WorldWideScience

Sample records for circulation cooldown tests

  1. Thermo-hydraulic analysis of the cool-down of the EDIPO test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Monika; Bagnasco, Maurizio

    2011-09-01

    The first cool-down of the EDIPO (European DIPOle) test facility is foreseen to take place in 2011 by means of the existing 1.2 kW cryoplant at EPFL-CRPP Villigen. In this work, the thermo-hydraulic analysis of the EDIPO cool-down is performed in order both to assess the its duration and to optimize the procedure. The cool-down is driven by the helium flowing in both the outer cooling channel and in the windings connected hydraulically in parallel. We take into account limitations due to the pressure drop in the cooling circuit and the refrigerator capacity as well as heat conduction in the iron yoke. Two schemes of the hydraulic cooling circuit in the EDIPO windings are studied (coils connected in series and coils connected in parallel). The analysis is performed by means of an analytical model complemented by and numerical model. The results indicate that the cool-down to 5 K can be achieved in about 12 days.

  2. Qualification of TRACE V5.0 Code against Fast Cooldown Transient in the PKL-III Integral Test Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Coscarelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the analytical study of the PKL experiment G3.1 performed using the TRACE code (version 5.0 patch1. The test G3.1 simulates a fast cooldown transient, namely, a main steam line break. This leads to a strong asymmetry caused by an increase of the heat transfer from the primary to the secondary side that induces a fast cooldown transient on the primary side-affected loop. The asymmetric overcooling effect requires an assessment of the reactor pressure vessel integrity considering PTS (pressurized thermal shock and an assessment of potential recriticality following entrainment of colder water into the core area. The aim of this work is the qualification of the heat transfer capabilities of the TRACE code from primary to secondary side in the intact and affected steam generators (SGs during the rapid depressurization and the boiloff in the affected SG against experimental data.

  3. Fast cooldown coaxial pulse tube microcooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nast, T.; Olson, J. R.; Champagne, P.; Roth, E.; Kaldas, G.; Saito, E.; Loung, V.; McCay, B. S.; Kenton, A. C.; Dobbins, C. L.

    2016-05-01

    We report the development and initial testing of the Lockheed Martin first-article, single-stage, compact, coaxial, Fast Cooldown Pulse Tube Microcryocooler (FC-PTM). The new cryocooler supports cooling requirements for emerging large, high operating temperature (105-150K) infrared focal plane array sensors with nominal cooling loads of ~300 mW @105K @293K ambient. This is a sequel development that builds on our inline and coaxial pulse tube microcryocoolers reported at CEC 20137, ICC188,9, and CEC201510. The new FC-PTM and the prior units all share our long life space technology attributes, which typically have 10 year life requirements1. The new prototype microcryocooler builds on the previous development by incorporating cold head design improvements in two key areas: 1) reduced cool-down time and 2) novel repackaging that greatly reduces envelope. The new coldhead and Dewar were significantly redesigned from the earlier versions in order to achieve a cooldown time of 2-3 minutes-- a projected requirement for tactical applications. A design approach was devised to reduce the cold head length from 115mm to 55mm, while at the same time reducing cooldown time. We present new FC-PTM performance test measurements with comparisons to our previous pulse-tube microcryocooler measurements and design predictions. The FC-PTM exhibits attractive small size, volume, weight, power and cost (SWaP-C) features with sufficient cooling capacity over required ambient conditions that apply to an increasing variety of space and tactical applications.

  4. An optimized three-stage unit cooldown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorencez, C.; Redden, D.; Round, G. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering NGS ' B' , Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    In PNGS 'B', the D{sub 2}O Storage Tank is pressurized with a Cover Gas (Helium) to ensure that a pressure higher than 45 kPa(g) exists at the suction of the Pressurizing pumps in any operating condition. This requirement is easily met during power operation with the combination of a minimum Cover Gas pressure of 30 kPa(g) and the hydrostatic head of the coolant, but it has been difficult to meet during the cooldown of the units. According to the operating procedures, prior to a unit cooldown the Cover Gas pressure is increased to 200 kPa(g) with a recommended D{sub 2}O Storage Tank level of 2.1 m (minimum of 1.9 in). During the cooldown, approximately 33 Mg of coolant are transferred from the D{sub 2}O Storage Tank to the Heat Transport System (HTS) to compensate for the coolant's density change. This amount of coolant is transferred by the Pressurizing pumps and is required to ensure that HTS pressure remains under control during the cooldown. However, the existing Cover Gas addition system is unable to supply enough Helium to maintain a pressure of at least 30 kPa(g) during the coolant pump out, and consequently, cooldowns are often interrupted or slowed down. Unfortunately, the cooldowns are interrupted when the HTS pressure and temperature conditions are adverse to the Pressure Tubes, causing the unnecessary use of thermalcycles. Thus, a numerical model of the Cover Gas in the D{sub 2}O Storage Tank was developed to understand the phenomenon and propose a modification of the cooldown evolution to avoid the use of thermalcycles. (author)

  5. 49 CFR 193.2505 - Cooldown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooldown. 193.2505 Section 193.2505 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS...

  6. Experimental studies on heat transfer characteristics and natural circulation performance of PRHRS of the high temperature and high pressure thermal-hydraulic test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H. S.; Choi, K. Y.; Joe, S.; Park, C. K.; Lee, S. J.; Song, C. W.; Jeong, M. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Several experiments are performed to investigate the heat transfer characteristics and natural circulation performance of passive residual removal system (PRHRS) of the high temperature and high pressure thermal-hydraulic test facility. Especially the natural circulation performance of PRHRS, the heat transfer characteristics of PRHRS heat exchangers and emergency cooldown tank (ECT), and the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the primary loop are investigated in detail. The coolant flows steadily in the natural circulation loop which is composed of the steam generator (SG) primary side, the secondary system, and the PRHRS. The heat transfers through the PRHRS heat exchanger and ECT are sufficient enough to enable the natural circulation of the coolant. Also the experimental results show that the core decay heat are sufficiently removed with the operation of the PRHRS.

  7. Gas cooled fast breeder reactor design for a circulator test facility (modified HTGR circulator test facility)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    A GCFR helium circulator test facility sized for full design conditions is proposed for meeting the above requirements. The circulator will be mounted in a large vessel containing high pressure helium which will permit testing at the same power, speed, pressure, temperature and flow conditions intended in the demonstration plant. The electric drive motor for the circulator will obtain its power from an electric supply and distribution system in which electric power will be taken from a local utility. The conceptual design decribed in this report is the result of close interaction between the General Atomic Company (GA), designer of the GCFR, and The Ralph M. Parson Company, architect/engineer for the test facility. A realistic estimate of total project cost is presented, together with a schedule for design, procurement, construction, and inspection.

  8. Static slot testing of conventional lost circulation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkebein, T.E.; Behr, V.L.; Wilde, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the utility of conventional lost circulation materials and testing methods was performed using a modified API slot tester. Five lost circulation materials were evaluated in 266 tests at both room temperature and temperature-aged conditions simulating expected geothermal environments. A large variation in the maximum pressure (or sealing pressure) the plug could withstand was attributed to nonrepeatability in plug strengths. Plugs were composed to multiple or single particle bridges, with the latter providing stronger, better sealing plugs. Seals occurred on the upstream surface of the slots in all cases. Sealing pressures generally decreased with increasing slot widths and decreasing solids concentration. When the slot width was less than the size of the largest rigid particle in the lost circulation slurry, sealing pressure was maximized. When the slot width was greater than three times the maximum rigid particle size, no significant sealing ability was observed with the conventional materials tested. Additionally, cellulosic lost circulation materials are severely degraded by temperature aging. Mud gellation provided no significant improvement in lost circulation material sealing ability.

  9. Cooldown Measurements in a Standing Wave Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

    CERN Document Server

    Dhuley, R C

    2016-01-01

    Thermoacoustic Refrigerators (TARs) use acoustic power to generate cold temperatures. Apart from the operating frequency and the mean temperature of the working medium, the charging pressure and the dynamic pressure in the TAR govern its attainable cold temperature. The effect of charging pressure on the dynamic pressure in a loudspeaker driven gas filled standing wave column has been well understood. The present work aims to investigate the effect of charging pressure on the cold end temperature of a standing wave TAR. The cold end temperature lift and the cooldown for several changing pressures are reported. The effect of vacuum around the cold end on the TAR performance is also presented.

  10. An experimental substantiation of the emergency cooldown system project for the KLT-40S reactor installation of a floating nuclear cogeneration station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balunov, B. F.; Shcheglov, A. A.; Il'in, V. A.; Saikova, E. N.; Bol'Shukhin, M. A.; Bykh, O. A.; Khizbullin, A. M.; Sokolov, A. N.

    2011-05-01

    Results from thermal-hydraulic tests of a full-scale module of the emergency cooldown system for a KLT-40S reactor installation are presented. The validity of the solutions adopted in its design is shown. Recommendations for calculating the heat transfer coefficients during steam flow condensation and condensate cooling are given.

  11. System model of a natural circulation integral test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Mark R.

    The Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics (NE/RHP) at Oregon State University (OSU) has been developing an innovative modular reactor plant concept since being initiated with a Department of Energy (DoE) grant in 1999. This concept, the Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR), is an integral pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant that utilizes natural circulation flow in the primary and employs advanced passive safety features. The OSU MASLWR test facility is an electrically heated integral effects facility, scaled from the MASLWR concept design, that has been previously used to assess the feasibility of the concept design safety approach. To assist in evaluating operational scenarios, a simulation tool that models the test facility and is based on both test facility experimental data and analytical methods has been developed. The tool models both the test facility electric core and a simulated nuclear core, allowing evaluation of a broad spectrum of operational scenarios to identify those scenarios that should be explored experimentally using the test facility or design-quality multi-physics tools. Using the simulation tool, the total cost of experimentation and analysis can be reduced by directing time and resources towards the operational scenarios of interest.

  12. Circulating cathodic antigen cassette test versus haematuria strip test in diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghareeb, Azza S; Abd El Motaleb, Ghada S; Waked, Nevien Maher; Osman Hany Kamel, Nancy; Aly, Nagwa Shaban

    2016-12-01

    Urinary schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium constitutes a major public health problem in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. This study was conducted to evaluate circulating cathodic antigen cassette test and haematuria strip test for detection of S. haematobium in urine samples and to evaluate their screening performance among the study population. Microscopy was used as a gold standard. A total of 600 urine samples were examined by microscopy for detection of S. haematobium eggs, screened for microhaematuria using Self-Stik reagent strips and screened for circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) using the urine-CCA cassette test. The specificity of CCA, microhaematuria and macrohaematuria was 96.4, 40.6 and 31.2 % respectively while the sensitivity was 88.2, 99.3 and 100 % respectively which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that using of urine-CCA cassette test in diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis is highly specific (96.4 %) compared with the highly sensitive haematuria strip test (100 %). The degree of agreement between microscopic examination and CCA detection was 99.3 % with highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). The combination of two techniques could potentially use for screening and mapping of S. haematobium infection.

  13. Engineering, Manufacture and Preliminary Testing of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rista, P. E. C.; Shull, J.; Sargent, S.

    2015-12-01

    The ITER cryodistribution system provides the supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling to the magnet system using cold circulators. The cold circulators are located in each of five separate auxiliary cold boxes planned for use in the facility. Barber-Nichols Inc. has been awarded a contract from ITER-India for engineering, manufacture and testing of the Toroidal Field (TF) Magnet Helium Cold Circulator. The cold circulator will be extensively tested at Barber-Nichols’ facility prior to delivery for qualification testing at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) test facility at Naka, Japan. The TF Cold Circulator integrates features and technical requirements which Barber-Nichols has utilized when supplying helium cold circulators worldwide over a period of 35 years. Features include a vacuum-jacketed hermetically sealed design with a very low helium leak rate, a heat shield for use with both nitrogen & helium cold sources, a broad operating range with a guaranteed isentropic efficiency over 70%, and impeller design features for high efficiency. The cold circulator will be designed to meet MTBM of 17,500 hours and MTBF of 36,000 hours. Vibration and speed monitoring are integrated into a compact package on the rotating assembly with operation and health monitoring in a multi-drop PROFIBUS communication environment using an electrical cabinet with critical features and full local and network PLC interface and control. For the testing in Japan and eventual installation in Europe, the cold circulator must be certified to the Japanese High Pressure Gas Safety Act (JHPGSA) and CE marked in compliance with the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) including Essential Safety Requirements (ESR). The test methodology utilized at Barber-Nichols’ facility and the resulting test data, validating the high efficiency of the TF Cold Circulator across a broad operating range, are important features of this paper.

  14. Study of the Cooldown and Warmup for the Eight Sectors of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, L; Tavian, L

    2004-01-01

    The LHC cryogenic system is based on a five-point feed scheme with eight refrigerators serving the eight sectors of the LHC machine. The paper presents the simplified flow scheme of the eight sectors and the mathematical methods including the program flowchart and the boundary conditions to simulate the cooldown and warmup of these sectors. The methods take into account the effect of the pressure drop across the valves as well as the pressure evolution in the different headers of the cryogenic distribution line. The simulated pressure and temperature profiles of headers of the LHC sector during the cooldown and warmup are given and the temperature evolutions of entire processes of cooldown and warmup are presented. As a conclusion, the functions of the input temperature for the normal and fast cooldown and warmup, the cooldown and warmup time of each sector and the distributions of mass flow rates in each sector are summarized. The results indicate that it is possible to cool down any of the LHC sector within...

  15. Thermal analysis of lithium cooled natural circulation loop module for fuel rod testing in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyler, L.L.; Kim, D.; Stover, R.L.; Beaver, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    Maximum heat removal capability of a lithium cooled natural circulation fuel rod test module design is determined. Loop geometry is optimized within limitations of design specifications for nominal operation temperatures, materials, and test module environment. Results provide test module operation limits and range of potential uncertainties. 3 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Scaled-Down Moderator Circulation Test Facility at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started the experimental research on moderator circulation as one of a the national research and development programs from 2012. This research program includes the construction of the moderator circulation test (MCT) facility, production of the validation data for self-reliant computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools, and development of optical measurement system using the particle image velocimetry (PIV). In the present paper we introduce the sc...

  17. Analysis of the cooldown of the ITER central solenoid model coil and insert coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifetto, R.; Brighenti, A.; Isono, T.; Martovetsky, N.; Kawano, K.; Savoldi, L.; Zanino, R.

    2017-01-01

    A series of superconducting insert coils (ICs) made of different materials has been tested since 2000 at JAEA Naka in the bore of the central solenoid model coil at fields up to 13 T and currents up to several tens of kA, fully representative of the ITER operating conditions. Here we focus on the 2015 test of the presently last IC of the series, the central solenoid (CS) insert coil, which was aimed at confirming the performance and properties of the Nb3Sn conductor, manufactured in Japan and used to wind the ITER CS modules in the US. As typical for these large scale applications, the cooldown (CD) from ambient to supercritical He temperature may take a long time, of the order of several weeks, so that it should be useful, also in the perspective of future IC tests, to optimize it. To that purpose, a comprehensive CD model implemented in the 4C code is developed and presented in this paper. The model is validated against the experimental data of an actual CD scenario, showing a very good agreement between simulation and measurements, from 300 to 4.5 K. The maximum temperature difference across the coil, which can only be roughly estimated from the measurements, is then extracted from the results of the simulation and shown to be much larger than the maximum value of 50 K, prescribed on the basis of the allowable thermal stress on the materials. An optimized CD scenario is finally designed using the model for the initial phase of the CD between 300 and 80 K, which allows reducing the needed time by ∼20%, while still satisfying the major constraints. Recommendations are also given for a better location/choice of the thermometers to be used for the monitoring of the maximum temperature difference across the coil.

  18. Evaluation of the cool-down behaviour of ITER FW beryllium tiles for an early failure detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Weber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of the first wall in ITER foresees several hundred thousand beryllium tiles, which are bonded to the water-cooled CuCrZr supporting structure. Due to the nature of a Tokamak reactor this bonding is faced to thermal fatigue. Since the failure of a single tile might already have a major impact on the operability of ITER, comprehensive high heat flux tests are performed on prototypes prior to the acceptance of manufacturing procedures. For a deeper understanding of the temperature curves, which were and will be measured by IR devices of these first wall prototypes, thermo-mechanical FEM simulations shall demonstrate the possibilities of an early bonding failure detection. Hereby, the maximum temperatures for each cycle as well as the cool-down behaviour are the input data.

  19. Evaluation of SPACE code for natural circulation test of Hanbit unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seyun; Kim, Minhee [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants) has been developed by KHNP with the cooperation with KEPCO E and C and KAERI. SPACE code is expected to be applied to the safety analysis for LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) and Non-LOCA scenarios. SPACE code solves two-fluid, three-field governing equations and programmed with C++ computer language using object-oriented concepts. To evaluate the analysis capability for the passive cooling phenomenon in the actual nuclear power plant, a natural circulation test of Hanbit unit 2 was simulated with SPACE code. To evaluate the analysis capability for the passive cooling phenomenon in the actual nuclear power plant, a natural circulation test of Hanbit unit 2 was simulated with SPACE code. The major parameters of natural circulation in transient are well predicted in SPACE calculations when compared to the plant data. The SPACE code has sufficient capability to simulate passive cooling phenomena.

  20. Experiments for heat transfer characteristics and natural circulation performance of PRHRS of the high temperature/high pressure thermal-hydraulic test facility(VISTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Sik; Choi, Ki Yong; Cho, Seok; Lee, Sung Jae; Song, Chul Hwa; Park, Chun Kyong; Chung, Moon Ki

    2004-01-01

    The VISTA (Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transients and Accidents) is an experimental facility to verify the performance and safety issues of the SMART-P (Pilot plant of the System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor). The basic design of the SMART-P has been completed by KAERI. The present report describes the experimental results on the heat transfer characteristics and the natural circulation performance of the PRHRS of the VISTA facility. A stable flow occurs in a natural circulation loop which is composed of a steam generator secondary side, a secondary system, and a PRHRS, and its flow rate corresponds to 12% of the rated feedwater flowrate of the secondary system. The heat transfers through the PRHRS heat exchanger and the emergency cooldown tank are sufficient enough to enable stable natural circulation. In the primary loop the natural circulation occurs due to the core decay heat and the heat removal of the steam generator. Although the flow rate in the primary loop fluctuates a little, the decay heat is removed easily.

  1. Postmortem circulation: a new model for testing endovascular devices and training clinicians in their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Christine; Willaert, Wouter; Kawa, Emilia; Centola, Marcos; Steger, Beat; Dirnhofer, Richard; Mangin, Patrice; Grabherr, Silke

    2014-05-01

    The development of new medical devices, such as aortic valves, requires numerous preliminary studies on animals and training of personnel on cadavers before the devices can be used in patients. Postmortem circulation, a technique used for postmortem angiography, allows the vascular system to be reperfused in a way similar to that in living persons. This technique is used for postmortem investigations to visualize the human vascular system and to make vascular diagnoses. Specific material for reperfusing a human body was developed recently. Our aim was to investigate whether postmortem circulation that imitates in vivo conditions allows for the testing of medical materials on cadavers. We did this by delivering an aortic valve using minimally invasive methods. Postmortem circulation was established in eight corpses to recreate an environment as close as possible to in vivo conditions. Mobile fluoroscopy and a percutaneous catheterization technique were used to deliver the material to the correct place. Once the valve was implanted, the heart and primary vessels were extracted to confirm its position. Postmortem circulation proved to be essential in several of the cadavers because it helped the clinicians to deliver the material and improve their implantation techniques. Due to the intravascular circulation, sites with substantial arteriosclerotic stenosis could be bypassed, which would have been impossible without perfusion. Although originally developed for postmortem investigations, this reperfusion technique could be useful for testing new medical devices intended for living patients.

  2. Design, Development and Testing of a Drillable Straddle Packer for Lost Circulation Control in Geothermal Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon, J.; Glowka, D.A.; Gronewald, P.; Knudsen, S.D.; Raymond, D.W.; Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wise, J.L.; Wright, E.K.

    1999-04-01

    Lost Circulation is a widespread problem encountered when drilling geothermal wells, and often represents a substantial portion of the cost of drilling a well. The U.S. Department of Energy sponsors research and development work at Sandia National Laboratories in an effort to reduce these lost circulation expenditures. Sandia has developed a down hole tool that improves the effectiveness and reduces th cost of lost circulation cement treatment while drilling geothermal wells. This tool, the Drillable Straddle Packer, is a low-cost disposable device that is used to isolate the loss zone and emplace the cement treatment directly into the region of concern. This report documents the design and development of the Drillabe Straddle Packer, the laboratory and field test results, and the design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

  3. 120 Hz pulse tube cryocooler for fast cooldown to 50 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; Lewis, Michal; Gan, Zhihua; Radebaugh, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A pulse tube cryocooler operating at 120 Hz with 3.5 MPa average pressure achieved a no-load temperature of about 49.9 K and a cooldown time to 80 K of 5.5 min. The net refrigeration power at 80 K was 3.35 W with an efficiency of 19.7% of Carnot when referred to input pressure-volume (PV or a

  4. 40 CFR 86.1335-90 - Cool-down procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... °C), shall be shut off. No engine oil change is permitted during the test sequence. (2) Direct cooling of engine oil through the use of oil coolers or heat exchangers is permitted. The cold cycle... in contact with any engine surface. (ii) The flow of oil and water shall be shut off during...

  5. HEAT-UP AND COOL-DOWN TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT HYDRIDE REORIENTATION BEHAVIORS IN ZIRCONIUM ALLOY CLADDING TUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JU-JIN WON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydride reorientation behaviors of PWR cladding tubes under typical interim dry storage conditions were investigated with the use of as-received 250 and 485ppm hydrogen-charged Zr-Nb alloy cladding tubes. In order to evaluate the effect of typical cool-down processes on the radial hydride precipitation, two terminal heat-up temperatures of 300 and 400°C, as well as two terminal cool-down temperatures of 200 and 300°C, were considered. In addition, two cooling rates of 2.5 and 8.0°C/min during the cool-down processes were taken into account along with zero stress or a tensile hoop stress of 150MPa. It was found that the 250ppm hydrogen-charged specimen experiencing the higher terminal heat-up temperature and the lower terminal cool-down temperature generated the highest number of radial hydrides during the cool-down process under 150MPa hoop tensile stress, which may be explained by terminal solid hydrogen solubilities for precipitation, and dissolution and remaining circumferential hydrides at the terminal heat-up temperatures. In addition, the slower cool-down rate generates the larger number of radial hydrides due to a cooling rate-dependent, longer residence time at a relatively high temperature that can accelerate the radial hydride nucleation and growth.

  6. Scaled-Down Moderator Circulation Test Facility at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Tae Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI started the experimental research on moderator circulation as one of a the national research and development programs from 2012. This research program includes the construction of the moderator circulation test (MCT facility, production of the validation data for self-reliant computational fluid dynamics (CFD tools, and development of optical measurement system using the particle image velocimetry (PIV. In the present paper we introduce the scaling analysis performed to extend the scaling criteria suitable for reproducing thermal-hydraulic phenomena in a scaled-down CANDU- (CANada Deuterium Uranium- 6 moderator tank, a manufacturing status of the 1/4 scale moderator tank. Also, preliminary CFD analysis results for the full-size and scaled-down moderator tanks are carried out to check whether the moderator flow and temperature patterns of both the full-size reactor and scaled-down facility are identical.

  7. Reduction of helium loss from a superconducting accelerating cavity during initial cool-down and cryostat exchange by pre-cooling the re-condensing cryostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, B. E.; Minehara, E. J.; Hayashizaki, N.; Oshima, N.; Suzuki, R.

    2015-03-01

    A Zero-Boil-Off (ZBO) cryostat is designed to realize a compact, stand-alone cryogenic system for the AIST superconducting accelerator (SCA). Under normal operation there is no evaporative helium loss from the cryomodule and therefore operating costs associated with the supply of liquid helium can be eliminated. The only significant loss of helium from the module occurs during the initial cavity cool-down procedure or when the re-condensing cryostat is replaced. It takes about 3 h to cool down the cryostat head from room temperature (300 K) to 4 K. During this time around 100 L of liquid helium is lost due to evaporation. By pre-cooling the cryostat inside a low heat load vacuum tube before transfer to the cryomodule, this evaporative loss could be essentially eliminated, significantly reducing the volume of liquid helium required for the initial cryomodule cool-down. The pre-cooling system also provides an efficient method to test the cryostat prior to use.

  8. ANSYS modeling of thermal contraction of SPL HOM couplers during cool-down

    CERN Document Server

    Papke, K

    2016-01-01

    During the cool-down the HOM coupler as well as the cavity inside the cryo module experience a thermal contraction. For most materials between room temperature and liquid helium temperatures, the changes in dimension are in the order of a few tenths of a percent change in volume. This paper presents the effect of thermal contraction on the RF transmission behavior of HOM couplers, and in particular the influence on its notch filter. Furthermore the simulation process with APDL is explained in detail. Conclusions about the necessary tuning range of the notch filter are made which is especially a concern for couplers with only notch filter.

  9. Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics Analysis of Boling Water Reactor Vessel for Cool-Down and Low Temperature Over-Pressurization Transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Soon Park

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The failure probabilities of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV for low temperature over-pressurization (LTOP and cool-down transients are calculated in this study. For the cool-down transient, a pressure–temperature limit curve is generated in accordance with Section XI, Appendix G of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME code, from which safety margin factors are deliberately removed for the probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis. Then, sensitivity analyses are conducted to understand the effects of some input parameters. For the LTOP transient, the failure of the RPV mostly occurs during the period of the abrupt pressure rise. For the cool-down transient, the decrease of the fracture toughness with temperature and time plays a main role in RPV failure at the end of the cool-down process. As expected, the failure probability increases with increasing fluence, Cu and Ni contents, and initial reference temperature-nil ductility transition (RTNDT. The effect of warm prestressing on the vessel failure probability for LTOP is not significant because most of the failures happen before the stress intensity factor reaches the peak value while its effect reduces the failure probability by more than one order of magnitude for the cool-down transient.

  10. Cool-down acceleration of G-M cryocoolers with thermal oscillations passively damped by helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, R. J.; Delmas, J.

    2015-12-01

    4 K Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers suffer from inherent temperature oscillations which can be a problem for certain attached electronic instrumentation. Sumitomo Heavy Industries has exploited the high volumetric specific heat of super-critical He to quell these oscillations (approx. 10 dB) by strongly thermally linking a separate vessel of He to the second stage; no significant thermal resistance is added between the payload and the working gas of the cryocooler. A noticeable effect of the helium damper is to increase the cool-down time of the second stage below 10 K. For the operation of niobium-based superconducting electronics (NbSCE), a common practice is to warm the circuits above the critical temperature (∼9 K) and then cool to the operating point in order to redistribute trapped magnetic fluxons, so for NbSCE users, the time to cool from 10 K is important. The gas in the helium damper is shared between a room-temperature buffer tank and the 2nd stage vessel, which are connected by a capillary tube. We show that the total cool-down time below 10 K can be substantially reduced by introducing a combination of thermal linkages between the cryocooler and the capillary tube and in-line relief valves, which control the He mass distribution between the warm canister and cold vessel. The time to reach operating temperature from the superconducting transition has been reduced to <25% of the time needed without these low-cost modifications.

  11. Non-Stationary Star and the Trajectory of a Circulating Test Body

    CERN Document Server

    Petry, Walter

    2010-01-01

    A simple model of a spherically symmetric, pulsating star is calculated. The application to the Sun gives a 166-min radial pulsation. The theory of gravitation in flat space-time implies for a spherically symmetric, nonstationary star small time-dependent exterior gravitational effects. The perturbed equations of motion of a test body moving around the non-stationary star are given. The test body moves away from the center during the epoch of collapsing star and moves towards the center during the epoch of expanding star but the converse is also possible under some conditions. The application to the Sun-Earth system is too small to be measured. This effect may be measurable for very compact, non-stationary objects circulated of a nearby test body.

  12. Removal of salt from high-level waste tanks by density-driven circulation or mechanical agitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiser, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-two high-level waste storage tanks at the Savannah River Plant are to be retired in the tank replacement/waste transfer program. The salt-removal portion of this program requires dissolution of about 19 million liters of salt cake. Steam circulation jets were originally proposed to dissolve the salt cake. However, the jets heated the waste tank to 80 to 90/sup 0/C. This high temperature required a long cooldown period before transfer of the supernate by jet, and increased the risk of stress-corrosion cracking in these older tanks. A bench-scale investigation at the Savannah River Laboratory developed two alternatives to steam-jet circulation. One technique was density-driven circulation, which in bench tests dissolved salt at the same rate as a simulated steam circulation jet but at a lower temperature. The other technique was mechanical agitation, which dissolved the salt cake faster and required less fresh water than either density-driven circulation or the simulated steam circulation jet. Tests in an actual waste tank verified bench-scale results and demonstrated the superiority of mechanical agitation.

  13. Circulating tumor cells as a diagnostic test for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Giulia; Manente, Arcangela Gabriella; Moro, Laura; Mutti, Luciano

    2012-05-01

    The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may have important prognostic and therapeutic implications; therefore, we expect a broader range of tumor types in which CTC detection and count will routinely be conducted in the coming years. This article evaluates the application of CTC as a potentially useful diagnostic and prognostic test in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MMe). MMe is a rare but increasingly prevalent, highly aggressive asbestos exposure-related tumor. MMe develops after long time latency, is rarely diagnosed at early stages, is poorly sensitive to conventional treatments and presents a very short survival upon diagnosis. Pursuing research of CTC in MMe can represent a very important task for all the clinical and preclinical scientists working on blood biomarkers of this tumor. Possibly in combination with other diagnostic tools, such as a thoracoscopy and advanced imaging, CTC can represent a promising tool for MMe prognosis and follow-up. Further studies to confirm value of CTC test in MMe are warranted.

  14. Materials Reliability Program: Development of a New Process for Calculating RPV Heat-Up and Cool-Down Curves - Proof of Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. EricksonKirk

    2005-04-30

    A strategy and framework were developed for incorporating best-estimate, fracture toughness models and methodologies into procedures for fracture safety assessment of nuclear RPVs during normal heat-up and cool-down operations. The process included detailed process flow diagramming to identify all details of the current process for obtaining heat-up and cool-down curves.

  15. Numerical analysis of cooldown and warmup for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, L; Tavian, L

    2003-01-01

    As the basis of studies, the paper presents the inventory of components and materials for LHC magnets, especially for main dipoles and quadrupoles firstly. Then a mathematical model and analytical method for LHC transient modes, such as cooldown and warmup of a magnet, a standard cell and the eight LHC sectors, has been developed on the basis of the up-to-date layout of the LHC machine, and validated by experimental data. The model and method do not only consider the momentum and continuity equations as well as the energy equations for helium and materials, but also take into account the pressure evolution in the different headers of the cryogenic distribution line and the effect of the pressure drop across the cryogenic valves. Based on the simulation results, the heat transfer in the magnets has been studied and the transient modes optimized.

  16. Reliable cool-down of GridPix detectors for cryogenic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schön, R., E-mail: rolfs@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schmitz, J.; Smits, S. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Bilevych, Y. [Physics Institute, University of Bonn, Nußallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Bakel, N. van [National Institute for Subatomic Physics Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-21

    In this paper we present thermal cycling experiments of GridPix radiation imaging detectors, in view of a potential application in a cryogenic experiment. The robustness of the GridPix detector is studied for various grid designs, as well as various mechanical and thermal surroundings. The grid design variations had insignificant effect on the grid strength. A low cool-down rate as well as good thermal contact are crucial for the durability of the grid. Further, additional strengthening at the grid edges proved necessary to maintain the integrity of the structure during thermal cycling, which was done using globtop adhesive. The combination of these measures led to 100% survival rate after thermal cycling down to −130 °C.

  17. Performance test results of helium gas circulator of mock-up test facility with full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Akira; Kato, Michio; Hayashi, Koji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane will be connected to the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) against development of nuclear heat utilization system. To obtain design and safety database of the HTTR hydrogen production system, mock-up test facility with full-scale reaction was constructed in FY 2001 and hydrogen of 120m{sup 3}N{sub /}h was successfully produced in overall performance test. This report describes performance test results of a helium gas circulator in this facility. The circulator performance curves regarding to pressure-rise, input power and adiabatic thermal efficiency at standard revolution number were made based on the measured flow-rate, temperature and pressure data in overall performance test. The circulator performance prediction code was made based on these performance curves. The code can calculate revolution number, electric power and temperature-rise of the circulator using flow-rate, inlet temperature, inlet pressure and pressure-rise data. The verification of the code was carried out with the test data in FY 2002. Total pressure loss of the helium gas circulation loop was also evaluated. The circulator should be operated in conditions such as pressure from 2.7MPa to 4.0MPa and flow-rate from 250g/s to 400g/s and at maximum pressure-rise of 250 kPa in test operation. It was confirmed in above verification and evaluations that the circulator had performance to satisfy above conditions within operation limitation of the circulator such as maximum input-power of 150 kW and maximum revolution number of 12,000 rpm. (author)

  18. Non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Gary J W; Gronowski, Ann M; Zhao, Zhen

    2014-01-20

    The identification of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal circulation has made non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) possible. Maternal plasma cell free DNA is a mixture of maternal and fetal DNA, of which, fetal DNA represents a minor population in maternal plasma. Therefore, methods with high sensitivity and precision are required to detect and differentiate fetal DNA from the large background of maternal DNA. In recent years, technical advances in the molecular analysis of fetal DNA (e.g., digital PCR and massively parallel sequencing (MPS)) has enabled the successful implementation of noninvasive testing into clinical practice, such as fetal sex assessment, RhD genotyping, and fetal chromosomal aneuploidy detection.With the ability to decipher the entire fetal genome from maternal plasma DNA, we foresee that an increased number of non-invasive prenatal tests will be available for detecting many single-gene disorders in the near future. This review briefly summarizes the technical aspects of the NIPT and application of NIPT in clinical practice.

  19. Thrust Removal Scheme for the FAST-MAC Circulation Control Model Tested in the National Transonic Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David T.; Milholen, William E., II; Jones, Gregory S.; Goodliff, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    A second wind tunnel test of the FAST-MAC circulation control semi-span model was recently completed in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The model allowed independent control of four circulation control plenums producing a high momentum jet from a blowing slot near the wing trailing edge that was directed over a 15% chord simple-hinged flap. The model was configured for transonic testing of the cruise configuration with 0deg flap deflection to determine the potential for drag reduction with the circulation control blowing. Encouraging results from analysis of wing surface pressures suggested that the circulation control blowing was effective in reducing the transonic drag on the configuration, however this could not be quantified until the thrust generated by the blowing slot was correctly removed from the force and moment balance data. This paper will present the thrust removal methodology used for the FAST-MAC circulation control model and describe the experimental measurements and techniques used to develop the methodology. A discussion on the impact to the force and moment data as a result of removing the thrust from the blowing slot will also be presented for the cruise configuration, where at some Mach and Reynolds number conditions, the thrust-removed corrected data showed that a drag reduction was realized as a consequence of the blowing.

  20. Accuracy tests of radiation schemes used in hot Jupiter Global Circulation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Amundsen, David Skålid; Tremblin, Pascal; Manners, James; Hayek, Wolfgang; Mayne, N J; Acreman, David M

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of radiation transport in global circulation models (GCMs) is crucial to correctly describe Earth and exoplanet atmospheric dynamics processes. The two-stream approximation and correlated-$k$ method are currently state-of-the-art approximations applied in both Earth and hot Jupiter GCM radiation schemes to facilitate rapid calculation of fluxes and heating rates. Their accuracy have been tested extensively for Earth-like conditions, but verification of the methods' applicability to hot Jupiter-like conditions is lacking in the literature. We are adapting the UK Met Office GCM, the Unified Model (UM), for the study of hot Jupiters, and present in this work the adaptation of the Edwards-Slingo radiation scheme based on the two-stream approximation and the correlated-$k$ method. We discuss the calculation of absorption coefficients from high temperature line lists and highlight the large uncertainty in the pressure-broadened line widths. We compare fluxes and heating rates obtained with our adapted...

  1. Multi-purpose utility of circulating plasma DNA testing in patients with advanced cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Geraldine; Yap, Timothy A; Pope, Lorna; Cassidy, Amy M; Dukes, Juliet P; Riisnaes, Ruth; Massard, Christophe; Cassier, Philippe A; Miranda, Susana; Clark, Jeremy; Denholm, Katie A; Thway, Khin; Gonzalez De Castro, David; Attard, Gerhardt; Molife, L Rhoda; Kaye, Stan B; Banerji, Udai; de Bono, Johann S

    2012-01-01

    Tumor genomic instability and selective treatment pressures result in clonal disease evolution; molecular stratification for molecularly targeted drug administration requires repeated access to tumor DNA. We hypothesized that circulating plasma DNA (cpDNA) in advanced cancer patients is largely derived from tumor, has prognostic utility, and can be utilized for multiplex tumor mutation sequencing when repeat biopsy is not feasible. We utilized the Sequenom MassArray System and OncoCarta panel for somatic mutation profiling. Matched samples, acquired from the same patient but at different time points were evaluated; these comprised formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival tumor tissue (primary and/or metastatic) and cpDNA. The feasibility, sensitivity, and specificity of this high-throughput, multiplex mutation detection approach was tested utilizing specimens acquired from 105 patients with solid tumors referred for participation in Phase I trials of molecularly targeted drugs. The median cpDNA concentration was 17 ng/ml (range: 0.5-1600); this was 3-fold higher than in healthy volunteers. Moreover, higher cpDNA concentrations associated with worse overall survival; there was an overall survival (OS) hazard ratio of 2.4 (95% CI 1.4, 4.2) for each 10-fold increase in cpDNA concentration and in multivariate analyses, cpDNA concentration, albumin, and performance status remained independent predictors of OS. These data suggest that plasma DNA in these cancer patients is largely derived from tumor. We also observed high detection concordance for critical 'hot-spot' mutations (KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA) in matched cpDNA and archival tumor tissue, and important differences between archival tumor and cpDNA. This multiplex sequencing assay can be utilized to detect somatic mutations from plasma in advanced cancer patients, when safe repeat tumor biopsy is not feasible and genomic analysis of archival tumor is deemed insufficient. Overall, circulating nucleic acid

  2. Multi-purpose utility of circulating plasma DNA testing in patients with advanced cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Perkins

    Full Text Available Tumor genomic instability and selective treatment pressures result in clonal disease evolution; molecular stratification for molecularly targeted drug administration requires repeated access to tumor DNA. We hypothesized that circulating plasma DNA (cpDNA in advanced cancer patients is largely derived from tumor, has prognostic utility, and can be utilized for multiplex tumor mutation sequencing when repeat biopsy is not feasible. We utilized the Sequenom MassArray System and OncoCarta panel for somatic mutation profiling. Matched samples, acquired from the same patient but at different time points were evaluated; these comprised formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE archival tumor tissue (primary and/or metastatic and cpDNA. The feasibility, sensitivity, and specificity of this high-throughput, multiplex mutation detection approach was tested utilizing specimens acquired from 105 patients with solid tumors referred for participation in Phase I trials of molecularly targeted drugs. The median cpDNA concentration was 17 ng/ml (range: 0.5-1600; this was 3-fold higher than in healthy volunteers. Moreover, higher cpDNA concentrations associated with worse overall survival; there was an overall survival (OS hazard ratio of 2.4 (95% CI 1.4, 4.2 for each 10-fold increase in cpDNA concentration and in multivariate analyses, cpDNA concentration, albumin, and performance status remained independent predictors of OS. These data suggest that plasma DNA in these cancer patients is largely derived from tumor. We also observed high detection concordance for critical 'hot-spot' mutations (KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA in matched cpDNA and archival tumor tissue, and important differences between archival tumor and cpDNA. This multiplex sequencing assay can be utilized to detect somatic mutations from plasma in advanced cancer patients, when safe repeat tumor biopsy is not feasible and genomic analysis of archival tumor is deemed insufficient. Overall, circulating nucleic

  3. Cool-down performance of the new apparatus for fuel layering demonstrations of FIREX targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, A.; Norimatsu, T.; Nakai, M.; Sakagami, H.; Shiraga, H.; Azechi, H.

    2016-03-01

    FIREX targets have been developed under two layering strategies: foam shell and cone guide laser heating methods. Basic studies have been conducted by the collaboration research between ILE and NIFS. Then the next stage requires the characterization of a layered solid fuel. The present system is at the disadvantage of optical observations. Therefore, a new apparatus is designed to solve it. Glass windows with a wide aperture are installed for an interferometer and a microscope. To isolate the vibration from a cryocooler, active vibration control units are equipped, and flexible thermal conductive links are utilized. Furthermore, a quick target exchange mechanism is applied to deal with different types of FIREX targets. A target holder is detachable from a main vacuum chamber. A metal gasket with not fixing bolts but a load of ∼ thousand newtons on ensures GHe leak tightness for target cooling. Eventually, the design temperature of 10.00 K at a target container has been achieved. The cool-down performance indecates that the new apparatus provides a cryogenic environment for fuel layering demonstrations.

  4. JV Task 108 - Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Combustion Testing of Turkish Tufanbeyli Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Hajicek; Jay Gunderson; Ann Henderson; Stephen Sollom; Joshua Stanislowski

    2007-08-15

    Two combustion tests were performed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) using Tufanbeyli coal from Turkey. The tests were performed in a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) and a pulverized coal-fired furnace, referred to as the combustion test facility (CTF). One of the goals of the project was to determine the type of furnace best suited to this coal. The coal is high in moisture, ash, and sulfur and has a low heating value. Both the moisture and the sulfur proved problematic for the CTF tests. The fuel had to be dried to less than 37% moisture before it could be pulverized and further dried to about 25% moisture to allow more uniform feeding into the combustor. During some tests, water was injected into the furnace to simulate the level of flue gas moisture had the fuel been fed without drying. A spray dryer was used downstream of the baghouse to remove sufficient sulfur to meet the EERC emission standards permitted by the North Dakota Department of Health. In addition to a test matrix varying excess air, burner swirl, and load, two longer-term tests were performed to evaluate the fouling potential of the coal at two different temperatures. At the lower temperature (1051 C), very little ash was deposited on the probes, but deposition did occur on the walls upstream of the probe bank, forcing an early end to the test after 2 hours and 40 minutes of testing. At the higher temperature (1116 C), ash deposition on the probes was significant, resulting in termination of the test after only 40 minutes. The same coal was burned in the CFBC, but because the CFBC uses a larger size of material, it was able to feed this coal at a higher moisture content (average of 40.1%) compared to the CTF (ranging from 24.2% to 26.9%). Sulfur control was achieved with the addition of limestone to the bed, although the high calcium-to-sulfur rate required to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions resulted in heat loss (through limestone calcination) and additional ash

  5. Accuracy tests of radiation schemes used in hot Jupiter global circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, David S.; Baraffe, Isabelle; Tremblin, Pascal; Manners, James; Hayek, Wolfgang; Mayne, Nathan J.; Acreman, David M.

    2014-04-01

    The treatment of radiation transport in global circulation models (GCMs) is crucial for correctly describing Earth and exoplanet atmospheric dynamics processes. The two-stream approximation and correlated-k method are currently state-of-the-art approximations applied in both Earth and hot Jupiter GCM radiation schemes to facilitate the rapid calculation of fluxes and heating rates. Their accuracy have been tested extensively for Earth-like conditions, but verification of the methods' applicability to hot Jupiter-like conditions is lacking in the literature. We are adapting the UK Met Office GCM, the Unified Model (UM), for the study of hot Jupiters, and present in this work the adaptation of the Edwards-Slingo radiation scheme based on the two-stream approximation and the correlated-k method. We discuss the calculation of absorption coefficients from high-temperature line lists and highlight the large uncertainty in the pressure-broadened line widths. We compare fluxes and heating rates obtained with our adapted scheme to more accurate discrete ordinate (DO) line-by-line (LbL) calculations ignoring scattering effects. We find that, in most cases, errors stay below 10% for both heating rates and fluxes using ~10 k-coefficients in each band and a diffusivity factor D = 1.66. The two-stream approximation and the correlated-k method both contribute non-negligibly to the total error. We also find that using band-averaged absorption coefficients, which have previously been used in radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of a hot Jupiter, may yield errors of ~100%, and should thus be used with caution.

  6. PF-4 simulated fire accident analysis: Filter-spray cool-down system reevaluation implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, B.W.; Gregory, W.S.

    1990-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory PF-4 facility was designed with spray cool down systems within the building's ventilation systems. The Engineering and Safety Analysis Group was asked, in cooperation with ENG-8 and MST-8, to evaluate whether the spray cool-down system still need to be classified as safety class'' systems. The study was performed using the FIRAC computer code. Given the fire source terms (hypothetical fire energy or time-temperature history), FIRAC can predict the pertinent transient flow parameters (pressures, flows, and temperatures) throughout a previously defined and selected fire zone. A computer model for the study that had all of the main ventilation systems in the south half of the PF-4 facility was used. Because the most hazardous room is located in the 400 Section, all ventilation systems but the 400 Section's one were simplified. The impetus for simplification was to keep the computer model tractable, and this was possible with the following assumptions: the fire cannot spread from one room to another, all corridor connecting doors are closed and will not fail under the pressures generated by the fire, and the principal pathway for potential release is the ventilation system. All of the blowers continue to operate, and all fire retardant systems fail to operate during the fire. The ASTM time-temperature curve was the source for the burn-room temperature, and smoke injection was used as input as well. Five different computer runs were made using different combinations of source terms and heat transfer. A connection from the burn room to the glovebox ventilation system was created by burning the glovebox plastic shielding; it was modeled by a branch having an initial flow 75 ft{sup 3}/min. 7 refs., 35 refs., 15 tabs.

  7. Flow cytometric determination of circulating immune complexes with the indirect granulocyte phagocytosis test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, L.W.M.M.; Grooth, de B.G.; Nolten, G.M.J.; Napel, ten C.H.H.; Berkel, van W.; Greve, J.

    1985-01-01

    A method for the determination of circulating immune complexes (CIC) was adapted for flow cytometric analysis. Human granulocytes were used to phagocytose IgG-bearing CIC of serum from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. A method for labeling the phagocytosed CIC with FITC-conjugated anti-h

  8. [Lung cancer molecular testing, what role for Next Generation Sequencing and circulating tumor DNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécuchet, Nicolas; Legras, Antoine; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Blons, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Molecular screening has become a standard of care for patients with advanced cancers and impacts on how to treat a patient. Advances in genomic technologies with the development of high throughput sequencing methods will certainly improve the possibilities to access a more accurate molecular diagnosis and to go beyond the identification of validated targets as a large number of genes can be screened for actionable changes. Moreover, accurate high throughput testing may help tumor classification in terms of prognosis and drug sensitivity. Finally, it will be possible to assess tumor heterogeneity and changes in molecular profiles during follow-up using ultra-deep sequencing technologies and circulating tumor DNA characterization. The accumulation of somatic ADN alterations is considered as the main contributing factor in carcinogenesis. The alterations can occur at different levels: mutation, copy number variations or gene translocations resulting in altered expression of the corresponding genes or impaired protein functions. Genes involved are mainly tumor suppressors, oncogenes or ADN repair genes whose modifications in tumors will impinge cell fate and proliferation from tumor initiation to metastasis. The entire genome of various tumor types, have now been sequenced. In lung cancer, the average number of mutations is very high with more than 8.9 mutations/Mb (Network TCGAR, 2014) that is to say more than 10,000 mutations/genome. These alterations need to be classified, indeed, some are true drivers that directly impact proliferation and some are passenger mutations linked to genetic instability. The development of targeted therapies relies on the identification of oncogenic drivers. The identification of genotype-phenotype associations as in the case of EGFR-TKI (Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and EGFR mutations in lung cancer led to the restriction of drugs to patients for which tumor genotype predicts efficacy. Tumor

  9. Tests of the higher order turbulence model for atmospheric circulations (HOTMAC) at Deseret Chemical Depot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costigan, K.R.

    1998-11-01

    Deseret Chemical Depot is one of the US Army`s storage facilities for its stockpile of chemical weapon agents. Congress has directed the Department of Defense to eliminate the aging stockpiles, which have existed since the end of World War II, and the US Army is destroying these lethal chemical munitions. Although the danger is slight, accurate predictions of the wind field in the valley are necessary for dispersion calculations in the event of an accident involving toxic chemicals at the depot. There are several small communities in Rush and Tooele valleys, including the town of Tooele, and Salt Lake City is located 65 km to the Northeast of Deseret Chemical Depot South area, at 1,300 m MSL and beyond the Oquirrh Mountains. The purpose of this report is to carry out three-dimensional numerical simulations of the atmospheric circulations in the region around Deseret Chemical Depot with the Higher Order Turbulence Model for Atmospheric Circulations (HOTMAC) and to evaluate the performance of the model. The code had been modified to assimilate local meteorological observations through the use of Newtonian nudging. The nudging scheme takes advantage of the extensive network of local observations in the valley.

  10. Pre-test estimates of temperature decline for the LANL Fenton Hill Long-Term Flow Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, B.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kruger, P. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Geothermal Program

    1992-06-01

    Pre-test predications for the Long-Term Flow Test (LTFT) of the experimental Hot Dry Rock (HDR) reservoir at Fenton Hill were made using two models. Both models are dependent on estimates of the ``effective`` reservoir volume accessed by the fluid and the mean fracture spacing (MFS) of major joints for fluid flow. The effective reservoir volume was estimated using a variety of techniques, and the range of values for the MFS was set through experience in modeling the thermal cooldown of other experimental HDR reservoirs. The two pre-test predictions for cooldown to 210{degrees}C (a value taken to compare the models) from initial temperature of 240{degrees}C are 6.1 and 10.7 years. Assuming that a minimum of 10{degrees}C is required to provide an unequivocal indication of thermal cooldown, both models predict that the reservoir will not exhibit observable cooldown for at least two years.

  11. Flow characteristic of Hijiori HDR reservoir from circulation test in 1991; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru senbu choryuso shiken (1991 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiga, T.; Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports one example of flow analyses on a circulation test carried out in fiscal 1991 at the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field (Yamagata Prefecture). A fluid circulation model was proposed to simulate an HDR circulation system for a shallow reservoir (at a depth of about 1800 m) demonstrated in the circulation test by using an electric circuit network (which expresses continuity impedance in resistance and fluid storage in capacitance). Storage capacity of the reservoir was estimated by deriving time constant of the system from data of time-based change in reservoir pressure associated with transition phenomena during the circulation test. The storage capacity was estimated separately by dividing change of storage in the reservoir by change in the reservoir pressure. To derive the storage in the reservoir, a method to calculate non-recovered flows in the circulation test was utilized. The results of evaluating the reservoir capacity in the shallow reservoir using the above two independent methods were found substantially consistent. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Tests of Shaft Seal Systems of Circulation Pumps during Station Blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beisiegel, A.; Foppe, F.; Wich, M.

    2014-07-01

    AREVA GmbH operates a unique Thermal-hydraulic plat form in Germany, France and USA. It is recognised as a test body according to ISO 17025. The Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle GmbH (DAkkS - German Society for Accreditation) has also certified the Thermal-hydraulic platform as an independent inspection body Type C according to ISO 17020. A part of this platform is the Component Laboratory located in Karlstein, Germany which is in operation since more than 50 years. The testing activities cover a wide range as: Critical Heat Flux Tests, Valve Testing and Environmental Qualification for safety related components. Since 2011 the Component Qualification Karlstein extended their testing scope for different types of Shaft Seal Systems. (Author)

  13. Investigation of TASS/SMR Capability to Predict a Natural Circulation in the Test Facility for an Integral Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jong Chung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available System-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART is a small-sized advanced integral type pressurized water reactor (PWR with a rated thermal power of 330 MW. It can produce 100 MW of electricity or 90 MW of electricity and 40,000 ton of desalinated water concurrently, which is sufficient for 100,000 residents. The design features contributing to safety enhancement are basically inherent safety improvement and passive safety features. TASS/SMR code was developed for an analysis of design based events and accidents in an integral type reactor reflecting the characteristics of the SMART design. The main purpose of the code is to analyze all relevant phenomena and processes. The code should be validated using experimental data in order to confirm prediction capability. TASS/SMR predicts well the overall thermal-hydraulic behavior under various natural circulation conditions at the experimental test facility for an integral reactor. A pressure loss should be provided a function of Reynolds number at low velocity conditions in order to simulate the mass flow rate well under natural circulations.

  14. Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis by reagent strip test for detection of circulating cathodic antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van G.J.; Wichers, J.H.; Falcao Ferreira, T.M.; Ghati, D.; Amerongen, van A.; Deelder, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed reagent strip assay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis based on parasite antigen detection in urine of infected individuals was evaluated. The test uses the principle of lateral flow through a nitrocellulose strip of the sample mixed with a colloidal carbon conjugate of a monoclo

  15. Atmospheric circulation of tidally-locked exoplanets: a suite of benchmark tests for dynamical solvers

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin; Phillipps, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of atmospheric modelling and its inherent non-linearity, together with the limited amount of data of exoplanets available, motivate model intercomparisons and benchmark tests. In the geophysical community, the Held-Suarez test is a standard benchmark for comparing dynamical core simulations of the Earth's atmosphere with different solvers, based on statistically-averaged flow quantities. In the present study, we perform analogues of the Held-Suarez test for tidally-locked exoplanets with the GFDL-Princeton Flexible Modeling System (FMS) by subjecting both the spectral and finite difference dynamical cores to a suite of tests, including the standard benchmark for Earth, a hypothetical tidally-locked Earth, a "shallow" hot Jupiter model and a "deep" model of HD 209458b. We find qualitative and quantitative agreement between the solvers for the Earth, tidally-locked Earth and shallow hot Jupiter benchmarks, but the agreement is less than satisfactory for the deep model of HD 209458b. Further inves...

  16. [Detection of fetal nucleated red blood cells in the maternal circulation by Kleihauer test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Yu; Jin, Chun-Lian; Liu, Li-Ying; Lin, Chang-Kun; Wang, Yan; Sun, Kai-Lai

    2007-03-01

    Maternal blood was obtained from 18 pregnant women at 7 to 25 weeks of gestation. After Percoll discontinuous density gradient centifugation, the fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) were stained with Kleihauer test. Positive fetal cells appeared with an intense red cytoplasmic staining while maternal cells with adult haemoglobin were colourless. Individual positive NRBC was collected by micromanipulator and whole genome amplification was then performed to determine sex and STR status. This allowed the simultaneous verification of the fetal origin of NRBC and prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases. The non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis of 9 fetuses at high risk of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was completed successfully. The Kleihauer test is a rapid, simple and direct chemical staining method to select fetal cells and can be applied in prenatal diagnosis.

  17. Testing, adjusting and balancing for air distribution and hydronic circulation system of RIPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Duk; Bang, H. S

    2003-01-01

    This report is to perform T.A.B(Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing) for area of 7000 and 8000 zone in RIPF Building. According to code, standard and specification, T.A.B of air distribution and hydronic system are carried out and only written a general items. Owing to today's demanding the retrenchment in the energy, It is important that we perform our duties to test, adjust and balance air handle unit objectively and independently. Therefore, though the scientific and reasonable verification procedure, we must try to not only admit T.A.B. techniques which present societies demand, but also secure advanced technologies by means of accelerating the related techniques.

  18. Tensile tests on MANET II steel in circulating Pb-Bi eutectic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasbrenner, H. E-mail: heike.glasbrenner@psi.ch; Groeschel, F.; Kirchner, T

    2003-05-15

    Off-beam tensile tests have been performed on MANET II steel in the eutectic Pb-55.5Bi (LBE) and Ar during commissioning of the LiSoR loop, an experimental liquid metal loop, which was developed to investigate the influence of Pb-Bi on possible structural materials under static load and irradiation. Test temperatures were 180-300 deg. C. MANET II (11% CrMoVNb steel) exhibits good swelling and creep resistance behaviour under irradiation up to around 500 deg. C. Good corrosion resistance of this material is expected due to the absence of the element Ni in the steel matrix which has a high solubility in LBE. All specimens showed a ductile fracture in Ar. In LBE a loss of ductility was observed at the test temperatures of 250 and 300 deg. C in comparison to the Ar samples. SEM analysis of the fracture surface of these specimens revealed a mixed mode, i.e. dimple and brittle fracture and penetration of Pb-Bi along the grain boundaries, which is a typical finding for liquid metal embrittlement.

  19. Reduced-scale water test of natural circulation for decay heat removal in loop-type sodium-cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, T., E-mail: murakami@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1646 Abiko, Chiba (Japan); Eguchi, Y., E-mail: eguchi@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1646 Abiko, Chiba (Japan); Oyama, K., E-mail: kazuhiro_oyama@mfbr.mhi.co.jp [Mitsubishi FBR Systems, Inc., 2-34-17 Jinguumae, Shibuya, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, O., E-mail: osamu4_watanabe@mfbr.mhi.co.jp [Mitsubishi FBR Systems, Inc., 2-34-17 Jinguumae, Shibuya, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The natural circulation characteristics of a loop-type SFR are examined by a water test. • The performance of decay heat removal system is evaluated using a similarity law. • The effects of flow deviation in the parallel piping of a primary loop are clarified. • The reproducibility of the natural circulation test is confirmed. - Abstract: Water tests of a loop-type sodium-cooled fast reactor have been conducted to physically evaluate the natural circulation characteristics. The water test apparatus was manufactured as a 1/10-scale mock-up of the Japan Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor, which adopts a decay heat removal system (DHRS) utilizing natural circulation. Tests simulating a variety of events and operation conditions clarified the thermal hydraulic characteristics and core-cooling performance of the natural circulation in the primary loop. Operation conditions such as the duration of the pump flow coast-down and the activation time of the DHRS affect the natural circulation characteristics. A long pump flow coast-down cools the upper plenum of the reactor vessel (RV). This causes the loss of the buoyant force in the RV. The test result indicates that a long pump flow coast-down tends to result in a rapid increase in the core temperature because of the loss of the buoyant force. The delayed activation of the DHRS causes a decrease in the natural circulation flow rate and a temperature rise in the RV. Flow rate deviation and a reverse flow appear in the parallel cold-leg piping in some events, which cause thermal stratification in the cold-leg piping. The DHRS prevents the core temperature from fatally rise even for the most severe design-basis event, in which sodium leakage in a secondary loop of the DHRS and the opening failure of a single damper of the air cooler occur simultaneously. In the water test for the case of siphon break in the primary loop, which is one of the design extension conditions, a circulation flow consisting of ascendant

  20. Radon-222 as a test of convective transport in a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Prather, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional tracer model based on the Goddard Institude of Space Studies GCM is used to simulate the distribution of Rn-222 over North America to test the ability of the model to describe the transport of pollutants in the boundary layer and the exchange of mass between the boundary layer and the free troposphere. The model results are compared with surface observations from five sites in the U.S., showing that Rn-222 concentrations are primarily regulated by dry convection. The simulations show satisfactory agreement with observations although the model underpredicts observations at night and the simulated Rn-222 concentrations over the northeastern U.S. are too high in the spring and too low in the fall.

  1. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Circulation Updated:Oct 18,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  2. Thermal and fluid mixing in a 1/2-scale test facility. Volume 2. Data report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, F.X.; Valenzuela, J.A.

    1985-07-01

    This report presents data from an experimental study of fluid mixing in a 1/2-scale model of the cold leg, downcomer, lower plenum, pump simulator, and loop seal typical of a Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor. The tests were transient cooldown tests in that they simulated an extreme condition of Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) during which cold High Pressure Injection (HPI) fluid is injected into stagnant, hot primary fluid with complete loss of natural circulation in the loop. Extensive temperature, velocity, and heat transfer coefficient data are presented at two cold leg Froude numbers: 0.052 and 0.076. The 1/2-scale data are compared with earlier data from a 1/5-scale, geometrically similar facility to assess scaling principles.

  3. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA test for Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in different settings of Cote d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean T Coulibaly

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Promising results have been reported for a urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available CCA cassette test (designated CCA-A and an experimental formulation (CCA-B for S. mansoni diagnosis. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings of Côte d'Ivoire: settings A and B are endemic for S. mansoni, whereas S. haematobium co-exists in setting C. Overall, 446 children, aged 8-12 years, submitted multiple stool and urine samples. For S. mansoni diagnosis, stool samples were examined with triplicate Kato-Katz, whereas urine samples were tested with CCA-A. The first stool and urine samples were additionally subjected to an ether-concentration technique and CCA-B, respectively. Urine samples were examined for S. haematobium using a filtration method, and for microhematuria using Hemastix dipsticks. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Considering nine Kato-Katz as diagnostic 'gold' standard, the prevalence of S. mansoni in setting A, B and C was 32.9%, 53.1% and 91.8%, respectively. The sensitivity of triplicate Kato-Katz from the first stool and a single CCA-A test was 47.9% and 56.3% (setting A, 73.9% and 69.6% (setting B, and 94.2% and 89.6% (setting C. The respective sensitivity of a single CCA-B was 10.4%, 29.9% and 75.0%. The ether-concentration technique showed a low sensitivity for S. mansoni diagnosis (8.3-41.0%. The specificity of CCA-A was moderate (76.9-84.2%; CCA-B was high (96.7-100%. The likelihood of a CCA-A color reaction increased with higher S. mansoni fecal egg counts (odds ratio: 1.07, p<0.001. A concurrent S. haematobium infection or the presence of microhematuria did not influence the CCA-A test results for S. mansoni diagnosis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: CCA-A showed similar sensitivity than triplicate Kato-Katz for S. mansoni diagnosis with no cross-reactivity to S. haematobium and microhematuria. The low sensitivity

  4. Evaluation of Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA) Urine-Tests for Diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kueté Fouodo, Césaire Joris; Kamwa Ngassam, Romuald Isaka; Sumo, Laurentine; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Nana, Esther Dankoni; Stothard, J. Russell; Rollinson, David

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kato-Katz is the most common diagnostic method for Schistosoma mansoni infection. However, the day-to-day variability in host egg-excretion and its low detection sensitivity are major limits for its use in low transmission zones and after widespread chemotherapy. We evaluated the accuracy of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-assay as a diagnostic tool of S. mansoni. In comparison, a low sensitive CCA test (CCA-L) was assessed. Methodology The study was conducted in three settings: two foci with single S. mansoni infections (settings A and B), and one mixed S. mansoni – S. haematobium focus (setting C). Stool and urine samples were collected from school-children on three consecutive days. Triplicate Kato-Katz readings were performed per stool sample. Each urine sample was tested with one CCA and only the first urine sample was subjected to CCA-L. Urine samples were also examined for S. haematobium eggs using the filtration method and for microhaematuria using urine reagent strips. Overall, 625 children provided three stool and three urine samples. Principal Findings Considering nine Kato-Katz thick smears as ‘reference’ diagnostic test, the prevalence of S. mansoni was 36.2%, 71.8% and 64.0% in settings A, B and C, respectively. The prevalence of S. haematobium in setting C was 12.0%. The sensitivities of single Kato-Katz, CCA and CCA-L from the first stool or urine samples were 58%, 82% and 46% in setting A, 56.8%, 82.4% and 68.8% in setting B, and 49.0%, 87.7% and 55.5% in setting C. The respective specificities were 100%, 64.7% and 100%; 100%, 62.3% and 91.3%; and 100%, 42.5% and 92.0%. Mixed infection with S. haematobium did not influence the CCA test results for S. mansoni diagnosis. Conclusions/Significance Urine CCA revealed higher sensitivity than CCA-L and triplicate Kato-Katz, and produced similar prevalence as nine Kato-Katz. It seems an attractive method for S. mansoni diagnosis. PMID:22860148

  5. Evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA urine-tests for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Kato-Katz is the most common diagnostic method for Schistosoma mansoni infection. However, the day-to-day variability in host egg-excretion and its low detection sensitivity are major limits for its use in low transmission zones and after widespread chemotherapy. We evaluated the accuracy of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA urine-assay as a diagnostic tool of S. mansoni. In comparison, a low sensitive CCA test (CCA-L was assessed. METHODOLOGY: THE STUDY WAS CONDUCTED IN THREE SETTINGS: two foci with single S. mansoni infections (settings A and B, and one mixed S. mansoni - S. haematobium focus (setting C. Stool and urine samples were collected from school-children on three consecutive days. Triplicate Kato-Katz readings were performed per stool sample. Each urine sample was tested with one CCA and only the first urine sample was subjected to CCA-L. Urine samples were also examined for S. haematobium eggs using the filtration method and for microhaematuria using urine reagent strips. Overall, 625 children provided three stool and three urine samples. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Considering nine Kato-Katz thick smears as 'reference' diagnostic test, the prevalence of S. mansoni was 36.2%, 71.8% and 64.0% in settings A, B and C, respectively. The prevalence of S. haematobium in setting C was 12.0%. The sensitivities of single Kato-Katz, CCA and CCA-L from the first stool or urine samples were 58%, 82% and 46% in setting A, 56.8%, 82.4% and 68.8% in setting B, and 49.0%, 87.7% and 55.5% in setting C. The respective specificities were 100%, 64.7% and 100%; 100%, 62.3% and 91.3%; and 100%, 42.5% and 92.0%. Mixed infection with S. haematobium did not influence the CCA test results for S. mansoni diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Urine CCA revealed higher sensitivity than CCA-L and triplicate Kato-Katz, and produced similar prevalence as nine Kato-Katz. It seems an attractive method for S. mansoni diagnosis.

  6. Enhancements to the FAST-MAC Circulation Control Model and Recent High-Reynolds Number Testing in the National Transonic Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milholen, William E., II; Jones, Gregory S.; Chan, David T.; Goodliff, Scott L.; Anders, Scott G.; Melton, Latunia P.; Carter, Melissa B.; Allan, Brian G.; Capone, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    A second wind tunnel test of the FAST-MAC circulation control model was recently completed in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The model was equipped with four onboard flow control valves allowing independent control of the circulation control plenums, which were directed over a 15% chord simple-hinged flap. The model was configured for low-speed high-lift testing with flap deflections of 30 and 60 degrees, along with the transonic cruise configuration with zero degree flap deflection. Testing was again conducted over a wide range of Mach numbers up to 0.88, and Reynolds numbers up to 30 million based on the mean chord. The first wind tunnel test had poor transonic force and moment data repeatability at mild cryogenic conditions due to inadequate thermal conditioning of the balance. The second test demonstrated that an improvement to the balance heating system significantly improved the transonic data repeatability, but also indicated further improvements are still needed. The low-speed highlift performance of the model was improved by testing various blowing slot heights, and the circulation control was again demonstrated to be effective in re-attaching the flow over the wing at off-design transonic conditions. A new tailored spanwise blowing technique was also demonstrated to be effective at transonic conditions with the benefit of reduced mass flow requirements.

  7. Cytometric characterization of circulating tumor cells captured by microfiltration and their correlation to the CellSearch(®) CTC test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Daniel L; Stefansson, Steingrimur; Haudenschild, Christian; Martin, Stuart S; Charpentier, Monica; Chumsri, Saranya; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Tang, Cha-Mei; Alpaugh, R Katherine

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies reporting hundreds, to thousands, of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of cancer patients have raised questions regarding the prevalence of CTCs, as enumerated by the CellSearch(®) CTC Test. Although CellSearch has been shown to consistently detect clinically relevant CTCs; the ability to only capture EpCAM positive cells has led to speculation that it captures limited subsets of CTCs. In contrast, alternative approaches to CTC isolation are often cited as capturing large numbers of CTCs from patient blood. Not surprisingly the number of cells isolated by alternative approaches show poor correlations when compared to CellSearch, even when accounting for EpCAM presence or absence. In an effort to address this discrepancy, we ran an exploratory method comparison study to characterize and compare the CTC subgroups captured from duplicate blood samples from 30 breast and prostate cancer patients using a microfiltration system (CellSieve™) and CellSearch. We then categorized the CellSieve Cytokeratin(CK)+/CD45-/DAPI+ cells into five morphologically distinct subpopulations for correlative analysis. Like other filtration techniques, CellSieve isolated greater numbers of CK+/CD45- cells than CellSearch. Furthermore, analysis showed low correlation between the total CK+/CD45- cells captured by these two assays, regardless of EpCAM presence. However, subgrouping of CK+/CD45-/DAPI+ cells based on distinct cytokeratin staining patterns and nuclear morphologies elucidated a subpopulation correlative to CellSearch. Using method comparison analyses, we identified a specific CTC morphology which is highly correlative between two distinct capture methods. These data suggests that although various morphologic CTCs with similar phenotypic expressions are present in the blood of cancer patients, the clinically relevant cells isolated by CellSearch can potentially be identified using non-EpCAM dependent isolation. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley

  8. AMELIA CESTOL Test: Acoustic Characteristics of Circulation Control Wing with Leading- and Trailing-Edge Slot Blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, William C.; Burnside, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    The AMELIA Cruise-Efficient Short Take-off and Landing (CESTOL) configuration concept was developed to meet future requirements of reduced field length, noise, and fuel burn by researchers at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo and Georgia Tech Research Institute under sponsorship by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The novel configuration includes leading- and trailing-edge circulation control wing (CCW), over-wing podded turbine propulsion simulation (TPS). Extensive aerodynamic measurements of forces, surfaces pressures, and wing surface skin friction measurements were recently measured over a wide range of test conditions in the Arnold Engineering Development Center(AEDC) National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Ft Wind Tunnel. Acoustic measurements of the model were also acquired for each configuration with 7 fixed microphones on a line under the left wing, and with a 48-element, 40-inch diameter phased microphone array under the right wing. This presentation will discuss acoustic characteristics of the CCW system for a variety of tunnel speeds (0 to 120 kts), model configurations (leading edge(LE) and/or trailing-edge(TE) slot blowing, and orientations (incidence and yaw) based on acoustic measurements acquired concurrently with the aerodynamic measurements. The flow coefficient, Cmu= mVSLOT/qSW varied from 0 to 0.88 at 40 kts, and from 0 to 0.15 at 120 kts. Here m is the slot mass flow rate, VSLOT is the slot exit velocity, q is dynamic pressure, and SW is wing surface area. Directivities at selected 1/3 octave bands will be compared with comparable measurements of a 2-D wing at GTRI, as will as microphone array near-field measurements of the right wing at maximum flow rate. The presentation will include discussion of acoustic sensor calibrations as well as characterization of the wind tunnel background noise environment.

  9. Flow characteristics of Hijiori HDR reservoir form circulation test in 1995; Koon tantai Hijiori jikkenjo ni okeru shinbu choryuso yobi junkan shiken (1995 nendo) kekka to ryudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, N.; Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports the result of a preliminary circulation test conducted in fiscal 1995 on a deep reservoir (at a depth of about 2200 m) in the Hijiori hot dry rock experimental field. One water injection well and two production wells were drilled to constitute a circulation loop, to which the circulation test was performed to investigate the flow characteristics thereof. The result revealed the following matters: total amount of injected water of 51500 m{sup 3} resulted in a total fluid recovery rate of about 40%; as a result of well stimulation given twice during the initial stage of the water injection, the continuity impedance in the vicinity of the injection well decreased largely (however, the continuity improvement upon the second attempt was considerably inferior to that from the first attempt); and increase in the water injection amount does not necessarily lead to increase in the production amount. The paper describes additionally that it is extremely difficult to interpret non-linearity between the injection and production amounts by using a model prepared previously with a main objective to analyze the Hijiori HDR circulation system. 1 ref., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Nearshore circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.; Sobey, R.J.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Shelf circulation is driven primarily by wind- and tide-induced forces. It is laterally only weakly constrained so that the geostrophic (Coriolis) acceleration is manifest in the response. Nearshore circulation on the other hand is dominated by wave-induced forces associated with shallow-water. wave

  11. Postprandial fatty acid specific changes in circulating oxylipins in lean and obese men after high-fat challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strassburg, K.; Esser, D.; Vreeken, R.J.; Hankemeier, T.; Müller, M.R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Golde, van J.; Dijk, van S.J.; Afman, L.A.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Scope Circulating oxylipins may affect peripheral tissues and are assumed to play an important role in endothelial function. They are esterified in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins that are increased after a high-fat (HF) meal, depending on BMI and fatty acid (FA) type. Yet, it is unclear which oxylip

  12. Experimental study on natural circulation using liquid nitrogen for superconducting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yeon Suk [Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    An experiment to investigate the natural circulation of a cryogen has been performed. The study is motivated mainly by our recent development of cryogenic cooling system for prototype superconducting cyclotron without any circulating pump. In the natural circulation loop system, a cooling channel is attached on the outer surface of the aluminium block and the liquid nitrogen passes through inside of the channel to cool the block indirectly. A cryocooler as a heat sink is located at the top to re-condense cryogenic vapor coming from the aluminium block in which electrical heater is installed as a heat source. The main dimensions are determined using the relevant analysis and the natural circulation loop is successfully fabricated. The temperature distributions in the loop are measured during initial cool-down process and in steady state, from which the modified Grashof numbers are calculated and compared with the existing correlation estimated with one-dimensional analysis for steady state flow.

  13. The Effect of Warm-Up and Cool-Down Exercise on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in the Quadriceps Muscle: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Olav; Sjøhaug, Mona; van Beekvelt, Mireille; Mork, Paul Jarle

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of warm-up and cool-down exercise on delayed onset of muscle soreness at the distal and central parts of rectus femoris following leg resistance exercise. Thirty-six volunteers (21 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the warm-up (20 min ergometer cycling prior to the resistance exercise), cool-down (20 min cycling after the resistance exercise), or control group performing resistance exercise only. The resistance exercise consisted of front lunges (10×5 repetitions/sets) with external loading of 40% (women) and 50% (men) of body mass. Primary outcomes were pressure pain threshold along rectus femoris and maximal isometric knee extension force. Data were recorded before the resistance exercise and on the two consecutive days. Pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced for the control group on both day 2 and 3 (p≤0.003) but not for the warm-up group (p≥0.21). For the cool-down group, pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced on day 2 (p≤0.005) and was also lower compared to the warm-up group (p=0.025). Force was significantly reduced on day 2 and 3 for all groups (p<0.001). This study indicates that aerobic warm-up exercise performed prior to resistance exercise may prevent muscle soreness at the central but not distal muscle regions, but it does not prevent loss of muscle force. PMID:23486850

  14. Probabilistic fracture mechanics applied for DHC assessment in the cool-down transients for CANDU pressure tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, Vasile, E-mail: vasile.radu@nuclear.ro [Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, 1st Campului Street, 115400 Mioveni, Arges, P.O. Box 78, Mioveni (Romania); Roth, Maria [Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, 1st Campului Street, 115400 Mioveni, Arges, P.O. Box 78, Mioveni (Romania)

    2012-12-15

    irradiation in reactor. The paper describes a prospective way for the probabilistic approach of CANDU pressure tube failure by DHC mechanisms during cool-down cycles by using probabilistic fracture mechanics principles. The limit state functions are defined for fracture instability and plastic collapse according to the Canadian Standard N285.8-05 criteria. British Procedure R6 is used to define another limit state function based on reserve factors. Discussion of lifetime probability values obtained from both procedures is made.

  15. TESTING THE INTERACTION OF HEART LEFT VENTRICLE AND CONTINUOUS-FLOW PUMP ON A MOCK CIRCULATION MODEL UNDER NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Itkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The preliminary study of new developed pumps for circulatory support on the hydrodynamic circulation model is an important step in the process of their designing. Hydrodynamic circulation models that can closely imitate cardio – vascular system are important to defi ne the range of effective functioning of the pumps under normal and heart disease conditions which is of great importance for defi ning the mode of these pumps in real clinical conditions.The aim of study is to create a new hydrodynamic circulation model of the systemic circulation to study the processes of interaction of heart left ventricle and continuous – fl ow pumps.Materials and methods. The main components of the mock circulation model (arterial and venous blocks are designed as closed reservoirs with an air bag providing the necessary elasticity value of these reservoirs. The heart left ventricle was simulated with an artifi cial heart ventricle with a pneumatic drive Sinus-IS which allows to change its options in a wide range. As a test pump we used the fi rst native implantable axial pump VISH – 1. In the course of research we made the registration and recording of the basic hemodynamic parameters (pressure, fl ow with a multichannel module Pumpax for the measurement of pressure parameters.Results. The designed circulation model allows to adequately reproduce the main hemodynamic parameters of the circulatory system in normal (arterial pressure – 110/77 mmHg, left atrium pressure – 7 mmHg and cardiac output – 4.2 l/min and heart failure conditions (arterial pressure – 79/53 mmHg, left atrium pressure – 15 mmHg and cardiac output – 3.1 l/min. On the circulation model the interaction of heart left ventricle and continuous-fl ow pump in heart failure simulation was studied. The dynamics of the main circulation fi gures is shown under conditions of changing of the pump rotor speed. Meanwhile, the conditions of the closing of

  16. Monitoring of tritium purity during long-term circulation in the KATRIN test experiment LOOPINO using laser Raman spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Sebastian; Schlösser, Magnus; Bornschein, Beate; Drexlin, Guido; Priester, Florian; Lewis, Richard J; Telle, Helmut H

    2012-01-01

    The gas circulation loop LOOPINO has been set up and commissioned at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) to perform Raman measurements of circulating tritium mixtures under conditions similar to the inner loop system of the neutrino-mass experiment KATRIN, which is currently under construction. A custom-made interface is used to connect the tritium containing measurement cell, located inside a glove box, with the Raman setup standing on the outside. A tritium sample (purity > 95%, 20 kPa total pressure) was circulated in LOOPINO for more than three weeks with a total throughput of 770 g of tritium. Compositional changes in the sample and the formation of tritiated and deuterated methanes CT_(4-n)X_n (X=H,D; n=0,1) were observed. Both effects are caused by hydrogen isotope exchange reactions and gas-wall interactions, due to tritium {\\beta} decay. A precision of 0.1% was achieved for the monitoring of the T_2 Q_1-branch, which fulfills the requirements for the KATRIN experiment and demonstrates the feasibility ...

  17. Simulation of short-term pressure regulation during the tilt test in a coupled 3D-0D closed-loop model of the circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kevin D; Figueroa, C Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Short-term fluctuations in arterial pressures arising from normal physiological function are buffered by a negative feedback system known as the arterial baroreflex. Initiated by altered biomechanical stretch in the vessel wall, the baroreflex coordinates a systemic response that alters heart rate, cardiac contractility and peripheral vessel vasoconstriction. In this work, a coupled 3D-0D formulation for the short-term pressure regulation of the systemic circulation is presented. Including the baroreflex feedback mechanisms, a patient-specific model of the large arteries is subjected to a simulated head up tilt test. Comparative simulations with and without baroreflex control highlight the critical role that the baroreflex has in regulating variations in pressures within the systemic circulation.

  18. Blink Reflex as a Complementary Test to MRI in Early Detection of Brainstem Infarctions: Comparison of Blink Reflex Abnormalities in Anterior Versus Posterior Circulation Strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Basiri

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early detection of vertebro-basilar insufficiency is of paramount importance. Brain MRI was the only method of diagnosis for many years, but in addition to high cost and delay in report, it may not detect all brain stem lesions. In this study Blink reflex (BR was evaluated as a complementary test to MRI. Methods: Fifty-four patients were studied [27 anterior circulation stroke patients (ACSP and 27 posterior circulation stroke patients (PCSP]. MRI was performed within the first week after the onset of stroke. Nineteen age and sex matched healthy people enrolled as controls. BR was performed within the first 24 hours of the onset. Frequency of abnormal blink reflex in ACSP and PCSP was compared with MRI findings. Then abnormal responses in two groups were compared by chi-square test. Results: In both ACSP and PCSP, two patients had normal BR responses, and in 25 patients R1 or R2 components of blink responses were absent or prolonged (92.5%. R1was absent or delayed in 16 PCSP, but it was abnormal in only two ACSP (P < 0.001. Abnormal R2 responses were detected in 22 PCSP and 24 ACSP. Conclusion: BR abnormalities had high correlation with MRI findings in PCSP (92.5% BR can be performed within the first 24 hours of onset of stroke, and its results is available immediately. This test is easy to perform and comfortable for the patient, has low cost, and is available every where. Therefore we introduced BR as a complementary (but not replacing test to MRI in early detection of brainstem infarctions. Comparison of BR responses in ACSP and PCSP showed that abnormalities of R1 responses had high accuracy in differentiation between anterior and posterior circulation strokes. We concluded that BR responses not only can detect brainstem infarctions rapidly and readily in its early stages, but also can differentiate ACSP from PCSP with high accuracy. Keywords: Blink Reflex, Anterior Circulation Stroke, Posterior Circulation Stroke Patients

  19. Testing an astronomically-based decadal-scale empirical harmonic climate model versus the IPCC (2007) general circulation climate models

    CERN Document Server

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    We compare the performance of a recently proposed empirical climate model based on astronomical harmonics against all available general circulation climate models (GCM) used by the IPCC (2007) to interpret the 20th century global surface temperature. The proposed model assumes that the climate is resonating with, or synchronized to a set of natural harmonics that have been associated to the solar system planetary motion, mostly determined by Jupiter and Saturn. We show that the GCMs fail to reproduce the major decadal and multidecadal oscillations found in the global surface temperature record from 1850 to 2011. On the contrary, the proposed harmonic model is found to well reconstruct the observed climate oscillations from 1850 to 2011, and it is able to forecast the climate oscillations from 1950 to 2011 using the data covering the period 1850-1950, and vice versa. The 9.1-year cycle is shown to be likely related to a decadal Soli/Lunar tidal oscillation, while the 10-10.5, 20-21 and 60-62 year cycles are sy...

  20. Field-based evaluation of a reagent strip test for diagnosis of Schistosomiasis mansoni by detecting circulating cathodic antigen (CCA in urine in low endemic area in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legesse M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of a reagent strip test for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni by detecting circulating cathodic antigen (CCA in urine were evaluated using 184 stool and urine samples collected from schoolchildren living in relatively low endemic area of schistosomiasis mansoni in Ethiopia. A combined result of stool samples processed by Kato and formol-ether concentration methods was used as gold standard. The results showed that detection of CCA in urine using reagent strip test was slightly higher than the combined results of the stool techniques (65.2% vs 42.4%, p > 0.05 in suggesting the prevalence of the disease. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the reagent strip test were 76.9%, 43.4%, 50% and 71.9%, respectively. The result of egg counts using Kato method suggested that detection of urine CCA could be used to indicate the intensity of infection. Nevertheless, like that of stool examination, the reagent strip test was found to be less sensitive in case of light to moderate infections. About 23.1% of the study children who were excreting the eggs of the parasite were found negative by the reagent strip test. The relative insensitivity of a reagent strip test in low intensity of infection necessitates for the development of more sensitive assay that can truly discriminate schistosome-infected from non-infected individuals.

  1. Universal screening test based on analysis of circulating organ-enriched microRNAs: a novel approach to diagnostic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinerman, Kira S; Umansky, Samuil

    2015-03-01

    Early disease detection leads to more effective and cost-efficient treatment. It is especially important for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, because progression of these pathologies leads to significant and frequently irreversible changes in underlying pathophysiological processes. At the same time, the development of specific screening tests for detection of each of the hundreds of human pathologies in asymptomatic stage may be impractical. Here, we discuss a recently proposed concept: the development of minimally invasive Universal Screening Test (UST) based on analysis of organ-enriched microRNAs in plasma and other bodily fluids. The UST is designed to detect the presence of a pathology in particular organ systems, organs, tissues or cell types without diagnosing a specific disease. Once the pathology is detected, more specific, and if necessary invasive and expensive, tests can be administered to precisely define the nature of the disease. Here, we discuss recent studies and analyze the data supporting the UST approach.

  2. [Development of a computer-assisted thermoelectric Peltier cold test procedure with integrated photoplethysmography unit for noninvasive evaluation of acral skin circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyscz, T; Hahn, M; Beck, W; Blazek, V; Rassner, G; Jünger, M

    1997-09-01

    Local cold provocation tests are an important, non-invasive diagnostic tool for collecting information about skin perfusion during exposure to cold. In patients suffering from vasospastic circulatory disorders such as Raynaud's phenomenon, it is of particular importance to be able to collect data about acral circulation during the cooling test in the asymptomatic intervals between naturally occurring attacks. By carrying out a series of cold provocation tests, for example, patient response to a newly initiated therapy can be assessed. Here we present a recently developed, computer-aided thermoelectric Peltier device with an integrated finger holder for carrying out local cold provocation tests. The electronic control unit of the Peltier element make it possible to cool or heat to predefined temperatures. At the same time, the temperature of both the finger holder and the skin can be measured. A photoplethysmographic sensor is also integrated within the device, enabling the response of the pulse waves to the controlled temperature changes to be monitored accurately. It is also possible to measure simultaneously laser Doppler flux and capillary pressure in the nailfold and to perform nailfold capillaroscopy to determine red blood cell velocity. The new device provides us with the technical means to study the interrelationship between acral skin perfusion and the thermal regulation of the skin.

  3. Validation of a Point-of-Care Circulating Cathodic Antigen Urine Cassette Test for Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis in the Sahel, and Potential Cross-Reaction in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greter, Helena; Krauth, Stefanie J; Ngandolo, Bongo N R; Alfaroukh, Idriss O; Zinsstag, Jakob; Utzinger, Jürg

    2016-02-01

    On the shores of Lake Chad, schistosomiasis among mobile pastoralists was investigated in a field laboratory. Point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) cassette test, reagent strip, and filtration were conducted on urine samples. Fresh stool samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz technique, and fixed samples were examined with an ether-concentration method at a reference laboratory. POC-CCA urine cassette tests revealed a Schistosoma mansoni prevalence of 6.9%, compared with only 0.5% by stool microscopy. Three pregnant women with otherwise negative urine and stool testing had positive POC-CCA. This observation raises concern of cross-reactivity in pregnancy. Hence, two pregnant women in Switzerland with no history of schistosomiasis were subjected to POC-CCA and one tested positive. Our data suggest that POC-CCA can be performed under extreme Sahelian conditions (e.g., temperatures > 40°C), and it is more sensitive than stool microscopy for S. mansoni diagnosis. However, potential cross-reactivity in pregnancy needs further investigation.

  4. A SERENDIPITOUS, LONG-TERM INFILTRATION EXPERIMENT: WATER AND RADIONUCLIDE CIRCULATION BENEATH THE CAMBRIC TRENCH AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, R; Tompson, A; Carle, S; Zavarin, M; Kollet, S

    2006-03-16

    Underground atomic weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. Beginning in 1975, groundwater adjacent to the CAMBRIC test, conducted beneath Frenchman Flat in 1965, was pumped steadily for 16 years to elicit experimental information on the migration of residual radioactivity through the saturated zone. Radionuclides in the pumping well effluent, including tritium, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 85}Kr, were extensively monitored prior to their discharge into an unlined ditch flowing toward a dry lake bed over a kilometer away. We have applied a large (6km x 6km x 1km) and highly resolved (4 m) variably saturated flow model to investigate infiltration into the 220-m vadose zone underlying the ditch as well as subsequent groundwater recharge and well recirculation processes. A Lagrangian particle-tracking model has been used to compute flow pathways and estimate radionuclide travel and residence times in various parts of the system based upon the flow model. Results are consistent with rising tritium levels observed in a monitoring well since 1991. They suggest that recirculation of the ditch effluent through the vadose zone, into groundwater, and back to the test cavity and pumping well are responsible for diluted, tritium-based groundwater age dates observed in 2000 at these locations, as well as for increased tailing effects observed in the pumping well elution curves. Altogether, the models and experimental observations provide an improved basis to understand both historical and future movements of test-related radionuclides in groundwater near CAMBRIC.

  5. A serendipitous, long-term infiltration experiment: Water and tritium circulation beneath the CAMBRIC trench at the Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed M.; Tompson, Andrew F. B.; Kollet, Stefan

    2009-08-01

    Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used subsequently to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. In 1965, a unique, 16-year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in the saturated zone beneath Frenchman Flat, Nevada, USA, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport in a heterogeneous subsurface, tailored specifically for large-scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate tritium travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the trench and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the trench, the water table, and monitoring and pumping wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing more accurate interpretations of contaminant migration processes.

  6. A Serendipitous, Long-Term Infiltration Experiment: Water and Tritium Circulation Beneath the CAMBRIC Ditch at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, R M; Tompson, A B; Kollet, S J

    2008-11-20

    Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. A sixteen year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in groundwater beneath Frenchman Flat in 1965, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport, tailored specifically for large scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate radionuclide travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the ditch and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the ditch, the water table, and monitoring wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing accurate interpretations and forecasts of contaminant migration processes.

  7. Thermal Assessment of Landsat-7 ETM+ Radiative Cooler in Instrument and Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Tests and in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    1999-01-01

    During the radiative cooler cool-down phase of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument thermal vacuum test #3, the coldest temperature that the Cold Focal Plane Array (CFPA) achieved was 89.5 K. The cold stage/CFPA temperature decreased from 315 K to 89.5 K in 80 hours. In the spacecraft and instrument integrated thermal vacuum test, the cold stage/CFPA temperature decreased from 315 K to 86.9 K in 80 hours, and was still decreasing at a rate of 0.08 K/hr when the cool-down was terminated. The cool-down was faster, and a colder CFPA temperature was obtained. In flight, the cooler cool- down was even faster, and colder. The cold stage/CFPA temperature decreased from 315 K to 89.7 K in 33 hours, and was still decreasing at a rate of 1 K/hr when cool- down was terminated at 89.7 K. The factors that affected the ETM+ cooler cool-down are the radiation heat sink temperature for the cold stage and intermediate stage, parasitic radiation heat load to the cooler, parasitic conduction heat load to the cooler, and cooler outgas time preceding cooler cool-down.

  8. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  9. Overview of the system alone and system/CFD coupled calculations of the PHENIX Natural Circulation Test within the THINS project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pialla, David, E-mail: david.pialla@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), DEN/DM2S/STMF, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Tenchine, Denis [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), DEN/DM2S/STMF, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Li, Simon [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), DEN/DM2S/STMF, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gauthe, Paul; Vasile, Alfredo [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), DEN/DER/SESI, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baviere, Roland; Tauveron, Nicolas; Perdu, Fabien [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), DEN/DM2S/STMF, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Maas, Ludovic; Cocheme, François [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSN/SEMIA/BAST, B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Huber, Klaus; Cheng, Xu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Fusion and Reactor Technology (IFRT), Kaiserstraße 12, Building 07.08, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The PHENIX natural convection test performed during the end of life tests program. • The calculation with system codes and theirs limits. • The calculation with coupling CFD and system code, which allows better prediction. • The tasks of code validation have been done in the frame of the THINS project. - Abstract: The PHENIX sodium cooled fast reactor started operation in 1973 and was shut down in 2009. Before decommissioning, an ultimate test program was designed and performed to provide valuable data for the development of future sodium cooled fast reactors, as the so-called Astrid prototype in France. Among these ultimate tests, a thermal-hydraulic Natural Convection Test (NCT) was set-up in June 2009. Starting from a reduced power state of 120 MWt, the NCT consists of a loss of the heat sink combined with a reactor scram and a primary pumps trip leading to stabilized natural circulation in the primary sodium system. The thermal-hydraulics innovative system project (THINS project), sponsored by the European Community in the frame of the 7th FP has selected this transient for validation of both stand-alone system code simulations and coupled simulations using system and CFD codes. Participants from three organizations (CEA, IRSN and KIT) have addressed this transient using different system codes (CATHARE, DYN2B and ATHLET) and CFD codes (TRIO-U and OPEN FOAM). The present paper depicts the different modeling approaches, methodologies and compares the numerical results with the available experimental data. Finally, the main lessons learned from the work performed within the THINS project on the PHENIX NCT with respect to code development and validation are summarized.

  10. Progresses in circulating tumor cell testing and its clinical value%循环肿瘤细胞检测新进展及临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑磊; 陈静

    2016-01-01

    循环肿瘤细胞( CTCs)检测具有非侵入性、采样方便、便于实时检测的特点。目前发展了多种基于物理特性和化学特性分离鉴定的CTCs检测方法,而细胞亚群分类、单细胞测序、体外培养等后续特征分析也丰富了我们对CTCs的认识和对肿瘤异质性的理解。 CTCs检测在肿瘤的早期诊断、疗效评估、预后等研究中有着非常重要的应用价值。(中华检验医学杂志,2016,39:565-567)%Circulating tumor cell ( CTC ) testing is characterized by its invasiveness, sampling convenience and facility for real-time monitoring.The booming detection technologies based on physical or immunological features, as well as the subsequent molecular analysis of CTCs including subtype classification, single cell sequencing and in vitro culture, has greatly enriched our comprehension of CTCs and cancer heterogeneity.Meanwhile, a great of researches have demonstrated the significance of CTCs testing in the clinical practice of cancers involving aspects of early diagnosis, treatment monitoring and prognosis.

  11. Countrywide Reassessment of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Burundi Using a Urine-Circulating Cathodic Antigen Rapid Test: Informing the National Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortu, Giuseppina; Ndayishimiye, Onésime; Clements, Michelle; Kayugi, Donatien; Campbell, Carl H; Lamine, Mariama Sani; Zivieri, Antonio; Magalhaes, Ricardo Soares; Binder, Sue; King, Charles H; Fenwick, Alan; Colley, Daniel G; Jourdan, Peter Mark

    2017-01-23

    Following implementation of the national control program, a reassessment of Schistosoma mansoni prevalence was conducted in Burundi to determine the feasibility of moving toward elimination. A countrywide cluster-randomized cross-sectional study was performed in May 2014. At least 25 schools were sampled from each of five eco-epidemiological risk zones for schistosomiasis. Fifty randomly selected children 13-14 years of age per school were included for a single urine-circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) rapid test and, in a subset of schools, for duplicate Kato-Katz slides preparation from a single stool sample. A total of 17,331 children from 347 schools were tested using CCA. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection, when CCA trace results were considered negative, was 13.5% (zone range [zr] = 4.6-17.8%), and when CCA trace results were considered positive, it was 42.8% (zr = 34.3-49.9%). In 170 schools, prevalence of this infection determined using Kato-Katz method was 1.5% (zr ==0-2.7%). The overall mean intensity of S. mansoni infection determined using Kato-Katz was 0.85 eggs per gram (standard deviation = 10.86). A majority of schools (84%) were classified as non-endemic (prevalence = 0) using Kato-Katz; however, a similar proportion of schools were classified as endemic when CCA trace results were considered negative (85%) and nearly all (98%) were endemic when CCA trace results were considered positive. The findings of this nationwide reassessment using CCA rapid test indicate that Schistosoma infection is still widespread in Burundi, although its average intensity is probably low. Further evidence is now needed to determine the association between CCA rapid test positivity and low-intensity disease transmission.

  12. Novel circulating microRNA signature as a potential non-invasive multi-marker test in ER-positive early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kodahl, Annette R; Lyng, Maria Bibi; Binder, Harald

    2014-01-01

    controls using LNA-based quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). A signature of miRNAs was subsequently validated in an independent set of 111 serum samples from 60 patients with early-stage breast cancer and 51 healthy controls and further tested for reproducibility in 3 independent data sets from the GEO......INTRODUCTION: There are currently no highly sensitive and specific minimally invasive biomarkers for detection of early-stage breast cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are present in the circulation and may be unique biomarkers for early diagnosis of human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate...... the differential expression of miRNAs in the serum of breast cancer patients and healthy controls. METHODS: Global miRNA analysis was performed on serum from 48 patients with ER-positive early-stage breast cancer obtained at diagnosis (24 lymph node-positive and 24 lymph node-negative) and 24 age-matched healthy...

  13. Accuracy of Urine Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test for the Diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni in Preschool-Aged Children before and after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Jean T.; N'Gbesso, Yves K.; Knopp, Stefanie; N'Guessan, Nicaise A.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; van Dam, Govert J.; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Background The Kato-Katz technique is widely used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, but shows low sensitivity in light-intensity infections. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) cassette test for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. Methodology A 3-week longitudinal survey with a treatment intervention was conducted in Azaguié, south Côte d'Ivoire. Overall, 242 preschoolers (age range: 2 months to 5.5 years) submitted two stool and two urine samples before praziquantel administration, and 86 individuals were followed-up posttreatment. Stool samples were examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears for S. mansoni. Urine samples were subjected to POC-CCA cassette test for S. mansoni, and a filtration method for S. haematobium diagnosis. Principal Findings Before treatment, the prevalence of S. mansoni, as determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz, single CCA considering ‘trace’ as negative (t−), and single CCA with ‘trace’ as positive (t+), was 23.1%, 34.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Using the combined results (i.e., four Kato-Katz and duplicate CCA(t−)) as diagnostic ‘gold’ standard, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, a single CCA(t−) or CCA(t+) was 28.3%, 69.7% and 89.1%, respectively. Three weeks posttreatment, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, single CCA(t−) and CCA(t+) was 4.0%, 80.0% and 84.0%, respectively. The intensity of the POC-CCA test band reaction was correlated with S. mansoni egg burden (odds ratio = 1.2, p = 0.04). Conclusions/Significance A single POC-CCA cassette test appears to be more sensitive than multiple Kato-Katz thick smears for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. The POC-CCA cassette test can be recommended for the rapid identification of S. mansoni infections before treatment. Additional studies are

  14. Accuracy of Urine Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA) Test for Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis in Different Settings of Côte d'Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Jean T.; Knopp, Stefanie; N'Guessan, Nicaise A.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Fürst, Thomas; Lohourignon, Laurent K.; Brou, Jean K.; N'Gbesso, Yve K.; Vounatsou, Penelope; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2011-01-01

    Background Promising results have been reported for a urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available CCA cassette test (designated CCA-A) and an experimental formulation (CCA-B) for S. mansoni diagnosis. Methodology We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings of Côte d'Ivoire: settings A and B are endemic for S. mansoni, whereas S. haematobium co-exists in setting C. Overall, 446 children, aged 8–12 years, submitted multiple stool and urine samples. For S. mansoni diagnosis, stool samples were examined with triplicate Kato-Katz, whereas urine samples were tested with CCA-A. The first stool and urine samples were additionally subjected to an ether-concentration technique and CCA-B, respectively. Urine samples were examined for S. haematobium using a filtration method, and for microhematuria using Hemastix dipsticks. Principal Findings Considering nine Kato-Katz as diagnostic ‘gold’ standard, the prevalence of S. mansoni in setting A, B and C was 32.9%, 53.1% and 91.8%, respectively. The sensitivity of triplicate Kato-Katz from the first stool and a single CCA-A test was 47.9% and 56.3% (setting A), 73.9% and 69.6% (setting B), and 94.2% and 89.6% (setting C). The respective sensitivity of a single CCA-B was 10.4%, 29.9% and 75.0%. The ether-concentration technique showed a low sensitivity for S. mansoni diagnosis (8.3–41.0%). The specificity of CCA-A was moderate (76.9–84.2%); CCA-B was high (96.7–100%). The likelihood of a CCA-A color reaction increased with higher S. mansoni fecal egg counts (odds ratio: 1.07, p<0.001). A concurrent S. haematobium infection or the presence of microhematuria did not influence the CCA-A test results for S. mansoni diagnosis. Conclusion/Significance CCA-A showed similar sensitivity than triplicate Kato-Katz for S. mansoni diagnosis with no cross-reactivity to S. haematobium and microhematuria. The low sensitivity of

  15. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean T Coulibaly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Kato-Katz technique is widely used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, but shows low sensitivity in light-intensity infections. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA cassette test for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. METHODOLOGY: A 3-week longitudinal survey with a treatment intervention was conducted in Azaguié, south Côte d'Ivoire. Overall, 242 preschoolers (age range: 2 months to 5.5 years submitted two stool and two urine samples before praziquantel administration, and 86 individuals were followed-up posttreatment. Stool samples were examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears for S. mansoni. Urine samples were subjected to POC-CCA cassette test for S. mansoni, and a filtration method for S. haematobium diagnosis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Before treatment, the prevalence of S. mansoni, as determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz, single CCA considering 'trace' as negative (t-, and single CCA with 'trace' as positive (t+, was 23.1%, 34.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Using the combined results (i.e., four Kato-Katz and duplicate CCA(t- as diagnostic 'gold' standard, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, a single CCA(t- or CCA(t+ was 28.3%, 69.7% and 89.1%, respectively. Three weeks posttreatment, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, single CCA(t- and CCA(t+ was 4.0%, 80.0% and 84.0%, respectively. The intensity of the POC-CCA test band reaction was correlated with S. mansoni egg burden (odds ratio = 1.2, p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A single POC-CCA cassette test appears to be more sensitive than multiple Kato-Katz thick smears for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. The POC-CCA cassette test can be recommended for the rapid identification of S. mansoni infections before treatment. Additional studies are warranted

  16. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON CIRCULATION HEIGHT OF CIRCULATION FLOW WITH THE HORIZONTAL AXIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the relationship between circulation heights of circulation flow with horizontal axis and incident flow conditions as well as side slope angles of trenches was systematically analyzed on the basis of the velocity distribution data observed in a series of model tests in a flume, and the related formula for the circulation height was proposed. Moreover, the variation of circulation flow intensity was also analyzed.

  17. Validation of the RELAP5 code for the modeling of flashing-induced instabilities under natural-circulation conditions using experimental data from the CIRCUS test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozmenkov, Y. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (FZD), Institute of Safety Research, P.O.B. 510119, D-01324 Dresden (Germany); Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Rohde, U., E-mail: U.Rohde@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (FZD), Institute of Safety Research, P.O.B. 510119, D-01324 Dresden (Germany); Manera, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report about the simulation of flashing-induced instabilities in natural circulation systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flashing-induced instabilities are of relevance for operation of pool-type reactors of small power at low pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RELAP5 code is validated against measurement data from natural circulation experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnitude and frequency of the oscillations were reproduced in good agreement with the measurement data. - Abstract: This paper reports on the use of the RELAP5 code for the simulation of flashing-induced instabilities in natural circulation systems. The RELAP 5 code is intended to be used for the simulation of transient processes in the Russian RUTA reactor concept operating at atmospheric pressure with forced convection of coolant. However, during transient processes, natural circulation with flashing-induced instabilities might occur. The RELAP5 code is validated against measurement data from natural circulation experiments performed within the framework of a European project (NACUSP) on the CIRCUS facility. The facility, built at the Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands, is a water/steam 1:1 height-scaled loop of a typical natural-circulation-cooled BWR. It was shown that the RELAP5 code is able to model all relevant phenomena related to flashing induced instabilities. The magnitude and frequency of the oscillations were reproduced in a good agreement with the measurement data. The close correspondence to the experiments was reached by detailed modeling of all components of the CIRCUS facility including the heat exchanger, the buffer vessel and the steam dome at the top of the facility.

  18. RCGVS design improvement and depressurization capability tests for Ulchin nuclear power plant units 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Kang Sik; Seong, Ho Je; Jeong, Won Sang; Seo, Jong Tae; Lee, Sang Keun [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Keun Hyo; Choi, Kwon Sik; Oh, Chul Sung [Korea Electric Power Cooperation, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The Reactor Coolant Gas Vent System(RCGVS) design for Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4 (UCN 3 and 4) has been improved from the Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4 (YGN 3 and 4) based on the evaluation results for depressurization capability tests performed at YGN 3 and 4. There has been a series of plant safety analyses for Natural Circulation Cooldown(NCC) event and thermo-dynamic analyses with RELAP5 code for the steam blowdown phenomena in order to optimize the orifice size of UCN 3 and 4 RCGVS. Based on these analyses results, the RCGVS orifics size for UCN 3 and 4 has been reduced to 9/32 inch from the 11/32 inch for YGN 3 and 4. The depressurization capability tests, which were performed at UCN 3 in order to verify the FSAR NCC analysis results, show that the RCGVS depressurization rates are being within the acceptable ranges. Therefore, it is concluded that the orificed flow path of UCN 3 and 4 RCGVS is adequately designed, and can provide the safety-grade depressurization capability required for a safe plant operation. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  19. Sensitivity and Specificity of Multiple Kato-Katz Thick Smears and a Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test for Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis Pre- and Post-repeated-Praziquantel Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberton, Poppy H. L.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Oguttu, David W.; Fenwick, Alan; Webster, Joanne P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Two Kato-Katz thick smears (Kato-Katzs) from a single stool are currently recommended for diagnosing Schistosoma mansoni infections to map areas for intervention. This ‘gold standard’ has low sensitivity at low infection intensities. The urine point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test (POC-CCA) is potentially more sensitive but how accurately they detect S. mansoni after repeated praziquantel treatments, their suitability for measuring drug efficacy and their correlation with egg counts remain to be fully understood. We compared the accuracies of one to six Kato-Katzs and one POC-CCA for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in primary-school children who have received zero to ten praziquantel treatments. We determined the impact each diagnostic approach may have on monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and drug-efficacy findings. Method/Principle Findings In a high S. mansoni endemic area of Uganda, three days of consecutive stool samples were collected from primary school-aged children (six - 12 years) at five time-points in year one: baseline, one-week-post-, four-weeks-post-, six-months-post-, and six-months-one-week-post-praziquantel and three time-points in years two and three: pre-, one-week-post- and four-weeks-post-praziquantel-treatment/retreatment (n = 1065). Two Kato-Katzs were performed on each stool. In parallel, one urine sample was collected and a single POC-CCA evaluated per child at each time-point in year one (n = 367). At baseline, diagnosis by two Kato-Katzs (sensitivity = 98.6%) or one POC-CCA (sensitivity = 91.7%, specificity = 75.0%) accurately predicted S. mansoni infections. However, one year later, a minimum of three Kato-Katzs, and two years later, five Kato-Katzs were required for accurate diagnosis (sensitivity >90%) and drug-efficacy evaluation. The POC-CCA was as sensitive as six Kato-Katzs four-weeks-post and six-months-post-treatment, if trace readings were classified as positive. Conclusions

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of multiple Kato-Katz thick smears and a circulating cathodic antigen test for Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis pre- and post-repeated-praziquantel treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy H L Lamberton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two Kato-Katz thick smears (Kato-Katzs from a single stool are currently recommended for diagnosing Schistosoma mansoni infections to map areas for intervention. This 'gold standard' has low sensitivity at low infection intensities. The urine point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen test (POC-CCA is potentially more sensitive but how accurately they detect S. mansoni after repeated praziquantel treatments, their suitability for measuring drug efficacy and their correlation with egg counts remain to be fully understood. We compared the accuracies of one to six Kato-Katzs and one POC-CCA for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in primary-school children who have received zero to ten praziquantel treatments. We determined the impact each diagnostic approach may have on monitoring and evaluation (M&E and drug-efficacy findings.In a high S. mansoni endemic area of Uganda, three days of consecutive stool samples were collected from primary school-aged children (six - 12 years at five time-points in year one: baseline, one-week-post-, four-weeks-post-, six-months-post-, and six-months-one-week-post-praziquantel and three time-points in years two and three: pre-, one-week-post- and four-weeks-post-praziquantel-treatment/retreatment (n = 1065. Two Kato-Katzs were performed on each stool. In parallel, one urine sample was collected and a single POC-CCA evaluated per child at each time-point in year one (n = 367. At baseline, diagnosis by two Kato-Katzs (sensitivity = 98.6% or one POC-CCA (sensitivity = 91.7%, specificity = 75.0% accurately predicted S. mansoni infections. However, one year later, a minimum of three Kato-Katzs, and two years later, five Kato-Katzs were required for accurate diagnosis (sensitivity >90% and drug-efficacy evaluation. The POC-CCA was as sensitive as six Kato-Katzs four-weeks-post and six-months-post-treatment, if trace readings were classified as positive.Six Kato-Katzs (two/stool from three stools and/or one POC-CCA are required

  1. Reducing the Liquid Helium Consumption of Superconducting Rock Magnetometers (SRMs) used in Paleomagnetic and Rock Magnetic studies: Gallium Lubrication of Gifford-McMahon Cryocoolers Leads to a Dramatic Increase in Cool-down Efficiency, and a Drop in Liquid Helium Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Two-stage Gifford-McMahon helium-gas cryocoolers have been used for the past 40+ years in a wide variety of cryogenic applications, including reducing the liquid helium consumption of SRMs. However, the cooling efficiency depends greatly on the friction of the displacement pistons, which need to be replaced every few years. This and the rising cost of liquid helium are major headaches in the operation of modern paleomagnetic laboratories. Although the development of efficient pulse-tube cryocoolers has eliminated the need for liquid helium in new superconducting magnetometers, there are still nearly 100 older SRMs around the globe that use liquid helium. In a failed attempt to replace the Gifford-McMahon unit on one of Caltech's SRMs with a pulse-tube, we irreversibly contaminated the cylindrical surfaces of the stainless-steel heat exchanger with a thin film of gallium, a non-toxic metal that has a melting temperature of ~ 30˚C. Liquid gallium will diffuse into other metals, altering their surface properties. We noticed that the next cryocooler-assisted cool down of the SRM went nearly twice as fast as in previous cycles, and the helium boiloff rate for the past 2 years has stabilized at less than half of its average over the past 30 years. It seems that the thin layer of gallium may be reducing the sliding friction of the Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers. We recently tested this on a second SRM, with similar results. We found that the inner cryocooler surface reached its equilibrium temperature in about 1/3 of the time that it took in previous cool-down cycles. WSGI also confirmed that this cool-down was unusually efficient compared to other instruments they have built. Subsequent records of the helium gas boiloff show that this system is also running at about half of its former loss rate. Based on these two results, we tentatively recommend this simple procedure any time cold-head swaps are performed on these cryocoolers.

  2. Proper Sizing of Circulation Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    , but the results can be applied to Europe in general. Despite the small sample of houses involved in the test, 15 houses, some rather safe conclusions can be drawn from the results, which showed that newly developed pumps with power consumption around 5-8 W, can perform the task of circulating the water......The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust...... sufficiently to keep the houses satisfactorily warm during the heating season of the test. The old replaced pumps used 5-10 times more power. In Europe alone, a gradual replacement of the present vastly oversized pumps with such small but sufficient pumps can save the construction of 17 large power plants...

  3. Comparison of the circulating metabolite profile of PF-04991532, a hepatoselective glucokinase activator, across preclinical species and humans: potential implications in metabolites in safety testing assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Raman; Litchfield, John; Bergman, Arthur; Atkinson, Karen; Kazierad, David; Gustavson, Stephanie M; Di, Li; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Kalgutkar, Amit S

    2015-02-01

    A previous report from our laboratory disclosed the identification of PF-04991532 [(S)-6-(3-cyclopentyl-2-(4-trifluoromethyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propanamido)nicotinic acid] as a hepatoselective glucokinase activator for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lack of in vitro metabolic turnover in microsomes and hepatocytes from preclinical species and humans suggested that metabolism would be inconsequential as a clearance mechanism of PF-04991532 in vivo. Qualitative examination of human circulating metabolites using plasma samples from a 14-day multiple ascending dose clinical study, however, revealed a glucuronide (M1) and monohydroxylation products (M2a and M2b/M2c) whose abundances (based on UV integration) were greater than 10% of the total drug-related material. Based on this preliminary observation, mass balance/excretion studies were triggered in animals, which revealed that the majority of circulating radioactivity following the oral administration of [¹⁴C]PF-04991532 was attributed to an unchanged parent (>70% in rats and dogs). In contrast with the human circulatory metabolite profile, the monohydroxylated metabolites were not detected in circulation in either rats or dogs. Available mass spectral evidence suggested that M2a and M2b/M2c were diastereomers derived from cyclopentyl ring oxidation in PF-04991532. Because cyclopentyl ring hydroxylation on the C-2 and C-3 positions can generate eight possible diastereomers, it was possible that additional diastereomers may have also formed and would need to be resolved from the M2a and M2b/M2c peaks observed in the current chromatography conditions. In conclusion, the human metabolite scouting study in tandem with the animal mass balance study allowed early identification of PF-04991532 oxidative metabolites, which were not predicted by in vitro methods and may require additional scrutiny in the development phase of PF-04991532.

  4. Natural circulation loop using liquid nitrogen for cryo-detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yeon Suk [Korea Basic Science Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29

    The natural circulation loop is designed for the cryogenic insert in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. Sensitivity is the key parameter of a FTICR mass spectrometer and the cryo-cooling of the pre-amplifier can reduce the thermal noise level and thereby improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The pre-amplifier consisted of non-magnetic materials is thermally connected to the cooling loop which is passing through the flange maintaining ultra-high vacuum in the ion cell. The liquid nitrogen passes through inside of the loop to cool the pre-amplifier indirectly. At the end, a cryocooler is located to re-condense nitrogen vapor generated due to the heat from the pre-amplifier. The circulating fluid removes heat from the pre-amplifier and transports it to the cryocooler or heat sink. In this paper the natural circulation loop for cryogenic pre-amplifier is introduced for improving the sensitivity of cryo-detector. In addition, the initial cool-down of the system by a cryocooler is presented and the temperature of the radiation shield is discussed with respect to the thickness of shield and the thermal radiation load.

  5. Study on bubbly flow behavior in natural circulation reactor by thermal-hydraulic simulation tests with SF6-Gas and ethanol liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yoshiyuki; Suga, Keishi; Hibi, Koki; Okazaki, Toshihiko; Komeno, Toshihiro; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Serizawa, Akimi; Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Arai, Takahiro

    2009-02-01

    An advanced experimental technique has been developed to simulate two-phase flow behavior in a light water reactor (LWR). The technique applies three kinds of methods; (1) use of sulfur-hexafluoride (SF6) gas and ethanol (C2H5OH) liquid at atmospheric temperature and a pressure less than 1.0MPa, where the fluid properties are similar to steam-water ones in the LWR, (2) generation of bubble with a sintering tube, which simulates bubble generation on heated surface in the LWR, (3) measurement of detailed bubble distribution data with a bi-optical probe (BOP), (4) and measurement of liquid velocities with the tracer liquid. This experimental technique provides easy visualization of flows by using a large scale experimental apparatus, which gives three-dimensional flows, and measurement of detailed spatial distributions of two-phase flow. With this technique, we have carried out experiments simulating two-phase flow behavior in a single-channel geometry, a multi-rod-bundle one, and a horizontal-tube-bundle one on a typical natural circulation reactor system. Those experiments have clarified a) a flow regime map in a rod bundle on the transient region between bubbly and churn flow, b) three-dimensional flow behaviour in rod-bundles where inter-subassembly cross-flow occurs, c) bubble-separation behavior with consideration of reactor internal structures. The data have given analysis models for the natural circulation reactor design with good extrapolation.

  6. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  7. Microwave circulator design

    CERN Document Server

    Linkhart, Douglas K

    2014-01-01

    Circulator design has advanced significantly since the first edition of this book was published 25 years ago. The objective of this second edition is to present theory, information, and design procedures that will enable microwave engineers and technicians to design and build circulators successfully. This resource contains a discussion of the various units used in the circulator design computations, as well as covers the theory of operation. This book presents numerous applications, giving microwave engineers new ideas about how to solve problems using circulators. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate how to apply the information to real-world design tasks.

  8. A study of longwave radiation codes for climate studies: Validation with ARM observations and tests in general circulation models. Final report, September 15, 1990--October 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.

    1998-09-01

    DOE has launched a major initiative -- the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program -- directed at improving the parameterization of the physics governing cloud and radiative processes in general circulation models (GCMs). One specific goal of ARM is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in GCMs under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. In 1990, the authors proposed to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems connected with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem -- longwave radiation. In particular, their long-term research goals are to: develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations, assess the impact of the longwave radiative forcing in a GCM, determine the sensitivity of a GCM to the radiative model used in it, and determine how the longwave radiative forcing contributes relatively when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and expansion.

  9. Circulation model for water circulation and purification in a water Cerenkov detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hao-Qi; YANG Chang-Gen; WANG Ling-Yu; XU Ji-Lei; WANG aui-Guang; WANG Zhi-Min; WANG Yi-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Owing to its low cost and good transparency, highly purified water is widely used as a medium in large water Cerenkov detector experiments. The water circulation and purification system is usually needed to keep the water in good quality. In this work, a practical circulation model is built to describe the variation of the water resistivity in the circulation process and compared with the data obtained from a prototype experiment. The successful test of the model makes it useful in the future design and optimization of the circulation/purification system.

  10. Scheduling the powering tests

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero-Soto, E; Casas-Lino, M P; Fernandez-Robles, C; Foraz, K; Pojer, M; Saban, R; Schmidt, R; Solfaroli-Camillocci, M; Vergara-Fernandez, A

    2008-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is now entering in its final phase before receiving beam, and the activities at CERN between 2007 and 2008 have shifted from installation work to the commissioning of the technical systems ("hardware commissioning"). Due to the unprecedented complexity of this machine, all the systems are or will be tested as far as possible before the cool-down starts. Systems are firstly tested individually before being globally tested together. The architecture of LHC, which is partitioned into eight cryogenically and electrically independent sectors, allows the commissioning on a sector by sector basis. When a sector reaches nominal cryogenic conditions, commissioning of the magnet powering system to nominal current for all magnets can be performed. This paper briefly describes the different activities to be performed during the powering tests of the superconducting magnet system and presents the scheduling issues raised by co-activities as well as the management of resources.

  11. Input Calibration and Validation of RELAP5 Against CIRCUS-IV Single Channel Tests on Natural Circulation Two-Phase Flow Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet-Anh Phung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RELAP5 is a system thermal-hydraulic code that is used to perform safety analysis on nuclear reactors. Since the code is based on steady state, two-phase flow regime maps, there is a concern that RELAP5 may provide significant errors for rapid transient conditions. In this work, the capability of RELAP5 code to predict the oscillatory behavior of a natural circulation driven, two-phase flow at low pressure is investigated. The simulations are compared with a series of experiments that were performed in the CIRCUS-IV facility at the Delft University of Technology. For this purpose, we developed a procedure for calibration of the input and code validation. The procedure employs (i multiple parameters measured in different regimes, (ii independent consideration of the subsections of the loop, and (iii assessment of importance of the uncertain input parameters. We found that predicted system parameters are less sensitive to variations of the uncertain input and boundary conditions in high frequency oscillations regime. It is shown that calculation results overlap experimental values, except for the high frequency oscillations regime where the maximum inlet flow rate was overestimated. This finding agrees with the idea that steady state, two-phase flow regime maps might be one of the possible reasons for the discrepancy in case of rapid transients in two-phase systems.

  12. Mountains and Tropical Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Z.; Goodman, P. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Malyshev, S.; Russell, J. L.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Observed tropical convection exhibits zonal asymmetries that strongly influence spatial precipitation patterns. The drivers of changes to this zonally-asymmetric Walker circulation on decadal and longer timescales have been the focus of significant recent research. Here we use two state-of-the-art earth system models to explore the impact of earth's mountains on the Walker circulation. When all land-surface topography is removed, the Walker circulation weakens by 33-59%. There is a ~30% decrease in global, large-scale upward vertical wind velocities in the middle of the troposphere, but only minor changes in global average convective mass flux, precipitation, surface and sea-surface temperatures. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is also largely unchanged. Following the spatial pattern of changes to large-scale vertical wind velocities, precipitation becomes less focused over the tropics. The weakening of the Walker circulation, but not the Hadley circulation, is similar to the behavior of climate models during radiative forcing experiments: in our simulations, the weakening is associated with changes in vertical wind velocities, rather than the hydrologic cycle. These results indicate suggest that mountain heights may significantly influence the Walker circulation on geologic time scales, and observed changes in tropical precipitation over millions of years may have been forced by changes in tropical orography.

  13. Design and Prototype Test of Hot Air Circulation Molten Plastic Recycling Granulator%热风循环熔融塑料回收造粒机的设计和样机试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁文清; 黄兴元; 王都阳

    2016-01-01

    在分析国内废旧塑料回收现状以及传统塑料回收工艺的基础上,遵循机械设计原理,设计出热风循环熔融废旧塑料回收造粒机,将废旧塑料经热风加热熔融后,再由单螺杆将熔融塑料挤出造粒。其中重点介绍了热风循环熔融塑料系统以及螺杆的几何参数设计。遵循结构设计方案,制造出热风循环熔融塑料回收造粒机的物理样机,并用该样机进行塑料回收试验,试验验证了热风熔融塑料回收的可行性和研究价值,同时针对试验过程中发现的问题提出了一系列解决方法,为后续的改进和进一步研究工作提供了可靠依据。%Based on the analysis of the domestic current situation of the waste plastics recycling and on the basis of traditional plastic recycling technology,following the principleof mechanical design,a molten waste plastic recycling granulator with hot air circulation was designed. The waste plastic was heated and melted by the hot air,and then the molten plastic was extruded and granulated by a single screw. The hot air circulation system and geometric parameters design of the screw were focused on. Follow-ing the structure design project,the physical prototype of hot air circulation molten plastic recycling granulator was produced,and a test of plastic recycling with the prototype was conducted. The test verified the feasibility and research value of hot air molten plastic recycling. At the same time,a series of solutions to the problems found in the test were put forward,which provides the reliable basis for the subsequent improvement work and further research.

  14. Learning Circulant Sensing Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    learned dictionaries. Examples of analytic dictionaries include the discrete cosine basis, various wavelets bases , as well as tight frames. Some of them...Compressive sensing based high resolution channel estimation for OFDM system. To appear in IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, Special...theoretical and computational properties to a (partial) circulant matrix of the same size, our discussions below are based exclusively on the circulant

  15. Governing by Testing: Circulation, Psychometric Knowledge, Experts and the "Alliance for Progress" in Latin America during the 1960s and 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the activities, members, and effects of an inter-American expert network for the diffusion of psychometric knowledge, specifically of standardized aptitude testing for university admission in Latin America during the 1960s and 1970s. Within the framework of educational transfer studies, the role of international,…

  16. Using the AD12-ICT rapid-format test to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigens in comparison to Og4C3-ELISA and nucleopore membrane filtration and microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Moamly, Amal Abdul-Rasheed; El-Sweify, Mohamed Aly; Hafez, Mohamad Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) continues to be a major source of permanent disability and an impediment to socio-economic development in 73 countries where more than 1 billion people are at risk and over 120 millions are infected. The global drive to eliminate LF necessitates an increasing demand for valid, reliable and rapid diagnostic tests. This study aimed to assess the performance of the AD12 rapid format immunochromatographic test (ICT) to detect Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigens, against the combined gold standard: TropBio Og4C3-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) which detects circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and the nucleopore membrane filtration and microscopic examination. This prospective case-control study involved 647 asymptomatic migrant workers from filariasis-endemic countries. Of these specimens, 32 were positive for microfilaremia using the membrane filtration and microscopy, 142 positive by ELISA (of which 32 had microfilaremia), and 128 positive by the ICT (of which 31 had microfilaremia). The performance of the ICT was calculated against 32 true-positive and 90 true-negative cases. For the detection of CFA, the ICT had a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-103), specificity 100% (95% CI 100-100), Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 100% (95% CI 100-100), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) 99% (95% CI 97-101); and the total accuracy of the test was 99% (95% CI 98-101). The agreement between ICT and ELISA in detecting W. bancrofti antigens was excellent (kappa = 0.934; p = 0.000). In conclusion, the AD12-ICT test for the detection of W. bancrofti-CFA was sensitive and specific and comparable to the performance of ELISA. The ICT would be a useful additional test to facilitate the proposed strategies for control and elimination of LF. Because it is rapid, simple to perform, and does not require the use of special equipment, the ICT may be most appropriate in screening programs and in monitoring the possible risk of introducing

  17. Gaussian Fibonacci Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become important tools in solving integrable system, Hamiltonian structure, and integral equations. In this paper, we prove that Gaussian Fibonacci circulant type matrices are invertible matrices for n>2 and give the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices. Furthermore, the upper bounds for the spread on Gaussian Fibonacci circulant and left circulant matrices are presented, respectively.

  18. Methodology Plan for Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD) Testing of Aircraft Installed Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    a. Detector type: Multi-element MCT SPRITE b. Wavelength: Long wave, 8-12 um c. Cooling system : Integrated Sterling cooler d. Cooldown...protective lid on the front of the sensor. Self-test imagery will be presented on the RS-170 monitor until the sensor’s Stirling cooler reaches its...ABSTRACT The development, modernization, and integration of electro-optical sensors into U.S. Army aviation weapon systems necessitate a conclusive

  19. Circulant Double Coverings of a Circulant Graph of Valency Five

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Quan FENG; Jin Ho KWAK

    2007-01-01

    Enumerating the isomorphism classes of several types of graph covering projections is one of the central research topics in enumerative topological graph theory. A covering of G is called circulant if its covering graph is circulant. Recently, the authors [Discrete Math., 277, 73-85 (2004)]enumerated the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a certain type, called a typicalcovering, and showed that no double covering of a circulant graph of valency three is circulant. Also, in [Graphs and Combinatorics, 21, 386-400 (2005)], the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a circulant graph of valency four are enumerated. In this paper, the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a circulant graph of valency five are enumerated.

  20. Kernels in circulant digraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lakshmi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A kernel $J$ of a digraph $D$ is an independent set of vertices of $D$ such that for every vertex $w,in,V(D,setminus,J$ there exists an arc from $w$ to a vertex in $J.$ In this paper, among other results, a characterization of $2$-regular circulant digraph having a kernel is obtained. This characterization is a partial solution to the following problem: Characterize circulant digraphs which have kernels; it appeared in the book {it Digraphs - theory, algorithms and applications}, Second Edition, Springer-Verlag, 2009, by J. Bang-Jensen and G. Gutin.

  1. Characterization of the efficiency of the gas-solid contact in circulating bed at by the use of a test reaction: the cumene catalytic cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayle, J.; Gauthier, T.; Pontier, R. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Briens, C.L.; Bergougnou, M. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1995-12-31

    The gas-solid down with the stream reactor, the ``downer``, presents a main interest for the high-speed reactions because it is well adapted to hard conditions uses: very short residence times, high temperatures and feeds of catalyst. This reactor type already presents a certain advantage to estimate the charges or new catalysts potential. But, it particularly constitutes an interesting option for some processes as petroleum cuts catalytic cracking. In order to intensify the contact between the catalyst and the reagents, the temperature increase of the reagents has to be almost instantaneous and the initial contact between the gas and the solid particles particularly effective. So as to validate these two hypothesis, the test reaction of the cumene catalytic cracking is carried out in the pilot unit ``downer`` of the Western Ontario University. (O.M.). 11 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Poorer clock draw test scores are associated with greater functional impairment in peripheral artery disease: The Walking and Leg Circulation Study II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Laura J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Liu, Kiang; Tian, Lu; Guralnik, Jack M; Criqui, Michael H; Liao, Yihua; McDermott, Mary M

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that, in the absence of clinically recognized dementia, cognitive dysfunction measured by the clock draw test (CDT) is associated with greater functional impairment in men and women with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Participants were men and women aged 60 years and older with Mini-Mental Status Examination scores ≥ 24 with PAD (n = 335) and without PAD (n = 234). We evaluated the 6-minute walk test, 4-meter walking velocity at usual and fastest pace, the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and accelerometer-measured physical activity. CDTs were scored using the Shulman system as follows: Category 1 (worst): CDT score 0–2; Category 2: CDT score 3; Category 3 (best): CDT score 4–5. Results were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, ankle–brachial index (ABI), and comorbidities. In individuals with PAD, lower CDT scores were associated with slower 4-meter usual-paced walking velocity (Category 1: 0.78 meters/second; Category 2: 0.83 meters/second; Category 3: 0.86 meters/second; p-trend = 0.025) and lower physical activity (Category 1: 420 activity units; Category 2: 677 activity units; Category 3: 701 activity units; p-trend = 0.045). Poorer CDT scores were also associated with worse functional performance in individuals without PAD (usual and fast-paced walking velocity and SPPB, p-trend = 0.022, 0.043, and 0.031, respectively). In conclusion, cognitive impairment identified with CDT is independently associated with greater functional impairment in older, dementia-free individuals with and without PAD. Longitudinal studies are necessary to explore whether baseline CDT scores and changes in CDT scores over time can predict long-term decline in functional performance in individuals with and without PAD. PMID:21636676

  3. Stability of the Horizontal Curvature of the LHC Cryodipoles During Cold Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Cano, E D Fernandez; García-Pérez, J; Jeanneret, Jean Bernard; Poncet, A; Seyvet, F; Tovar-Gonzalez, A; Wildner, E; IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

    2006-01-01

    The LHC will be composed of 1232 horizontally curved, 15 meter long, superconducting dipole magnets cooled at 1.9 K. They are supported within their vacuum vessel by three Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy (GFRE) support posts. Each cryodipole is individually cold tested at CERN before its installation and interconnection in the LHC 27 km circumference tunnel. As the magnet geometry under cryogenic operation is extremely important for the LHC machine aperture, a new method has been developed at CERN in order to monitor the magnet curvature change between warm and cold states. It enabled us to conclude that there is no permanent horizontal curvature change of the LHC dipole magnet between warm and cold states, although a systematic horizontal transient deformation during cool-down was detected. This deformation generates loads in the dipole supporting system; further investigation permitted us to infer this behavior to the asymmetric thermal contraction of the rigid magnet thermal shield during cool-down. Controlli...

  4. Circulating tumor cells in blood of primary breast cancer patients assessed by a novel RT-PCR test kit and comparison with status of bone marrow-disseminated tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Manfred; Foekens, John A

    2009-01-01

    In breast cancer, circulating tumor cells (CTCs)/disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) may serve as independent adverse prognostic variables, to monitor the course of the disease and to predict response or failure to cancer therapy. Most of the techniques to enumerate DTCs in the bone marrow or CTCs in the bloodstream of breast cancer patients rely on a combination of an enrichment step and a detection step. A novel RT-PCR method, the AdnaTest BreastCancer kit, was developed for the enrichment of CTCs from peripheral blood of breast cancer patients followed by identification of CTC-associated marker transcripts by reverse transcription and PCR. Although this test has been demonstrated to identify breast cancer patients at risk, standardization of this technique and direct comparison with other established breast cancer CTC enrichment and detection techniques is still lacking, but highly needed. This is done best within prospective clinical trials, such as in the ongoing DETECT, SUCCESS, and BR-01-2004 trials.

  5. Effect of Coolant Inventories and Parallel Loop Interconnections on the Natural Circulation in Various Heat Transport Systems of a Nuclear Power Plant during Station Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash J. Gaikwad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of passive means to reactor core decay heat removal enhances the nuclear power plant (NPP safety and availability. In the earlier Indian pressurised heavy water reactors (IPHWRs, like the 220 MWe and the 540 MWe, crash cooldown from the steam generators (SGs is resorted to mitigate consequences of station blackout (SBO. In the 700 MWe PHWR currently being designed an additional passive decay heat removal (PDHR system is also incorporated to condense the steam generated in the boilers during a SBO. The sustainability of natural circulation in the various heat transport systems (i.e., primary heat transport (PHT, SGs, and PDHRs under station blackout depends on the corresponding system's coolant inventories and the coolant circuit configurations (i.e., parallel paths and interconnections. On the primary side, the interconnection between the two primary loops plays an important role to sustain the natural circulation heat removal. On the secondary side, the steam lines interconnections and the initial inventory in the SGs prior to cooldown, that is, hooking up of the PDHRs are very important. This paper attempts to open up discussions on the concept and the core issues associated with passive systems which can provide continued heat sink during such accident scenarios. The discussions would include the criteria for design, and performance of such concepts already implemented and proposes schemes to be implemented in the proposed 700 MWe IPHWR. The designer feedbacks generated, and critical examination of performance analysis results for the added passive system to the existing generation II & III reactors will help ascertaining that these safety systems/inventories in fact perform in sustaining decay heat removal and augmenting safety.

  6. 斯特林制冷机与高温超导滤波器集成及降温试验%Integration and cooldown experimental study on HTS filter with Stirling cryocooler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国太; 王田刚; 孙述泽; 李元明

    2013-01-01

    介绍了一种高效斯特林制冷机与移动通信基站用高温超导滤波器耦合集成系统设计及降温试验;详细描述了集成系统结构设计时主要考虑因素、整体方案设计,并进行了耦合集成和性能试验;实验结果表明,制冷机对其应用背景具有良好的匹配性.%Integration and cooldown experimental study on high temperature superconductivity (HTS) filter for mobile communication with high efficiency Stirling cryocooler were introduced. The major consideration factors about structure design and o-verall scheme design were described in detail. The integration and performance experiments were also carried out. The experimental results verify the good applicability for the application objects.

  7. Influence of external circulation on sludge characteristics during start-up of internal circulation reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Jian-nan; WANG Dian-zuo

    2005-01-01

    The start-up of external circulation-added internal circulation(IC) reactor was finished in 26 d, 32 d fewer than that of IC reactor. To evaluate the influence of the added external circulation on the development of granular sludge, the characteristics of the granular sludge taken from the two tested laboratory-scale reactors during start-up were studied. The results show that the added external circulation can enhance biomass granulation, accelerate granule development and improve sludge characteristics. At the end of start-up, the granular size of sludge in external circulation-added IC reactor greatly increases with a size distribution much better than that of sludge in IC reactor. The granular sludge originated from external circulation-added IC reactor contains more extracellular polymers and has a greater settling velocity than that from IC reactor. Methanogenic activity of the granular sludge from the external circulation-added IC reactor started 26 d ago reaches 358.23 mL·g-1·d-1, 1.66 and 1.20 times as great as that of the sludge from the IC reactor started 26 d and 58 d ago respectively.

  8. Analysis of ROSA 1.1 test with TRACE code: ECSS water injection under natural circulation conditions; Analisis con el codigo TRACE del test ROSA 1.1: Inyeccion de agua ECCS bajo condiciones de circulacion natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julibe, A. J.; Munoz-Coba, J. L.; Escriva, A.; Romero, A.

    2010-07-01

    This paper is based on modelling the ROSA 1.1 test by TRACE code. The ROSA 1.1 test presents several natural flow phases in biphasic conditions and this was the cause of this work. Therefore, the aim of this paper is verify the TRACE code ability to simulate such flows using standard components and modules.

  9. The fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Acharya, Ganesh

    2004-12-30

    Accumulating data on the human fetal circulation shows the similarity to the experimental animal physiology, but with important differences. The human fetus seems to circulate less blood through the placenta, shunt less through the ductus venosus and foramen ovale, but direct more blood through the lungs than the fetal sheep. However, there are substantial individual variations and the pattern changes with gestational age. The normalised umbilical blood flow decreases with gestational age, and, at 28 to 32 weeks, a new level of development seems to be reached. At this stage, the shunting through the ductus venosus and the foramen ovale reaches a minimum, and the flow through the lungs a maximum. The ductus venosus and foramen ovale are functionally closely related and represent an important distributional unit for the venous return. The left portal branch represents a venous watershed, and, similarly, the isthmus aorta an arterial watershed. Thus, the fetal central circulation is a very flexible and adaptive circulatory system. The responses to increased afterload, hypoxaemia and acidaemia in the human fetus are equivalent to those found in animal studies: increased ductus venosus and foramen ovale shunting, increased impedance in the lungs, reduced impedance in the brain, increasingly reversed flow in the aortic isthmus and a more prominent coronary blood flow.

  10. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.56 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are too numerous to name them all, but the 3 most prominent ones are at the centre (left to right): Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, with his hand on the control box), Eifionydd Jones (white shirt), Simon van der Meer (spiritus rector and Joint AA Project Leader). The first antiprotons were injected, made to circulate and cooled soon after, on 14 July 1980.

  11. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  12. RELAP5/MOD3 assessment using the Semiscale 50% Feed Line Break test S-FS-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.J.; Chung, B.D.; Kim, H.J. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-06-01

    The RELAP5/MOD3 5m5 code was assessed using the 1/1705 volume scaled Semiscale 50% Feed Line Break (FLB) test S-FS-11. Test S-FS-11 was designed in three phases: (a) blowdown phase, (b) stabilization phase, and (c) refill phase. The first objective was to assess the code applicability to 50% FLB situation, the second was to evaluate the FSAR conservatisms regarding SG heat transfer degradation, steam line check valve failure, break flow state, and peak primary system pressure, and the third was to validate the EOP effectiveness. The code was able to simulate the major T/H parameters except for the two-phase break flow and the secondary convective heat transfer rate. The two-phase break flow had still deficiencies. The current boiling heat transfer rate was developed from the data for flow inside of a heated tube, not for flow around heated tubes in a tube bundle. Results indicated that the assumption of 100% heat transfer until the liquid inventory depletion was not conservative, the failed affected steam generator main steam line check valve assumption was not either conservative, the measured break flow experienced all types of flow conditions, the relative proximity to the 110% design pressure limit was conservative. The automatic actions during the blowdown phase were effective in mitigating the consequences. The stabilization operation performed by operator actions were effective to permit natural circulation cooldown and depressurization. The voided secondary refill operations also verified the effectiveness of the operations while recovering the inventory in a voided steam generator.

  13. Evaluation and optimization of the Circulating Cathodic Antigen (POC-CCA) cassette test for detecting Schistosoma mansoni infection by using image analysis in school children in Mwanza Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casacuberta, Miriam; Kinunghi, Safari; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Olsen, Annette

    2016-06-01

    There is a need for diagnostic techniques which are sensitive, specific, rapid and easy to perform at the point-of-care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Circulating Cathodic Antigen (POC-CCA) assay for Schistosoma mansoni in four schools along the coast of Lake Victoria in Mwanza Region, Tanzania, and to optimize the reading of the POC-CCA test lines by using a computer software image analysis. Initially, a pilot study in 106 school children indicated that time of urine collection did not have an impact on CCA results as 84.9% (90) had identical scores from a urine collected in the morning and a urine taken at midday after drinking 0.5 L of water. The main study was conducted among 404 school children (aged 9-12 years) where stool and urine samples were collected for three consecutive days. For S. mansoni diagnosis, stool samples were examined for eggs with duplicate Kato-Katz smears, whereas urine samples were tested for presence of antigen by POC-CCA. The proportion of positive individuals for S. mansoni by one POC-CCA was higher compared to two Kato-Katz smears (66.1% vs. 28.7%; p < 0.0001). Both proportions increased expectedly when three POC-CCAs were compared to six Kato-Katz smears (75.0% vs. 42.6%; p < 0.0001). Three POC-CCAs were more sensitive (94.7%) than six Kato-Katz smears (53.8%) using the combined results of three POC-CCAs and six Kato-Katz smears as the 'gold standard'. To optimize the reading of the POC-CCA, a Software tool (Image Studio Lite®) was used to read and quantify the colour (expressed as pixels) of the test line on all positive tests, showing a positive correlation between number of pixels and the visually scored intensities and between number of pixels and egg counts. In conclusion, the POC-CCA assay seems to be a more appropriate tool for S. mansoni diagnosis compared to the Kato-Katz method in endemic communities such as Mwanza Region. Optimization of the tool in terms of cassette

  14. Modelled Circulation In Storfjorden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogseth, R.; Asplin, L.

    The model area Storfjorden is situated between the islands Spitsbergen, Barentsöya and Edgeöya at the Svalbard Archipelago. The entrance of Storfjorden is defined by a shallow bank Storfjordbanken and some small islands Tusenöyane in southeast, and by an 115m deep sill at about 76 45' N in the south. Maximum depth in Storfjorden is 190m, which is surrounded by gradually shallower shelves in the north, the east and southeast. A steep bottom slope is present on the western side of Storfjorden. He- leysundet and Freemansundet, two sounds between respectively Spitsbergen and Bar- entsöya, and Barentsöya and Edgeöya, define two narrow and shallow entrances in the north and northeast connecting Storfjorden with the northwestern Barents Sea. Strong tidal currents exist in Heleysundet (4-5ms-1) and Freemansundet (2-3ms-1), but the general circulation in Storfjorden is not well known. The coastal current in Storfjor- den is cyclonic directed into Storfjorden south of Edgeöya from the East Spitsbergen Current and out of Storfjorden south of Spitsbergen where it is called Sørkappstrøm- men. A three-dimensional sigma layered numerical ocean model called Bergen Ocean Model (BOM) was used to simulate the circulation in Storfjorden with Freemansundet opened. Two simulations were carried out, one with heat flux (100 Wm-2) and one without heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. The heat flux was applied only in the proper fjord area north of the sill and not outside as a crude approximation of the effects of a polynya in the sea ice cover during winter. Both simulations had a 4km horizontal resolution and 21 sigma layers. The model is forced by winds (from the NCEP reanalyzed fields) and tides. Initial fields are from the DNMI/IMR climatol- ogy. The model simulation without heat flux gave a circulation heavily dependent on tidal forcing, showing strong tidal currents up to 2ms-1 in Freemansundet, between Tusenöyane and on Storfjordbanken southwest of Edgeöya. Earlier

  15. Cereral Circulation in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ivshin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the possibilities of using transcranial Doppler study in pregnant women and pueperas with preeclamp-sia. Subjects and methods. Two hundred and thirty-two pregnant women diagnosed as having varying preeclampsia were prospectively studied. A comparison group comprised 90 apparently healthy women in the third trimester of pregnancy. All the respondents underwent transcranial duplex scanning of the medial cerebral artery with the linear velocity values being determined. A number of the values reflecting the level of perfusion and intracranial pressures, hydrodynamic resistance in the system, cerebrovascular responsiveness and the state of the vascular wall were calculated. Correlation analysis was made between the parameters of cerebral circulation and the severity of preeclampsia, proteinuria, the severity of hydrops, and the parameters of central and peripheral hemodynamics. Results. The findings suggest that there is impaired cerebral perfusion in pregnant women and puerperas with varying preeclampsia, the severity of cerebral circulatory disorders being in proportion with that of preeclampsia. There is a close correlation between cerebral circulation and the individual criteria determining the severity of preeclampsia. The linear values of the Doppler spectrum, namely linear flow characteristics, are prognos-tically most significant. Conclusion. The introduction of transcranial Doppler study into obstetric care has permitted the authors not only to study cerebral circulatory disorders in healthy and pregnant women and puerperas with preeclampia in detail, but also to establish a number of highly significant prognostic criteria for the severity of this life-threatening complication of gestation. The results of transcranial Doppler study assist practitioners in timely and accurately solving the problems in the diagnosis of preeclampsia and in evaluating its severity. Cerebral circulatory values may be successfully used to

  16. Resolvability in Circulant Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad SALMAN; Imran JAVAID; Muhammad Anwar CHAUDHRY

    2012-01-01

    A set W of the vertices of a connected graph G is called a resolving set for G if for every two distinct vertices u,v ∈ V(G) there is a vertex w ∈ W such that d(u,w) ≠ d(v,w).A resolving set of minimum cardinality is called a metric basis for G and the number of vertices in a metric basis is called the metric dimension of G,denoted by dim(G).For a vertex u of G and a subset S of V(G),the distance between u and S is the number mins∈s d(u,s).A k-partition H ={S1,S2,...,Sk} of V(G) is called a resolving partition if for every two distinct vertices u,v ∈ V(G) there is a set Si in Π such that d(u,Si) ≠ d(v,Si).The minimum k for which there is a resolving k-partition of V(G) is called the partition dimension of G,denoted by pd(G).The circulant graph is a graph with vertex set Zn,an additive group ofintegers modulo n,and two vertices labeled i and j adjacent if and only if i - j (mod n) ∈ C,where C C Zn has the property that C =-C and 0(∈) C.The circulant graph is denoted by Xn,△ where A =|C|.In this paper,we study the metric dimension of a family of circulant graphs Xn,3 with connection set C ={1,-n/2,n - 1} and prove that dim(Xn,3) is independent of choice of n by showing that 3 for all n =0 (mod 4),dim(X,n,3) ={ 4 for all n =2 (mod 4).We also study the partition dimension of a family of circulant graphs Xn,4 with connection set C ={±1,±2} and prove that pd(Xn,4) is independent of choice of n and show that pd(X5,4) =5 and 3 forall odd n≥9,pd(Xn,4) ={ 4 for all even n ≥ 6 and n =7.

  17. Single-heater test final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, S. C.; Buscheck, T. A.; DeLoach, L. D.; Lin, W.; Ramirez, A. I.

    1998-09-01

    The Single-Heater Test (SHT) was one phase of the field-scale thermal testing program of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The primary purpose of the SHT was to study the thermomechanical (TM) behavior of the densely welded, non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff at the Exploratory Studies Facility. The SHT was also used as a shake-down for testing thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical processes in situ, testing that will be conducted in the Drift-Scale Test. In the SHT, a line-heat source 5-m long was emplaced in a pillar and used to heat the pillar for approximately nine months. The thermal field was relatively cylindrical about the line-heat source. The heater was turned off after nine months of heating, and the rock mass was monitored during the cool-down for another nine months, until May 28, 1997, when the test was terminated.

  18. The Explicit Identities for Spectral Norms of Circulant-Type Matrices Involving Binomial Coefficients and Harmonic Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The explicit formulae of spectral norms for circulant-type matrices are investigated; the matrices are circulant matrix, skew-circulant matrix, and g-circulant matrix, respectively. The entries are products of binomial coefficients with harmonic numbers. Explicit identities for these spectral norms are obtained. Employing these approaches, some numerical tests are listed to verify the results.

  19. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-31

    During the fourth quarter of 1990, steady-state performance testing at the Nucla Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) resumed under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. Co-sponsorship of the Demonstration Test Program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was completed on June 15, 1990. From October through December, 1990, Colorado-Ute Electric Association (CUEA) completed a total of 23 steady-state performance tests, 4 dynamic tests, and set operating records during November and December as the result of improved unit operating reliability. Highlight events and achievements during this period of operation are presented.

  20. North Atlantic Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.

    The intensity of the North Atlantic winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North Atlantic a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North Atlantic with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North Atlantic Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).

  1. Circulation of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  2. The characterization of four gene expression analysis in circulating tumor cells made by Multiplex-PCR from the AdnaTest kit on the lab-on-a-chip Agilent DNA 1000 platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škereňová, Markéta; Mikulová, Veronika; Čapoun, Otakar; Zima, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nowadays, on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis is a routine method for the detection of PCR fragments. The Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer was one of the first commercial devices in this field. Our project was designed to study the characteristics of Agilent DNA 1000 kit in PCR fragment analysis as a part of circulating tumour cell (CTC) detection technique. Despite the common use of this kit a complex analysis of the results from a long-term project is still missing. Materials and methods A commercially available Agilent DNA 1000 kit was used as a final step in the CTC detection (AdnaTest) for the determination of the presence of PCR fragments generated by Multiplex PCR. Data from 30 prostate cancer patients obtained during two years of research were analyzed to determine the trueness and precision of the PCR fragment size determination. Additional experiments were performed to demonstrate the precision (repeatability, reproducibility) and robustness of PCR fragment concentration determination. Results The trueness and precision of the size determination was below 3% and 2% respectively. The repeatability of the concentration determination was below 15%. The difference in concentration determination increases when Multiplex-PCR/storage step is added between the two measurements of one sample. Conclusions The characteristics established in our study are in concordance with the manufacturer’s specifications established for a ladder as a sample. However, the concentration determination may vary depending on chip preparation, sample storage and concentration. The 15% variation of concentration determination repeatability was shown to be partly proportional and can be suppressed by proper normalization. PMID:26981024

  3. Experimental study of natural circulation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian, E-mail: wlemos@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LASME/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Simulacao e Metodos Numericos; Faccini, Jose L.H., E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (LTE/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental

    2011-07-01

    This work presents an experimental study about fluid flows behavior in natural circulation, under conditions of single-phase flow. The experiment was performed through experimental thermal-hydraulic circuit built at IEN. This test equipment has performance similar to passive system of residual heat removal present in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (APWR). This experimental study aims to observing and analyzing the natural circulation phenomenon, using this experimental circuit that was dimensioned and built based on concepts of similarity and scale. This philosophy allows the analysis of natural circulation behavior in single-phase flow conditions proportionally to the functioning real conditions of a nuclear reactor. The experiment was performed through procedures to initialization of hydraulic feeding of primary and secondary circuits and electrical energizing of resistors installed inside heater. Power controller has availability to adjust values of electrical power to feeding resistors, in order to portray several conditions of energy decay of nuclear reactor in a steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and monitoring of the evolution of the temperature in various points through thermocouples installed in strategic points along hydraulic circuit. The behavior of the natural circulation phenomenon was monitored by graphical interface on computer screen, showing the temperature evolutions of measuring points and results stored in digital spreadsheets. The results stored in digital spreadsheets allowed the getting of data to graphic construction and discussion about natural circulation phenomenon. Finally, the calculus of Reynolds number allowed the establishment for a correlation of friction in function of geometric scales of length, heights and cross section of tubing, considering a natural circulation flow throughout in the region of hot leg. (author)

  4. Lost circulation technology development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, D.A.; Schafer, D.M.; Loeppke, G.E.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D.; Wright, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    Lost circulation is the loss of drilling fluid from the wellbore to fractures or pores in the rock formation. In geothermal drilling, lost circulation is often a serious problem that contributes greatly to the cost of the average geothermal well. The Lost Circulation Technology Development Program is sponsored at Sandia National Laboratories by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the program is to reduce lost circulation costs by 30--50% through the development of mitigation and characterization technology. This paper describes the technical progress made in this program during the period April 1991--March 1992. 8 refs.

  5. Percutaneous interventions in Fontan circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Franco

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Interventional catheterization procedures are often necessary to reach and maintain the fragile Fontan circulation, mainly in patients with right morphology systemic ventricles and fenestrated Fontan conduits.

  6. Experimental Study on an On-Line Measurement of High Temperature Circulating Ash Flux in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xiaofeng; Li Yourong

    2001-01-01

    A new kind of measuring method that may be used to measure high temperature circulating solid particles flux in a circulating fluidized bed boiler is studied in this paper. The measuring method is founded on the principle of thermal equilibrium. A series of cold tests and hot tests were carried to optimize the structure and collocation of water-cooling tubes and showed that the method had the advantage of simple, accurate, reliable and good applicability for on-line usage in a circulating fluidized bed boiler.

  7. A review of existing gas-cooled reactor circulators with application of the lessons learned to the new production reactor circulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, L.S.

    1990-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the lessons learned during the design, testing, and operation of gas-cooled reactor coolant circulators. The intent of this study is to identify failure modes and problem areas of the existing circulators so this information can be incorporated into the design of the circulators for the New Production Reactor (NPR)-Modular High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The information for this study was obtained primarily from open literature and includes data on high-pressure, high-temperature helium test loop circulators as well as the existing gas cooled reactors worldwide. This investigation indicates that trouble free circulator performance can only be expected when the design program includes a comprehensive prototypical test program, with the results of this test program factored into the final circulator design. 43 refs., 7 tabs.

  8. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.5 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are to numerous to name them all. Heribert Koziol, apparently asleep, is answering the call from an impatient director. See also 8007094.

  9. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this DOE Cooperative Agreement is to conduct a cost-shared clean coal technology project to demonstrate the feasibility of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology and to evaluate economic, environmental, and operational benefits of CFB steam generators on a utility scale. At the conclusion of the Phase 2 program, testing related to satisfying these objectives was completed. Data analysis and reporting are scheduled for completion by October 1991. (VC)

  10. Evaluation and optimization of the Circulating Cathodic Antigen (POC-CCA) cassette test for detecting Schistosoma mansoni infection by using image analysis in school children in Mwanza Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partal, Miriam Casacuberta; Kinunghi, Safari; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for diagnostic techniques which are sensitive, specific, rapid and easy to perform at the point-of-care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Circulating Cathodic Antigen (POC-CCA) assay for Schistosoma mansoni in four schools along the coast...

  11. TROPICAL METEOROLOGY & Climate: Hadley Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jian; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-30

    The Hadley circulation, a prominent circulation feature characterized by rising air near the Equator and sinking air in the subtropics, defines the position of dry subtropical areas and is a fundamental regulator of the earth’s energy and momentum budgets. The character of the Hadley circulation, and its related precipitation regimes, exhibits variation and change in response to both climate variability and radiative forcing changes. The strength and position of the Hadley circulation change from year to year paced by El Niño and La Niña events. Over the last few decades of the twentieth century, the Hadley cell has expanded poleward in both hemispheres, with changes in atmospheric composition (including stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increases) thought to have contributed to its expansion. This article introduces the basic phenomenology and driving mechanism of the Hadley circulation and discusses its variations under both natural and anthropogenic climate forcings.

  12. Sino-Danish Brain Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Du, Xiangyun; Søndergaard, Morten Karnøe

    2014-01-01

    China is faced with urgent needs to develop an economically and environmentally sustainable economy based on innovation and knowledge. Brain circulation and research and business investments from the outside are central for this development. Sino-American brain circulation and research...... and investment by overseas researchers and entrepreneurs are well described. In that case, the US is the center of global R&D and S&T. However, the brain circulation and research and investments between a small open Scandinavian economy, such as Denmark, and the huge developing economy of China are not well...... understood. In this case, Denmark is very highly developed, but a satellite in the global R&D and S&T system. With time and the growth of China as a R&D and S&T power house, both Denmark and China will benefit from brain circulation between them. Such brain circulation is likely to play a key role in flows...

  13. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  14. Cryogenic System for the Test Facilities of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, J; Chalifour, M; Haug, F; Passardi, Giorgio; Tischhauser, Johann

    1998-01-01

    To perform cold tests on the different modules of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter, a cryogenic system has been constructed and is now operated at the CERN North Experimental Area. Three different test cryostats will house the modules, which can also be exposed to particle beams for calibration purposes. The three cryostats share a common liquid argon and liquid nitrogen distribution system. The system is rather complex since it has to allow operations of the three cryostats at the same time. Liquid nitrogen is used as cold source for both the cool-down of the cryostats and for normal operation of the cryostats filled with liquid argon.

  15. The circulation physiology of agroecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Zhiping; Richard Dawson

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents an effort to enlarge the understanding of the biophysical foundation of agroecosystems by using an analogy with the circulation of the blood in the human body. The circulation function in the human body can be represented as arterial pressure. The factors affecting arterial pressure in the human body have direct counterparts in the cultivation-husbandry system. The relationship between circulation pressure and the factors affecting that pressure in the cultivation-husbandry system are similar to the relationship between the arterial pressure and factors affecting arterial pressure in the human body. Furthermore, circulation resistance in the cultivation-husbandry system can be shown to be analogous to the calculation of peripheral resistance in the human body by Poiseuille's formula.

  16. High performance millimeter-wave microstrip circulators and isolators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ming; Pan, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Millimeter wave systems, phased array antennas, and high performance components all require wideband circulators (and isolators) to perform diplexing and switching, to improve isolation and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR), and to construct IMPATT diode reflection amplifiers. Presently, most of the millimeter-wave circulators and isolators are available in the configurations of waveguide or stripline, both of which suffer from the shortcomings of bulky size/weight, narrow bandwidth, and poor compatibility with monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMIC). MMW microstrip circulators/isolators can eliminate or improve these shortcomings. Stub-tuned microstrip circulator configuration were developed utilizing the electromagnetic fields perturbation technique, the adhesion problems of microstrip metallization on new ferrite substrate were overcome, the fabrication, assembly, packaging techniques were improved, and then successfully designed, fabricated a Ka band circulator which has isolation and return loss of greater than 16dB, insertion loss less than 0.7dB. To assess the steady and reliable performance of the circulator, a temperature cycling test was done over the range of -20 to +50 C for 3 continuous cycles and found no significant impact or variation of circulator performance.

  17. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow. Key Points Sinking occurs in a narrow boundary layer along the eastern boundary Surface western boundary current switches into an eastern boundary current Water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is not hydraulically controlled © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  18. The Invertibility, Explicit Determinants, and Inverses of Circulant and Left Circulant and g-Circulant Matrices Involving Any Continuous Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices play an important role in solving delay differential equations. In this paper, circulant type matrices including the circulant and left circulant and g-circulant matrices with any continuous Fibonacci and Lucas numbers are considered. Firstly, the invertibility of the circulant matrix is discussed and the explicit determinant and the inverse matrices by constructing the transformation matrices are presented. Furthermore, the invertibility of the left circulant and g-circulant matrices is also studied. We obtain the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices of the left circulant and g-circulant matrices by utilizing the relationship between left circulant, g-circulant matrices and circulant matrix, respectively.

  19. Circulating Fibronectin Controls Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja von Au

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibronectin is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix, and experimental evidence has shown that it modulates blood vessel formation. The relative contribution of local and circulating fibronectin to blood vessel formation in vivo remains unknown despite evidence for unexpected roles of circulating fibronectin in various diseases. Using transgenic mouse models, we established that circulating fibronectin facilitates the growth of bone metastases by enhancing blood vessel formation and maturation. This effect is more relevant than that of fibronectin produced by endothelial cells and pericytes, which only exert a small additive effect on vessel maturation. Circulating fibronectin enhances its local production in tumors through a positive feedback loop and increases the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF retained in the matrix. Both fibronectin and VEGF then cooperate to stimulate blood vessel formation. Fibronectin content in the tumor correlates with the number of blood vessels and tumor growth in the mouse models. Consistent with these results, examination of three separate arrays from patients with breast and prostate cancers revealed that a high staining intensity for fibronectin in tumors is associated with increased mortality. These results establish that circulating fibronectin modulates blood vessel formation and tumor growth by modifying the amount of and the response to VEGF. Furthermore, determination of the fibronectin content can serve as a prognostic biomarker for breast and prostate cancers and possibly other cancers.

  20. Atmospheric Circulation of Terrestrial Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Showman, Adam P; Merlis, Timothy M; Kaspi, Yohai

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of planets around other stars began with the study of gas giants, but is now extending to the discovery and characterization of super-Earths and terrestrial planets. Motivated by this observational tide, we survey the basic dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation of terrestrial exoplanets, and discuss the interaction of their circulation with the hydrological cycle and global-scale climate feedbacks. Terrestrial exoplanets occupy a wide range of physical and dynamical conditions, only a small fraction of which have yet been explored in detail. Our approach is to lay out the fundamental dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation on terrestrial planets--broadly defined--and show how they can provide a foundation for understanding the atmospheric behavior of these worlds. We first survey basic atmospheric dynamics, including the role of geostrophy, baroclinic instabilities, and jets in the strongly rotating regime (the "extratropics") and the role of the Hadle...

  1. Circulation in blast driven instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc; Johnsen, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Mixing in many natural phenomena (e.g. supernova collapse) and engineering applications (e.g. inertial confinement fusion) is often initiated through hydrodynamic instabilities. Explosions in these systems give rise to blast waves which can interact with perturbations at interfaces between different fluids. Blast waves are formed by a shock followed by a rarefaction. This wave profile leads to complex time histories of interface acceleration. In addition to the instabilities induced by the acceleration field, the rarefaction from the blast wave decompresses the material at the interface, further increasing the perturbation growth. After the passage of the wave, circulation circulation generated by the blast wave through baroclinic vorticity continues to act upon the interface. In this talk, we provide scaling laws for the circulation and amplitude growth induced by the blast wave. Numerical simulations of the multifluid Euler equations solved using a high-order accurate Discontinuous Galerkin method are used to validate the theoretical results.

  2. VanderLaan Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become a satisfactory tools in control methods for modern complex systems. In the paper, VanderLaan circulant type matrices are presented, which include VanderLaan circulant, left circulant, and g-circulant matrices. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed by the surprising properties of VanderLaan numbers. The exact determinants of VanderLaan circulant type matrices are given by structuring transformation matrices, determinants of well-known tridiagonal matrices, and tridiagonal-like matrices. The explicit inverse matrices of these special matrices are obtained by structuring transformation matrices, inverses of known tridiagonal matrices, and quasi-tridiagonal matrices. Three kinds of norms and lower bound for the spread of VanderLaan circulant and left circulant matrix are given separately. And we gain the spectral norm of VanderLaan g-circulant matrix.

  3. Conservation of Circulation in Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bekenstein, J D; Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Oron, Asaf

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate, both at the Newtonian and (general) relativistic levels, theexistence of a generalization of Kelvin's circulation theorem (for pure fluids)which is applicable to perfect magnetohydrodynamics. The argument is based onthe least action principle for magnetohydrodynamic flow. Examples of the newconservation law are furnished. The new theorem should be helpful inidentifying new kinds of vortex phenomena distinct from magnetic ropes or fluidvortices.

  4. Circulating Tumor Cells Versus Circulating Tumor DNA in Colorectal Cancer: Pros and Cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Carlyn Rose C; Zhou, Lanlan; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2016-06-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) are emerging noninvasive multifunctional biomarkers in liquid biopsy allowing for early diagnosis, accurate prognosis, therapeutic target selection, spatiotemporal monitoring of metastasis, as well as monitoring response and resistance to treatment. CTCs and ctDNA are released from different tumor types at different stages and contribute complementary information for clinical decision. Although big strides have been taken in technology development for detection, isolation and characterization of CTCs and sensitive and specific detection of ctDNA, CTC-, and ctDNA-based liquid biopsies may not be widely adopted for routine cancer patient care until the suitability, accuracy, and reliability of these tests are validated and more standardized protocols are corroborated in large, independent, prospectively designed trials. This review covers CTC- and ctDNA-related technologies and their application in colorectal cancer. The promise of CTC-and ctDNA-based liquid biopsies is envisioned.

  5. Correcting circulation biases in a lower-resolution global general circulation model with data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canter, Martin; Barth, Alexander; Beckers, Jean-Marie

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we aim at developing a new method of bias correction using data assimilation. This method is based on the stochastic forcing of a model to correct bias by directly adding an additional source term into the model equations. This method is presented and tested first with a twin experiment on a fully controlled Lorenz '96 model. It is then applied to the lower-resolution global circulation NEMO-LIM2 model, with both a twin experiment and a real case experiment. Sea surface height observations are used to create a forcing to correct the poorly located and estimated currents. Validation is then performed throughout the use of other variables such as sea surface temperature and salinity. Results show that the method is able to consistently correct part of the model bias. The bias correction term is presented and is consistent with the limitations of the global circulation model causing bias on the oceanic currents.

  6. Correcting circulation biases in a lower-resolution global general circulation model with data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canter, Martin; Barth, Alexander; Beckers, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we aim at developing a new method of bias correction using data assimilation. This method is based on the stochastic forcing of a model to correct bias by directly adding an additional source term into the model equations. This method is presented and tested first with a twin experiment on a fully controlled Lorenz '96 model. It is then applied to the lower-resolution global circulation NEMO-LIM2 model, with both a twin experiment and a real case experiment. Sea surface height observations are used to create a forcing to correct the poorly located and estimated currents. Validation is then performed throughout the use of other variables such as sea surface temperature and salinity. Results show that the method is able to consistently correct part of the model bias. The bias correction term is presented and is consistent with the limitations of the global circulation model causing bias on the oceanic currents.

  7. ENDEMIC ORTHOPOXVIRUS CIRCULATING IN PROCYONIDS IN MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Emerson, Ginny L; Martínez-Martínez, Flor O; Doty, Jeffrey B; Nakazawa, Yoshinori J; Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Muñoz-García, Claudia I; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Ramírez-Cid, Citlali; Gama-Campillo, Lilia M; Gual-Sill, Fernando; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro; Carroll, Darin S

    2016-07-01

    Limited serosurveillance studies suggested that orthopoxviruses (OPXV) are widespread in the US (e.g., Raccoonpox virus, Skunkpox virus, Volepox virus) and Brazil (Vaccinia virus); however, their animal reservoir(s) remain unconfirmed. Mexican mammal diversity includes several species related to those in which evidence for OPXV infections has been found (Oryzomys, Peromyscus, Microtus, and Procyonidae). The presence of these groups of mammals in Mexico and the evidence of their possible involvement in the maintenance of OPXV in nature suggest the same or similar OPXV are circulating in Mexico. We tested 201 sera from 129 procyonids via modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) to estimate OPXV antibody prevalence in these animals. We detected a prevalence of 16.67% in Nasua narica (white-nosed coati), 35% in Procyon lotor (raccoon), and 30.4% in Bassariscus astutus (ring-tailed cat) when tested by either ELISA or WB. Western blot results presented protein bands consistent with the size of some OPXV immunodominant bands (14, 18, 32, 36, and 62 kDa). These results support the hypothesis that OPXV circulate in at least three genera of Procyonidae in Central and Southeast Mexico.

  8. Optimal Backward Perturbation Analysis for the Block Skew Circulant Linear Systems with Skew Circulant Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We first give the block style spectral decomposition of arbitrary block skew circulant matrix with skew circulant blocks. Secondly, we obtain the singular value of block skew circulant matrix with skew circulant blocks as well. Finally, based on the block style spectral decomposition, we deal with the optimal backward perturbation analysis for the block skew circulant linear system with skew circulant blocks.

  9. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas

  10. PIE on Safety-Tested AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morris, Robert Noel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldwin, Charles A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gerczak, Tyler J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). AGR-1 was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation experiments initiated in 2006 under the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program; this work continues to be funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) initiative. AGR-1 fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 and irradiated for three years in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. PIE is being performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to examine fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing of irradiated AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1 in the ORNL Core Conduction Cooldown Test Facility (CCCTF) and post-safety testing PIE.

  11. Liquid Fluoride Salt Experimentation Using a Small Natural Circulation Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Heatherly, Dennis Wayne [ORNL; Williams, David F [ORNL; Elkassabgi, Yousri M. [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Caja, Joseph [Electrochemical Systems, Inc.; Caja, Mario [ORNL; Jordan, John [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Salinas, Roberto [Texas A& M University, Kingsville

    2014-04-01

    A small molten fluoride salt experiment has been constructed and tested to develop experimental techniques for application in liquid fluoride salt systems. There were five major objectives in developing this test apparatus: Allow visual observation of the salt during testing (how can lighting be introduced, how can pictures be taken, what can be seen) Determine if IR photography can be used to examine components submerged in the salt Determine if the experimental configuration provides salt velocity sufficient for collection of corrosion data for future experimentation Determine if a laser Doppler velocimeter can be used to quantify salt velocities. Acquire natural circulation heat transfer data in fluoride salt at temperatures up to 700oC All of these objectives were successfully achieved during testing with the exception of the fourth: acquiring velocity data using the laser Doppler velocimeter. This paper describes the experiment and experimental techniques used, and presents data taken during natural circulation testing.

  12. THE THEORETICAL MODEL FOR PREDICTING CIRCULATION VELOCITY OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英林; 侯春生

    1997-01-01

    By rational hypothesis of fluid flow pattern, applied the law of conservation of energy and integrated the laboratory test results, finished the prediction by the theoretical model of circulation velocity of hydraulic brake which is important parameter. Thus provide the theoritical basis for hydraulic brake of belt conveyor whose research has just been started.

  13. Physiology of the fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid

    2005-12-01

    Our understanding of fetal circulatory physiology is based on experimental animal data, and this continues to be an important source of new insight into developmental mechanisms. A growing number of human studies have investigated the human physiology, with results that are similar but not identical to those from animal studies. It is time to appreciate these differences and base more of our clinical approach on human physiology. Accordingly, the present review focuses on distributional patterns and adaptational mechanisms that were mainly discovered by human studies. These include cardiac output, pulmonary and placental circulation, fetal brain and liver, venous return to the heart, and the fetal shunts (ductus venosus, foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus). Placental compromise induces a set of adaptational and compensational mechanisms reflecting the plasticity of the developing circulation, with both short- and long-term implications. Some of these aspects have become part of the clinical physiology of today with consequences for surveillance and treatment.

  14. Journalism as Cultures of Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The universe of journalism has always consisted of interspersed texts, meanings and practices. Yet, much journalism research has often isolated either texts and/or contexts and as such assumed relations between professional practices, informed (rational) readers and (conceived) core texts...... of journalism. It is, however, more important than ever to shift attention away from texts to the processes through which they are circulated. This is partly because the many cultural forms of journalism (textual, institutional, technological, material, behavioural and imagined) are undergoing significant......, likes, comments, searches, journalist roles, writing and reading positions and identities etc. Such forms will be traced within the mediation of a specific event with the overall aim of beginning a theorization of the landscape of journalism as highly interrelated cultures of circulation....

  15. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.

    2006-01-01

    Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification...... of ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume...... of the magnetic field, as compared to the ECCO simulation. Besides the expected signatures of the global circulation patterns, we find significant seasonal variability of ocean magnetic signals in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Compared to seasonal variation, interannual variations produce weaker signals....

  16. Conservation of circulation in magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekenstein; Oron

    2000-10-01

    We demonstrate at both the Newtonian and (general) relativistic levels the existence of a generalization of Kelvin's circulation theorem (for pure fluids) that is applicable to perfect magnetohydrodynamics. The argument is based on the least action principle for magnetohydrodynamic flow. Examples of the new conservation law are furnished. The new theorem should be helpful in identifying new kinds of vortex phenomena distinct from magnetic ropes or fluid vortices.

  17. Conservation of Circulation in Magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Oron, Asaf

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate, both at the Newtonian and (general) relativistic levels, the existence of a generalization of Kelvin's circulation theorem (for pure fluids) which is applicable to perfect magnetohydrodynamics. The argument is based on the least action principle for magnetohydrodynamic flow. Examples of the new conservation law are furnished. The new theorem should be helpful in identifying new kinds of vortex phenomena distinct from magnetic ropes or fluid vortices.

  18. Hall Effect Gyrators and Circulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Giovanni; DiVincenzo, David P.

    2014-04-01

    The electronic circulator and its close relative the gyrator are invaluable tools for noise management and signal routing in the current generation of low-temperature microwave systems for the implementation of new quantum technologies. The current implementation of these devices using the Faraday effect is satisfactory but requires a bulky structure whose physical dimension is close to the microwave wavelength employed. The Hall effect is an alternative nonreciprocal effect that can also be used to produce desired device functionality. We review earlier efforts to use an Ohmically contacted four-terminal Hall bar, explaining why this approach leads to unacceptably high device loss. We find that capacitive coupling to such a Hall conductor has much greater promise for achieving good circulator and gyrator functionality. We formulate a classical Ohm-Hall analysis for calculating the properties of such a device, and show how this classical theory simplifies remarkably in the limiting case of the Hall angle approaching 90°. In this limit, we find that either a four-terminal or a three-terminal capacitive device can give excellent circulator behavior, with device dimensions far smaller than the ac wavelength. An experiment is proposed to achieve GHz-band gyration in millimeter (and smaller) scale structures employing either semiconductor heterostructure or graphene Hall conductors. An inductively coupled scheme for realizing a Hall gyrator is also analyzed.

  19. Measurement of cerebral circulation time in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celsis, P.; Chan, M.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Leydet, P.; Viallard, G.; Charlet, J.P.; Danet, B.

    1985-05-01

    A simple, inexpensive method for measuring the cerebral circulation time (CCT) was developed. The CCT was considered to be equal to the time that an intravenously injected bolus of sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m took to go from the subclavian artery to the posterior venous confluence. The dilution curves were externally recorded at these two vessels. Particular attention was given to the curve treatment. The computer programmes were specially conceived in order to detect and, if possible, correct the experimental curve defects. Several reliability criteria were also defined in order to test the validity of each measurement. From a physiological point of view, the CCT is equal to the ratio of the global cerebral blood volume to the global cerebral blood flow. Thus, it can be widely applied in clinical research. For example, in a study of the relationship between CCT and age, sex and light cerebrovascular impairment, the technique was sensitive enough to discriminate between healthy subjects and patients suffering from-transient ischemic attack, or regressive stroke, and to show the action of a drug on the cerebral circulation in such patients.

  20. 21 CFR 866.6020 - Immunomagnetic circulating cancer cell selection and enumeration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunomagnetic circulating cancer cell selection..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological Test Systems § 866.6020 Immunomagnetic circulating cancer cell selection...

  1. Ensemble meteorological reconstruction using circulation analogues of 1781–1785

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yiou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a method of atmospheric flow analogues to reconstruct an ensemble of atmospheric variables (namely sea-level pressure, surface temperature and wind speed between 1781 and 1785. The properties of this ensemble are investigated and tested against observations of temperature. The goal of the paper is to assess whether the atmospheric circulation during the Laki volcanic eruption (in 1783 and the subsequent winter were similar to the conditions that prevailed in the winter 2009/2010 and during spring 2010. We find that the three months following the Laki eruption in June 1783 barely have analogues in 2010. The cold winter of 1783/1784 yields circulation analogues in 2009/2010. Our analysis suggests that it is unlikely that the Laki eruption was responsible for the cold winter of 1783/1784, of the relatively short memory of the atmospheric circulation.

  2. In vivo acoustic and photoacoustic focusing of circulating cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Viegas, Mark G.; Malinsky, Taras I.; Melerzanov, Alexander V.; Juratli, Mazen A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-03-01

    In vivo flow cytometry using vessels as natural tubes with native cell flows has revolutionized the study of rare circulating tumor cells in a complex blood background. However, the presence of many blood cells in the detection volume makes it difficult to count each cell in this volume. We introduce method for manipulation of circulating cells in vivo with the use of gradient acoustic forces induced by ultrasound and photoacoustic waves. In a murine model, we demonstrated cell trapping, redirecting and focusing in blood and lymph flow into a tight stream, noninvasive wall-free transportation of blood, and the potential for photoacoustic detection of sickle cells without labeling and of leukocytes targeted by functionalized nanoparticles. Integration of cell focusing with intravital imaging methods may provide a versatile biological tool for single-cell analysis in circulation, with a focus on in vivo needleless blood tests, and preclinical studies of human diseases in animal models.

  3. Studies Related to the Oregon State University High Temperature Test Facility: Scaling, the Validation Matrix, and Similarities to the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; William T. Taitano; James R. Wolf; Glenn E. McCreery

    2010-09-01

    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5 year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant project. Because the NRC interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC). Since DOE has incorporated the HTTF as an ingredient in the NGNP thermal-fluids validation program, several important outcomes should be noted: 1. The reference prismatic reactor design, that serves as the basis for scaling the HTTF, became the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). The MHTGR has also been chosen as the reference design for all of the other NGNP thermal-fluid experiments. 2. The NGNP validation matrix is being planned using the same scaling strategy that has been implemented to design the HTTF, i.e., the hierarchical two-tiered scaling methodology developed by Zuber in 1991. Using this approach a preliminary validation matrix has been designed that integrates the HTTF experiments with the other experiments planned for the NGNP thermal-fluids verification and validation project. 3. Initial analyses showed that the inherent power capability of the OSU infrastructure, which only allowed a total operational facility power capability of 0.6 MW, is

  4. Self-biased circulators for high power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Alexander S.

    Self-biased circulators exploit the properties of high anisotropy magnetic field in hexagonal ferrites, thus allowing operation without biasing magnets and a significant size and weight reduction. Although first self-biased circulators were demonstrated more than 20 years ago, all the prototypes constructed so far are unsuitable for practical applications. An attempt to design a self-biased circulator from scratch was made. Novel exceptionally low dielectric loss and high heat conductivity ceramic materials were developed and innovative substrate synthesis techniques were employed. Low temperature cofiring of green body ferrite compacts and dielectric ceramic slurries were mastered, resulting in solid composite substrates. Original device design was developed. Key features (including wide coupling angles, wide microstriplines, thick substrate, and absence of impedance transformers) enable low insertion loss, broadband operation, high power handling, and compact size. Fabrication and testing of Ka band Y-junction self-biased circulator are reported herein. Furthermore, design approach and fabrication techniques developed here can be readily applied for the construction of X-band self-biased circulators, provided that suitable ferrite materials are available. Low temperature cofiring of ferrite and dielectric materials is especially beneficial for various RF and high-frequency applications. Multiple devices can be readily fabricated on a single wafer using conventional lithographic techniques, resulting in true microwave monolithic integrated circuit.

  5. Experimental study of two-phase natural circulation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley Freitas; Su, Jian, E-mail: wlemos@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio, E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), RIo de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on the behavior of fluid flow in natural circulation under single-and two-phase flow conditions. The natural circulation circuit was designed based on concepts of similarity and scale in proportion to the actual operating conditions of a nuclear reactor. This test equipment has similar performance to the passive system for removal of residual heat presents in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (A PWR). The experiment was carried out by supplying water to primary and secondary circuits, as well as electrical power resistors installed inside the heater. Power controller has available to adjust the values for supply of electrical power resistors, in order to simulate conditions of decay of power from the nuclear reactor in steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and control of the temperature at different points by means of thermocouples installed at several points along the circuit. The behavior of the phenomenon of natural circulation was monitored by a software with graphical interface, showing the evolution of temperature measurement points and the results stored in digital format spreadsheets. Besides, the natural circulation flow rate was measured by a flowmeter installed on the hot leg. A flow visualization technique was used the for identifying vertical flow regimes of two-phase natural circulation. Finally, the Reynolds Number was calculated for the establishment of a friction factor correlation dependent on the scale geometrical length, height and diameter of the pipe. (author)

  6. Circulating follistatin in relation to energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Schiøler; Plomgaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recently, substantial evidence has emerged that the liver contributes significantly to the circulating levels of follistatin and that circulating follistatin is tightly regulated by the glucagon-to-insulin ratio. Both observations are based on investigations of healthy subjects. These novel...... a relation to energy metabolism. In this narrative review, we attempt to reconcile the existing findings on circulating follistatin with the novel concept that circulating follistatin is a liver-derived molecule regulated by the glucagon-to-insulin ratio. The picture emerging is that conditions associated...... with elevated levels of circulating follistatin have a metabolic denominator with decreased insulin sensitivity and/or hyperglucagoneimia....

  7. Matrix-free constructions of circulant and block circulant preconditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chao; Ng, Esmond G.; Penczek, Pawel A.

    2001-12-01

    A framework for constructing circulant and block circulant preconditioners (C) for a symmetric linear system Ax=b arising from certain signal and image processing applications is presented in this paper. The proposed scheme does not make explicit use of matrix elements of A. It is ideal for applications in which A only exists in the form of a matrix vector multiplication routine, and in which the process of extracting matrix elements of A is costly. The proposed algorithm takes advantage of the fact that for many linear systems arising from signal or image processing applications, eigenvectors of A can be well represented by a small number of Fourier modes. Therefore, the construction of C can be carried out in the frequency domain by carefully choosing its eigenvalues so that the condition number of C{sup T} AC can be reduced significantly. We illustrate how to construct the spectrum of C in a way such that the smallest eigenvalues of C{sup T} AC overlaps with those of A extremely well while the largest eigenvalues of C{sup T} AC are smaller than those of A by several orders of magnitude. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the preconditioner on accelerating the solution of linear systems arising from image reconstruction application.

  8. Comparison of assay methods for detection of circulating tumor cells in metastatic breast cancer: AdnaGen AdnaTest BreastCancer Select/Detect™ versus Veridex CellSearch™ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreopoulou, E; Yang, L-Y; Rangel, K M; Reuben, J M; Hsu, L; Krishnamurthy, S; Valero, V; Fritsche, H A; Cristofanilli, M

    2012-04-01

    The detection of CTCs prior to and during therapy is an independent and strong prognostic marker, and it is predictive of poor treatment outcome. A major challenge is that different technologies are available for isolation and characterization of CTCs in peripheral blood (PB). We compare the CellSearch system and AdnaTest BreastCancer Select/Detect, to evaluate the extent that these assays differ in their ability to detect CTCs in the PB of MBC patients. CTCs in 7.5 ml of PB were isolated and enumerated using the CellSearch, before new treatment. Two cutoff values of ≥2 and ≥5 CTCs/7.5 ml were used. AdnaTest requires 5 ml of PB to detect gene transcripts of tumor markers (GA733-2, MUC-1, and HER2) by RT-PCR. AdnaTest was scored positive if ≥1 of the transcript PCR products for the 3 markers were detected at a concentration ≥0.15 ng/μl. A total of 55 MBC patients were enrolled. 26 (47%) patients were positive for CTCs by the CellSearch (≥2 cutoff), while 20 (36%) were positive (≥5 cutoff). AdnaTest was positive in 29 (53%) with the individual markers being positive in 18% (GA733-2), 44% (MUC-1), and 35% (HER2). Overall positive agreement was 73% for CTC≥2 and 69% for CTC≥5. These preliminary data suggest that the AdnaTest has equivalent sensitivity to that of the CellSearch system in detecting 2 or more CTCs. While there is concordance between these 2 methods, the AdnaTest complements the CellSearch system by improving the overall CTC detection rate and permitting the assessment of genomic markers in CTCs.

  9. Molecular Tagging Velocimetry Development for In-situ Measurement in High-Temperature Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.; Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The High Temperature Test Facility, HTTF, at Oregon State University (OSU) is an integral-effect test facility designed to model the behavior of a Very High Temperature Gas Reactor (VHTR) during a Depressurized Conduction Cooldown (DCC) event. It also has the ability to conduct limited investigations into the progression of a Pressurized Conduction Cooldown (PCC) event in addition to phenomena occurring during normal operations. Both of these phenomena will be studied with in-situ velocity field measurements. Experimental measurements of velocity are critical to provide proper boundary conditions to validate CFD codes, as well as developing correlations for system level codes, such as RELAP5 (http://www4vip.inl.gov/relap5/). Such data will be the first acquired in the HTTF and will introduce a diagnostic with numerous other applications to the field of nuclear thermal hydraulics. A laser-based optical diagnostic under development at The George Washington University (GWU) is presented; the technique is demonstrated with velocity data obtained in ambient temperature air, and adaptation to high-pressure, high-temperature flow is discussed.

  10. Autonomic Regulation of Splanchnic Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Fraser

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system in circulatory regulation of the splanchnic organs (stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas and spleen is reviewed. In general, the sympathetic nervous system is primarily involved in vasoconstriction, while the parasympathetic contributes to vasodilation. Vasoconstriction in the splanchnic circulation appears to be mediated by alpha-2 receptors and vasodilation by activation of primary afferent nerves with subsequent release of vasodilatory peptides, or by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. As well, an important function of the autonomic nervous system is to provide a mechanism by which splanchnic vascular reserve can be mobilized during stress to maintain overall cardiovascular homeostasis.

  11. A probabilistic method of calculating circulation-induced trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brox Nilsen, Irene; Stagge, James Howard; Merete Tallaksen, Lena

    2015-04-01

    The water cycle in Europe has changed substantially over the past three decades. Increasing runoff is observed during winter and at northern latitudes in particular. Spring and summer months, as well as southern latitudes, are facing drier conditions. To understand what is driving large-scale changes in runoff, we look into changes in precipitation and temperature and link these to changes in atmospheric circulation. Previous studies have used the method of trend ratios (Cahynová and Huth, 2009) to attribute precipitation and temperature trends to changes in the frequency of circulation types. A trend ratio is the ratio of hypothetical trend, i.e., the trend that would result due to changes in circulation type frequency only, to the observed trend. However, the method of trend ratios has two drawbacks. First, if the observed trend is small, division by a very low value results in a meaningless trend ratio and thus requires a cut-off value to keep the trend ratio within meaningful boundaries. Second, the method does not allow a comparison of the observed trend to the spread of possible outcomes, because the method of hypothetical trends is based on a deterministic model. We propose a new, more robust method for detecting the importance of circulation-induced changes in explaining the observed trends, which has the benefit of being a non-parametric statistical test that assesses the entire range of hypothetical trends. Instead of creating a hypothetical series by replacing the observation on a given day with the long-term climatic mean of a certain month and circulation type (as in the existing trend ratio method), the new approach replaces the observation on a given day with a random sample from the distribution of the variable for the given month and circulation type. The method introduces the possibility to assign a rejection rate, thus allowing statistical significance to be assessed. We apply the method on time series of precipitation and temperature from the

  12. Closed cycle cryocooler for low temperature electronics circuits: Cold end test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirtle, F. W.

    1983-08-01

    A fabricated MACOR cold end including a metallic coating to prevent helium permeation and a fabricated die post displacer support bearing were combined with a compressor and motor which are standard CTI-CRYOGENICS products. A mechanical test was performed on the test cryocooler to determine that the mechanical test was performed on the test cryocooler to determine that the MACOR displacer was successfully guided by the die post bearing. Thermodynamic tests were conducted to determine the lowest temperature of the 4th (coldest) stage as a function of operating speed, helium charge pressure, 4th stage electrical heat load, and transfer tube diameter. Cooldown and steady state results are reported. Results indicate a low temperature limit of approximately 95K with the current test hardware. Although this represents an improvement from 122K during the program, a resizing will be necessary to reach 10K. The die post displacer support bearing and the MACOR cold finger construction are mechanically satisfactory.

  13. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  14. Construction of thermal ratchet structural test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, J. B.; Yoo, B

    2000-12-01

    The objective of this study is to setup the thermal ratchet test facility to validate the NONSTA code that is under development for the inelastic structure analysis and to characterize the thermal ratchet behavior through structural thermal ratchet test. Thermal ratchet phenomenon, a progressive inelastic deformation can occur in the liquid metal reactor operating at high temperature above 500 deg C due to the moving temperature distribution along the axial direction as the hot free surface moves up and down due to the cyclic heat-up and cool-down of reactor operation. Thermal ratchet can cause a severe damage to the reactor structure. The structural ratchet test was performed and the test results were compared with those of the analysis using Chaboche constitutive model. The fabrication of the ratchet test facility was completed in 1/4 of 2000, the performance test was carried out in the second quarter of 2000, the noise reduction of thermocouples, measurements by laser displacement sensor with data acquisition system was carried out in the third quarter and the test results compared with those of the inelastic structure analysis in the forth quarter of 2000, which showed reasonable agreement with those of the tests.

  15. A blood circulation model for reference man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.; Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Div. of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersal of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravascular injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is to improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The total blood volume is partitioned into the blood contents of 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chambers, left heart chambers, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the systemic tissues (aorta and large arteries), and venous return from the systemic tissues (large veins). As a compromise between physical reality and computational simplicity, the circulation of blood is viewed as a system of first-order transfers between blood pools, with the delay time depending on the mean transit time across the pool. The model allows consideration of incomplete, tissue-dependent extraction of material during passage through the circulation and return of material from tissues to plasma.

  16. Linear thermal circulator based on Coriolis forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2015-02-01

    We show that the presence of a Coriolis force in a rotating linear lattice imposes a nonreciprocal propagation of the phononic heat carriers. Using this effect we propose the concept of Coriolis linear thermal circulator which can control the circulation of a heat current. A simple model of three coupled harmonic masses on a rotating platform permits us to demonstrate giant circulating rectification effects for moderate values of the angular velocities of the platform.

  17. A brief etymology of the collateral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, James E; Chilian, William M; Deindl, Elisabeth; van Royen, Niels; Simons, Michael

    2014-09-01

    It is well known that the protective capacity of the collateral circulation falls short in many individuals with ischemic disease of the heart, brain, and lower extremities. In the past 15 years, opportunities created by molecular and genetic tools, together with disappointing outcomes in many angiogenic trials, have led to a significant increase in the number of studies that focus on: understanding the basic biology of the collateral circulation; identifying the mechanisms that limit the collateral circulation's capacity in many individuals; devising methods to measure collateral extent, which has been found to vary widely among individuals; and developing treatments to increase collateral blood flow in obstructive disease. Unfortunately, accompanying this increase in reports has been a proliferation of vague terms used to describe the disposition and behavior of this unique circulation, as well as the increasing misuse of well-ensconced ones by new (and old) students of collateral circulation. With this in mind, we provide a brief glossary of readily understandable terms to denote the formation, adaptive growth, and maladaptive rarefaction of collateral circulation. We also propose terminology for several newly discovered processes that occur in the collateral circulation. Finally, we include terms used to describe vessels that are sometimes confused with collaterals, as well as terms describing processes active in the general arterial-venous circulation when ischemic conditions engage the collateral circulation. We hope this brief review will help unify the terminology used in collateral research.

  18. Role of Circulating Fibrocytes in Cardiac Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Jie Lin; Zi-Zhuo Su; Shu-Min Liang; Yu-Yang Chen; Xiao-Rong Shu; Ru-Qiong Nie; Jing-Feng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It is revealed that circulating fibrocytes are elevated in patients/animals with cardiac fibrosis, and this review aims to provide an introduction to circulating fibrocytes and their role in cardiac fibrosis.Data Sources: This review is based on the data from 1994 to present obtained from PubMed.The search terms were "circulating fibrocytes" and "cardiac fibrosis".Study Selection: Articles and critical reviews, which are related to circulating fibrocytes and cardiac fibrosis, were selected.Results: Circulating fibrocytes, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, represent a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibiting mixed morphological and molecular characteristics ofhematopoietic and mesenchymal cells (CD34+/CD45+/collagen I+).They can produce extracellular matrix and many cytokines.It is shown that circulating fibrocytes participate in many fibrotic diseases, including cardiac fibrosis.Evidence accumulated in recent years shows that aging individuals and patients with hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and atrial fibrillation have more circulating fibrocytes in peripheral blood and/or heart tissue, and this elevation of circulating fibrocytes is correlated with the degree of fibrosis in the hearts.Conclusions: Circulating fibrocytes are effector cells in cardiac fibrosis.

  19. The Rank of Integral Circulant Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hou-qing

    2014-01-01

    A graph is called an integral graph if it has an integral spectrum i.e., all eigen-values are integers. A graph is called circulant graph if it is Cayley graph on the circulant group, i.e., its adjacency matrix is circulant. The rank of a graph is defined to be the rank of its adjacency matrix. This importance of the rank, due to applications in physics, chemistry and combinatorics. In this paper, using Ramanujan sums, we study the rank of integral circulant graphs and gave some simple computational formulas for the rank and provide an example which shows the formula is sharp.

  20. Role of Circulating Fibrocytes in Cardiac Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Jie; Su, Zi-Zhuo; Liang, Shu-Min; Chen, Yu-Yang; Shu, Xiao-Rong; Nie, Ru-Qiong; Wang, Jing-Feng; Xie, Shuang-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It is revealed that circulating fibrocytes are elevated in patients/animals with cardiac fibrosis, and this review aims to provide an introduction to circulating fibrocytes and their role in cardiac fibrosis. Data Sources: This review is based on the data from 1994 to present obtained from PubMed. The search terms were “circulating fibrocytes” and “cardiac fibrosis”. Study Selection: Articles and critical reviews, which are related to circulating fibrocytes and cardiac fibrosis, were selected. Results: Circulating fibrocytes, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, represent a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibiting mixed morphological and molecular characteristics of hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells (CD34+/CD45+/collagen I+). They can produce extracellular matrix and many cytokines. It is shown that circulating fibrocytes participate in many fibrotic diseases, including cardiac fibrosis. Evidence accumulated in recent years shows that aging individuals and patients with hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and atrial fibrillation have more circulating fibrocytes in peripheral blood and/or heart tissue, and this elevation of circulating fibrocytes is correlated with the degree of fibrosis in the hearts. Conclusions: Circulating fibrocytes are effector cells in cardiac fibrosis. PMID:26831236

  1. Modeling biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qi

    In this thesis, the modeling of biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds was studied. The hydrodynamics of a circulating fluidized bed operating on biomass particles were first investigated, both experimentally and numerically. Then a comprehensive mathematical model was presented to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation plant. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test its response to several gasifier operating conditions. The model was validated using the experimental results obtained from the plant and two other circulating fluidized bed biomass gasifiers (CFBBGs). Finally, an ASPEN PLUS simulation model of biomass gasification was presented based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction system at chemical equilibrium. Hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of gas-solid circulating fluidized beds (CFBs). A 2-dimensional mathematical model was developed considering the hydrodynamic behavior of CFB gasifiers. In the modeling, the CFB riser was divided into two regions: a dense region at the bottom and a dilute region at the top of the riser. Kunii and Levenspiel (1991)'s model was adopted to express the vertical solids distribution with some other assumptions. Radial distributions of bed voidage were taken into account in the upper zone by using Zhang et al. (1991)'s correlation. For model validation purposes, a cold model CFB was employed, in which sawdust was transported with air as the fluidizing agent. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation demonstration plant in China. Hydrodynamics as well as chemical reaction kinetics were considered. The fluidized bed riser was divided into two distinct sections: (a) a dense region at the bottom of the bed where biomass undergoes mainly heterogeneous reactions and (b) a dilute region at the top where most of homogeneous

  2. Inflammatory response and extracorporeal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Florian; Schmidt, Christoph; Van Aken, Hugo; Zarbock, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation (EC) frequently develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Surgical trauma, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, endotoxaemia and blood contact to nonendothelial circuit compounds promote the activation of coagulation pathways, complement factors and a cellular immune response. This review discusses the multiple pathways leading to endothelial cell activation, neutrophil recruitment and production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. All these factors may induce cellular damage and subsequent organ injury. Multiple organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery with EC is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. In addition to the pathogenesis of organ dysfunction after EC, this review deals with different therapeutic interventions aiming to alleviate the inflammatory response and consequently multiple organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery.

  3. Scaling Studies for High Temperature Test Facility and Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schult; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; James R. Wolf; Brian Woods

    2012-02-01

    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5-year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. Because the NRC's interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC).

  4. Functional evaluation of circulating hematopoietic progenitors in Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timeus, Fabio; Crescenzio, Nicoletta; Baldassarre, Giuseppina; Doria, Alessandra; Vallero, Stefano; Foglia, Luiselda; Pagliano, Sara; Rossi, Cesare; Silengo, Margherita Cirillo; Ramenghi, Ugo; Fagioli, Franca; Cordero di Montezemolo, Luca; Ferrero, Giovanni Battista

    2013-08-01

    controls (median, 8.6%; range, 0-27.7% vs. median, 17.6%; range, 2.8-49.6%), suggesting an increased CD34+ cell survival. The functional evaluation of circulating hematopoietic progenitors showed specific patterns in NS and NS/MPD. These tests are a reliable integrative tool that, together with clinical data and other hematological parameters, could help detect NS patients with a high risk for a myeloproliferative evolution.

  5. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project. 1990 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this DOE Cooperative Agreement is to conduct a cost-shared clean coal technology project to demonstrate the feasibility of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology and to evaluate economic, environmental, and operational benefits of CFB steam generators on a utility scale. At the conclusion of the Phase 2 program, testing related to satisfying these objectives was completed. Data analysis and reporting are scheduled for completion by October 1991. (VC)

  6. Dispensing with the DVD Circulation Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Richmond Public Library (RPL) is a four-branch suburban library with the highest per capita circulation of any comparable library in Canada. While DVDs naturally fit into RPL's emphasis on popular material, circulating them using the standard model proved problematic: Long hold queues built up, DVDs idled on the hold shelves, and the circulation…

  7. Space-Time radar waveforms: circulating codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babur, G.; Aubry, P.; Le Chevalier, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a concept of the circulating codes covering the whole class of the space-time codes. The circulating codes do not narrow the radiated pattern of the antenna array, thus providing a wide angular coverage, possibly tunable. In turn, the beam-forming on transmit is achievable by me

  8. On So's conjecture for integral circulant graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Sander

    2015-04-01

    According to a conjecture of {\\sc So} two integral circulant graphs are isomorphic if and only if they are isospectral, i.e. they have the same eigenvalues (counted with multiplicities. We prove a weaker form of this conjecture, namely, that two integral circulant graphs with multiplicative divisor sets are isomorphic if and only if their spectral vectors coincide.

  9. Physiology of the fetal and transitional circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnemore, Anna; Groves, Alan

    2015-08-01

    The fetal circulation is an entirely transient event, not replicated at any point in later life, and functionally distinct from the pediatric and adult circulations. Understanding of the physiology of the fetal circulation is vital for accurate interpretation of hemodynamic assessments in utero, but also for management of circulatory compromise in premature infants, who begin extrauterine life before the fetal circulation has finished its maturation. This review summarizes the key classical components of circulatory physiology, as well as some of the newer concepts of physiology that have been appreciated in recent years. The immature circulation has significantly altered function in all aspects of circulatory physiology. The mechanisms and significance of these differences are also discussed, as is the impact of these alterations on the circulatory transition of infants born prematurely.

  10. Late Posthemorrhagic Structural and Functional Changes in Pulmonary Circulation Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Andreyeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the major regularities and mechanisms of morphological changes in the rat pulmonary circulation arteries in the late posthemorrhagic period and to compare them with age-related features of the vessels. Materials and methods: experiments to generate graduated hemorrhagic hypotension with the blood pressure being maintained at 40 mm Hg were carried out on young (5—6-month albino male Wistar rats. Throughout hypotension and 60 days after blood loss, the blood was tested to determine low and average molecular-weight substances by spectrophotometry and the pro- and antioxidative systems by chemiluminescence. Pulmonary circulation arteries were morphologically studied in young animals, rats in the late posthemorrhagic period and old (24—25-month rats. Results. Sixty-minute hemorrhagic hypotension leads to the development of endotoxemia and imbalance of the pro- and antioxidative systems, the signs of which are observed in the late periods (2 months after hypotension. At the same time, the posthemorrhagic period is marked by the significant pulmonary circulation arterial morphological changes comparable with their age-related alterations in old rat. This shows up mainly in the reorganization of a connective tissue component in the vascular wall: the elevated levels of individual collagen fibers, their structural changes, elastic medial membrane destruction and deformity. At the same time, there is a change in the morphometric parameters of vessels at all study stages while their lowered flow capacity is only characteristic for intraorgan arteries. Conclusion: The increased activity of free radical oxidation and endotoxemia may be believed to be one of the causes of morphological changes in pulmonary circulation arteries in the late posthemorrhagic period, which is similar to age-related vascular alterations. Key words: hemorrhagic hypotension, pulmonary circulation arteries, free radical oxidation, endotoxemia, remodeling, late

  11. Construction of a Sequencing Library from Circulating Cell-Free DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Nan; Löffert, Dirk; Akinci-Tolun, Rumeysa; Heitz, Katja; Wolf, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Circulating DNA is cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in serum or plasma that can be used for non-invasive prenatal testing, as well as cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and stratification. High-throughput sequence analysis of the cfDNA with next-generation sequencing technologies has proven to be a highly sensitive and specific method in detecting and characterizing mutations in cancer and other diseases, as well as aneuploidy during pregnancy. This unit describes detailed procedures to extract circulating cfDNA from human serum and plasma and generate sequencing libraries from a wide concentration range of circulating DNA.

  12. Interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg Paklar, Gordana; Sepic, Jadranka; Grbec, Branka; Dzoic, Tomislav; Kovac, Zarko; Ivatek-Sahdan, Stjepan

    2016-04-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was implemented in order to reproduce interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation. Simulations and model result analysis were performed for a three-year period from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2013. ROMS model run was forced with realistic atmospheric fields obtained from meteorological model Aladin, climatological river discharges, tides and Mediterranean circulation imposed at the southern open boundary. Atmospheric forcing included momentum, heat and water fluxes calculated interactively from the Aladin surface fields during ROMS model simulations. Model results were compared with available CTD and ADCP measurements and discussed in the light of the climatological circulation and thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea and its coastal areas. Interannual variability in the Adriatic circulation is related to the prevailing atmospheric conditions, changes in the hydrological conditions and water mass exchange at the Otranto Strait. Basic features of the Adriatic circulation - basin-wide cyclonic circulation with several embedded smaller cyclonic gyres around main pits - are well reproduced by ROMS model. Modelled temperatures and salinities are within corresponding seasonal intervals, although measured profiles generally indicate stronger stratification than modelled ones. Summer circulation in 2011 with current reversal obtained along the eastern Adriatic coast was related to the sampling results of the early fish stages as well as to ARGO drifter movements. Simulated fields from the Adriatic scale model were used to prescribe the initial and open boundary conditions for the interannual simulation in the middle Adriatic coastal domain.

  13. Development of a hydraulic model of the human systemic circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, M. K.; Dharmalingham, R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Physical and numeric models of the human circulation are constructed for a number of objectives, including studies and training in physiologic control, interpretation of clinical observations, and testing of prosthetic cardiovascular devices. For many of these purposes it is important to quantitatively validate the dynamic response of the models in terms of the input impedance (Z = oscillatory pressure/oscillatory flow). To address this need, the authors developed an improved physical model. Using a computer study, the authors first identified the configuration of lumped parameter elements in a model of the systemic circulation; the result was a good match with human aortic input impedance with a minimum number of elements. Design, construction, and testing of a hydraulic model analogous to the computer model followed. Numeric results showed that a three element model with two resistors and one compliance produced reasonable matching without undue complication. The subsequent analogous hydraulic model included adjustable resistors incorporating a sliding plate to vary the flow area through a porous material and an adjustable compliance consisting of a variable-volume air chamber. The response of the hydraulic model compared favorably with other circulation models.

  14. Circulating miRNA and cancer diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    miRNAs are a class of small RNA molecules with regulatory function, and play an important role in tumor development and progression. It has been demonstrated that tumor-derived miRNAs exist in the circulating nucleic acids of cancer patients. This phenomenon implies that detection of the circulating miRNA may be an effective method for non-invasive diagnosis of cancer. In this review, we summarize the applications of the circulating miRNA as biomarkers in cancer diagnosis, as well as the latest research progress in this area.

  15. A GM cryocooler with cold helium circulation for remote cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Brown, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    A GM cryocooler with new cold helium circulation system has been developed at Cryomech. A set of check valves connects to the cold heat exchanger to convert a small portion of AC oscillating flow in the cold head to a DC gas flow for circulating cold helium in the remote loop. A cold finger, which is used for remote cooling, is connected to the check valves through a pair of 5 m long vacuum insulated flexible lines. The GM cryocooler, Cryomech model AL125 having 120 W at 80 K, is employed in the testing. The cold finger can provide 50 W at 81 K for the power input of 4.1 kW and 70.5 W at 81.8 K for the power input of 6 kW. This simple and low cost design is very attractive for some applications in the near future.

  16. Polymer grouts for plugging lost circulation in geothermal wells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbreath, D. (Green Mountain International, Waynesvile, NC); Mansure, Arthur James; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2004-12-01

    We have concluded a laboratory study to evaluate the survival potential of polymeric materials used for lost circulation plugs in geothermal wells. We learned early in the study that these materials were susceptible to hydrolysis. Through a systematic program in which many potential chemical combinations were evaluated, polymers were developed which tolerated hydrolysis for eight weeks at 500 F. The polymers also met material, handling, cost, and emplacement criteria. This screening process identified the most promising materials. A benefit of this work is that the components of the polymers developed can be mixed at the surface and pumped downhole through a single hose. Further strength testing is required to determine precisely the maximum temperature at which extrusion through fractures or voids causes failure of the lost circulation plug.

  17. Oil Circulation Effects on Evaporation Heat Transfer in Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger using R134A

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Jaekyoo; Chang, Youngsoo; Kang, Byungha

    2012-01-01

    Experimental study was performed for oil circulation effects on evaporation heat transfer in the brazed type plate heat exchangers using R134A. In this study, distribution device was installed to ensure uniform flow distribution in the refrigerant flow passage, which enhances heat transfer performance of plate type heat exchanger. Tests were conducted for three evaporation temperature; 33℃, 37℃, and 41℃ and several oil circulation conditions. The nominal conditions of refrigerant are as follo...

  18. FABRICATE AND TEST AN ADVANCED NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eugene Baxter; Roger E. Anderson; Stephen E. Doyle

    2003-06-01

    In September 2000 the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) contracted with Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) of Sacramento, California to design, fabricate, and test a 20 MW{sub t} (10 MW{sub e}) gas generator. Program goals were to demonstrate a non-polluting gas generator at temperatures up to 3000 F at 1500 psi, and to demonstrate resulting drive gas composition, comprising steam and carbon dioxide substantially free of pollutants. Following hardware design and fabrication, testing, originally planned to begin in the summer of 2001, was delayed by unavailability of the contracted test facility. CES designed, fabricated, and tested the proposed gas generator as originally agreed. The CES process for producing near-zero-emissions power from fossil fuels is based on the near-stoichiometric combustion of a clean gaseous fuel with oxygen in the presence of recycled water, to produce a high-temperature, high-pressure turbine drive fluid comprising steam and carbon dioxide. Tests demonstrated igniter operation over the prescribed ranges of pressure and mixture ratios. Ignition was repeatable and reliable through more than 100 ignitions. Injector design ''A'' was operated successfully at both low power ({approx}20% of rated power) and at rated power ({approx}20 MW{sub t}) in more than 95 tests. The uncooled gas generator configuration (no diluent injectors or cooldown chambers installed) produced drive gases at temperatures approaching 3000 F and at pressures greater than 1550 psia. The fully cooled gas generator configuration, with cooldown chambers and injector ''A'', operated consistently at pressures from 1100 to 1540 psia and produced high pressure, steam-rich turbine drive gases at temperatures ranging from {approx}3000 to as low as 600 F. This report includes description of the intended next steps in the gas generator technology demonstration and traces the anticipated pathway to

  19. EOP MIT General Circulation Model (MITgcm)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains a regional implementation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) at a 1-km spatial resolution for the...

  20. Head positioning for anterior circulation aneurysms microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feres Chaddad-Neto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the ideal patient's head positioning for the anterior circulation aneurysms microsurgery. Method We divided the study in two parts. Firstly, 10 fresh cadaveric heads were positioned and dissected in order to ideally expose the anterior circulation aneurysm sites. Afterwards, 110 patients were submitted to anterior circulation aneurysms microsurgery. During the surgery, the patient's head was positioned accordingly to the aneurysm location and the results from the cadaveric study. The effectiveness of the position was noted. Results We could determine mainly two patterns for head positioning for the anterior circulation aneurysms. Conclusion The best surgical exposure is related to specific head positions. The proper angle of microscopic view may minimize neurovascular injury and brain retraction.

  1. Deep Circulation in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaolong; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Xiaobiao; Tian, Jiwei; Zhou, Chun

    2016-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal sea of the northwest Pacific. The deep circulation in the SCS is investigated on the basis of the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). All the experiments show reasonable agreement with observation from mooring arrays. Analysis of these results provides a detailed spatial structure and temporal variability of the deep circulation in the SCS. The major features of the SCS deep circulation are basin-scale cyclonic gyre and concentrated deep western boundary current (DWBC). The transport of the DWBC is ~2 Sv at 16.5°N with a width of ~53 km. As flowing southwestward, the DWBC becomes weaker with a wider range. Deep upwelling in the SCS is estimated of 0.19 to 1.15 m d-1 with the strongest area around the DWBC. The model results reveal the existence of 80 to 120 days oscillation in the deep northeastern circulation and the DWBC, which are also the areas with large eddy kinetic energy. This seasonal oscillation is northwestward with a velocity amplitude of ~1.0~1.5 cm s-1. The distribution of mixing parameters in the deep SCS plays a role in both spatial structure and volume transport of the deep circulation. Compared with the north shelf of the SCS with the Luzon Strait, deep circulation in the SCS is more sensitive to the large vertical mixing parameters of the Zhongsha Island Chain area.

  2. Surgical myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomón Soriano Ordinola Rojas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the immediate postoperative period of patients undergoing myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation with different types of grafts. METHODS: One hundred and twelve patients, 89 (79.5% of whom were males, were revascularized without extracorporeal circulation. Their ages ranged from 39 to 85 years. The criteria for indicating myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation were as follows: revascularized coronary artery caliber > 1.5 mm, lack of intramyocardial trajectory on coronary angiography, noncalcified coronary arteries, and tolerance of the heart to the different rotation maneuvers. RESULTS: Myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation was performed in 112 patients. Three were converted to extracorporeal circulation, which required a longer hospital stay but did not impact mortality. During the procedure, the following events were observed: atrial fibrillation in 10 patients, ventricular fibrillation in 4, total transient atrioventricular block in 2, ventricular extrasystoles in 58, use of a device to retrieve red blood cells in 53, blood transfusion in 8, and arterial hypotension in 89 patients. Coronary angiography was performed in 20 patients on the seventh postoperative day when the grafts were patent. CONCLUSION: Myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation is a reproducible technique that is an alternative for treating ischemic heart disease.

  3. Electromagnetic circulation pump for corrosive gases; Pompe de circulation electromagnetique pour gaz corrosifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noe, P.; Delafosse, D.; Deletre, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In order to transport very corrosive products (fluorinated compounds) we have been led to develop a totally metallic circulation pump capable of operating at above room temperatures and with a molecular vacuum. We have aimed at maximum simplicity both in its conception and in its operation. The tests showed that the compression ratios produced, although not high are interesting (1.5 at a pressure of 100 torr) (see curve I). The flow-rate range is very wide: about one hundred ccs/atm/min. to 3000 ccs/atm/min. (see curves IV, V, VI). The desorption of this pump presents no difficulty if both the aspiration and the reject sides are pumped together. A hole of 2 mm diameter drilled in the piston makes it possible to desorb the space between the two segments. The price of this pump is not high: 1300 F, with the electrical cabinet. (authors) [French] En vue de vehiculer des produits tres corrosifs (composes fluores) nous avons ete amene a realiser une pompe de circulation entierement metallique, capable de fonctionner en temperature et sous vide moleculaire. Nous avons recherche la simplicite tant dans sa realisation que dans son fonctionnement. Les essais ont montre que les taux de compression fournis, sans etre eleves, sont interessants (1,5 a la pression de 100 torr) (voir courbe I). La gamme des debits est tres large: d'une centaine de cm{sup 3}/atm/mn a 3000 cm{sup 3}/atm/mn (voir courbes IV, V, VI). La desorption de cette pompe ne presente pas de difficulte en pompant a la fois cote aspiration et cote refoulement. Un percage de 2 mm de diametre dans le piston permet la desorption de l'espace entre les 2 segments. Le cout de cette pompe est peu eleve: 1300 F, coffret electrique compris. (auteurs)

  4. Operational tests of the BNL 24.8 kW, 3.8 K helium refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. P.; Farah, Y.; Gibbs, R. J.; Schlafke, A. P.; Sondericker, J. H.; Wu, K. C.; Freeman, M.; Ganni, V.; Kowalski, R.; McWilliams, R.

    1985-06-01

    The BNL 24.8 kW refrigeration system is completely installed and major portions of the acceptance tests have been completed. So far, the equipment tested has performed at or above design levels. The room temperature helium compressor station has been completely tested and accepted. The two-stage oil injected screw compressor system exhibited an isothermal efficiency of 57% while delivering a helium flow in excess of 4400 g/s. Data on the performance of the make-up gas cryogenic purifier is given. The refrigerator turbomachinery, 13 expanders and three cold compressors, has been tested at room temperature for mechanical integrity and control stability. The first cooldown to operating temperature will be attempted in late August, 1985.

  5. Analogues of atmospheric circulation to probe extreme and rare events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiou, P.

    2015-12-01

    Analogues of atmospheric circulation have had many applications, from weather prediction to the downscaling of climate variables. The main assumptions behind this methodology are that climate variables (such as temperature or precipitation) are linked a large-scale atmospheric predictand, which is usually taken as sea-level pressure, and that such predictands recur through time. They offer a possibility to estimate probability distributions of a climate variable, conditional to patterns of atmospheric circulation. In addition, this methodology allows the quantification of unusual weather patterns that have been observed. I will represent a way to use analogues of circulation for the detection/attribution of extreme events of precipitation and temperature. This approach will be illustrated on test cases, including the warm European winter of 2006/2007, the extremes of precipitation over Southern UK and northwestern France in January 2014, and the European summer of 2015. I will show how this analysis provides a low-cost estimate of the fraction of attributable risk (FAR) for extreme events that verify the above mentioned hypotheses. Such an analysis can be performed in continuous time with reanalysis data and meteorological observations.

  6. Circulating Nucleosomes and Nucleosome Modifications as Biomarkers in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnena, Peter; Brown, James A. L.; Kerin, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally the stratification of many cancers involves combining tumour and clinicopathological features (e.g., patient age; tumour size, grade, receptor status and location) to inform treatment options and predict recurrence risk and survival. However, current biomarkers often require invasive excision of the tumour for profiling, do not allow monitoring of the response to treatment and stratify patients into broad heterogeneous groups leading to inconsistent treatment responses. Here we explore and describe the benefits of using circulating biomarkers (nucleosomes and/or modifications to nucleosomes) as a non-invasive method for detecting cancer and monitoring response to treatment. Nucleosomes (DNA wound around eight core histone proteins) are responsible for compacting our genome and their composition and post-translational modifications are responsible for regulating gene expression. Here, we focus on breast and colorectal cancer as examples where utilizing circulating nucleosomes as biomarkers hold real potential as liquid biopsies. Utilizing circulating nucleosomes as biomarkers is an exciting new area of research that promises to allow both the early detection of cancer and monitoring of treatment response. Nucleosome-based biomarkers combine with current biomarkers, increasing both specificity and sensitivity of current tests and have the potential to provide individualised precision-medicine based treatments for patients. PMID:28075351

  7. Clinical CVVH model removes endothelium-derived microparticles from circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhafeez H. Abdelhafeez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endothelium-derived microparticles (EMPs are submicron vesicles released from the plasma membrane of endothelial cells in response to injury, apoptosis or activation. We have previously demonstrated EMP-induced acute lung injury (ALI in animal models and endothelial barrier dysfunction in vitro. Current treatment options for ALI are limited and consist of supportive therapies. We hypothesize that standard clinical continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH reduces serum EMP levels and may be adapted as a potential therapeutic intervention. Materials and methods: EMPs were generated from plasminogen activation inhibitor-1 (PAI-1-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Flow cytometric analysis was used to characterize EMPs as CD31- and annexin V-positive events in a submicron size gate. Enumeration was completed against a known concentration of latex beads. Ultimately, a concentration of ~650,000 EMP/mL perfusate fluid (total 470 mL was circulated through a standard CVVH filter (pore size 200 μm, flow rate 250 mL/hr for a period of 70 minutes. 0.5 mL aliquots were removed at 5- to 10-minute intervals for flow cytometric analysis. EMP concentration in the dialysate was measured at the end of 4 hours to better understand the fate of EMPs. Results: A progressive decrease in circulating EMP concentration was noted using standard CVVH at 250 mL/hr (a clinical standard rate from a 470 mL volume modelling a patient's circulation. A 50% reduction was noted within the first 30 minutes. EMPs entering the dialysate after 4 hours were 5.7% of the EMP original concentration. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that standard CVVH can remove EMPs from circulation in a circuit modelling a patient. An animal model of hemofiltration with induction of EMP release is required to test the therapeutic potential of this finding and potential of application in early treatment of ALI.

  8. Indirect thermal control for improved reliability of Modular Multilevel Converter by utilizing circulating current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammadkazem Bakhshizadeh; Ma, Ke; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2015-01-01

    Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) has recently become a popular multilevel topology for high-power applications, where the reliability performance is a crucial design consideration. In this paper the impacts of the circulating current in the MMC to the loss and thermal loading of power...... loading of the power devices, and by proper controlling the amount of circulating current, the temperature fluctuation or thermal cycling in the power device can be relieved, and thereby contributing to improved reliability performance according to many lifetime models/testing results for power devices....... semiconductor devices are comprehensively investigated. Also a novel control strategy by utilizing the circulating current is proposed to enhance the reliability performance of MMC in order to limit the amplitude of thermal cycles. It is concluded that the circulating current may change the losses and thermal...

  9. Lag influences of winter circulation conditions in the tropical western Pacific on South Asian summer monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By means of monthly mean NCEP/NCAR data analyses, this note investigates the lag influences of winter circulation conditions in the tropical western Pacific on South Asian summer monsoon through the methods of composite, correlation and statistical confident test. The results indicate clearly that winter climate variations in the equatorial western Pacific would produce significant influences on the following South Asian summer monsoon, and with the lapse of time the lag influences show clearly moving northward and extending westward features. When winter positive (negative) sea level pressure anomalies occupy the equatorial western Pacific, there is an anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation anomaly appearing in the northwestern Pacific. With the lapse of time, the anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation anomaly gradually moves to northeast, and its axis in the west-east directions also stretches, therefore, easterly (westerly) anomalies in the south part of the anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation anomaly continuously expand westward to the peninsula of India. Undoubtedly, the South Asian summer monsoon is weak (strong)

  10. Changes in zonal surface temperature gradients and Walker circulations in a wide range of climates

    CERN Document Server

    Merlis, Timothy M

    2010-01-01

    Variations in zonal surface temperature gradients and zonally asymmetric tropical overturning circulations (Walker circulations) are examined over a wide range of climates simulated with an idealized atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). The asymmetry in the tropical climate is generated by an imposed ocean energy flux, which does not vary with climate. The range of climates is simulated by modifying the optical thickness of an idealized longwave absorber (representing greenhouse gases). The zonal surface temperature gradient in low latitudes generally decreases as the climate warms in the idealized GCM simulations. A scaling relationship based on a two-term balance in the surface energy budget accounts for the changes in the zonally asymmetric component of the GCM-simulated surface temperature gradients. As in comprehensive simulations of climate change, the Walker circulation weakens as the climate warms in the idealized simulations. The wide range of climates allows a systematic test of energetic ar...

  11. Natural Circulation Characteristics at Low-Pressure Conditions through PANDA Experiments and ATHLET Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Paladino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural circulation characteristics at low pressure/low power have been studied by performing experimental investigations and numerical simulations. The PANDA large-scale facility was used to provide valuable, high quality data on natural circulation characteristics as a function of several parameters and for a wide range of operating conditions. The new experimental data allow for testing and improving the capabilities of the thermal-hydraulic computer codes to be used for treating natural circulation loops in a range with increased attention. This paper presents a synthesis of a part of the results obtained within the EU-Project NACUSP “natural circulation and stability performance of boiling water reactors.” It does so by using the experimental results produced in PANDA and by showing some examples of numerical simulations performed with the thermal-hydraulic code ATHLET.

  12. 46 CFR 56.50-45 - Circulating pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circulating pumps. 56.50-45 Section 56.50-45 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-45 Circulating pumps. (a) A main circulating pump and emergency means for circulating water through the main condenser shall be provided....

  13. Experimental natural circulation circuit - preliminaries results; Circuito experimental de circulacao natural - resultados experimentais preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccini, Jose Luiz H.; Botelho, David A.; Soares, Milton; Coutinho, Jorge A.; Freitas, Sergio Carlos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: faccini@cnen.gov.br

    2000-07-01

    These are the preliminaries results of the tests carried out at experimental natural circulation system of IEN/CNEN. The experimental system is a reduced scale similar model in power, pressure, and length of a passive residual heat removal prototype system. It enables studies of natural circulation phenomena in an advanced PWR. The experimental results refer to the steps of data acquisition system calibration, power control system calibration, and single-phase operational tests. The results of single-phase tests show temperature in time measured by the thermocouples placed along the natural circulation system. It is also presented a brief commentary on the experimental results, based on theory and preliminary computational simulations. (author)

  14. Gasification of sawdust in pressurised internally circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, R.; Lindblom, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A test plant for pressurised gasification of biofuels in a internally circulating fluidized bed has been built at the department of Chemical Engineering II at the University of Lund. The design performance is set to maximum 20 bar and 1 050 deg C at a thermal input of 100 kW or a maximum fuel input of 18 kg/in. The primary task is to study pressurised gasification of biofuels in relation to process requirements of the IGCC concept (integrated gasification combined cycle processes), which includes studies in different areas of hot gas clean-up in reducing atmosphere for gas turbine applications. (orig.)

  15. NAO-ocean circulation interactions in a coupled general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, A. [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); Gualdi, S.; Navarra, A. [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Scoccimarro, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    The interplay between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the large scale ocean circulation is inspected in a twentieth century simulation conducted with a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model. Significant lead-lag covariance between oceanic and tropospheric variables suggests that the system supports a damped oscillatory mode involving an active ocean-atmosphere coupling, with a typical NAO-like space structure and a 5 years timescale, qualitatively consistent with a mid-latitude delayed oscillator paradigm. The two essential processes governing the oscillation are (1) a negative feedback between ocean gyre circulation and the high latitude SST meridional gradient and (2) a positive feedback between SST and the NAO. The atmospheric NAO pattern appears to have a weaker projection on the ocean meridional overturning, compared to the gyre circulation, which leads to a secondary role for the thermohaline circulation in driving the meridional heat transport, and thus the oscillatory mode. (orig.)

  16. Circulating Endothelial Microparticles in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Tramontano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial Microparticles (EMPs are small vesicles shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells and involved in cellular cross-talk. Whether EMP immunophenotypes vary according to stimulus in Diabetes Mellitus (DM is not known. We studied the cellular adhesion molecule (CAM profile of circulating EMPs in patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus type 2, who were undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. Methods and Results. EMPs were analyzed by flow cytometry. The absolute median number of EMPs (EMPs/L specific for CD31, CD105, and CD106 was significantly increased in the DM population. The ratio of CD62E/CD31 EMP populations reflected an apoptotic process. Conclusion. Circulating CD31+, CD105+, and CD106+ EMPs were significantly elevated in patients with DM. EMPs were the only independent predictors of DM in our study cohort. In addition, the EMP immunophenotype reflected an apoptotic process. Circulating EMPs may provide new options for risk assessment.

  17. Walker circulation in a transient climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesca, Elina; Grützun, Verena; Buehler, Stefan A.

    2016-04-01

    The tropical overturning circulations modulate the heat exchange across the tropics and between the tropics and the poles. The anthropogenic influence on the climate system will affect these circulations, impacting the dynamics of the Earth system. In this work we focus on the Walker circulation. We investigate its temporal and spatial dynamical changes and their link to other climate features, such as surface and sea-surface temperature patterns, El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and ocean heat-uptake, both at global and regional scale. In order to determine the impact of anthropogenic climate change on the tropical circulation, we analyze the outputs of 28 general circulation models (GCMs) from the CMIP5 project. We use the experiment with 1% year-1 increase in CO2 concentration from pre-industrial levels to quadrupling of the concentration. Consistent with previous studies (ex. Ma and Xie 2013), we find that for this experiment most GCMs associate a weakening Walker circulation to a warming transient climate. Due to the role of the Walker Pacific cell in the meridional heat and moisture transport across the tropical Pacific and also the connection to ENSO, we find that a weakened Walker circulation correlates with more extreme El-Niño events, although without a change in their frequency. The spatial analysis of the Pacific Walker cell suggests an eastward displacement of the ascending branch, which is consistent with positive SST anomalies over the tropical Pacific and the link of the Pacific Walker cell to ENSO. Recent studies (ex. England et al. 2014) have linked a strengthened Walker circulation to stronger ocean heat uptake, especially in the western Pacific. The inter-model comparison of the correlation between Walker circulation intensity and ocean heat uptake does not convey a robust response for the investigated experiment. However, there is some evidence that a stronger weakening of the Walker circulation is linked to a higher transient climate

  18. A 12 GHz broadband latching circulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Y.; Konishi, H.; Sakamoto, K.

    The two kinds of latching circulators, external return path and internal return path, are defined, noting the advantages (faster switching speed, lower switching energy, less complicated fabrication) offered by the internal configuration. It is noted, however, that this kind of circulator is difficult to make broadband because the return paths do not seem to act as part of the ferrite junction. The development of a 12-GHz broadband, internal return path circulator with impedance matching transformer and in-phase adjustment screws designed using eigenvalue measurement is described. In describing the operating characteristics, it is noted that more than 25 dB isolation over 11 GHz to 13.5 GHz and 0.25 dB insertion loss is obtained.

  19. Review of the ATLAS B0 model coil test program

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgetta, N; Acerbi, E; Berriaud, C; Boxman, H; Broggi, F; Cataneo, F; Daël, A; Delruelle, N; Dudarev, A; Foussat, A; Haug, F; ten Kate, H H J; Mayri, C; Paccalini, A; Pengo, R; Rivoltella, G; Sbrissa, E

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS B0 model coil has been extensively tested, reproducing the operational conditions of the final ATLAS Barrel Toroid coils. Two test campaigns have taken place on B0, at the CERN facility where the individual BT coils are about to be tested. The first campaign aimed to test the cool-down, warm-up phases and to commission the coil up to its nominal current of 20.5 kA, reproducing Lorentz forces similar to the ones on the BT coil. The second campaign aimed to evaluate the margins above the nominal conditions. The B0 was tested up to 24 kA and specific tests were performed to assess: the coil temperature margin with respect to the design value, the performance of the double pancake internal joints, static and dynamic heat loads, behavior of the coil under quench conditions. The paper reviews the overall test program with emphasis on second campaign results not covered before. 10 Refs.

  20. Scaling Analysis and Design for Integrated Nuclear Heating Reactor Ⅱ Major Loop Test Facility Under Single Phase Natural Circulation%一体化核供热堆Ⅱ型主回路单相自然循环实验比例分析与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 贾海军; 吴磊

    2012-01-01

    The small integrated nuclear reactor has drawn attention. On the basis of the NHR200-Ⅰ, the integrated nuclear heating reactor NHR200-Ⅱ was developed by Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology in Qinghua University. The NHR200- Ⅱ reactor major loop thermal parameters were increased, and made it suitable for heating, industrial steam supply and sea water desalinization. In order to discover the natural circulation behavior under high temperature and pressure, the experiment study was needed. The scaling analysis provided the theoretical basis for determining the characteristics scale of the test facility. The similarity groups (Richardson number, etc.) could be determined using the dimensionless fluid and solid governing equations. In order to reduce the distortion, the test facility used the fluid with same property as the prototype. The axial length scale ratio and core surface average heat flux density ratio was 1:1, and the flow area ratio was 1:210.%小型一体化反应堆技术是目前研究的热点.在清华大学核能与新能源技术研究院原有的NHR200-Ⅰ型的基础上,开发了NHR200-Ⅱ型核供热堆,较大幅度的提升了热工参数,适用于城市集中供热、生产工业蒸汽、海水淡化等非发电领域.为研究NHR200-Ⅱ型核供热堆高温、高压系统自然循环运行特性,需开展实验研究.比例分析是主回路系统单相自然循环实验本体装置设计的理论依据和前提.对主回路流体、固体控制方程无量纲化,确定单相自然循环的相似特征数组合(Richardson数等6项).在实验条件允许的范围内,为了减小模拟失真,实验装置使用等物性流体,其轴向长度比例为1∶1,平均表面热流密度比例为1∶1,流道面积比例为1∶210.

  1. Uses of cell free fetal DNA in maternal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Melissa; Barrett, Angela N; White, Helen; Chitty, Lyn S

    2012-10-01

    For over a decade, researchers have focused their attention on the development of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis tests based on cell-free fetal DNA circulating in maternal blood. With the possibility of earlier and safer testing, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis has the potential to bring many positive benefits to prenatal diagnosis. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for fetal sex determination for women who are carriers of sex-linked conditions is now firmly established in clinical practice. Other non-invasive prenatal diagnosis-based tests are set to follow, as future applications, such as the detection of single-gene disorders and chromosomal abnormalities, are now well within reach. Here, we review recent developments in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for genetic conditions and chromosomal abnormalities, and provide an overview of research into ethical concerns, social issues and stakeholder view points.

  2. The stripline circulator theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Helszajn, J

    2008-01-01

    Stripline circulator theory and applications from the world's foremost authority. The stripline junction circulator is a unique three-port non-reciprocal microwave junction used to connect a single antenna to both a transmitter and a receiver. Its operation relies on the interaction between an electron spin in a suitably magnetized insulator with an alternating radio frequency magnetic field. In its simplest form, it consists of a microwave planar gyromagnetic resonator symmetrically coupled by three transmission lines. This book explores the magnetic interaction involved in the stripline circ.

  3. Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ishida, Naoki [Daihatsu Motor Company, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity.

  4. TLC City West, Cooldown Commons, Fortunestown Lane, Citywest, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases are major co-morbidities in both. Co-existence of both disorders (overlap syndrome) occurs in 1% of adults and overlap patients have worse nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia than COPD and OSA patients alone. The present review discusses recent data concerning the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the overlap syndrome.

  5. A Study on Planetary Atmospheric Circulations using THOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, João; Grosheintz, Luc; Lukas Grimm, Simon; Heng, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    The large variety of planetary parameters observed leads us to think that exoplanets may show a large range of possible climates. It is therefore of the uttermost importance to investigate the influence of astronomical and planetary bulk parameters in driving the atmospheric circulations. In the solar system the results from planetary spacecraft missions have demonstrated how different the planetary climate and atmospheric circulations can be. The study of exoplanets will require probing a far wider range of physical and orbital parameters than the ones of our neighbor planets. For this reason, such a study will involve exploring an even larger diversity of circulation and climate regimes. Our new atmospheric model, THOR, is intended to be extremely flexible and to explore the large diversity of planetary atmospheres.THOR is part of the Exoclimes Simulation Platform, and is a project of the Exoplanet and Exoclimes Group (see www.exoclime.org). THOR solves the complex atmospheric fluid equations in a rotating sphere (fully compressible - nonhydrostatic system) using an icosahedral grid. The main advantages of using our new platform against other recent exoplanet models is that 1) The atmospheric fluid equations are completely represented and no approximations are used that could compromise the physics of the problem; 2) The model uses for the first time in exoplanet studies, a specific icosahedral grid that solves the pole problem; 3) The interface is user friendly and can be easily adapted to a multitude of atmospheric conditions; 4) By using GPU computation, our code greatly improves the typical code running time.We will present and discuss the first detailed results of our simulations, more specifically of two benchmark tests that are a representative sample of the large range of exoplanetary parameters: Earth-like conditions (the Held-Suarez test) and a tidally locked hot-Jupiter. THOR has successfully passed these tests and is able to determine the main

  6. Do circulating tumor cells, exosomes, and circulating tumor nucleic acids have clinical utility? A report of the association for molecular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Bert; Cankovic, Milena; Furtado, Larissa V; Meier, Frederick; Gocke, Christopher D

    2015-05-01

    Diagnosing and screening for tumors through noninvasive means represent an important paradigm shift in precision medicine. In contrast to tissue biopsy, detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor nucleic acids provides a minimally invasive method for predictive and prognostic marker detection. This allows early and serial assessment of metastatic disease, including follow-up during remission, characterization of treatment effects, and clonal evolution. Isolation and characterization of CTCs and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) are likely to improve cancer diagnosis, treatment, and minimal residual disease monitoring. However, more trials are required to validate the clinical utility of precise molecular markers for a variety of tumor types. This review focuses on the clinical utility of CTCs and ctDNA testing in patients with solid tumors, including somatic and epigenetic alterations that can be detected. A comparison of methods used to isolate and detect CTCs and some of the intricacies of the characterization of the ctDNA are also provided.

  7. Tests results of Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnets using a shell-based support structure

    CERN Document Server

    Caspi, S

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a 90 mm aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), test results of five quadrupole magnets are compared. All five assemblies used key and bladder technology to compress and support the coils within an iron yoke and an aluminium shell. The first three models (TQS01a, b, c) used Nb3Sn MJR conductor and segmented bronze poles. The last two models (TQS02a, b) used Nb3Sn RRP conductor, and segmented titanium alloy (TiAl6V4) poles, with no axial gaps during reaction. This presentation summarizes the magnets performance during assembly, cool-down and excitation and compares measurements with design expectations.

  8. Capture cavity cryomodule for quantum beam experiment at KEK superconducting RF test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Hara, K.; Hayano, H.; Kako, E.; Kojima, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Nakai, H.; Noguchi, S.; Ohuchi, N.; Terashima, A.; Horikoshi, A.; Semba, T.

    2014-01-01

    A capture cavity cryomodule was fabricated and used in a beam line for quantum beam experiments at the Superconducting RF Test Facility (STF) of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization in Japan. The cryomodule is about 4 m long and contains two nine-cell cavities. The cross section is almost the same as that of the STF cryomodules that were fabricated to develop superconducting RF cavities for the International Linear Collider. An attempt was made to reduce the large deflection of the helium gas return pipe (GRP) that was observed in the STF cryomodules during cool-down and warm-up. This paper briefly describes the structure and cryogenic performance of the captures cavity cryomodule, and also reports the measured displacement of the GRP and the cavity-containing helium vessels during regular operation.

  9. Capture cavity cryomodule for quantum beam experiment at KEK superconducting RF test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Hara, K.; Hayano, H.; Kako, E.; Kojima, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Nakai, H.; Noguchi, S.; Ohuchi, N.; Terashima, A. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Horikoshi, A.; Semba, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Works, Hitachi, Ibaraki 317-8511 (Japan)

    2014-01-29

    A capture cavity cryomodule was fabricated and used in a beam line for quantum beam experiments at the Superconducting RF Test Facility (STF) of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization in Japan. The cryomodule is about 4 m long and contains two nine-cell cavities. The cross section is almost the same as that of the STF cryomodules that were fabricated to develop superconducting RF cavities for the International Linear Collider. An attempt was made to reduce the large deflection of the helium gas return pipe (GRP) that was observed in the STF cryomodules during cool-down and warm-up. This paper briefly describes the structure and cryogenic performance of the captures cavity cryomodule, and also reports the measured displacement of the GRP and the cavity-containing helium vessels during regular operation.

  10. Circulating DNA and its methylation level in inflammatory bowel disease and related colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuming; Zhu, Yaqun; Pu, Wangyang; Xiao, Li; Li, Kai; Xing, Chungen; Jin, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Both of chronic inflammation and abnormal immune in inflammatory bowel disease can induce colon cancer. Previous research showed that cell apoptosis and necrosis become the main source of circulating DNA in the peripheral blood during tumorigenesis that reduced along with methylation degree. However, its role in the process of colitis transforming to colon cancer is not clarified. Drinking 3% DSS was used to establish colitis model, while 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) combined with azo oxidation methane (AOM) intraperitoneal injection was applied to establish colitis related colon cancer model. Circulating DNA and its methylation level in peripheral blood were tested. Morphology observation, HE staining, and p53 and β-catenin expression detection confirmed that drinking 3% DSS and 3% DSS combined with AOM intraperitoneal injection can successfully establish colitis and colitis associated colorectal cancer models. Circulating DNA level in colitis and colon cancer mice increased by gradient compared with control, while significant difference was observed between each other. Circulating DNA methylation level decreased obviously in colitis and colon cancer, and significant difference was observed between each other. Abnormal protein expression, circulating DNA and its methylation level in ulcerative colitis associated colorectal tissues change in gradient, suggesting that circulating DNA and its methylation level can be treated as new markers for colitis cancer transformation that has certain significance to explore the mechanism of human ulcerative colitis canceration.

  11. Unsteady flow about a circulation control airfoil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶昌; 孙茂; 吴礼义

    1996-01-01

    The unsteady flow around a circulation control (CC) airfoil was investigated with Navier-Stokes method,which includes the flow around CC airfoil with pulsating jet,the flow around oscillating CC airfoil,and the flow around oscillating CC airfoil with pulsating jet.Dynamic properties of the flow and the aerodynamic forces were rewaled.

  12. IHI-FW circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Omata, K.; Ishimoto, R.; Asai, M. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    The technology and application of the circulating fluidized bed boiler (IHI-FW) are outlined. Circulating fluidized bed boilers have various features as compared with bubbling fluidized bed boilers as follows; a high combustion efficiency, efficient use of limestone for desulfurization, low NOx emission, adaptability to various fuels and capability to cope with load change. The IHI-FW boiler is furthermore featured by water-wall furnace of all-welded structure, water-cooled/steam cooled cyclone, and simple circulating system. The 30 t/h circulating fluidized bed boiler was introduced into the Tsu Works, Omikenshi Co., Ltd., Japan for private power generation. The boiler equipped with a backup heavy oil burner mainly uses semi-anthracite coal, and besides sulfur capture and NOx reduction functions of a bed, a bag filter with a high dust collecting efficiency is installed in an exhaust gas system. The installation period was reduced to 2.5 months, a half of conventional ones, by more assembly in a factory followed by less field works. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Redefining circulating tumor cells by image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the blood of patients with metastatic carcinomas are associated with poor survival and can be used to guide therapy. However, CTC are very heterogeneous in size and shape, and are present at very low frequencies. Missing or misjudging a few events may have great cons

  14. Frobenius circulant graphs of valency six

    CERN Document Server

    Thomson, Alison

    2012-01-01

    A Frobenius group is a permutation group which is transitive but not regular such that only the identity element can fix two points. It is well known that such a group is a semidirect product $G = K \\rtimes H$, where $K$ is a nilpotent normal subgroup. A first kind $G$-Frobenius graph is a Cayley graph on $K$ whose connection set is an $H$-orbit $a^H$ for some $a \\in K$ with $ = K$, where $H$ is of even order or $a$ is an involution. Such graphs admit 'perfect' routing and gossiping schemes in some sense. Because of this and the importance of circulant graphs in network design, it is desirable to classify first kind Frobenius circulant graphs. In this paper we classify all 6-valent first kind Frobenius circulant graphs. We give optimal gossiping, routing and broadcasting schemes for such graphs and compute their forwarding indices, Wiener indices and minimum gossip time. We also prove that the broadcasting time of any 6-valent first kind Frobenius circulant is equal to its diameter plus two or three, indicati...

  15. Detecting holocene changes in thermohaline circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigwin, L D; Boyle, E A

    2000-02-15

    Throughout the last glacial cycle, reorganizations of deep ocean water masses were coincident with rapid millennial-scale changes in climate. Climate changes have been less severe during the present interglacial, but evidence for concurrent deep ocean circulation change is ambiguous.

  16. Detecting Holocene changes in thermohaline circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Keigwin, L. D.; Boyle, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    Throughout the last glacial cycle, reorganizations of deep ocean water masses were coincident with rapid millennial-scale changes in climate. Climate changes have been less severe during the present interglacial, but evidence for concurrent deep ocean circulation change is ambiguous.

  17. [Circulating "tumor markers" in gastrointestinal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlinghaus, P; Lamerz, R

    1991-09-01

    Tumor markers (TM) of the neoplastic cell can be divided into non-shedded substances and antigens shedded in blood, urine or other body fluids. For clinicians circulating TM are more important. All relevant circulating TM are not useful in screening of asymptomatic patients because of insufficient sensitivity and specificity. With caution they are useful in the observation of risk groups. Circulating TM have their main significance as additional parameters in monitoring symptomatic patients with malignancies. Several follow up determinations are more important than one single measurement. During follow up of tumor patients TM should not be checked automatically if there are no diagnostic or therapeutical consequences. The clinically most important circulating TM in non-hormone secreting tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are the oncofetal antigens CEA and AFP and antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies e. g. CA 19-9 and CA 72-4. AFP is the primary TM in hepatocellular carcinoma, often elevated in hepatoblastoma and always normal in cholangiocellular carcinoma. CEA is the TM of first choice in patients with colorectal carcinomas and liver metastasis. CA 19-9 is TM of first choice in pancreatic carcinoma and additionally of diagnostic value in cholangiocellular carcinoma and tumors of the bile ducts. In cancer of the stomach CA 19-9 and CEA are secondary TM in combination with CA 72-4 as primary TM. Care should be taken that slight and moderate elevations of TM can be observed in benign diseases of liver, pancreas and bowel.

  18. Thermal modeling of the NASA-Ames Research Center Cryogenic Optical Test Facility and a single-arch, fused-natural-quartz mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Y. S.; Augason, Gordon C.; Young, Jeffrey A.; Howard, Steven D.; Melugin, Ramsey K.

    1990-11-01

    A thermal model of the dewar and optical system of the Cryogenic Optical Test Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center was developed using the computer codes SINDA and MONTE CARLO. The model was based on the geometry, boundary conditions, and physical properties of the test facility and was developed to investigate heat transfer mechanisms and temperatures in the facility and in test mirrors during cryogenic optical tests. A single-arch, fused-natural-quartz mirror was the first mirror whose thermal loads and temperature distributions were modeled. From the temperature distribution, the thermal gradients in the mirror were obtained. The model predicted that a small gradient should exist for the single arch mirror. This was later verified by the measurement of mirror temperatures. The temperatures, predicted by the model at various locations within the dewar, were in relatively good agreement with the measured temperatures. The model is applicable to both steady-state and transient cooldown operations.

  19. Thermal modeling of the NASA-Ames Research Center Cryogenic Optical Test Facility and a single-arch, fused-natural-quartz mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Y. S.; Augason, Gordon C.; Young, Jeffrey A.; Howard, Steven D.; Melugin, Ramsey K.

    1990-01-01

    A thermal model of the dewar and optical system of the Cryogenic Optical Test Facility at NASA-Ames Research Center was developed using the computer codes SINDA and MONTE CARLO. The model was based on the geometry, boundary conditions, and physical properties of the test facility and was developed to investigate heat transfer mechanisms and temperatures in the facility and in test mirrors during cryogenic optical tests. A single-arch, fused-natural-quartz mirror was the first mirror whose thermal loads and temperature distributions were modeled. From the temperature distribution, the thermal gradients in the mirror were obtained. The model predicted that a small gradient should exist for the single arch mirror. This was later verified by the measurement of mirror temperatures. The temperatures, predicted by the model at various locations within the dewar, were in relatively good agreement with the measured temperatures. The model is applicable to both steady-state and transient cooldown operations.

  20. Cryogenic helium gas circulation system for advanced characterization of superconducting cables and other devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamidi, Sastry; Kim, Chul Han; Kim, Jae-Ho; Crook, Danny; Dale, Steinar

    2012-04-01

    A versatile cryogenic test bed, based on circulating cryogenic helium gas, has been designed, fabricated, and installed at the Florida State University Center for Advanced Power Systems (FSU-CAPS). The test bed is being used to understand the benefits of integrating the cryogenic systems of multiple superconducting power devices. The helium circulation system operates with four sets of cryocooler and heat exchanger combinations. The maximum operating pressure of the system is 2.1 MPa. The efficacy of helium circulation systems in cooling superconducting power devices is evaluated using a 30-m-long simulated superconducting cable in a flexible cryostat. Experiments were conducted at various mass flow rates and a variety of heat load profiles. A 1-D thermal model was developed to understand the effect of the gas flow parameters on the thermal gradients along the cable. Experimental results are in close agreement with the results from the thermal model.

  1. Development Strategies for Rural Key Circulation Service Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The rural key circulation service network is an important channel for ensuring agricultural products’entry to market and urban industrial products’entry to rural areas.Through in-depth survey and research,we took a look at development changes and current situations of three circulation service networks,namely,circulation of nondurable consumer goods,circulation of agricultural means of production,and circulation of agricultural products.Based on several key problems in rural circulation service network,such as logistics problem,delivery problem,backward transaction mode,and the last kilometer information,we put forward corresponding development countermeasures.

  2. Internal circulating fluidized bed incineration system and design algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, W D; Wei, X L; Li, J; Sheng, H Z

    2001-04-01

    The internal circulating fluidized bed (ICFB) system is characterized with fast combustion, low emission, uniformity of bed temperature and controllability of combustion process. It is a kind of novel clean combustion system, especially for the low-grade fuels, such as municipal solid waste (MSW). The experimental systems of ICFB with and without combustion were designed and set up in this paper. A series of experiments were carried out for further understanding combustion process and characteristics of several design parameters for MSW. Based on the results, a design routine for the ICFB system was suggested for the calculation of energy balance, airflow rate, heat transfer rate, and geometry arrangement. A test system with ICFB combustor has been set up and the test results show that the design of the ICFB system is successful.

  3. Internal circulating fluidized bed system and design algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The internal circulating fluidized bed (ICFB) system ischaracterized with fast combustion, low emission, uniformity of bed temperature and controllability of combustion process. It is a kind of novel clean combustion system, especially for the low-grade fuels, such as municipal solid waste(MSW). The experimental systems of ICFB with and without combustion were designed and set up in this paper. A series of experiments were carried out for further understanding combustion process and characteristics of several design parameters for MSW. Based on the results, a design routine for the ICFB system was suggested for the calculation of energy balance, airflow rate, heat transfer rate, and geometry arrangement. A test system with ICFB combustor has been set up and the test results show that the design of the ICFB system issuccessful.

  4. Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) variants circulating in Nigerian dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaa, T. T.; Daly, J. M.; Tarlinton, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a highly contagious viral disease with three variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c) currently circulating in dogs worldwide. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalent CPV-2 variant in faecal samples from 53 dogs presenting with acute gastroenteritis suspected to be and consistent with CPV-2 to Nigerian Veterinary Clinics in 2013–2014. Seventy-five per cent of these dogs tested positive for CPV-2 in a commercial antigen test and/or by PCR. Partial sequencing of the VP2 gene of six of these demonstrated them to be CPV-2a. Most of the dogs (60 per cent) were vaccinated, with 74 per cent of them puppies less than six months old. PMID:27933190

  5. The spacing of Langmuir circulation under modest wind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuang; SONG Jinbao

    2012-01-01

    Spacing characteristics of Langmuir circulation (LC) are computed by large eddy simulation (LES) model under modest wind.LC is an organized vertical motion,evidenced as buoyant materials forming lines nearly parallel to the wind direction.The horizontal distribution of velocity computed by LES shows clear lines formed by LC.These lines grow and parallel to each other for a while,which we call the stable state,before they finally form Y-junctions.We computed spacing between every two parallel lines by averaging them under the stable state.Statistically,spacing results of 154 tests (seven wind speed cases of 22 test runs each) show high correlations berween spacing and wind speed,as well as mixed layer depth.The relationship of spacing and wind is important for future LC parameterization of upper-ocean mixing.

  6. EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION: EFFECT OF LONG-TERM (24-HOUR) CIRCULATION ON BLOOD COMPONENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Robert Glen

    2010-01-01

    Extracorporeal circulation damages blood and causes harmful side effects such as stroke and/or systemic inflammatory response in patients. Reactions of blood components to extracorporeal circulation include complement and inflammatory reactions, coagulation and thrombogenesis, frank hemolysis, and platelet activation and adhesion to the extracorporeal circuit. Non-physiologic pressure and flow produced by blood pumps contribute to blood injury. Two pump types, roller and centrifugal, are u...

  7. Circulating irisin is lower in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Li, Jun; Li, Zhao-Liang; Yang, Jie; Li, Ming-Long; Wang, Gong-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Irisin is a newly identified myokine. Several studies have reported irisin concentrations in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but because of smaller sample sizes, the data from previous reports showed a wide range in serum/plasma irisin. Therefore, the present investigation is designed to summarize a precise confidence interval of circulating irisin in participants with GDM from a cross-sectional study in Chinese population and a meta-analysis for validation. Serum irisin was tested in patients with GDM and healthy controls (newly diagnosed cases: 61 and matched controls: 61) in the cross-sectional study. The two groups of participants were matched for age and pregnancy duration. Furthermore, we did a comprehensive meta-analysis to confirm whether serum/plasma irisin differs between participants with GDM and controls. Articles reported "circulating irisin and GDM" in Medline, PubMed, and EMBase were obtained, with the key word "myokine" or "irisin". The comparison was analyzed by Review Manager 5.2. In the cross-sectional investigation, serum irisin showed a significant lower level in the GDM patients, compared with that in the control group. In the meta-analysis study, the summarized results of the present 5 studies in which 632 participants were included indicated that there was a lower level irisin of -58.68 ng/mL [95% confidence interval (CI)](-113.42, -3.93, P=0.04) in GDM patients than in the control group. The present cross-sectional investigation and meta-analysis is the first to show significant lower circulating irisin in subjects with GDM.

  8. Warm World Ocean Thermohaline Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Modern day ocean circulation is dominated by thermal convection with cold waters subsiding in the Northern Atlantic, filling the ocean interior with cold and heavy water. However, ocean circulation diminished during the last glaciation and consequently the downwelling of the cold. Therefore interior ocean water temperatures must have been affected by other mechanisms which are negligible in the current state. We propose that the submergence of highly saline water from warm seas with high rates of evaporation (like the Red or Mediterranean Sea) was a major factor controlling ocean circulation during the last glaciation. Even today, waters in these poorly connected seas are the heaviest waters in the World ocean (1.029 g/cm3). The second mechanism affecting ocean temperature is the geothermal heat flux. With no heat exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean, geothermal heat flux through the ocean floor is capable of increasing ocean temperature by tens of degrees C over a 100 thousand year glacial cycle. To support these hypotheses we present an ocean box model that describes thermohaline circulation in the World Ocean. According to the model parameters, all water circulation is driven by the water density gradient. Boxes include high-latitude seas, high salinity seas, surface ocean, glaciers, and rift and lateral zones of the ocean interior. External heat sources are radiative forcing, affected by Milankovich cycles, and geothermal heat flux. Additionally this model accounts for the heat produced by organic rain decay. Taking all input parameters close to currently observed values, the model manages to recreate the glacial-interglacial cycles. During the glacial periods only haline circulation takes place, the ocean is strongly stratified, and the interior ocean accumulates heat while high-latitudes accumulate ice. 112,000 years after glaciation starts, water density on the ocean bottom becomes equal to the density of water in high-latitude seas, strong thermal

  9. Silent Circulation of Ross River Virus in French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Aubry

    2015-08-01

    Discussion: Our results support the existence of autochthonous RRV transmission and suggest that this pathogen has silently circulated in French Polynesia. These findings raise the question of possible undetected circulation of RRV in other Pacific Island Countries and Territories.

  10. Circulating intact and cleaved forms of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tine Thurison; Christensen, Ib J; Lund, Ida K;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High levels of circulating forms of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) are significantly associated to poor prognosis in cancer patients. Our aim was to determine biological variations and reference intervals of the uPAR forms in blood, and in addition, to test t...

  11. Frequency of canine heartworm disease (D. immitis in some regions of São Paulo State using a circulating antigen indicator test Freqüência de dirofilariose canina (D. immitis em algumas regiões do Estado de São Paulo por meio da detecção de antígenos circulantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Souza

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of canine heartworm disease was determined in 310 dogs (158 males and 152 females from São Paulo city (154 and several towns along the São Paulo state coast (156. The survey was carried out through the Knott's technique (direct presence of microfilariae in the blood and ELISA for soluble circulating antigen detection. Twenty five (8.0% samples were positive to D. immitis using both methods being 6 dogs (3.9% from the city and 19 (12.2% from the coastal area. Nineteen dogs (6.1% were positive to the Knott's technique (4 from the city and 15 from the coastal area and 12 dogs (3.9% to the ELISA (4 from the city and 8 from the coastal area; six dogs (1.9% were positive for both methods being two from the city and four from the coastal area. The frequency of positive dogs by the Knott's technique in the coastal area was higher than that in São Paulo city (PDeterminou-se a freqüência da dirofilariose canina em 310 (158 machos e 152 fêmeas cães oriundos da cidade de São Paulo (154 e do litoral paulista (156. O levantamento foi realizado por meio da técnica de Knott (pesquisa de microfilárias e do teste de ELISA para detecção de antígenos circulantes solúveis. Vinte e cinco (8,0% amostras apresentaram-se positivas utilizando-se os dois métodos para D. immitis, seis (3,9% da cidade e 19 (12,2% da área litorânea. Detectou-se positividade ao Knott em 19 (6,1% amostras, quatro de São Paulo e 15 do litoral, e 12 (3,9% reagentes ao ELISA, quatro de São Paulo e oito do litoral; seis (1,9% amostras foram positivas pelos dois métodos, duas em São Paulo e quatro no litoral. A percentagem de cães positivos pelo método de Knott no litoral foi maior do que em São Paulo (P<0,05, porém ao teste de ELISA os casos positivos foram eqüivalentes. A infecção patente (microfilarêmica prevaleceu sobre a infecção oculta (amicrofilarêmica, portanto não houve grande freqüência de cães infectados provavelmente por não se tratar

  12. Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators in Circulation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Lars; Tian, Qinghai; Kaiser, Elisabeth; Xian, Wenying; Müller, Andreas; Oberhofer, Martin; Ruppenthal, Sandra; Sinnecker, Daniel; Tsutsui, Hidekazu; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Moretti, Alessandra; Lipp, Peter

    2015-09-08

    Membrane potentials display the cellular status of non-excitable cells and mediate communication between excitable cells via action potentials. The use of genetically encoded biosensors employing fluorescent proteins allows a non-invasive biocompatible way to read out the membrane potential in cardiac myocytes and other cells of the circulation system. Although the approaches to design such biosensors date back to the time when the first fluorescent-protein based Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors were constructed, it took 15 years before reliable sensors became readily available. Here, we review different developments of genetically encoded membrane potential sensors. Furthermore, it is shown how such sensors can be used in pharmacological screening applications as well as in circulation related basic biomedical research. Potentials and limitations will be discussed and perspectives of possible future developments will be provided.

  13. On-Chip Microwave Quantum Hall Circulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, A. C.; Colless, J. I.; Pauka, S. J.; Hornibrook, J. M.; Watson, J. D.; Gardner, G. C.; Manfra, M. J.; Doherty, A. C.; Reilly, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Circulators are nonreciprocal circuit elements that are integral to technologies including radar systems, microwave communication transceivers, and the readout of quantum information devices. Their nonreciprocity arises from the interference of microwaves over the centimeter scale of the signal wavelength, in the presence of bulky magnetic media that breaks time-reversal symmetry. Here, we realize a completely passive on-chip microwave circulator with size 1 /1000 th the wavelength by exploiting the chiral, "slow-light" response of a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum Hall regime. For an integrated GaAs device with 330 μ m diameter and about 1-GHz center frequency, a nonreciprocity of 25 dB is observed over a 50-MHz bandwidth. Furthermore, the nonreciprocity can be dynamically tuned by varying the voltage at the port, an aspect that may enable reconfigurable passive routing of microwave signals on chip.

  14. Posterior circulation revascularization to manage vertebrobasilar occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHANG Yan-guo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the technique and effect of posterior circulation revascularization to manage vertebrobasilar occlusion. Methods Nine patients with vertebrobasilar occlusion were treated by using occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery bypass, superficial temporal artery-superior cerebellar artery bypass, superficial temporal artery-posterior cerebral artery bypass and occipital artery-vertebral artery bypass with radial artery graft. Results Intraoperative indocyanine green angiography showed all the bypass arteries were patent. Postoperative DSA or CTA showed bypass arteries patent in 8 patients, among whom seven patients got obvious improvement on MR or CT perfusion. One patient died of heart failure on the 15th day postoperative. During the follow-up of eight patients, no stroke reoccurred, four patients got back to nearly normal life. Conclusion Most of the patients with vertebrobasilar occlusion could benefit from the posterior circulation revascularization, which should be confirmed by randomized controlled clinical trials in the future.

  15. Congenital cardiovascular malformations and the fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, A M

    2010-03-01

    After birth, gas exchange is achieved in the lung, whereas prenatally it occurs in the placenta. This is associated with differences in blood flow patterns in the fetus as compared with the postnatal circulation. Congenital cardiovascular malformations are associated with haemodynamic changes in the fetus, which differ from those occurring postnatally. Obstruction to cardiac outflow may alter myocardial development, resulting in progressive ventricular hypoplasia. Alteration of oxygen content may profoundly influence pulmonary vascular and ductus arteriosus responses. Interference in blood flow and oxygen content may affect cerebral development as a result of inadequate oxygen or energy substrate supply. The circulatory effects may be gestational dependent, related to maturation of vascular responses in different organs. These prenatal influences of congenital cardiac defects may severely affect immediate, as well as longterm, postnatal prognosis and survival. This has stimulated the development of techniques for palliation of disturbed circulation during fetal life.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER CIRCULATION MODEL INCLUDING IRRIGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsuki, Shunji; Tanaka, Kenji; Kojiri, Toshiharu; Hamaguchi, Toshio

    It is well known that since agricultural water withdrawal has much affect on water circulation system, accurate analysis of river discharge or water balance are difficult with less regard for it. In this study, water circulation model composed of land surface model and distributed runoff model is proposed at 10km 10km resolution. In this model, irrigation water, which is estimated with land surface model, is introduced to river discharge analysis. The model is applied to the Chao Phraya River in Thailand, and reproduced seasonal water balance. Additionally, the discharge on dry season simulated with the model is improved as a result of including irrigation. Since the model, which is basically developed from global data sets, simulated seasonal change of river discharge, it can be suggested that our model has university to other river basins.

  17. Formation and plasma circulation of solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Solar prominences are long-lived cool and dense plasma curtains in the hot and rarefied outer solar atmosphere or corona. The physical mechanism responsible for their formation and especially for their internal plasma circulation has been uncertain for decades. The observed ubiquitous down flows in quiescent prominences are difficult to interpret as plasma with high conductivity seems to move across horizontal magnetic field lines. Here we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of prominence formation and evolution in an elongated magnetic flux rope as a result of in-situ plasma condensations fueled by continuous plasma evaporation from the solar chromosphere. The prominence is born and maintained in a fragmented, highly dynamic state with continuous reappearance of multiple blobs and thread structures that move mainly downward dragging along mass-loaded field lines. The prominence plasma circulation is characterized by the dynamic balance between the drainage of prominence plasma back to the chromos...

  18. Circulation control STOL aircraft design aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Since Davidson patented Circulation Control Airfoils in 1960, there have been only 2 aircraft designed and flown with circulation control (CC). Designing with CC is complex for the following reasons: the relation between lift increase and blowing momentum is nonlinear; for good cruise performance one must change the wing geometry in flight from a round to a sharp trailing edge. The bleed air from the propulsion engines or an auxiliary compressor, must be used efficiently. In designing with CC, the propulsion and control aspects are just as important as aerodynamics. These design aspects were examined and linearized equations are presented in order to facilitate a preliminary analysis of the performance potential of CC. The thrust and lift requirements for takeoff make the calculated runway length very sensitive to the bleed air ratio. Thrust vectoring improves performance and can offset nose down pitching moments. The choice of blowing jet to free stream velocity ratio determines the efficiency of applying bleed air power.

  19. [William Harvey, discoverer of the blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    v Mühlendahl, K E

    2007-06-01

    William Harvey (1578-1657), living at the turn to modern times, scientifically speaking, was an eminent physician and scientist. He developed the concept of the circulation of the blood and his findings have proved to be correct in nearly all details to this day. He published his physiological findings and interpretations in a small, albeit epoch-making, volume: Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus, published in Frankfurt in 1628. On the occasion of the 350th anniversary of his death on June 3, 2007, this essay commemorates the work of this important physician, illustrating his brilliant conception of the blood circulation by quoting passages from De motu cordis et sanguinis.

  20. Cluster Dynamics in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, C.P.; Breault, R.W.

    2006-11-01

    A common hydrodynamic feature in industrial scale circulating fluidized beds is the presence of clusters. The continuous formation and destruction of clusters strongly influences particle hold-up, pressure drop, heat transfer at the wall, and mixing. In this paper fiber optic data is analyzed using discrete wavelet analysis to characterize the dynamic behavior of clusters. Five radial positions at three different axial locations under five different operating were analyzed using discrete wavelets. Results are summarized with respect to cluster size and frequency.

  1. FORMATION AND PLASMA CIRCULATION OF SOLAR PROMINENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Chun; Keppens, Rony

    2016-01-01

    Solar prominences are long-lived cool and dense plasma curtains in the hot and rarefied outer solar atmosphere or corona. The physical mechanism responsible for their formation and especially for their internal plasma circulation has been uncertain for decades. The observed ubiquitous down flows in quiescent prominences are difficult to interpret as plasma with high conductivity seems to move across horizontal magnetic field lines. Here we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of pr...

  2. On circulant states with positive partial transpose

    OpenAIRE

    Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    We construct a large class of quantum "d x d" states which are positive under partial transposition (so called PPT states). The construction is based on certain direct sum decomposition of the total Hilbert space displaying characteristic circular structure - that is way we call them circulant states. It turns out that partial transposition maps any such decomposition into another one and hence both original density matrix and its partially transposed partner share similar cyclic properties. ...

  3. Parallel Computing of Ocean General Circulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the parallel computing of the thirdgeneration Ocea n General Circulation Model (OGCM) from the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Mo deling for Atmospheric Science and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics(LASG),Institute of Atmosphere Physics(IAP). Meanwhile, several optimization strategies for paralle l computing of OGCM (POGCM) on Scalable Shared Memory Multiprocessor (S2MP) are presented. Using Message Passing Interface (MPI), we obtain super linear speedup on SGI Origin 2000 for parallel OGCM(POGCM) after optimization.

  4. The creation and circulation of public geographies

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchin, Rob; Linehan, Denis; O'Callaghan, Cian; Lawton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In response to the commentaries, we discuss further how social media disrupts and remakes the creation and circulation of geographical knowledges and potentially reconfigures the moral economy of the social sciences. In particular, we examine questions of what is meant by public geography, the publics which such geographies serve, alternative and complementary approaches to social media, the politics of authorship within collective blogs, the politics and mechanisms of knowledge c...

  5. Circulating fluidized bed boilers design and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Prabir

    1991-01-01

    This book provides practicing engineers and students with insight into the design and operation of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. Through a combination of theoretical concepts and practical experience, this book gives the reader a basic understanding of the many aspects of this subject.Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of pres

  6. Circulation in a Short Cylindrical Couette System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akira Kageyama; Hantao Ji; Jeremy Goodman

    2003-07-08

    In preparation for an experimental study of magnetorotational instability (MRI) in liquid metal, we explore Couette flows having height comparable to the gap between cylinders, centrifugally stable rotation, and high Reynolds number. Experiments in water are compared with numerical simulations. The flow is very different from that of an ideal, infinitely long Couette system. Simulations show that endcaps co-rotating with the outer cylinder drive a strong poloidal circulation that redistributes angular momentum. Predicted toroidal flow profiles agree well with experimental measurements. Spin-down times scale with Reynolds number as expected for laminar Ekman circulation; extrapolation from two-dimensional simulations at Re less than or equal to 3200 agrees remarkably well with experiment at Re approximately equal to 106. This suggests that turbulence does not dominate the effective viscosity. Further detailed numerical studies reveal a strong radially inward flow near both endcaps. After turning vertically along the inner cylinder, these flows converge at the midplane and depart the boundary in a radial jet. To minimize this circulation in the MRI experiment, endcaps consisting of multiple, differentially rotating rings are proposed. Simulations predict that an adequate approximation to the ideal Couette profile can be obtained with a few rings.

  7. The protein corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchetti, Sara; Colapicchioni, Valentina; Digiacomo, Luca; Caracciolo, Giulio; Pozzi, Daniela; Capriotti, Anna Laura; La Barbera, Giorgia; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-02-01

    Following systemic administration, liposomes are covered by a 'corona' of proteins, and preserving the surface functionality is challenging. Coating the liposome surface with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the most widely used anti-opsonization strategy, but it cannot fully preclude protein adsorption. To date, protein binding has been studied following in vitro incubation to predict the fate of liposomes in vivo, while dynamic incubation mimicking in vivo conditions remains largely unexplored. The main aim of this investigation was to determine whether shear stress, produced by physiologically relevant dynamic flow, could influence the liposome-protein corona. The corona of circulating PEGylated liposome was thoroughly compared with that formed by incubation in vitro. Systematic comparison in terms of size, surface charge and quantitative composition was made by dynamic light scattering, microelectrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Size of coronas formed under static vs. dynamic incubation did not appreciably differ from each other. On the other side, the corona of circulating liposomes was more negatively charged than its static counterpart. Of note, the variety of protein species in the corona formed in a dynamic flow was significantly wider. Collectively, these results demonstrated that the corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes can be considerably different from that formed in a static fluid. This seems to be a key factor to predict the biological activity of a liposomal formulation in a physiological environment.

  8. Elevated circulating somatostatin levels in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, M; Porretti, S; Epaminonda, P; Giavoli, C; Gebbia, C; Penati, C; Beck-Peccoz, P; Peracchi, M

    2003-06-01

    GH increases hypothalamic somatostatin (SS) synthesis and secretion but it is unknown if chronic GH excess, as found in acromegaly, may influence circulating SS levels, that are mainly of enteropancreatic source and affect several gastrointestinal functions, including motility. Circulating SS occurs in several post-translational forms including somatostatin-14 (SS-14), somatostatin-28 (SS-28) and other small peptides. The aim of the present study was to characterize the fasting and postprandial pattern of plasma circulating somatostatin in normal subjects and patients with acromegaly. Fasting total SS and SS-28 levels were measured in 32 subjects, 16 acromegalic patients with a new diagnosis (A) (8 F, 8 M, median age 48) and 16 matched healthy volunteers (C) (8 F, 8 M, median age 45). SS was also determined after a standard solid-liquid meal (550 kCal) in 24 of the subjects (12 C and 12 A). Fasting SS and SS-28 were significantly higher in acromegalic patients as compared to healthy subjects. In the former, a positive correlation was found between IGF-I and SS levels (r = 0.525 p acromegaly. Excess GH/IGF-I could be a causal factor in somatostatin hypersecretion. Conceivably this abnormality might play a role in some alterations of gastrointestinal function of acromegalic patients such as prolonged bowel transit.

  9. Global Circulation and Impact of Plasmaspheric Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Fok, Mei-Ching; Chen, Sheng-Hsiem; Delcourt, Dominique C.; Fedder, Joel A.; Slinker, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    We report results from the global circulation model of Lyon, Fedder, and Mobarry with an embedded model of the inner magnetosphere including the plasmasphere. The combination is used to initiate large numbers of representative protons on the geosynchronous orbit L shell, to assign particle weightings, to track their: subsequent trajectories in the 3D fields. This permits us to study the global circulation of plasmaspheric plumes and to compare these with Polar observations from the dayside magnetopause region . A range of events is studied from an isolated period of SBz in the solar wind,to a large storm sequence. We consider effects on circulating plasma reaching the dayside reconnection X-line, the population of the plasma sheet with ionospheric protons and the generation of ring current pressure from this source, compared with solar wind, polar wind, and auroral wind sources. We find that the transient plasmaspheric plume source is large in terms of total fluence, but of modest proportions in terms of contribution to the ring current. Implications of this and other results for improved space weather modeling and prediction will be discussed.

  10. When Prostate Cancer Circulates in the Bloodstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Vlaeminck-Guillem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Management of patients with prostate cancer is currently based on imperfect clinical, biological, radiological and pathological evaluation. Prostate cancer aggressiveness, including metastatic potential, remains difficult to accurately estimate. In an attempt to better adapt therapeutics to an individual (personalized medicine, reliable evaluation of the intrinsic molecular biology of the tumor is warranted, and particularly for all tumor sites (primary tumors and secondary sites at any time of the disease progression. As a consequence of their natural tendency to grow (passive invasion or as a consequence of an active blood vessel invasion by metastase-initiating cells, tumors shed various materials into the bloodstream. Major efforts have been recently made to develop powerful and accurate methods able to detect, quantify and/or analyze all these circulating tumor materials: circulating tumors cells, disseminating tumor cells, extracellular vesicles (including exosomes, nucleic acids, etc. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about these circulating tumor materials and their applications in translational research.

  11. 19 CFR 207.63 - Circulation of draft questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Circulation of draft questionnaires. 207.63... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Five-Year Reviews § 207.63 Circulation of draft questionnaires. (a) The Director shall circulate draft questionnaires to the parties for comment in each full review....

  12. Circulator Integrated in Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, R. van; Bent, G. van der; Ashari, M.; McKay, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a demonstration of an integrated circulator for TR modules using low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology. Two different circulators have been realised to be used in TR modules in two different frequency bands, C-and Ku-band. The circulator is a three-port junction microstrip ty

  13. Clinical profile and prognosis of patients with posterior circulation stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita J. Rawat

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Posterior circulation stroke present with a wide variety of symptoms. Episodes are often staggering and more protracted than those of anterior circulation stroke. Further studies are needed to determine the safest and most effective treatment modalities for the various types of posterior circulation stroke. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(12.000: 5159-5164

  14. Computer-aided design of stripline ferrite junction circulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    A general design procedure is presented for stripline Y-junction circulators employing solid dielectric between ground planes. The resonator design and impedance matching are derived in a form suitable for computer evaluation. The procedure is applicable to cases where either the circulator bandwidth or the ground plane spacing is specified. An experimental S-band switching circulator design illustrates the technique.

  15. Algorithms for Finding the Inverses of Factor Block Circulant Matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, algorithms for finding the inverse of a factor block circulant matrix,a factor block retrocirculant matrix and partitioned matrix with factor block circulant blocks over the complex field are presented respectively. In addition, two algorithms for the inverse of a factor block circulant matrix over the quaternion division algebra are proposed.

  16. Specific circulating immune complexes in acute chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Corral

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of circulating immune complexes formed by IgM and IgG (CIC-IgM and CIC-IgG was investigated, using antigen-specific enzyme-immunoassays (ELISA, in 30 patients with acute Chagas' disease who showed parasitemia and inoculation chagoma. Control population consisted of patients with chronic T. cruzi infection (30, acute toxoplasmosis 10, leishmaniasis (8, rheumatoid arthritis (3 and healthy individuals with negative serology for Chagas* disease (30. Acute chagasic patients were 100% CIC-IgG and 96.66% CIC-IgM positive whereas immunofluorescence tests yielded 90% and 86.66% of positivity for specific IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. Chronic patients were 68% CIC-IgG and 0% CIC-IgM positive. The 30 negative and the 21 cross-reaction controls proved negative for ELISA (CIC-IgM and CIC-IgG. The high sensitivity of ELISA assays would allow early immunologic diagnosis, as well as prompt treatment, of acute T. cruzi infection, thus eliminating the problem of the false-positive and false-negative results which affects traditional methods for detection of circulating antibodies.

  17. A multimodel comparison of centennial Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menary, Matthew B.; Park, Wonsun; Lohmann, Katja; Vellinga, Michael; Palmer, Matthew D.; Latif, Mojib; Jungclaus, Johann H.

    2012-06-01

    A mechanism contributing to centennial variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is tested with multi-millennial control simulations of several coupled general circulation models (CGCMs). These are a substantially extended integration of the 3rd Hadley Centre Coupled Climate Model (HadCM3), the Kiel Climate Model (KCM), and the Max Plank Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). Significant AMOC variability on time scales of around 100 years is simulated in these models. The centennial mechanism links changes in the strength of the AMOC with oceanic salinities and surface temperatures, and atmospheric phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). 2 of the 3 models reproduce all aspects of the mechanism, with the third (MPI-ESM) reproducing most of them. A comparison with a high resolution paleo-proxy for Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) north of Iceland over the last 4,000 years, also linked to the ITCZ, suggests that elements of this mechanism may also be detectable in the real world.

  18. A multimodel comparison of centennial Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menary, Matthew B.; Vellinga, Michael; Palmer, Matthew D. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom); Park, Wonsun; Latif, Mojib [IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); Lohmann, Katja; Jungclaus, Johann H. [Max Planck Inst Meteorol, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    A mechanism contributing to centennial variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is tested with multi-millennial control simulations of several coupled general circulation models (CGCMs). These are a substantially extended integration of the 3rd Hadley Centre Coupled Climate Model (HadCM3), the Kiel Climate Model (KCM), and the Max Plank Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). Significant AMOC variability on time scales of around 100 years is simulated in these models. The centennial mechanism links changes in the strength of the AMOC with oceanic salinities and surface temperatures, and atmospheric phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). 2 of the 3 models reproduce all aspects of the mechanism, with the third (MPI-ESM) reproducing most of them. A comparison with a high resolution paleo-proxy for Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) north of Iceland over the last 4,000 years, also linked to the ITCZ, suggests that elements of this mechanism may also be detectable in the real world. (orig.)

  19. Elevated levels of circulating DNA in cardiovascular disease patients: metagenomic profiling of microbiome in the circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakaran, Vasudevan; Rathinavel, Andiappan; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Sivakumar, Ramamoorthy; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. An expanding body of evidence supports the role of human microbiome in the establishment of CVDs and, this has gained much attention recently. This work was aimed to study the circulating human microbiome in CVD patients and healthy subjects. The levels of circulating cell free DNA (circDNA) was higher in CVD patients (n = 80) than in healthy controls (n = 40). More specifically, the relative levels of circulating bacterial DNA and the ratio of 16S rRNA/β-globin gene copy numbers were higher in the circulation of CVD patients than healthy individuals. In addition, we found a higher circulating microbial diversity in CVD patients (n = 3) in comparison to healthy individuals (n = 3) by deep shotgun sequencing. At the phylum level, we observed a dominance of Actinobacteria in CVD patients, followed by Proteobacteria, in contrast to that in healthy controls, where Proteobacteria was predominantly enriched, followed by Actinobacteria. The circulating virome in CVD patients was enriched with bacteriophages with a preponderance of Propionibacterium phages, followed by Pseudomonas phages and Rhizobium phages in contrast to that in healthy individuals, where a relatively greater abundance of eukaryotic viruses dominated by Lymphocystis virus (LCV) and Torque Teno viruses (TTV) was observed. Thus, the release of bacterial and viral DNA elements in the circulation could play a major role leading to elevated circDNA levels in CVD patients. The increased circDNA levels could be either the cause or consequence of CVD incidence, which needs to be explored further.

  20. Formation of germline chimera Gaok chicken used circulation primordial germ cells (circulation PGCs fresh and thawed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostaman T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation of germline chimeras by transfer of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs is one of the effective techniques for preservation and regeneration of genetic resources in chickens. This study attempted to form germline chimeras of Gaok chicken buy purifying circulated PGCs of donor embryo before it is transferred to the recipient (White Leghorn chickens=WL and studied the ability of recipient embryo on survival in incubators, and hatchability. This study used 200 fertile eggs of Gaok and 90 fertile WL breed all of the eggs was incubated at 380C and 60% humidity in a portable incubator. PGCs-circulation of the blood collected Gaok embryos at stage 14-16 were taken from the dorsal aorta, and then purified by centrifugation method using nycodenz. PGCs-circulation results further purification frozen in liquid nitrogen before being transferred to the recipient embryo. The results showed that for the development of embryos transferred to the fresh circulation of PGCs-circulation as many as 25 cells can survive up to day 14, while one of the transferred of 50 and 100 cells into recipient embryos was hatched (10%. On the contrari recipient embryos that are transferred to the frozen PGCs-circulation the embryos development was shorter, and only survived until day 10th (treatment 25 cells, day 14th (treatment of 50 cells and day 17th (treatment of 100 cells. It is concluded that the amount of PGCs-circulation embryos transferred to the recipient is one factor that influence the success of the development germline chimeras.

  1. Effects of the Intermittent Pneumatic Circulator on Blood Pressure during Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Ju Hsu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypotension is frequently reported during hemodialysis. This study aimed to examine the effect of the intermittent pneumatic circulator on blood pressure during hemodialysis. Sixteen subjects with chronic hemodialysis were recruited. Each subject randomly received two test conditions on separate days, hemodialysis with and without the circulator. The circulator was applied to the subject on lower extremities during 0.5–1 hr, 1.5–2 hr, 2.5–3 hr, and 3.5–4 hr of hemodialysis. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP and heart rate (HR were analyzed at pre-dialysis, 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr of hemodialysis. Stroke volume (SV and cardiac output (CO were evaluated between 2.5 and 3.0 hr of hemodialysis. Blood chemicals (sodium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorous and Kt/V before and after each hemodialysis session were analyzed. The number of episodes of hypotension was also recorded. The circulator intervention significantly improved SBP and DBP across all time points (P = 0.002 for SBP; P = 0.002 for DBP. The frequency of hypotension was significantly decreased (P = 0.028. SV and CO were significantly improved with the circulator intervention (P = 0.017 for SV; P = 0.026 for CO and no statistical significances were found on blood chemicals or Kt/V analyses. The results suggested that the circulator intervention helps stabilize blood pressure and appears to be a practical treatment. Future studies are suggested to develop new circulator innovations with sensor feedback systems to enhance safety and maximize treatment efficiency.

  2. Circulating Mitochondrial DAMPs Are Not Effective Inducers of Proteinuria and Kidney Injury in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Lu, Yuqiu; Xia, Hong; Liang, Yaojun; Wang, Xiao; Bao, Wenduona; Yun, Shifeng; Ye, Yuting; Zheng, Chunxia; Liu, Zhihong; Shi, Shaolin

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria in eukaryotic cells are derived from bacteria in evolution. Like bacteria, mitochondria contain DNA with unmethylated CpG motifs and formyl peptides, both of which have recently been shown to be damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and induce immune response and cell injury. Based on the facts that circulating mitochondrial DAMPs (mtDAMPs) are increased in the patients of trauma or burn injury who also have proteinuria, that mtDAMPs can activate immune cells which in turn secrete glomerular permeability factors, that renal intrinsic cells express a variety of DAMP receptors, and that mtDAMPs can directly increase endothelial cell permeability in vitro, we hypothesized that mtDAMPs may be novel circulating factors inducing proteinuria and kidney injury. We tested this hypothesis by directly injecting mtDAMPs into rodents and examining urinary protein and kidney histology. We prepared mtDAMP samples, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial debris (MTD), from rodent liver. In mice, injection of mtDNA for 20 μg/ml initial concentration in circulation (much higher than the clinical range), did not cause any renal manifestations. However, an increased dose leading to 45 μg/ml initial concentration in circulation resulted in a transient, slight increase in urinary albumin. In rats, MTD injection resulting in 450 μg/ml initial concentration of MTD protein in circulation, which was much higher than the clinical range, caused mild, transient proteinuria and lung lesions. Multiple injections of such large amount of either mtDNA or MTD into rodents on 3 consecutive days also failed in inducing proteinuria and kidney injury. In summary, clinical levels of circulating mtDAMPs do not induce proteinuria and clinically irrelevant high levels of mtDAMPs cause only a transient and slight increase in urinary protein in rodents, suggesting that circulating mtDAMPs may not be responsible for the proteinuria and kidney injury in patients with trauma

  3. Temperature Structure and Atmospheric Circulation of Dry, Tidally Locked Rocky Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Koll, Daniel D B

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation space telescopes will observe the atmospheres of rocky planets orbiting nearby M-dwarfs. Understanding these observations will require well-developed theory in addition to numerical simulations. Here we present theoretical models for the temperature structure and atmospheric circulation of dry, tidally locked rocky exoplanets with grey radiative transfer and test them using a general circulation model (GCM). First, we develop a radiative-convective model that captures surface temperatures of slowly rotating and cool atmospheres. Second, we show that the atmospheric circulation acts as a global heat engine, which places strong constraints on large-scale wind speeds. Third, we develop a radiative-convective-subsiding model which extends our radiative-convective model to hot and thin atmospheres. We find that rocky planets develop large day-night temperature gradients at a ratio of wave-to-radiative timescales up to two orders of magnitude smaller than the value suggested by work on hot Jupiters....

  4. Reverse Circulation Drilling Method Based on a Supersonic Nozzle for Dust Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyu Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To reduce dust generated from drilling processes, a reverse circulation drilling method based on a supersonic nozzle is proposed. The suction performance is evaluated by the entrainment ratio. A series of preliminary laboratory experiments based on orthogonal experimental design were conducted to test the suction performance and reveal the main factors. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD were conducted to thoroughly understand the interaction mechanism of the flows. The Schlieren technique was further carried out to reveal the flow characteristic of the nozzle. The results show that the supersonic nozzle can significantly improve the reverse circulation effect. A high entrainment ratio up to 0.76 was achieved, which implied strong suction performance. The CFD results agreed well with experimental data with a maximum difference of 17%. This work presents the great potential for supersonic nozzles and reverse circulation in dust control, which is significant to protect the envrionment and people’s health.

  5. Cancer diagnosis and prognosis decoded by blood-based circulating microRNA signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharanija eMadhavan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, circulating microRNAs (miRNAs have garnered a lot of attention and interest in the field of disease biomarkers. With characteristics such as high stability, low cost, possibility of repeated sampling and minimal invasiveness, circulating miRNAs are ideal for development into diagnostic tests. There have been many studies reported on the potential of circulating miRNAs as early detection, prognostic and predictive biomarkers in cancer. Here, we have reviewed the use of plasma and serum miRNAs as biomarkers for cancer focusing on epithelial carcinomas (prostate, breast, lung, colorectal and gastric cancer and haematological malignancies (leukaemia and lymphoma. We have also addressed the common challenges that need to be overcome to achieve a successful bench to bedside transition.

  6. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 1. Model validation and summer circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2014-04-01

    The overturning circulation in the Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonally reversing pattern and is studied using high-resolution MIT general circulation model simulations. In the first part of this study, the vertical and horizontal structure of the summer overturning circulation and its dynamical mechanisms are presented from the model results. The seasonal water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is successfully simulated, and the structures of the intruding subsurface Gulf of Aden intermediate water are in good agreement with summer observations in 2011. The model results suggest that the summer overturning circulation is driven by the combined effect of the shoaling of the thermocline in the Gulf of Aden resulting from remote winds in the Arabian Sea and an upward surface slope from the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden set up by local surface winds in the Red Sea. In addition, during late summer two processes associated, respectively, with latitudinally differential heating and increased salinity in the southern Red Sea act together to cause the reversal of the contrast of the vertical density structure and the cessation of the summer overturning circulation. Dynamically, the subsurface northward pressure gradient force is mainly balanced by vertical viscosity resulting from the vertical shear and boundary friction in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb. Unlike some previous studies, the three-layer summer exchange flows in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb do not appear to be hydraulically controlled.

  7. Explicit Determinants of the RFPrLrR Circulant and RLPrFrL Circulant Matrices Involving Some Famous Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices may play a crucial role in solving various differential equations. In this paper, the techniques used herein are based on the inverse factorization of polynomial. We give the explicit determinants of the RFPrLrR circulant matrices and RLPrFrL circulant matrices involving Fibonacci, Lucas, Pell, and Pell-Lucas number, respectively.

  8. Effect of vegetation on the Late Miocene ocean circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lohmann

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A weak and shallow thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean is related to an open Central American gateway and exchange with fresh Pacific waters. We estimate the effect of vegetation on the ocean general circulation using the atmospheric circulation model simulations for the Late Miocene climate. Caused by an increase in net evaporation in the Miocene North Atlantic, the North Atlantic water becomes more saline which enhances the overturning circulation and thus the northward heat transport. This effect reveals a potentially important feedback between the ocean circulation, the hydrological cycle and the land surface cover for Cenozoic climate evolution.

  9. Cryogenic Tests of the Atlas Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fabre, C; Chalifour, M; Gonidec, A; Passardi, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter consists of the barrel and two end-cap detectors housed in three independent cryostats filled with a total volume of 78 m3 of liquid argon. During cool-down the temperature differences in the composite structure of the detectors must be kept within strict limits to avoid excessive mechanical stresses and relative displacements. During normal operation the formation of gas bubbles, which are detrimental to the functioning of the detector, must be prevented and temperature gradients of less than 0.7 K across the argon bath are mandatory due to the temperature dependence of the energy measurements. Between April 2004 and May 2005 the barrel (120 t) and one end-cap (219 t) underwent qualification tests at the operating temperature of 87.3 K using a dedicated test facility at ground level. These tests provided a validation of the cooling methods to be adopted in the final underground configuration. In total 6.9 GJ and 15.7 GJ were extracted from the calorimeters and a temperature...

  10. Increased plasma levels of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA in suicide attempters: associations with HPA-axis hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, D; Fernström, J; Grudet, C; Ljunggren, L; Träskman-Bendz, L; Ohlsson, L; Westrin, Å

    2016-12-06

    Preclinical data suggest that chronic stress may cause cellular damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, potentially leading to the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the bloodstream. Major depressive disorder has been associated with an increased amount of mtDNA in leukocytes from saliva samples and blood; however, no previous studies have measured plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA in a clinical psychiatric sample. In this study, free circulating mtDNA was quantified in plasma samples from 37 suicide attempters, who had undergone a dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 37 healthy controls. We hypothesized that free circulating mtDNA would be elevated in the suicide attempters and would be associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis hyperactivity. Suicide attempters had significantly higher plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA compared with healthy controls at different time points (pre- and post-DST; all P-valuesSuicide attempters may have elevated plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA, which are related to impaired HPA-axis negative feedback. This peripheral index is consistent with an increased cellular or mitochondrial damage. The specific cells and tissues contributing to plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA are not known, as is the specificity of this finding for suicide attempters. Future studies are needed in order to better understand the relevance of increased free-circulating mtDNA in relation to the pathophysiology underlying suicidal behavior and depression.

  11. Genetically elevated levels of circulating triglycerides and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, W-M; Zhang, H-F; Zhu, Z-Y; Zhou, Y-L; Liang, N-X; Xu, D-J; Zhou, F; Sheng, Y-H; Yang, R; Gong, L; Yin, Z-J; Chen, F-K; Cao, K-J; Li, X-L

    2013-04-01

    Elevated levels of circulating triglycerides and increased arterial stiffness are associated with cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have reported an association between levels of circulating triglycerides and arterial stiffness. We used Mendelian randomization to test whether this association is causal. We investigated the association between circulating triglyceride levels, the apolipoprotein A-V (ApoA5) -1131T>C single nucleotide polymorphism and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) by examining data from 4421 subjects aged 18-74 years who were recruited from the Chinese population. baPWV was significantly associated with the levels of circulating triglycerides after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, heart rate, waist-to-hip ratio, antihypertensive treatment and diabetes mellitus status. The -1131C allele was associated with a 5% (95% confidence interval 3-8%) increase in circulating triglycerides (adjusted for age, sex, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diabetes mellitus and antihypertensive treatment). Instrumental variable analysis showed that genetically elevated levels of circulating triglycerides were not associated with increased baPWV. These results do not support the hypothesis that levels of circulating triglycerides have a causal role in the development of arterial stiffness.

  12. Effect of slip on circulation inside a droplet

    CERN Document Server

    Thalakkottor, Joseph J

    2013-01-01

    Internal recirculation in a moving droplet plays an important role in several droplet-based microfluidic devices as it enhances mixing, chemical reaction and heat transfer. The occurrence of fluid slip at the wall, which becomes prominent at high shear rates and lower length scales, results in a significant change in droplet circulation. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the presence of circulation in droplets is demonstrated and quantified. Circulation is shown to vary inversely with slip length, which is a measure of interface wettability. A simple circulation model is established that captures the effect of slip on droplet circulation. Scaling parameters for circulation and slip length are identified from the circulation model which leads to the collapse of data for droplets with varying aspect ratio (AR) and slip length. The model is validated using continuum and MD simulations and is shown to be accurate for droplets with high AR.

  13. Oxy-combustion of biomass in a circulating fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowska-Golachowska, Monika; Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka; Luckos, Adam; Wolski, Krzysztof; Musiał, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate combustion characteristics of biomass (willow, Salix viminalis) burnt in air and O2/CO2 mixtures in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). Air and oxy-combustion characteristics of wooden biomass in CFB were supplemented by the thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA/DTA). The results of conducted CFB and TGA tests show that the composition of the oxidizing atmosphere strongly influences the combustion process of biomass fuels. Replacing N2 in the combustion environment by CO2 caused slight delay (higher ignition temperature and lower maximum mass loss rate) in the combustion of wooden biomass. The combustion process in O2/CO2 mixtures at 30% and 40% O2 is faster and shorter than that at lower O2 concentrations.

  14. Oxy-combustion of biomass in a circulating fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosowska-Golachowska Monika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate combustion characteristics of biomass (willow, Salix viminalis burnt in air and O2/CO2 mixtures in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB. Air and oxy-combustion characteristics of wooden biomass in CFB were supplemented by the thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA/DTA. The results of conducted CFB and TGA tests show that the composition of the oxidizing atmosphere strongly influences the combustion process of biomass fuels. Replacing N2 in the combustion environment by CO2 caused slight delay (higher ignition temperature and lower maximum mass loss rate in the combustion of wooden biomass. The combustion process in O2/CO2 mixtures at 30% and 40% O2 is faster and shorter than that at lower O2 concentrations.

  15. Transient Behaviour of a Heat Pipe with Extracapillary Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Heat pipe devices, for their typical working mode, are particularly suitable for zero gravity applications, and have also been considered for applications in space satellites with nuclear generators because of the absence of active systems for the coolant circulation. The present work reports the results of experimental tests carried out on a heat pipe facility designed to investigate the thermal-hydraulic performance of a water heat pipe. The device layout, configuration and geometry, simulate a heat pipe working mode utilizable in space applications under zero gravity conditions. The evaporating section, completely lined (covered) with wicks (sintered stainless steel), and nearly plane shaped, is housed in a cylindrical container. The obtained results show that the system can approach steady-state conditions, at a pressure of 4 bar and with a heat flux transferred of about 150 W/cm2, supporting an electric power step of about 1.8 Kw.

  16. Atmospheric General Circulation Changes under Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipane, Erool

    The work in this thesis is mainly two-fold. First we study the internal variability of the general circulation and focus our study on the annular modes and how important it is to simulate the subsynoptic scales in the circulation. In the next major section we will try to understand the mechanisms of the forced response and the mechanisms leading towards the jet shift from transient evolution in Atmospheric general circulation models. In the first part, in an attempt to assess the benefit of resolving the sub-synoptic to mesoscale processes, the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Annular Modes (AMs), in particular those related to the troposphere-stratosphere interaction, are evaluated for moderate- and high-horizontal resolution simulations with a global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), in comparison with the ERA40 re- analysis. Relative to the CMIP-type climate models, the IFS AGCM demonstrates notable improvement in capturing the key characteristics of the AMs. Notably, the performance with the high horizontal resolution version of the model is systematically superior to the moderate resolution on all metrics examined, including the variance of the AMs at different seasons of the year, the intrinsic e-folding time scales of the AMs, and the downward influence from the stratosphere to troposphere in the AMs. Moreover, the high-resolution simulation with a greater persistence in the intrinsic variability of the SAM projects an appreciably larger shift of the surface westerly wind during the Southern Hemisphere summer under climate change. In the second part, the response of the atmospheric circulation to greenhouse gas-induced SST warming is investigated using large ensemble experiments with two AGCMs, with a focus on the robust feature of the poleward shift of the eddy driven jet. In these experiments, large ensembles of simulations are conducted by abruptly switching the SST forcing on from January 1st to focus on the wintertime circulation

  17. Circulating tumor cells: exploring intratumor heterogeneity of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Cristina; Nicolazzo, Chiara; Gradilone, Angela; Giannini, Giuseppe; De Falco, Elena; Chimenti, Isotta; Varriale, Elisa; Hauch, Siegfried; Plappert, Linda; Cortesi, Enrico; Gazzaniga, Paola

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesis of the "liquid biopsy" using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to traditional tissue biopsy to determine cancer therapy. Discordance for biomarkers expression between primary tumor tissue and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been widely reported, thus rendering the biological characterization of CTCs an attractive tool for biomarkers assessment and treatment selection. Studies performed in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients using CellSearch, the only FDA-cleared test for CTCs assessment, demonstrated a much lower yield of CTCs in this tumor type compared with breast and prostate cancer, both at baseline and during the course of treatment. Thus, although attractive, the possibility to use CTCs as therapy-related biomarker for colorectal cancer patients is still limited by a number of technical issues mainly due to the low sensitivity of the CellSearch method. In the present study we found a significant discordance between CellSearch and AdnaTest in the detection of CTCs from mCRC patients. We then investigated KRAS pathway activating mutations in CTCs and determined the degree of heterogeneity for KRAS oncogenic mutations between CTCs and tumor tissues. Whether KRAS gene amplification may represent an alternative pathway responsible for KRAS activation was further explored. KRAS gene amplification emerged as a functionally equivalent and mutually exclusive mechanism of KRAS pathway activation in CTCs, possibly related to transcriptional activation. The serial assessment of CTCs may represent an early biomarker of treatment response, able to overcome the intrinsic limit of current molecular biomarkers represented by intratumor heterogeneity.

  18. Pure midbrain ischemia and hypoplastic vertebrobasilar circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberti, Nicola; Gamba, Massimo; Costa, Angelo; Vergani, Veronica; Spezi, Raffaella; Pezzini, Alessandro; Volonghi, Irene; Mardighian, Dikran; Gasparotti, Roberto; Padovani, Alessandro; Magoni, Mauro

    2014-02-01

    Isolated midbrain infarction is rare and little is known about etiology and patient's long-term follow up. We aimed to describe the clinical features, the causative diseases and the outcome of patients with isolated midbrain infarction who were admitted to our center, focusing on vascular abnormalities of posterior circulation. All patients with first acute ischemic stroke limited to the midbrain were included and their demographic features, neurological symptoms, neuroimaging data, and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Functional outcome, using modified Rankin scale, was assessed at discharge and at the 3 month follow up evaluation. We found nine patients with acute isolated midbrain infarction, representing 0.61 % of all ischemic stroke admitted to our center. The most common cause of stroke was small-vessel disease (88.8 %). At stroke onset, none of the patients had consciousness disturbances, and four patients (44.4 %) had gait impairment, five patients (55.5 %) presented with diplopia due to involvement of the third nerve or fascicular type of third-nerve palsy, seven patients (77.7 %) had vascular anomalies of vertebrobasilar circulation: the most frequent was vertebral artery hypoplasia [four patients (44.4 %)]. At follow up evaluation, seven patients (77.7 %) had a good functional outcome and no patients experienced recurrence of cerebrovascular events. As isolated midbrain infarction is uncommon, specific ocular motor signs, mainly third-nerve palsy, may help to identify and localize the mesencephalic infarct. Abnormalities in vertebrobasilar circulation, such as hypoplastic basilar or vertebral artery, are frequently associated with isolated midbrain ischemia. The hypoplastic vertebrobasilar system may predispose to posterior ischemic stroke.

  19. Microsurgical management of posterior circulation aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Xiang-en

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To retrospectively analyze effective methods for surgical management of posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods There were 42 patients with posterior circulation aneurysms [26 cases of basilar aneurysm (27 aneurysms, 16 cases of vertebral aneurysm (17 aneurysms]. There were 15 patients underwent bypass surgery [4 external carotid artery-P2 segment of posterior cerebral artery (ECA-P2, 2 internal carotid artery-P2 segment of posterior cerebral artery (ICA-P2, 2 internal maxillary artery-P2 segment of posterior cerebral artery (IMA-P2, 2 intracranial segment of vertebral artery-extracranial segment of vertebral artery, 5 occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (OA-PICA] and 27 patients underwent simple surgical clipping. Results Activities of daily life of 37 patients recovered to normal (14 patients with aneurysm on the top of basilar artery, 3 with aneurysm on the trunk of basilar artery, 9 with vertebral aneurysm, 5 with posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm, 4 with aneurysm on the junction of P1-P2 segment of posterior cerebral artery, 1 with superior cerebellar artery, and 1 with anterior inferior cerebellar aneurysm. None of them occurred operation-related neurological dysfunction. The recovery rate was 88.09% . Among the other patients, 1 with aneurysm on the top of basilar artery presented severe signs and symptoms of neurological defect and cannot take care of oneself, 2 patients (1 with aneurysm on the top of basilar artery, 1 with aneurysm on the trunk of basilar artery occurred brain stem hemorrhage after operation, and died at perioperative period, 2 with vertebral aneurysm relapsed and was cured after treatment. Conclusion Posterior circulation aneurysm which is not suitable for surgical clipping can be treated with intra? and extra?cranial vessel bypass. It may avoid the risk of surgical clipping of aneurysm.

  20. Bay of Campeche circulation: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez de la Cerda, A. M.; Reid, R. O.; DiMarco, S. F.; Jochens, A. E.

    We address four independent sources of observational evidence pertaining to circulation in the Bay of Campeche (BOC), located south of 23°N in the western Gulf of Mexico, with the objective of characterizing its mean circulation, its variability, and the probable forcing thereof. The observational information includes historic hydrographic and dissolved oxygen data, Lagrangian current data, satellite-derived sea surface height anomaly (SSHA), and special observations of marine winds in the BOC. The hydrographic data reveals that the mean surface circulation relative to 425 db and to 800 db includes a weak cyclone with cyclic transport of about 4×106 m3 · s-1. Ten years of near-surface drifter observations shows a statistically meaningful mean cyclonic pattern of current with westward intensification that is consistent with the mean surface dynamic topography relative to 800 db. Observations of mean currents in the BOC at 900 m based on deep floats by G. L. Weatherly and others allows estimation of the current shear from the Lagrangian data and this is geostrophically consistent with that from the dynamic topography relative to 800 m. The mean cyclonic wind stress curl field deduced from two sources of marine wind data indicate a forced Sverdrup transport consistent with that observed. Moreover a seasonal cycle is suggested in the near surface drifter data that is coherent with the seasonal signal in the wind stress curl. Finally, the historic SSHA for a period of over 8 years in the 1990s allows a characterization of the dominant empirical spatial patterns and their temporal variability.

  1. On circulating power of steady state tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Yagi, Masatoshi

    1996-03-01

    Circulating power for the sustenance and profile control of the steady state tokamak plasmas is discussed. The simultaneous fulfillment of the MHD stability at high beta value, the improved confinement and the stationary equilibrium requires the rotation drive as well as the current drive. In addition to the current drive efficiency, the efficiency for the rotation drive is investigated. The direct rotation drive by the external torque, such as the case of beam injection, is not efficient enough. The mechanism and the magnitude of the spontaneous plasma rotation are studied. (author)

  2. Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskakov, A. P.; Munts, V. A.; Pavlyuk, E. Yu.

    2013-11-01

    Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler firing biomass are considered. An attempt is made to describe transients with the use of concepts applied in the automatic control theory. The parameters calculated from an analysis of unsteady heat balance equations are compared with the experimental data obtained in the 12-MW boiler of the Chalmers University of Technology. It is demonstrated that these equations describe the transient modes of operation with good accuracy. Dependences for calculating the time constants of unsteady processes are obtained.

  3. Non-singular circulant graphs and digraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Lal, A K

    2011-01-01

    We give necessary and sufficient conditions for a few classes of circulant graphs/digraphs to be singular. We also give two generalizations of the above graphs/digraphs, namely $(r,s,t)$-digraphs for non-negative integers $r,s$ and $t$, and the digraph $C_n^{i,j,k,l}$ with certain restrictions. A necessary and sufficient condition for the digraphs $C_n^{i,j,k,l}$ to be singular is obtained. Some necessary conditions are given under which the $(r,s,t)$-digraphs are singular.

  4. Is the thermohaline circulation really at risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Quadfasel, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Changes in thermohaline circulation (THC) have been known to change the European and Arctic climate within decades. Knowing if, when, and how a major change in the THC might occur in the mid-term might enable both the public and the private sectors to understand the risks, time horizon, and possible scenarios of major changes in the climate and to adapt to them. The THOR project has been running from 2008 to 2012 and has been investigating on determining how the THC impacts climate stabili...

  5. Circulant states with positive partial transpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2007-09-01

    We construct a large class of quantum d⊗d states which are positive under partial transposition (so called PPT states). The construction is based on certain direct sum decomposition of the total Hilbert space displaying characteristic circular structure—that is why we call them circulant states. It turns out that partial transposition maps any such decomposition into another one and hence both original density matrix and its partially transposed partner share similar cyclic properties. This class contains many well-known examples of PPT states from the literature and gives rise to a huge family of completely new states.

  6. Effects of Buoyancy on Langmuir Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jun; SONG Jin-Bao

    2008-01-01

    Based on the Navier-Stokes equation,an equation describing the Langmuir circulation is derived by a perturbation method when the influences of Coriolis force and buoyancy force are both considered.The approach used in the analysis is similar to the works carried out by Craik and Leibovich[J.Fluid Mech.73 (1976)401],Leibovich [J.Fluid Mech.79 (1977) 715]and Huang[J.Fluid Mech.91 (1979) 191].Potential applications of the equation proposed are discussed in the area of Antarctic circumpolar current.

  7. Biodegradable long-circulating polymeric nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gref, R; Minamitake, Y; Peracchia, M T; Trubetskoy, V; Torchilin, V; Langer, R

    1994-03-18

    Injectable nanoparticulate carriers have important potential applications such as site-specific drug delivery or medical imaging. Conventional carriers, however, cannot generally be used because they are eliminated by the reticulo-endothelial system within seconds or minutes after intravenous injection. To address these limitations, monodisperse biodegradable nanospheres were developed from amphiphilic copolymers composed of two biocompatible blocks. The nanospheres exhibited dramatically increased blood circulation times and reduced liver accumulation in mice. Furthermore, they entrapped up to 45 percent by weight of the drug in the dense core in a one-step procedure and could be freeze-dried and easily redispersed without additives in aqueous solutions.

  8. Mock circulation loop to investigate hemolysis in a pulsatile total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, Felix; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Laumen, Marco; Mager, Ilona; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2015-05-01

    Hemocompatibility of blood pumps is a crucial parameter that has to be ensured prior to in vivo testing. In contrast to rotary blood pumps, a standard for testing a pulsatile total artificial heart (TAH) has not yet been established. Therefore, a new mock circulation loop was designed to investigate hemolysis in the left ventricle of the ReinHeart TAH. Its main features are a high hemocompatibility, physiological conditions, a low priming volume, and the conduction of blood through a closed tubing system. The mock circulation loop consists of a noninvasive pressure chamber, an aortic compliance chamber, and an atrium directly connected to the ventricle. As a control pump, the clinically approved Medos-HIA ventricular assist device (VAD) was used. The pumps were operated at 120 beats per minute with an aortic pressure of 120 to 80 mm Hg and a mean atrial pressure of 10 mm Hg, generating an output flow of about 5 L/min. Heparinized porcine blood was used. A series of six identical tests were performed. A test method was established that is comparable to ASTM F 1841, which is standard practice for the assessment of hemolysis in continuous-flow blood pumps. The average normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) values of the VAD and the ReinHeart TAH were 0.018 g/100 L and 0.03 g/100 L, respectively. The standard deviation of the NIH was 0.0033 for the VAD and 0.0034 for the TAH. Furthermore, a single test with a BPX-80 Bio-Pump was performed to verify that the hemolysis induced by the mock circulation loop was negligible. The performed tests showed a good reproducibility and statistical significance. The mock circulation loop and test protocol developed in this study are valid methods to investigate the hemolysis induced by a pulsatile blood pump.

  9. [The right ventricle and pulmonary circulation in hypertensive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzi, M D; Riva, S; Guazzi, M; Dardani, M; Berti, M; Tosi, E; Alimento, M

    1990-04-01

    Elevated blood pressure and vascular resistance in patients with systemic hypertension are paralleled by a proportional rise in pressure and resistance in the lesser circulation. It was hypothesized that increased systemic reaction to adrenergic stimulation is shared by the pulmonary vessels. Thus normotensive subjects and patients with primary hypertension were investigated during mental arithmetic and the cold pressor test. Both groups responded to both stimuli; during arithmetic pressure reaction was mediated through an increase of cardiac output, and during the cold pressor test through a predominant rise in systemic vascular resistance. The pressure changes were emphasized in the hypertensive population. Pressure in the pulmonary artery in normotensive subjects was not affected by cold and was slightly raised (systolic) during arithmetic. In hypertensive patients, on the other hand, systolic and diastolic pressures were consistently augmented by both tests, and pulmonary arteriolar resistance rose by 42% and 29% of control during the cold pressor test and arithmetic, respectively. Changes in resistance reflected neurally-mediated vasoconstriction but not variations in the passive relationship between pressure and flow, since during arithmetic, for a similar rise in flow the driving pressure across the lungs was steady in normotensive subjects and rose significantly in hypertensive patients. In these same patients pressure was augmented by cold test in the absence of substantial changes in flow. At baseline and during tests pulmonary wedge pressure, pleural pressure, arterial blood gases, and pH were similar in the two populations. The intravenous infusion of similar scalar doses of norepinephrine (the same mediator released during cold test) was not effective on the pulmonary vessels of normotensives and caused an obvious vasoconstriction in hypertensives.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  11. Haemodynamic evaluation of the cerebral circulation by periorbital Doppler examination and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement in carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T; Buchardt Hansen, H J

    1988-01-01

    To assess the haemodynamic significance of an internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, angiography or direct ultrasound examination should be supplemented by indirect physiologic testing of the collateral circulation. Among the tests proposed, we used the periorbital flow direction, assessed by Do...

  12. Enhancement of natural circulation type domestic solar hot water system performance by using a wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, K. K.; Srinivasan, P. S. S.

    2011-08-01

    Performance improvement of existing 200 litres capacity natural convection type domestic solar hot water system is attempted. A two-stage centrifugal pump driven by a vertical axis windmill having Savonius type rotor is added to the fluid loop. The windmill driven pump circulates the water through the collector. The system with necessary instrumentation is tested over a day. Tests on Natural Circulation System (NCS) mode and Wind Assisted System (WAS) mode are carried out during January, April, July and October, 2009. Test results of a clear day are reported. Daily average efficiency of 25-28 % during NCS mode and 33-37 % during WAS mode are obtained. With higher wind velocities, higher collector flow rates and hence higher efficiencies are obtained. In general, WAS mode provides improvements in efficiency when compared to NCS mode.

  13. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-31

    During the fourth quarter of 1990, steady-state performance testing at the Nucla Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) resumed under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. Co-sponsorship of the Demonstration Test Program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was completed on June 15, 1990. From October through December, 1990, Colorado-Ute Electric Association (CUEA) completed a total of 23 steady-state performance tests, 4 dynamic tests, and set operating records during November and December as the result of improved unit operating reliability. Highlight events and achievements during this period of operation are presented.

  14. Glioblastoma Circulating Cells: Reality, Trap or Illusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lombard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastases are the hallmark of cancer. This event is in direct relationship with the ability of cancer cells to leave the tumor mass and travel long distances within the bloodstream and/or lymphatic vessels. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most frequent primary brain neoplasm, is mainly characterized by a dismal prognosis. The usual fatal issue for GBM patients is a consequence of local recurrence that is observed most of the time without any distant metastases. However, it has recently been documented that GBM cells could be isolated from the bloodstream in several studies. This observation raises the question of the possible involvement of glioblastoma-circulating cells in GBM deadly recurrence by a “homing metastasis” process. Therefore, we think it is important to review the already known molecular mechanisms underlying circulating tumor cells (CTC specific properties, emphasizing their epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT abilities and their possible involvement in tumor initiation. The idea is here to review these mechanisms and speculate on how relevant they could be applied in the forthcoming battles against GBM.

  15. Formation and Plasma Circulation of Solar Prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.

    2016-05-01

    Solar prominences are long-lived cool and dense plasma curtains in the hot and rarefied outer solar atmosphere or corona. The physical mechanism responsible for their formation and especially for their internal plasma circulation has been uncertain for decades. The observed ubiquitous downflows in quiescent prominences are difficult to interpret because plasma with high conductivity seems to move across horizontal magnetic field lines. Here we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of prominence formation and evolution in an elongated magnetic flux rope as a result of in situ plasma condensations fueled by continuous plasma evaporation from the solar chromosphere. The prominence is born and maintained in a fragmented, highly dynamic state with continuous reappearance of multiple blobs and thread structures that move mainly downward, dragging along mass-loaded field lines. The circulation of prominence plasma is characterized by the dynamic balance between the drainage of prominence plasma back to the chromosphere and the formation of prominence plasma via continuous condensation. Plasma evaporates from the chromosphere, condenses into the prominence in the corona, and drains back to the chromosphere, establishing a stable chromosphere-corona plasma cycle. Synthetic images of the modeled prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly closely resemble actual observations, with many dynamical threads underlying an elliptical coronal cavity.

  16. The biology of circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantel, K; Speicher, M R

    2016-03-10

    Metastasis is a biologically complex process consisting of numerous stochastic events which may tremendously differ across various cancer types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cells that are shed from primary tumors and metastatic deposits into the blood stream. CTCs bear a tremendous potential to improve our understanding of steps involved in the metastatic cascade, starting from intravasation of tumor cells into the circulation until the formation of clinically detectable metastasis. These efforts were propelled by novel high-resolution approaches to dissect the genomes and transcriptomes of CTCs. Furthermore, capturing of viable CTCs has paved the way for innovative culturing technologies to study fundamental characteristics of CTCs such as invasiveness, their kinetics and responses to selection barriers, such as given therapies. Hence the study of CTCs is not only instrumental as a basic research tool, but also allows the serial monitoring of tumor genotypes and may therefore provide predictive and prognostic biomarkers for clinicians. Here, we review how CTCs have contributed to significant insights into the metastatic process and how they may be utilized in clinical practice.

  17. New England Medical Center Posterior Circulation registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Louis R; Wityk, Robert J; Glass, Thomas A; Tapia, Jorge; Pazdera, Ladislav; Chang, Hui-Meng; Teal, Phillip; Dashe, John F; Chaves, Claudia J; Breen, Joan C; Vemmos, Kostas; Amarenco, Pierre; Tettenborn, Barbara; Leary, Megan; Estol, Conrad; Dewitt, L Dana; Pessin, Michael S

    2004-09-01

    Among 407 New England Medical Center Posterior Circulation registry patients, 59% had strokes without transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), 24% had TIAs then strokes, and 16% had only TIAs. Embolism was the commonest stroke mechanism (40% of patients including 24% cardiac origin, 14% intraarterial, 2% cardiac and arterial sources). In 32% large artery occlusive lesions caused hemodynamic brain ischemia. Infarcts most often included the distal posterior circulation territory (rostral brainstem, superior cerebellum and occipital and temporal lobes); the proximal (medulla and posterior inferior cerebellum) and middle (pons and anterior inferior cerebellum) territories were equally involved. Severe occlusive lesions (>50% stenosis) involved more than one large artery in 148 patients; 134 had one artery site involved unilaterally or bilaterally. The commonest occlusive sites were: extracranial vertebral artery (52 patients, 15 bilateral) intracranial vertebral artery (40 patients, 12 bilateral), basilar artery (46 patients). Intraarterial embolism was the commonest mechanism of brain infarction in patients with vertebral artery occlusive disease. Thirty-day mortality was 3.6%. Embolic mechanism, distal territory location, and basilar artery occlusive disease carried the poorest prognosis. The best outcome was in patients who had multiple arterial occlusive sites; they had position-sensitive TIAs during months to years.

  18. Numerical simulation of a natural circulation loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verissimo, Gabriel L.; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes; Faccini, Jose Luiz H., E-mail: gabrielverissimo@poli.ufrj.b, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.b, E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents a numerical simulation of a natural circulation loop using computational fluid dynamics. The simulated loop is an experimental model in a reduced scale of 1:10 of a passive heat removal system typical of advanced PWR reactors. The loop is composed of a heating vessel containing 52 electric heaters, a vertical shell-tube heat exchanger and a column of expansion. The working fluid is distilled water. Initially it was created a tridimensional geometric model of the loop components. After that, it was generated a tridimensional mesh of finite elements in order to calculate the variables of the problem. The boundaries of the numerical simulation were the power of the electric resistances and the cooling flow in the secondary side of the heat exchanger. The initial conditions were the temperature, the pressure and the fluid velocity at the time just before the power has been switched on. The results of this simulation were compared with the experimental data, in terms of the evolution of the temperatures in different locations of the loop, and of the average natural circulation flow as a function of time for a given power. (author)

  19. Circulating Tumor Cells Measurements in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Chiappini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh in women. During the past 20 years, the incidence of HCC has tripled while the 5-year survival rate has remained below 12%. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC reflects the aggressiveness nature of a tumor. Many attempts have been made to develop assays that reliably detect and enumerate the CTC during the development of the HCC. In this case, the challenges are (1 there are few markers specific to the HCC (tumor cells versus nontumor cells and (2 they can be used to quantify the number of CTC in the bloodstream. Another technical challenge consists of finding few CTC mixed with million leukocytes and billion erythrocytes. CTC detection and identification can be used to estimate prognosis and may serve as an early marker to assess antitumor activity of treatment. CTC can also be used to predict progression-free survival and overall survival. CTC are an interesting source of biological information in order to understand dissemination, drug resistance, and treatment-induced cell death. Our aim is to review and analyze the different new methods existing to detect, enumerate, and characterize the CTC in the peripheral circulation of patients with HCC.

  20. Circulating vitamin D, calcium and risk of cerebrovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rajiv; Stevens, Sarah; Ward, Heather; Chowdhury, Susmita; Sajjad, Ayesha; Franco, Oscar H

    2012-08-01

    Available literature suggests that both vitamin D and calcium may be associated with a wide range of non-skeletal outcomes. However, epidemiological evidence supporting their individual associations with incident cerebrovascular disease is scarce. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, published before February 2012 and sought from MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS and the Science Citation Index databases, and reported cerebrovascular disease (defined as any fatal or non-fatal ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, cerebrovascular accident or transient ischemic attack) by circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] as active metabolite) and calcium levels. Two independent investigators abstracted information on 25(OH)D and calcium, cerebrovascular outcomes and other characteristics from selected studies. Relative risks (RRs) were pooled by both random and fixed effects meta-analyses and were further examined under different study-level characteristics. Publication bias was assessed with funnel plots and Egger's asymmetry test. From 5,778 initial references, nine unique prospective cohort studies met our inclusion criteria. Seven studies (involving 47,809 participants and 926 cerebrovascular events) focused on circulating 25(OH)D and 3 reported on circulating calcium (22,577 participants and 727 events). For 25(OH)D, in a comparison of individuals in the top third versus those in the bottom third at baseline, the combined RR for cerebrovascular disease, adjusted for several conventional risk factors, was 0.60 (95 % CI 0.48, 0.72). The corresponding RR in the prospective studies that reported on baseline circulating calcium levels for cerebrovascular disease was 1.40 (95 % CI 1.19, 1.64). There was no apparent evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias among included studies. Available data indicate that higher circulating level of vitamin D is associated with a decreased risk of cerebrovascular disease. Conversely

  1. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Balaji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation is very complex and variable. Surgical approaches to this area are considered risky due to the presence of the various important blood vessels and neural structures. Aims: To document the microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation along with variations in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: The authors studied 25 cadaveric brain specimens. Microsurgical dissection was carried out from the vertebral arteries to the basilar artery and its branches, the basilar artery bifurcation, posterior cerebral artery and its various branches. Measurements of the outer diameters of the vertebral artery, basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery and their lengths were taken. Results: The mean diameter of the vertebral artery was 3.4 mm on the left and 2.9 mm on the right. The diameter of the basilar artery varied from 3-7 mm (mean of 4.3 mm. The length varied from 24-35 mm (mean of 24.9 mm. The basilar artery gave off paramedian and circumferential perforating arteries. The origin of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA varied from 0-21 mm (mean 10.0 mm from the vertebrobasilar junction. The diameter of the AICA varied from being hypoplastic i.e., < 0.5 mm to 2 mm (mean 1.0 mm. The superior cerebellar artery (SCA arises very close to the basilar bifurcation, in our series (1-3 mm from the basilar artery bifurcation. The diameter of the SCA varied from 0.5-2.5 mm on both sides. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA is divided into four segments. The PCA gave rise to perforators (thalamoperforators, thalamogeniculate arteries, circumflex arteries and peduncular arteries, medial posterior choroidal artery, lateral posterior choroidal artery and cortical branches. In 39 specimens the P1 segment was found to be larger than the posterior communicating artery, in six specimens it was found to be equal to the diameter of the posterior communicating artery and in five specimens it

  2. Interannual variability of South American monsoon circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Gan, Manoel; Rafaele Araújo Lima, Jeane

    2016-04-01

    The South America Monsoon System (SAMS) is responsible for influencing the atmospheric circulation and precipitation over most of tropical South America (SA) during the summer season. Studies for aiming to understand the temporal variability of this system have great value to the scientific community, because the processes that control the monsoon climate are not totally clear. Thus, the main objective of this research is to investigate the possible large-scale climatic factors and the remote interaction mechanisms, which may be associated with summer season interannual variability focusing on identifying the main differences between dry and wet extremes rainy season in the South-eastern Amazon Basin (SAB), Central-West (WC) and Southeast (SE) of Brazil, which are areas influenced by the summer monsoon regime. For such analyzes, Pearson correlations, quantile method and composite analysis were used during the period from 1979 to 2014. The correlation between precipitation anomaly in SAB and the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) and wind at 850hPa and 300hPa indicate El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influence. Precipitation anomalies in WC did not show significant correlation with SSTA. However, a pattern similar to ENSO Modoki type was observed in the composite analysis. At 850 hPa, the presence of an anomalous cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation was observed over the central region of SA during wet (dry) summers seasons. Over SE region of Brazil, a dipole SSTA pattern over the South Atlantic was identified, as well the presence of anomalous circulations with an equivalent barotropic structure over these SSTA areas. This pattern is more evident in case of dry summer on the SE. At 300 hPa, the wave train between 30°S-60°S was observed presenting a feature curvature from 120°W reaching SA, similar to the Pacific-South American pattern (PSA). Analysis of the summer interannual variability indicated the manifestation of wet summers more frequently than dry

  3. Two Types of Designs for On-Line Circulation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob McGee

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available On-line circulation systems divide into two types. One type contains records only for charged or otherwise absent items. The other contains a file of records for all titles or volumes in the library collection, regardless of their circulation status. This paper traces differences between the two types, examining different kinds of files and terminals, transaction evidence, the quality of bibliographic data, querying, and the possibility of functions outside circulation. Aspects of both operational and potential systems are considered.

  4. Stability of Thermohaline circulation with respect to fresh water release

    OpenAIRE

    Patwardhan, Ajay; Tewary, Vivek

    2008-01-01

    The relatively warm climate found in the North- Western Europe is due to the gulf stream that circulates warm saline water from southern latitudes to Europe. In North Atlantic ocean the stream gives out a large amount of heat, cools down and sinks to the bottom to complete the Thermohaline circulation. There is considerable debate on the stability of the stream to inputs of fresh water from the melting ice in Greenland and Arctic. The circulation, being switched off, will have massive impact ...

  5. Mid-Latitude Circulation and Extremes in a Changing Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Mid-latitude extreme weather events are responsible for a large part of climate-related damage. Yet large uncertainties remain in climate model projections of heat waves, droughts, and heavy rain/snow events on regional scales, limiting our ability to effectively use these projections for climate adaptation and mitigation. These uncertainties can be attributed to both the lack of spatial resolution in the models, and to the lack of a dynamical understanding of these extremes. The approach of this project is to relate the fine-scale features to the large scales in current climate simulations, seasonal re-forecasts, and climate change projections in a very wide range of models, including the atmospheric and coupled models of ECMWF over a range of horizontal resolutions (125 to 10 km), aqua-planet configuration of the Model for Prediction Across Scales and High Order Method Modeling Environments (resolutions ranging from 240 km – 7.5 km) with various physics suites, and selected CMIP5 model simulations. The large scale circulation will be quantified both on the basis of the well tested preferred circulation regime approach, and very recently developed measures, the finite amplitude Wave Activity (FAWA) and its spectrum. The fine scale structures related to extremes will be diagnosed following the latest approaches in the literature. The goal is to use the large scale measures as indicators of the probability of occurrence of the finer scale structures, and hence extreme events. These indicators will then be applied to the CMIP5 models and time-slice projections of a future climate.

  6. Circulating microRNAs in breast cancer and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasoy Ulus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that extracellular mRNA can be detected in the circulation. Our hypothesis was that circulating miRNAs are also present and differentially expressed in the serum of breast cancer patients compared to controls. Findings We measured miRNA in the serum of samples with and without the addition of miRNA prior to analysis. To test our RNA extraction efficiency, we spiked-in serial dilutions of single-strand C elegens miR-39 (cel-miR-39 and human miR-145 (has-miR-145 into goat serum and a 10 year old human serum specimen. We next analyzed miR-16, -145, and -155 in archived serum specimens from 21 participants, 13 of whom did and 8 of whom did not have breast cancer. We were able to detect the miRNAs from all the serum samples to which the miRNAs had been added. We were also able to detect endogenous miR-16, -145, and -155 in all serum samples. While the expression of all three miRNAs was similar in samples from healthy women compared to those with breast cancer, women with progesterone receptor (PR, p = 0.016 positive tumors had higher miR-155 expression than tumors that were negative for these receptors. Conclusion 1 RNA species can be detected in archived serum; 2 miR-155 may be differentially expressed in the serum of women with hormone sensitive compared to women with hormone insensitive breast cancer. Screening serum for miRNAs that predict the presence of breast cancer is feasible, and may be useful for breast cancer detection.

  7. Plasma circulating fibrinogen stability and moderate beer consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Caspi, Abraham; Zemser, Marina; Libman, Imanuel; Goshev, Ivan; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2003-12-01

    MODERATE BEER CONSUMPTION (MBC) IS CARDIOPROTECTIVE: it positively influences plasma lipid levels and plasma antioxidant activity in beer-consuming individuals. The connection between MBC and blood coagulation is not clearly defined. Forty-two volunteers were equally divided into experimental (EG) and control (CG) groups following coronary bypass surgery. For 30 consecutive days, only patients of the EG consumed 330 mL of beer per day (about 20 g of alcohol). A comprehensive clinical investigation of 42 patients was done. Blood samples were collected before and after the investigation for a wide range of laboratory tests. The plasma fibrinogen was denatured with 8 M urea and intrinsic fluorescence (IF), hydrophobicity and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to reveal possible qualitative changes. After 30 days of moderate beer consumption, positive changes in the plasma lipid levels, plasma anticoagulant and plasma antioxidant activities were registered in patients of the EG group. In 17 out of 21 patients of the same group, differences in plasma circulating fibrinogen's (PCF), secondary and tertiary structures were found. The stability of fibrinogen, expressed in thermodynamic parameters, has shown that the loosening of the structure takes place under ethanol and urea denaturation. Also fluorescence stability of PCF was decreased. No changes in the lipid levels, anticoagulant and antioxidant activity or changes in PCF were detected in patients of CG. In conclusion, for the first time after a short term of moderate beer consumption some qualitative changes in the plasma circulating fibrinogen were detected: differences in the emission peak response, fluorescence intensity and all thermodynamic data. Together, with the decrease in the PCF concentration it may lead to an elevation of the blood anticoagulant activity.

  8. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of nearshore circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Detong

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional nearshore circulation model was developed by coupling CH3D, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and REF/DIF, a nearsbore wave transformation model. The model solves the three-dimensional wave-averaged equations of motion. Wave-induced effects on circulation were introduced in the form of radiation stresses, wave-induced mass transport, wave-induced enhancement of bottom friction and wave-induced turbulent mixing. Effects of breaking waves were considered following Svendsen (1984a and 1984b) and Stive and Wind (1986). The model was successfully tested against the analytical solution of longshore currents by Longuet and Higgins (1970). The model successfully simulated the undertow as observed in a laboratory experiment by Stive and Wind (1982). In addition, the model was applied to a physical model by Mory and Hamm (1997) and successfully reproduced the eddy behind a detached breakwater as well as the longshore current on the open beach and the contiguous eddy in the open area of the wave tank. While the qualitative agreement between model results and experimental observations was very good, the quantitative agreement needs to be further improved. Albeit difficult to explain every discrepancy between the model re- suits and observations, in general, sources of errors are attributed to the lack of understanding and comprehensive description of following processes: (1) the horizontal and vertical distribution of radiation stress, especially for breaking waves; (2) the detailed structure of turbulence;(3)Wave-current interaction (not included at this moment) ; and (4)the wave- current boundary layer and the resulting bottom shear stress.

  9. BIM-enabled Conceptual Modelling and Representation of Building Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kook Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how a building information modelling (BIM-based approach for building circulation enables us to change the process of building design in terms of its computational representation and processes, focusing on the conceptual modelling and representation of circulation within buildings. BIM has been designed for use by several BIM authoring tools, in particular with the widely known interoperable industry foundation classes (IFCs, which follow an object-oriented data modelling methodology. Advances in BIM authoring tools, using space objects and their relations defined in an IFC’s schema, have made it possible to model, visualize and analyse circulation within buildings prior to their construction. Agent-based circulation has long been an interdisciplinary topic of research across several areas, including design computing, computer science, architectural morphology, human behaviour and environmental psychology. Such conventional approaches to building circulation are centred on navigational knowledge about built environments, and represent specific circulation paths and regulations. This paper, however, places emphasis on the use of ‘space objects’ in BIM-enabled design processes rather than on circulation agents, the latter of which are not defined in the IFCs’ schemas. By introducing and reviewing some associated research and projects, this paper also surveys how such a circulation representation is applicable to the analysis of building circulation-related rules.

  10. [Harvey and his theory of circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    In 1628 the English physician William Harvey (1578-1657) published his revolutionary theory that blood circulates through the body driven by the heart. This challenged the long-standing teachings of Hippocrates and Galen concerning 4 different bodily fluids or 'humours' that flowed through separate arterial and venous vascular systems. Harvey gained considerable influence in society as a member of the prestigious Royal College of Physicians in London and as personal physician to King James I and King Charles I. He strove for a more empirical foundation of medicine by means of anatomic demonstrations and vivisections. Despite enduring considerable criticism he managed to disseminate his ideas around the influential universities of Europe in the course of his lifetime. However, consequent changes in practice would not be brought about until decades after Harvey's death, when Galenist treatments such as blood-letting were gradually abandoned.

  11. Circulating Biomarkers for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Spitali, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common form of muscular dystrophy. Genetic and biochemical research over the years has characterized the cause, pathophysiology and development of the disease providing several potential therapeutic targets and/or biomarkers. High throughput – omic technologies have provided a comprehensive understanding of the changes occurring in dystrophic muscles. Murine and canine animal models have been a valuable source to profile muscles and body fluids, thus providing candidate biomarkers that can be evaluated in patients. This review will illustrate known circulating biomarkers that could track disease progression and response to therapy in patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We present an overview of the transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomics and lipidomic biomarkers described in literature. We show how studies in muscle tissue have led to the identification of serum and urine biomarkers and we highlight the importance of evaluating biomarkers as possible surrogate endpoints to facilitate regulatory processes for new medicinal products. PMID:27858763

  12. Bordetella pertussis: why is it still circulating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiso, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is the causal agent of whooping cough, a highly contagious respiratory disease that is life-threatening in infants under the age of three months and may also be very severe in pregnant women and seniors. This disease can be prevented by vaccination but it remains a public health problem in many developed and developing countries.(1) So, why is B. pertussis still circulating? We need to consider several aspects of this vaccine-preventable disease when answering this question: (i) the history of the disease and the historical context in which the vaccine was developed; (ii) the type of vaccine used; (iii) the vaccination strategy and coverage; (iv) the disease surveillance after the introduction of generalized vaccination and (v) the surveillance for the causal agent of the disease.

  13. Circulation and Dissipation on Hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Many global circulation models predict supersonic zonal winds and large vertical shears in the atmospheres of short-period jovian exoplanets. Using linear analysis and nonlinear local simulations, we investigate hydrodynamic dissipation mechanisms to balance the thermal acceleration of these winds. The adiabatic Richardson criterion remains a good guide to linear stability, although thermal diffusion allows some modes to violate it at very long wavelengths and very low growth rates. Nonlinearly, wind speeds saturate at Mach numbers $\\approx 2$ and Richardson numbers $\\lesssim 1/4$ for a broad range of plausible diffusivities and forcing strengths. Turbulence and vertical mixing, though accompanied by weak shocks, dominate the dissipation, which appears to be the outcome of a recurrent Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. An explicit shear viscosity, as well as thermal diffusivity, is added to ZEUS to capture dissipation outside of shocks. The wind speed is not monotonic nor single valued for shear viscosities larger...

  14. Circulating amounts of osteoprotegerin and RANK ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Hjelmborg, Jacob Vb; Kostenuik, Paul;

    2005-01-01

    was 1.04 +/- 0.11 g/cm2. Serum levels of OPG and RANKL were measured by ELISA (Biomedica, Vienna, Austria). Thisregister covers twins born in Denmark since 1870. Heritability and environmental influence was assessed using a maximum-likelihood model for genetic pleiotropy. RESULTS: RANKL levels showed...... only a weak relation to BMD in healthy women. Phenotype correlations indicate that the genes that contribute to twin similarity for BMD are not genes regulating serum levels of RANKL or OPG. The weak correlation with BMDappears to consist in shared environmental factors....... and cytokines. The influence of genetic factors on circulating amounts of OPG and RANKL is not known. BMD has been demonstrated to have a high heritability and there is evidence also that bone turnover and bone loss rates are controlled at least in part by genetic factors. OBJECTIVE: Assessing the genetic...

  15. Circulating Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Brian [Institute of Urology, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 7416, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Rochefort, Holly [Department of Surgery, University of Southern California, 1520 San Pablo Street, HCT 4300, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Goldkorn, Amir, E-mail: agoldkor@usc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 3440, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2013-12-04

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can provide a non-invasive, repeatable snapshot of an individual patient’s tumor. In prostate cancer, CTC enumeration has been extensively studied and validated as a prognostic tool and has received FDA clearance for use in monitoring advanced disease. More recently, CTC analysis has been shifting from enumeration to more sophisticated molecular characterization of captured cells, which serve as a “liquid biopsy” of the tumor, reflecting molecular changes in an individual’s malignancy over time. Here we will review the main CTC studies in advanced and localized prostate cancer, highlighting the important gains as well as the challenges posed by various approaches, and their implications for advancing prostate cancer management.

  16. Boiling Heat Transfer in Circulating Fluidized Beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利斌; 李修伦

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to predict boiling heat transfer coefficient in a three-phase circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which is a new type of evaporation boiling means for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling. To verify the model, experiments are conducted in a stainless steel column with 39 mm ID and 2.0 m height, in which the heat transfer coefficient is measured for different superficial velocities, steam pressures, particle concentrations and materials of particle. As the steam pressure and particle concentrations increase, the heat transfer coefficient in the bed increases. The heat transfer coefficient increases with the liquid velocity but it exhibits a local minimum.The heat transfer coefficient is correlated with cluster renewed model and two-mechanism method. The prediction of the model is in good agreement with experimental data.

  17. Boiling Heat Transfer in Circulating Fluidized Beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to predict boiling heat transfer coefficient in a three-phase circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which is a new type of evaporation boiling means for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling. To verify the model, experiments are conducted in a stainless steel column with 39mm ID and 2.0m height, in which the heat transfer coefficient is measured for different superficial velocities, steam pressures, particle concentrations and materials of particle. As the steam pressure and particle concentrations increase, the heat transfer coefficient in the bed increases. The heat transfer coefficient increases with the liquid velocity but it exhibits a local minimum. The heat transfer coefficient is correlated with cluster renewed model and two-mechanism method. The prediction of the model is in good agreement with experimental data.

  18. Circulating Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs can provide a non-invasive, repeatable snapshot of an individual patient’s tumor. In prostate cancer, CTC enumeration has been extensively studied and validated as a prognostic tool and has received FDA clearance for use in monitoring advanced disease. More recently, CTC analysis has been shifting from enumeration to more sophisticated molecular characterization of captured cells, which serve as a “liquid biopsy” of the tumor, reflecting molecular changes in an individual’s malignancy over time. Here we will review the main CTC studies in advanced and localized prostate cancer, highlighting the important gains as well as the challenges posed by various approaches, and their implications for advancing prostate cancer management.

  19. Circulating tumor cells: highlight on practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Paola; Raimondi, Cristina; Gradilone, Angela; Naso, Giuseppe; Cortesi, Enrico; Frati, Luigi

    2012-02-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cells of presumed epithelial origin, whose prognostic and predictive value in metastatic cancer patients has recently been demonstrated. To date, the count of CTCs through the CellSearch® system represents a valid approach for monitoring disease status in patients with metastatic colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer; in these cancer types, a rise in the CTC count at any time during treatment predicts a poor outcome. Nevertheless, the clinical utility of monitoring CTC counts remains controversial, and what to do when CTC counts rise during therapy still remains an unanswered question. In this report, we suggest how to integrate CTC counts with their molecular characterization to better translate biologic information obtained on CTCs into daily clinical practice.

  20. Subsurface Meridional Circulation in the Active Belts

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, I Gonzalez; Hill, F; Howe, R; Komm, R

    2008-01-01

    Temporal variations of the subsurface meridional flow with the solar cycle have been reported by several authors. The measurements are typically averaged over periods of time during which surface magnetic activity existed in the regions were the velocities are calculated. The present work examines the possible contamination of these measurements due to the extra velocity fields associated with active regions plus the uncertainties in the data obtained where strong magnetic fields are present. We perform a systematic analysis of more than five years of GONG data and compare meridional flows obtained by ring-diagram analysis before and after removing the areas of strong magnetic field. The overall trend of increased amplitude of the meridional flow towards solar minimum remains after removal of large areas associated with surface activity. We also find residual circulation toward the active belts that persist even after the removal of the surface magnetic activity, suggesting the existence of a global pattern o...

  1. Circulating Tumor Cells, Enumeration and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Mei Hou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The detection and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs has shown significant clinical utility with respect to prognosis in breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. Emerging studies show that CTCs can provide pharmacodynamic information to aid therapy decision making. CTCs as a ‘virtual and real-time biopsy’ have clear potential to facilitate exploration of tumor biology, and in particular, the process of metastasis. The challenge of profiling CTC molecular characteristics and generating CTC signatures using current technologies is that they enrich rather than purify CTCs from whole blood; we face the problem of looking for the proverbial ‘needle in the haystack’. This review summarizes the current methods for CTC detection and enumeration, focuses on molecular characterization of CTCs, unveils some aspects of CTC heterogeneity, describes attempts to purify CTCs and scans the horizon for approaches leading to comprehensive dissection of CTC biology.

  2. Meridional circulation in the Sun and stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchatinov, L L

    2016-01-01

    Mean-field hydrodynamics advanced to clear explanations for the origin and properties of the global meridional flow in stellar convection zones. Qualitative arguments and analysis of basic equations both show that the meridional circulation is driven by non-conservative centrifugal and buoyancy forces and results from a slight disbalance between these two drivers. The deviations from the thermal wind balance are relatively large near the boundaries of convection zones. Accordingly, the meridional flow attains its largest velocities in the boundary layers and decreases inside the convection zone. This picture, however, is neither supported nor dismissed by the conflicting results of recent helioseismic soundings or 3D numerical experiments. The relevant physics of the differential temperature and its possible relation to the solar oblateness are briefly discussed.

  3. Circulating tumor cells: utopia or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conteduca, Vincenza; Zamarchi, Rita; Rossi, Elisabetta; Condelli, Valentina; Troiani, Laura; Aieta, Michele

    2013-09-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) could be considered a sign of tumor aggressiveness, but highly sensitive and specific methods of CTC detection are necessary owing to the rarity and heterogeneity of CTCs in peripheral blood. This review summarizes recent studies on tumor biology, with particular attention to the metastatic cascade, and the molecular characterization and clinical significance of CTCs. Recent technological approaches to enrich and detect these cells and challenges of CTCs for individualized cancer treatment are also discussed. This review also provides an insight into the positive and negative features of the future potential applications of CTC detection, which sometimes remains still a 'utopia', but its actual utility remains among the fastest growing research fields in oncology.

  4. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, Raymond E.; Heller, Thomas J.; Bush, Stuart A.

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report on Colorado-Ute Electric Association's NUCLA Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Demonstration Program covers the period from February 1987 through December 1988. The outline for presentation in this report includes a summary of unit operations along with individual sections covering progress in study plan areas that commenced during this reporting period. These include cold-mode shakedown and calibration, plant commercial performance statistics, unit start-up (cold), coal and limestone preparation and handling, ash handling system performance and operating experience, tubular air heater, baghouse operation and performance, materials monitoring, and reliability monitoring. During this reporting period, the coal-mode shakedown and calibration plan was completed. (VC)

  5. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter R Underhill

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively. Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively. Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  6. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  7. Circulating Biomarker Panels in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafari, Sachli; Backes, Christina; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The early diagnosis of diseases frequently represents an important unmet clinical need supporting in-time treatment of pathologies. This also applies to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, estimated to affect millions of individuals worldwide. The respective diagnostic and prognostic markers, especially for the preclinical stages of AD, are expected to improve patients' outcome significantly. In the last decades, many approaches to detecting AD have been developed, including markers to discover changes in amyloid-β levels [from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or using positron emission tomography] or other brain imaging technologies such as structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional-connectivity MRI or task-related functional MRI. A major challenge is the detection of AD using minimally or even noninvasive biomarkers from body fluids such as plasma or serum. Circulating biomarker candidates based on mRNAs or proteins measured from blood cells, plasma or serum have been proposed for various pathologies including AD. As for other diseases, there is a tendency to use marker signatures obtained by high-throughput approaches, which allow the generation of profiles of hundreds to thousands of biomarkers simultaneously [microarrays, mass spectrometry or next-generation sequencing (NGS)]. Beyond mRNAs and proteins, recent approaches have measured small noncoding RNA (so-called microRNA) profiles in AD patients' blood samples using NGS or array-based technologies. Generally, the development of marker panels is in its early stages and requires further, substantial clinical validation. In this review, we provide an overview of different circulating AD biomarkers, starting with a brief summary of CSF markers and focusing on novel biomarker signatures such as small noncoding RNA profiles.

  8. Identification of E545k mutation in plasma from a PIK3CA wild-type metastatic breast cancer patient by array-based digital polymerase chain reaction: Circulating-free DNA a powerful tool for biomarker testing in advance disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Atocha; Acosta-Eyzaguirre, Daniel; Sanz, Julián; Moreno, Fernando; Serrano, Gloria; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Caldés, Trinidad; Garcia-Saenz, José Á

    2015-12-01

    PIK3CA gene is frequently mutated in patients with breast cancer and it has been the focus of intense research. Inhibitors of PI3K pathway are being evaluated in ongoing clinical trials but the impact of PIKC3A mutation status on tumor response is yet uncertain. In the metastatic setting, several studies are evaluating the predictive value of PIK3CA mutations. However, results could be biased by biopsy localization. Digital polymerase chain reaction is a new technology that enables detection and quantification of cancer DNA molecules from peripheral blood and can potentially overcome such situation. As a proof of the concept, we present the case of a metastatic patient with a PIK3CA wild-type primary tumor in which the PIK3CA E545K mutation was identified in both the circulating-free DNA obtained from a peripheral blood sample and in the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver metastasis.

  9. THOR: A New and Flexible Global Circulation Model to Explore Planetary Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Mendonça, João M; Grosheintz, Luc; Heng, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We have designed and developed, from scratch, a global circulation model named THOR that solves the three-dimensional non-hydrostatic Euler equations. Our general approach lifts the commonly used assumptions of a shallow atmosphere and hydrostatic equilibrium. We solve the "pole problem" (where converging meridians on a sphere lead to increasingly smaller time steps near the poles) by implementing an icosahedral grid. Irregularities in the grid, which lead to grid imprinting, are smoothed using the "spring dynamics" technique. We validate our implementation of spring dynamics by examining calculations of the divergence and gradient of test functions. To prevent the computational time step from being bottlenecked by having to resolve sound waves, we implement a split-explicit method together with a horizontally explicit and vertically implicit integration. We validate our global circulation model by reproducing the Earth and also the hot Jupiter-like benchmark tests. THOR was designed to run on Graphics Proces...

  10. Effect of steam quality on two—phase flow in a netural circulation loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾海军; 吴少融; 等

    1996-01-01

    Test pressures are 1.0-4.0MPa,heating powers 27-190kW,inlet subcoolings 5-80℃,water used as coolant,and steam quality at the outlet of test section is less than 0.05,These test conditions cover the parameters for a typical 200MW heating reactor.The experimental results show that the stema quality is the dominant factor in a natural circulation system with low pressure and low steam quality about the effect of system pressure,heating power and inlet subcooling on the flow rate,relative oscilatroy amplitude and oscilatory region of flow rate.

  11. Attempts on cardoon gasification in two different circulating fluidized beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chr. Christodoulou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Few tests have been carried out in order to evaluate the use of cardoon in gasification and combustion applications most of the researchers dealt with agglomeration problems. The aim of this work is to deal with the agglomeration problem and to present a solution for the utilization of this biofuel at a near industrial application scale. For this reason, two experiments were conducted, one in TU Delft and one in Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH, using fuel cardoon and 50% w/w cardoon blended with 50% w/w giant reed respectively. Both experimental campaigns were carried out in similar atmospheric circulating fluidized bed gasifiers. Apart from the feedstock, the other differences were the gasification medium and the bed material used in each trial. The oxidizing agent at TUD׳s run was O2/steam, whereas CERTH׳s tests used air. When experiments with the cardoon 50% w/w–giant reed 50% w/w blend were performed no agglomeration problems were presented. Consequently, gasification could be achieved in higher temperature than that of pure cardoon which led to the reduction of tar concentration.

  12. Nanostructured Substrates for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells in Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2009-03-01

    Over the past decade, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has become an emerging ``biomarker'' for detecting early-stage cancer metastasis, predicting patient prognosis, as well as monitoring disease progression and therapeutic outcomes. However, isolation of CTCs has been technically challenging due to the extremely low abundance (a few to hundreds per ml) of CTCs among a high number of hematologic cells (109 per mL) in the blood. Our joint research team at UCLA has developed a new cell capture technology for quantification of CTCs in whole blood samples. Similar to most of the existing approaches, epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody (anti-EpCAM) was grafted onto the surfaces to distinguish CTCs from the surrounding hematologic cells. The uniqueness of our technology is the use of nanostructured surfaces, which facilitates local topographical interactions between CTCs and substrates at the very first cell/substrate contacting time point. We demonstrated the ability of these nanostructured substrates to capture CTCs in whole blood samples with significantly improved efficiency and selectivity. The successful demonstration of this cell capture technology using brain, breast and prostate cancer cell lines encouraged us to test this approach in clinical setting. We have been able to bond our first validation study with a commercialized technology based on the use of immunomagnetic nanoparticles. A group of clinically well-characterized prostate cancer patients at UCLA hospital have been recruited and tested in parallel by these two technologies.

  13. The thrombotic potential of circulating tumor microemboli: computational modeling of circulating tumor cell-induced coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Lee, Angela M.; Tormoen, Garth W.; Rigg, Rachel A.; Kolatkar, Anand; Luttgen, Madelyn; Bethel, Kelly; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Kuhn, Peter; Newton, Paul; McCarty, Owen J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Thrombotic events can herald the diagnosis of cancer, preceding any cancer-related clinical symptoms. Patients with cancer are at a 4- to 7-fold increased risk of suffering from venous thromboembolism (VTE), with ∼7,000 patients with lung cancer presenting from VTEs. However, the physical biology underlying cancer-associated VTE remains poorly understood. Several lines of evidence suggest that the shedding of tissue factor (TF)-positive circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and microparticles from p...

  14. Climatology of the HOPE-G global ocean general circulation model - Sea ice general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legutke, S. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Maier-Reimer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    The HOPE-G global ocean general circulation model (OGCM) climatology, obtained in a long-term forced integration is described. HOPE-G is a primitive-equation z-level ocean model which contains a dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model. It is formulated on a 2.8 grid with increased resolution in low latitudes in order to better resolve equatorial dynamics. The vertical resolution is 20 layers. The purpose of the integration was both to investigate the models ability to reproduce the observed general circulation of the world ocean and to obtain an initial state for coupled atmosphere - ocean - sea-ice climate simulations. The model was driven with daily mean data of a 15-year integration of the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM4, the atmospheric component in later coupled runs. Thereby, a maximum of the flux variability that is expected to appear in coupled simulations is included already in the ocean spin-up experiment described here. The model was run for more than 2000 years until a quasi-steady state was achieved. It reproduces the major current systems and the main features of the so-called conveyor belt circulation. The observed distribution of water masses is reproduced reasonably well, although with a saline bias in the intermediate water masses and a warm bias in the deep and bottom water of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The model underestimates the meridional transport of heat in the Atlantic Ocean. The simulated heat transport in the other basins, though, is in good agreement with observations. (orig.)

  15. Interactions Between the Thermohaline Circulation and Tropical Atlantic SST in a Coupled General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ron; Jiang, Xing-Jian; Travis, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Tropical Atlantic SST shows a (statistically well-defined) decadal time scale in a 104-year simulation of unforced variability by a coupled general circulation model (CGCM). The SST anomalies superficially resemble observed Tropical Atlantic variability (TAV), and are associated with changes in the atmospheric circulation. Brazilian rainfall is modulated with a decadal time scale, along with the strength of the Atlantic trade winds, which are associated with variations in evaporation and the net surface heat flux. However, in contrast to observed tropical Atlantic variability, the trade winds damp the associated anomalies in ocean temperature, indicating a negative feedback. Tropical SST anomalies in the CGCM, though opposed by the surface heat flux, are advected in from the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. These variations modulate the strength of the thermohaline circulation (THC): warm, salty anomalies at the equator sink drawing cold, fresh mid-latitude water. Upon reaching the equator, the latter inhibit vertical overturning and advection from higher latitudes, which allows warm, salty anomalies to reform, returning the cycle to its original state. Thus, the cycle results from advection of density anomalies and the effect of these anomalies upon the rate of vertical overturning and surface advection. This decadal modulation of Tropical Atlantic SST and the thermohaline circulation is correlated with ocean heat transport to the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and Norwegian Sea SST. Because of the central role of equatorial convection, we question whether this mechanism is present in the current climate, although we speculate that it may have operated in palaeo times, depending upon the stability of the tropical water column.

  16. Circulating Tumor Cell and Cell-free Circulating Tumor DNA in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Zaini, Jamal; Putra, Andika Chandra; Andarini, Sita; Hudoyo, Achmad; Syahruddin, Elisna; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-09-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are tumor cells that are separated from the primary site or metastatic lesion and disseminate in blood circulation. CTCs are considered to be part of the long process of cancer metastasis. As a 'liquid biopsy', CTC molecular examination and investigation of single cancer cells create an important opportunity for providing an understanding of cancer biology and the process of metastasis. In the last decade, we have seen dramatic development in defining the role of CTCs in lung cancer in terms of diagnosis, genomic alteration determination, treatment response and, finally, prognosis prediction. The aims of this review are to understand the basic biology and to review methods of detection of CTCs that apply to the various types of solid tumor. Furthermore, we explored clinical applications, including treatment monitoring to anticipate therapy resistance as well as biomarker analysis, in the context of lung cancer. We also explored the potential use of cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the genomic alteration analysis of lung cancer.

  17. Response of the South Atlantic circulation to an abrupt collapse of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurian, Audine [University of Hawai' i at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Drijfhout, Sybren S. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    The South Atlantic response to a collapse of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is investigated in the ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate model. A reduced Agulhas leakage (about 3.1 Sv; 1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) is found to be associated with a weaker Southern Hemisphere (SH) supergyre and Indonesian throughflow. These changes are due to reduced wind stress curl over the SH supergyre, associated with a weaker Hadley circulation and a weaker SH subtropical jet. The northward cross-equatorial transport of thermocline and intermediate waters is much more strongly reduced than Agulhas leakage in relation with an AMOC collapse. A cross-equatorial gyre develops due to an anomalous wind stress curl over the tropics that results from the anomalous sea surface temperature gradient associated with reduced ocean heat transport. This cross-equatorial gyre completely blocks the transport of thermocline waters from the South to the North Atlantic. The waters originating from Agulhas leakage flow somewhat deeper and most of it recirculates in the South Atlantic subtropical gyre, leading to a gyre intensification. This intensification is consistent with the anomalous surface cooling over the South Atlantic. Most changes in South Atlantic circulation due to global warming, featuring a reduced AMOC, are qualitatively similar to the response to an AMOC collapse, but smaller in amplitude. However, the increased northward cross-equatorial transport of intermediate water relative to thermocline water is a strong fingerprint of an AMOC collapse. (orig.)

  18. Tablets: A Survey of Circulation Policies at Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, Janice; Tolppanen, Bradley P.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a Web-based survey regarding the circulation of tablets in academic libraries. The survey, which was completed by 61 respondents, identifies the most common circulation policies and procedures used. These results will help other academic institutions develop their own policy or update existing ones. Areas of…

  19. Exercise limitation in patients with Fontan circulation : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, Tim; Tacken, Marieke H. P.; Blank, A. Christian; Hulzebos, Erik H.; Strengers, Jan L. M.; Helders, Paul J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current literature study was to perform a literature review of the factors contributing to exercise limitation and physiological response to exercise in patients with Fontan circulation. In patients with Fontan circulation, peak oxygen uptake ranged from about 14.4 to 32.3 ml/min/kg,

  20. Impact of interocean exchange on the Atlantic overturning circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.

    2001-01-01

    The awareness that human activity could change climate has greatly raised public and scientific interest in climate. One issue of present-day climate research is the stability of the thermohaline circulation. This overturning circulation, popularly known as the `conveyor belt', redistributes w

  1. Abrupt climate change and thermohaline circulation: Mechanisms and predictability

    OpenAIRE

    J. Marotzke

    2000-01-01

    The ocean's thermohaline circulation has long been recognized as potentially unstable and has consequently been invoked as a potential cause of abrupt climate change on all timescales of decades and longer. However, fundamental aspects of thermohaline circulation changes remain poorly understood.

  2. Abrupt climate change and thermohaline circulation: mechanisms and predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotzke, J

    2000-02-15

    The ocean's thermohaline circulation has long been recognized as potentially unstable and has consequently been invoked as a potential cause of abrupt climate change on all timescales of decades and longer. However, fundamental aspects of thermohaline circulation changes remain poorly understood.

  3. Circulating osteogenic cells: implications for injury, repair, and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pignolo, Robert J; Kassem, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a critical reading of recent literature pertaining to the presence of circulating, fluid-phase osteoblastic cells and their possible contribution to bone formation. We have termed this group of cells collectively as circulating osteogenic precursor (COP) cells...

  4. Consortial Book Circulation Patterns: The OCLC-OhioLINK Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Edward T.; Gammon, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    The OhioLINK consortium and OCLC Research collected and analyzed circulation data for libraries within the consortium. The study, which examines the circulation of 28,475,701 items from more than 100 academic libraries, is the largest and most diverse compilation of academic usage data for books ever collected. The authors outline the study…

  5. Unique Protein Signature of Circulating Microparticles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer; Iversen, Line V

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases.......To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases....

  6. Conceptual models of the wind-driven and thermohaline circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, S.S.; Marshall, D.P.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual models are a vital tool for understanding the processes that maintain the global ocean circulation, both in nature and in complex numerical ocean models. In this chapter we provide a broad overview of our conceptual understanding of the wind-driven circulation, the thermohaline circulatio

  7. CellTracks cytometer for detection of circulating tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibbe, A.G.J.; Kooi, van der A.; Groot, de M.R.; Vermes, I.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: In patients with carcinomas, tumor cells are shed into the circulation. The number of the circulating tumor cells is low and technology is needed that has sufficient sensitivity and specificity to enumerate and characterize these cells. The CellTracks system was developed to provide an

  8. Transient Characteristics of Residual Meridional Circulation during Stratospheric Sudden Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Shumei; CHEN Yuejuan; HUANG Yong; LUO Tao; BI Yun

    2011-01-01

    The residual meridional circulation derived from the transformed Eulerian-mean thermodynamic equation and continuity equation can be separated into two parts, the slowly varying diabatic circulation and the transient circulation, as demonstrated by others. We calculated and composite-analyzed the transient and diabatic circulation for 14 stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events from 1979-2002 by using the daily ECMWF reanalysis data. Specifically, the transient residual meridional circulation was calculated both with and without inclusion of the eddy heat transport term in the transformed Eulerian-mean thermodynamic equation to investigate the importance of the eddy heat transport term. The results showed that calculations of transient residual meridional circulation present rapid variations during SSWs, with or without inclusion of the eddy heat transport term. Although the patterns of transient residual meridional circulation with the eddy heat transport term were similar to that without the eddy heat transport term during SSW, the magnitudes in the upper stratosphere and high-latitude regions differed. As for the diabatic circulation, its daily variations were small during SSW events, and its patterns were in agreement with its monthly average.

  9. Transient Characteristics of Residual Meridional Circulation during Stratospheric Sudden Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The residual meridional circulation derived from the transformed Eulerian-mean thermodynamic equation and continuity equation can be separated into two parts,the slowly varying diabatic circulation and the transient circulation,as demonstrated by others.We calculated and composite-analyzed the transient and diabatic circulation for 14 stratospheric sudden warming(SSW) events from 1979-2002 by using the daily ECMWF reanalysis data.Specifically,the transient residual meridional circulation was calculated both with and without inclusion of the eddy heat transport term in the transformed Eulerian-mean thermodynamic equation to investigate the importance of the eddy heat transport term.The results showed that calculations of transient residual meridional circulation present rapid variations during SSWs,with or without inclusion of the eddy heat transport term.Although the patterns of transient residual meridional circulation with the eddy heat transport term were similar to that without the eddy heat transport term during SSW,the magnitudes in the upper stratosphere and high-latitude regions differed.As for the diabatic circulation,its daily variations were small during SSW events,and its patterns were in agreement with its monthly average.

  10. Circulation Price Elasticity in the Daily Newspaper Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotta, Gerald L.; Taylor, Michael Lee

    Pricing of subscriptions and single copies has historically been arbitrary. Evidence indicates that the newspaper industry has tended to overestimate the elasticity of demand for newspaper circulation. This study analyzed price changes, circulation changes, and population changes for all daily newspapers in the United States between 1970 and 1975.…

  11. Circulating Immune Complexes among Diabetic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nicoloff

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is an autoimmune disease associated with the presence of different types of autoantibodies. The presence of these antibodies and the corresponding antigens in the circulation leads to the formation of circulating immune complexes (CIC. CIC are known to persist in the blood for long periods of time. Such CIC following deposition in the small blood vessels have the potential to lead to microangiopathy with debilitating clinical consequences. The aim of our pilot study was to investigate whether a correlation exists between CIC and the development of microvascular complications in diabetic children. Isolation of a new glycoprotein complement inhibition factor (CIF from the parasitic plant Cuscuta europea seed, which appears to bind specifically to complement component C3 has provided an unique tool for the measurement of immune complexes by means of ELISA-type techniques (CIF-ELISA. We studied the levels of CIC (IgG, IgM and IgA in 58 diabetic children (mean age 12.28±4.04 years, diabetes duration 5.3±3.7 years, 29 of them had vascular complications (group 1 and the other 29 were without vascular complications (group 2. As controls, we studied sera samples from 21 healthy children (mean age 13.54±4.03 years. Sera from the diabetic patients showed statistically significant higher levels of CIC IgG ( p=0.03 than sera from the control group. In sera from group 1 values of CIC IgG showed statistically significant higher levels than controls (0.720±0.31 vs. 0.46±0.045; p=0.011 Sera from 59% of the patients were positive for CIC IgG, 36% for CIC IgM and 9% for CIC IgA. Among 26 patients with microalbuminuria, sera from 17/26 (65% were positive for CIC IgG, 8/26 (31% for CIC IgM and 2/26 (8% for CIC IgA. CIC IgG correlated with HbA1c (r=0.51; p=0.005 and microalbuminuria (r=0.42, p=0.033. CIC IgA correlated with age (r=0.44, p=0.03. CIC IgM correlated with the duration of diabetes (r=0.63, p=0.02. These

  12. Compressed Sensing for Thoracic MRI with Partial Random Circulant Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Haneishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of Circulant matrix as the sensing matrix in compressed sensing (CS scheme has recently been proposed to overcome the limitation of random or partial Fourier matrices. Aside from reducing computational complexity, the use of circulant matrix for MR image offers the feasibility in hardware implementations. This paper presents the simulation of compressed sensing for thoracic MR imaging with circulant matrix as the sensing matrix. The comparisons of reconstruction of three different type MR images using circulant matrix are investigated in term of number of samples, number of iteration and signal to noise ratio (SNR. The simulation results showed that Circulant Matrix works efficiently for encoding the MR image of respiratory organ, especially for smooth and sparse image in spatial domain.

  13. The role of the thermohaline circulation in abrupt climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter U; Pisias, Nicklas G; Stocker, Thomas F; Weaver, Andrew J

    2002-02-21

    The possibility of a reduced Atlantic thermohaline circulation in response to increases in greenhouse-gas concentrations has been demonstrated in a number of simulations with general circulation models of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. But it remains difficult to assess the likelihood of future changes in the thermohaline circulation, mainly owing to poorly constrained model parameterizations and uncertainties in the response of the climate system to greenhouse warming. Analyses of past abrupt climate changes help to solve these problems. Data and models both suggest that abrupt climate change during the last glaciation originated through changes in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation in response to small changes in the hydrological cycle. Atmospheric and oceanic responses to these changes were then transmitted globally through a number of feedbacks. The palaeoclimate data and the model results also indicate that the stability of the thermohaline circulation depends on the mean climate state.

  14. PIE on Safety-Tested Loose Particles from Irradiated Compact 4-4-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gerczak, Tyler J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morris, Robert Noel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldwin, Charles A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). This work is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) through the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Office under the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program. The AGR-1 experiment was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation tests initiated in 2006. The AGR-1 TRISO particles and fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 using laboratory-scale equipment and irradiated for 3 years in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. Post-irradiation examination was performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to test fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing and post-safety testing PIE conducted at ORNL on loose particles extracted from irradiated AGR-1 Compact 4-4-2.

  15. Test of the ITER TF Insert and Central Solenoid Model Coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N; Takayasu, M; Minervini, J; Isono, T; Sugimoto, M; Kato, T; Kawano, K; Koisumi, N; Nakajima, H; Nunova, Y; Okuno, K; Tsuji, H; Oshikiri, M; Mitchell, N; Takahashi, Y; Egorov, S; Rodin, I; Zanino, R; Savoldi, L

    2002-07-29

    The Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) was designed and built by ITER collaboration between the European Union, Japan, Russian Federation and the United States in 1993-2001. Three heavily instrumented insert coils have been also built for testing in the background field of the CSMC to cover a wide operational space. The TF Insert was designed and built by the Russian Federation to simulate the conductor performance under the ITER TF coil conditions. The TF Insert Coil was tested in the CSMC Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Japan in September-October 2001. Some measurements were performed also on the CSMC to study effects of electromagnetic and cooldown cycles. The TF Insert coil was charged successfully, without training, in the background field of the CSMC to the design current of 46 kA at 13 T peak field. The TF Insert met or exceeded all design objectives, however some interesting results require thorough analyses. This paper presents the overview of main results of the testing--magnet critical parameters, ac losses, joint performance, effect of cycles on performance, quench and thermo-hydraulic characteristics and some results of the post-test analysis.

  16. Application of circulating plasma/serum EBV DNA in the clinical management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Timothy T C; Ngan, Roger K C; Fong, Alvin H W; Law, Stephen C K

    2014-06-01

    Elevated levels of circulating cell-free Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA have been detected in plasma and serum samples from nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) test. This qPCR test for circulating EBV DNA was found to be useful in the clinical management of NPC patients. For instance, EBV DNA qPCR test has good sensitivity and specificity in the detection of NPC at disease onset. Increase of the viral DNA load was found in NPC patients at late stages of disease. High EBV DNA load at disease onset or detectable viral load post-treatment was associated with poor survival or frequent relapse in NPC patients. Residual EBV DNA load after primary treatment could be a useful indicator to justify adjuvant chemotherapy. The qPCR test might also be applied to define a poor prognostic group in patients at early stage (I/II) for implementing concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (chemo-RT) to improve patients' outcome. The test is also useful to monitor distant metastases or response to radiotherapy, chemo-RT or surgery. Supplementary tests, however, are needed to pick up EBV negative WHO type I NPC and test improvement is needed to increase sensitivity in detecting stage I disease and local recurrence.

  17. Circulating CXCL16 in Diabetic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Elewa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic kidney disease and, specifically, diabetic kidney disease, is among the fastest increasing causes of death worldwide. A better understanding of the factors contributing to the high mortality may help design novel monitoring and therapeutic approaches. CXCL16 is both a cholesterol receptor and a chemokine with a potential role in vascular injury and inflammation. We aimed at identifying predictors of circulating CXCL16 levels in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: We have now studied plasma CXCL16 in 134 European patients with diabetic kidney disease with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR categories G1-G4 and albuminuria categories A1-A3, in order to identify factors influencing plasma CXCL16 in this population. Results: Plasma CXCL16 levels were 4.0±0.9 ng/ml. Plasma CXCL16 increased with increasing eGFR category from G1 to G4 (that is, with decreasing eGFR values and with increasing albuminuria category. Plasma CXCL16 was higher in patients with prior cardiovascular disease (4.33±1.03 vs 3.88±0.86 ng/ml; p=0.013. In multivariate analysis, eGFR and serum albumin had an independent and significant negative correlation with plasma CXCL16. Conclusion: In diabetic kidney disease patients, GFR and serum albumin independently predicted plasma CXCL16 levels.

  18. Circulating microRNAs in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlicka-Płocka, Marta; Gurda, Dorota; Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Smolarek, Iwona; Wyszko, Eliza

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular Diseases (CD) are currently one of the most common causes of death. Because heart related deaths occur on such an enormous scale this phenomenon is referred to as an epidemic. Chronic and acute injury of the heart could be an effect of cardiac remodeling, which is a result of molecular, cellular and interstitial changes, influenced by hemodynamic load or neurohormonal activation (Cohn et al., 2000). These small deviations in cardiac activity and morphology may lead to an enormous negative effect. Despite a significant progress, knowledge of standard risk factors for cardiovascular diseases has become less and less effective, which is why predicting and seeking an appropriate treatment is very challenging. As a result, there is a growing interest in finding new markers of the CD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), are short, non-coding RNAs responsible for regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Among them that have the greatest potential are microRNA molecules that circulate in the blood plasma or serum, that are related to direct activation of signaling pathways, implicated in the aging process and thus for the development of cardiovascular disease. This paper is a summary of the current state of knowledge on miRNAs, their biogenesis and potential role as biomarkers to diagnose heart disease.

  19. Circulation and Dissipation on Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Goodman, J.

    2010-12-01

    Many global circulation models predict supersonic zonal winds and large vertical shears in the atmospheres of short-period Jovian exoplanets. Using linear analysis and nonlinear local simulations, we investigate hydrodynamic dissipation mechanisms to balance the thermal acceleration of these winds. The adiabatic Richardson criterion remains a good guide to linear stability, although thermal diffusion allows some modes to violate it at very long wavelengths and very low growth rates. Nonlinearly, wind speeds saturate at Mach numbers ≈2 and Richardson numbers lsim1/4 for a broad range of plausible diffusivities and forcing strengths. Turbulence and vertical mixing, though accompanied by weak shocks, dominate the dissipation, which appears to be the outcome of a recurrent Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. An explicit shear viscosity, as well as thermal diffusivity, is added to ZEUS to capture dissipation outside of shocks. The wind speed is neither monotonic nor single valued for a range of shear viscosities larger than about 10-3 of the sound speed times the pressure scale height. Coarsening the numerical resolution can also increase the speed. Hence global simulations that are incapable of representing vertical turbulence and shocks, either because of reduced physics or because of limited resolution, may overestimate wind speeds. We recommend that such simulations include artificial dissipation terms to control the Mach and Richardson numbers and to capture mechanical dissipation as heat.

  20. Global warming and thermohaline circulation stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard A; Vellinga, Michael; Thorpe, Robert

    2003-09-15

    The Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) plays an important role in global climate. Theoretical and palaeoclimatic evidence points to the possibility of rapid changes in the strength of the THC, including a possible quasi-permanent shutdown. The climatic impacts of such a shutdown would be severe, including a cooling throughout the Northern Hemisphere, which in some regions is greater in magnitude than the changes expected from global warming in the next 50 years. Other climatic impacts would likely include a severe alteration of rainfall patterns in the tropics, the Indian subcontinent and Europe. Modelling the future behaviour of the THC focuses on two key questions. (i) Is a gradual weakening of the THC likely in response to global warming, and if so by how much? (ii) Are there thresholds beyond which rapid or irreversible changes in the THC are likely? Most projections of the response of the THC to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases suggest a gradual weakening over the twenty-first century. However, there is a wide variation between different models over the size of the weakening. Rapid or irreversible THC shutdown is considered a low-probability (but high-impact) outcome; however, some climate models of intermediate complexity do show the possibility of such events. The question of the future of the THC is beset with conceptual, modelling and observational uncertainties, but some current and planned projects show promise to make substantial progress in tackling these uncertainties in future.

  1. Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells by Dielectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoyne, Peter R. C., E-mail: pgascoyn@mdanderson.org [Department of Imaging Physics Research, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Unit 951, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Shim, Sangjo [Department of Imaging Physics Research, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Unit 951, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C0800, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Present address: Micro & Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, 208 North Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-03-12

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an electrokinetic method that allows intrinsic dielectric properties of suspended cells to be exploited for discrimination and separation. It has emerged as a promising method for isolating circulation tumor cells (CTCs) from blood. DEP-isolation of CTCs is independent of cell surface markers. Furthermore, isolated CTCs are viable and can be maintained in culture, suggesting that DEP methods should be more generally applicable than antibody-based approaches. The aim of this article is to review and synthesize for both oncologists and biomedical engineers interested in CTC isolation the pertinent characteristics of DEP and CTCs. The aim is to promote an understanding of the factors involved in realizing DEP-based instruments having both sufficient discrimination and throughput to allow routine analysis of CTCs in clinical practice. The article brings together: (a) the principles of DEP; (b) the biological basis for the dielectric differences between CTCs and blood cells; (c) why such differences are expected to be present for all types of tumors; and (d) instrumentation requirements to process 10 mL blood specimens in less than 1 h to enable routine clinical analysis. The force equilibrium method of dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF) is shown to offer higher discrimination and throughput than earlier DEP trapping methods and to be applicable to clinical studies.

  2. The Zonal Structure of the Hadley Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of the mass transport of the Hadley circulation is presented, with regard to its longitudinal structure. Data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set for the period 1948-2005 is examined,focusing on the solsticial seasons of June-August and December-February. Quantitative estimates have been extracted from the data to observe connections between the zonal mean of the upper tropospheric north/south mass transports and their relationship to the driving factor of tropical precipitation (implying latent heat release) and subsidence in the subtropical high pressure belts. The longitudinal structure of this flow is then examined with regard to these three main variables. The poleward upper tropospheric transport has four (JJA) or three (DJF) main branches, which link regions of major precipitation with corresponding regions of large subsidence, and one (June, July, August) or two (December, January, February) reverse branches. This structure has remained stable over the past sixty years. Although the total upper tropospheric transport in each season is less than the total sinking transport in the target subtropical high pressure belt, this does not apply to the individual branches, the balance being made up by the upper tropospheric reverse transports. An analysis of correlations between all of these various components shows, however, that the complete picture is more complex, with some precipitation regions being linked to subsidence regions outside their own branch.

  3. Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells by Dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. C. Gascoyne

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dielectrophoresis (DEP is an electrokinetic method that allows intrinsic dielectric properties of suspended cells to be exploited for discrimination and separation. It has emerged as a promising method for isolating circulation tumor cells (CTCs from blood. DEP-isolation of CTCs is independent of cell surface markers. Furthermore, isolated CTCs are viable and can be maintained in culture, suggesting that DEP methods should be more generally applicable than antibody-based approaches. The aim of this article is to review and synthesize for both oncologists and biomedical engineers interested in CTC isolation the pertinent characteristics of DEP and CTCs. The aim is to promote an understanding of the factors involved in realizing DEP-based instruments having both sufficient discrimination and throughput to allow routine analysis of CTCs in clinical practice. The article brings together: (a the principles of DEP; (b the biological basis for the dielectric differences between CTCs and blood cells; (c why such differences are expected to be present for all types of tumors; and (d instrumentation requirements to process 10 mL blood specimens in less than 1 h to enable routine clinical analysis. The force equilibrium method of dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF is shown to offer higher discrimination and throughput than earlier DEP trapping methods and to be applicable to clinical studies.

  4. Circulating Humorous Antitobacco Videos on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Chen, Fannin

    2017-03-01

    We investigated whether exposure to same humorous antitobacco videos via different types of social media platforms and contexts (health vs. humor) influences individual's health risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intents. An experiment with a 2 (social media types: YouTube and Facebook) × 2 (message contexts: health-focused and humor-focused contexts) factorial design was conducted. It was found that those who watched the humorous antitobacco videos on Facebook in the health-context exhibited a higher level of risk perception of smoking, less positive attitude toward smokers, and a higher level of intention to avoid smoking in the future than the participants who viewed the same videos on YouTube in the health-context or on Facebook in the humor-context. These findings provide useful practical guidelines in using social media for health communication/promotion. Humorous health promotion messages are best circulated on social networking sites such as Facebook accompanied by others' support for the given health topic (i.e., in health-contexts). Practical/theoretical implications and limitations of the study were further discussed in this article.

  5. Circulating Mitochondrial DAMPs Are Not Effective Inducers of Proteinuria and Kidney Injury in Rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing He

    Full Text Available Mitochondria in eukaryotic cells are derived from bacteria in evolution. Like bacteria, mitochondria contain DNA with unmethylated CpG motifs and formyl peptides, both of which have recently been shown to be damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs and induce immune response and cell injury. Based on the facts that circulating mitochondrial DAMPs (mtDAMPs are increased in the patients of trauma or burn injury who also have proteinuria, that mtDAMPs can activate immune cells which in turn secrete glomerular permeability factors, that renal intrinsic cells express a variety of DAMP receptors, and that mtDAMPs can directly increase endothelial cell permeability in vitro, we hypothesized that mtDAMPs may be novel circulating factors inducing proteinuria and kidney injury. We tested this hypothesis by directly injecting mtDAMPs into rodents and examining urinary protein and kidney histology. We prepared mtDAMP samples, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and mitochondrial debris (MTD, from rodent liver. In mice, injection of mtDNA for 20 μg/ml initial concentration in circulation (much higher than the clinical range, did not cause any renal manifestations. However, an increased dose leading to 45 μg/ml initial concentration in circulation resulted in a transient, slight increase in urinary albumin. In rats, MTD injection resulting in 450 μg/ml initial concentration of MTD protein in circulation, which was much higher than the clinical range, caused mild, transient proteinuria and lung lesions. Multiple injections of such large amount of either mtDNA or MTD into rodents on 3 consecutive days also failed in inducing proteinuria and kidney injury. In summary, clinical levels of circulating mtDAMPs do not induce proteinuria and clinically irrelevant high levels of mtDAMPs cause only a transient and slight increase in urinary protein in rodents, suggesting that circulating mtDAMPs may not be responsible for the proteinuria and kidney injury in

  6. A wind-driven circulation model of the Tyrrhenian Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierini, S.; Simioli, A.

    1998-12-01

    The wind-driven component of the circulation in the Tyrrhenian Sea area was analyzed by means of a free-surface, barotropic primitive equation model implemented in the whole Mediterranean Sea. The `National Meteorological Center' (NMC) wind data covering the period 1980-1988 were used to force the model. Both the seasonal and the high frequency variability were studied. For the first case, a perpetual wind forcing was constructed by instantaneously averaging the wind stresses over the 9 years, and the response was Fourier filtered in order to get rid of the residual rapid fluctuations. The daily variability was then produced for the test years 1981 and 1987 by making use of the instantaneous forcing. The main features of the wind-driven climatological Tyrrhenian circulation known from data and general circulation modelling were found to be reproduced by this process model. The winter cyclonic circulation induced by the strong positive wind vorticity input evolved into a much weaker, partially reversed circulation in summer months. A mainly northward flux through the strait of Corsica and a horizontally sheared current in the strait of Sicily were found. The rapid fluctuations that the wind was able to induce in the ocean were then studied. The instantaneous currents were found to be up to 10 times larger than the corresponding climatological ones, with episodes of reversal over a period of few days. The experimental evidence of the existence of these rapid wind-driven fluctuations is discussed. The analysis of the daily variability provides a realistic picture of the character of the wind-driven circulation in the Tyrrhenian Sea that differs considerably from the classical seasonal dynamics. As an indicator of the Tyrrhenian Sea dynamics, the mass transport through the strait of Corsica was evaluated for the year 1987 and compared with available experimental data. As a result, the low-passed wind-driven transport reflects the seasonal trend and accounts for 15

  7. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The report summarizes unit operating experience and test program progress for 1989 on Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Nucla CFB Demonstration Program. During this period, the objectives of the Nucla Station operating group were to correct problems with refractory durability, resolve primary air fan capacity limitations, complete the high ash and high sulfur coal tests, switch to Salt Creek coal as the operating fuel, and make the unit available for testing without capacity restrictions. Each of these objectives was addressed and accomplished, to varying degrees, except for the completion of the high sulfur coal acceptance tests. (VC)

  8. Cyclical tests of selected space shuttle TPS metallic materials in a plasma arc tunnel Volume 1: Description of tests and program summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, W. A.; Land, D. W.; Painter, J. H.; Williamson, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Work, concerned with cyclical thermal evaluation of selected space shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) metallic materials in a hypervelocity oxidizing atmosphere that approximated an actual entry environment, is presented. A total of 325 sample test hours were conducted on 21 super-alloy metallic samples at temperatures from 1800 to 2200 F (1256 to 1478 K) without any failures. The 4 x 4 in. (10.2 x 10.2 cm) samples were fabricated from five nickel base alloys and one cobalt base alloy. Eighteen of the samples were cycled 100 times each and the other three samples 50 times each in a test stream emanating from an 8 in. (20.3 cm) diam exit, Mach 4.6, conical nozzle. The test cycle consisted of a 10 min heat pulse to a controlled temperature followed by a 10 min cooldown period. The TD-NiCrAl and TD-NiAlY materials showed the least change in weight, thickness, and physical appearance even though they were subjected to the highest temperature environment.

  9. On affine connections in a Riemannian manifold with a circulant metric and two circulant affinor structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuzova, Iva

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper it is considered a class V of 3-dimensional Riemannian manifolds M with a metric g and two affinor tensors q and S. It is defined another metric \\bar{g} in M. The local coordinates of all these tensors are circulant matrices. It is found: 1)\\ a relation between curvature tensors R and \\bar{R} of g and \\bar{g}, respectively; 2)\\ an identity of the curvature tensor R of g in the case when the curvature tensor \\bar{R} vanishes; 3)\\ a relation between the sectional curvature of a 2-section of the type \\{x, qx\\} and the scalar curvature of M.

  10. Genotyping of circulating measles strains in Italy in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Baggieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The European Regional Office of the World Health Organization developed a strategic approach to stop the indigenous transmission of measles in its 53 Member States by 2015. In Italy, laboratory surveillance activity is implemented by the National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome. The role of the National Reference Laboratory is to strengthen surveillance systems through rigorous case investigation and laboratory confirmation of suspected sporadic cases and outbreaks. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles virus is an essential component of the laboratory-based surveillance. This study describes the molecular characterization of measles virus strains isolated during 2010. METHODS: Dried blood spots, urine and oral fluid samples were collected from patients with a suspected measles infection. Serological tests were performed on capillary blood, and viral detection was performed on urine and oral fluid samples through molecular assay. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The phylogenetic analysis showed a co-circulation of genotypes D4 and D8, and sporadic cases associated to genotypes D9 and B3. Then, molecular epidemiology of measles cases permitted to establish that D4 and D8 were the endemic genotypes in Italy during 2010.

  11. Heavy metal characterization of circulating fluidized bed derived biomass ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianming; Yu, Chunjiang; Bai, Jisong; Wang, Qinhui; Luo, Zhongyang

    2012-09-30

    Although the direct combustion of biomass for energy that applies circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is steadily expanding worldwide, only few studies have conducted an environmental assessment of biomass ash thus far. Therefore, this study aims to integrate information on the environmental effects of biomass ash. We investigated the concentration of heavy metal in biomass ash samples (bottom ash, cyclone ash, and filter ash) derived from a CFB boiler that combusted agricultural and forest residues at a biomass power plant (2×12 MW) in China. Ash samples were gathered for the digestion and leaching test. The heavy metal content in the solution and the leachate was studied via an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 mercury analyzer. Measurements for the chemical composition, particle size distribution, and the surface morphology were carried out. Most of the metals in cyclone ash particles were enriched, whereas Ti and Hg were enriched in filter ash. Residence time contributed most to heavy metal enrichment. Under HJ/T 300 conditions, the heavy metals showed serious leaching characteristics. Under EN 12457-2 conditions, leaching behavior was hardly detected.

  12. Uncertainty quantification for large-scale ocean circulation predictions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safta, Cosmin; Debusschere, Bert J.; Najm, Habib N.; Sargsyan, Khachik

    2010-09-01

    Uncertainty quantificatio in climate models is challenged by the sparsity of the available climate data due to the high computational cost of the model runs. Another feature that prevents classical uncertainty analyses from being easily applicable is the bifurcative behavior in the climate data with respect to certain parameters. A typical example is the Meridional Overturning Circulation in the Atlantic Ocean. The maximum overturning stream function exhibits discontinuity across a curve in the space of two uncertain parameters, namely climate sensitivity and CO{sub 2} forcing. We develop a methodology that performs uncertainty quantificatio in the presence of limited data that have discontinuous character. Our approach is two-fold. First we detect the discontinuity location with a Bayesian inference, thus obtaining a probabilistic representation of the discontinuity curve location in presence of arbitrarily distributed input parameter values. Furthermore, we developed a spectral approach that relies on Polynomial Chaos (PC) expansions on each sides of the discontinuity curve leading to an averaged-PC representation of the forward model that allows efficient uncertainty quantification and propagation. The methodology is tested on synthetic examples of discontinuous data with adjustable sharpness and structure.

  13. Opportunities and Challenges for Pancreatic Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagrath, Sunitha; Jack, Rhonda M; Sahai, Vaibhav; Simeone, Diane M

    2016-09-01

    Sensitive and reproducible platforms have been developed for detection, isolation, and enrichment of circulating tumor cells (CTCs)-rare cells that enter the blood from solid tumors, including those of the breast, prostate gland, lung, pancreas, and colon. These might be used as biomarkers in diagnosis or determination of prognosis. CTCs are no longer simply detected and quantified; they are now used in ex vivo studies of anticancer agents and early detection. We review what we have recently learned about CTCs from pancreatic tumors, describing advances in their isolation and analysis and challenges to their clinical utility. We summarize technologies used to isolate CTCs from blood samples of patients with pancreatic cancer, including immunoaffinity and label-free physical attribute-based capture. We explain methods of CTC analysis and how findings from these studies might be used to detect cancer at earlier stages, monitor disease progression, and determine prognosis. We review studies that have expanded CTCs for testing of anticancer agents and how these approaches might be used to personalize treatment. Advances in the detection, isolation, and analysis of CTCs have increased our understanding of the dissemination and progression of pancreatic cancer. However, standardization of methodologies and prospective studies are needed for this emerging technology to have a significant effect on clinical care.

  14. A cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockett, M. H.; Lawler, J. E.

    2012-03-01

    A novel absorption cell has been developed to enable a spectroscopic survey of a broad range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) under astrophysically relevant conditions and utilizing a synchrotron radiation continuum to test the still controversial hypothesis that these molecules or their ions could be carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands. The cryogenic circulating advective multi-pass absorption cell resembles a wind tunnel; molecules evaporated from a crucible or injected using a custom gas feedthrough are entrained in a laminar flow of cryogenically cooled buffer gas and advected into the path of the synchrotron beam. This system includes a multi-pass optical White cell enabling absorption path lengths of hundreds of meters and a detection sensitivity to molecular densities on the order of 107 cm-3. A capacitively coupled radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge provides ionized and metastable buffer gas atoms for ionizing the candidate molecules via charge exchange and the Penning effect. Stronger than expected clustering of PAH molecules has slowed efforts to record gas phase PAH spectra at cryogenic temperatures, though such clusters may play a role in other interstellar phenomena.

  15. Detection and Characterization of Circulating Tumour Cells in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangxuan Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM remains an incurable disease despite recent therapeutic improvements. The ability to detect and characterize MM circulating tumour cells (CTCs in peripheral blood provides an alternative to replace or augment invasive bone marrow (BM biopsies with a simple blood draw, providing real-time, clinically relevant information leading to improved disease manage‐ ment and therapy selection. Here we have developed and qualified an enrichment-free, cell-based immunofluores‐ cence MM CTC assay that utilizes an automated digital pathology algorithm to distinguish MM CTCs from white blood cells (WBCs on the basis of CD138 and CD45 expression levels, as well as a number of morphological parameters. These MM CTCs were further characterized for expression of phospho-ribosomal protein S6 (pS6 as a readout for PI3K/AKT pathway activation. Clinical feasi‐ bility of the assay was established by testing blood samples from a small cohort of patients, where we detected popu‐ lations of both CD138pos and CD138neg MM CTCs. In this study, we developed an immunofluorescent cell-based assay to detect and characterize CTCs in MM.

  16. Dynamic Fluctuation of Circulating Tumor Cells during Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen A. Juratli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are a promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for metastatic tumors. We demonstrate that CTCs’ diagnostic value might be increased through real-time monitoring of CTC dynamics. Using preclinical animal models of breast cancer and melanoma and in vivo flow cytometry with photoacoustic and fluorescence detection schematics, we show that CTC count does not always correlate with the primary tumor size. Individual analysis elucidated many cases where the highest level of CTCs was detected before the primary tumor starts progressing. This phenomenon could be attributed to aggressive tumors developing from cancer stem cells. Furthermore, real-time continuous monitoring of CTCs reveals that they occur at highly variable rates in a detection point over a period of time (e.g., a range of 0–54 CTCs per 5 min. These same fluctuations in CTC numbers were observed in vivo in epithelial and non-epithelial metastatic tumors, in different stages of tumor progression, and in different vessels. These temporal CTC fluctuations can explain false negative results of a one-time snapshot test in humans. Indeed, we observed wide variations in the number of CTCs in subsequent blood samples taken from the same metastatic melanoma patient, with some samples being CTC-free. If these phenomena are confirmed in our ongoing in vivo clinical trials, this could support a personalized strategy of CTC monitoring for cancer patients.

  17. Dynamic Fluctuation of Circulating Tumor Cells during Cancer Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juratli, Mazen A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A. [Phillips Classic Laser and Nanomedicine Laboratories, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Melerzanov, Alexander V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Zharov, Vladimir P. [Phillips Classic Laser and Nanomedicine Laboratories, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Arkansas Nanomedicine Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Galanzha, Ekaterina I., E-mail: egalanzha@uams.edu [Phillips Classic Laser and Nanomedicine Laboratories, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for metastatic tumors. We demonstrate that CTCs’ diagnostic value might be increased through real-time monitoring of CTC dynamics. Using preclinical animal models of breast cancer and melanoma and in vivo flow cytometry with photoacoustic and fluorescence detection schematics, we show that CTC count does not always correlate with the primary tumor size. Individual analysis elucidated many cases where the highest level of CTCs was detected before the primary tumor starts progressing. This phenomenon could be attributed to aggressive tumors developing from cancer stem cells. Furthermore, real-time continuous monitoring of CTCs reveals that they occur at highly variable rates in a detection point over a period of time (e.g., a range of 0–54 CTCs per 5 min). These same fluctuations in CTC numbers were observed in vivo in epithelial and non-epithelial metastatic tumors, in different stages of tumor progression, and in different vessels. These temporal CTC fluctuations can explain false negative results of a one-time snapshot test in humans. Indeed, we observed wide variations in the number of CTCs in subsequent blood samples taken from the same metastatic melanoma patient, with some samples being CTC-free. If these phenomena are confirmed in our ongoing in vivo clinical trials, this could support a personalized strategy of CTC monitoring for cancer patients.

  18. A hybrid mock circulation loop for a total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Frank; Bradley, Andrew P; Wilson, Stephen J; Timms, Daniel L; Frazier, O Howard; Cohn, William E

    2014-09-01

    Rotary blood pumps are emerging as a viable technology for total artificial hearts, and the development of physiological control algorithms is accelerated with new evaluation environments. In this article, we present a novel hybrid mock circulation loop (HMCL) designed specifically for evaluation of rotary total artificial hearts (rTAH). The rTAH is operated in the physical domain while all vasculature elements are embedded in the numerical domain, thus combining the strengths of both approaches: fast and easy exchange of the vasculature model together with improved controllability of the pump. Parameters, such as vascular resistance, compliance, and blood volume, can be varied dynamically in silico during operation. A hydraulic-numeric interface creates a real-time feedback loop between the physical and numerical domains. The HMCL uses computer-controlled resistance valves as actuators, thereby reducing the size and number of hydraulic elements. Experimental results demonstrate a stable interaction over a wide operational range and a high degree of flexibility. Therefore, we demonstrate that the newly created design environment can play an integral part in the hydraulic design, control development, and durability testing of rTAHs.

  19. Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs.

  20. Effects of land cover change on the tropical circulation in a GCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonko, Alexandra Karolina [Universitaet Bonn, Meteorologisches Institut, Bonn (Germany); Oregon State University, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Corvallis, OR (United States); Hense, Andreas [Universitaet Bonn, Meteorologisches Institut, Bonn (Germany); Feddema, Johannes Jan [University of Kansas, Department of Geography, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Multivariate statistics are used to investigate sensitivity of the tropical atmospheric circulation to scenario-based global land cover change (LCC), with the largest changes occurring in the tropics. Three simulations performed with the fully coupled Parallel Climate Model (PCM) are compared: (1) a present day control run; (2) a simulation with present day land cover and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 greenhouse gas (GHG) projections; and (3) a simulation with SRES A2 land cover and GHG projections. Dimensionality of PCM data is reduced by projection onto a priori specified eigenvectors, consisting of Rossby and Kelvin waves produced by a linearized, reduced gravity model of the tropical circulation. A Hotelling T {sup 2} test is performed on projection amplitudes. Effects of LCC evaluated by this method are limited to diabatic heating. A statistically significant and recurrent signal is detected for 33% of all tests performed for various combinations of parameters. Taking into account uncertainties and limitations of the present methodology, this signal can be interpreted as a Rossby wave response to prescribed LCC. The Rossby waves are shallow, large-scale motions, trapped at the equator and most pronounced in boreal summer. Differences in mass and flow fields indicate a shift of the tropical Walker circulation patterns with an anomalous subsidence over tropical South America. (orig.)

  1. Elevated Circulating Concentrations of Interferon-Gamma in Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, Moises A.; Deepe, George S.; Fichtenbaum, Carl J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been associated with increased immune activation. We assessed circulating concentrations of interferon-gamma in persons with LTBI. Methods We used the 2011–2012 National Health Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) to identify adults with and without LTBI by QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) results. Non-LTBI persons were 1:1 age-, gender-, and race-matched to LTBI persons using propensity scores. We compared the plasma concentrations of interferon-gamma measured from the unstimulated, negative control QFT tube between LTBI and non-LTBI persons. We used Mann-Whitney tests and ordered logistic regressions for comparisons. Results There were 430 LTBI and 430 non-LTBI matched persons included in the analysis. LTBI was associated with higher circulating concentrations of interferon-gamma (median, 3 pg/mL; IQR, 2 – 5) compared to non-LTBI (median, 2.5 pg/mL; IQR, 1.5 – 3.5); P < 0.001. LTBI remained associated with higher interferon-gamma concentrations after adjusting for age, gender, race, diabetes, hypertension, tobacco use, HIV status, body mass index, lipid profile, and lymphocyte count (odds ratio, 1.79, 95% CI, 1.26 – 2.53). Results remained similar when tuberculin skin testing defined LTBI. Conclusions LTBI was associated with increased circulating interferon-gamma concentrations. Future studies are needed to further characterize immune activation in LTBI and its potential long-term consequences. PMID:27853753

  2. Ocean circulation model predicts high genetic structure observed in a long-lived pelagic developer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, J M; Popovic, I; Palen, W J; Foreman, M G G; Hart, M W

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the movement of genes and individuals across marine seascapes is a long-standing challenge in marine ecology and can inform our understanding of local adaptation, the persistence and movement of populations, and the spatial scale of effective management. Patterns of gene flow in the ocean are often inferred based on population genetic analyses coupled with knowledge of species' dispersive life histories. However, genetic structure is the result of time-integrated processes and may not capture present-day connectivity between populations. Here, we use a high-resolution oceanographic circulation model to predict larval dispersal along the complex coastline of western Canada that includes the transition between two well-studied zoogeographic provinces. We simulate dispersal in a benthic sea star with a 6-10 week pelagic larval phase and test predictions of this model against previously observed genetic structure including a strong phylogeographic break within the zoogeographical transition zone. We also test predictions with new genetic sampling in a site within the phylogeographic break. We find that the coupled genetic and circulation model predicts the high degree of genetic structure observed in this species, despite its long pelagic duration. High genetic structure on this complex coastline can thus be explained through ocean circulation patterns, which tend to retain passive larvae within 20-50 km of their parents, suggesting a necessity for close-knit design of Marine Protected Area networks.

  3. Snow hydrology in a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Susan; Roads, John O.; Glatzmaier, Gary

    1994-01-01

    A snow hydrology has been implemented in an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). The snow hydrology consists of parameterizations of snowfall and snow cover fraction, a prognostic calculation of snow temperature, and a model of the snow mass and hydrologic budgets. Previously, only snow albedo had been included by a specified snow line. A 3-year GCM simulation with this now more complete surface hydrology is compared to a previous GCM control run with the specified snow line, as well as with observations. In particular, the authors discuss comparisons of the atmospheric and surface hydrologic budgets and the surface energy budget for U.S. and Canadian areas. The new snow hydrology changes the annual cycle of the surface moisture and energy budgets in the model. There is a noticeable shift in the runoff maximum from winter in the control run to spring in the snow hydrology run. A substantial amount of GCM winter precipitation is now stored in the seasonal snowpack. Snow cover also acts as an important insulating layer between the atmosphere and the ground. Wintertime soil temperatures are much higher in the snow hydrology experiment than in the control experiment. Seasonal snow cover is important for dampening large fluctuations in GCM continental skin temperature during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Snow depths and snow extent show good agreement with observations over North America. The geographic distribution of maximum depths is not as well simulated by the model due, in part, to the coarse resolution of the model. The patterns of runoff are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to observed patterns of streamflow averaged over the continental United States. The seasonal cycles of precipitation and evaporation are also reasonably well simulated by the model, although their magnitudes are larger than is observed. This is due, in part, to a cold bias in this model, which results in a dry model atmosphere and enhances the hydrologic cycle everywhere.

  4. Eighteen Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) pathway genes, circulating levels of IGF-1 and its binding protein (IGFBP-3), and risk of prostate and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fangyi; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Canzian, Federico; Allen, Naomi E.; Albanes, Demetrius; Berg, Christine D; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Buring, Julie E.; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hunter, David J.; Hoover, Robert N.; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Lagiou, Pagona; Lee, I-Min; LeMarchand, Loic; Lund, Eiliv; Ma, Jing; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Overvad, Kim; Rodriguez, Laudina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, Maria-José; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stattin, Pär; Stram, Daniel O.; Thomas, Gilles; Thun, Michael J.; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Willett, Walter C.; Yeager, Meredith; Zhang, Shumin M.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Riboli, Elio; Ziegler, Regina G.; Kraft, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) and its main binding protein, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), have been associated with risk of several types of cancer. Heritable factors explain up to 60% of the variation in IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in studies of adult twins. Methods We systematically examined common genetic variation in 18 genes in the IGF signaling pathway for associations with circulating levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. A total of 302 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in over 5500 Caucasian men and 5500 Caucasian women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Results After adjusting for multiple testing, SNPs in the IGF1 and SSTR5 genes were significantly associated with circulating IGF-1 (p<2.1×10−4); SNPs in the IGFBP3 and IGFALS genes were significantly associated with circulating IGFBP-3. Multi-SNP models explained R2=0.62% of the variation in circulating IGF-1 and 3.9% of the variation in circulating IGFBP-3. We saw no significant association between these multi-SNP predictors of circulating IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 and risk of prostate or breast cancers. Conclusion Common genetic variation in the IGF1 and SSTR5 genes appears to influence circulating IGF-1 levels, and variation in IGFBP3 and IGFALS appears to influence circulating IGFBP-3. However, these variants explain only a small percentage of the variation in circulating IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in Caucasian men and women. Impact Further studies are needed to explore contributions from other genetic factors such as rare variants in these genes and variation outside of these genes. PMID:20810604

  5. The Role of Eddy-Tansport in the Thermohaline Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paola Cessi

    2011-11-17

    Several research themes were developed during the course of this project. (1) Low-frequency oceanic varibility; (2) The role of eddies in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) region; (3) Deep stratification and the overturning circulation. The key findings were as follows: (1) The stratification below the main thermocline (at about 500m) is determined in the circumpolar region and then communicated to the enclosed portions of the oceans through the overturning circulation. (2) An Atlantic pole-to-pole overturning circulation can be maintained with very small interior mixing as long as surface buoyancy values are shared between the northern North Atlantic and the ACC region.

  6. Ocean circulation: its effects on seasonal sea-ice simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, W D; Bryan, K

    1984-05-04

    A diagnostic ice-ocean model of the Arctic, Greenland, and Norwegian seas is constructed and used to examine the role of ocean circulation in seasonal sea-ice simulations. The model includes lateral ice motion and three-dimensional ocean circulation. The ocean portion of the model is weakly forced by observed temperature and salinity data. Simulation results show that including modeled ocean circulation in seasonal sea-ice simulations substantially improves the predicted ice drift and ice margin location. Simulations that do not include lateral ocean movment predict a much less realistic ice edge.

  7. Parametric study on a natural circulation cooled U-battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zwaan, Sieuwert; Kloosterman, Jan Leen [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Van Uitert, Gert [The Hague (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    A feasibility study has been performed on a natural circulation cooled small nuclear reactor with a molten salt or tin as a coolant. This reactor is called the U-Battery. The study included neutronics calculations to obtain the minimum dimensions required for a critical system during burnup, the calculation of coolant temperature and core temperature reactivity coefficients, and an investigation of the thermal hydraulics to asses the possibilities for natural circulation cooling. For every coolant, core designs are feasible within the dimensions imposed and with natural circulation of the coolant. (authors)

  8. A new barotropic model of the wind-driven circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆华; 曲媛媛; 李坚克

    1999-01-01

    Rationalized by the observational circulation pattern in the upper ocean of the North Pacific, meridional friction term is first incorporated in a barotropic theoretical model of the wind-driven circulation. The governing potential vortieity equation thence has β term and wind stress curl term (the two of the Sverdrup balance), zonal friction term and meridional friction term. The analytical solution satisfactorily captures many important features of the wind-driven circulation in the North Pacific: Kuroshio, Oyashio, Kuroshio extension, North Equatorial Current, and especially the eastern boundary currents in the North Pacific, i.e. California current and Alaska current.

  9. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

    2004-10-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2004 through September 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building have started. Second, the design if the component parts of the CFBC system have been reviewed and finalized so that the drawings may be released to the manufacturers during the next quarter. Third, the experiments for solid waste (chicken litter) incineration have been conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). This is in preparation for testing in the simulated fluidized-bed combustor. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  10. Orbit-spin coupling and the circulation of the Martian atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Shirley, James H

    2016-01-01

    The physical origins of the observed interannual variability of weather and climate on Mars are poorly understood. In this paper we introduce a deterministic physical mechanism that may account for much of the variability of the circulation of the Mars atmosphere on seasonal and longer timescales. We derive a coupling expression linking orbital and rotational motions that produces an acceleration field varying with position and with time on and within a subject body. The spatially and temporally varying accelerations may interfere constructively or destructively with large-scale flows of geophysical fluids that are established and maintained by other means. The hypothesis predicts cycles of intensification and relaxation of circulatory flows of atmospheres on seasonal and longer timescales that are largely independent of solar forcing. The predictions of the hypothesis may be tested through numerical modeling. Examples from investigations of the atmospheric circulation of Mars are provided to illustrate quali...

  11. Study on thermal-hydraulics of natural circulation operation for decay heat removal of LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Tomonari [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab

    2000-05-01

    Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the decay heat removal system (DHRS) has been evaluated by both a water test and its computational analysis. The direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) was studied as a representative DHRS in the LMFBR design. A natural circulation flow of the DRACS is originated from the buoyancy force balanced with the pressure loss within the active core. Hence it appears that the performance of the DRACS could be fully estimated by the thermal-hydraulic study of one fuel sub-assembly under the condition of low flow rate. The inter-wrapper flow occurring in the gap between core sub-assemblies under the natural circulation operation might have a large capacity to cool the core. An inverse flow occurring at the outer region of the core was due to the cooling effect of the inter-wrapper flow. (author)

  12. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of natural circulation operation for decay heat removal of LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Tomonari [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan); Watanabe, Osamu [Advanced Reactor Technology Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the decay heat removal system (DHRS) has been evaluated by both a water test and its computational analysis. The direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) was studied as a representative DHRS in the LMFBR design. A natural circulation flow of the DRACS is originated from the buoyancy force balanced with the pressure loss within the active core. Hence it appears that the performance of the DRACS could be fully estimated by the thermal-hydraulic study of one fuel sub-assembly under the condition of low flow rate. The inter-wrapper flow occurring in the gap between core sub-assemblies under the natural circulation operation might have a large capacity to cool the core. An inverse flow occurring at the outer region of the core was due to the cooling effect of the inter-wrapper flow. (author)

  13. Development of an Internally Circulating Fluidized Bed Membrane Reactor for Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Dong-lai; GRACE John R; LIM C Jim

    2006-01-01

    An innovative Internally Circulating Fluidized Bed Membrane Reactor (ICFBMR) was designed and operated for ultra-pure hydrogen production from natural gas. The reactor includes internal catalyst solids circulation for conveying heat between a reforming zone and an oxidation zone. In the reforming zone, catalyst particles are transported upwards by reactant gas where steam reforming reactions are taking place and hydrogen is permeating through the membrane surfaces. Air is injected into the oxidation zone to generate heat which is carried by catalyst particles to the reforming zone supporting the endothermic steam reforming reaction. The technology development process is introduced: cold model test,pilot plant and industrial demonstration unit. The process flow diagram and key components of each unit are described.The ICFBMR process has the potential to provide improved performance relative to conventional SMR fixed-bed tubular reactors.

  14. A method to permanently collapse the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in climate models

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatoribus, Andrea A; Drijfhout, Sybren S; Dijkstra, Henk A

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) to changes in basin integrated net evaporation is highly dependent on the zonal salinity contrast at the southern border of the Atlantic. Biases in the freshwater budget strongly affect the stability of the AMOC. The impact of these biases is investigated in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model by adding local anomaly patterns to the freshwater fluxes at the surface. These anomalies impact the freshwater and salt transport by the different components of the ocean circulation, in particular the basin-scale salt-advection feedback, completely changing the response of the AMOC to arbitrary perturbations. It is found that an appropriate dipole anomaly pattern at the southern border of the Atlantic Ocean can collapse the AMOC entirely even without a further hosing. Based on these results, a method is proposed for permanently collapsing the AMOC in climate models and to systematically test the existence of multiple equilibria in these models.

  15. Repacking practice for G-3 engineering driller power unit with drive shaft of dual channel reverse circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihong ZHU; Kun YIN; Qingyan WANG; Yong HUANG

    2008-01-01

    In order to satisfy operating requirements for constant core drilling technology in reverse circulation with hollow-through DTH,the power unit of G-3 engineering driller was ameliorated. The new one with dual channel drive shaft, achieved the perfect assemble with transmission structure of the original power unit. It could interconvert according to need by using two sets of drive shafts with direct and reverse circulation. The repacked G-3 engineering driller carried on experiment in the field test in Luanchuan molybdenum mine of Henan, whose effect was very good.

  16. Winter Season Stratospheric Circulation in the SAMIL/LASG General Circulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Rongcai; WU Guoxiong; Ming CAI; YU Jingjing

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the performance of the 26-level version of the SAMIL/LASG GCM (R42/L26)in simulating the seasonal cycle and perpetual winter mean stratospheric circulation as well as its variability by comparing them with the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The results show that the model is capable of reproducing many key features of the climatology and seasonal variation of the stratospheric circulation despite that the model's mean polar vortex is stronger and more zonally symmetric compared to the observation. Further diagnosis of the results from a perpetual-January-run of the SAMIL/LASG GCM indicates that the dominant winter-season oscillation mode in the model's stratosphere exhibits a similar inter-seasonal timescale with similar spatial patterns as those inferred from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. In particular, the simulated polar vortex oscillation mode exhibits a dominant inter-seasonal timescale of about 120 days, and is accompanied with the simultaneous poleward and downward propagation of temperature anomalies in the stratosphere and the equatorward propagation of temperature anomalies in the troposphere. More encouragingly, the 26-layer version of the SAMIL/LASG GCM is able to produce three strong Stratospheric Sudden Warming events during the 1825 days of perpetual-January integration, with the polar westerly jet completely reversed for a few weeks without imposing any prescribed anomalous forcing at the lower boundary.

  17. No evidence of circulating autoantibodies against osteoprotegerin in patients with celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiziana Larussa; Evelina Suraci; Immacolata Nazionale; Isabella Leone; Tiziana Montalcini; Ludovico Abenavoli; Maria Imeneo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) in celiac disease (CD) patients,focusing on circulating autoantibodies against osteoprotegerin (OPG).METHODS:Seventy asymptomatic CD adult patients on gluten-free diet (GFD) and harbouring persistent negative CD-related serology were recruited.Conventional risk factors for osteoporosis (e.g.,age,sex,menopausal status,history of fractures,smoke,and body mass index) were checked and BMD was assessed by dual energy X ray absorptiometry.Serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were evaluated.Thirty-eight patients underwent repeat duodenal biopsy.Serum samples from a selected sub-group of 30 patients,who were also typed for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2 and DQ8 haplotype,were incubated with homodimeric recombinant human OPG and tested by western blotting with an anti-OPG antibody after immunoprecipitation.RESULTS:Despite persistent negative CD-related serology and strict adherence to GFD,49 out of the 70 (74%) patients displayed low BMD.Among these patients,13 (24%) showed osteoporosis and 36 (76%)osteopenia.With the exception of age,conventional risk factors for osteoporosis did not differ between patients with normal and low BMD.Circulating serum calcium and PTH levels were normal in all patients.Duodenal mucosa healing was found in 31 (82%) out of 38 patients who underwent repeat duodenal biopsy with 20 (64%) still displaying low BMD.The remaining 7 patients had an incomplete normalization of duodenal mucosa with 6 (84%) showing low BMD.No evidence of circulating antibodies against OPG was found in the serum of 30 celiac patients who were tested for,independent of BMD,duodenal histology,and HLA status.CONCLUSION:If any,the role of circulating autoantibodies against OPG in the pathogenesis of bone derangement in patients with CD is not a major one.

  18. Borehole model for simulation transport geothermal heat with heat pipe system and with forced circulation of heat carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhard Richard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the call OPVaV-2008/2.2/01-SORO Operational Programme Research and Development - knowledge and technology transfer from research and development into practice (ITMS-26220220057, whose strategic goal is "Device to use low-potential geothermal heat without forced circulation of heat carrier deep in the well "in the Department of Energy laboratory techniques to construct a simulator of transport low potential of geothermal energy in comparative test-drilling in the laboratory. The article describes a device that was designed as a scale model of two deep boreholes each of which withdraws the earth's heat by heat transfer technology and heat carrier. Device using forced circulation of heat carrier will respond in the construction of equipment currently used to transport heat from deep borehole. As the heat carrier will be used CO2. Facilities without using forced circulation of heat carrier, the new technology, which will be used as heat carrier ammonia (NH3.

  19. Two-phase flow assessment and void fraction measurement of a pilot natural circulation loop using capacitance probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Marcelo S.; Cabral, Eduardo L.L., E-mail: msrocha@ipen.br, E-mail: elcabral@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This article focuses the project, construction and tests of a capacitance probe for void fraction measurement and two-phase flow assessment in a natural circulation loop. Two-phase flow patterns and the associated variables are very important in natural circulation circuits and it is used in the new generation of nuclear reactors for residual heat removal during shut-off and emergency events. The capacitance probe was calibrated to measure the instantaneous bulk void fraction in a vertical tube section of a natural circulation loop. Instantaneous signals generated by the capacitance probe allow the determination of the local bulk void fraction. The probe design is presented and discussed and void fraction data obtained by the probe are compared with theoretical void fraction calculated by analytical models from literature. (author)

  20. Diagnostic technologies for circulating tumour cells and exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Huilin; Chung, Jaehoon; Issadore, David

    2015-11-24

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and exosomes are promising circulating biomarkers. They exist in easily accessible blood and carry large diversity of molecular information. As such, they can be easily and repeatedly obtained for minimally invasive cancer diagnosis and monitoring. Because of their intrinsic differences in counts, size and molecular contents, CTCs and exosomes pose unique sets of technical challenges for clinical translation-CTCs are rare whereas exosomes are small. Novel technologies are underway to overcome these specific challenges to fully harness the clinical potential of these circulating biomarkers. Herein, we will overview the characteristics of CTCs and exosomes as valuable circulating biomarkers and their associated technical challenges for clinical adaptation. Specifically, we will describe emerging technologies that have been developed to address these technical obstacles and the unique clinical opportunities enabled by technological innovations.

  1. Study on Circulation and Management of Rural Land Use Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanjiang WANG

    2015-01-01

    Currently,agriculture and rural economy have entered a new development stage. According to market demands and comparative advantages of regional resources,strategic adjustment of agricultural structure and realizing transformation from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture have become primary tasks. Land is the essential element of agricultural production,making innovation upon rural land use system and establishing flexible and effective land circulation system concern efficiency and optimization of agricultural resource allocation and development of rural element market. With more and more farmers engaged in secondary and tertiary industries,land left by those farmers is circulated to those farmers willing to do farming. Rural land circulation is inevitable trend of economic and social development,but it is a progressive process. To realize smooth rural land circulation,there must be standardized system.

  2. Circulation and geostrophic transport in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.

    Utilising the hydrographic data collected during the early northeast monsoon of 1983 and southwest monsoon of 1984, the circulation of waters of the Bay of Bengal and the associated volume transport have been studied in the upper 1000 m...

  3. Circulating mesenchymal stem cells and their clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is a new cell source for tissue regeneration and tissue engineering. The characteristics of circulating MSCs are similar to those of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs, but they exist at a very low level in healthy individuals. It has been demonstrated that MSCs are able to migrate to the sites of injury and that they have some distinct genetic profiles compared to BM-MSCs. The current review summaries the basic knowledge of circulating MSCs and their potential clinical applications, such as mobilizing the BM-MSCs into circulation for therapy. The application of MSCs to cure a broad spectrum of diseases is promising, such as spinal cord injury, cardiovascular repair, bone and cartilage repair. The current review also discusses the issues of using of allogeneic MSCs for clinical therapy.

  4. Investigation of Natural Circulation Instability and Transients in Passively Safe Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Mamoru [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United State

    2016-11-30

    The NEUP funded project, NEUP-3496, aims to experimentally investigate two-phase natural circulation flow instability that could occur in Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), especially for natural circulation SMRs. The objective has been achieved by systematically performing tests to study the general natural circulation instability characteristics and the natural circulation behavior under start-up or design basis accident conditions. Experimental data sets highlighting the effect of void reactivity feedback as well as the effect of power ramp-up rate and system pressure have been used to develop a comprehensive stability map. The safety analysis code, RELAP5, has been used to evaluate experimental results and models. Improvements to the constitutive relations for flashing have been made in order to develop a reliable analysis tool. This research has been focusing on two generic SMR designs, i.e. a small modular Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) like design and a small integral Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) like design. A BWR-type natural circulation test facility was firstly built based on the three-level scaling analysis of the Purdue Novel Modular Reactor (NMR) with an electric output of 50 MWe, namely NMR-50, which represents a BWR-type SMR with a significantly reduced reactor pressure vessel (RPV) height. The experimental facility was installed with various equipment to measure thermalhydraulic parameters such as pressure, temperature, mass flow rate and void fraction. Characterization tests were performed before the startup transient tests and quasi-steady tests to determine the loop flow resistance. The control system and data acquisition system were programmed with LabVIEW to realize the realtime control and data storage. The thermal-hydraulic and nuclear coupled startup transients were performed to investigate the flow instabilities at low pressure and low power conditions for NMR-50. Two different power ramps were chosen to study the effect of startup

  5. Fructose ingestion acutely stimulates circulating FGF21 levels in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Dushay, Jody R.; Toschi, Elena; Mitten, Emilie K.; Fisher, ffolliott M.; Herman, Mark A.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone with pleiotropic metabolic activities which, in rodents, is robustly regulated by fasting and ketogenic diets. In contrast, similar dietary interventions have either no or minimal effects on circulating FGF21 in humans. Moreover, no intervention or dietary challenge has been shown to acutely stimulate circulating FGF21 in either humans or animals. Recent animal data suggest that the transcription factor Carbohydrate Responsive-Element...

  6. [Fetal circulation in normal pregnancy and in placental insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, B; Malinova, M

    2010-01-01

    The fetal circulation is different from the adult circulation. One of the quite common conditions that are challenging to the developing fetus is placental hypoxia. Regardless of its cause, placental vascular insufficiency is commonly assumed to be an important factor in the development of intrauterine growth retardation. Several mechanisms are involved in the fetal adaptation to the decompensation during hypoxemia. Doppler Ultrasound technologies can help to evaluate of the fetal wellbeing.

  7. Poleward Expansion of the Hadley Circulation in CMIP5 Simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yongyun; TAO Lijun; LIU Jiping

    2013-01-01

    Observational analyses have demonstrated that the Hadley circulation has expanded poleward in recent decades.Important issues are what caused the widening of the Hadley circulation and whether the observed widening is related to anthropogenic forcing.In the present study,we use currently available simulations of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 (CMIP5) to analyze changes in the width of the Hadley circulation.It is found that CMIP5 historical simulations with greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing generate a total widening of ~0.15°±0.06° in latitude (10 yr)-1 for the period 1979-2005,and the widening in CMIP5 historical simulations with all forcings is ~0.17° ± 0.06° per decade.Similar to that in CMIP3,the simulated poleward expansion in CMIP5 is much weaker than the observational reanalyses.In CMIP5 projection simulations for the 21st century,magnitudes of widening of the Hadley circulation increase with radiative forcing.For the extreme projected radiative forcing of RCP8.5,the total annual-mean widening of the Hadley circulation is ~ 0.27° ± 0.04° (10 yr)-1 in the 21st century.Although CMIP5 underestimates observed poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation,the results of this study suggest that the observed trends in the width of the Hadley circulation are caused by anthropogenic forcing and that increasing GHGs play an important role in the observed poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation,in addition to other forcings emphasized in previous studies.

  8. Flow boiling heat transfer in circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoguang REN; Jiangdong ZHENG; Sefiane KHELLII; Arumemi-Ikhide MICHAEL

    2009-01-01

    In order to enhance heat transfer and mitigate contamination in the boiling processes, a new type of vapor-liquid-solid (3-phase) circulating fluidized bed boil-ing system has been designed, combining a circulating fluidized bed with boiling heat transfer. Experimental results show an enhancement of the boiling curve. Flow visualization studies concerning flow hydrodynamics within the riser column are also conducted whose results are presented and discussed.

  9. Computation of the q -th roots of circulant matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakizeh Mohammadi Khanghah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper‎, ‎we investigate the reduced form of circulant matrices‎ ‎and we show that the problem of computing the $q$-th roots of a‎ ‎nonsingular circulant matrix $A$ can be reduced to that of computing‎ ‎the $q$-th roots of two half size matrices $B-C$ and $B+C$. 

  10. Twentieth century Walker Circulation change: data analysis and model experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qingjia [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, River and Coastal Environment Research Center, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Qingdao (China); Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun; Keenlyside, Noel S.; Martin, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); Semenov, Vladimir A. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    Recent studies indicate a weakening of the Walker Circulation during the twentieth century. Here, we present evidence from an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced by the history of observed sea surface temperature (SST) that the Walker Circulation may have intensified rather than weakened. Observed Equatorial Indo-Pacific Sector SST since 1870 exhibited a zonally asymmetric evolution: While the eastern part of the Equatorial Pacific showed only a weak warming, or even cooling in one SST dataset, the western part and the Equatorial Indian Ocean exhibited a rather strong warming. This has resulted in an increase of the SST gradient between the Maritime Continent and the eastern part of the Equatorial Pacific, one driving force of the Walker Circulation. The ensemble experiments with the AGCM, with and without time-varying external forcing, suggest that the enhancement of the SST gradient drove an anomalous atmospheric circulation, with an enhancement of both Walker and Hadley Circulation. Anomalously strong precipitation is simulated over the Indian Ocean and anomalously weak precipitation over the western Pacific, with corresponding changes in the surface wind pattern. Some sensitivity to the forcing SST, however, is noticed. The analysis of twentieth century integrations with global climate models driven with observed radiative forcing obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) database support the link between the SST gradient and Walker Circulation strength. Furthermore, control integrations with the CMIP models indicate the existence of strong internal variability on centennial timescales. The results suggest that a radiatively forced signal in the Walker Circulation during the twentieth century may have been too weak to be detectable. (orig.)

  11. High Power Test for Klystron Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Seong-Gu; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The 100-MeV linac consists of a 50-keV proton injector based on a microwave ion source, a 3-MeV RFQ with a four-vane structure, and a 100-MeV DTL. Nine sets of 1MW klystrons have been operated for the 100-MeV proton linac. The klystron filament heating time was approximately 5700 hours in 2014. During the high power operation of the klystron, unstable RF waveforms appeared at the klystron output, and we have checked and performed cavity frequency adjustments, magnet and heater current, reflection from a circulator, klystron test without a circulator, and the frequency spectrum measurement. The problems may be from harmonic power stay between the klystron and the circulator. A harmonic filter of waveguide type is designed to eliminate the harmonic power. Nine sets of the klystrons have been operated for the KOMAC 100-MeV proton linac. Some klystrons have unstable RF waveforms at specific power level. We have checked and tested the cavity frequency adjustment, reflection from a circulator, high power test without a circulator, and frequency spectrum at the unstable RF. The unstable RF may be from harmonic power stay between the klystron and the circulator. To eliminate the harmonic power, a harmonic filter of waveguide type is designed.

  12. Modelling the Seasonal Overturning Circulation in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2015-04-01

    The overturning circulation in the Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonally reversing pattern and is studied using 50-year, high-resolution MIT general circulation model simulations. The seasonal water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is successfully simulated, and the structures of the intruding subsurface Gulf of Aden intermediate water are in good agreement with summer observations in 2011. The model results suggest that the summer overturning circulation is driven by the combined effect of the shoaling of the thermocline in the Gulf of Aden resulting from remote winds in the Arabian Sea and an upward surface slope from the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden set up by local surface winds in the Red Sea. For the winter overturning circulation, the climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24°N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation.

  13. Distance spectra and Distance energy of Integral Circulant Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    c, Aleksandar Ili\\'

    2011-01-01

    The distance energy of a graph $G$ is a recently developed energy-type invariant, defined as the sum of absolute values of the eigenvalues of the distance matrix of $G$. There was a vast research for the pairs and families of non-cospectral graphs having equal distance energy, and most of these constructions were based on the join of graphs. A graph is called circulant if it is Cayley graph on the circulant group, i.e. its adjacency matrix is circulant. A graph is called integral if all eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix are integers. Integral circulant graphs play an important role in modeling quantum spin networks supporting the perfect state transfer. In this paper, we characterize the distance spectra of integral circulant graphs and prove that these graphs have integral eigenvalues of distance matrix $D$. Furthermore, we calculate the distance spectra and distance energy of unitary Cayley graphs. In conclusion, we present two families of pairs $(G_1, G_2)$ of integral circulant graphs with equal distanc...

  14. Cooling Performance of Natural Circulation for a Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Suki; Chun, J. H.; Yum, S. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper deals with the core cooling performance by natural circulation during normal operation and a flow channel blockage event in an open tank-in-pool type research reactor. The cooling performance is predicted by using the RELAP5/ MOD3.3 code. The core decay heat is usually removed by natural circulation to the reactor pool water in open tank-in-pool type research reactors with the thermal power less than several megawatts. Therefore, these reactors have generally no active core cooling system against a loss of normal forced flow. In reactors with the thermal power less than around one megawatt, the reactor core can be cooled down by natural circulation even during normal full power operation. The cooling performance of natural circulation in an open tank-in-pool type research reactor has been investigated during the normal natural circulation and a flow channel blockage event. It is found that the maximum powers without void generation at the hot channel are around 1.16 MW and 820 kW, respectively, for the normal natural circulation and the flow channel blockage event.

  15. Minor effect of meltwater on the ocean circulation during deglaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lohmann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Decaying Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during deglaciation affect the high latitude hydrological balance in the North Atlantic and therefore the ocean circulation after the Last Glacial Maximum. Surprisingly, geological data suggest that meltwater fluxes of about 14–20 m sea-level equivalent flushed into the North Atlantic without significantly influencing the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Using a three-dimensional ocean circulation model coupled to an energy balance model of the atmosphere, we investigate the response of the ocean circulation to spatio-temporal variable deglacial freshwater discharges. Freshwater inputs are simulated by a three-dimensional thermo-mechanical ice sheet model of the Northern Hemisphere. In our experiments, we find a strong sensitivity of the ocean circulation when the deglacial meltwater is injected into the surface layers yielding a quasi shut-down. On the other hand, the parameterization of huge sub-glacial outbursts as so-called hyperpycnal flows are mimicked through bottom injections in ocean models leading to a reduced sensitivity of the overturning circulation against freshwater perturbations and providing a consistent representation of the deglacial climate evolution.

  16. An efficiency booster for energy conversion in natural circulation loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongqing, E-mail: wangdongqing@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Jiang, Jin, E-mail: jjiang@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • Low driving power conversion efficiency of natural circulation loops is proved. • The low conversion efficiency leads to low heat transfer capacity of such loops. • An efficiency booster is designed with turbine to increase the efficiency. • Performance of the proposed booster has been numerically simulated. • The booster drastically enhances heat transfer capacity of such loops. - Abstract: In this paper, the capacity of a natural circulation loop for transferring heat from a heat source to a heat sink has been analyzed. It is concluded that the capacity of the natural circulation loop depends on the conversion efficiency of the thermal energy from the heat source to the driving force for the circulation of the flow. The low conversion efficiency leading to weak driving force in such loops has been demonstrated analytically and validated through simulation results. This issue has resulted in a low heat transfer capacity in the circulation loop. To increase the heat transfer capacity, one has to improve this efficiency. To meet such a need, a novel efficiency booster has been developed in this paper. The booster essentially increases the flow driving force and hence significantly improves the overall heat transfer capacity. Design and analysis of this booster have been performed in detail. The performance has been examined through extensive computer simulations. It is concluded that the booster can indeed drastically improve the heat transfer capacity of the natural circulation loop.

  17. The effect of moderate-intensity acute aerobic exercise duration on the percentage of circulating CD31+ cells in lymphocyte population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani Santosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of circulating CD31+ endothelial progenitor cells is one of the important factors for maintaining vascular homeostasis. Exercise will effectively increase the number of circulating CD31+ endothelial progenitor cells. This study aims to determine the effect of moderate-intensity acute aerobic exercise duration on the percentage of circulating CD31+ cells in untrained healthy young adult subjects.Methods: This study was an experimental study. Untrained healthy volunteers (n=20 performed ergocycle at moderate-intensity (64–74% maximum heart rate for 10 minutes or 30 minutes. Immediately before and 10 minutes after exercise, venous blood samples were drawn. The percentage of CD31+ cells in peripheral blood was analyzed using flow cytometry. Data was statistically analyzed using student t-test.Results: There were no significant differences in the mean percentage of circulating CD31+ cells before and after exercise for 10 minutes and 30 minutes (p>0.05. However, there was a different trend in the percentage of circulating CD31+ cells after exercise for 10 minutes and 30 minutes. In the 10 minutes duration, 50% of subjects showed increase. Whereas in the 30 minutes duration, 80% of subjects showed increase.Conclusion: The percentage of circulating CD31+ cells before and after exercise for 10 minutes was not different compared to 30 minutes. However, data analysis shows that majority of subjects (80% had increased in the percentage of circulating CD31+ cells after 30 minutes exercise.

  18. SOLID HOLDUP AND CIRCULATION RATE IN A LIQUID-SOLID CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED WITH VISCOUS LIQUID MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gnanasundaram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Experiments were conducted in a liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed with different viscous liquids and particles to study the hydrodynamics, average solid hold up and solid circulation rate. The effects of operating parameters, i.e., primary liquid flow rate in the riser, auxiliary liquid flow rate, total liquid flow rate and viscosity of the liquid were studied for solids of different density and particle size. Results show that the circulating fluidization regime starts earlier for more viscous solutions because of the decrease in critical transitional velocity. The onset of solid holdup increases with an increase in liquid viscosity for sand and for glass beads. The solid circulation rate increases with an increase in total velocity and auxiliary velocity, and also increases with increasing viscosity.

  19. Weather types in the South Shetlands (Antarctica) using a circulation type approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Carla; João Rocha, Maria; Dutra, Emanuel; Trigo, Isabel; Vieira, Gonçalo; Fragoso, Marcelo; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Weather types in the South Shetlands (Antarctica) were defined using an automated method based on the Lamb Weather Type classification scheme (Jones et al. 1993). This is an objective classification originally developed for the British Isles (Jones et al., 1993) and also applied to southeast (Goodess and Palutikof 1998) and northwest Spain (Lorenzo et al, 2009), Portugal (Trigo and DaCamara 2000) and Greece (Maheras et al. 2004) with good results. Daily atmospheric circulation in the South Shetlands region from 1989 to 2009 was classified using a 16-node grid of sea level pressure data from the ERA Interim. The classification is obtained through the comparison of the magnitudes of the directional and rotational components of the geostrophic flow. Basic circulation types were combined into 10 groups of weather types: four directional types (NW, N, S and SW), three anticyclonic types (A, ASW and ANW), and three cyclonic types (C, CSW and CNW). Westerly flow and cyclonic circulation are the most frequent events throughout the year. The sea level pressure field for each weather type is presented and the synoptic characteristics are described. The analysis is based on ERA-Interim fields, including mean sea level pressure, precipitation, cloud cover, humidity and air temperature. Snow thickess modelled using HTESSEL is also considered. Analysis of variance (anova) and multivariate analysis (principal component analysis) are applied to evaluate the characteristics of each weather type. This circulation-type approach showed good results in the past for the downscaling of precipitation in other regions, and we are interested in evaluating the possibilities that the classification offers for downscaling precipitation, but also for snow and air temperature. For this we will be using observational data at test sites in Livingston and Deception islands. We are also motivated by the possibility of using the circulation-type approach as a predictor in statistical downscaling

  20. Spent Fuel Test-Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, W.C. (comp.)

    1986-03-30

    In the Climax stock granite on the Nevada Test Site, eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized. When test data indicated that the test objectives were met during the 3-year storage phase, the spent-fuel canisters were retrieved and the thermal sources were de-energized. The project demonstrated the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner. In addition to emplacement and retrieval operations, three exchanges of spent-fuel assemblies between the SFT-C and a surface storage facility, conducted during the storage phase, furthered this demonstration. The test led to development of a technical measurements program. To meet these objectives, nearly 1000 instruments and a computer-based data acquisition system were deployed. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data were recorded on a continuing basis for the three-year storage phase and six-month monitored cool-down of the test. This report summarizes the engineering and scientific endeavors which led to successful design and execution of the test. The design, fabrication, and construction of all facilities and handling systems are discussed, in the context of test objectives and a safety assessment. The discussion progresses from site characterization and experiment design through data acquisition and analysis of test data in the context of design calculations. 117 refs., 52 figs., 81 tabs.

  1. Atmospheric circulation classification comparison based on wildfires in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation classifications are not a simple description of atmospheric states but a tool to understand and interpret the atmospheric processes and to model the relation between atmospheric circulation and surface climate and other related variables (Radan Huth et al., 2008). Classifications were initially developed with weather forecasting purposes, however with the progress in computer processing capability, new and more robust objective methods were developed and applied to large datasets prompting atmospheric circulation classification methods to one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Classification studies have been extensively used in climate change studies (e.g. reconstructed past climates, recent observed changes and future climates), in bioclimatological research (e.g. relating human mortality to climatic factors) and in a wide variety of synoptic climatological applications (e.g. comparison between datasets, air pollution, snow avalanches, wine quality, fish captures and forest fires). Likewise, atmospheric circulation classifications are important for the study of the role of weather in wildfire occurrence in Portugal because the daily synoptic variability is the most important driver of local weather conditions (Pereira et al., 2005). In particular, the objective classification scheme developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000) to classify the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal have proved to be quite useful in discriminating the occurrence and development of wildfires as well as the distribution over Portugal of surface climatic variables with impact in wildfire activity such as maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. This work aims to present: (i) an overview the existing circulation classification for the Iberian Peninsula, and (ii) the results of a comparison study between these atmospheric circulation classifications based on its relation with wildfires and relevant meteorological

  2. Cryogenic Active Magnetic Regenerator Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tura, A.; Roszmann, J.; Dikeos, J.; Rowe, A.

    2006-04-01

    An AMR Test Apparatus (AMRTA) used in experiments near room-temperature required a number of modifications to allow for testing at cryogenic temperatures and with a 5 T magnetic field. The impacts of parasitic heat leaks, frictional heat generation, and eddy current heating in the AMRTA are analyzed. A low temperature gas circulation (LTGC) system to control the operating temperature was developed. The LTGC consists of a GM cryocooler coupled to a compressor and helium circuit which circulates fluid through a set of heat exchangers and flexible transfer lines connected to the AMRTA. Design features are discussed as is some initial test data.

  3. Circulating microRNA as a biomarker of human growth hormone administration to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian N; Haverstick, Doris M; Lee, Jae K; Thorner, Michael O; Vance, Mary Lee; Xin, Wenjun; Bruns, David E

    2014-03-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in plasma are being studied for use as biomarkers of specific diseases and as markers of administration of pharmaceutical agents. Administration of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is prohibited by sporting authorities, but it continues to be used by athletes attempting to gain an unfair advantage in athletic competition. Current methods for detection of rhGH use rely on immunoassay technology and are limited by a short time-frame in which detection of rhGH is possible. We hypothesized that administration of rhGH would alter expression of circulating miRNAs and that any changes could be detected. To identify potential miRNA targets, we utilized miRNA microarrays for screening. Confirmatory testing used real-time reverse-transcriptase (RT) quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays of selected miRNAs in 35 plasma samples obtained from (1) individuals with no known pituitary disorders, (2) patients with excess GH production, and (3) patients receiving therapeutic replacement doses of rhGH. We identified and confirmed four miRNAs that were differentially expressed in all individuals using therapeutic replacement doses of rhGH when compared to individuals with naturally high levels of GH and normal controls. This study further develops the hypothesis that circulating miRNAs may be used as biomarkers for detection of doping in sports.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Natural Circulation in Regional Energy Reactor-10MW{sub th}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Byeong Il; Jeun, Gyoo Dong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    A small- and medium-sized nuclear reactor (SMR) has drawn attention because it is used for multi-purpose applications of desaltination, district heating, ship propulsion and small-scale power generation. The SMR has the virtue of providing for the safety more than a large-sized nuclear reactor. It can be avoidable the occurrence of a large break LOCA because the primary pipes are eliminated. And as the SMR is designed to simplify the geometries and safety systems, uncertainties about the reactor operations are reduced and its safety improves. RERI (Regional Energy Research Institute for Next Generation) is designing REX-10 (Regional Energy Reactor 10 MWth) based on SMART-P. This reactor must improve the enhanced safety because the main purposes of it are small-scale power generation and district heating. From this reason, REX-10 adopts the way to remove heat by natural circulation. And to investigate the natural circulation characteristics of REX-10, we constructed RTF (REX- 10 Test Facility) in RERI. The main aim of this article is to evaluate the natural circulation behavior under various experimental conditions.

  5. Pressure distributions and oil-flow patterns for a swept circulation-control wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Earl R.; Sanderfer, Dwight T.; Wood, Norman J.

    1987-01-01

    Pressure distributions and photographs of oil flow patterns are presented for a circulation control wing. The model was an aspect ratio four semispan wing mounted on the side wall of the NASA Ames Transonic Wind Tunnel. The airfoil was a 20 percent thick ellipse, modified with circular leading and trailing edges of 4 percent radius, and had a 25.4 cm constant chord. This configuration does not represent a specific wing design, but is generic. A full span, tangetial, rearward blowing, circulation control slot was incorporated ahead of the trailing edge on the upper surface. The wing was tested at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.75 at sweep angle of 0 to 45 deg with internal to external pressure ratios of 1.0 to 3.0. Lift and pitching momemt coefficients were obtained from measured pressure distributions at five span stations. When the conventional corrections resulting from sweep angle are applied to the lift and moment of circulation control sections, no additional corrections are necessary to account for changes in blowing efficiency. This is demonstrated for an aft sweep angle of 45 deg. An empirical technique for estimating the downwash distribution of a swept wing was validated.

  6. Correlation between the levels of circulating adhesion molecules and atherosclerosis in type-2 diabetic normotensive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Robles, Hilda; Serrano, Alberto Maceda; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose Juan; Escalante-Acosta, Bruno Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a common feature in type-2 diabetic patients and is associated with inflammation, increased levels of circulating soluble adhesion molecules and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the levels of circulating soluble adhesion molecules and the degree of atherosclerosis in normotensive type-2 diabetic patients. Results: We found significant correlations between ICAM-1 (r = 0.69, p < 0.001 95% IC 0.65 to 0.82) and VCAM-1 (r = 0.4, p < 0.03, 95% IC 0.65 to 0.82) levels and maximal carotid artery intimal-medial thickness, whereas no correlation was observed with E-selectin. Methods: We studied 30 normotensive type-2 diabetic patients in whom VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin were measured by ELISA. Additionally, the intimal-medial thickness of both the common and internal carotid arteries was measured (B-mode ultrasound). The levels of circulating adhesion molecules and maximal carotid artery intimal-medial thicknesses were correlated using the Spearman correlation coefficient test. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are markers associated, and correlated with the degree of atherosclerosis in normotensive type-2 diabetic patients. PMID:19717975

  7. The Effect of Circulation Fan on Energy Consumption in Nature Convective Refrigerator-Freezer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhi-li; DING Guo-liang

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the circulation fan installed in fresh food compartment on energy consumption of natural convective refrigerator/freezers (RFs) was experimentally studied. Five different RF models with different cycles were tested. The experimental results showed that the energy consumption of the single-loop cycle RF increased by 2.4%~3.8%, that of the bypass two-circuit cycle RF decreased by 1.0%, and that of the two-circuit cycle RF with its evaporators in parallel when the geometry parameters of refrigeration system and the refrigerant charge were not changed after the circulation fan was installed decreased by 3.3%. When the optimization on the refrigerant charge and the evaporator was carried out, the energy consumption of the single-loop cycle RF , the bypass two-circuit cycle RF and the two-circuit cycle RF with its evaporators in parallel, decreased by 1.0%~ 6.4%,3.25% and 3.23% respectively. The present conclusions will provide a guideline to the optimum design for the RF with the circulation fan.

  8. Safety of different acupuncture manipulations for posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wen; Chao Zhang; Xiao-feng Zhao; Shi-zhe Deng; Si He; Ling-hui Huang; Guang Tian; Zhi-hong Meng

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture at Fengchi (GB20) in the posterior neck improves vertigo. However, subarachnoid hemorrhage and spinal epidural hematoma have been reported to occur after acupuncture in the posterior neck. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the safety of acupuncture at Fengchi. Laboratory tests and adverse event reports were used to evaluate the safety of different acupuncture manipulations for the treat-ment of posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo. A total of 136 patients were randomly assigned to four groups. Verum acupuncture was conducted with different needle insertion directions (contralateral paropia or prominentia laryngea) and different needle twisting frequencies (60 or 120 times/minute) at Fengchi and matching acupoints (for example, Zhongwan [CV12], Qihai [CV6], Zusanli [ST36], and Fenglong [ST40]). The patients received 14 treatments over 3–4 weeks. Routine blood analysis, hepatic and renal function tests, urine and feces tests and electrocardiography were performed before the ifrst treatment session and after the ifnal session. Adverse events were recorded after every session. Of the 136 patients, 120 completed the study. There were no signiifcant differences between pretreatment and posttreatment test results in any of the groups. Only ifve patients suffered from minor adverse events (needling pain, slight hematoma and transient chest tightness). No serious adverse events were found. Our results indicate that a 14-session course of needling at Fengchi is rela-tively safe for treating posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo.

  9. Safety of different acupuncture manipulations for posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Xiao-feng; Deng, Shi-zhe; He, Si; Huang, Ling-hui; Tian, Guang; Meng, Zhi-hong

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture at Fengchi (GB20) in the posterior neck improves vertigo. However, subarachnoid hemorrhage and spinal epidural hematoma have been reported to occur after acupuncture in the posterior neck. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the safety of acupuncture at Fengchi. Laboratory tests and adverse event reports were used to evaluate the safety of different acupuncture manipulations for the treatment of posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo. A total of 136 patients were randomly assigned to four groups. Verum acupuncture was conducted with different needle insertion directions (contralateral paropia or prominentia laryngea) and different needle twisting frequencies (60 or 120 times/minute) at Fengchi and matching acupoints (for example, Zhongwan [CV12], Qihai [CV6], Zusanli [ST36], and Fenglong [ST40]). The patients received 14 treatments over 3–4 weeks. Routine blood analysis, hepatic and renal function tests, urine and feces tests and electrocardiography were performed before the first treatment session and after the final session. Adverse events were recorded after every session. Of the 136 patients, 120 completed the study. There were no significant differences between pretreatment and posttreatment test results in any of the groups. Only five patients suffered from minor adverse events (needling pain, slight hematoma and transient chest tightness). No serious adverse events were found. Our results indicate that a 14-session course of needling at Fengchi is relatively safe for treating posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo. PMID:27651774

  10. Safety of different acupuncture manipulations for posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture at Fengchi (GB20 in the posterior neck improves vertigo. However, subarachnoid hemorrhage and spinal epidural hematoma have been reported to occur after acupuncture in the posterior neck. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the safety of acupuncture at Fengchi. Laboratory tests and adverse event reports were used to evaluate the safety of different acupuncture manipulations for the treatment of posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo. A total of 136 patients were randomly assigned to four groups. Verum acupuncture was conducted with different needle insertion directions (contralateral paropia or prominentia laryngea and different needle twisting frequencies (60 or 120 times/minute at Fengchi and matching acupoints (for example, Zhongwan [CV12], Qihai [CV6], Zusanli [ST36], and Fenglong [ST40]. The patients received 14 treatments over 3–4 weeks. Routine blood analysis, hepatic and renal function tests, urine and feces tests and electrocardiography were performed before the first treatment session and after the final session. Adverse events were recorded after every session. Of the 136 patients, 120 completed the study. There were no significant differences between pretreatment and posttreatment test results in any of the groups. Only five patients suffered from minor adverse events (needling pain, slight hematoma and transient chest tightness. No serious adverse events were found. Our results indicate that a 14-session course of needling at Fengchi is relatively safe for treating posterior circulation ischemia with vertigo.

  11. DEFORMATION OF MOISTURE FLUX CIRCULATION SURROUNDING THE LANDFALL TYPHOON "BILIS"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Ling-kun; YANG Wen-xia; HONG Yan-chao

    2009-01-01

    The deformation parameter (DP), which is defined as the product of shear deformation and stretching deformation of moisture flux circulation, is introduced. The tendency equation of DP is derived in pressure coordinates. Furthermore, DP is used to diagnose the deformation character of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis. The analysis showed that before Bilis landed, DP presented eight abnormal areas, which distributed alternately and closely encircled the low-pressure center. This indicated that the moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis rotated counterclockwise and stretched longitudinally and latitudinally to deform. After Bilis landed, DP weakened gradually and its regular pattern of horizontal distribution loosened. The shear and stretching deformations of moisture flux circulation surrounding Bilis weakened after the typhoon landed. The deformation of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis mainly appeared in the middle-lower troposphere. There existed 1/2 phase difference between the shear and stretching deformations in the vertical-latitudinal cross section and a π/4 phase difference between them on the horizontal plane. As Bilis landed and further moved inland of China, the intensities of DP, shear and stretching deformations decreased, meanwhile their vertical and horizontal structures became irregular. The chief dynamic factors responsible for the deformation of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis were the three terms associated with the three-dimensional advection transportation of DP, square difference between shear and stretching deformations coupling with Coriolis parameter, and horizontal gradient of geopotential height before Bilis landed. The last two dynamic factors impacted jointly on the deformation of moisture flux circulation after Bilis landed.

  12. Characterization of quantum circulant networks having perfect state transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bašić, Milan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we answer the question of when circulant quantum spin networks with nearest-neighbor couplings can give perfect state transfer. The network is described by a circulant graph G, which is characterized by its circulant adjacency matrix A. Formally, we say that there exists a perfect state transfer (PST) between vertices {a,bin V(G)} if | F( τ) ab | = 1, for some positive real number τ, where F( t) = exp(i At). Saxena et al. (Int J Quantum Inf 5:417-430, 2007) proved that | F( τ) aa | = 1 for some {ain V(G)} and {tauin {R}^+} if and only if all eigenvalues of G are integer (that is, the graph is integral). The integral circulant graph ICG n ( D) has the vertex set Z n = {0, 1, 2, . . . , n - 1} and vertices a and b are adjacent if {gcd(a-b,n)in D} , where {D subseteq {d : d mid n, 1 ≤ d < n}} . These graphs are highly symmetric and have important applications in chemical graph theory. We show that ICG n ( D) has PST if and only if {nin 4{N}} and {D=widetilde{D_3} \\cup D_2\\cup 2D_2\\cup 4D_2|cup {n/2^a}} , where {widetilde{D_3}={din D | n/din 8{N}}, D_2= {din D | n/din 8{N}+4}{setminus}{n/4}} and {ain{1,2}} . We have thus answered the question of complete characterization of perfect state transfer in integral circulant graphs raised in Angeles-Canul et al. (Quantum Inf Comput 10(3&4):0325-0342, 2010). Furthermore, we also calculate perfect quantum communication distance (distance between vertices where PST occurs) and describe the spectra of integral circulant graphs having PST. We conclude by giving a closed form expression calculating the number of integral circulant graphs of a given order having PST.

  13. Diagnostic Potential of Circulating MicroRNA-21 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Alnoanmany

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background amp AimsSeveral studies have reported the significance of circulating microRNA as a biochemical marker of cancer. However there are no reports on the significance of circulating microRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of plasma microRNA-21 level as a biochemical marker for hepatocellular carcinoma.Materials amp Methods To identify the causal role of MicroRNA-21 in hepatocarcinogenesis we used a human model in which 30 diagnosed HCC cases of different stages 20 HCV positive cases and 20 healthy controls were tested for circulating microRNA-21 using whole blood samples taken from mentioned individuals at National Liver Institute Menoufiya University. MicroRNA extraction Amplification RT-PCR was done for all samples with other various biochemical analysis. Results Real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated upregulation of oncogenic miR-21 at different stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. On the other hand there were no significant miRNA-21 changes neither in HCV nor Control groups. ROC study showed that the best cutoff value for miR-21 was 3.93 Fold expression and the sensitivity was 93 while the specificity was 90. Compared to the cutoff value for AFP which was 91.7 ngmL and the sensitivity was 75.2 while the specificity was 92.3 .Conclusion Circulating MiRNA-21 level is more sensitive than AFP and highly specific as a biological marker for HCC also it is proved to be beneficial in early diagnosis of HCC.Targeting of microRNA-21 is sufficient to limit tumor cell proliferation and invasion in a manner that is likely to involve associated changes in multiple targets suggesting that suppression of microRNA-21 may be an approach for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. Circulating miRNAs as Biomarkers of Acute Muscle Damage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Julien; Koulmann, Nathalie; Bourdon, Stéphanie; Goriot, Marie-Emmanuelle; Banzet, Sébastien

    2016-05-01

    Skeletal muscle damage is an often-occurring event. Diagnosis using the classic blood marker creatine kinase sometimes yields unsatisfactory results due to great interindividual variability. Therefore, the identification of reliable biomarkers is important. Our aim was to detect and characterize circulating miRNAs in plasma in response to acute notexin-induced muscle damage in rats. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR profiling led to the identification of miRNAs that were highly increased in plasma in response to notexin injection into several muscles, namely miR-1-3p, -133a-3p, -133b-3p, -206-3p, -208b-3p, and -499-5p, as well as miR-378a-3p and miR-434-3p. Peak values of miRNAs appeared 12 hours after injury, and were contained both in the vesicular and nonvesicular fractions of plasma. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that circulating miRNAs could accurately discriminate between damaged and nondamaged tissues. Furthermore, we tested the robustness of expression profiles in slow- and fast-type fibers. Upon inducing damage in slow- or fast-type muscle, we found that the damaged-muscle phenotype had a very limited impact on the miRNA response. Similarly, the circulating miRNAs selected were not affected by hemolysis or platelets, two pre-analytical factors known to affect plasma miRNA profiles. Taken together, our results show that circulating muscle-specific miRNAs, miR-378a-3p and miR-434-3p, are robust and promising biomarkers of acute muscle damage in rats.

  15. Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, K.A.; Warner, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Circulating adiponectin levels in various malignancies: an updated meta-analysis of 107 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tai; Ye, Peng; Peng, Xin; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2016-07-26

    Early detection of cancers is challenging for lack of specific biomarkers. Adiponectin is an adipokine predominantly derived from adipocytes and hypoadiponectinemia has been reported to associate with risk of many types of cancers. However, available evidence is controversial. Some studies show that increased adiponectin levels correlate with cancer risk. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of the association between circulating adiponectin levels and cancer development. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Wiley Online Library and Cochrane Library was conducted for eligible studies involving circulating adiponectin and malignancies from inception to August 8, 2015. Standard mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by use of a random-effect model. Funnel plot and Egger's linear regression test were conducted to examine the risk of publication bias. 107 studies were included with 19,319 cases and 25,675 controls. The pooled analysis indicated that circulating adiponectin levels were lower in patients with various cancers than in controls, with a pooled SMD of -0.334 μg/ml (95% CI, -0.465 to -0.203, P = 0.000). No evidence of publication bias was observed. Circulating high molecular weight adiponectin levels were also lower in cancer patients than in controls, with a pooled SMD of -0.502 μg/ml (95% CI, -0.957 to -0.047, P = 0.000). This meta-analysis provides further evidence that decreased adiponectin levels is associated with risk of various cancers. Hypoadiponectinemia may represent a useful biomarker for early detection of cancers.

  17. Kinematic vorticity number – a tool for estimating vortex sizes and circulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Schielicke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of extratropical vortices on a global scale is mainly characterised by their size and by the magnitude of their circulation. However, the determination of these properties is still a great challenge since a vortex has no clear delimitations but is part of the flow field itself. In this work, we introduce a kinematic vortex size determination method based on the kinematic vorticity number Wk to atmospheric flows. Wk relates the local rate-of-rotation to the local rate-of-deformation at every point in the field and a vortex core is identified as a simply connected region where the rotation prevails over the deformation. Additionally, considering the sign of vorticity in the extended Wk-method allows to identify highs and lows in different vertical layers of the atmosphere and to study vertical as well as horizontal vortex interactions. We will test the Wk-method in different idealised -D (superposition of two lows/low and jet and real -D flow situations (winter storm affecting Europe and compare the results with traditional methods based on the pressure and the vorticity fields. In comparison to these traditional methods, the Wk-method is able to extract vortex core sizes even in shear-dominated regions that occur frequently in the upper troposphere. Furthermore, statistics of the size and circulation distributions of cyclones will be given. Since the Wk-method identifies vortex cores, the identified radii are subsynoptic with a broad peak around 300–500 km at the 1000 hPa level. However, the total circulating area is not only restricted to the core. In general, circulations are in the order of 107 m2/s with only a few cyclones in the order of 108 m2/s.

  18. Biomarker utility of circulating tumor cells in metastatic cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoja, Leila; Lorigan, Paul; Zhou, Cong; Lancashire, Matthew; Booth, Jessica; Cummings, Jeff; Califano, Raffaele; Clack, Glen; Hughes, Andrew; Dive, Caroline

    2013-06-01

    The incidence of melanoma is increasing worldwide. Advances in targeted agents and immunotherapy have improved outcomes in metastatic disease, but biomarkers are required to optimize treatment. We determined the prevalence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and explored their utility as prognostic and pharmacodynamic biomarkers. A total of 101 patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma were recruited prospectively. CTC number was determined using the CellSearch platform and melanoma kits in samples taken at baseline and serially during treatment. CTC numbers ranged between 0 and 36 per 7.5 ml blood; 26% of patients had ≥ 2 CTCs. Baseline CTC number was prognostic for median overall survival (OS) in univariate analysis (2.6 vs. 7.2 months (P<0.011) for patients with ≥ 2 CTCs vs. <2 CTCs, respectively). In multivariate analysis, CTC number was an independent prognostic biomarker of OS (hazard ratio (HR) 2.403, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.303-4.430, P=0.005). Patients receiving treatment in whom CTC number remained ≥ 2 CTCs during treatment had shorter median OS than those who maintained <2 CTCs (7 vs. 10 months, HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14-0.81, log-rank test P=0.015). In conclusion, CTC number in metastatic cutaneous melanoma patients is prognostic for OS with a cutoff of 2 CTCs per 7.5 ml blood. CTC number measured before and throughout treatment provided additional prognostic information. Larger studies are warranted to confirm CTC biomarker utility in melanoma patients.

  19. Challenges posed to the maternal circulation by pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdés G

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gloria Valdés, Jenny CorthornCentro de Investigaciones Médicas y Departamento Nefrología, Escuela Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica, Santiago, ChileAbstract: In primates, adequate growth of the fetus depends on the development of the uteroplacental unit. On the fetal side, this is achieved by the creation of the vascular network of the placenta. On the maternal side, the transformation of the spiral arteries into saccular nonreactive vessels by the trophoblast provides high blood flow to the intervillous space. Apart from the changes in the uterine arteries, the mother expands her plasma volume – at the expense of stimulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system – and her cardiac output. In the maintaining of normotension in the face of an increased cardiac output and plasma volume, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system requires an enhanced vasodilator synthesis. Finally, in the late stages of pregnancy, a normal endothelial function is required to provide an ample margin to the activation provoked by deportation of syncytiotrophoblast fragments/factors to the maternal circulation. These four adaptative processes require various interrelated vasodilator systems. Deficient adaptations cause isolated or proteinuric arterial hypertension, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and stillbirths, among others. Moreover, a normal or a defective adaptation to pregnancy influences maternal cardiovascular health in later life, as evidenced by various studies, most of them epidemiological; thus, pregnancy is now considered a stress test to the maternal cardiovascular system. Because of this, women planning to become pregnant should be screened for clinical and biochemical cardiovascular risks. Inversely, women presenting with hypertension in pregnancy should be thoroughly studied to detect and correct cardiovascular risks. The incorporation of the predictive value of a hypertensive pregnancy should help reduce

  20. Exercise increases endostatin in circulation of healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makey Ian

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity increases the risk of atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms of this relation are poorly understood. A recent report indicates that endostatin, an endogenous angiostatic factor, inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis, and suggests that reducing intimal and atherosclerotic plaque tissue neovascularization can inhibit the progression atherosclerosis in animal models. We hypothesize that exercise can elevate the circulatory endostatin level. Hence, exercise can protect against one of the mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Results We examined treadmill exercise tests in healthy volunteers to determine the effect of exercise on plasma levels of endostatin and other angiogenic regulators. Oxygen consumption (VO2 was calculated. Plasma levels of endostatin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF were determined using ELISA. The total peak VO2 (L in 7 male subjects was 29.5 ± 17.8 over a 4–10 minute interval of exercise. Basal plasma levels of endostatin (immediately before exercise were 20.3 ± 3.2 pg/ml, the plasma levels increased to 29.3 ± 4.2, 35.2 ± 1.8, and 27.1 ± 2.2 ng/ml, at 0.5, 2, and 6 h, respectively, after exercise. There was a strong linear correlation between increased plasma levels of endostatin (% and the total peak VO2 (L related to exercise (R2 = 0.9388; P Conclusions The results suggest that circulating endostatin can be significantly increased by exercise in proportion to the peak oxygen consumption under physiological conditions in healthy volunteers. These findings may provide new insights into the molecular links between physical inactivity and the risk of angiogenesis dependent diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  1. Connection between ozone concentration and atmosphere circulation at peak Moussala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter; Ivanov, Peter; Kalapov, Ivo; Penev, Ilia; Drenska, Mirolujba

    2009-09-01

    Connection between ozone concentration and atmosphere circulation is investigated based on measurements at BEO station, peak Moussala (2,925 m a.s.l.), for the period 09 August 2006 to 29 January 2008. Ozone concentration data are collected with UV-analyzer “Environnement O3 42” and meteo data with weather station “Vaisala”. There are measurements of 7Be. Data from NOAA HYSPLIT model for particle trajectories are also used. Eight wind directions and three ranges of wind velocities are employed in the analysis. A comparison of ozone concentrations in upward and downward air transport according to HYSPLIT model is made. The number of cases with ozone concentration above 63 ppb has been counted. Mann-Whitney nonparametric test is employed as a basic statistical method. Correlation between atmosphere pressure and tropospheric ozone content is made. The same is done for 7Be and ozone. The main conclusion is that there is not any local or regional pollution effect detectable at peak Moussala, but most of the ozone measured is due to emissions of hydrocarbons and NO x over a larger region. There could be some regional sources of ozone building substances in southwest direction from peak Moussala. Air transported from the north quarter has higher ozone concentrations compared to the south quarter. In vertical direction, upward transport of air masses shows higher values of ozone concentration. Higher wind velocity is associated with low ozone concentrations at peak Moussala. The annual course of ozone concentration has summer maximum and winter minimum. There is right connection between air pressure and ozone concentration. The same is valid for the correlation between 7Be and ozone. Diurnal ozone course shows daytime maximum in winter and nighttime maximum in summer.

  2. Polarized 3He Gas Circulating Technologies for Neutron Analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, David; Hersman, Bill

    2014-12-10

    We describe the development of an integrated system for quasi-continuous operation of a large volume neutron analyzer. The system consists of a non-magnetic diaphragm compressor, a prototype large volume helium polarizer, a surrogate neutron analyzer, a non-depolarizing gas storage reservoir, a non-ferrous valve manifold for handling gas distribution, a custom rubidium-vapor gas return purifier, and wire-wound transfer lines, all of which are immersed in a two-meter external magnetic field. Over the Phase II period we focused on three major tasks required for the successful deployment of these types of systems: 1) design and implementation of gas handling hardware, 2) automation for long-term operation, and 3) improvements in polarizer performance, specifically fabrication of aluminosilicate optical pumping cells. In this report we describe the design, implementation, and testing of the gas handling hardware. We describe improved polarizer performance resulting from improved cell materials and fabrication methods. These improvements yielded valved 8.5 liter cells with relaxation times greater than 12 hours. Pumping this cell with 1500W laser power with 1.25nm linewidth yielded peak polarizations of 60%, measured both inside and outside the polarizer. Fully narrowing this laser to 0.25nm, demonstrated separately on one stack of the four, would have allowed 70% polarization with this cell. We demonstrated the removal of 5 liters of polarized helium from the polarizer with no measured loss of polarization. We circulated the gas through a titanium-clad compressor with polarization loss below 3% per pass. We also prepared for the next phase of development by refining the design of the polarizer so that it can be engineer-certified for pressurized operation. The performance of our system far exceeds comparable efforts elsewhere.

  3. Lab-on-chip platform for circulating tumor cells isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, D. K.; Fooladvand, M.; Gray, E.; Ziman, M.; Alameh, K.

    2015-12-01

    We design, develop and demonstrate the principle of a continuous, non-intrusive, low power microfluidics-based lab-ona- chip (LOC) structure for Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) separation. Cell separation is achieved through 80 cascaded contraction and expansion microchannels of widths 60 μm and 300 μm, respectively, and depth 60 μm, which enable momentum-change-induced inertial forces to be exerted on the cells, thus routing them to desired destinations. The total length of the developed LOC is 72 mm. The LOC structure is simulated using the COMSOL multiphysics software, which enables the optimization of the dimensions of the various components of the LOC structure, namely the three inlets, three filters, three contraction and expansion microchannel segments and five outlets. Simulation results show that the LOC can isolate CTCs of sizes ranging from 15 to 30 μm with a recovery rate in excess of 90%. Fluorescent microparticles of two different sizes (5 μm and 15 μm), emulating blood and CTC cells, respectively, are used to demonstrate the principle of the developed LOC. A mixture of these microparticles is injected into the primary LOC inlet via an electronically-controlled syringe pump, and the large-size particles are routed to the primary LOC outlet through the contraction and expansion microchannels. Experimental results demonstrate the ability of the developed LOC to isolate particles by size exclusion with an accuracy of 80%. Ongoing research is focusing on the LOC design improvement for better separation efficiency and testing of biological samples for isolation of CTCs.

  4. Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J Iacono

    2011-04-07

    This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

  5. Spent fuel test - Climax: technical measurements. Interim report, Fiscal Year 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, W.C.; Butkovich, T.R.; Carlson, R.C.; Durham, W.B.; Ganow, H.C.; Hage, G.L.; Majer, E.L.; Montan, D.N.; Nyholm, R.A.; Rector, N.L.

    1984-02-01

    The Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) is located 420 m below surface in the Climax stock granite on the Nevada Test Site. The test is being conducted as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized April-May 1980. The spent-fuel canisters were retrieved and the thermal sources were de-energized in March-April 1983 when test data indicated that test objectives were met during the 3-year storage phase. The SFT-C operational objective of demonstrating the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner has been met. In addition to emplacement and retrieval operations, three exchanges of spent-fuel between the SFT-C and a surface storage facility, conducted during the storage phase, furthered this demonstration. Technical objectives of the test led to development of a technical measurements program, which is the subject of this and three previous interim reports. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data have been recorded on a continuing basis for the 3-1/2 year duration of the test on more than 900 channels. Data acquisition from the test is now limited to instrumentation calibration and evaluation activities. Data now available for analysis are presented here. Highlights of activities this year include a campaign of in situ stress measurements, mineralogical and petrological studies of pretest core samples, microfracture analyses of laboratory irradiated cores, improved calculations of near-field heat transfer and thermomechanical response during the final months of heating as well as during a six-month cool-down period, metallurgical analyses of selected test components, and further development of the data acquisition and data management systems. 27 references, 68 figures, 10 tables.

  6. Preliminary Study of Single-Phase Natural Circulation for Lab-scaled Molten Salt Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yukyung; Kang, Sarah; Kim, In Guk; Seo, Seok Bin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Advanced reactors such as MSR (FHR), VHTR and AHTR utilized molten salt as a coolant for efficiency and safety which has advantages in higher heat capacity, lower pumping power and scale compared to liquid metal. It becomes more necessary to study on the characteristics of molten salt. However, due to several characteristics such as high operating temperature, large-scale facility and preventing solidification, satisfying that condition for study has difficulties. Thus simulant fluid was used with scaling method for lab-scale experiment. Scaled experiment enables simulant fluid to simulate fluid mechanics and heat transfer behavior of molten salt on lower operating temperature and reduced scale. In this paper, as a proof test of the scaled experiment, simplified single-phase natural circulation loop was designed in a lab-scale and applied to the passive safety system in advanced reactor in which molten salt is considered as a major coolant of the system. For the application of the improved safety system, prototype was based on the primary loop of the test-scale DRACS, the main passive safety system in FHR, developed at the OSU. For preliminary experiment, single-phase natural circulation under low power was performed. DOWTHERM A and DOWTHERM RP were selected as simulant candidates. Then, study of feasibility with simulant was conducted based on the scaling law for heat transfer characteristics and geometric parameters. Additionally, simulation with MARS code and ANSYS-CFX with the same condition of natural circulation was carried out as verification. For the accurate code simulation, thermo-physical properties of DOWTHERM A and RP were developed and implemented into MARS code. In this study, single-phase natural circulation experiment was performed with simulant oil, DOWTHERM RP, based on the passive safety system of FHR. Feasibility of similarity experiment for molten salt with oil simulant was confirmed by scaling method. In addition, simulation with two

  7. A regional ocean circulation model for the mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic Basin: implications for black shale formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. M. Topper

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High concentrations of organic matter accumulated in marine sediments during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs in the Cretaceous. Model studies examining these events invariably make use of global ocean circulation models. In this study, a regional model for the North Atlantic Basin during OAE2 at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary has been developed. A first order check of the results has been performed by comparison with the results of a recent global Cenomanian CCSM3 run, from which boundary and initial conditions were obtained. The regional model is able to maintain tracer patterns and to produce velocity patterns similar to the global model. The sensitivity of the basin tracer and circulation patterns to changes in the geometry of the connections with the global ocean is examined with three experiments with different bathymetries near the sponges. Different geometries turn out to have little effect on tracer distribution, but do affect circulation and upwelling patterns. The regional model is also used to test the hypothesis that ocean circulation may have been behind the deposition of black shales during OAEs. Three scenarios are tested which are thought to represent pre-OAE, OAE and post-OAE situations. Model results confirm that Pacific intermediate inflow together with coastal upwelling could have enhanced primary production during OAE2. A low sea level in the pre-OAE scenario could have inhibited large scale black shale formation, as could have the opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Seaway in the post-OAE scenario.

  8. Testing of a Neon Loop Heat Pipe for Large Area Cryocooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Robinson, Franklin Lee

    2014-01-01

    Cryocooling of large areas such as optics, detector arrays, and cryogenic propellant tanks is required for future NASA missions. A cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) can provide a closed-loop cooling system for this purpose and has many advantages over other devices in terms of reduced mass, reduced vibration, high reliability, and long life. A neon CLHP was tested extensively in a thermal vacuum chamber using a cryopump as the heat sink to characterize its transient and steady performance and verify its ability to cool large areas or components. Tests conducted included loop cool-down from the ambient temperature, startup, power cycle, heat removal capability, loop capillary limit and recovery from a dry-out, low power operation, and long duration steady state operation. The neon CLHP demonstrated robust operation. The loop could be cooled from the ambient temperature to subcritical temperatures very effectively, and could start successfully by applying power to both the pump and evaporator without any pre-conditioning. It could adapt to changes in the pump power andor evaporator power, and reach a new steady state very quickly. The evaporator could remove heat loads between 0.25W and 4W. When the pump capillary limit was exceeded, the loop could resume its normal function by reducing the pump power. Steady state operations were demonstrated for up to 6 hours. The ability of the neon loop to cool large areas was therefore successfully verified.

  9. Glacial ocean circulation and stratification explained by reduced atmospheric temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Malte F.

    2017-01-01

    Earth’s climate has undergone dramatic shifts between glacial and interglacial time periods, with high-latitude temperature changes on the order of 5–10 °C. These climatic shifts have been associated with major rearrangements in the deep ocean circulation and stratification, which have likely played an important role in the observed atmospheric carbon dioxide swings by affecting the partitioning of carbon between the atmosphere and the ocean. The mechanisms by which the deep ocean circulation changed, however, are still unclear and represent a major challenge to our understanding of glacial climates. This study shows that various inferred changes in the deep ocean circulation and stratification between glacial and interglacial climates can be interpreted as a direct consequence of atmospheric temperature differences. Colder atmospheric temperatures lead to increased sea ice cover and formation rate around Antarctica. The associated enhanced brine rejection leads to a strongly increased deep ocean stratification, consistent with high abyssal salinities inferred for the last glacial maximum. The increased stratification goes together with a weakening and shoaling of the interhemispheric overturning circulation, again consistent with proxy evidence for the last glacial. The shallower interhemispheric overturning circulation makes room for slowly moving water of Antarctic origin, which explains the observed middepth radiocarbon age maximum and may play an important role in ocean carbon storage.

  10. PWR hot leg natural circulation modeling with MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Jong In [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Previous MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 nodalizations for simulating the counter-current, natural circulation behavior of vapor flow within the RCS hot legs and SG U-tubes when core damage progress can not be applied to the steady state and water-filled conditions during the initial period of accident progression because of the artificially high loss coefficients in the hot legs and SG U-tubes which were chosen from results of COMMIX calculation and the Westinghouse natural circulation experiments in a 1/7-scale facility for simulating steam natural circulation behavior in the vessel and circulation modeling which can be used both for the liquid flow condition at steady state and for the vapor flow condition at the later period of in-vessel core damage. For this, the drag forces resulting from the momentum exchange effects between the two vapor streams in the hot leg was modeled as a pressure drop by pump model. This hot leg natural circulation modeling of MELCOR was able to reproduce similar mass flow rates with those predicted by previous models. 6 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  11. Mixing and dissipation in a geostrophic buoyancy-driven circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreugdenhil, Catherine A.; Gayen, Bishakhdatta; Griffiths, Ross W.

    2016-08-01

    Turbulent mixing and energy dissipation have important roles in the global circulation but are not resolved by ocean models. We use direct numerical simulations of a geostrophic circulation, resolving turbulence and convection, to examine the rates of dissipation and mixing. As a starting point, we focus on circulation in a rotating rectangular basin forced by a surface temperature difference but no wind stress. Emphasis is on the geostrophic regime for the horizontal circulation, but also on the case of strong buoyancy forcing (large Rayleigh number), which implies a turbulent convective boundary layer. The computed results are consistent with existing scaling theory that predicts dynamics and heat transport dependent on the relative thicknesses of thermal and Ekman boundary layers, hence on the relative roles of buoyancy and rotation. Scaling theory is extended to describe the volume-integrated rate of mixing, which is proportional to heat transport and decreases with increasing rotation rate or decreasing temperature difference. In contrast, viscous dissipation depends crucially on whether the thermal boundary layer is laminar or turbulent, with no direct Coriolis effect on the turbulence unless rotation is extremely strong. For strong forcing, in the geostrophic regime, the mechanical energy input from buoyancy goes primarily into mixing rather than dissipation. For a buoyancy-driven circulation in a basin comparable to the North Atlantic we estimate that the total rate of mixing accounts for over 95% of the mechanical energy supply, implying that buoyancy is an efficient driver of mixing in the oceans.

  12. Composite circulation index of weather extremes (the example for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Ustrnul

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation of a composite circulation index of weather extremes (CIE. The new index informs about the synoptic conditions favoring the occurrence of extremes on a regional scale. It was evaluated for temperature and precipitation extremes for Poland. Daily homogenized data obtained from 14 weather stations, which cover most of the country, were used. The data used cover the 60-year period from 1951 to 2010. The index is based on relationships between extremes and mesoscale circulation conditions. The core material also included data describing circulation types for the study period. Three different calendars were used (Grosswetterlagen, by Lity?ski, by Nied?wied?. The conditional probability of the occurrence of extremes for particular types was calculated independently using partial indices (Partial Index of weather Extremes ? PIE. The higher the index values, the more favorable the synoptic situation for the occurrence of extremes. The results were grouped by describing the probability of temperature and precipitation extremes on the IPCC likelihood scale. Three thresholds corresponding to the frequency of an occurrence were identified via a seasonal approach. The CIE was validated using basic correlation coefficients as well as contingency tables based on feature-displacement criteria and Bayesian Probability Methods. The results confirmed the significance of atmospheric circulation in the formation of temperature and precipitation extremes in Poland. The CIE proved the relationship by trying to estimate the probability of temperature and precipitation extremes occurrence depending on the circulation type forecasted.

  13. Seasonal variability in the Central Mediterranean Sea circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sorgente

    Full Text Available A high resolution eddy-resolving primitive equation numerical model, based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM, is used to study the seasonal variability of the general circulation in the Central Mediterranean Sea. The model is run on a seasonal cycle, perpetual year simulation for five years, with nesting to the coarser resolution Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM, covering the whole Mediterranean Sea. The model results are compared to the current knowledge on the hydrography and dynamics of the area, with a special focus on the annual cycle of the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW, on the circulation in the Sardinia Channel, the water exchange across the Strait of Sicily, and on the transition and fate of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW. The results show that the adopted coupling techniques between the two models give a proficient downscaling of the large-scale OGCM flow field into the regional scale model. The numerical solution is also used to highlight the seasonal characteristics of important dynamical features in the area, as well as to shed light on the scarcely known circulation regimes along the north African shelf and slope.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (numerical modelling; Oceanography: physical (currents; general circulation

  14. Circulation in the South China Sea in summer of 1998

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the CTD and meteorological data obtained by R/V Xiangyanghong No.14 in the South China Sea (SCS) in the summer of 1998, both current velocity and volume transport are calculated by using a modified inverse model. Circulation in the SCS is analyzed by combining the calculated results with ADCP data. The following results are obtained. (i) The most important feature of the circulation in the northeastern SCS is that a branch of the Kuroshio intrudes into the SCS with a small volume transport. It flows anticyclonically through the Bashi Strait and towards the southwest off the Taiwan Island, and it does not intrude into the inner SCS. (ii) The northern SCS is dominated mainly by a cyclonic circulation system with two cold eddies. (iii) The central and southwestern SCSs are mainly occupied by anticyclonic circulation systems, including three anticyclonic and one stronger cyclonic eddies. (iv) In the southeastern SCS, there is a large scope of cyclonic circulation extending in the SW-NE direction. (v) There is a "multi-eddy phenomenon" in the SCS, and a larger eddy contains several small eddies. (vi) There is western intensifying of the currents and eddies in the SCS.

  15. Multi-stage circulating fluidized bed syngas cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Guan, Xiaofeng; Peng, WanWang

    2016-10-11

    A method and apparatus for cooling hot gas streams in the temperature range 800.degree. C. to 1600.degree. C. using multi-stage circulating fluid bed (CFB) coolers is disclosed. The invention relates to cooling the hot syngas from coal gasifiers in which the hot syngas entrains substances that foul, erode and corrode heat transfer surfaces upon contact in conventional coolers. The hot syngas is cooled by extracting and indirectly transferring heat to heat transfer surfaces with circulating inert solid particles in CFB syngas coolers. The CFB syngas coolers are staged to facilitate generation of steam at multiple conditions and hot boiler feed water that are necessary for power generation in an IGCC process. The multi-stage syngas cooler can include internally circulating fluid bed coolers, externally circulating fluid bed coolers and hybrid coolers that incorporate features of both internally and externally circulating fluid bed coolers. Higher process efficiencies can be realized as the invention can handle hot syngas from various types of gasifiers without the need for a less efficient precooling step.

  16. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, Goekcen; Cifci, Egemen; Yildirim, Erkan; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey)

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  17. Derivation of multipotent progenitors from human circulating CD14+ monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seta, Noriyuki; Kuwana, Masataka

    2010-07-01

    Circulating CD14(+) monocytes are originated from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and believed to be committed precursors for phagocytes, such as macrophages. Recently, we have reported a primitive cell population termed monocyte-derived multipotential cells (MOMCs), which has a fibroblast-like morphology in culture and a unique phenotype positive for CD14, CD45, CD34, and type I collagen. MOMCs are derived from circulating CD14(+) monocytes, but circulating precursors for MOMCs still remain undetermined. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of MOMCs and other monocyte-derived cells has revealed that embryonic stem cell markers, Nanog and Oct-4, are specifically expressed by MOMCs. In vitro generation of MOMCs requires binding to fibronectin and exposure to soluble factors derived from activated platelets. MOMCs contain progenitors with capacity to differentiate into a variety of nonphagocytes, including bone, cartilage, fat, skeletal and cardiac muscle, neuron, and endothelium, indicating that circulating monocytes are more multipotent than previously thought. In addition, MOMCs are capable of promoting ex vivo expansion of human hematopoietic progenitor cells through direct cell-to-cell contact and secretion of a variety of hematopoietic growth factors. These findings obtained from the research on MOMCs indicate that CD14(+) monocytes in circulation are involved in a variety of physiologic functions other than innate and acquired immune responses, such as repair and regeneration of the damaged tissue.

  18. Stability of Thermohaline circulation with respect to fresh water release

    CERN Document Server

    Patwardhan, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    The relatively warm climate found in the North- Western Europe is due to the gulf stream that circulates warm saline water from southern latitudes to Europe. In North Atlantic ocean the stream gives out a large amount of heat, cools down and sinks to the bottom to complete the Thermohaline circulation. There is considerable debate on the stability of the stream to inputs of fresh water from the melting ice in Greenland and Arctic. The circulation, being switched off, will have massive impact on the climate of Europe. Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) has warned of this danger in its recent report. Our aim is to model the Thermohaline circulation at the point where it sinks in the North-Atlantic. We create a two dimensional discrete map modeling the salinity gradient and vertical velocity of the stream. We look for how a perturbation in the form of fresh water release can destabilise the circulation by pushing the velocity below a certain threshold.

  19. West Nile Virus Surveillance in 2013 via Mosquito Screening in Northern Italy and the Influence of Weather on Virus Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, Mattia; Pautasso, Alessandra; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Albieri, Alessandro; Bellini, Romeo; Bonilauri, Paolo; Defilippo, Francesco; Lelli, Davide; Moreno, Ana; Chiari, Mario; Tamba, Marco; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Varisco, Giorgio; Bertolini, Silvia; Modesto, Paola; Radaelli, Maria Cristina; Iulini, Barbara; Prearo, Marino; Ravagnan, Silvia; Cazzin, Stefania; Mulatti, Paolo; Monne, Isabella; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano; Goffredo, Maria; Savini, Giovanni; Martini, Simone; Mosca, Andrea; Farioli, Marco; Gemma Brenzoni, Laura; Palei, Manlio; Russo, Francesca; Natalini, Silvano; Angelini, Paola; Casalone, Cristina; Dottori, Michele; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a recently re-emerged health problem in Europe. In Italy, an increasing number of outbreaks of West Nile disease, with occurrences of human cases, have been reported since 2008. This is particularly true in northern Italy, where entomological surveillance systems have been implemented at a regional level. The aim of this study was to use, for the first time, all the entomological data collected in the five regions undergoing surveillance for WNV in northern Italy to characterize the viral circulation (at a spatial and temporal scale), identify potential mosquito vectors, and specify relationships between virus circulation and meteorological conditions. In 2013, 286 sites covering the entire Pianura Padana area were monitored. A total of 757,461 mosquitoes were sampled. Of these, 562,079 were tested by real-time PCR in 9,268 pools, of which 180 (1.9%) were positive for WNV. The largest part of the detected WNV sequences belonged to lineage II, demonstrating that, unlike those in the past, the 2013 outbreak was mainly sustained by this WNV lineage. This surveillance also detected the Usutu virus, a WNV-related flavivirus, in 241 (2.6%) pools. The WNV surveillance systems precisely identified the area affected by the virus and detected the viral circulation approximately two weeks before the occurrence of onset of human cases. Ninety percent of the sampled mosquitoes were Culex pipiens, and 178/180 WNV-positive pools were composed of only this species, suggesting this mosquito is the main WNV vector in northern Italy. A significantly higher abundance of the vector was recorded in the WNV circulation area, which was characterized by warmer and less rainy conditions and greater evapotranspiration compared to the rest of the Pianura Padana, suggesting that areas exposed to these conditions are more suitable for WNV circulation. This observation highlights warmer and less rainy conditions as factors able to enhance WNV circulation and cause virus

  20. Numerical analysis of seawater circulation in carbonate platforms: II. The dynamic interaction between geothermal and brine reflux circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G.D.; Whitaker, F.F.; Smart, P.L.; Sanford, W.E.

    2004-01-01

    Density-driven seawater circulation may occur in carbonate platforms due to geothermal heating and / or reflux of water of elevated salinity. In geothermal circulation lateral contrasts in temperature between seawater and platform groundwaters warmed by the geothermal heat flux result in upward convective flow, with colder seawater drawn into the platform at depth. With reflux circulation, platform-top waters concentrated by evaporation flow downward, displacing less dense underlying groundwaters. We have used a variable density groundwater flow model to examine the pattern, magnitude and interaction of these two different circulation mechanisms, for mesosaline platform-top waters (50???) and brines concentrated up to saturation with respect to gypsum (150???) and halite (246???). Geothermal circulation, most active around the platform margin, becomes restricted and eventually shut-off by reflux of brines from the platform interior towards the margin. The persistence of geothermal circulation is dependent on the rate of brine reflux, which is proportional to the concentration of platform-top brines and also critically dependent on the magnitude and distribution of permeability. Low permeability evaporites can severely restrict reflux whereas high permeability units in hydraulic continuity enhance brine transport. Reduction in permeability with depth and anisotropy of permeability (kv < < kh) focuses flow laterally in the shallow subsurface (<1 km), resulting in a horizontally elongated brine plume. Aquifer porosity and dispersivity are relatively minor controls on reflux. Platform brines can entrain surficial seawater when brine generating conditions cease but the platform-top remains submerged, a variant of reflux we term "latent reflux". Brines concentrated up to gypsum saturation have relatively long residence times of at least 100 times the duration of the reflux event. They thus represent a long-term control on post-reflux groundwater circulation, and