operation of geothermal plants. The performance characteristic of the pump test mustprovide accurate data within a relatively short time in order to get correct information on the reproducible future operation of the plant.

  3. Evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-tests for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kueté Fouodo, Césaire Joris; Kamwa Ngassam, Romuald Isaka; Sumo, Laurentine; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Nana, Esther Dankoni; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David

    2012-01-01

    The Kato-Katz is the most common diagnostic method for Schistosoma mansoni infection. However, the day-to-day variability in host egg-excretion and its low detection sensitivity are major limits for its use in low transmission zones and after widespread chemotherapy. We evaluated the accuracy of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-assay as a diagnostic tool of S. mansoni. In comparison, a low sensitive CCA test (CCA-L) was assessed. THE STUDY WAS CONDUCTED IN THREE SETTINGS: two foci with single S. mansoni infections (settings A and B), and one mixed S. mansoni - S. haematobium focus (setting C). Stool and urine samples were collected from school-children on three consecutive days. Triplicate Kato-Katz readings were performed per stool sample. Each urine sample was tested with one CCA and only the first urine sample was subjected to CCA-L. Urine samples were also examined for S. haematobium eggs using the filtration method and for microhaematuria using urine reagent strips. Overall, 625 children provided three stool and three urine samples. Considering nine Kato-Katz thick smears as 'reference' diagnostic test, the prevalence of S. mansoni was 36.2%, 71.8% and 64.0% in settings A, B and C, respectively. The prevalence of S. haematobium in setting C was 12.0%. The sensitivities of single Kato-Katz, CCA and CCA-L from the first stool or urine samples were 58%, 82% and 46% in setting A, 56.8%, 82.4% and 68.8% in setting B, and 49.0%, 87.7% and 55.5% in setting C. The respective specificities were 100%, 64.7% and 100%; 100%, 62.3% and 91.3%; and 100%, 42.5% and 92.0%. Mixed infection with S. haematobium did not influence the CCA test results for S. mansoni diagnosis. Urine CCA revealed higher sensitivity than CCA-L and triplicate Kato-Katz, and produced similar prevalence as nine Kato-Katz. It seems an attractive method for S. mansoni diagnosis.

  4. Review of the Safety Concern Related to CANDU Moderator Temperature Distribution and Status of KAERI Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Bo W.; Kim, Hyoung T. [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tongbeum [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Im, Sunghyuk [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    threshold temperature and no further deformation is expected. Consequently, a sufficient condition to ensure fuel channel integrity following a large LOCA, is the avoidance of sustained calandria tubes dryout. If the moderator available subcooling at the onset of a large LOCA is greater than the subcooling requirements, a sustained calandria tube dryout is avoided. The temperature oscillations observed in reactor and in test measurements such as MTF need to be characterized and quantified to show that it does not jeopardize the currently available safety margins. Because of the importance of an accurate prediction of moderator temperature distributions and the related moderator subcooling, a 1/4 scaled-down moderator tank of a CANDU-6 reactor, called Moderator Circulation Test (MCT), was erected at KAERI and the current status of MCT experiment progress is described and further experiments are expected to be carried out to generate the experimental data necessary to validate the computer codes that will be used to analyze the accident analysis of operating CANDU-6 plants.

  5. On the coupling of wave and three-dimensional circulation models: Choice of theoretical framework, practical implementation and adiabatic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Anne-Claire; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Dumas, Franck

    Many theoretical approaches and implementations have been proposed for the coupling of the three-dimensional ocean circulation with waves. The theoretical models are reviewed and it is shown that the formulation in terms of the quasi-Eulerian velocity circumvents the essential difficulty of alternative formulations for the Lagrangian mean velocity. Namely, models based on this Lagrangian velocity require an estimation of wave-induced motions to first order in the horizontal gradients of the wave field in order to estimate the vertical flux of wave pseudo-momentum. So far, only three-dimensional wave models have been able to provide these estimates, and all published theories based on the simpler Airy theory are not consistent at the leading order, because they ignore or incorrectly estimate the vertical momentum flux. With an adiabatic example on a sloping bottom it is shown that this inconsistency produces very large spurious velocities. These errors are independent of the slope for the inviscid case, and are still significant when a realistic vertical mixing is applied. A quick diagnostic of the potential accuracy of a theoretical model is the vertical profile of the wave-induced forcing terms: if it is not uniform over depth in adiabatic conditions then it will produce spurious artificial flow patterns in conditions with shoaling waves. Although conceptually more challenging, the quasi-Eulerian velocity theories only introduce minor modifications of the solution procedure for the standard primitive equations: a modification of the surface boundary condition for the mass conservation, the addition of the Stokes drift in the tracer advection equations, and sources of momentum and turbulent kinetic energy with associated surface and bottom fluxes. All the necessary modifications of primitive equation models are given in detail. This implementation is illustrated with the MARS3D model, which passes the test of the adiabatic shoaling waves.

  6. AMELIA CESTOL Test: Acoustic Characteristics of Circulation Control Wing with Leading- and Trailing-Edge Slot Blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, William C.; Burnside, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    The AMELIA Cruise-Efficient Short Take-off and Landing (CESTOL) configuration concept was developed to meet future requirements of reduced field length, noise, and fuel burn by researchers at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo and Georgia Tech Research Institute under sponsorship by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The novel configuration includes leading- and trailing-edge circulation control wing (CCW), over-wing podded turbine propulsion simulation (TPS). Extensive aerodynamic measurements of forces, surfaces pressures, and wing surface skin friction measurements were recently measured over a wide range of test conditions in the Arnold Engineering Development Center(AEDC) National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Ft Wind Tunnel. Acoustic measurements of the model were also acquired for each configuration with 7 fixed microphones on a line under the left wing, and with a 48-element, 40-inch diameter phased microphone array under the right wing. This presentation will discuss acoustic characteristics of the CCW system for a variety of tunnel speeds (0 to 120 kts), model configurations (leading edge(LE) and/or trailing-edge(TE) slot blowing, and orientations (incidence and yaw) based on acoustic measurements acquired concurrently with the aerodynamic measurements. The flow coefficient, Cmu= mVSLOT/qSW varied from 0 to 0.88 at 40 kts, and from 0 to 0.15 at 120 kts. Here m is the slot mass flow rate, VSLOT is the slot exit velocity, q is dynamic pressure, and SW is wing surface area. Directivities at selected 1/3 octave bands will be compared with comparable measurements of a 2-D wing at GTRI, as will as microphone array near-field measurements of the right wing at maximum flow rate. The presentation will include discussion of acoustic sensor calibrations as well as characterization of the wind tunnel background noise environment.

  7. A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with ARM Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert G. Ellingson

    2004-09-28

    One specific goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in General Circulation Models (GCMs) under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. Our project was geared to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems associated with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem --longwave radiation. The primary long-term project objectives were to: (1) develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations for clear and cloudy conditions, and (2) determine how the longwave radiative forcing with an improved algorithm contributes relatively in a GCM when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and convection. The approach has been to build upon existing models in an iterative, predictive fashion. We focused on comparing calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data for clear, overcast and broken cloud conditions. The differences found through the comparisons and physical insights have been used to develop new models, most of which have been tested with new data. Our initial GCM studies used existing GCMs to study the climate model-radiation sensitivity problem. Although this portion of our initial plans was curtailed midway through the project, we anticipate that the eventual outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and from our better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the model equilibrium climate, how improvements in climate prediction using this algorithm can be achieved.

  8. A Double-Porosity Model for Pumping Test in a Fractured Formation of a Large Dip Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shin-Wei; Chen, chia-shyun

    2016-04-01

    A Cenozoic sandstone fractured formation is found to have a dip angle, θ, as large as 47 degree. Assuming the dip angle creates a uniform regional flow in the fractured formation, the flow field due to pumping is no longer radially symmetric with respect to the pumping. Instead, a capture zone will appear in the neighborhood of the pumping well. A double porosity model is developed for the problem of interest, where the matrix flow is taken into account by the distributed parameter approach. Neglecting fracture storage, there are three hydrogeological parameters in the model; namely, fracture transmissivity Tf, matrix hydraulic conductivity Km, and matrix storage coefficient Sm. A Laplace-domain solution is determined, and its large time asymptotic solution analytically inverted, which indicates that the drawdown variation of large times exhibits a straight line in a semilog plot. When the dip angle is known, the slope of this straight line can be used to determine Tf, and the intercept of the logarithmic time axis can be used to estimate Sm. The remaining Km can be uniquely determined by the curve-matching method for drawdown of small and intermediate times without difficulty. The larger the dip angle, the closer the stagnation point to the pumping well, and the smaller the capture zone. An overestimate of Tf by a factor of cosθ results if the dip angle effect is neglected. However, neglecting the dip angle has less effect on the estimates of Km and Sm.

  9. Reducing intravenous therapy errors : Testing the usability of a system for central control of multiple infusion pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, Fokie; Doesburg, Frank; Nijsten, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    o tackle the problem of “IV spaghetti” and to optimize operation and scheduling of multiple infusion pumps, we propose a new control system that for intermittent medication determines when which medicine has to be started and ended. The system takes medication schedules and dosages, other fluids,

  10. Flow characteristics of Hijiori HDR reservoir form circulation test in 1995; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru shinbu choryuso yobi junkan shiken (1995 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, N.; Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports the result of a preliminary circulation test conducted in fiscal 1995 on a deep reservoir (at a depth of about 2200 m) in the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field. One water injection well and two production wells were drilled to constitute a circulation loop, to which the circulation test was performed to investigate the flow characteristics thereof. The result revealed the following matters: total amount of injected water of 51500 m{sup 3} resulted in a total fluid recovery rate of about 40%; as a result of well stimulation given twice during the initial stage of the water injection, the continuity impedance in the vicinity of the injection well decreased largely (however, the continuity improvement upon the second attempt was considerably inferior to that from the first attempt); and increase in the water injection amount does not necessarily lead to increase in the production amount. The paper describes additionally that it is extremely difficult to interpret non-linearity between the injection and production amounts by using a model prepared previously with a main objective to analyze the Hijiori HDR circulation system. 1 ref., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  12. Impulse Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-17

    links the flywheel to a pusher shaft. The energy release is achieved when the planetary gear carrier is decelerated using a caliper brake . The...flywheel. Through a cam roller contact point between the pusher shaft and the cam raceway on the plunger; the rotational motion of the pusher shaft... brakes , a barrel type cam and follower, a piston pump, a reservoir, and a nozzle to assemble the inventive pump. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

  13. Sensitivity and Specificity of a Urine Circulating Anodic Antigen Test for the Diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium in Low Endemic Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Knopp

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem and interruption of transmission in selected areas are key goals of the World Health Organization for 2025. Conventional parasitological methods are insensitive for the detection of light-intensity infections. Techniques with high sensitivity and specificity are required for an accurate diagnosis in low-transmission settings and verification of elimination. We determined the accuracy of a urine-based up-converting phosphor-lateral flow circulating anodic antigen (UCP-LF CAA assay for Schistosoma haematobium diagnosis in low-prevalence settings in Zanzibar, Tanzania.A total of 1,740 urine samples were collected in 2013 from children on Pemba Island, from schools where the S. haematobium prevalence was <2%, 2-5%, and 5-10%, based on a single urine filtration. On the day of collection, all samples were tested for microhematuria with reagent strips and for the presence of S. haematobium eggs with microscopy. Eight months later, 1.5 ml of urine from each of 1,200 samples stored at -20°C were analyzed by UCP-LF CAA assay, while urine filtration slides were subjected to quality control (QCUF. In the absence of a true 'gold' standard, the diagnostic performance was calculated using latent class analyses (LCA.The 'empirical' S. haematobium prevalence revealed by UCP-LF CAA, QCUF, and reagent strips was 14%, 5%, and 4%, respectively. LCA revealed a sensitivity of the UCP-LF CAA, QCUF, and reagent strips of 97% (95% confidence interval (CI: 91-100%, 86% (95% CI: 72-99%, and 67% (95% CI: 52-81%, respectively. Test specificities were consistently above 90%.The UCP-LF CAA assay shows high sensitivity for the diagnosis of S. haematobium in low-endemicity settings. Empirically, it detects a considerably higher number of infections than microscopy. Hence, the UCP-LF CAA employed in combination with QCUF, is a promising tool for monitoring and surveillance of urogenital schistosomiasis in low

  14. A Magnetically Coupled Cryogenic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Walter; Jumper, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Historically, cryogenic pumps used for propellant loading at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and other NASA Centers have a bellows mechanical seal and oil bath ball bearings, both of which can be problematic and require high maintenance. Because of the extremely low temperatures, the mechanical seals are made of special materials and design, have wearing surfaces, are subject to improper installation, and commonly are a potential leak path. The ball bearings are non-precision bearings [ABEC-1 (Annular Bearing Engineering Council)] and are lubricated using LOX compatible oil. This oil is compatible with the propellant to prevent explosions, but does not have good lubricating properties. Due to the poor lubricity, it has been a goal of the KSC cryogenics community for the last 15 years to develop a magnetically coupled pump, which would eliminate these two potential issues. A number of projects have been attempted, but none of the pumps was a success. An off-the-shelf magnetically coupled pump (typically used with corrosive fluids) was procured that has been used for hypergolic service at KSC. The KSC Cryogenics Test Lab (CTL) operated the pump in cryogenic LN2 as received to determine a baseline for modifications required. The pump bushing, bearings, and thrust rings failed, and the pump would not flow liquid (this is a typical failure mode that was experienced in the previous attempts). Using the knowledge gained over the years designing and building cryogenic pumps, the CTL determined alternative materials that would be suitable for use under the pump design conditions. The CTL procured alternative materials for the bearings (bronze, aluminum bronze, and glass filled PTFE) and machined new bearing bushings, sleeves, and thrust rings. The designed clearances among the bushings, sleeves, thrust rings, case, and case cover were altered once again using experience gained from previous cryogenic pump rebuilds and designs. The alternative material parts were assembled into

  15. Rotating and positive-displacement pumps for low-thrust rocket engines. Volume 1: Pump Evaluation and design. [of centrifugal pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, C.; Csomor, A.

    1974-01-01

    Rotating and positive displacement pumps of various types were studied for pumping liquid fluorine for low-thrust, high-performance rocket engines. Included in the analysis were: centrifugal, pitot, Barske, Tesla, drag, gear, vane, axial piston, radial piston, diaphragm, and helirotor pump concepts. The centrifugal pump and the gear pump were selected and these were carried through detailed design and fabrication. Mechanical difficulties were encountered with the gear pump during the preliminary tests in Freon-12. Further testing and development was therefore limited to the centrifugal pump. Tests on the centrifugal pump were conducted in Freon-12 to determine the hydrodynamic performance and in liquid fluorine to demonstrate chemical compatibility.

  16. Investigations on the acoustic optimisation of a variable displacement pump using virtual prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas NIED-MENNINGER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern vehicles the steering systems are still widely equipped with power-assisted steering pumps. In most cases vane pumps are used which limit the fluid volume flow in dependence of required pressure and running speed by a special design of the internal control valve. This control valve internally redirects the volume flow inside the pump leading still to unnecessary fluid circulation. Variable displacement pumps now offer an additional opportunity to eliminate the internal volume flow in dependence of the required load with reduced losses and hence increased efficiency. This is realized by a variable adjustment of the displacement cells, but simultaneously the variable force and load distributions inside the pump make the acoustic optimization even more difficult. In this paper the kinematics of the vane pump are modelled with a combined analytical and numerical approach. The data out of this model are used as input data for the hydraulic model of the variable displacement vane pump with a commercial tool. Both models are validated with data from test rig investigations. With this validated virtual prototype different design options are developed and finally successfully investigated on a test rig and in a passenger vehicle.

  17. Postprandial fatty acid specific changes in circulating oxylipins in lean and obese men after high-fat challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strassburg, K.; Esser, D.; Vreeken, R.J.; Hankemeier, T.; Müller, M.R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Golde, van J.; Dijk, van S.J.; Afman, L.A.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Scope Circulating oxylipins may affect peripheral tissues and are assumed to play an important role in endothelial function. They are esterified in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins that are increased after a high-fat (HF) meal, depending on BMI and fatty acid (FA) type. Yet, it is unclear which

  18. Improved gait performance in a patient with hereditary spastic paraplegia after a continuous intrathecal baclofen test infusion and subsequent pump implantation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heetla, Herre W; Halbertsma, Jan P; Dekker, Rienk; Staal, Michiel J; van Laar, Teus

    2015-06-01

    To show the benefits of a continuous intrathecal baclofen (ITB) test infusion in a patient with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), with an improved gait performance after ITB pump implantation. Case report. University hospital. A 49-year old man with HSP experiencing progressive walking difficulties because of lower extremity spasticity, which did not respond to oral spasmolytics. A prolonged, continuous ITB test infusion was started at a low dose and increased gradually, to provide a stable dose of ITB over a prolonged period. The gradual dose increase provided the patient enough time to experience the effects of ITB, because he feared that ITB therapy might cause functional loss. Modified Ashworth Scale, electromyography, muscle strength, timed Up and Go tests, and the Patient Global Impression of Change. Gait performance before and after ITB pump implantation was assessed in a motion laboratory. During the test infusion, the ITB dose was gradually increased to a continuous dose of 108μg/d. This dose caused the spasticity to decrease, with maintenance of muscle strength. After pump implantation, gait performance was improved, resulting in increased knee flexion during the loading response and a doubled walking speed as compared with baseline. Patients with HSP who have mild spasticity that does not respond to oral spasmolytics should receive a continuous ITB test infusion, to provide them with enough time to experience the delicate balance between spasmolysis and muscle strength. ITB administration is a suitable therapy to improve gait performance in patients with HSP. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Satellite Propellant Pump Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Veres, Joseph P.; Hah, Chunill; Nerone, Anthony L.; Cunningham, Cameron C.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Tavernelli, Paul F.; Fraser, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    NASA Glenn initiated a satellite propellant pump technology demonstration program. The goal was to demonstrate the technologies for a 60 percent efficient pump at 1 gpm flow rate and 500 psia pressure rise. The pump design and analysis used the in-house developed computer codes named PUMPA and HPUMP3D. The requirements lead to a 4-stage impeller type pump design with a tip diameter of 0.54 inches and a rotational speed of 57,000 rpm. Analyses indicated that flow cavitation was not a problem in the design. Since the flow was incompressible, the stages were identical. Only the 2-stage pump was designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested for demonstration. Water was selected as the surrogate fluid for hydrazine in this program. Complete mechanical design including stress and dynamic analyses were conducted. The pump was driven by an electric motor directly coupled to the impellers. Runs up to 57,000 rpm were conducted, where a pressure rise of 200 psia at a flow rate of 0.8 gpm was measured to validate the design effort.

  20. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  1. Mock circulation loop to investigate hemolysis in a pulsatile total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, Felix; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Laumen, Marco; Mager, Ilona; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2015-05-01

    Hemocompatibility of blood pumps is a crucial parameter that has to be ensured prior to in vivo testing. In contrast to rotary blood pumps, a standard for testing a pulsatile total artificial heart (TAH) has not yet been established. Therefore, a new mock circulation loop was designed to investigate hemolysis in the left ventricle of the ReinHeart TAH. Its main features are a high hemocompatibility, physiological conditions, a low priming volume, and the conduction of blood through a closed tubing system. The mock circulation loop consists of a noninvasive pressure chamber, an aortic compliance chamber, and an atrium directly connected to the ventricle. As a control pump, the clinically approved Medos-HIA ventricular assist device (VAD) was used. The pumps were operated at 120 beats per minute with an aortic pressure of 120 to 80 mm Hg and a mean atrial pressure of 10 mm Hg, generating an output flow of about 5 L/min. Heparinized porcine blood was used. A series of six identical tests were performed. A test method was established that is comparable to ASTM F 1841, which is standard practice for the assessment of hemolysis in continuous-flow blood pumps. The average normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) values of the VAD and the ReinHeart TAH were 0.018 g/100 L and 0.03 g/100 L, respectively. The standard deviation of the NIH was 0.0033 for the VAD and 0.0034 for the TAH. Furthermore, a single test with a BPX-80 Bio-Pump was performed to verify that the hemolysis induced by the mock circulation loop was negligible. The performed tests showed a good reproducibility and statistical significance. The mock circulation loop and test protocol developed in this study are valid methods to investigate the hemolysis induced by a pulsatile blood pump. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Electrokinetic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hencken, Kenneth R.; Sartor, George B.

    2004-08-03

    An electrokinetic pump in which the porous dielectric medium of conventional electrokinetic pumps is replaced by a patterned microstructure. The patterned microstructure is fabricated by lithographic patterning and etching of a substrate and is formed by features arranged so as to create an array of microchannels. The microchannels have dimensions on the order of the pore spacing in a conventional porous dielectric medium. Embedded unitary electrodes are vapor deposited on either end of the channel structure to provide the electric field necessary for electroosmotic flow.

  3. Off-Pump Versus On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Steinbrüchel, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains the preferred treatment in patients with complex coronary artery disease. However, whether the procedure should be performed with or without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, referred to as off-pump and on-pump CABG, is still up for debate....... Intuitively, avoidance of cardiopulmonary bypass seems beneficial as the systemic inflammatory response from extracorporeal circulation is omitted, but no single randomized trial has been able to prove off-pump CABG superior to on-pump CABG as regards the hard outcomes death, stroke or myocardial infarction....... In contrast, off-pump CABG is technically more challenging and may be associated with increased risk of incomplete revascularization. The purpose of the review is to summarize the current literature comparing outcomes of off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery....

  4. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan For Test Area North Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. O.

    2007-06-12

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medial zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF). As identified in the remediatial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action.

  5. Blink Reflex as a Complementary Test to MRI in Early Detection of Brainstem Infarctions: Comparison of Blink Reflex Abnormalities in Anterior Versus Posterior Circulation Strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Basiri

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early detection of vertebro-basilar insufficiency is of paramount importance. Brain MRI was the only method of diagnosis for many years, but in addition to high cost and delay in report, it may not detect all brain stem lesions. In this study Blink reflex (BR was evaluated as a complementary test to MRI. Methods: Fifty-four patients were studied [27 anterior circulation stroke patients (ACSP and 27 posterior circulation stroke patients (PCSP]. MRI was performed within the first week after the onset of stroke. Nineteen age and sex matched healthy people enrolled as controls. BR was performed within the first 24 hours of the onset. Frequency of abnormal blink reflex in ACSP and PCSP was compared with MRI findings. Then abnormal responses in two groups were compared by chi-square test. Results: In both ACSP and PCSP, two patients had normal BR responses, and in 25 patients R1 or R2 components of blink responses were absent or prolonged (92.5%. R1was absent or delayed in 16 PCSP, but it was abnormal in only two ACSP (P < 0.001. Abnormal R2 responses were detected in 22 PCSP and 24 ACSP. Conclusion: BR abnormalities had high correlation with MRI findings in PCSP (92.5% BR can be performed within the first 24 hours of onset of stroke, and its results is available immediately. This test is easy to perform and comfortable for the patient, has low cost, and is available every where. Therefore we introduced BR as a complementary (but not replacing test to MRI in early detection of brainstem infarctions. Comparison of BR responses in ACSP and PCSP showed that abnormalities of R1 responses had high accuracy in differentiation between anterior and posterior circulation strokes. We concluded that BR responses not only can detect brainstem infarctions rapidly and readily in its early stages, but also can differentiate ACSP from PCSP with high accuracy. Keywords: Blink Reflex, Anterior Circulation Stroke, Posterior Circulation Stroke Patients

  6. Comet assay and micronucleus test in circulating erythrocytes of Cyprinus carpio specimens exposed in situ to lake waters treated with disinfectants for potabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschini, A; Martino, A; Gustavino, B; Monfrinotti, M; Poli, P; Rossi, C; Santoro, M; Dörr, A J M; Rizzoni, M

    2004-02-14

    The detection of a possible genotoxic effect of surface water treated with disinfectants for potabilization is the aim of the present work. The Comet assay and the micronucleus test were applied in circulating erythrocytes of Cyprinus carpio. Young specimens (20-30 g) were exposed in experimental basins, built within the potabilization plant of Castiglione del Lago (Perugia, Italy). In this plant the water of the Trasimeno Lake is treated and disinfected for potabilization before it is distributed to the people in the net of drinkable water. A continuous flow of water at a constant rate was supplied to basins; the water was continuously treated at a constant concentration with one of the three tested disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid and chloride dioxide), one control basin being supplied with untreated water. Three sampling campaigns were performed: October 2000, February 2001 and June 2001. Repeated blood samplings through intracardiac punctures allowed to follow the same fish populations after different exposure times: before introduction of the disinfectant, and 10 or 20 days afterwards. An additional blood sampling was performed 3 h after addition of the disinfectant in other, simultaneously exposed, fish populations. Genotoxic damage was shown in fish exposed to water disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and chloride dioxide. The Comet assay showed an immediate response, i.e. DNA damage that was induced directly in circulating erythrocytes, whereas micronuclei reached their highest frequencies at later sampling times, when a genotoxic damage in stem cells of the cephalic kidney is expressed in circulating erythrocytes. The quality of the untreated surface water seems to be the most important parameter for the long-term DNA damage in circulating erythrocytes.

  7. A Simplified Heat Pump Model for use in Solar Plus Heat Pump System Simulation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Perers, Bengt; Anderssen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger; Kovacs, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the he...

  8. Pumps; Pumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Praktische Energiekunde e.V., Muenchen (Germany). Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft; Hellriegel, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Praktische Energiekunde e.V., Muenchen (Germany). Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft; Pfitzner, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Praktische Energiekunde e.V., Muenchen (Germany). Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft

    1994-11-01

    The technical features of commercial pump types are described with regard to their technical, energy-related and economic parameters, and characteristic data are presented in the form of data sheets. This is to provide a basis for a comparative assessment of different technologies and technical variants. The chapter `System specifications` describes the various fields of application of pumps and the resulting specific requirements. The design and function of the different pump types are described in `Technical description`. `System and plant description dscribes the design and adaptation of pumps, i.e. the adaptation of the plant data to the system requirements. `Data compilation` provides a survey of the types and systematics of the compiled data as well as a decision aid for selecting the pumps best suited to the various applications. The `Data sheet` section describes the structure and handling of the data sheets as well as the data contained therein. The data sheets are contained in the apapendix of this report. The section `General analysis` compares typical technical, energy-related and economic characteristics of the different pump types. This is to enable a rough comparison of pump types and to facilitate decisions. The chapter `Example` illustrates the use of the data sheets by means of a selected example. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit hat zum Ziel, Technik seriengefertigter und marktgaengiger Pumpen in typisierter Form hinsichtlich ihrer technischen, energetischen und wirtschaftlichen Parameter zu beschreiben und ihre charakteristischen Kennwerte in Datenblaettern abzubilden. Damit wird ein grundlegendes Instrument fuer die vergleichende Beurteilung unterschiedlicher Techniken bzw. Technikvarianten hinsichtlich energetischer und wirtschaftlicher Kriterien geschaffen. Im Abschnitt `Systemanforderungen` erfolgt die Beschreibung der einzelnen Anwendungsbereiche fuer Pumpen mit den speziellen daraus resultierenden Anforderungen. Der Aufbau und

  9. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  10. Jet pump-drive system for heat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, James R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention does away with the necessity of moving parts such as a check valve in a nuclear reactor cooling system. Instead, a jet pump, in combination with a TEMP, is employed to assure safe cooling of a nuclear reactor after shutdown. A main flow exists for a reactor coolant. A point of withdrawal is provided for a secondary flow. A TEMP, responsive to the heat from said coolant in the secondary flow path, automatically pumps said withdrawn coolant to a higher pressure and thus higher velocity compared to the main flow. The high velocity coolant is applied as a driver flow for the jet pump which has a main flow chamber located in the main flow circulation pump. Upon nuclear shutdown and loss of power for the main reactor pumping system, the TEMP/jet pump combination continues to boost the coolant flow in the direction it is already circulating. During the decay time for the nuclear reactor, the jet pump keeps running until the coolant temperature drops to a lower and safe temperature where the heat is no longer a problem. At this lower temperature, the TEMP/jet pump combination ceases its circulation boosting operation. When the nuclear reactor is restarted and the coolant again exceeds the lower temperature setting, the TEMP/jet pump automatically resumes operation. The TEMP/jet pump combination is thus automatic, self-regulating and provides an emergency pumping system free of moving parts.

  11. Negative Effect of Proton-pump Inhibitors (PPIs) on Helicobacter pylori Growth, Morphology, and Urease Test and Recovery after PPI Removal--An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniee, Parastoo; Shahreza, Somayeh; Siavoshi, Farideh

    2016-04-01

    Proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) consumption does lead to false-negative results of Helicobacter pylori diagnostic tests such as biopsy culture and rapid urease test (RUT). Helicobacter pylori isolates from 112 dyspeptic patients with (56.5%) or without (43.5%) PPI consumption were recruited for examining the negative effects of omeprazole (OMP), lansoprazole (LPZ), and pantoprazole (PAN) on H. pylori viability, morphology, and urease, in vitro. The effect of a sublethal concentration of OMP on bacterial features and their recovery after removal of OMP was also assessed. Of 112 culture-positive gastric biopsies, 87.5% were RUT positive and 12.5% RUT negative. There was a significant correlation between negative RUT results and PPI consumption (p pylori isolates. OMP and LPZ inhibited urease of 90.3% of isolates between 0 and 40 minutes and 54.4% between 20 and 40 minutes, respectively. PAN did not inhibit H. pylori growth and urease. Three 3-day (9 days) consecutive subcultures of H. pylori on brucella blood agar (BBA) supplemented with OMP resulted in reduced bacterial viability (1+), compared with control (4+), change of spiral morphology to coccoid, and reduction in pink color intensity in urea agar. Bacterial growth (1+), morphology, and urease test did not improve after the first 3-day and second 3-day (6 days) subcultures on BBA. However, relative recovery occurred after the third 3-day (9 days) subculture and complete recovery was observed after the fourth 3-day (12 days) subculture, as confluent growth (4+), 100% spiral cells, and strong urease test. Proton-pump Inhibitors exert transient negative effects on H. pylori viability, morphology, and urease test. Accordingly, cessation of PPI consumption at least 12 days before endoscopy could help avoiding false-negative results of H. pylori diagnostic tests. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Assessment of the MARS Code Using the Two-Phase Natural Circulation Experiments at a Core Catcher Test Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A core catcher has been developed to maintain the integrity of nuclear reactor containment from molten corium during a severe accident. It uses a two-phase natural circulation for cooling molten corium. Flow in a typical core catcher is unique because (i it has an inclined cooling channel with downwards-facing heating surface, of which flow processes are not fully exploited, (ii it is usually exposed to a low-pressure condition, where phase change causes dramatic changes in the flow, and (iii the effects of a multidimensional flow are very large in the upper part of the core catcher. These features make computational analysis more difficult. In this study, the MARS code is assessed using the two-phase natural circulation experiments that had been conducted at the CE-PECS facility to verify the cooling performance of a core catcher. The code is a system-scale thermal-hydraulic (TH code and has a multidimensional TH component. The facility was modeled by using both one- and three-dimensional components. Six experiments at the facility were selected to investigate the parametric effects of heat flux, pressure, and form loss. The results show that MARS can predict the two-phase flow at the facility reasonably well. However, some limitations are obviously revealed.

  13. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  14. Heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Klíma, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Bakalářská práce popisuje a charakterizuje tepelné čerpadlo. Obsahuje souhrn jednotlivých druhů tepelných čerpadel z hlediska získávání energie, princip jejich funkce a popis odlišností mezi jednotlivými druhy kompresorů, použití pracovní látky a její vývin do budoucna. Závěrem je zde uveden můj vlastní názor na tepelné čerpadlo, které bych preferoval. Bachelor thesis describes and characterizes the heat pump. Summarizes the various types of heat pumps in terms of energy production, princi...

  15. Experimental studies and computational benchmark on heavy liquid metal natural circulation in a full height-scale test loop for small modular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yong-Hoon, E-mail: chaotics@snu.ac.kr [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaehyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111 Daedeok-daero, 989 Beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jueun; Ju, Heejae; Sohn, Sungjune; Kim, Yeji; Noh, Hyunyub; Hwang, Il Soon [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Experimental studies on natural circulation for lead-bismuth eutectic were conducted. • Adiabatic wall boundaries conditions were established by compensating heat loss. • Computational benchmark with a system thermal-hydraulics code was performed. • Numerical simulation and experiment showed good agreement in mass flow rate. • An empirical relation was formulated for mass flow rate with experimental data. - Abstract: In order to test the enhanced safety of small lead-cooled fast reactors, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) natural circulation characteristics have been studied. We present results of experiments with LBE non-isothermal natural circulation in a full-height scale test loop, HELIOS (heavy eutectic liquid metal loop for integral test of operability and safety of PEACER), and the validation of a system thermal-hydraulics code. The experimental studies on LBE were conducted under steady state as a function of core power conditions from 9.8 kW to 33.6 kW. Local surface heaters on the main loop were activated and finely tuned by trial-and-error approach to make adiabatic wall boundary conditions. A thermal-hydraulic system code MARS-LBE was validated by using the well-defined benchmark data. It was found that the predictions were mostly in good agreement with the experimental data in terms of mass flow rate and temperature difference that were both within 7%, respectively. With experiment results, an empirical relation predicting mass flow rate at a non-isothermal, adiabatic condition in HELIOS was derived.

  16. Improving the gas productivity of the alkaline electrolyzer through the circulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitipong Tangphant

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study and improve the efficiency of a KOH electrolyzer through the gas productivity of the electrolyzer with different the circulation technique. In this work, the conceptual design of an electrolyzer falls into 2 categories; without pumping and with pumping. Direct current electricity at 5 different levels of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 A are charged into the system and the gas flow rate generated from the electrolyzer is subsequently monitored. The results show that at 30 A the gas generated from the circulation with pumping and the circulation without pumping are 2.31 litre/min and 1.76 litre/min, respectively. It is also found that the energy consumed by both techniques is the same; however, the circulation with pumping design shows the better gas productivity than that of the circulation without pumping design.

  17. Peripheral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M Harold; Davis, Michael J; Secher, Niels H; van Lieshout, Johannes J; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A; Simmons, Grant H; Bender, Shawn B; Padilla, Jaume; Bache, Robert J; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J

    2012-01-01

    Blood flow (BF) increases with increasing exercise intensity in skeletal, respiratory, and cardiac muscle. In humans during maximal exercise intensities, 85% to 90% of total cardiac output is distributed to skeletal and cardiac muscle. During exercise BF increases modestly and heterogeneously to brain and decreases in gastrointestinal, reproductive, and renal tissues and shows little to no change in skin. If the duration of exercise is sufficient to increase body/core temperature, skin BF is also increased in humans. Because blood pressure changes little during exercise, changes in distribution of BF with incremental exercise result from changes in vascular conductance. These changes in distribution of BF throughout the body contribute to decreases in mixed venous oxygen content, serve to supply adequate oxygen to the active skeletal muscles, and support metabolism of other tissues while maintaining homeostasis. This review discusses the response of the peripheral circulation of humans to acute and chronic dynamic exercise and mechanisms responsible for these responses. This is accomplished in the context of leading the reader on a tour through the peripheral circulation during dynamic exercise. During this tour, we consider what is known about how each vascular bed controls BF during exercise and how these control mechanisms are modified by chronic physical activity/exercise training. The tour ends by comparing responses of the systemic circulation to those of the pulmonary circulation relative to the effects of exercise on the regional distribution of BF and mechanisms responsible for control of resistance/conductance in the systemic and pulmonary circulations. © 2012 American Physiological Society

  18. Experimental and Analytical Modeling of Natural Circulation and Forced Circulation BWRs : Thermal-Hydraulic, Core-Wide, and Regional Stability Phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furuya, M.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, 434 nuclear power plants are in operation worldwide. 21% of them are known as Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). These BWRs have pumps that cool their reactor cores (the forced circulation BWRs). In the design of new BWRs, ways to cool the core by a natural circulation flow, without pumps,

  19. Water Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design, fabricate, and test a preflight prototype pump for use in the Extravehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump will accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting noncondensable gas without becoming "air locked." The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the preflight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES will simulate the vacuum environment in which the flight pump will operate. Testing will verify that the pump meets design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure rise, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, and restart capability. Pump testing is currently

  20. Polymer grouts for plugging lost circulation in geothermal wells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbreath, D. (Green Mountain International, Waynesvile, NC); Mansure, Arthur James; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2004-12-01

    We have concluded a laboratory study to evaluate the survival potential of polymeric materials used for lost circulation plugs in geothermal wells. We learned early in the study that these materials were susceptible to hydrolysis. Through a systematic program in which many potential chemical combinations were evaluated, polymers were developed which tolerated hydrolysis for eight weeks at 500 F. The polymers also met material, handling, cost, and emplacement criteria. This screening process identified the most promising materials. A benefit of this work is that the components of the polymers developed can be mixed at the surface and pumped downhole through a single hose. Further strength testing is required to determine precisely the maximum temperature at which extrusion through fractures or voids causes failure of the lost circulation plug.

  1. Measurement of hemodynamic changes with the axial flow blood pump installed in descending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Yano, Tetsuya; Miura, Hidekazu; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2017-12-01

    We have developed various axial flow blood pumps to realize the concept of the Valvo pump, and we have studied hemodynamic changes under cardiac assistance using an axial flow blood pump in series with the natural heart. In this study, we measured hemodynamic changes of not only systemic circulation but also cerebral circulation and coronary circulation under cardiac support using our latest axial flow blood pump placed in the descending aorta in an acute animal experiment. The axial flow blood pump was installed at the thoracic descending aorta through a left thoracotomy of a goat (43.8 kg, female). When the pump was on, the aortic pressure and aortic flow downstream of the pump increased with preservation of pulsatilities. The pressure drop upstream of the pump caused reduction of afterload pressure, and it may lead to reduction of left ventricular wall stress. However, cerebral blood flow and coronary blood flow were decreased when the pump was on. The axial flow blood pump enables more effective blood perfusion into systemic circulation, but it has the potential risk of blood perfusion disturbance into cerebral circulation and coronary circulation. The results indicate that the position before the coronary ostia might be suitable for implantation of the axial flow blood pump in series with the natural heart to avoid blood perfusion disturbances.

  2. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Andersen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here...... is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the heat pump. By plotting heat pump test data in different ways including power input and output form and not only...... as COP, a simplified relation could be seen. By using the same methodology as in the EN 12975 QDT part in the collector test standard it could be shown that a very simple model could describe the heat pump test data very accurately, by identifying 4 parameters in the correlation equation found....

  3. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Vandel

    2003-09-01

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medical zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This plan details management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility. As identified in the remedial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action. This work plan was originally prepared as an early implementation of the final Phase C remediation. At that time, The Phase C implementation strategy was to use this document as the overall Phase C Work Plan and was to be revised to include the remedial actions for the other remedial zones (hotspot and distal zones). After the completion of Record of Decision Amendment: Technical Support Facility Injection Well (TSF-05) and Surrounding Groundwater Contamination (TSF-23) and Miscellaneous No Action Sites, Final Remedial Action, it was determined that each remedial zone would have it own stand-alone remedial action work plan. Revision 1 of this document converts this document to a stand-alone remedial action plan specific to the implementation of the New Pump and Treat Facility used for plume remediation within the medical zone of the OU 1-07B contaminated plume.

  4. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  5. CC Cryostat Vacuum Pumping Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J.B.; /Fermilab

    1987-10-13

    This report calculates the effect of the conductances of the pumping lines on the pumping speeds of the vacuum pumps being used to pump the inner vessel, and annular space, vacuum tight during the CC Cryostat testing. Effective pumping speeds were calculated for various values of pressure via the above stated formulas (see calculations). Conductances of valves, elbows, and tees were calculated with the help of ref. 1, and the volumes of the inner vessel and annular space were calculated wtth the aid of ref. 2. The major results of these calculations follow. The attached graphs show the effective pumping speed vs. pressure, as well as the pressure vs. pumpdown time for both the inner vessel pumpdown and the annular space pumpdown. Many intervals of pressure were chosen in order to give a complete picture of the effects on the pumping speed, and pumpdown time. An important rule of thumb is that the effective pumping speed be close to the intrinsic pump speed in the region of interest for the best efficiency. With an infinite conductance, these quantities become equal. In the case of the annular space pumpdown. the effective pumping speed is within approximately 15% of the intrinsic pump speed for pressures down to 6000{mu}, and at that point, the conductance effects slow the system down and provide a 49% difference at 1000{mu}. To Improve these numbers, the line length must be shortened, or even better, the line diameter increased. As far as pumpdown time is concerned, the actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time, and would have been even better if the pumping system did not lag due to a leaK and its repair time. The inner vessel pumpdown shows a pumpdown time near 1 hour to reach 100{mu} pressure. The effective pumping speed matches to within 10% of the intrinsic pump speed to 6000{mu}, and then the conductance effects become more important and provide a 41% difference at 1000{mu}. The actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time

  6. Sub-scale Waterflow Cavitation and Dynamic Transfer Function Testing of an Oxidizer Turbo-Pump Combined Inducer and Impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, D. M.; Patel, S. K.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2016-01-01

    In 2009 and 2010, Concepts NREC prepared for and performed a series of tests on a 52% scale of a version of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne J-2X Oxidizer Turbopump under a Phase III SBIR with NASA MSFC. The test article was a combined inducer and impeller, tested as a unit. This paper presents an overview of the test rig and facility, instrumentation, signal conditioning, data acquisition systems, testing approach, measurement developments, and lessons learned. Results from these tests were presented in the form of two papers at the previous JANNAF joint propulsion conference, in December of 2011.

  7. Confined placental origin of the circulating cell free fetal DNA revealed by a discordant non-invasive prenatal test result in a trisomy 18 pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jun; Wang, Ting; Wang, Ben-Jing; Liu, Ying-Hua; Li, Hong; Zhang, Jianguang; Cram, David; Chen, Ying

    2014-06-10

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) by massively parallel sequencing is a useful clinical test for the detection of common fetal aneuploidies. While the accuracy of aneuploidy detection can approach 100%, results discordant with the fetus are occasionally reported. In this study we investigated the basis of a discordant T21 positive and T18 negative NIPT result associated with a T18 fetus confirmed by karyotyping. Massively parallel sequencing was used to detect fetal DNA in maternal circulating plasma. The parental origin and nature of the fetal and placental aneuploidies were investigated by quantitative fluorescent PCR of short tandem repeat (STR) sequences and by copy number variation (CNV) sequencing. There was no evidence of T21 maternal mosaicism, T21 microchimerism or a vanishing twin to explain the discordant NIPT result. However, examination of multiple placental biopsies showed both T21 and T18 mosaicism, including one confined region with a significantly higher proportion of T21 cells. Based on fetal DNA fractions and average mosaicism levels, the effective T21 and T18 fetal DNA fractions should have been sufficient for the detection of both trisomies. In this pregnancy, we speculate that confined placental region(s) with higher proportions of T21 cells were preferentially releasing fetal DNAs into the maternal circulation. This study highlights placental mosaicism as a significant risk factor for discordant NIPT results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tests of a polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium based on a spin-exchange optical pumping and a storage cell for polarized deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R. J.; Gilman, R.; Kinney, E. R.; Kowalczyk, R. S.; Napolitano, J.; Young, L.; Mishnev, S. I.; Nikolenko, D. M.; Popov, S. G.; Rachek, I. A.; Temnykh, A. B.; Toporkov, D. K.; Tsentalovich, E. P.; Vesnovsky, D. K.; Wojtsekhowski, B. B.; Zelevinsky, V. G.

    1989-05-01

    A novel laser-driven polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium which is based on the principle of spin-exchange optical pumping has been developed at Argonne. The advantages of this method over conventional polarized sources for internal target experiments is discussed. At present, the laser-driven polarized source delivers hydrogen 8×1016 atoms/s with a polarization of 24% and deuterium at 6×1016 atoms/s with a polarization of 25%. A passive storage cell for polarized deuterium was tested in the VEPP-3 electron storage ring. The storage cell was found to increase the target thickness by approximately a factor of three and no less in polarization was observed.

  9. Annual Performance of a Two-Speed, Dedicated Dehumidification Heat Pump in the NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W Vance

    2016-01-01

    A 2715 ft2 (252 m2), two story, residential home of the style typical of the Gaithersburg, Maryland area was constructed in 2012 to demonstrate technologies for net-zero energy (NZE) homes (or ZEH). The NIST Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) functions as a laboratory to support the development and adoption of cost-effective NZE designs, technologies, construction methods, and building codes. The primary design goal was to meet the comfort and functional needs of the simulated occupants. The first annual test period began on July 1, 2013 and ended June 30, 2014. During the first year of operation, the home's annual energy consumption was 13039 kWh (4.8 kWh ft-2, 51.7 kWh m-2), and the 10.2 kW solar photovoltaic system generated an excess of 484 kWh. During this period the heating and air conditioning of the home was performed by a novel air-source heat pump that utilized a reheat heat exchanger to allow hot compressor discharge gas to reheat the supply air during a dedicated dehumidification mode. During dedicated dehumidification, room temperature air was supplied to the living space until the relative humidity setpoint of 50% was satisfied. The heat pump consumed a total of 6225 kWh (2.3 kWh ft-2, 24.7 kWh m-2) of electrical energy for cooling, heating, and dehumidification. Annual cooling efficiency was 10.1 Btu W-1h-1 (2.95 W W-1), relative to the rated SEER of the heat pump of 15.8 Btu W-1h-1 (4.63 W W-1). Annual heating efficiency was 7.10 Btu W-1h-1 (2.09 W W-1), compared with the unit's rated HSPF of 9.05 Btu W-1h-1 (2.65 W W-1). These field measured efficiency numbers include dedicated dehumidification operation and standby energy use for the year. Annual sensible heat ratio was approximately 70%. Standby energy consumption was 5.2 % and 3.5 % of the total electrical energy used for cooling and heating, respectively.

  10. Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid: Some prototype studies conducted in G Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site for the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chornack, M.P. [Geological Survey, Las Vegas, NV (USA); French, C.A. [Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA)

    1989-12-31

    Horizontal coring using air as the circulating fluid has been conducted in the G Tunnel Underground Facility (GTUF) at the Nevada Test Site. This work is part of the prototype investigations of hydrogeology for the Yucca Mountain Project. The work is being conducted to develop methods and procedures that will be used at the Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Site, a candidate site for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository, during the site characterization phase of the investigations. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting this prototype testing under the guidance of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and in conjunction with Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Company (REECo), the drilling contractor. 7 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions to proton pump inhibitors: usefulness of skin tests in the diagnosis and assessment of cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepil Özdemir, S; Yılmaz, I; Aydin, Ö; Büyüköztürk, S; Gelincik, A; Demirtürk, M; Erdoğdu, D; Cömert, S; Erdoğan, T; Karakaya, G; Kalyoncu, A F; Oner Erkekol, F; Dursun, A B; Misirligil, Z; Bavbek, S

    2013-08-01

    Data are limited about the value of skin tests in the diagnosis of proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced hypersensitivity reactions and the cross-reactivity between PPIs. We aimed to assess the role of skin testing in the diagnosis of PPI-related immediate hypersensitivity reactions and the cross-reactivity patterns among PPIs. The study was designed in a prospective, national, multicentre nature. Sixty-five patients with a suggestive history of a PPI-induced immediate hypersensitivity reaction and 30 control subjects were included. Standardized skin prick and intradermal tests were carried out with a panel of PPIs. Single-blind, placebo-controlled oral provocation tests (OPTs) with the PPIs other than the culprit PPI that displayed negative results in skin tests (n = 61) and diagnostic OPTs with the suspected PPI (n = 12) were performed. The suspected PPIs were lansoprazole (n = 52), esomeprazole (n = 11), pantoprazole (n = 9), rabeprazole (n = 2), and omeprazole (n = 1). The sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of the skin tests with PPIs were 58.8%, 100%, 70.8%, and 100%, respectively. Fifteen of the 31 patients with a hypersensitivity reaction to lansoprazole had a positive OPT or skin test result with at least one of the alternative PPIs (8/52 pantoprazole, 6/52 omeprazole, 5/52 esomeprazole, 3/52 rabeprazole). Considering the high specificity, skin testing seems to be a useful method for the diagnosis of immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions to PPIs and for the evaluation of cross-reactivity among PPIs. However, OPT should be performed in case of negativity on skin tests. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Pump characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Providing a wealth of information on pumps and pump systems, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition details how pump equipment is selected, sized, operated, maintained, and repaired. The book identifies the key components of pumps and pump accessories, introduces the basics of pump and system hydraulics as well as more advanced hydraulic topics, and details various pump types, as well as special materials on seals, motors, variable frequency drives, and other pump-related subjects. It uses example problems throughout the text, reinforcing the practical application of the formulae

  13. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  14. Turbidity maximum formation in a well-mixed macrotidal estuary : The role of tidal pumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Wang, Y.; Gao, J.; Gao, S.; Flemming, B.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, vertical circulation (induced by gravity circulation and tidal straining), tidal pumping, and resuspension are suggested as the major processes for the formation and maintenance of the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM). Due to strong mixing, tidal pumping is considered as the

  15. In vitro detection of cardiotoxins or neurotoxins affecting ion channels or pumps using beating cardiomyocytes as alternative for animal testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolas, J.A.Y.; Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Haan, de L.H.J.; Koning, R.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Bovee, T.F.H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated if and to what extent murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies can be used as a broad screening in vitro assay for neurotoxicity testing, replacing for example in vivo tests for marine neurotoxins. Effect of nine model compounds, acting on

  16. Temperature Rises In Pumps For Superfluid Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses increases in temperature of superfluid helium in centrifugal and fountain-effect pumps. Intended for use in transfers of superfluid helium in outer space. Increases in temperature significantly affect losses during transfers and are important in selection of temperatures of supply tanks. Purpose of study, increase in temperature in fountain-effect pump calculated on basis of thermodynamic considerations, starting from assumption of ideal pump. Results of recent tests of ceramic material intended for use in such pumps support this assumption. Overall, centrifugal pumps more effective because it produces smaller rise in temperature.

  17. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Breast Pumps Types of Breast Pumps Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... a nipple and used for feeding a baby. Types of Breast Pumps There are three basic types ...

  18. Measurement of Circulating Filarial Antigen Levels in Human Blood with a Point-of-Care Test Strip and a Portable Spectrodensitometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Vlaminck, Johnny; Kunyu-Shako, Billy; Pion, Sébastien D; Awaca-Uvon, Naomi-Pitchouna; Weil, Gary J; Mumba, Dieudonné; Boussinesq, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS) is a qualitative, point-of-care diagnostic tool that detects Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in human blood, serum, or plasma. The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis employs the FTS for mapping filariasis-endemic areas and assessing the success of elimination efforts. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the intensity of positive test lines obtained by FTS with CFA levels as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with blood and plasma samples from 188 individuals who live in a filariasis-endemic area. The intensity of the FTS test line was assessed visually to provide a semiquantitative score (visual Filariasis Test Strip [vFTS]), and line intensity was measured with a portable spectrodensitometer (quantitative Filariasis Test Strip [qFTS]). These results were compared with antigen levels measured by ELISA in plasma from the same subjects. qFTS measurements were highly correlated with vFTS scores (ρ = 0.94; P < 0.001) and with plasma CFA levels (ρ = 0.91; P < 0.001). Thus, qFTS assessment is a convenient method for quantifying W. bancrofti CFA levels in human blood, which are correlated with adult worm burdens. This tool may be useful for assessing the impact of treatment on adult filarial worms in individuals and communities. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Estimating the hydrogeological parameters of an unconfined aquifer with the time-lapse resistivity-imaging method during pumping tests: Case studies at the Pengtsuo and Dajou sites, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ping-Yu; Chang, Lian-Cheng; Hsu, Shao-Yiu; Tsai, Jui-Pin; Chen, Wen-Fu

    2017-09-01

    We conducted time-lapse resistivity imaging during pumping tests at the Pengtsuo and Dajou test sites in Taiwan in order to examine the feasibility of estimating hydrogeological parameters with resistivity variations. Core logs reveal that the subsurface consists mainly of at least 100-m-thick gravel and sand at the two test sites. The resistivity differences between the pumping stages and pre-pumping background are well correlated to water level changes that are due to the dewatering of pumping activity. Therefore, it is possible to use the geometry of resistivity anomalies to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the unconfined aquifer using the distance-drawdown equation for pumping tests in unsaturated aquifers. For each site, we used the contours of resistivity variations and recorded water levels in the pumping well to depict the bottom of the drawdown cone. The estimated hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, respectively, are 1.33 × 10- 4 m/s and 0.12 at the Pengtsuo site, and are 2.50 × 10- 4 m/s and 0.22 at the Dajou site. These values are consistent with the parameters that engineers from Taiwan Sugar Company calculated previously regarding groundwater-level variations in multiple wells (9.65 × 10- 5 m/s and 0.13 at Pengtsuo, and 1.00 × 10- 3 m/s and 0.19 at Dajou). This consistency suggests that resistivity imaging can perhaps serve as an alternative way to yield information about hydrogeological parameters.

  20. Full scale test results as part of the development of a large diameter nozzle with thicker sleeve for the ABWR internal pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S.; Shiina, K.; Matsumura, S.; Tanaka, M.; Umemori, K.; Mizuta, J. [Hitachi Ltd., Power and Industrial Systems R and D Lab., Ibaraki (Japan); Ishiguro, N.; Matsuda, T. [Hokuriku Electric Power Company, Nuclear Power Dept., Nuclear Power Construction Section, Toyama (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    To provide better earthquake-proof performance of the reactor internal pump (RIP) in the advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR), the optimum nozzle diameter (492 mm) with the thicker sleeve was decided from previous 1/5-scale tests and calculations, taking hydraulic performance and flow characteristics into consideration. The purposes of the present study were to verify the hydraulic performance of the actual full-scale RIP with the 492 mm nozzle and to evaluate the coast-down and the RIP vibration characteristics. The RIP full-scale tests were carried out in the Hitachi ABWR RIP Test Center for cooperative studies between Hokuriku Electric Power Company and Hitachi, Ltd.. The head-capacity curves, the rotating inertia time constant in the coast-down and the casing and the impeller vibration were investigated for RIPs with the current (445 mm) and the 492 mm nozzles under actual plant operating conditions of fluid temperature of 549 K and pressure of 7.4 M Pa. The increase of pressure losses of the 492 mm nozzle from the 445 mm nozzle in the full-scale test was about 1 m (total head of 2.5%) at the design point and almost the same as that in the 1/5-scale test result. This variation of the hydraulic performance was within the allowable level of the current RIP. Moreover, the rotating inertia time constant and the intensity of the casing and the impeller vibration were within the design specifications of the current RIP with the 445 mm nozzle. Results of full-scale tests showed the RIP with the 492 mm nozzle could maintain the good performance, so use of the 492 mm nozzle was judged appropriate for the RIP in the ABWR. (author)

  1. Rapid clearance of Schistosoma mansoni circulating cathodic antigen after treatment shown by urine strip tests in a Ugandan fishing community 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Anna O.; Vennervald, Birgitte J.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.

    2017-01-01

    treatments. CCA levels in urine were determined by carbon-conjugated monoclonal antibody lateral flow strip assay and eggs per gram faeces for S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths by Kato-Katz. Significant correlations between CCA levels and S. mansoni egg count at every measured time point were found...... and affordable diagnostic tools. Detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection by circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) in urine is an attractive option as this measure describes live worm infection noninvasively. In order to interpret treatment efficacy and re-infection levels, knowledge about clearance...... in response to treatment is detectable as a decline in CCA in urine already after 24 hours. This has relevance for use and interpretation of laboratory based and point-of-care CCA tests in terms of treatment efficacy and re-infection proportions as this measure provides information on the presence of all...

  2. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  3. Metabolomic profiling in patients undergoing Off-Pump or On-Pump coronary artery bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, H; Schwarzer, M; Neugebauer, S; Faerber, G; Diab, M; Doenst, T

    2017-04-05

    Coronary artery bypass surgery can be performed without (Off-Pump) or with cardiopulmonary bypass (On-Pump). Extracorporeal circulation and cardioplegic arrest may cause alterations in the plasma metabolome. We assessed metabolomic changes in patients undergoing On-Pump or Off-Pump coronary artery bypass surgery. We assessed five analyte classes (41 acylcarnitines, 14 amino acids, 92 glycerophospholipids, 15 sphingolipids, sugars, lactate) using a mass-spectrometry-based kit (Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ® p150) in paired arterial and coronary sinus blood obtained from 10 consecutive On-Pump and 10 Off-Pump patients. Cardioplegia for On-Pump was warm blood Calafiore. On-Pump outcomes were corrected for hemodilution through crystalloid priming. Demographic data were equal in both groups with normal ejection fraction, renal and liver function. Patients received 2.25 ± 0.64 bypass grafts. All postoperative courses were uneventful. Of 164 measured metabolites, only 13 (7.9%) were altered by cardiopulmonary bypass. We found more long-chain acylcarnitines Off-Pump and more short-chain acylcarnitines On-Pump. Glycerophospholipids showed lower concentrations On-Pump and arginine (as the only different amino acid) Off-Pump. Interestingly, plasma arginine (nitric oxide precursor) concentration at the end of surgery correlated inversely with postoperative vasopressor need (r = -0.7; p Pump surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass and warm blood cardioplegia cause only minor changes to the metabolomic profile of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. The observed changes affected mainly acylcarnitines. In addition, there appears to be a relationship between arginine and vasopressor need after bypass surgery.

  4. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  5. Factors affecting levels of circulating cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma and their implications for noninvasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnings, Sarah L; Geis, Jennifer A; Almasri, Eyad; Wang, Huiquan; Guan, Xiaojun; McCullough, Ron M; Bombard, Allan T; Saldivar, Juan-Sebastian; Oeth, Paul; Deciu, Cosmin

    2015-08-01

    Sufficient fetal DNA in a maternal plasma sample is required for accurate aneuploidy detection via noninvasive prenatal testing, thus highlighting a need to understand the factors affecting fetal fraction. The MaterniT21™ PLUS test uses massively parallel sequencing to analyze cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma and detect chromosomal abnormalities. We assess the impact of a variety of factors, both maternal and fetal, on the fetal fraction across a large number of samples processed by Sequenom Laboratories. The rate of increase in fetal fraction with increasing gestational age varies across the duration of the testing period and is also influenced by fetal aneuploidy status. Maternal weight trends inversely with fetal fraction, and we find no added benefit from analyzing body mass index or blood volume instead of weight. Strong correlations exist between fetal fractions from aliquots taken from the same patient at the same blood draw and also at different blood draws. While a number of factors trend with fetal fraction across the cohort as a whole, they are not the sole determinants of fetal fraction. In this study, the variability for any one patient does not appear large enough to justify postponing testing to a later gestational age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Testing Ductless Heat Pumps in High-Performance Affordable Housing, the Woods at Golden Given - Tacoma, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    The Woods is a 30-home, high- performance, energy efficient sustainable community built by Habitat for Humanity (HFH). With Support from Tacoma Public Utilities, Washington State University (part of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction) is researching the energy performance of these homes and the ductless heat pumps (DHP) they employ. This project provides Building America with an opportunity to: field test HVAC equipment, ventilation system air flows, building envelope tightness, lighting, appliance, and other input data that are required for preliminary Building Energy Optimization (BEopt™) modeling and ENERGY STAR® field verification; analyze cost data from HFH and other sources related to building-efficiency measures that focus on the DHP/hybrid heating system and heat recovery ventilation system; evaluate the thermal performance and cost benefit of DHP/hybrid heating systems in these homes from the perspective of homeowners; compare the space heating energy consumption of a DHP/electric resistance (ER) hybrid heating system to that of a traditional zonal ER heating system; conduct weekly "flip-flop tests" to compare space heating, temperature, and relative humidity in ER zonal heating mode to DHP/ER mode.

  7. A Novel Insulin/Glucose Model after a Mixed-Meal Test in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes on Insulin Pump Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Luca; Reali, Federico; Dauriz, Marco; Brangani, Corinna; Boselli, Linda; Ceradini, Giulia; Bonora, Enzo; Bonadonna, Riccardo C; Priami, Corrado

    2016-11-08

    Current closed-loop insulin delivery methods stem from sophisticated models of the glucose-insulin (G/I) system, mostly based on complex studies employing glucose tracer technology. We tested the performance of a new minimal model (GLUKINSLOOP 2.0) of the G/I system to characterize the glucose and insulin dynamics during multiple mixed meal tests (MMT) of different sizes in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) on insulin pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, CSII). The GLUKINSLOOP 2.0 identified the G/I system, provided a close fit of the G/I time-courses and showed acceptable reproducibility of the G/I system parameters in repeated studies of identical and double-sized MMTs. This model can provide a fairly good and reproducible description of the G/I system in T1D patients on CSII, and it may be applied to create a bank of "virtual" patients. Our results might be relevant at improving the architecture of upcoming closed-loop CSII systems.

  8. An experimental study on pump clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, M.; Nohmi, M.; Uchida, H.; Kawai, M.; Kudo, H.; Kawahara, T.; Miyagawa, K.; Saito, S.

    2014-03-01

    For sewage pump that various foreign substance is flowed into, anti-clogging performance is a factor as important as pump efficiency in order to avoid clogging trouble by foreign substance. Many investigations about pump inner flow and pump efficiency estimation have been carried out conventionally in order to realize coexistence with anti-clogging performance and pump performance. And these results have been reflected in construction of the running water section design method. As a index of anti-clogging performance, "impeller passage diameter" which is diameter of spherical solid that can pass through the pump is used widely. And there are various type of the sewage pump which have large impeller passage diameter. However real cause of clog is not a solid, and it is fibrous material such as towel and clothes, vinyl and paper diaper. In most case these material accumulate in the pump, so that clog is occurred. In this study, for the purpose of quantification of anti-clogging performance against fibrous materials, the factor that affect to clogging of pump was investigated by pump model test using a string. The test is done based on Taguchi method. In this test, type of the pump model, diameter of the string, material of the string, length of the string and flow rate are selected for the factor, and the effect that they have on the clogging of the pump was investigated. As a result of this test, it was made clear that length of the string has a strong influence on the clogging of the pump. And from the result of this test, evaluation method of anti-clogging performance of the pump against fibrous material by using string was considered. According to the result of above test based on Taguchi method, it was assumed that quantification of anti-clogging performance against fibrous materials is possible by flowing plural strings into the pump and calculating the probability of passing. Plurality sewage pumps of different types were evaluated based on this assumption

  9. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  10. Energy Savings Potential for Pumping Water in District Heating Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sarbu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In district heating stations, the heat carrier is circulated between the energy source and consumers by a pumping system. Fluid handling systems, such as pumping systems, are responsible for a significant portion of the total electrical energy use. Significant opportunities exist to reduce pumping energy through smart design, retrofitting, and operating practices. Most existing systems requiring flow control make use of bypass lines, throttling valves or pump speed adjustments. The most efficient of these options is pump speed control. One of the issues in using variable-speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion about pump control in heating stations and analyzes the energy efficiency of flow control methods. Specific attention is also given to the selection of motor types, sizing and pump duty cycle. A comparative energy analysis is performed on the hot water discharge adjustment using throttling control valves and variable-speed drives in a district heating station constructed in Romania. To correlate the pumped flow rate with the heat demand and to ensure the necessary pressure using minimum energy, an automatic system has been designed. The performances of these control methods are evaluated in two practical applications. The results show that approximately 20%–50% of total pumping energy could be saved by using the optimal control method with variable-speed pumps. Additionally, some modernization solutions to reduce the environmental impact of heating stations are described.

  11. Fault Detection and Isolation in Centrifugal Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten

    Centrifugal pumps are used in a variety of different applications, such as water supply, wastewater, and different industrial applications. Some pump installations are crucial for the applications to work. Failures can lead to substantial economic losses and can influence the life of many people...... is placed. The topic of this work is Fault Detection and Identification in centrifugal pumps. Different approaches are developed with special focus on robustness. Robustness with respect to disturbances, unknown parts of the system, and parameter variations are considered. All developed algorithms...... are tested on an industrial test setup, showing the usability of the algorithms on a real centrifugal pump....

  12. Multiple pump housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  13. Control of the Fluid Viscosity in a Mock Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boës, Stefan; Ochsner, Gregor; Amacher, Raffael; Petrou, Anastasios; Meboldt, Mirko; Schmid Daners, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    A mock circulation allows the in vitro investigation, development, and testing of ventricular assist devices. An aqueous-glycerol solution is commonly used to mimic the viscosity of blood. Due to evaporation and temperature changes, the viscosity of the solution drifts from its initial value and therefore, deviates substantially from the targeted viscosity of blood. Additionally, the solution needs to be exchanged to account for changing viscosities when mimicking different hematocrits. This article presents a method to control the viscosity in a mock circulation. This method makes use of the relationship between temperature and viscosity of aqueous-glycerol solutions and employs the automatic control of the viscosity of the fluid. To that end, an existing mock circulation was extended with an industrial viscometer, temperature probes, and a heating nozzle band. The results obtained with different fluid viscosities show that a viscosity controller is vital for repeatable experimental conditions on mock circulations. With a mixture ratio of 49 mass percent of aqueous-glycerol solution, the controller can mimic a viscosity range corresponding to a hematocrit between 29 and 42% in a temperature range of 30-42°C. The control response has no overshoot and the settling time is 8.4 min for a viscosity step of 0.3 cP, equivalent to a hematocrit step of 3.6%. Two rotary blood pumps that are in clinical use are tested at different viscosities. At a flow rate of 5 L/min, both show a deviation of roughly 15 and 10% in motor current for high rotor speeds. The influence of different viscosities on the measured head pressure is negligible. Viscosity control for a mock circulation thus plays an important role for assessing the required motor current of ventricular assist devices. For the investigation of the power consumption of rotary blood pumps and the development of flow estimators where the motor current is a model input, an integrated viscosity controller is a valuable

  14. Self-Pumping Active Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Ta; Hishamunda, Jean Bernard; Fraden, Seth; Dogic, Zvonimir

    Isotropic active gels are the network which is consist of cross-linked building blocks and the structure of which changes randomly and isotropically with time. Dogic et. al. show that pairs of anti-parallel microtubules form extensile bundles, which merge, extend, and buckle. In an unconfined system, the dynamics of these bundles causes spontaneous turbulent-like flow driven by motion of microscopic molecular motors. We found that confining these active gels in a millimeter sized toroids causes a transition into a new dynamical state characterized by circulation currents persisting for hours until ATP is depleted. We show how toroid dimensions impact the properties of self-organized circular currents, how directions of circulation can be designed by engineering ratchet-shaped boundaries, and how circulations of connected toroids can be either synchronized or antisynchronized. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the flow rate in the circulation is independent of curvature and length of flow path. The flow rate persists for centimeters without decay, disregarding conventional pipe flow resistance. Such findings pave the path to self-pumping pipe transport and performing physical work with biological system.

  15. With how many users should you test a medical infusion pump? Sampling strategies for usability tests on high-risk systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmettow, Martin; Vos, Wendy; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    Usability testing is recognized as an effective means to improve the usability of medical devices and prevent harm for patients and users. Effectiveness of problem discovery in usability testing strongly depends on size and representativeness of the sample. We introduce the late control strategy,

  16. Probabilistic assessment of night pumping operation of flammable fluids and pressure testing with maritime diesel; Analise probabilisica de seguranca para as operacoes de bombeio noturno de inflamaveis e teste de pressao com diesel maritimo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacinto, Carlos M.C.; Barbosa, Valdir P. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Pauli A.A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Ramos, Fernando A.

    2008-07-01

    Some operations, due to unscientific knowledge, have been prohibited in E and P activities. Among these operations one have night pumping of flammable fluid and pressure test with maritime diesel. For this reason one has a considerable lost of time due to the necessity to wait until the morning of the day after, in case of night pumping, or due to logistic skills concerning the difficulties to obtain materials which can be adopted in place of the maritime diesel. In turn to verify, scientifically, funding on a probabilistic safety analysis, the present paper present a hybrid approach, due to the high complexity of the considered scenario. In this hybrid approach, one has: HAZOP, event trees, Bayesian network, fault trees, and Bayesian inference for expert opinions estimation. The obtained results are satisfactory haven in view that they show the probability of occurrence of a catastrophic event concerning the analyzed operations. The obtained results are very satisfactory due to the fact that the one have obtained the probability values of undesirable events, and these values can be compared to the reference one. These reference figures are known as ALARP and are proposed by HSE. (author)

  17. Centrifugal pump handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pumps, Sulzer

    2010-01-01

    This long-awaited new edition is the complete reference for engineers and designers working on pump design and development or using centrifugal pumps in the field. This authoritative guide has been developed with access to the technical expertise of the leading centrifugal pump developer, Sulzer Pumps. In addition to providing the most comprehensive centrifugal pump theory and design reference with detailed material on cavitation, erosion, selection of materials, rotor vibration behavior and forces acting on pumps, the handbook also covers key pumping applications topics and operational

  18. Atmospheric Circulation of Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showman, A. P.; Cho, J. Y.-K.; Menou, K.

    2010-12-01

    We survey the basic principles of atmospheric dynamics relevant to explaining existing and future observations of exoplanets, both gas giant and terrestrial. Given the paucity of data on exoplanet atmospheres, our approach is to emphasize fundamental principles and insights gained from solar system studies that are likely to be generalizable to exoplanets. We begin by presenting the hierarchy of basic equations used in atmospheric dynamics, including the Navier-Stokes, primitive, shallow-water, and two-dimensional nondivergent models. We then survey key concepts in atmospheric dynamics, including the importance of planetary rotation, the concept of balance, and simple scaling arguments to show how turbulent interactions generally produce large-scale east-west banding on rotating planets. We next turn to issues specific to giant planets, including their expected interior and atmospheric thermal structures, the implications for their wind patterns, and mechanisms to pump their east-west jets. Hot Jupiter atmospheric dynamics are given particular attention, as these close-in planets have been the subject of most of the concrete developments in the study of exoplanetary atmospheres. We then turn to the basic elements of circulation on terrestrial planets as inferred from solar system studies, including Hadley cells, jet streams, processes that govern the large-scale horizontal temperature contrasts, and climate, and we discuss how these insights may apply to terrestrial exoplanets. Although exoplanets surely possess a greater diversity of circulation regimes than seen on the planets in our solar system, our guiding philosophy is that the multidecade study of solar system planets reviewed here provides a foundation upon which our understanding of more exotic exoplanetary meteorology must build.

  19. Evaluation of a clinical tool to test and adjust the programmed overnight basal profiles for insulin pump therapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orszag, Andrej; Falappa, C Marcelo; Lovblom, Leif E; Partridge, Helen; Tschirhart, Holly; Boulet, Genevieve; Picton, Peter; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Perkins, Bruce A

    2015-10-01

    Clinical protocols for basal rate testing and adjustment are needed for effective insulin pump therapy. We evaluated the effects of a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-based semiautomated basal algorithm on glycemia. We developed and piloted a basal rate analyzer that interpreted CGM data from overnight fasts and recommended dose changes for subsequent nights. Subjects uploaded data online using sensor-augmented pumps for evaluation by the analyzer after each of 5 overnight fasts conducted over 2 to 8 weeks. It was designed to be conservative and iterative, making changes that did not exceed 10% at each iteration. The standard deviation and interquartile range of CGM values from midnight to 7 am (SD12-7am and IQR12-7am) over 3 baseline and 3 postintervention nights, hypoglycemia incidence (CGM values <4.0 mmol/L), and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) were compared. Twenty subjects with mean ages of 38±13 years and A1C 7.6%±0.8% (60±8.7 mmol/mol) underwent the 5 iterations of basal assessments over 5±3 weeks. SD12-7am and IQR12-7am did not change from baseline to postintervention (1.57±0.8 to 1.63±0.8 mmol/L; p=0.35; 3.66±2.07 to 3.47±2.26 mmol/L; p=0.90). However, mean glucose values were lower between 2 to 3 am at baseline compared to postintervention; 3-night hypoglycemia incidence declined from 1.6±1.8 to 0.5±0.7 episodes (p=0.01), and A1C improved from 7.6%±0.8% to 7.4%±0.9% (60%±8.7% to 57%±9.8% mmol/mol; p=0.03). The use of a basal rate analyzer was associated with reduced hypoglycemia and improved A1C. However, overnight glycemic stability was not improved. Further research into the efficacy of the CGM-based semiautomated algorithm is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards on-chip photon-pair bell tests: Spatial pump filtering in a LiNbO3 adiabatic coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solntsev, Alexander S.; Liu, Tong; Boes, Andreas; Nguyen, Thach G.; Wu, Che Wen; Setzpfandt, Frank; Mitchell, Arnan; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.

    2017-12-01

    Nonlinear optical waveguides enable the integration of entangled photon sources and quantum logic gates on a quantum photonic chip. One of the major challenges in such systems is separating the generated entangled photons from the pump laser light. In this work, we experimentally characterize double-N-shaped nonlinear optical adiabatic couplers designed for the generation of spatially entangled photon pairs through spontaneous parametric down-conversion, while simultaneously providing spatial pump filtering and keeping photon-pair states pure. We observe that the pump photons at a wavelength of 671 nm mostly remain in the central waveguide, achieving a filtering ratio of over 20 dB at the outer waveguides. We also perform classical characterization at the photon-pair wavelength of 1342 nm and observe that light fully couples from an input central waveguide to the outer waveguides, showing on chip separation of the pump and the photon-pair wavelength.

  1. Reciprocating Pump Systems for Space Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J C

    2004-06-10

    Small propellant pumps can reduce rocket hardware mass, while increasing chamber pressure to improve specific impulse. The maneuvering requirements for planetary ascent require an emphasis on mass, while those of orbiting spacecraft indicate that I{sub SP} should be prioritized during pump system development. Experimental efforts include initial testing with prototype lightweight components while raising pump efficiency to improve system I{sub SP}.

  2. Solar-powered turbocompressor heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerman, A.M.; Biancardi, F.R.; Melikian, G.; Meader, M.D.; Kepler, C.E.; Anderson, T.J.; Sitler, J.W.

    1982-08-12

    The turbocompressor comprises a power turbine and a compressor turbine having respective rotors and on a common shaft, rotatably supported by bearings. A first working fluid is supplied by a power loop and is expanded in the turbine. A second working fluid is compressed in the turbine and is circulated in a heat pump loop. A lubricant is mixed with the second working fluid but is excluded from the first working fluid. The bearings are cooled and lubricated by a system which circulates the second working fluid and the intermixed lubricant through the bearings. Such system includes a pump, a thermostatic expansion valve for expanding the working fluid into the space between the bearings, and a return conduit system for withdrawing the expanded working fluid after it passes through the bearings and for returning the working fluid to the evaporator. A shaft seal excludes the lubricant from the power turbine. The power loop includes a float operable by liquid working fluid in the condenser for controlling a recirculation valve so as to maintain a minimum liquid level in the condenser, while causing a feed pump to pump most of the working fluid into the vapor generator. The heat pump compressor loop includes a float in the condenser for operating and expansion valve to maintain a minimum liquid working fluid level in the condenser while causing most of the working fluid to be expanded into the evaporator.

  3. Pump element for a tube pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a tube pump comprising a tube and a pump element inserted in the tube, where the pump element comprises a rod element and a first and a second non-return valve member positioned a distance apart on the rod element. The valve members are oriented in the same direction...... portion acts to alternately close and open the valve members thereby generating a fluid flow through the tube. The invention further relates to a pump element comprising at least two non-return valve members connected by a rod element, and for insertion in an at least partly flexible tube in such tube...... pump as mentioned above, thereby acting to generate a fluid flow through the tube upon repeated deformation of the tube between the two valve members. The pump element may comprise a connecting part for coupling to another tube and may comprise a sealing part establishing a fluid tight connection...

  4. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  5. Full-Scale Validation of a Comprehensive Criterion to Predict Fish-Friendliness of Pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krakers, L.A.; Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Rutjes, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Many pumping stations in drainage & irrigation applications are currently equipped with conventional (not fish friendly designed) pumps. Field tests have been performed [1] for several pump types of a certain size at certain pumping conditions to assess survival rates of fish passing through pumps.

  6. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube feeding; PEG tube care; Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding ... pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  7. Long-term pumping test to study the impact of an open-loop geothermal system on seawater intrusion in a coastal aquifer: the case study of Bari (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementina Caputo, Maria; Masciale, Rita; Masciopinto, Costantino; De Carlo, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    The high cost and scarcity of fossil fuels have promoted the increased use of natural heat for a number of direct applications. Just as for fossil fuels, the exploitation of geothermal energy should consider its environmental impact and sustainability. Particular attention deserves the so-called open loop geothermal groundwater heat pump (GWHP) system, which uses groundwater as geothermal fluid. From an economic point of view, the implementation of this kind of geothermal system is particularly attractive in coastal areas, which have generally shallow aquifers. Anyway the potential problem of seawater intrusion has led to laws that restrict the use of groundwater. The scarcity of freshwater could be a major impediment for the utilization of geothermal resources. In this study a new methodology has been proposed. It was based on an experimental approach to characterize a coastal area in order to exploit the low-enthalpy geothermal resource. The coastal karst and fractured aquifer near Bari, in Southern Italy, was selected for this purpose. For the purpose of investigating the influence of an open-loop GWHP system on the seawater intrusion, a long-term pumping test was performed. The test simulated the effects of a prolonged withdrawal on the chemical-physical groundwater characteristics of the studied aquifer portion. The duration of the test was programmed in 16 days, and it was performed with a constant pumping flowrate of 50 m3/h. The extracted water was outflowed into an adjacent artificial channel, by means of a piping system. Water depth, temperature and electrical conductivity of the pumped water were monitored for 37 days, including also some days before and after the pumping duration. The monitored parameters, collected in the pumping and in five observation wells placed 160 m down-gradient with respect to the groundwater flow direction, have been used to estimate different scenarios of the impact of the GWHP system on the seawater intrusion by mean of a

  8. Vibration of safety injection pump motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattrelos, D.

    1996-12-01

    This paper covers a fault encountered in the safety injection pump motors of the French 900 MWe unit nuclear power stations. This fault was not revealed either during the low pressure safety injection and containment spray system pump qualification tests under accident conditions or during the special tests on a test bench carried out to attempt to replicate the fault and to identify ways of remedying it. This constitutes a potential common mode of failure of the safety injection system and the containment spray system pumps. The vibration phenomena illustrate the importance of carrying out tests in the plants under conditions as close as possible to those of actual accident situations.

  9. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA test for Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in different settings of Côte d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean T Coulibaly

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Promising results have been reported for a urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available CCA cassette test (designated CCA-A and an experimental formulation (CCA-B for S. mansoni diagnosis. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings of Côte d'Ivoire: settings A and B are endemic for S. mansoni, whereas S. haematobium co-exists in setting C. Overall, 446 children, aged 8-12 years, submitted multiple stool and urine samples. For S. mansoni diagnosis, stool samples were examined with triplicate Kato-Katz, whereas urine samples were tested with CCA-A. The first stool and urine samples were additionally subjected to an ether-concentration technique and CCA-B, respectively. Urine samples were examined for S. haematobium using a filtration method, and for microhematuria using Hemastix dipsticks. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Considering nine Kato-Katz as diagnostic 'gold' standard, the prevalence of S. mansoni in setting A, B and C was 32.9%, 53.1% and 91.8%, respectively. The sensitivity of triplicate Kato-Katz from the first stool and a single CCA-A test was 47.9% and 56.3% (setting A, 73.9% and 69.6% (setting B, and 94.2% and 89.6% (setting C. The respective sensitivity of a single CCA-B was 10.4%, 29.9% and 75.0%. The ether-concentration technique showed a low sensitivity for S. mansoni diagnosis (8.3-41.0%. The specificity of CCA-A was moderate (76.9-84.2%; CCA-B was high (96.7-100%. The likelihood of a CCA-A color reaction increased with higher S. mansoni fecal egg counts (odds ratio: 1.07, p<0.001. A concurrent S. haematobium infection or the presence of microhematuria did not influence the CCA-A test results for S. mansoni diagnosis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: CCA-A showed similar sensitivity than triplicate Kato-Katz for S. mansoni diagnosis with no cross-reactivity to S. haematobium and microhematuria. The low sensitivity

  10. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean T Coulibaly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Kato-Katz technique is widely used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, but shows low sensitivity in light-intensity infections. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA cassette test for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. METHODOLOGY: A 3-week longitudinal survey with a treatment intervention was conducted in Azaguié, south Côte d'Ivoire. Overall, 242 preschoolers (age range: 2 months to 5.5 years submitted two stool and two urine samples before praziquantel administration, and 86 individuals were followed-up posttreatment. Stool samples were examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears for S. mansoni. Urine samples were subjected to POC-CCA cassette test for S. mansoni, and a filtration method for S. haematobium diagnosis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Before treatment, the prevalence of S. mansoni, as determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz, single CCA considering 'trace' as negative (t-, and single CCA with 'trace' as positive (t+, was 23.1%, 34.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Using the combined results (i.e., four Kato-Katz and duplicate CCA(t- as diagnostic 'gold' standard, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, a single CCA(t- or CCA(t+ was 28.3%, 69.7% and 89.1%, respectively. Three weeks posttreatment, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, single CCA(t- and CCA(t+ was 4.0%, 80.0% and 84.0%, respectively. The intensity of the POC-CCA test band reaction was correlated with S. mansoni egg burden (odds ratio = 1.2, p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A single POC-CCA cassette test appears to be more sensitive than multiple Kato-Katz thick smears for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. The POC-CCA cassette test can be recommended for the rapid identification of S. mansoni infections before treatment. Additional studies are warranted

  11. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) test for Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in different settings of Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Jean T; Knopp, Stefanie; N'Guessan, Nicaise A; Silué, Kigbafori D; Fürst, Thomas; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Brou, Jean K; N'Gbesso, Yve K; Vounatsou, Penelope; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2011-11-01

    Promising results have been reported for a urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available CCA cassette test (designated CCA-A) and an experimental formulation (CCA-B) for S. mansoni diagnosis. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings of Côte d'Ivoire: settings A and B are endemic for S. mansoni, whereas S. haematobium co-exists in setting C. Overall, 446 children, aged 8-12 years, submitted multiple stool and urine samples. For S. mansoni diagnosis, stool samples were examined with triplicate Kato-Katz, whereas urine samples were tested with CCA-A. The first stool and urine samples were additionally subjected to an ether-concentration technique and CCA-B, respectively. Urine samples were examined for S. haematobium using a filtration method, and for microhematuria using Hemastix dipsticks. Considering nine Kato-Katz as diagnostic 'gold' standard, the prevalence of S. mansoni in setting A, B and C was 32.9%, 53.1% and 91.8%, respectively. The sensitivity of triplicate Kato-Katz from the first stool and a single CCA-A test was 47.9% and 56.3% (setting A), 73.9% and 69.6% (setting B), and 94.2% and 89.6% (setting C). The respective sensitivity of a single CCA-B was 10.4%, 29.9% and 75.0%. The ether-concentration technique showed a low sensitivity for S. mansoni diagnosis (8.3-41.0%). The specificity of CCA-A was moderate (76.9-84.2%); CCA-B was high (96.7-100%). The likelihood of a CCA-A color reaction increased with higher S. mansoni fecal egg counts (odds ratio: 1.07, pCCA-A test results for S. mansoni diagnosis. CCA-A showed similar sensitivity than triplicate Kato-Katz for S. mansoni diagnosis with no cross-reactivity to S. haematobium and microhematuria. The low sensitivity of CCA-B in our study area precludes its use for S. mansoni diagnosis.

  12. Insulin pump (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The catheter at the end of the insulin pump is inserted through a needle into the abdominal ... with diabetes. Dosage instructions are entered into the pump's small computer and the appropriate amount of insulin ...

  13. Proton pump inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by glands in ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a ...

  14. Self Calibrating Flow Estimation in Waste Water Pumping Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Knudsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about where waste water is flowing in waste water networks is essential to optimize the operation of the network pumping stations. However, installation of flow sensors is expensive and requires regular maintenance. This paper proposes an alternative approach where the pumps and the waste...... water pit are used for estimating both the inflow and the pump flow of the pumping station. Due to the nature of waste water, the waste water pumps are heavily affected by wear and tear. To compensate for the wear of the pumps, the pump parameters, used for the flow estimation, are automatically...... calibrated. This calibration is done based on data batches stored at each pump cycle, hence makes the approach a self calibrating system. The approach is tested on a pumping station operating in a real waste water network....

  15. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  16. Proton-pump inhibitors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) work by binding irreversibly to the. H+/K+-ATPase pump of the parietal cell, leading to inhibition of acid production in approximately 70% of active pumps.1The result is a dramatic increase in gastric pH mitigating the deleterious effects of acid in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and.

  17. Pump Coastdown with the Submerged Flywheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyun-Gi; Seo, KyoungWoo; Kim, Seong Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many research reactors are generally designed as open pool types in consideration of the heat removal of the nuclear fuels, reactor operation and accessibility. Reactor structure assembly is generally placed at the pool bottom as shown in Fig. 1. Primary cooling system pump circulates the coolant from the reactor structure to the heat exchanger in order to continuously remove the heat generated from the reactor core in the research reactor as shown in Fig. 1. The secondary cooling system releases the transferred heat to the atmosphere by the cooling tower. Coastdown flow rate of the primary cooling system pump with the submerged flywheel are calculated analytically in case of the accident situation. Coastdown flow rate is maintained until almost 80 sec when the pump stops normally. But, coastdown flow rate is rapidly decreased when the flywheel is submerged because of the friction load on the flywheel surface.

  18. Pump power loss and heat generation in a pivot bearing-supported Gyro centrifugal pump (C1E3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Y; Nakazawa, T; Makinouchi, K; Glueck, J; Ohara, Y; Benkowski, R J; Nosé, Y

    1996-07-01

    Pump power loss is defined as input power that is not used for the output work of the pump. Less pump power loss means a higher pump efficiency. A common opinion is that the pump power loss is closely related to heat generation of the pump, which may affect not only the endurance of pump materials, but also blood damage in a blood pump. In this study, the relationship between pump power loss and heat generation in centrifugal blood pumps was investigated using the pivot-bearing supported Gyro C1E3 pump (C1E3) and Bio-Medicus pump (BP-80) under four different total pressure heat/flow conditions. A single special torque measuring driver motor was used for operating both the C1E3 and BP-80 in the four conditions. The pump power loss was calculated from the measured motor torque and hydraulic power. The changes in blood temperature were measured while the pump was operated at room temperature (25 degrees C) to obtain the following findings: First, the C1E3 caused less pump power loss and less temperature increase in blood than the BP-80 in all clinical simulated conditions that were tested; and second, the pump power loss and heat generation had a linear correlation with temperature rise from 22 to 25 degrees C in both the C1E3 and BP-80. During this period, approximately 30% of the pump power loss was transformed to heat, independent of the centrifugal blood pump type, provided that heat conduction through the pump housing and tubing was negligible during this particular period.

  19. Sodium regulation, sodium pump function and sodium pump inhibitors in uncomplicated pregnancy and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Steven W

    2007-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria but can manifest many abnormalities. Some of the best documented alterations involve changes in the handling of sodium ion both on the systemic and on the cellular level. There is broad agreement that the components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway are markedly reduced in women with preeclampsia. However, other changes, especially those involving cell sodium are less consistent. A majority of studies support an increase in peripheral cell sodium concentration. This would suggest a defect in (Na,K)ATPase or sodium pump activity. Direct study of cellular sodium pump activity provides suggestive but not unequivocal support for this decreased sodium pump activity. Other evidence indicates increased circulating concentrations of a sodium pump inhibitor in most, but not all, studies of preeclampsia. Together, current research argues more strongly in favor of derangements of cell sodium handling perhaps mediated by circulating sodium pump inhibitors leading often to increased cell sodium. Such an increase of cell sodium in vascular tissue has previously been shown to enhance vascular sensitivity to vasoconstrictor agents or lead directly to increased vasoconstriction.

  20. Validation of the RELAP5 code for the modeling of flashing-induced instabilities under natural-circulation conditions using experimental data from the CIRCUS test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozmenkov, Y. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (FZD), Institute of Safety Research, P.O.B. 510119, D-01324 Dresden (Germany); Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Rohde, U., E-mail: U.Rohde@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (FZD), Institute of Safety Research, P.O.B. 510119, D-01324 Dresden (Germany); Manera, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report about the simulation of flashing-induced instabilities in natural circulation systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flashing-induced instabilities are of relevance for operation of pool-type reactors of small power at low pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RELAP5 code is validated against measurement data from natural circulation experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnitude and frequency of the oscillations were reproduced in good agreement with the measurement data. - Abstract: This paper reports on the use of the RELAP5 code for the simulation of flashing-induced instabilities in natural circulation systems. The RELAP 5 code is intended to be used for the simulation of transient processes in the Russian RUTA reactor concept operating at atmospheric pressure with forced convection of coolant. However, during transient processes, natural circulation with flashing-induced instabilities might occur. The RELAP5 code is validated against measurement data from natural circulation experiments performed within the framework of a European project (NACUSP) on the CIRCUS facility. The facility, built at the Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands, is a water/steam 1:1 height-scaled loop of a typical natural-circulation-cooled BWR. It was shown that the RELAP5 code is able to model all relevant phenomena related to flashing induced instabilities. The magnitude and frequency of the oscillations were reproduced in a good agreement with the measurement data. The close correspondence to the experiments was reached by detailed modeling of all components of the CIRCUS facility including the heat exchanger, the buffer vessel and the steam dome at the top of the facility.

  1. Flow-Rate-Pressure Characteristics of a Disk Blood Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyavskii, A. M.; Medvedev, A. E.; Prikhodko, Yu. M.; Fomin, V. M.; Fomichev, V. P.; Fomichev, A. V.; Lomanovich, K. A.; Ruzmatov, T. M.; Karas‧kov, A. M.

    2017-11-01

    An experimental model of a disk pump for pumping a liquid has been designed and fabricated. This model was tested on a special stand with the use of a 40% aqueous solution of glycerin whose hydrodynamical characteristics most closely correspond to those of blood. The results obtained lend credence to the view that an implantable blood pump can be developed on the basis of the disk pump.

  2. Heat pump with freeze-up prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1981-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid prevents freeze up of the second heat exchanger by keeping the temperature above the dew point; and, optionally, provides heat for efficient operation.

  3. Optimization of Meridional Flow Channel Design of Pump Impeller

    OpenAIRE

    Miyauchi Sunao; Horiguchi Hironori; Fukutomi Jun-ichirou; Takahashi Akihiro

    2004-01-01

    The meridional flow channel design of a pump impeller affects its performance. However, since so many design parameters exist, a new design method is proposed in which a meridional and blade-to-blade flow channel is designed by the parallel use of the circulation distribution provided by the designer. Thus, an optimization method was used to design an axis-symmetrical meridional flow channel from the circulation distribution. In addition, the inverse design method proposed by Zangeneh et al. ...

  4. Data from Sustainability Base Characterizing Hot Water Pump Differential Pressure Spikes for ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the heating season in Sustainability Base, a critical alarm associated with a hot water pump circulating heating water for the radiative system which...

  5. The analysis of the differences between the results of the thermal response test and the data from the operation of the brine-to-water heat pump's vertical exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidorów-Kaprawy, Natalia; Stefanowicz, Ewelina; Mazurek, Wojciech; Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, Małgorzata; Bryszewska-Mazurek, Anna

    2017-11-01

    The article discusses the principles and the problems of obtaining an accurate data input for the design of brine-to-water heat pump's vertical exchangers. Currently, the most accurate method is the thermal response test (TRT). Unfortunately, the test procedure has its limitations and the quality of the results depends on many factors that cannot be fully controlled during the test. As an illustration of the problems, the results of the TRT were presented. The test was executed on the vertical boreholes (one actively regenerated and one not actively regenerated during the summer) which are parts of the operating heat pump system. The test results were compared to the data from the device's operation, in particular with the measurements of the undisturbed ground temperature profiles and the actual unit energy gains from the boreholes. The level of difference between the results of the test and the data from the operation of the boreholes under the real load and the threats concerning the boreholes overload were shown. Additionally the performance differences between the actively regenerated and not actively regenerated boreholes have been emphasised.

  6. Comparison of Modified Chandler, Roller Pump, and Ball Valve Circulation Models for In Vitro Testing in High Blood Flow Conditions: Application in Thrombogenicity Testing of Different Materials for Vascular Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim van Oeveren

    2012-01-01

    We concluded that the Hemobile minimally affects blood and could be adjusted to high blood flows, simulating arterial shear stress. The Hemobile was used to measure hemocompatibility of graft material and showed Dyneema Purity UHMWPE fiber in many ways more hemocompatible than ePTFE and PET.

  7. Performance of a pump system for diode-pumped lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratan, Aurel; Fenic, Constantin G.; Dabu, Razvan V.; Herisanu, Nicolae A.; Luculescu, C.; Sporea, Dan G.; Dumitru, Gabriel; Iordache, Gheorghe

    1998-07-01

    We have developed a laser-diode pump system for continuous-wave end-pumping of Nd:YAG lasers. The pump system includes a pair of 1 W diode-arrays mounted in coaxial enclosures, a driver unit and the pump optics. The array wavelength was temperature tuned to achieve the maximum absorption of the pump radiation in the Nd:YAG crystal. The characteristics of the pump system are presented and the pump-beam profile is investigated.

  8. Unintended Insulin Pump Delivery in Hyperbaric Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzi, Federico; Pintaudi, Basilio; Bonomo, Matteo; Garuti, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Unintended pump insulin delivery was reported to occur as a consequence of decreased atmospheric pressure, probably mediated by air bubble formation and the expansion of existing bubbles. This observation has been used to explain some hypoglycemic episodes occurring in patients on insulin pump treatment in between 1 and 1 h 45 min after the flight takeoff. New models of insulin pumps have been introduced in the market, most of them are waterproof certified. It is not clear if in these new pumps the influence of atmospheric pressure changes on the insulin delivery is still present. Moreover, there are no evidences related to the insulin pump operations in hyperbaric conditions, like as during diving activities. Our aim is therefore to verify the eventual variation of insulin pump delivery determined by atmospheric pressure changes in hyperbaric conditions. Three new models of insulin pumps were tested in hyperbaric conditions at a flow rate of 2 U/h. Atmospheric pressure variation affected pump insulin release. An increase in the atmospheric pressure from 1 to 1.3 atmosphere (ATA) induced a decrease of pump basal insulin release (about -0.2 U/10 min); conversely, when the atmospheric pressure returned from 1.3 to 1 ATA, an unintended insulin delivery was observed (about +0.3 U/10 min). This phenomenon appeared to be independent of the insulin pump rate and dependent on the presence of air bubbles within the insulin tube setting and cartridge. Unintended insulin delivery driven by atmospheric pressure changes in hyperbaric conditions occurred in the new insulin pumps available. Patients should pay attention to possible variation of insulin rate during the flight or during diving activities.

  9. Technical Report for Water Circulation Pumping System for Trihalomethanes (THMs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    The TSWWS was added as an active source of supply to the permit (No. 03-10-13P-003) in 2010, but has never been used due to the potential for formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the distribution system. THMs are formed as a by-product when chlorine is used to disinfect water for drinking. THMs are a group of chemicals generally referred to as disinfection by-products (DBPs). THMs result from the reaction of chlorine with organic matter that is present in the water. Some of the THMs are volatile and may easily vaporize into the air. This fact forms the basis of the design of the system discussed in this technical report. In addition, the design is based on the results of a study that has shown success using aeration as a means to reduce TTHMs to within allowable concentration levels with turn-over times as long as ten days. The Primary Drinking Water Standards of Regulated Contaminants Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for TTHMs is 80 parts per billion (ppb). No other changes to the existing drinking water distribution system and chlorination operations are anticipated before switching to the TSWWS as the primary drinking water source. The two groundwater wells (Wells 20 and 18) which are currently the primary and backup water sources for the system would be maintained for use as backup supply. In the future, one of the wells may be removed from the system. A permit amendment would be filed at that time if this modification was deemed appropriate.

  10. Modeling of forward pump EDFA under pump power through MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar; Sharma, Reena

    2015-05-01

    Optical fiber loss is a limiting factor for high-speed optical network applications. However, the loss can be compensated by variety of optical amplifiers. Raman amplifier and EDFA amplifier are widely used in optical communication systems. There are certain advantages of EDFA over Raman amplifier like amplifying the signal at 1550 nm wavelength at which the fiber loss is minimum. Apart from that there is no pulse walk-off problem with an EDFA amplifier. With the advent of optical amplifiers like EDFA, it is feasible to achieve a high bit rate beyond terabits in optical network applications. In our study, a MATLAB simulink-based forward pumped EDFA (operating in C-band 1525-1565 nm) simulation platform has been devised to evaluate the following performance parameters like gain, noise figure, amplified spontaneous emission power variations of a forward pumped EDFA operating in C-band (1525-1565 nm) as functions of Er3+ fiber length, injected pump power, signal input power, and Er3+ doping density. The effect of an input pump power on gain and noise figure was illustrated graphically. It is possible to completely characterize and optimize the EDFA performance using our dynamic simulink test bed.

  11. A hybrid mock circulation loop for a total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Frank; Bradley, Andrew P; Wilson, Stephen J; Timms, Daniel L; Frazier, O Howard; Cohn, William E

    2014-09-01

    Rotary blood pumps are emerging as a viable technology for total artificial hearts, and the development of physiological control algorithms is accelerated with new evaluation environments. In this article, we present a novel hybrid mock circulation loop (HMCL) designed specifically for evaluation of rotary total artificial hearts (rTAH). The rTAH is operated in the physical domain while all vasculature elements are embedded in the numerical domain, thus combining the strengths of both approaches: fast and easy exchange of the vasculature model together with improved controllability of the pump. Parameters, such as vascular resistance, compliance, and blood volume, can be varied dynamically in silico during operation. A hydraulic-numeric interface creates a real-time feedback loop between the physical and numerical domains. The HMCL uses computer-controlled resistance valves as actuators, thereby reducing the size and number of hydraulic elements. Experimental results demonstrate a stable interaction over a wide operational range and a high degree of flexibility. Therefore, we demonstrate that the newly created design environment can play an integral part in the hydraulic design, control development, and durability testing of rTAHs. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A highly reliable cryogenic mixing pump with no mechanical moving parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Niblick, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the design and preliminary test results of a novel cryogenic mixing pump based on magnetocaloric effect. The mixing pump is developed to enable long-term cryogenic propellant storage in space by preventing thermal stratification of cryogens in storage tanks. The mixing pump uses an innovative thermodynamic process to generate fluid jets to promote fluid mixing, eliminating the need for mechanical pumps. Its innovative mechanism uses a solid magnetocaloric material to alternately vaporize and condense the cryogen in the pumping chamber, and thus control the volume of the fluid inside the pumping chamber to produce pumping action. The pump is capable of self-priming and can generate a high-pressure rise. This paper discusses operating mechanism and design consideration of the pump, introduces the configuration of a brassboard cryogenic pump, and presents the preliminary test results of the pump with liquid nitrogen.

  13. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad

    2010-01-01

    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  14. Estimation of lost circulation amount occurs during under balanced drilling using drilling data and neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Behnoud far

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lost circulation can cause an increase in time and cost of operation. Pipe sticking, formation damage and uncontrolled flow of oil and gas may be consequences of lost circulation. Dealing with this problem is a key factor to conduct a successful drilling operation. Estimation of lost circulation amount is necessary to find a solution. Lost circulation is influenced by different parameters such as mud weight, pump pressure, depth etc. Mud weight, pump pressure and flow rate of mud should be designed to prevent induced fractures and have the least amount of lost circulation. Artificial neural network is useful to find the relations of parameters with lost circulation. Genetic algorithm is applied on the achieved relations to determine the optimum mud weight, pump pressure, and flow rate. In an Iranian oil field, daily drilling reports of wells which are drilled using UBD technique are studied. Asmari formation is the most important oil reservoir of the studied field and UBD is used only in this interval. Three wells with the most, moderate and without lost circulation are chosen. In this article, the effect of mud weight, depth, pump pressure and flow rate of pump on lost circulation in UBD of Asmari formation in one of the Southwest Iranian fields is studied using drilling data and artificial neural network. In addition, the amount of lost circulation is predicted precisely with respect to two of the studied parameters using the presented correlations and the optimum mud weight, pump pressure and flow rate are calculated to minimize the lost circulation amount.

  15. Novel circulating microRNA signature as a potential non-invasive multi-marker test in ER-positive early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kodahl, Annette R; Lyng, Maria Bibi; Binder, Harald

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are currently no highly sensitive and specific minimally invasive biomarkers for detection of early-stage breast cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are present in the circulation and may be unique biomarkers for early diagnosis of human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate......RNA signature to stratify samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls was confirmed in the validation set (p = 0.012) with a corresponding AUC = 0.665 in the ROC-curve analysis. No association between miRNA expression and tumor grade, tumor size, menopausal- or lymph node status was observed....... The signature was also successfully validated in a previously published independent data set of circulating miRNAs in early-stage breast cancer (p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: We present herein a 9 miRNA signature capable of discriminating between ER-positive breast cancer and healthy controls. Using a specific...

  16. [Circulating nucleic acids and infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, E; Mullet, T; Ferrières Hoa, A; Gala, A; Loup, V; Anahory, T; Belloc, S; Hamamah, S

    2015-09-01

    Circulating nucleic acids (cell-free DNA and microRNAs) have for particularity to be easily detectable in the biological fluids of the body. Therefore, they constitute biomarkers of interest in female and male infertility care. Indeed, in female, they can be used to detect ovarian reserve disorders (polycystic ovary syndrome and low functional ovarian reserve) as well as to assess follicular microenvironment quality. Moreover, in men, their expression levels can vary in case of spermatogenesis abnormalities. Finally, circulating nucleic acids have also the ability to predict successfully the quality of in vitro embryo development. Their multiple contributions during assisted reproductive technology (ART) make of them biomarkers of interest, for the development of new diagnostic and/or prognostic tests, applied to our specialty. Circulating nucleic acids would so offer the possibility of personalized medical care for infertile couples in ART. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Low-cost water-lifting from groundwater sources: a comparison of the EMAS Pump with the Rope Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Michael F.; Carpenter, Jacob D.; Mihelcic, James R.

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, low-cost groundwater supply systems offer great opportunities for the current unserved population of >300 million to access drinking water. A comparative study was performed in Uganda of the EMAS Pump (designed by Escuela Móvil Aguas y Saneamiento Básico) with the trade-named Rope Pump, two low-cost manual water-lifting devices appropriate to pumping from shallow groundwater sources. Pumping rates, energy expended, material costs, and construction requirements were analyzed. Focus was on low-cost application for use in shallow groundwater systems at the household level in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The study site was northern Uganda, with testing performed at several drilled boreholes. Two variants of each pump were tested by a male and female user, pumping from multiple static water-level depths ranging from 5 to 28 m. Results demonstrated the most common version of the EMAS Pump to perform similarly to the comparable version of the Rope Pump in terms of average pumping rate at depth range 5 to 18 m (93-111%), but less so at deeper depths (63-85%). Normalized pumping rates (considering energy expended) accentuated differences between these versions of the EMAS Pump and Rope Pump (47-97%). Cost of materials to construct the EMAS Pump were 21-60% those of the Rope Pump, and EMAS Pump construction requirements were also less. Based on the assessed factors, it is concluded that the EMAS Pump has potential for success in "self-supply" groundwater systems in sub-Saharan Africa and is particularly appropriate to link with low-cost shallow groundwater sources.

  18. DIRECT EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE PARAMETERS IN EXPERIMENT WITH THE AXIAL PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kuncevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that increased parameters of oxidative stress result from an imbalance between reactive oxygen molecules and endogenous antioxidants. Oxidative stress parameters may be considered to be biomarkers of heart failure. The aim of our study was to asses oxidative stress and antioxidant system parameters in experi- mental model with the axial pump. Our study included 7 calves (the mean age 120.33 days, the mean weight 99.17 kg. We used «FORM Plus CR3000» analyzer (Callegary, Italy and heparinized venous blood samples for the evaluation of the oxidative status (FORT test and the total antioxidant capacity (FORD test. In healthy animals oxidative system parameters differ from those in humans (FORT – 0.42 ± 0.11 versus 1.74 ± 0.32 mmol/l H2O2; FORD/FORT – 3.92 ± 1.30 versus 1.33 ± 0.27, p < 0.05 what should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of clinical and experimental studies. In three calves with experimental assisted circulation maximal oxidative stress values were observed on 1–3 days after the axial pump connection with the subsequent normalization of these parameters. Direct evaluation of oxidative stress parameters may be used as monitoring tool for estimation of assisted circulation adequacy in experiment (animal model. 

  19. Topology Optimisation of PMSM rotor for pump application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Alexander Niels August; Mijatovic, Nenad; Henriksen, Matthew Lee

    2016-01-01

    . For the gradient search the “Method of Moving Asymptotes” algorithm is applied to the rotor design of an internal permanent magnet synchronous motor for a circulation pump. The objective of the optimisation is to improve the torque of the machine with any given magnet placement or shape. The optimisation method...

  20. Darrieus wind-turbine and pump performance for low-lift irrigation pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, L. J.; Sharif, M.

    1981-10-01

    In the Great Plains about 15 percent of the irrigation water pumped on farms comes from surface water sources; for the United States as a whole, the figure is about 22 percent. Because of forecast fuel shortages, there is a need to develop alternative energy sources such as wind power for surface water pumping. Specific objectives of this investigation were to: design and assemble a prototype wind powered pumping system for low lift irrigation pumping; determine performance of the prototype system; design and test an irrigation system using the wind powered prototype in a design and test an farm application; and determine the size combinations of wind turbines, tailwater pits, and temporary storage reservoirs needed for successful farm application of wind powered tailwater pumping systems in western Kansas. The power source selected was a two bladed, 6 m diameter, 9 m tall Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine with 0.10 solidity and 36.1 M(2) swept area.

  1. Identification and climatology of Alpine pumping from a regional climate simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian eGraf

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermally driven circulation between the European Alps and the alpine foreland - named Alpine pumping – occurs regularly under clear and calm weather conditions. While previous studies focused on the impact of Alpine pumping on moist convection and transport of air pollutants, this study was motivated by its ventilation effect for Munich, located about 50 km north of the Alps in undulating and only slightly inclined terrain, where local thermal circulations are weak. Hourly data from a reanalysis driven regional climate simulation with COSMO-CLM model for the period 1989 to 2008 were analysed to identify days with Alpine pumping and to determine the mean diurnal characteristics of this regional thermal circulation. Four literature derived combinations of meteorological criteria were tested to identify days favorable for Alpine pumping from COSMO-CLM results. The first criterion selects days with a daily sum of solar radiation ≥20 MJ/m2 and has been used in an earlier observational study. On average 60 d/y are fulfilling the criterion in the model simulation, which compares well to the 67 d/y determined from observations. The other three criteria combinations consider a maximum wind velocity at 850 hPa, a maximum daily precipitation sum, and/or a maximum mean cloud cover. The mean annual number of selected days is lower for these criteria combinations and ranges between 20 and 52. Diurnal wind reversals occur on 77 to 81% of the selected days, depending on the criteria combinationThe daily solar radiation sum of 20 MJ/m2 is only exceeded during April to September, while days satisfying the criteria combinations without the radiation threshold occur all year round. In agreement with observations, the simulated regional thermally driven wind field extends up to ~100 km north of the Alps with average near-surface wind speeds of 0.5-1.5 m/s in the Munich area. With increasing distance from the Alps, the diurnal cycle of Alpine pumping is

  2. Circulating tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Cristina; Nicolazzo, Chiara; Gradilone, Angela; Giannini, Giuseppe; De Falco, Elena; Chimenti, Isotta; Varriale, Elisa; Hauch, Siegfried; Plappert, Linda; Cortesi, Enrico; Gazzaniga, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis of the “liquid biopsy” using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to traditional tissue biopsy to determine cancer therapy. Discordance for biomarkers expression between primary tumor tissue and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been widely reported, thus rendering the biological characterization of CTCs an attractive tool for biomarkers assessment and treatment selection. Studies performed in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients using CellSearch, the only FDA-cleared test for CTCs assessment, demonstrated a much lower yield of CTCs in this tumor type compared with breast and prostate cancer, both at baseline and during the course of treatment. Thus, although attractive, the possibility to use CTCs as therapy-related biomarker for colorectal cancer patients is still limited by a number of technical issues mainly due to the low sensitivity of the CellSearch method. In the present study we found a significant discordance between CellSearch and AdnaTest in the detection of CTCs from mCRC patients. We then investigated KRAS pathway activating mutations in CTCs and determined the degree of heterogeneity for KRAS oncogenic mutations between CTCs and tumor tissues. Whether KRAS gene amplification may represent an alternative pathway responsible for KRAS activation was further explored. KRAS gene amplification emerged as a functionally equivalent and mutually exclusive mechanism of KRAS pathway activation in CTCs, possibly related to transcriptional activation. The serial assessment of CTCs may represent an early biomarker of treatment response, able to overcome the intrinsic limit of current molecular biomarkers represented by intratumor heterogeneity. PMID:24521660

  3. Liquid-Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid-metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to test prototypical space nuclear system components. Conduction, induction, and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated with incorporation into a reactor system. The thermoelectric pump is recommended for inclusion in the planned system at NASA MSFC based on its relative simplicity, low power supply mass penalty, flight heritage, and the promise of increased pump efficiency over earlier flight pump designs through the use of skutterudite thermoelectric elements.

  4. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  5. Heat pump unit. Waermepumpenaggregat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gail, J.

    1984-11-29

    An internal combustion engine with an integrated heat pump and an electricity generator are combined in one engine housing. The internal combustion engine consists of a working cylinder parallel to the drive shaft with a double piston arrangement for swashplate operation, where at least the back of one piston works as the compressor of a heat pump. (orig.).

  6. Review of magnetohydrodynamic pump applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Habahbeh, O.M; Al-Saqqa, M; Safi, M; Abo Khater, T

    2016-01-01

    Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) principle is an important interdisciplinary field. One of the most important applications of this effect is pumping of materials that are hard to pump using conventional pumps...

  7. Water cooling thermal power measurement in a vacuum diffusion pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Cardozo Amorin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion vacuum pumps are used both in industry and in laboratory science for high vacuum production. For its operation they must be refrigerated, and it is done by circulating water in open circuit. Considering that, vacuum systems stays operating by hours, the water consumption may be avoided if the diffusion vacuum pumps refrigeration were done in closed circuit. However, it is necessary to know the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power (the heat transferred to circulate water by time units to implement one of these and get in the refrigeration system dimension. In this paper the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power was obtained by measuring water flow and temperature variation and was calculated through the heat quantity variation equation time function. The thermal power value was 935,6 W, that is 397 W smaller and 35 W bigger than, respectively, the maximum and minimum diffusion pump thermal power suggested by its operation manual. This procedure have been shown useful to precisely determine the diffusion pump thermal power or of any other system that needs to be refrigerated in water closed circuit.

  8. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeyen, Robert Van; Reeh, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A fluid pump has been developed for mechanically pumped fluid loops for spacecraft thermal control. Lynntech's technology utilizes a proprietary electrochemically driven pumping mechanism. Conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps typically do not meet the stringent power and operational reliability requirements of space applications. Lynntech's developmental pump is a highly efficient solid-state pump with essentially no rotating or moving components (apart from metal bellows).

  9. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.; Humenik, K.E.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes an expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  10. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  11. Synthetic Leaves: Pumping at Negative Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tobias; Stroock, Abraham; Havenstrite, Karen

    2004-03-01

    A common process that is rarely considered in detail is the circulation of fluid in trees. As with most multi-cellular organisms, the internal convective transport of nutrients and the evacuation of waste are essential to their survival. What is unique to flowering plants is that the convectively transported fluid (water) is under tension. According to the Cohesion-Tension Theory (Dixon & Joly), this tension is induced by siphoning: capillary forces replenish water lost to evaporation at the air-water interface in leaves. Intermolecular forces between water molecules ensure that the column of water suspended from the air-water interface remains continuous. Integral to this passive pumping is a dynamic meniscus, which changes curvature and thereby the capillary pressure at the interface to allow the leaf to pump against variable loads as environmental conditions (convection, relative humidity) change. I will present our efforts to harness the capabilities of dynamic menisci in a synthetic system. We use hydraulic resistances as loads to assess the pumping ability of these systems and their susceptibility to cavitation. The goal is to understand the physico-chemical aspects of pumping in plants and the design constraints of vascular networks of leaves.

  12. Microwave circulator design

    CERN Document Server

    Linkhart, Douglas K

    2014-01-01

    Circulator design has advanced significantly since the first edition of this book was published 25 years ago. The objective of this second edition is to present theory, information, and design procedures that will enable microwave engineers and technicians to design and build circulators successfully. This resource contains a discussion of the various units used in the circulator design computations, as well as covers the theory of operation. This book presents numerous applications, giving microwave engineers new ideas about how to solve problems using circulators. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate how to apply the information to real-world design tasks.

  13. Development of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyll, Lawrence R.; Silvestri, John J.; Scaringe, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present the current development status of a hybrid chemical/mechanical heat pump for low-lift applications. The heat pump provides electronics cooling by evaporating a pure refrigerant from an absorbent/refrigerant mixture in a generator/cold plate. The current development focused on evaluation of absorbent/refrigerant pairs, corrosion testing, pump and compressor design, and electronic cold plate design. Two cycle configurations were considered. The first configuration utilized a standard mechanical compressor and pump. The second cycle configuration investigated pumps and compressors with non-moving parts. An innovative generator/cold plate design is also presented. The development to date shows that this cycle has about the same performance as standard vapor compression heat pumps with standard refrigerants but may have some performance and reliability advantages over vapor compression heat pumps.

  14. Evaluation of metal trace detachment from dosing pumps using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Omar, E-mail: omar.lozanogarcia@unamur.be [Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Mejia, Jorge [Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Laloy, Julie; Alpan, Lütfiye [Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Centre (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Toussaint, Olivier [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology (URBC), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Dogné, Jean-Michel [Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Centre (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Lucas, Stéphane [Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    Metal trace detachment evaluation is essential for instruments destined for pharmaceutical applications, such as pumps. Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to determine and quantify metal traces originated from stainless steel and ceramic dosing pumps. Metal traces were quantified from either distilled water samples or cellulose filters in two tests: a short-term test of 16 h mimicking a daily cycle of a dosing pump for industrial applications, and a long-term test of 9 days evaluating the pump wearing. The main result is that ceramic dosing pumps present lower metal detachment than stainless steel counterparts. Traces of Si and Al were found originating from pieces around the pumps (pipes and joints)

  15. Continuous-flow pump model study: the effect on pump performance of pump characteristics and cardiovascular conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gianfranco; Kozarski, Maciej; Fresiello, Libera; Di Molfetta, Arianna; Zieliński, Krzysztof; Górczyńska, Krystyna; Pałko, Krzysztof J; Darowski, Marek

    2013-06-01

    This model study evaluates the effect of pump characteristics and cardiovascular data on hemodynamics in atrio-aortic VAD assistance. The model includes a computational circulatory sub-model and an electrical sub-model representing two rotary blood pumps through their pressure-flow characteristics. The first is close to a pressure generator-PG (average flow sensitivity to pressure variations, -0.047 l mmHg(-1)); the second is closer to a flow generator-FG (average flow sensitivity to pressure variations, -0.0097 l mmHg(-1)). Interaction with VAD was achieved by means of two interfaces, behaving as impedance transformers. The model was verified by use of literature data and VAD onset conditions were used as a control for the experiments. Tests compared the two pumps, at constant pump speed, in different ventricular and circulatory conditions: maximum ventricular elastance (0.44-0.9 mmHg cm(-3)), systemic peripheral resistance (781-1200 g cm(-4) s(-1)), ventricular diastolic compliance C p (5-10-50 cm(3) mmHg(-1)), systemic arterial compliance (0.9-1.8 cm(3) mmHg(-1)). Analyzed variables were: arterial and venous pressures, flows, ventricular volume, external work, and surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE). The PG pump generated the highest SHE under almost all conditions, in particular for higher C p (+50 %). PG pump flow is also the most sensitive to E max and C p changes (-26 and -33 %, respectively). The FG pump generally guarantees higher external work reduction (54 %) and flow less dependent on circulatory and ventricular conditions. The results are evidence of the importance of pump speed regulation with changing ventricular conditions. The computational sub-model will be part of a hydro-numerical model, including autonomic controls, designed to test different VADs.

  16. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  17. 10 CFR Appendix M to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bulb temperature sensor(s) may be used for all tests except: (1) Cyclic tests; and (2) Frost... conducting a cyclic or frost accumulation test. b. Distribute the sensors of a dry-bulb temperature grid over... coefficient calculation. 3.9Test procedures for Frost Accumulation heating mode tests (the H2, H22, H2V, and...

  18. Increase of economy of torque flow pump with high specific speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusak, A. G.; Krishtop, I. V.; German, V. F.; Baga, V. N.

    2017-08-01

    Torque flow pumps are widely spread types of energy machines, which are used in majority of modern branches of industry for pumping of dirty media. The main task of researchers of torque flow pumps is increase of such pumps effectiveness for higher feed. Hydraulic losses for torque flow pumps are caused by working process of such pumps and are inevitable. Decrease of losses can be obtained by means of optimization of hydraulic flow part geometry. Modern approach to design of pump outlet introduces new constructive solutions which can increase economy of torque flow pumps. The aim of this research is increase of economy of torque flow pumps by means of application of spatial outlet and investigation of its geometry on pump characteristics. Analytical and numerical methods of liquid flow research for hydraulic flow part of torque flow pump were used in this paper. Moreover, influence of hydraulic flow part geometry of different designs of “Turo” type torque flow pumps outlets on pump characteristics was investigated. Numerical research enabled to study process of energy transfer of torque flow pump and evaluate influence of geometrical dimensions of spatial spiral outlet on its characteristics. Besides numerical research confirmed introduced regularity of peripheral velocity distribution in outlet. Velocity moment distribution in outlet was obtained during implementation of numerical research. Implemented bench tests of torque flow pump prototypes enabled to obtain real characteristics of pump and confirm effectiveness of spatial geometry of outlet application for such pump.

  19. Insulin Pump Failures: Has There Been an Improvement? Update of a Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenego, Agathe; Bouzillé, Guillaume; Breitel, Stéphanie; Esvant, Annabelle; Poirier, Jean-Yves; Bonnet, Fabrice; Guilhem, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    Insulin pump failures had been assessed in our center by a prospective observational study from 2001 to 2007. The aim of this study was to update our data since 2008 and to determine whether there exist specific risk factors for insulin pump failures. All insulin pump defects were prospectively collected between 2008 and 2013 in a monocentric cohort of 350 new pumps. Clinical consequences were recorded. Brand and model of pumps and type of defects and patients' characteristics (gender, type of diabetes, age at diabetes diagnosis, age at first pump, pump treatment duration, number of previous pumps, and number of previous pump failures) were tested for possible association with insulin pump failure. Malfunctions occurred in 239 (68%) pumps. The incidence rate was 33/100 pump-years. There were 28 (12%) complete failures, 17 (7%) alarms, 83 (35%) mechanical defects, and 105 (44%) minor defects. Survival curves did not differ according to pump brand and model. Hyperglycemia occurred in 2.9% of cases. In multivariate analysis, only patient age less than 40 years at the initiation of pump therapy was associated with higher risk of malfunction (hazard ratio 1.64; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.24; P = 0.002). Pump malfunctions remain common with modern pumps. We report less complete failures than in our previous study. This could be because of improvement in quality of pumps or to our strategy of systematic screening and replacement in case of mechanical defects.

  20. In vivo evaluation of centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass-Spiral Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cibele; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Leme, Juliana; Uebelhart, Beatriz; Dinkhuysen, Jarbas; Biscegli, José F; Andrade, Aron; Zavaglia, Cecília

    2013-11-01

    The Spiral Pump (SP), a centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), has been developed at the Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology/Adib Jatene Foundation laboratories, with support from Sintegra Company (Pompeia, Brazil). The SP is a disposable pump with an internal rotor-a conically shaped fuse with double entrance threads. This rotor is supported by two ball bearings, attached to a stainless steel shaft fixed to the housing base. Worm gears provide axial motion to the blood column, and the rotational motion of the conically shaped impeller generates a centrifugal pumping effect, improving pump efficiency without increasing hemolysis. In vitro tests were performed to evaluate the SP's hydrodynamic performance, and in vivo experiments were performed to evaluate hemodynamic impact during usual CPB. A commercially available centrifugal blood pump was used as reference. In vivo experiments were conducted in six male pigs weighing between 60 and 90 kg, placed on CPB for 6 h each. Blood samples were collected just before CPB (T0) and after every hour of CPB (T1-T6) for hemolysis determination and laboratory tests (hematological and biochemical). Values of blood pressure, mean flow, pump rotational speed, and corporeal temperature were recorded. Also, ergonomic conditions were recorded: presence of noise, difficulty in removing air bubbles, trouble in installing the pump in the drive module (console), and difficulties in mounting the CPB circuit. Comparing the laboratory and hemolysis results for the SP with those of the reference pump, we can conclude that there is no significant difference between the two devices. In addition, reports made by medical staff and perfusionists described a close similarity between the two devices. During in vivo experiments, the SP maintained blood flow and pressure at physiological levels, consistent with those applied in cardiac surgery with CPB, without presenting any malfunction. Also, the SP needed lower rotational

  1. A comparison of pumping speed measurement methods

    CERN Document Server

    Denison, D R

    1974-01-01

    A comparison of pumping speed measurement method was made using three types of apparatus. These were: (i) the Fischer-Mommsen system, developed at CERN in which the gas flow rate is measured by the pressure drop across an orifice of known conductance at the test vessel inlet and the pressure gauge is arrayed to serve as a molecular flux transducer, (ii) the three gauge system used by some pump manufacturers in which the gas flow rate is determined by measuring the pressure drop across a long tube whose conductance is calculated from its dimensions and (iii) the constant pressure/pipette system in which the time is measured to evacuate a known quantity of gas. A sputter-ion pump with Ti and Ta cathodes and 32 Penning cells was used as the test pump. The Fischer and Mommsen and pipette procedures gave good agreement for the pumping speeds of N/sub 2/ (within 1%) but allowance had to be made for mass discrimination in the gas flow through an orifice when air was pumped. The three gauge method consistently gave a...

  2. Efficacy evaluation of syringe pump developed for continuous drug infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Bongsu; Seo, Kwang-Suk; Kwon, Suk Jin; Lee, Kiyoung; Hong, Suyong; Seo, Hyounsoon; Kim, Gi-Young; Park, Geun-Mook; Jeong, Juhee; Seo, Soowon

    2016-12-01

    In dental intravenous sedation, continuous intravenous infusion of a low-dose drug requires an infusion pump such as a syringe pump. To develop a new syringe pump for clinical use, the functions of the pump must meet certain international standards. Various safety and efficacy tests must be performed on the syringe pump, as stipulated by these standards, and an approval must be received from the approving agency based on such test results. The authors of the present study developed a novel syringe pump and performed efficacy evaluation by testing its infusion speed at 1 and 25 ml/h, and infusion performance testing at 2 and 24 h. Moreover, performance evaluation was conducted by comparing the novel pump to an existing pump with the infusion speed varied from 1 to 5 ml/h. In the efficacy testing on the newly developed syringe pump, infusion with the infusion speed initially set to 1 ml/h resulted in infusion speeds of 1.00 and 0.99 ml/h in the 2- and 24-h assessment, respectively. Changing the infusion speed setting to 25 ml/h resulted in an infusion speed of 25.09 and 23.92 ml/h in the 2- and 24-h assessment, respectively. These results show no significant differences when compared with other commercially available pumps. The efficacy testing of the newly developed syringe pump showed the accuracy to be within tolerance. Based on these findings, we believe that the newly developed syringe pump is suitable for clinical use.

  3. Electrochemical Genosensing of Circulating Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, Susana; Yáñez-Sedeño, Paloma; Pingarrón, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Management and prognosis of diseases requires the measurement in non- or minimally invasively collected samples of specific circulating biomarkers, consisting of any measurable or observable factors in patients that indicate normal or disease-related biological processes or responses to therapy. Therefore, on-site, fast and accurate determination of these low abundance circulating biomarkers in scarcely treated body fluids is of great interest for health monitoring and biological applications. In this field, electrochemical DNA sensors (or genosensors) have demonstrated to be interesting alternatives to more complex conventional strategies. Currently, electrochemical genosensors are considered very promising analytical tools for this purpose due to their fast response, low cost, high sensitivity, compatibility with microfabrication technology and simple operation mode which makes them compatible with point-of-care (POC) testing. In this review, the relevance and current challenges of the determination of circulating biomarkers related to relevant diseases (cancer, bacterial and viral infections and neurodegenerative diseases) are briefly discussed. An overview of the electrochemical nucleic acid–based strategies developed in the last five years for this purpose is given to show to both familiar and non-expert readers the great potential of these methodologies for circulating biomarker determination. After highlighting the main features of the reported electrochemical genosensing strategies through the critical discussion of selected examples, a conclusions section points out the still existing challenges and future directions in this field. PMID:28420103

  4. Nuclear-pumped lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Prelas, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on Nuclear-Pumped Laser (NPL) technology and provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of NPLs, a review of research in the field, and exploration of large scale NPL system design and applications. Early chapters look at the fundamental properties of lasers, nuclear-pumping and nuclear reactions that may be used as drivers for nuclear-pumped lasers. The book goes on to explore the efficient transport of energy from the ionizing radiation to the laser medium and then the operational characteristics of existing nuclear-pumped lasers. Models based on Mathematica, explanations and a tutorial all assist the reader’s understanding of this technology. Later chapters consider the integration of the various systems involved in NPLs and the ways in which they can be used, including beyond the military agenda. As readers will discover, there are significant humanitarian applications for high energy/power lasers, such as deflecting asteroids, space propulsion, power transmission and mining....

  5. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  6. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after maternity leave, try to start pumping a couple of weeks beforehand. If you wait until the day before you go back to work, you may be frustrated to find that your body doesn't respond to the ...

  7. An artificial molecular pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuyang; McGonigal, Paul R.; Schneebeli, Severin T.; Li, Hao; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A.; Ke, Chenfeng; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2015-06-01

    Carrier proteins consume fuel in order to pump ions or molecules across cell membranes, creating concentration gradients. Their control over diffusion pathways, effected entirely through noncovalent bonding interactions, has inspired chemists to devise artificial systems that mimic their function. Here, we report a wholly artificial compound that acts on small molecules to create a gradient in their local concentration. It does so by using redox energy and precisely organized noncovalent bonding interactions to pump positively charged rings from solution and ensnare them around an oligomethylene chain, as part of a kinetically trapped entanglement. A redox-active viologen unit at the heart of a dumbbell-shaped molecular pump plays a dual role, first attracting and then repelling the rings during redox cycling, thereby enacting a flashing energy ratchet mechanism with a minimalistic design. Our artificial molecular pump performs work repetitively for two cycles of operation and drives rings away from equilibrium toward a higher local concentration.

  8. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  9. Chiral Brownian heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    van den Broek, Martijn; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2008-01-01

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  10. Chiral brownian heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, M; Van den Broeck, C

    2008-04-04

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  11. Chiral Brownian heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Broek, M. van den; Broeck, C. Van Den

    2007-01-01

    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  12. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  13. Molecular heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Segal, Dvira; Nitzan, Abraham

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel molecular device that pumps heat against a thermal gradient. The system consists of a molecular element connecting two thermal reservoirs that are characterized by different spectral properties. The pumping action is achieved by applying an external force that periodically modulates molecular levels. This modulation affects periodic oscillations of the internal temperature of the molecule and the strength of its coupling to each reservoir resulting in a net heat flow in the...

  14. Reconfigurable Josephson Circulator/Directional Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Sliwa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Circulators and directional amplifiers are crucial nonreciprocal signal routing and processing components involved in microwave read-out chains for a variety of applications. They are particularly important in the field of superconducting quantum information, where the devices also need to have minimal photon losses to preserve the quantum coherence of signals. Conventional commercial implementations of each device suffer from losses and are built from very different physical principles, which has led to separate strategies for the construction of their quantum-limited versions. However, as recently theoretically, by establishing simultaneous pairwise conversion and/or gain processes between three modes of a Josephson-junction-based superconducting microwave circuit, it is possible to endow the circuit with the functions of either a phase-preserving directional amplifier or a circulator. Here, we experimentally demonstrate these two modes of operation of the same circuit. Furthermore, in the directional amplifier mode, we show that the noise performance is comparable to standard nondirectional superconducting amplifiers, while in the circulator mode, we show that the sense of circulation is fully reversible. Our device is far simpler in both modes of operation than previous proposals and implementations, requiring only three microwave pumps. It offers the advantage of flexibility, as it can dynamically switch between modes of operation as its pump conditions are changed. Moreover, by demonstrating that a single three-wave process yields nonreciprocal devices with reconfigurable functions, our work breaks the ground for the development of future, more complex directional circuits, and has excellent prospects for on-chip integration.

  15. Energy efficiency in pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin [TUBITAK-MRC, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Yigit, K. Suleyman; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk [Engineering Faculty, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kilic, Fatma Canka [Department of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Kocaeli University, Kullar, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, ''energy efficiency'' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems. (author)

  16. BIOMATERIALS FOR ROTARY BLOOD PUMPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOEVEREN, W

    Rotary blood pumps are used for cardiac assist and cardiopulmonary support since mechanical blood damage is less than with conventional roller pumps. The high shear rate in the rotary pump and the reduced anticoagulation of the patient during prolonged pumping enforces high demands on the

  17. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    based on combined efficiency of the rotor and the reciprocating pump was used to estimate the performance of the wind pump. One year wind speed data collected at 10 m height was extrapolated to the wind pump hub height using wind shear coefficient. The model assumed balanced rotor power and reciprocating pump, ...

  18. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  19. Input Calibration and Validation of RELAP5 Against CIRCUS-IV Single Channel Tests on Natural Circulation Two-Phase Flow Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet-Anh Phung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RELAP5 is a system thermal-hydraulic code that is used to perform safety analysis on nuclear reactors. Since the code is based on steady state, two-phase flow regime maps, there is a concern that RELAP5 may provide significant errors for rapid transient conditions. In this work, the capability of RELAP5 code to predict the oscillatory behavior of a natural circulation driven, two-phase flow at low pressure is investigated. The simulations are compared with a series of experiments that were performed in the CIRCUS-IV facility at the Delft University of Technology. For this purpose, we developed a procedure for calibration of the input and code validation. The procedure employs (i multiple parameters measured in different regimes, (ii independent consideration of the subsections of the loop, and (iii assessment of importance of the uncertain input parameters. We found that predicted system parameters are less sensitive to variations of the uncertain input and boundary conditions in high frequency oscillations regime. It is shown that calculation results overlap experimental values, except for the high frequency oscillations regime where the maximum inlet flow rate was overestimated. This finding agrees with the idea that steady state, two-phase flow regime maps might be one of the possible reasons for the discrepancy in case of rapid transients in two-phase systems.

  20. Study on the Characteristics of Expander Power Output Used for Offsetting Pumping Work Consumption in Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Wu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The circulation pump in an organic Rankine cycle (ORC increases the pressure of the liquid working fluid from low condensing pressure to high evaporating pressure, and the expander utilizes the pressure difference to generate work. A portion of the expander output power is used to offset the consumed pumping work, and the rest of the expander power is exactly the net work produced by the ORC system. Because of the relatively great theoretical pumping work and very low efficiency of the circulation pump reported in previous papers, the characteristics of the expander power used for offsetting the pumping work need serious consideration. In particular, the present work examines those characteristics. It is found that the characteristics of the expander power used for offsetting the pumping work are satisfactory only under the condition that the working fluid absorbs sufficient heat in the evaporator and its specific volume at the evaporator outlet is larger than or equal to a threshold value.

  1. Heat driven pulse pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.

  2. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  3. Health-related quality of life following off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in elderly moderate to high-risk patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birte Østergaard; Hughes, Pia; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2006-01-01

    Previous trials comparing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with or without extracorporeal circulation have mainly enrolled selected patients at younger age and low risk. Patient-reported health-related quality of life has not been significantly different. We compared health-related quality ...... of life in elderly moderate to high-risk patients randomized to either off-pump or on-pump surgery....

  4. Numerical Simulation on the Performance of a Mixed-Flow Pump under Various Casing Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Dazhuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the reactor coolant pump and high flow-rate circulating pump, the requirements on the compactness of the structure, safety, and hydraulic performance are particularly important. Thus, the mixed-flow pump with cylindrical casing is adopted in some occasions. Due to the different characteristics between the special cylindrical casing and the common pump casing, the influence of the special casing on a mixed-flow pump characteristics was numerically investigated to obtain better performance and flow structure in the casing. The results show that the models with cylindrical casing have much worse head and efficiency characteristics than the experimental model, and this is caused by the flow in the pump casing. By moving the guide vanes half inside the pump casing, the efficiency gets improved while the low pressure zone at the corner of outlet pipe and pump casing disappeared. When the length of pump casing increases from the size equal to the diameter of outlet pipe to that larger than it, the efficiency drops obviously and the flow field in the outlet pipe improved without curved flow. In addition, the length of the pump casing has greater impacts on the pump performance than the radius of it.

  5. Space Shuttle Main Engine Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbo-Pump Inducer Dynamic Environment Characterization through Water Model and Hot-Fire Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Patrick; Patton, Marc; Schwartz, Alan; Stanton, David

    2006-01-01

    The Low Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (LPOTP) inducer on the Block II configuration Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) experienced blade leading edge ripples during hot firing. This undesirable condition led to a minor redesign of the inducer blades. This resulted in the need to evaluate the performance and the dynamic environment of the redesign, relative to the current configuration, as part of the design acceptance process. Sub-scale water model tests of the two inducer configurations were performed, with emphasis on the dynamic environment due to cavitation induced vibrations. Water model tests were performed over a wide range of inlet flow coefficient and pressure conditions, representative of the scaled operating envelope of the Block II SSME, both in flight and in ground hot-fire tests, including all power levels. The water test hardware, facility set-up, type and placement of instrumentation, the scope of the test program, specific test objectives, data evaluation process and water test results that characterize and compare the two SSME LPOTP inducers are discussed. In addition, dynamic characteristics of the two water models were compared to hot fire data from specially instrumented ground tests. In general, good agreement between the water model and hot fire data was found, which confirms the value of water model testing for dynamic characterization of rocket engine turbomachinery.

  6. Influence of different heating types on the pumping performance of a bubble pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierling, Bernd; Schmid, Fabian; Spindler, Klaus

    2017-11-01

    This study presents an experimental investigation of the influence of different heating types on the pumping performance of a bubble pump. A test rig was set up at the Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (ITW), University of Stuttgart. The vertical lift tube is made of copper with an inner diameter of 8 mm and a length of 1.91 m. The working fluid is demineralized water. The test rig offers the possibility to vary the supplied heat flow (0 W - 750 W), the resulting supplied heat flux and the location of the heating. Investigations were carried out using spot heating, partial-length heating and full-length heating. A Coriolis mass flowmeter was successfully implemented which measures the vapor mass flow rate continuously. The improvement of the vapor mass flow rate measurement by using the continuous measurement method compared to a discontinuous one is discussed. Furthermore, the influence of an unstable inlet temperature of the working fluid entering the lift tube on the pumping performance is investigated. The focus of this publication lies on the build-up of the test rig with the measurement setup and the analysis of the pumping performance for the three heating types. The measurement results show a big influence of the heating type on the pumping performance. The lower the relative length of the heating, the higher is the pumping ratio which is defined as the lifted liquid mass flow rate in relation to the generated vapor mass flow rate.

  7. Evaluation of urine-circulating cathodic antigen (Urine-CCA) cassette test for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in areas of moderate prevalence in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erko, Berhanu; Medhin, Girmay; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Degarege, Abraham; Legesse, Mengistu

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of antigen detecting urine-CCA cassette test for the detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in areas of moderate prevalence in Ethiopia. Stool specimens were collected from 620 schoolchildren on three consecutive days. The samples were microscopically examined using double Kato slides; midstream urine specimens were also collected for three consecutive days and tested for S. mansoni. The sensitivity of the urine-CCA cassette test was determined using combined results of six Kato-Katz thick smears and three urine-CCA cassette tests as gold standard. The specificity of the urine-CCA cassette test was evaluated in an area where schistosomiasis is not endemic. Prevalence of S. mansoni infection as determined by single urine-CCA cassette test was 65.9%, by single Kato-Katz smear 37.3% and by six Kato-Katz thick smears 53.1% (P CCA cassette test was significantly (P CCA cassette test showed 100% specificity in endemic settings. In moderate and high prevalence areas, urine-CCA cassette test is more sensitive than the Kato-Katz method and can be used for screening and mapping of S. mansoni infection. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Miniature Lightweight Ion Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P.

    2010-01-01

    This design offers a larger surface area for pumping of active gases and reduces the mass of the pump by eliminating the additional vacuum enclosure. There are three main components to this ion pump: the cathode and anode pumping elements assembly, the vacuum enclosure (made completely of titanium and used as the cathode and maintained at ground potential) containing the assembly, and the external magnet. These components are generally put in a noble diode (or differential) configuration of the ion pump technology. In the present state of the art, there are two cathodes, one made of titanium and the other of tantalum. The anodes are made up of an array of stainless steel cylinders positioned between the two cathodes. All the elements of the pump are in a vacuum enclosure. After the reduction of pressure in this enclosure to a few microns, a voltage is applied between the cathode and the anode elements. Electrons generated by the ionization are accelerated toward the anodes that are confined in the anode space by the axial magnetic field. For the generation of the axial field along the anode elements, the magnet is designed in a C-configuration and is fabricated from rare earth magnetic materials (Nd-B-Fe or Sm-Co) possessing high energy product values, and the yoke is fabricated from the high permeability material (Hiperco-50A composed of Fe-Co-V). The electrons in this region collide with the gas molecules and generate their positive ions. These ions are accelerated into the cathode and eject cathode material (Ti). The neutral atoms deposit on the anode surfaces. Because of the chemical activity of Ti, the atoms combine with chemically active gas molecules (e.g. N2, O2, etc.) and remove them. New layers of Ti are continually deposited, and the pumping of active gases is thus accomplished. Pumping of the inert gases is accomplished by their burial several atomic layers deep into the cathode. However, they tend to re-emit if the entrapping lattice atoms are

  9. Pumping approximately integrable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Lenarčič, Zala; Rosch, Achim

    2017-06-01

    Weak perturbations can drive an interacting many-particle system far from its initial equilibrium state if one is able to pump into degrees of freedom approximately protected by conservation laws. This concept has for example been used to realize Bose-Einstein condensates of photons, magnons and excitons. Integrable quantum systems, like the one-dimensional Heisenberg model, are characterized by an infinite set of conservation laws. Here, we develop a theory of weakly driven integrable systems and show that pumping can induce large spin or heat currents even in the presence of integrability breaking perturbations, since it activates local and quasi-local approximate conserved quantities. The resulting steady state is qualitatively captured by a truncated generalized Gibbs ensemble with Lagrange parameters that depend on the structure but not on the overall amplitude of perturbations nor the initial state. We suggest to use spin-chain materials driven by terahertz radiation to realize integrability-based spin and heat pumps.

  10. Hydrogen Peroxide Gas Generator Cycle with a Reciprocating Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J C

    2002-06-11

    A four-chamber piston pump is powered by decomposed 85% hydrogen peroxide. The performance envelope of the evolving 400 gram pump has been expanded to 172 cc/s water flow at discharge pressures near 5 MPa. A gas generator cycle system using the pump has been tested under similar conditions of pressure and flow. The powerhead gas is derived from a small fraction of the pumped hydrogen peroxide, and the system starts from tank pressures as low as 0.2 MPa. The effects of steam condensation on performance have been evaluated.

  11. On the dynamic suction pumping of blood cells in tubular hearts

    CERN Document Server

    Battista, Nicholas A; Miller, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Around the third week after gestation in embryonic development, the human heart consists only of a valvless tube, unlike a fully developed adult heart, which is multi-chambered. At this stage in development, the heart valves have not formed and so net flow of blood through the heart must be driven by a different mechanism. It is hypothesized that there are two possible mechanisms that drive blood flow at this stage - Liebau pumping (dynamic suction pumping or valveless pumping) and peristaltic pumping. We implement the immersed boundary method with adaptive mesh refinement (IBAMR) to numerically study the effect of hematocrit on the circulation around a valveless. Both peristalsis and dynamic suction pumping are considered. In the case of dynamic suction pumping, the heart and circulatory system is simplified as a flexible tube attached to a relatively rigid racetrack. For some Womersley number (Wo) regimes, there is significant net flow around the racetrack. We find that the addition of flexible blood cells ...

  12. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  13. Heat pump planning handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bonin, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Heat Pump Planning Handbook contains practical information and guidance on the design, planning and selection of heat pump systems, allowing engineers, designers, architects and construction specialists to compare a number of different systems and options. Including detailed descriptions of components and their functions and reflecting the current state of technology this guide contains sample tasks and solutions as well as new model calculations and planning evaluations. Also economic factors and alternative energy sources are covered, which are essential at a time of rising heat costs. T

  14. Towards an optofluidic pump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine

    2016-12-01

    Most of the vibrating mechanisms of optofluidic systems are based on local heating of membranes that induces liquid flow.We report here a new type of diaphragm pump in a liquid film based on the optical radiation pressure force. We modulate a low power laser that generates, at resonance, a symmetric vibration of a free standing soap film. The film lifetime strongly varies from 56 s at low power (2 mW) to 2 s at higher power (70 mW). Since the laser beam only acts mechanically on the interfaces, such a pump could be easily implemented on delicate microequipment on chips or in biological systems.

  15. Reactor coolant pump flywheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, John Raymond; Kreke, Francis Joseph; Casamassa, John Joseph

    2013-11-26

    A flywheel for a pump, and in particular a flywheel having a number of high density segments for use in a nuclear reactor coolant pump. The flywheel includes an inner member and an outer member. A number of high density segments are provided between the inner and outer members. The high density segments may be formed from a tungsten based alloy. A preselected gap is provided between each of the number of high density segments. The gap accommodates thermal expansion of each of the number of segments and resists the hoop stress effect/keystoning of the segments.

  16. Molecular heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Dvira; Nitzan, Abraham

    2006-02-01

    We propose a molecular device that pumps heat against a thermal gradient. The system consists of a molecular element connecting two thermal reservoirs that are characterized by different spectral properties. The pumping action is achieved by applying an external force that periodically modulates molecular levels. This modulation affects periodic oscillations of the internal temperature of the molecule and the strength of its coupling to each reservoir resulting in a net heat flow in the desired direction. The heat flow is examined in the slow and fast modulation limits and for different modulation wave forms, thus making it possible to optimize the device performance.

  17. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  18. Pump arrangement Comprising a Savety Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, M.; Kruckow, J.

    2009-01-01

    A pump arrangement comprises a pump (20) having a pump inlet (22) and a pump outlet (24), which are designed to pump a fluid from the pump inlet to the pump outlet, and it further comprises a safety valve (40), which is disposed between the pump outlet (24) and an outlet (48) of the pump arrangement and comprises a valve set (42) and a valve cover (44). The valve seat, the pump outlet, and the pump inlet are structured in a first surface of a first single-piece part (14) of the pump arrangeme...

  19. PUMP ARRANGEMENT COMPRISING A SAFETY VALVE ARRANGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Martin; Wackerle, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A pump arrangement comprises a microfluidic pump (20) having a pump inlet (22) and a pump outlet (24), which is configured to pump a fluid from the pump inlet to the pump outlet, wherein the pump inlet (22) and an inlet (46) of the pump arrangement are fluidically connected. The pump arrangement further comprises a safety valve arrangement having first safety valve (40), the first safety valve (40) being arranged between the pump outlet (24) and an outlet (48) of the pump arrangement and comp...

  20. Polarized 3He Gas Circulating Technologies for Neutron Analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, David [Xemed LLC, Durham, NH (United States); Hersman, Bill [Xemed LLC, Durham, NH (United States)

    2014-12-10

    We describe the development of an integrated system for quasi-continuous operation of a large volume neutron analyzer. The system consists of a non-magnetic diaphragm compressor, a prototype large volume helium polarizer, a surrogate neutron analyzer, a non-depolarizing gas storage reservoir, a non-ferrous valve manifold for handling gas distribution, a custom rubidium-vapor gas return purifier, and wire-wound transfer lines, all of which are immersed in a two-meter external magnetic field. Over the Phase II period we focused on three major tasks required for the successful deployment of these types of systems: 1) design and implementation of gas handling hardware, 2) automation for long-term operation, and 3) improvements in polarizer performance, specifically fabrication of aluminosilicate optical pumping cells. In this report we describe the design, implementation, and testing of the gas handling hardware. We describe improved polarizer performance resulting from improved cell materials and fabrication methods. These improvements yielded valved 8.5 liter cells with relaxation times greater than 12 hours. Pumping this cell with 1500W laser power with 1.25nm linewidth yielded peak polarizations of 60%, measured both inside and outside the polarizer. Fully narrowing this laser to 0.25nm, demonstrated separately on one stack of the four, would have allowed 70% polarization with this cell. We demonstrated the removal of 5 liters of polarized helium from the polarizer with no measured loss of polarization. We circulated the gas through a titanium-clad compressor with polarization loss below 3% per pass. We also prepared for the next phase of development by refining the design of the polarizer so that it can be engineer-certified for pressurized operation. The performance of our system far exceeds comparable efforts elsewhere.

  1. A new principle for underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan; Paasch, Kasper; Lassen, Benny

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the basic idea, design considerations and field test results for a novel concept of an energy storage system. The system is of the underground pumped hydro storage (UPHS) type where energy is stored by lifting a mass of soil through the pumping of water into an underground...

  2. Na,K-pump modulates intercellular communication in vascular wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Nilsson, Holger; Aalkjær, Christian

      Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na,K-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. Here we test the hypothesis that the communication between vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is regulated through an interaction between the Na,K-pump and the Na...

  3. Hydrodynamic optimization of trust ring pump and lubricating oil system for large hydroelectric units thrust bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, X.; Lu, Z.; Zhang, X.; Yang, S.

    2014-03-01

    Thrust-ring-pump is a kind of extreme-low specific speed centrifugal pump with special structure as numerous restrictions form thrust bearing and operation conditions of hydro turbine generator unit. Because the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring- pump has a lot of advantages in maintenance and compactness in structure, it has widely been used in large and medium-sized hydro-generator units. Since the diameter and the speed of the thrust ring is limited by the generator set, the matching relationship between the flow passage inside the thrust ring (equivalent to impeller) and oil bath (equivalent to volute) has great influence on hydrodynamic performance of thrust-ring-pump, additionally, the head and discharge are varying with the operation conditions of hydro-generator unit and characteristic of the oil circulating and cooling system. As so far, the empirical calculation method is employed during the actual engineering design, in order to guarantee the operating performance of the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring-pump at different conditions, a collaborative hydrodynamic design and optimization of both the oil circulating and cooling system and thrust-ring-pump is purposed in this paper. Firstly, the head and discharge required at different conditions are decided by 1D flow numerical simulation of the oil circulating and cooling system. Secondly, the flow passages of thrust-ring-pump are empirically designed under the restrictions of diameter and the speed of the thrust ring according to the head and discharge from the simulation. Thirdly, the flow passage geometry matching optimization between holes inside the thrust ring and oil bath is implemented by means of 3D flow simulation and performance prediction. Then, the pumps and the oil circulating and cooling system are collaborative hydrodynamic optimized with predicted head- discharge curve and the efficiency-discharge curve of thrust-ring-pump. The presented methodology has

  4. Failure analyses and weld repair of boiler feed water pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulpen, R. van [KemaPower Generation, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    During a regular inspection of the Boiler Auxiliaries at one of the Dutch Electricity Production Companies serious cracks were found in the cover and casings of the feed water circulation pumps in two units after 108.000 and 122.000 hours of boiler operation. Kema Laboratories carried out Failure analyses on boat samples at the cracked areas. Corrosion fatigue cracking was found on the inner side of the GS-24CrNiMo325 casing. Shop Weld repairs were carried out using a newly developed mechanized Plasma Welding Technique. The repaired feed water circulation pumps showed no problems alter several years of operation. The costs of repair were substantially lower than the costs of replacement. (orig.) 3 refs.

  5. Centrifugal blood pump 603

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Centrifugal blood pump 603 pressure obtained for real blood, as shown in figure 6, is a little higher than that for glycerin aqua Solution with the same viscosity as blood. This may indicate the effect of slight non-. Newtonian turbulent flow. The radial whirl motion of the impeller was observed by dual laser position sensors.

  6. Pump Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Ingersoll-Rand Research, Inc.'s use of COSMIC's computer program MERIDL permits designers to evaluate performance and efficiency characteristics to be expected from the pump's impeller. It also provides information that enables a trained hydraulic engineer to make design improvements. Company was able to avoid the cost of developing new software and to improve some product design features.

  7. Fuel Pumping System And Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Scott F.; Wang, Lifeng

    2005-12-13

    A fuel pumping system that includes a pump drive is provided. A first pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a first flow of pressurized fuel. A second pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a second flow of pressurized fuel. A first solenoid is operatively connected to the first pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the first flow of pressurized fuel. A second solenoid is operatively connected to the second pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the second flow of pressurized fuel.

  8. Orbital Liquid Oxygen Pump Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed work will develop a pump, which is based on two novel and unique design features. The first feature is a lobed pumping mechanism which operates with...

  9. Diagnosis of boundary-layer circulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare, Robert J; Cullen, Michael J P

    2013-05-28

    Diagnoses of circulations in the vertical plane provide valuable insights into aspects of the dynamics of the climate system. Dynamical theories based on geostrophic balance have proved useful in deriving diagnostic equations for these circulations. For example, semi-geostrophic theory gives rise to the Sawyer-Eliassen equation (SEE) that predicts, among other things, circulations around mid-latitude fronts. A limitation of the SEE is the absence of a realistic boundary layer. However, the coupling provided by the boundary layer between the atmosphere and the surface is fundamental to the climate system. Here, we use a theory based on Ekman momentum balance to derive an SEE that includes a boundary layer (SEEBL). We consider a case study of a baroclinic low-level jet. The SEEBL solution shows significant benefits over Ekman pumping, including accommodating a boundary-layer depth that varies in space and structure, which accounts for buoyancy and momentum advection. The diagnosed low-level jet is stronger than that determined by Ekman balance. This is due to the inclusion of momentum advection. Momentum advection provides an additional mechanism for enhancement of the low-level jet that is distinct from inertial oscillations.

  10. Cavitation wear of pump impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Szala

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is a common phenomenon in pump systems, negatively influencing their operating parameters and components such as impellers and, thus, causing considerable financial losses. This paper explains the problem of cavitation and cavitation erosion. The causes of cavitation in pump systems are analyzed. A selection of centrifugal pump impellers damaged by cavitation erosion are presented and examined. The authors also discuss ways of preventing cavitation and cavitation erosion in pump systems. Finally, relevant conclusions are drawn.

  11. Mechanistic studies of sodium pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Larry D

    2008-08-01

    Sodium pump was the first ion pump discovered. A member of the family of active transporters that catalyze adenosine 5'-triphosphate hydrolysis by forming a phosphorylated enzyme intermediate, sodium pump couples the energy released to unequal countertransport of sodium and potassium ions. The ion gradient generated by the pump is important for a variety of secondary physiological processes ranging from metabolite transport to electrical excitation of nerve and muscle. Selected experiments relating structure to function are reviewed.

  12. Development of a proof of concept low temperature 4He Superfluid Magnetic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Miller, Franklin K.

    2017-03-01

    We describe the development and experimental results of a proof of concept Superfluid Magnetic Pump in this work. This novel low temperature, no moving part pump can replace the existing bellows-piston driven 4He or 3He-4He mixture compressor/circulators used in various sub Kelvin refrigeration systems such as dilution, Superfluid pulse tube, Stirling, or active magnetic regenerative refrigerators. Due to the superior thermal transport properties of sub-Lambda 4He this pump can also be used as a simple circulator to distribute cooling over large surface areas. Our pump was experimentally shown to produce a maximum flow rate of 440 mg/s (averaged over cycle), 665 mg/s (peak) and produced a maximum pressure difference of 2323 Pa using only the more common isotope of helium, 4He. This pump worked in an ;ideal; thermodynamic state: The experimental results matched with the theoretical values predicted by a computer model. Pump curves were developed to map the performance of this pump. This successful demonstration will enable this novel pump to be implemented in suitable sub Kelvin refrigeration systems.

  13. Technical Information to Support Double Shell Tank (DST) Emergency Annulus Pumping [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REBERGER, D.W.

    2000-09-14

    This document provides the design calculations for the DST Annulus Emergency Pumping Project. This document also contains essential information relative to DST annulus emergency pumping that may not be found in other documents. This information consists of the following: Index drawing for annulus pumping; References to the Acceptance Test Report, DST Emergency Pumping Guide, Time Deployment study, etc.; Statements of work; and Reference CEIS and RMIS numbers. A Vendor Information document, VI-50121, is not included in this document, but a copy can be obtained by contacting Document Control Services. This document contains various information regarding the Hydrostar pumps, such as the air motor, cylinder size, pump installation and operation manual. It also contains information regarding the Flygt BS2060 submersible pump, such as parts list, pump handling, preventative maintenance, overhaul and repair. In addition, this document also has information on 3-way PM ball valves, electrical skid components and the alternate Gurman-Rupp stainless steel submersible pump.

  14. Selection of parameters for mud pumps used for HDD Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ziaja

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Design solutions of rigs used for HDD are presented in the paper. HDD devices are classified on the basis of presented criteria, and then a division of rigs was proposed. The principles of determining technological parameters of piston mud pumps for HDD are presented. The principles of determining volume flow rate for an arbitrary rheological model of drilling mud are discussed. The dependences enabling a calculation of resistance of drilling fluid flow in a circulation system are also presented.

  15. Design of the linear non-evaporable getter pump for the PEP-II B factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, L., LLNL

    1997-07-21

    There are several regions in the PEP-II B Factory at SLAC that require distributed pumping to deal with large photo-desorbed gas loads or to produce very low pressures (< 10{sup -9} Torr). These regions include the Low Energy Ring Wiggler dump chambers, the transitions between the High Energy Ring arcs and straight sections, and most importantly the Interaction Region. They have designed a compact Non-Evaporable Getter pump using commercial getters that combines high pumping speed and high sorption capacity. They describe the design features of the NEG pumps, and the test results from prototype pumps. In addition, they discuss future variations of this style of NEG pump.

  16. Optical Dynamic Analysis of Thrombus Inside a Centrifugal Blood Pump During Extracorporeal Mechanical Circulatory Support in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Tatsuki; Sakota, Daisuke; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Endo, Shu; Tahara, Tomoki; Murashige, Tomotaka; Kosaka, Ryo; Oi, Keiji; Mizuno, Tomohiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Arai, Hirokuni

    2017-10-01

    Complications due to pump thrombus remain the weak point of mechanical circulatory support (MCS), such as the use of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, leading to poor outcomes. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an effective imaging method using a hyperspectral (HS) camera, which comprises a spectrophotometer and a charge-coupled device camera to discriminate thrombus from whole blood. Animal experiments were conducted to analyze dynamic imaging of thrombus inside a prototype of a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump using an HSI system. Six pigs were divided into a venous circulation group (n = 3) and an arterial circulation group (n = 3). Inflow and outflow cannulae were inserted into the jugular veins in the venous circulation group. The latter simulated an LVAD application. To create thrombogenic conditions, pump flow was maintained at 1 L/min without anticoagulation. An image of the bottom surface of the pump was captured by the HS camera every 4 nm over the wavelength range of 608-752 nm. Real-time dynamic images of the inside of the pump were displayed on the monitor. Appearance of an area displaying thrombus was detected within 24 h after the start of the circulation in every experiment. This imaging system also succeeded in determining the origins of pump thrombus: from inside the pump in two cases, and from outside in four cases. Two main possible sources of pump thrombus originating outside the pump were identified on autopsy: wedge thrombus around the inflow cannula; and string-like thrombus at the junction between the pump inlet and circuit tube. The results of this study from close observation of the changing appearance of pump thrombus may contribute to improvements in the safety of extracorporeal MCS. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Improving pumping system efficiency at coal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livoti, W.C.; McCandless, S.; Poltorak, R. [Baldor Electric Co. (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The industry must employ ultramodern technologies when building or upgrading power plant pumping systems thereby using fuels more efficiently. The article discusses the uses and efficiencies of positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps and multiple screw pumps. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  18. Small Scroll Pump for Cryogenic Liquids Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a compact, reliable, light weight, electrically driven pump capable of pumping cryogenic liquids, based on scroll pump technology. This pump will...

  19. Using Variable Speed Control on Pump Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Aida Spahiu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pumps are one of the most common variable speed drive (VSD system applications and special interest has focused on improving their energy efficiency by using variable speed control instead of throttling or other less efficient flow control methods. Pumps are the single largest user of electricity in industry in the European Union, consuming 160 TWh per annum of electricity and accounting for 79 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions [1]. Centrifugal pumps are the most likely pump style to provide a favorable return based on energy savings when applied with a variable speed drive. To help illustrate this, are conducted benchmark testing to document various head and flow scenarios and their corresponding effect on energy savings. Paper shows the relationship of static and friction head in the energy efficiency equation and the effect of motor, pump and VSD efficiencies. The received results are good reference points for engineers and managers of water sector in Albania to select the best prospects for maximizing efficiency and energy savings.

  20. Twin screw subsurface and surface multiphase pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dass, P. [CAN-K GROUP OF COMPANIES, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    A new subsurface twin screw multiphase pump has been developed to replace ESP and other artificial lift technologies. This technology has been under development for a few years, has been field tested and is now going for commercial applications. The subsurface twin screw technology consists of a pair of screws that do not touch and can be run with a top drive or submersible motor; and it carries a lot of benefits. This technology is easy to install and its low slippage makes it highly efficient with heavy oil. In addition twin screw multiphase pumps are capable of handling high viscosity fluids and thus their utilization can save water when used in thermal applications. It also induces savings of chemicals because asphaltenes do not break down easily as well as a reduction in SOR. The subsurface twin screw multiphase pump presented herein is an advanced technology which could be used in thermal applications.

  1. Design and analysis of hydraulic ram water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, N. S. M.; Gamil, S. A.; Amin, N. A. M.; Safar, M. J. A.; Majid, M. S. A.; Kazim, M. N. F. M.; Nasir, N. F. M.

    2017-10-01

    The current pumping system (DC water pump) for agriculture is powered by household electricity, therefore, the cost of electricity will be increased due to the higher electricity consumption. In addition, the water needs to be supplied at different height of trees and different places that are far from the water source. The existing DC water pump can pump the water to 1.5 m height but it cost money for electrical source. The hydraulic ram is a mechanical water pump that suitable used for agriculture purpose. It can be a good substitute for DC water pump in agriculture use. The hydraulic ram water pumping system has ability to pump water using gravitational energy or the kinetic energy through flowing source of water. This project aims to analyze and develop the water ram pump in order to meet the desired delivery head up to 3 meter height with less operation cost. The hydraulic ram is designed using CATIA software. Simulation work has been done using ANSYS CFX software to validate the working concept. There are three design were tested in the experiment study. The best design reached target head of 3 m with 15% efficiency and flow rate of 11.82l/min. The results from this study show that the less diameter of pressure chamber and higher supply head will create higher pressure.

  2. Liquid helium centrifugal pump characteristics from 80 g/s to 1200 g/s

    CERN Document Server

    Pengo, R; Junker, S

    2010-01-01

    The large amount of data collected from three different centrifugal liquid helium pumps tested, namely with 80, 600 and 1200 g/s nominal mass flow are reviewed. The data include the analysis of the characteristic curves, their total efficiencies, their Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) and the slip factor. The 1200 g/s pumps tested are of the full emission type, with curved blades, whilst the other pumps have straight blades. The pumps were also tested at different rotary speeds. The pumps were manufactured by Barber \\& Nichols (Denver, USA). (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Using the AD12-ICT rapid-format test to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigens in comparison to Og4C3-ELISA and nucleopore membrane filtration and microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Moamly, Amal Abdul-Rasheed; El-Sweify, Mohamed Aly; Hafez, Mohamad Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) continues to be a major source of permanent disability and an impediment to socio-economic development in 73 countries where more than 1 billion people are at risk and over 120 millions are infected. The global drive to eliminate LF necessitates an increasing demand for valid, reliable and rapid diagnostic tests. This study aimed to assess the performance of the AD12 rapid format immunochromatographic test (ICT) to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigens, against the combined gold standard: TropBio Og4C3-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) which detects circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and the nucleopore membrane filtration and microscopic examination. This prospective case-control study involved 647 asymptomatic migrant workers from filariasis-endemic countries. Of these specimens, 32 were positive for microfilaremia using the membrane filtration and microscopy, 142 positive by ELISA (of which 32 had microfilaremia), and 128 positive by the ICT (of which 31 had microfilaremia). The performance of the ICT was calculated against 32 true-positive and 90 true-negative cases. For the detection of CFA, the ICT had a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-103), specificity 100% (95% CI 100-100), Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 100% (95% CI 100-100), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) 99% (95% CI 97-101); and the total accuracy of the test was 99% (95% CI 98-101). The agreement between ICT and ELISA in detecting W. bancrofti antigens was excellent (kappa = 0.934; p = 0.000). In conclusion, the AD12-ICT test for the detection of W. bancrofti-CFA was sensitive and specific and comparable to the performance of ELISA. The ICT would be a useful additional test to facilitate the proposed strategies for control and elimination of LF. Because it is rapid, simple to perform, and does not require the use of special equipment, the ICT may be most appropriate in screening programs and in monitoring the possible risk of introducing

  4. A LiBr-H2O Absorption Refrigerator Incorporating a Thermally Activated Solution Pumping Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Ian W. Eames

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an illustrated description of a proposed LiBr-H2O vapour absorption refrigerator which uses a thermally activated solution pumping mechanism that combines controlled variations in generator vapour pressure with changes it produces in static-head pressure difference to circulate the absorbent solution between the generator and absorber vessels. The proposed system is different and potentially more efficient than a bubble pump system previously proposed and avoids the need f...

  5. Preoperational test report, cross-site transfer system integrated test (POTR-007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacquet, E.A.

    1998-04-02

    This report documents the results obtained during the performance of Preoperational Test POTP-007, from December 12, 1997 to March 27, 1998. The main objectives were to demonstrate the operation of the following Cross-Site Transfer System components: Booster pumps P-3125A and P-3125B interlocks and controls, both local and remote; Booster pump P-3125A and P-3125B and associated variable speed drives VSD-1 and VSD-2 performance in both manual and automatic modes; and Water filling, circulation, venting and draining of the transfer headers (supernate and slurry line). As described in reference 1, the following components of the Cross-Site Transfer System that would normally be used during an actual waste transfer, are not used in this specific test: Water Flush System; Valving and instrumentation associated with the 241-SY-A valve pit jumpers; and Valving and instrumentation associated with the 244-A lift station.

  6. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or a...

  7. Comparison of operative times between pressure and flow-control pump versus pressure-control pump for ACL reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, Ryan; Bear, Russell; Machen, M Shaun; Owens, Brett D

    2009-10-01

    Evidence suggests that a pressure and flow-control pump provides better visualization than a pressure-control pump alone. Increased visualization may lead to decreased operative time. We sought to perform a direct comparison in terms of operative times in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery using these 2 automated pump systems. We retrospectively studied all ACL reconstruction procedures performed at our institution over an 8-month period. During the first 4-month period, a pressure-driven pump was used (HydroFlex Multipurpose Irrigation Pump; Davol, Warwick, Rhode Island). During the second 4-month period, a pressure and flow-control pump was used (FMS Duo+; DePuy Mitek, Raynham, Massachusetts). Procedures that involved multiligament reconstruction or meniscal repair were excluded. Surgical time was defined as the time from incision to skin closure. The data were analyzed with the Student t test with significance set at Psystem. Mean operative time using the pressure-control pump was 126 minutes (95% CI 118.9, 133.3), while mean operative time using the pressure and flow-control system was 111 minutes (95% CI 104.1, 117.9). This difference was significant (P=.004). These results indicate that the use of pressure and flow-control pump system results in time savings compared with the pressure-control pump.

  8. Arctic circulation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2015-10-13

    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. © 2015 The Authors.

  9. Fontan Circulation over Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, Djoeke; van Melle, Joost P.; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Ridderbos, Floris-Jan S.; Eshuis, Graziella; van Stratum, Elisabeth B. H. J.; Recinos, Salvador J.; Willemse, Brigitte W. M.; Hillege, Hans; Willems, Tineke P.; Ebels, Tjark; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    2017-01-01

    The unique, unphysiological Fontan circulation is associated with an impaired functional status of the patients that is suggested to deteriorate over time. Unfortunately, previous studies did not integrate both pulmonary and cardiac determinants of functional status. In addition, a comparison with

  10. Pocket pumped image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V., E-mail: kotov@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Murray, N. [Centre for Electronic Imaging, Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The pocket pumping technique is used to detect small electron trap sites. These traps, if present, degrade CCD charge transfer efficiency. To reveal traps in the active area, a CCD is illuminated with a flat field and, before image is read out, accumulated charges are moved back and forth number of times in parallel direction. As charges are moved over a trap, an electron is removed from the original pocket and re-emitted in the following pocket. As process repeats one pocket gets depleted and the neighboring pocket gets excess of charges. As a result a “dipole” signal appears on the otherwise flat background level. The amplitude of the dipole signal depends on the trap pumping efficiency. This paper is focused on trap identification technique and particularly on new methods developed for this purpose. The sensor with bad segments was deliberately chosen for algorithms development and to demonstrate sensitivity and power of new methods in uncovering sensor defects.

  11. Solar-powered pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, C. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A solar powered pump particularly suited for intermittently delivering a stream of water is reported. The pump is characterized by a housing adapted to be seated in a source of water having a water discharge port disposed above the water line of the source, a sump including a valved inlet port through which water is introduced to the sump, disposed beneath the water line, a displacer supported for vertical reciprocation in said housing, an air passageway extended between the vertically spaced faces of the displacer, and a tipple disposed adjacent to the water discharge port adapted to be filled in response to a discharge of water from the housing. Air above a displacer is expanded in response to solar energy impinging on the housing and transferred into pressurizing relation with the sump for forcing water from the sump.

  12. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschliman, Dave [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Lubbehusen, Mike [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    This project was initiated at a time when ground coupled heat pump systems in this region were limited in size and quantity. There were economic pressures with costs for natural gas and electric utilities that had many organizations considering ground coupled heat pumps; The research has added to the understanding of how ground temperatures fluctuate seasonally and how this affects the performance and operation of the heat pumps. This was done by using a series of temperature sensors buried within the middle of one of the vertical bore fields with sensors located at various depths below grade. Trending of the data showed that there is a lag in ground temperature with respect to air temperatures in the shoulder months, however as full cooling and heating season arrives, the heat rejection and heat extraction from the ground has a significant effect on the ground temps; Additionally it is better understood that while a large community geothermal bore field serving multiple buildings does provide a convenient central plant to use, it introduces complexity of not being able to easily model and predict how each building will contribute to the loads in real time. Additional controllers and programming were added to provide more insight into this real time load profile and allow for intelligent shedding of load via a dry cooler during cool nights in lieu of rejecting to the ground loop. This serves as a means to ‘condition’ the ground loop and mitigate thermal creep of the field, as is typically observed; and It has been observed when compared to traditional heating and cooling equipment, there is still a cost premium to use ground source heat pumps that is driven mostly by the cost for vertical bore holes. Horizontal loop systems are less costly to install, but do not perform as well in this climate zone for heating mode

  13. Hydride heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, James G.

    1977-01-01

    Method and apparatus for the use of hydrides to exhaust heat from one temperature source and deliver the thermal energy extracted for use at a higher temperature, thereby acting as a heat pump. For this purpose there are employed a pair of hydridable metal compounds having different characteristics working together in a closed pressure system employing a high temperature source to upgrade the heat supplied from a low temperature source.

  14. Methods for characterization of mechanical and electrical prosthetic vacuum pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolafe, Oluseeni; Wood, Sean; Caldwell, Ryan; Hansen, Andrew; Fatone, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasingly widespread adoption of vacuum-assisted suspension systems in prosthetic clinical practices, there remain gaps in the body of scientific knowledge guiding clinicians' choices of existing products. In this study, we identified important pump-performance metrics and developed techniques to objectively characterize the evacuation performance of prosthetic vacuum pumps. The sensitivity of the proposed techniques was assessed by characterizing the evacuation performance of two electrical (Harmony e-Pulse [Ottobock; Duderstadt, Germany] and LimbLogic VS [Ohio Willow Wood; Mt. Sterling, Ohio]) and three mechanical (Harmony P2, Harmony HD, and Harmony P3 [Ottobock]) prosthetic pumps in bench-top testing. Five fixed volume chambers ranging from 33 cm(3) (2 in.(3)) to 197 cm(3) (12 in.(3)) were used to represent different air volume spaces between a prosthetic socket and a liner-clad residual limb. All measurements were obtained at a vacuum gauge pressure of 57.6 kPa (17 inHg). The proposed techniques demonstrated sensitivity to the different electrical and mechanical pumps and, to a lesser degree, to the different setting adjustments of each pump. The sensitivity was less pronounced for the mechanical pumps, and future improvements for testing of mechanical vacuum pumps were proposed. Overall, this study successfully offers techniques feasible as standards for assessing the evacuation performance of prosthetic vacuum pump devices.

  15. Engineering microbial biofuel tolerance and export using efflux pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mary J; Dossani, Zain Y; Szmidt, Heather L; Chu, Hou Cheng; Lee, Taek Soon; Keasling, Jay D; Hadi, Masood Z; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2011-01-01

    Many compounds being considered as candidates for advanced biofuels are toxic to microorganisms. This introduces an undesirable trade-off when engineering metabolic pathways for biofuel production because the engineered microbes must balance production against survival. Cellular export systems, such as efflux pumps, provide a direct mechanism for reducing biofuel toxicity. To identify novel biofuel pumps, we used bioinformatics to generate a list of all efflux pumps from sequenced bacterial genomes and prioritized a subset of targets for cloning. The resulting library of 43 pumps was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, where we tested it against seven representative biofuels. By using a competitive growth assay, we efficiently distinguished pumps that improved survival. For two of the fuels (n-butanol and isopentanol), none of the pumps improved tolerance. For all other fuels, we identified pumps that restored growth in the presence of biofuel. We then tested a beneficial pump directly in a production strain and demonstrated that it improved biofuel yields. Our findings introduce new tools for engineering production strains and utilize the increasingly large database of sequenced genomes. PMID:21556065

  16. Stirling Engine Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Recent advances in the feasibility studies related to the Stirling engines and Stirling engine heat pumps which have been considered attractive due to their promising role in helping to solve the global environmental and energy problems,are reviewed. This article begins to describe the brief history of the Stirling engines and theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling cycle in order to understand several advantages on the Stirling engine. Furthermore,they could throw light on our question why the dream engines had not been promoted to practical applications during two hundred years. The present review shows that the Stirling engines with several unique advantages including 30 to 40% thermal efficiency and preferable exhaust characteristics,had been designed and constructed by recent tackling for the development of the advanced automobile and other applications using them. Based on the current state of art,it is being provided to push the Stirling engines combined with heat pumps based on the reversed Rankine cycle to the market. At present,however, many problems, especially for the durability, cost, and delicate engine parts must be enforced to solve. In addition,there are some possibilities which can increase the attractiveness of the Stirling engines and heat pumps. The review closes with suggestions for further research.

  17. Electrocentrifugal pumping; Bombeo electrocentrifugo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Perez, Guillermo; Medellin Otero, Hector [Instituto Mexicano del Peroleo (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The exploitation of isolated oil deposits, in losing their own energy, enter a phase of secondary recovery. One of the technologies of new development in Mexico is the one of electrocentrifugal pumping , which consists of introducing the motor-pump as an integral part of the production pipe down to the well bottom and pumping directly up to central complexes, from where it is sent inland. In the present paper is intended to explain what this type of secondary recovery consists of. [Spanish] La explotacion de yacimientos aislados de petroleo, al perder su energia propia, entran en una fase de recuperacion secundaria. Una de las tecnologias de nuevo desarrollo en Mexico es la de bombeo electrocentrifugo, la cual consiste en introducir la motobomba como parte integral de la tuberia de produccion hasta el fondo del pozo y bombearlo directamente hasta los complejos centrales, de donde se envia a tierra. En el presente trabajo se pretende explicar en que consiste este tipo de recuperacion secundaria.

  18. Characterization of the efficiency of the gas-solid contact in circulating bed at by the use of a test reaction: the cumene catalytic cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayle, J.; Gauthier, T.; Pontier, R. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Briens, C.L.; Bergougnou, M. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1995-12-31

    The gas-solid down with the stream reactor, the ``downer``, presents a main interest for the high-speed reactions because it is well adapted to hard conditions uses: very short residence times, high temperatures and feeds of catalyst. This reactor type already presents a certain advantage to estimate the charges or new catalysts potential. But, it particularly constitutes an interesting option for some processes as petroleum cuts catalytic cracking. In order to intensify the contact between the catalyst and the reagents, the temperature increase of the reagents has to be almost instantaneous and the initial contact between the gas and the solid particles particularly effective. So as to validate these two hypothesis, the test reaction of the cumene catalytic cracking is carried out in the pilot unit ``downer`` of the Western Ontario University. (O.M.). 11 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Non-invasive prenatal testing for trisomy 21 based on analysis of cell-free fetal DNA circulating in the maternal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, A; Salomon, L J; Le Lorc'h, M; Couloux, A; Bussières, L; Goupil, S; Malan, V; Pelletier, E; Hyon, C; Vialard, F; Rozenberg, P; Bouhanna, P; Oury, J F; Schmitz, T; Romana, S; Weissenbach, J; Vekemans, M; Ville, Y

    2015-05-01

    By-the-book implementation of non-invasive prenatal test and clinical validation for trisomy 21. Publicly funded prospective study of 225 cases. Women at risk for trisomy 21 > 1/250 based on combined ultrasound and serum markers during first or second trimester were eligible following an informed consent. The technique was established from the available literature and performed on 10 mL of venous blood collected prior to chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Investigators were blinded to the fetal karyotype. Results were expressed in Z-scores of the percentage of each chromosome. Among 976 eligible cases, 225 were processed: 8 were used for pretesting phase and 23 to build a reference set. One hundred thirty six euploid cases and 47 with trisomy 21 were then run randomly. Eleven cases yielded no result (4.8%). Z-scores were above 3 (7.58+/-2.41) for chromosome 21 in all 47 trisomies and in none of the euploid cases (0.11+/-1.0). Z-scores were within normal range for the other chromosomes in both groups. Using a cut-off of 3, sensitivity and specificity were of 100% 95% CI [94.1, 100] and 100% 95% CI [98, 100], respectively. Non-invasive prenatal test for trisomy 21 is a robust strategy that can be translated from seminal publications. Publicly funded studies should refine its indications and cost-effectiveness in prenatal screening and diagnosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Predictors of sudden death and death from pump failure in congestive heart failure are different. Analysis of 24 h Holter monitoring, clinical variables, blood chemistry, exercise test and radionuclide angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, B K; Rasmussen, Verner; Hansen, J F

    1997-01-01

    Association class II and 44% in III. Total mortality after 1 year was 21%, after 2 years 32%. Of 60 deaths, 33% were sudden and 49% due to pump failure. Multivariate analyses identified totally different risk factors for sudden death: ventricular tachycardia, s-sodium ....6 mmol/l, s-potassium sudden death and for death from progressive pump failure........80 mmol/l, s-creatinine > 121 mumol/l, and maximal change in heart rate during exercise death from progressive pump failure: New York Heart Association class III + IV, delta heart rate over 24 h 7...

  1. Experimental analysis of the flow pattern of a pump turbine model in pump mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenberger, Mark; Senn, Florian; Jaberg, Helmut; Gehrer, Arno; Sallaberger, Manfred; Widmer, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Reversible pump turbines are the only means to store primary energy in an highly efficient way. Within a short time their operation can be switched between the different operational regimes thus enhancing the stabilization of the electric grid. These qualities in combination with the operation even at off-design conditions offer a high flexibility to the energy market. However, pump turbines pass through operational regimes where their behaviour becomes unstable. One of these effects occurs when the flowrate is decreased continuously down to a minimum. This point is the physical limitation of the pump operation and is very difficult to predict properly by numerical design without a model test. The purpose of the present study is to identify the fluid mechanical phenomena leading to the occurrence of instabilities of pump turbines in pump mode. A reduced scale model of a ANDRITZ pump turbine was installed on a 4-quadrant test rig for the experimental investigation of unstable conditions in pump mode. The performed measurements are based on the IEC60193-standard. Characteristic measurements at a single guide vane opening were carried out to get a detailed insight into the instabilities in pump mode. The interaction between runner and guide vane was analysed by Particle Image Velocimetry. Furthermore, high-speed visualizations of the suction side part load flow and the suction recirculation were performed. Like never before the flow pattern in the draft tube cone became visible with the help of a high-speed camera by intentionally caused cavitation effects which allow a qualitative view on the flow pattern in the draft tube cone. Suction recirculation is observed in form of single vortices separating from each runner blade and stretching into the draft tube against the main flow direction. To find an explanation for the flow phenomena responsible for the appearance of the unstable head curve also characteristic velocity distributions on the pressure side were combined

  2. AWWA E102-17 submersible vertical turbine pumps

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This standard describes minimum requirements for submersible vertical turbine pumps utilizing a discharge column pipe assembly, 5 hp or larger, used in water service, including materials, design, manufacture, inspection, and testing.

  3. Compact Vacuum Pump for Titan Lander Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For a number of years Creare has developed, fabricated, and tested highly miniaturized, high vacuum pumps specifically designed for mass spectrometers used on NASA...

  4. An innovative test for non-invasive Kell genotyping on circulating fetal DNA by means of the allelic discrimination of K1 and K2 antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cro', Fabiana; Lapucci, Cristina; Vicari, Emilio; Salsi, Ginevra; Rizzo, Nicola; Farina, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to present a new method for fetal Kell genotyping by means of the allelic discrimination of K1 and K2 in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction incorporating an allele-specific primer was developed for detecting the K allele of KEL. By means of this method, the K1/K2 genotype was able to be determined in all blood samples analyzed. Results using cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) from two Kell-negative pregnant women confirmed the Kell-positive genotype of fetuses. The real-time PCR analysis also allowed the determination of the fetal fraction using the quantification of Kell-positive DNA. An efficient and reliable strategy for Kell genotyping is herein presented. The method was optimized on cffDNA to create a non-invasive prenatal test which could be routinely used for the prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn (HDFN). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Novel circulating microRNA signature as a potential non-invasive multi-marker test in ER-positive early-stage breast cancer: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodahl, Annette R; Lyng, Maria B; Binder, Harald; Cold, Søren; Gravgaard, Karina; Knoop, Ann S; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2014-07-01

    There are currently no highly sensitive and specific minimally invasive biomarkers for detection of early-stage breast cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are present in the circulation and may be unique biomarkers for early diagnosis of human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the differential expression of miRNAs in the serum of breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Global miRNA analysis was performed on serum from 48 patients with ER-positive early-stage breast cancer obtained at diagnosis (24 lymph node-positive and 24 lymph node-negative) and 24 age-matched healthy controls using LNA-based quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). A signature of miRNAs was subsequently validated in an independent set of 111 serum samples from 60 patients with early-stage breast cancer and 51 healthy controls and further tested for reproducibility in 3 independent data sets from the GEO Database. A multivariable signature consisting of 9 miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-18a, miR-107, miR-133a, miR-139-5p, miR-143, miR-145, miR-365, miR-425) was identified that provided considerable discrimination between breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Further, the ability of the 9 miRNA signature to stratify samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls was confirmed in the validation set (p = 0.012) with a corresponding AUC = 0.665 in the ROC-curve analysis. No association between miRNA expression and tumor grade, tumor size, menopausal- or lymph node status was observed. The signature was also successfully validated in a previously published independent data set of circulating miRNAs in early-stage breast cancer (p = 0.024). We present herein a 9 miRNA signature capable of discriminating between ER-positive breast cancer and healthy controls. Using a specific algorithm based on the 9 miRNA signature, the risk for future individuals can be predicted. Since microRNAs are highly stable in blood components, this signature might be useful in the development of a blood

  6. Fluid pumping: Some exploratory numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, A.; Henley, S.

    The concept of fluid pumping evolved from considerations of fluid behaviour within and surrounding faults and shear zones, particularly associated with earthquake initiation and propagation. Further, the interpretation of specific vein textures as originating from a crack-seal mechanism requires precipitation of material during pumping cycles. We explore here a new simple model for fluid pumping initiating within a dilatant, pressure dependant material, and the mechanical consequences of such a model, including the predicted behaviour of a fluid within the SiO2-H2O system. Changes in various properties such as permeability and mechanical properties are allowed according to rules based on defined geological processes. For example, porosity may increase with increasing shear and dilatancy of the rock, and both porosity and permeability decrease when and where the rock ‘seals’ as a result of pressure decrease and the resultant precipitation of SiO2. Histories of any variable may be explored for any part of the model. We may therefore test in a quantitative manner hypotheses for fluid pumping, and the deposition of quartz, and ultimately gold, in a deforming rock mass. Through exploring the feedback links between deformation, fluid flow, chemical transport, thermal transfer, we have the opportunity to test conceptually and quantitatively the various hypotheses for the formation of world class ore deposits.

  7. Research and development of an air-cycle heat-pump water heater. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, J.T.; Erickson, A.J.; Harvey, A.C.; Toscano, W.M.

    1979-10-01

    A prototype reverse Brayton air cycle heat pump water heater has been designed and built for residential applications. The system consists of a compressor/expander, an air-water heat exchanger, an electric motor, a water circulation pump, a thermostat, and fluid management controls. The prototype development program consisted of a market analysis, design study, and development testing. A potential residential market for the new high-efficiency water heater of approximately 480,000 units/y was identified. The retail and installation cost of this water heater is estimated to be between $500 and $600 which is approximately $300 more than a conventional electric water heater. The average payback per unit is less than 3-1/2 y and the average recurring energy cost savings after the payback period is approximately $105/y at the average seasonal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.7. As part of the design effort, a thermodynamic parametric analysis was performed on the water heater system. It was determined that to obtain a coefficient of performance of 1.7, the isentropic efficiency of both the compressor and the expander must be at least 85%. The selected mechanical configuration is described. The water heater has a diameter of 25 in. and a height of 73 in. The results of the development testing of the prototype water heater system showed: the electrical motor maximum efficiency of 78%; the compressor isentropic efficiency is 95 to 119% and the volumetric efficiency is approximately 85%; the expander isentropic efficiency is approximately 58% and the volumetric efficiency is 92%; a significant heat transfer loss of approximately 16% occurred in the expander; and the prototype heat pump system COP is 1.26 which is less than the design goal of at least 1.7. Future development work is recommended.

  8. Supercritical waste oxidation pump investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, G.; Garcia, K.

    1993-02-01

    This report investigates the pumping techniques and pumping equipment that would be appropriate for a 5,000 gallon per day supercritical water oxidation waste disposal facility. The pumps must boost water, waste, and additives from atmospheric pressure to approximately 27.6 MPa (4,000 psia). The required flow ranges from 10 gpm to less than 0.1 gpm. For the higher flows, many commercial piston pumps are available. These pumps have packing and check-valves that will require periodic maintenance; probably at 2 to 6 month intervals. Several commercial diaphragm pumps were also discovered that could pump the higher flow rates. Diaphragm pumps have the advantage of not requiring dynamic seals. For the lower flows associated with the waste and additive materials, commercial diaphragm pumps. are available. Difficult to pump materials that are sticky, radioactive, or contain solids, could be injected with an accumulator using an inert gas as the driving mechanism. The information presented in this report serves as a spring board for trade studies and the development of equipment specifications.

  9. Problems of energy efficiency of pumps and pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tverdokhleb, I.; Kostyuk, A.; Sokolov, S.

    2017-08-01

    The total energy consumption of various types of pumps is significant and the energy saving potential in this area is also huge. The transition from consideration of the characteristics of a separate pump to the features of its operation with a drive, taking into account the operation in different modes in conditions of a specific hydraulic network, allows obtaining a much greater potential for reducing energy consumption, significantly increasing the efficiency and reliability of pumping equipment.

  10. Preliminary Study of a Piston Pump for Cryogenic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Arnold E.; Kohl, Robert C.

    1959-01-01

    Preliminary data are presented covering the performance of a low-speed, five-cylinder piston pump designed for handling boiling hydrogen. This pump was designed for a flow of 55 gallons per minute at 240 rpm with a discharge pressure of 135 pounds per square inch. Tests were made using JP-4 fuel, liquid nitrogen, and liquid hydrogen. Pump delivery and endurance characteristics were satisfactory for the range of operation covered. In connection with the foregoing pump development, the cavitation characteristics of a preliminary visual model, glass-cylinder pump and of a simple reciprocating disk were studied. Subcooling of approximately 0.60 F was obtained from the cavitation produced by reciprocating a disk in boiling nitrogen and in boiling water. The subcooling obtained in a similar manner with liquid hydrogen was somewhat less.

  11. Liquid Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to rest prototypical space nuclear surface power system components. Conduction, induction and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated with incorporation into a reactor system. A thermoelectric electromagnetic pump is selected as the best option for use in NASA-MSFC's Fission Surface Power-Primary Test Circuit reactor simulator based on its relative simplicity, low power supply mass penalty, flight heritage, and the promise of increased pump efficiency over those earlier pump designs through the use of skutterudite thermoelectric elements.

  12. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...... for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035...

  13. A Peristaltic Pump Integrated on a 100% Glass Microchip Using Computer Controlled Piezoelectric Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Tanaka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lab-on-a-chip technology is promising for the miniaturization of chemistry, biochemistry, and/or biology researchers looking to exploit the advantages of a microspace. To manipulate fluid on a microchip, on-chip pumps are indispensable. To date, there have been several types of on-chip pumps including pneumatic, electroactive, and magnetically driven. However these pumps introduce polymers, metals, and/or silicon to the microchip, and these materials have several disadvantages, including chemical or physical instability, or an inherent optical detection limit. To overcome/avoid these issues, glass has been one of the most commonly utilized materials for the production of multi-purpose integrated chemical systems. However, glass is very rigid, and it is difficult to incorporate pumps onto glass microchips. This paper reports the use of a very flexible, ultra-thin glass sheet (minimum thickness of a few micrometers to realize a pump installed on an entirely glass-based microchip. The pump is a peristaltic-type, composed of four serial valves sealing a cavity with two penetrate holes using ultra-thin glass sheet. By this pump, an on-chip circulating flow was demonstrated by directly observing fluid flow, visualized via polystyrene tracking particles. The flow rate was proportional to the pumping frequency, with a maximum flow rate of approximately 0.80 μL/min. This on-chip pump could likely be utilized in a wide range of applications which require the stability of a glass microchip.

  14. Determination of the Design Speed of the Primary Cooling Pump in the Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyungi; Seo, Kyoungwoo; Chi, Daeyoung; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    An open-pool type research reactor is widely designed in consideration of the reactor operation and accessibility. Reactor structure assembly is generally placed at the pool bottom. rimary cooling system circulates the coolant from the reactor core to the heat exchanger. Therefore the heat generated from the reactor core is continuously removed. After the primary cooling pumps stop, the decay heat is removed by the coastdown flow induced by the inertia force of a flywheel attached to each primary cooling pump. A pump coastdown flow means that the pump operates with the angular momentums of the shaft, impeller, and flywheel when a loss of electricity occurs. The primary cooling pump consists of the pump, flywheel, and moto. They are connected by flexible couplings. The primary cooling pump is conceptually designed based on the required flow rate and system constraints. A centrifugal pump of Case 1 with a non-dimensional specific speed of 0.59 and specific diameter of 4.94 is chosen as the primary cooling pump based on the hydraulic performance and mechanical integrity.

  15. Evaluation and optimization of the Circulating Cathodic Antigen (POC-CCA) cassette test for detecting Schistosoma mansoni infection by using image analysis in school children in Mwanza Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casacuberta, Miriam; Kinunghi, Safari; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Olsen, Annette

    2016-06-01

    There is a need for diagnostic techniques which are sensitive, specific, rapid and easy to perform at the point-of-care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Circulating Cathodic Antigen (POC-CCA) assay for Schistosoma mansoni in four schools along the coast of Lake Victoria in Mwanza Region, Tanzania, and to optimize the reading of the POC-CCA test lines by using a computer software image analysis. Initially, a pilot study in 106 school children indicated that time of urine collection did not have an impact on CCA results as 84.9% (90) had identical scores from a urine collected in the morning and a urine taken at midday after drinking 0.5 L of water. The main study was conducted among 404 school children (aged 9-12 years) where stool and urine samples were collected for three consecutive days. For S. mansoni diagnosis, stool samples were examined for eggs with duplicate Kato-Katz smears, whereas urine samples were tested for presence of antigen by POC-CCA. The proportion of positive individuals for S. mansoni by one POC-CCA was higher compared to two Kato-Katz smears (66.1% vs. 28.7%; p CCA, a Software tool (Image Studio Lite®) was used to read and quantify the colour (expressed as pixels) of the test line on all positive tests, showing a positive correlation between number of pixels and the visually scored intensities and between number of pixels and egg counts. In conclusion, the POC-CCA assay seems to be a more appropriate tool for S. mansoni diagnosis compared to the Kato-Katz method in endemic communities such as Mwanza Region. Optimization of the tool in terms of cassette-reading could be assessed by computer software which was able to quantify the colour of the lines in the strip of the cassette.

  16. INTERNAL CIRCULATION ENVELOPES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2001-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or a piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration.

  17. Performance analysis of mini centrifugal pump with splitter blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemitsu, T.; Fukutomi, J.; Wada, T.; Shinohara, H.

    2013-12-01

    Design method for a mini centrifugal pump is not established because the internal flow condition for these small-sized fluid machines is not clarified and conventional theory is not suitable for small-sized pumps. Then, a semi-open impeller for the mini centrifugal pump with 55mm impeller diameter is adopted in this research to take simplicity and maintenance into consideration. Splitter blades are adopted in this research to improve the performance and internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump having large blade outlet angle. The performance tests are conducted with these rotors in order to investigate the effect of the splitter blades on the performance and internal flow condition of the mini centrifugal pump. A three dimensional steady numerical flow analysis is conducted to analyze rotor, volute efficiency and loss caused by a vortex. It is clarified from the experimental results that the performance of the mini centrifugal pump is improved by the effect of the splitter blades. Flow condition at outlet of the rotor becomes uniform and back flow regions are suppressed in the case with the splitter blades. Further, the volute efficiency increases and the vortex loss decreases. In the present paper, the performance of the mini centrifugal pump is shown and the flow condition is clarified with the results of the experiment and the numerical flow analysis. Furthermore, the performance analyses of the mini centrifugal pumps with and without the splitter blades are conducted.

  18. Preliminary validation of a new magnetic wireless blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Ishiyama, Kazushi; Hashi, Shuichiro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Hayatsu, Yukihiro; Akiyama, Masatoshi; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2013-10-01

    In general, a blood pump must be small, have a simple configuration, and have sufficient hydrodynamic performance. Herein, we introduce new mechanisms for a wireless blood pump that is small and simple and provides wireless and battery-free operation. To achieve wireless and battery-free operation, we implement magnetic torque and force control methods that use two external drivers: an external coil and a permanent magnet with a DC-motor, respectively. Power harvesting can be used to drive an electronic circuit for wireless monitoring (the observation of the pump conditions and temperature) without the use of an internal battery. The power harvesting will be used as a power source to drive other electronic devices, such as various biosensors with their driving circuits. To have both a compact size and sufficient pumping capability, the fully magnetic impeller has five stages and each stage includes four backward-curved blades. The pump has total and inner volumes of 20 and 9.8 cc, respectively, and weighs 52 g. The pump produces a flow rate of approximately 8 L/min at 80 mm Hg and the power generator produces 0.3 W of electrical power at 120 Ω. The pump also produces a minimum flow rate of 1.5 L/min and a pressure of 30 mm Hg for circulation at a maximum distance of 7.5 cm. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  19. Chemical heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Leonard

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  20. A Look at Circulation Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzius, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Nearly all academic libraries keep circulation statistics which are often shared with their parent university, library consortia, and national organizations. This study attempted to discover what goes into circulation statistics by surveying Southeastern research libraries. Libraries were asked what they count in their circulation statistics and…

  1. Solar assisted heat pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Godbold, R; Paurine, A; Maidment, GG

    2016-01-01

    Solar Assisted Heat Pumps have the potential to provide low carbon heat for domestic hot water generation and low temperature heating. They have advantages over conventional solar thermal systems because they can generate heating and hot water during periods of low or zero solar, whist still maintain the advantage of not needing to be connected to the gas grid. They are simple in nature and can be installed in a wide range of applications. They are also currently uncommon in the UK so a thoro...

  2. PV water pumping: NEOS Corporation recent PV water pumping activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, C.

    1995-11-01

    NEOS Corporation has been very active in PV-powered water pumping, particularly with respect to electric utilities. Most of the recent activity has been through the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN). The PSN is an independent, not-for-profit organization comprised of all types of electric utilities: rural electric coops, public power districts, investor-owned utilities, and power marketing agencies. The PSN`s mission is to work pro-actively to promote utility involvement in PV through education and training. PV information is distributed by the PSN in three primary forms: (1) consultation with PSN technical service representatives: (2) literature generated by the PSN; and (3) literature published by other organizations. The PSN can also provide assistance to members in developing PV customer service programs. The PSN`s product support activities include consolidation of information on existing packaged PV systems and facilitation of the development of new PV product packages that meet utility-defined specifications for cost performance, and reliability. The PSN`s initial product support efforts will be focused on commercially available packaged PV systems for a variety of off-grid applications. In parallel with this effort, if no products exist that meet the PSN`s functional specifications, the PSN will initiate the second phase of product development support process by encouraging the development of new packaged systems. Through these services and product support activities, the PSN anticipates engaging all segments for the PV industry, thus providing benefits to PV systems suppliers as well as local PV service contractors.This paper describes field testing of pv power systems for water pumping.

  3. Usefulness of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation using double roller pumps in a low body weight newborn: A novel strategy for mechanical circulatory support in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nakanishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO with a centrifugal pump requires a certain flow rate; therefore, its application for low body weight infants is frequently accompanied by oxygenator membrane malfunction and/or inadequate perfusion. To prevent low-flow associated complications, we report a case in which a novel system of dual roller pumps was used. A baby girl with a body mass index 0.25 m 2 , who experienced difficulty weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass after a Norwood-like operation, required an ECMO. Concerns for the tube lifespan reduction due to roller pump friction led to the use of a double roller pump circulation. The termination of ECMO during tube exchange is not needed, because circulation is maintained by another roller pump. The novel strategy of ECMO with double roller pumps will allow low perfusion rate to provide adequate circulatory support for low body weight patients.

  4. Recombinant Poliovirus circulation among healthy children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In order to assess the level of polio virus with natural recombinant genome and wild polio virus circulating in the environment of healthy children aged 0 to 5 years in Abidjan, 130 polio viruses made up of 26 polio type 1, 55 type 2 and 49 type 3 were identified by neutralisation test with monoclonal antibodies and restriction ...

  5. Carriage rates, circulating serotypes and antibiotic resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Circulating serotypes and antibiotic sensitivities are shown in (Table 1). Our method was not able to serotype three isolates (infants 1, 8 and 23) as these isolates tested positive for the internal control for a universal. Infant no. Age in months serotype penicillin*. (mIC). Cotrimox- azole erythro- mycin tetracy- cline. Cefachlor ...

  6. Centrifugal pumps and allied machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1994-01-01

    This book will be of vital interest to all engineers and designers concerned with centrifugal pumps and turbines. Including statistical information derived from 20000 pumps and 700 turbines with capacities of 5gpm to 5000000gpm, this book offers the widest range and scope of information currently available. Statistical analyses suggest practical methods of increasing pump performance and provide valuable data for new design aspects.

  7. Mathematical model of heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Pitron, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper different energy states of a heat pump are described. Equations used for mathematical description of the heat pump in the Matlab Simulink are presented. Created model is used to calculate the energy flows in the system according to different input parameters. The simulation involves an accumulation tank, which is controlled by individual input and output parameters. Simulation results have been compared with the experimental measured values on a heat pump in a laboratory.

  8. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.56 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are too numerous to name them all, but the 3 most prominent ones are at the centre (left to right): Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, with his hand on the control box), Eifionydd Jones (white shirt), Simon van der Meer (spiritus rector and Joint AA Project Leader). The first antiprotons were injected, made to circulate and cooled soon after, on 14 July 1980.

  9. Application of a circulating-cathodic-antigen (CCA) strip test and real-time PCR, in comparison with microscopy, for the detection of Schistosoma haematobium in urine samples from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, B B; Aryeetey, Y A; de Dood, C J; Amoah, A S; Larbi, I A; Deelder, A M; Yazdanbakhsh, M; Hartgers, F C; Boakye, D A; Verweij, J J; van Dam, G J; van Lieshout, L

    2008-10-01

    In the detection of parasitic infection, the traditional methods based on microscopy often have low sensitivity and/or specificity compared with the newer, molecular tests. An assay based on real-time PCR and a reagent strip test for detecting circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) have both now been compared with urine filtration and microscopy, in the detection of Schistosoma haematobium infections. Urine samples, obtained from 74 'cases' in areas of Ghana with endemic S. haematobium and 79 'controls' from non-endemic areas, were each checked using the three methods. With the results of the filtration and microscopy taken as the 'gold standard', real-time PCR was found to be 100% specific and 89% sensitive whereas the CCA strips were 91% specific and 41% sensitive. With the samples found to contain > or =50 eggs/10 ml (indicating relatively intense infections), the sensitivities of the PCR and CCA were higher, at 100% and 62%, respectively. As expected, egg counts were negatively correlated with the number of amplification cycles needed, in the PCR, to give a signal that exceeded the background (r=-0.38; PCCA strip tests are very different, both show promise in the detection of S. haematobium infections. The PCR has optimal specificity and high sensitivity but the specificity of the CCA strips and the sensitivity of both tools could still be improved. A more thorough re-evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of microscopy and these newer diagnostic methods, with an estimation of the cost-effectiveness of each technique, is recommended.

  10. Using the motor to monitor pump conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casada, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-01

    When the load of a mechanical device being driven by a motor changes, whether in response to changes in the overall process or changes in the performance of the driven device, the motor inherently responds. For induction motors, the current amplitude and phase angle change as the shaft load changes. By examining the details of these changes in amplitude and phase, load fluctuations of the driven device can be observed. The usefulness of the motor as a transducer to improve the understanding of devices with high torque fluctuations, such as positive displacement compressors and motor-operated valves, has been recognized and demonstrated for a number of years. On such devices as these, the spectrum of the motor current amplitude, phase, or power normally has certain characteristic peaks associated with various load components, such as the piston stroke or gear tooth meshing frequencies. Comparison and trending of the amplitudes of these peaks has been shown to provide some indication of their mechanical condition. For most centrifugal pumps, the load fluctuations are normally low in torque amplitude, and as a result, the motor experiences a correspondingly lower level of load fluctuation. However, both laboratory and field test data have demonstrated that the motor does provide insight into some important pump performance conditions, such as hydraulic stability and pump-to-motor alignment. Comparisons of other dynamic signals, such as vibration and pressure pulsation, to motor data for centrifugal pumps are provided. The effects of inadequate suction head, misalignment, mechanical and hydraulic unbalance on these signals are presented.

  11. The terrestrial silica pump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C Carey

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si cycling controls atmospheric CO(2 concentrations and thus, the global climate, through three well-recognized means: chemical weathering of mineral silicates, occlusion of carbon (C to soil phytoliths, and the oceanic biological Si pump. In the latter, oceanic diatoms directly sequester 25.8 Gton C yr(-1, accounting for 43% of the total oceanic net primary production (NPP. However, another important link between C and Si cycling remains largely ignored, specifically the role of Si in terrestrial NPP. Here we show that 55% of terrestrial NPP (33 Gton C yr(-1 is due to active Si-accumulating vegetation, on par with the amount of C sequestered annually via marine diatoms. Our results suggest that similar to oceanic diatoms, the biological Si cycle of land plants also controls atmospheric CO(2 levels. In addition, we provide the first estimates of Si fixed in terrestrial vegetation by major global biome type, highlighting the ecosystems of most dynamic Si fixation. Projected global land use change will convert forests to agricultural lands, increasing the fixation of Si by land plants, and the magnitude of the terrestrial Si pump.

  12. Lasers with nuclear pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikov, S P; Sizov, A N; Miley, George H

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the history of lasers with nuclear pumping (Nuclear Pumped Lasers, NPLs). This book showcases the most important results and stages of NPL development in The Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF) as well as other Russian and international laboratories, including laboratories in the United States. The basic science and technology behind NPLs along with potential applications are covered throughout the book. As such, this book: ·         Contains a historical overview of the extensive information developed over the past 40 years of work on NPLs ·         Covers the most important results and stages of NPL development, not just in the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, VNIIEF, but also in other laboratories in Russia, the United States , and some other scattered international laboratories ·         Systematizes the fragmented information accumulated over these years of very active research and development As the first comprehensive discussion of NPLs, students, research...

  13. Heat pump apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Horowitz, Jeffrey S.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  14. Donation after brain circulation determination of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ave, Anne L; Bernat, James L

    2017-02-23

    The fundamental determinant of death in donation after circulatory determination of death is the cessation of brain circulation and function. We therefore propose the term donation after brain circulation determination of death [DBCDD]. In DBCDD, death is determined when the cessation of circulatory function is permanent but before it is irreversible, consistent with medical standards of death determination outside the context of organ donation. Safeguards to prevent error include that: 1] the possibility of auto-resuscitation has elapsed; 2] no brain circulation may resume after the determination of death; 3] complete circulatory cessation is verified; and 4] the cessation of brain function is permanent and complete. Death should be determined by the confirmation of the cessation of systemic circulation; the use of brain death tests is invalid and unnecessary. Because this concept differs from current standards, consensus should be sought among stakeholders. The patient or surrogate should provide informed consent for organ donation by understanding the basis of the declaration of death. In cases of circulatory cessation, such as occurs in DBCDD, death can be defined as the permanent cessation of brain functions, determined by the permanent cessation of brain circulation.

  15. The characterization of four gene expression analysis in circulating tumor cells made by Multiplex-PCR from the AdnaTest kit on the lab-on-a-chip Agilent DNA 1000 platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škereňová, Markéta; Mikulová, Veronika; Čapoun, Otakar; Zima, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis is a routine method for the detection of PCR fragments. The Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer was one of the first commercial devices in this field. Our project was designed to study the characteristics of Agilent DNA 1000 kit in PCR fragment analysis as a part of circulating tumour cell (CTC) detection technique. Despite the common use of this kit a complex analysis of the results from a long-term project is still missing. A commercially available Agilent DNA 1000 kit was used as a final step in the CTC detection (AdnaTest) for the determination of the presence of PCR fragments generated by Multiplex PCR. Data from 30 prostate cancer patients obtained during two years of research were analyzed to determine the trueness and precision of the PCR fragment size determination. Additional experiments were performed to demonstrate the precision (repeatability, reproducibility) and robustness of PCR fragment concentration determination. The trueness and precision of the size determination was below 3% and 2% respectively. The repeatability of the concentration determination was below 15%. The difference in concentration determination increases when Multiplex-PCR/storage step is added between the two measurements of one sample. The characteristics established in our study are in concordance with the manufacturer's specifications established for a ladder as a sample. However, the concentration determination may vary depending on chip preparation, sample storage and concentration. The 15% variation of concentration determination repeatability was shown to be partly proportional and can be suppressed by proper normalization.

  16. Reliability of high-power multimode pump modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflueger, Silke; Duesterberg, Richard L.; Rossin, Victor V.; Strite, Toby; Tai, Kuochou; Wolak, Edmund L.; Wong, Andre W.; Xu, Lei; Zucker, Erik

    2004-10-01

    Developers building high-power fiber lasers and diode pumped solid state lasers can receive significant benefits in thermal management and reliability by using single emitter multi-mode diodes in distributed pump architectures. This proposed distributed architecture relies on independent single emitter pump lasers and a modest level of pump redundancy. Driving the remaining diodes slightly harder componensates individual diode failures. A model of the ensemble lifetime based on module failure rates and power-scaling factors demonstrates that the distributed pump architecture requires random failure rates corresponding to better than 200,000h mean time between failure (MTBF), which meets typical industrial requirements. A high power, pigtailed, multi-mode pump module suitable for commercial applications is created through this model. Critical elements are based on telecom architectures, including the optical train and the fiber alignment. The module has a low thermal resistance of 4°C/W from the chip-on-sub-mount to the external heat sink, coupling efficiency of over 80% into 0.2 NA, and demonstrated reliable output power of over 5W cw with peak wavelengths near 915 nm. Individual pump modules are predicted to produce 5W cw output power with an MTBF of more than 400,000h. The relationship between anticipated MTBF requirements, test duration and test population is shown.

  17. About Variable Speed Heating and Cooling Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Popovici

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work has the purpose of underlying the advantages of variable speed heating and cooling pumps use for the perspective of general and particular pumping costs and efficiency. The study approaches comparisons between constant flow pumps and variable flow pumps in different given situations and comparatively analyses the pumping costs.

  18. About Variable Speed Heating and Cooling Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Popovici, Cătălin; Ignat, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The present work has the purpose of underlying the advantages of variable speed heating and cooling pumps use for the perspective of general and particular pumping costs and efficiency. The study approaches comparisons between constant flow pumps and variable flow pumps in different given situations and comparatively analyses the pumping costs.

  19. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  20. The design of axial shaftless pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmirler, Michal; Netrebska, Hana

    The axial shaftless pump with a rotary casing has been proposed. The pump is unique in its small space requirements and the ability to draw a liquid with a high content of impurities and fibers. Modern motor with an external commutation was used to propel the pump rotor. The pump can be used for both pumping of liquids and marine propulsion.