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Sample records for circulating plasmalogen levels

  1. Human and great ape red blood cells differ in plasmalogen levels and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely John J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmalogens are ether phospholipids required for normal mammalian developmental, physiological, and cognitive functions. They have been proposed to act as membrane antioxidants and reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as influence intracellular signaling and membrane dynamics. Plasmalogens are particularly enriched in cells and tissues of the human nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. Humans with severely reduced plasmalogen levels have reduced life spans, abnormal neurological development, skeletal dysplasia, impaired respiration, and cataracts. Plasmalogen deficiency is also found in the brain tissue of individuals with Alzheimer disease. Results In a human and great ape cohort, we measured the red blood cell (RBC levels of the most abundant types of plasmalogens. Total RBC plasmalogen levels were lower in humans than bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, but higher than orangutans. There were especially pronounced cross-species differences in the levels of plasmalogens with a C16:0 moiety at the sn-1 position. Humans on Western or vegan diets had comparable total RBC plasmalogen levels, but the latter group showed moderately higher levels of plasmalogens with a C18:1 moiety at the sn-1 position. We did not find robust sex-specific differences in human or chimpanzee RBC plasmalogen levels or composition. Furthermore, human and great ape skin fibroblasts showed only modest differences in peroxisomal plasmalogen biosynthetic activity. Human and chimpanzee microarray data indicated that genes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis show cross-species differential expression in multiple tissues. Conclusion We propose that the observed differences in human and great ape RBC plasmalogens are primarily caused by their rates of biosynthesis and/or turnover. Gene expression data raise the possibility that other human and great ape cells and tissues differ in plasmalogen levels. Based on the phenotypes of humans and

  2. Membrane plasmalogen composition and cellular cholesterol regulation: a structure activity study

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Myat Khine K; Khan Mohamed A; Ritchie Shawn A; Jayasinghe Dushmanthi; Ma Hong; Ahiahonu Pearson WK; Mankidy Rishikesh; Wood Paul L; Goodenowe Dayan B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Disrupted cholesterol regulation leading to increased circulating and membrane cholesterol levels is implicated in many age-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and cancer. In vitro and ex vivo cellular plasmalogen deficiency models have been shown to exhibit impaired intra- and extra-cellular processing of cholesterol. Furthermore, depleted brain plasmalogens have been implicated in AD and serum plasmalogen deficiencies ...

  3. Homeostasis of phospholipids — The level of phosphatidylethanolamine tightly adapts to changes in ethanolamine plasmalogens

    OpenAIRE

    Dorninger, Fabian; Brodde, Alexander; Braverman, Nancy E; Moser, Ann B; Wilhelm W Just; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Brügger, Britta; Berger, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Ethanolamine plasmalogens constitute a group of ether glycerophospholipids that, due to their unique biophysical and biochemical properties, are essential components of mammalian cellular membranes. Their importance is emphasized by the consequences of defects in plasmalogen biosynthesis, which in humans cause the fatal disease rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP). In the present lipidomic study, we used fibroblasts derived from RCDP patients, as well as brain tissue from plasmalogen-d...

  4. Membrane plasmalogen composition and cellular cholesterol regulation: a structure activity study

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    Su-Myat Khine K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disrupted cholesterol regulation leading to increased circulating and membrane cholesterol levels is implicated in many age-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD, Alzheimer's disease (AD, and cancer. In vitro and ex vivo cellular plasmalogen deficiency models have been shown to exhibit impaired intra- and extra-cellular processing of cholesterol. Furthermore, depleted brain plasmalogens have been implicated in AD and serum plasmalogen deficiencies have been linked to AD, CVD, and cancer. Results Using plasmalogen deficient (NRel-4 and plasmalogen sufficient (HEK293 cells we investigated the effect of species-dependent plasmalogen restoration/augmentation on membrane cholesterol processing. The results of these studies indicate that the esterification of cholesterol is dependent upon the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-containing ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn present in the membrane. We further elucidate that the concentration-dependent increase in esterified cholesterol observed with PUFA-PlsEtn was due to a concentration-dependent increase in sterol-O-acyltransferase-1 (SOAT1 levels, an observation not reproduced by 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase inhibition. Conclusion The present study describes a novel mechanism of cholesterol regulation that is consistent with clinical and epidemiological studies of cholesterol, aging and disease. Specifically, the present study describes how selective membrane PUFA-PlsEtn enhancement can be achieved using 1-alkyl-2-PUFA glycerols and through this action reduce levels of total and free cholesterol in cells.

  5. Oral bioavailability of the ether lipid plasmalogen precursor, PPI-1011, in the rabbit: a new therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease

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    Wood Paul L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and DHA-containing ethanolamine plasmalogens (PlsEtn are decreased in the brain, liver and the circulation in Alzheimer's disease. Decreased supply of plasmalogen precursors to the brain by the liver, as a result of peroxisomal deficits is a process that probably starts early in the AD disease process. To overcome this metabolic compromise, we have designed an orally bioavailable DHA-containing ether lipid precursor of plasmalogens. PPI-1011 is an alkyl-diacyl plasmalogen precursor with palmitic acid at sn-1, DHA at sn-2 and lipoic acid at sn-3. This study outlines the oral pharmacokinetics of this precursor and its conversion to PlsEtn and phosphatidylethanolamines (PtdEtn. Methods Rabbits were dosed orally with PPI-1011 in hard gelatin capsules for time-course and dose response studies. Incorporation into PlsEtn and PtdEtn was monitored by LC-MS/MS. Metabolism of released lipoic acid was monitored by GC-MS. To monitor the metabolic fate of different components of PPI-1011, we labeled the sn-1 palmitic acid, sn-2 DHA and glycerol backbone with13C and monitored their metabolic fates by LC-MS/MS. Results PPI-1011 was not detected in plasma suggesting rapid release of sn-3 lipoic acid via gut lipases. This conclusion was supported by peak levels of lipoic acid metabolites in the plasma 3 hours after dosing. While PPI-1011 did not gain access to the plasma, it increased circulating levels of DHA-containing PlsEtn and PtdEtn. Labeling experiments demonstrated that the PtdEtn increases resulted from increased availability of DHA released via remodeling at sn-2 of phospholipids derived from PPI-1011. This release of DHA peaked at 6 hrs while increases in phospholipids peaked at 12 hr. Increases in circulating PlsEtn were more complex. Labeling experiments demonstrated that increases in the target PlsEtn, 16:0/22:6, consisted of 2 pools. In one pool, the intact precursor received a sn-3

  6. Dietary plasmalogen increases erythrocyte membrane plasmalogen in rats

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    Mawatari Shiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many disorders with plasmalogen deficiency have been reported. Replenishment or replacement of tissue plasmalogens of these disorders would be beneficial to the patients with these disorders, but effects of dietary plasmalogen on mammals have not been reported. Methods Plasmalogens were purified from chicken skin. The purified plasmalogens consisted of 96.4% ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn, 2.4% choline plasmalogen (PlsCho and 0.5% sphingomyelin (SM. A diet containing 0.1% the purified plasmalogens (PlsEtn diet was given to rats. Relative composition of phospholipids was measured by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method that can separate intact plasmalogens and all other phospholipid classes by a single chromatographic run. Results The PlsEtn diet given to Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats for 4 weeks caused decreases of plasma cholesterol and plasma phospholipid as compared to control diet. The other routine laboratory tests of plasma including triacylglycerol, glucose, liver and renal functions, albumin, and body weight were not different. Relative compositions of erythrocyte PlsEtn and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE increased, and that of phosphatidylcholine (PC decreased in PlsEtn diet group. The PlsEtn diet given to normal rats for 9 weeks again caused decrease of plasma cholesterol and phospholipid, and it induced increase of relative composition of PlsEtn of the erythrocyte membrane. The other routine laboratory tests of plasma and body weight were not different. Conclusions Dietary PlsEtn increases relative composition of PlsEtn of erythrocyte membranes in normal and ZDF rats, and it causes decreases of plasma cholesterol and plasma phospholipids. Dietary PlsEtn for 9 weeks seemingly causes no adverse effect to health of normal rats.

  7. Plasmalogen Augmentation Reverses Striatal Dopamine Loss in MPTP Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miville-Godbout, Edith; Bourque, Mélanie; Morissette, Marc; Al-Sweidi, Sara; Smith, Tara; Mochizuki, Asuka; Senanayake, Vijitha; Jayasinghe, Dushmanthi; Wang, Li; Goodenowe, Dayan; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Plasmalogens are a class of glycerophospholipids shown to play critical roles in membrane structure and function. Decreased plasmalogens are reported in the brain and blood of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The present study investigated the hypothesis that augmenting plasmalogens could protect striatal dopamine neurons that degenerate in response to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment in mice, a PD model. First, in a pre-treatment experiment male mice were treated for 10 days with the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-plasmalogen precursor PPI-1011 (10, 50 and 200 mg/kg). On day 5 mice received MPTP and were killed on day 11. Next, in a post-treatment study, male mice were treated with MPTP and then received daily for 5 days PPI-1011 (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg). MPTP treatment reduced serum plasmalogen levels, striatal contents of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, serotonin, DA transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). Pre-treatment with PPI-1011 (10 and 50 mg/kg) prevented all MPTP-induced effects. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding. Post-treatment with PPI-1011 prevented all MPTP-induced effects at 50 mg/kg but not at lower doses. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding in the post-treatment experiment. PPI-1011 treatment (10 days at 5, 10 and 50 mg/kg) of intact mice left unchanged striatal biogenic amine contents. These data demonstrate that treatment with a plasmalogen precursor is capable of protecting striatal dopamine markers in an animal model of PD. PMID:26959819

  8. Plasmalogen Augmentation Reverses Striatal Dopamine Loss in MPTP Mice.

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    Edith Miville-Godbout

    Full Text Available Plasmalogens are a class of glycerophospholipids shown to play critical roles in membrane structure and function. Decreased plasmalogens are reported in the brain and blood of Parkinson's disease (PD patients. The present study investigated the hypothesis that augmenting plasmalogens could protect striatal dopamine neurons that degenerate in response to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP treatment in mice, a PD model. First, in a pre-treatment experiment male mice were treated for 10 days with the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-plasmalogen precursor PPI-1011 (10, 50 and 200 mg/kg. On day 5 mice received MPTP and were killed on day 11. Next, in a post-treatment study, male mice were treated with MPTP and then received daily for 5 days PPI-1011 (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg. MPTP treatment reduced serum plasmalogen levels, striatal contents of dopamine (DA and its metabolites, serotonin, DA transporter (DAT and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2. Pre-treatment with PPI-1011 (10 and 50 mg/kg prevented all MPTP-induced effects. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding. Post-treatment with PPI-1011 prevented all MPTP-induced effects at 50 mg/kg but not at lower doses. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding in the post-treatment experiment. PPI-1011 treatment (10 days at 5, 10 and 50 mg/kg of intact mice left unchanged striatal biogenic amine contents. These data demonstrate that treatment with a plasmalogen precursor is capable of protecting striatal dopamine markers in an animal model of PD.

  9. In vitro and in vivo plasmalogen replacement evaluations in rhizomelic chrondrodysplasia punctata and Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease using PPI-1011, an ether lipid plasmalogen precursor

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    Wood Paul L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood peroxisomal disorders and leukodystrophies are devastating diseases characterized by dysfunctional lipid metabolism. Plasmalogens (ether glycerophosphoethanolamine lipids are decreased in these genetic disorders. The biosynthesis of plasmalogens is initiated in peroxisomes but completed in the endoplasmic reticulum. We therefore undertook a study to evaluate the ability of a 3-substituted, 1-alkyl, 2-acyl glyceryl ether lipid (PPI-1011 to replace plasmalogens in rhizomelic chrondrodysplasia punctata type 1 (RCDP1 and rhizomelic chrondrodysplasia punctata type 2 (RCDP2 lymphocytes which possess peroxisomal mutations culminating in deficient plasmalogen synthesis. We also examined plasmalogen synthesis in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD lymphocytes which possess a proteolipid protein-1 (PLP1 missense mutation that results in abnormal PLP1 folding and it's accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, the cellular site of the last steps in plasmalogen synthesis. In vivo incorporation of plasmalogen precursor into tissue plasmalogens was also evaluated in the Pex7 mouse model of plasmalogen deficiency. Results In both RCDP1 and RCDP2 lymphocytes, PPI-1011 repleted the target ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn16:0/22:6 in a concentration dependent manner. In addition, deacylation/reacylation reactions resulted in repletion of PlsEtn 16:0/20:4 in both RCDP1 and RCDP2 lymphocytes, repletion of PlsEtn 16:0/18:1 and PlsEtn 16:0/18:2 in RCDP2 lymphocytes, and partial repletion of PlsEtn 16:0/18:1 and PlsEtn 16:0/18:2 in RCDP1 lymphocytes. In the Pex7 mouse, oral dosing of labeled PPI-1011 demonstrated repletion of tissue levels of the target plasmalogen PlsEtn 16:0/22:6 with phospholipid remodeling also resulting in significant repletion of PlsEtn 16:0/20:4 and PlsEtn 16:0/18:1. Metabolic conversion of PPI-1011 to the target plasmalogen was most active in the liver. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that PPI-1011 is activated

  10. Plasmalogen Augmentation Reverses Striatal Dopamine Loss in MPTP Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Edith Miville-Godbout; Mélanie Bourque; Marc Morissette; Sara Al-Sweidi; Tara Smith; Asuka Mochizuki; Vijitha Senanayake; Dushmanthi Jayasinghe; Li Wang; Dayan Goodenowe; Thérèse Di Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Plasmalogens are a class of glycerophospholipids shown to play critical roles in membrane structure and function. Decreased plasmalogens are reported in the brain and blood of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The present study investigated the hypothesis that augmenting plasmalogens could protect striatal dopamine neurons that degenerate in response to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment in mice, a PD model. First, in a pre-treatment experiment male mice were treat...

  11. Analytical methods for (oxidized) plasmalogens: Methodological aspects and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, B

    2015-05-01

    Plasmalogens are a unique class of glycerophospholipids (GPLs) containing a fatty alcohol linked by a vinyl-ether moiety at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone. There is normally a polyunsaturated fatty acyl residue at the sn-2 position. These two features provide interesting properties to the plasmalogen GPL. Their physiological roles have been challenging to elucidate, although plasmalogens represent up to 20% of the total membrane GPLs in humans. Recent studies have revealed plasmalogen deficiencies associated with several human disorders; therefore, plasmalogens are likely to be specific to different tissues, metabolic processes, and developmental stages. The first chapter of this review will discuss the molecular structure and chemistry of plasmalogens, their biological roles, and their distributions in cells and tissues in different species. In the second chapter, currently used methods of analyzing plasmalogens and their degradation products are described. Although chromatographic methods will be also discussed, special attention will be given to ((31)P) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and soft ionization mass spectrometry (MS) techniques such as electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight MS. Finally, in the third chapter of this review selected human diseases and disorders, which are presumably characterized by changes in plasmalogen contents and compositions, are described and the analytical methods used are discussed. PMID:25536419

  12. The ether lipid-deficient mouse: tracking down plasmalogen functions.

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    Gorgas, Karin; Teigler, Andre; Komljenovic, Dorde; Just, Wilhelm W

    2006-12-01

    Chemical and physico-chemical properties as well as physiological functions of major mammalian ether-linked glycerolipids, including plasmalogens were reviewed. Their chemical structures were described and their effect on membrane fluidity and membrane fusion discussed. The recent generation of mouse models with ether lipid deficiency offered the possibility to study ether lipid and particularly plasmalogen functions in vivo. Ether lipid-deficient mice revealed severe phenotypic alterations, including arrest of spermatogenesis, development of cataract and defects in central nervous system myelination. In several cell culture systems lack of plasmalogens impaired intracellular cholesterol distribution affecting plasma membrane functions and structural changes of ER and Golgi cisternae. Based on these phenotypic anomalies that were accurately described conclusions were drawn on putative functions of plasmalogens. These functions were related to cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix interactions, formation of lipid raft microdomains and intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. There are several human disorders, such as Zellweger syndrome, rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, and Niemann-Pick type C disease that are distinguished by altered tissue plasmalogen concentrations. The role plasmalogens might play in the pathology of these disorders is discussed. PMID:17027098

  13. Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance studies on the plasmalogens and the glycerol acetals of plasmalogens of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium beijerinckii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance was used to investigate the structure of different lipid fractions isolated from the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium beijerinckii. The fractions isolated from C. butyricum were (1) phosphatidylethanolamine/plasmenylethanolamine and (2) the glycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine, and from C. beijerinckii similar fractions containing principally (1) phosphatidyl-N-monomethylethanolamine, along with its plasmalogen, and (2) the glycerol acetal of this plasmalogen were isolated. The third fraction from both species consisted largely of the acidic lipids phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin along with plasmalogen forms of these lipids. Palmitic acid with deuterium labels at C-2, C-3, or C-4 or oleic acid with deuterium labels at C-2 and C-9,10 was added to the growth medium and incorporated to various extents in the lipid fractions. Biochemical analysis showed that palmitic acid and oleic acid were preferentially bound to the sn-2 and sn-1 positions, respectively, of the glycerol backbone when both fatty acids were added to the medium. From the 2H NMR spectra, the hydrocarbon chain ordering near the lipid-water interface could be determined and appeared to be similar for all three lipid fractions. The deuterium quadrupole splitting and order parameter were low at the C-2 segment and increased by almost a factor of 2 at positions C-3 and C-4 for cells fed with deuteriated palmitic acid along with unlabeled oleic acid. These results agree with previous findings on pure diacyl lipids in which the sn-2 chain was found to adopt a bent conformation at the carbon segment C-2. However, two unusual quadrupole splittings could be detected for the plasmalogens. By comparison with other model systems it could be concluded that the double bond is aligned essentially parallel with the long axis of the hydrocarbon chains

  14. Genetic architecture of circulating lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirkan, Ayşe; Amin, Najaf; Isaacs, Aaron;

    2011-01-01

    suggested a small overlap between the polygenic backgrounds involved in determining LDL-C, HDL-C and TG levels. Pathway analysis utilizing the best polygenic score for TC uncovered extra information compared with using only genome-wide significant loci. These results suggest that the genetic architecture...

  15. Dynamic sea level changes following changes in the thermohaline circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levermann, Anders; Griesel, Alexa; Hofmann, Matthias; Rahmstorf, Stefan [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam (Germany); Montoya, Marisa [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    Using the coupled climate model CLIMBER-3{alpha}, we investigate changes in sea surface elevation due to a weakening of the thermohaline circulation (THC). In addition to a global sea level rise due to a warming of the deep sea, this leads to a regional dynamic sea level change which follows quasi-instantaneously any change in the ocean circulation. We show that the magnitude of this dynamic effect can locally reach up to {proportional_to}1 m, depending on the initial THC strength. In some regions the rate of change can be up to 20-25 mm/yr. The emerging patterns are discussed with respect to the oceanic circulation changes. Most prominent is a south-north gradient reflecting the changes in geostrophic surface currents. Our results suggest that an analysis of observed sea level change patterns could be useful for monitoring the THC strength. (orig.)

  16. Dynamic sea level changes following changes in the thermohaline circulation

    CERN Document Server

    Levermann, A; Hofmann, M; Montoya, M; Rahmstorf, S; Levermann, Anders; Griesel, Alexa; Hofmann, Matthias; Montoya, Marisa; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Using the coupled climate model CLIMBER-3a, we investigate changes in sea surface elevation due to a weakening of the thermohaline circulation (THC). In addition to a global sea level rise due to a warming of the deep sea, this leads to a regional dynamic sea level change which follows quasi-instantaneously any change in the ocean circulation. We show that the magnitude of this dynamic effect can locally reach up to ~1m, depending on the initial THC strength. In some regions the rate of change can be up to 20-25 mm/yr. The emerging patterns are discussed with respect to the oceanic circulation changes. Most prominent is a south-north gradient reflecting the changes in geostrophic surface currents. Our results suggest that an analysis of observed sea level change patterns could be useful for monitoring the THC strength.

  17. Dynamic sea level changes following changes in the thermohaline circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Levermann, Anders; Griesel, Alexa; Hofmann, Matthias; Montoya, Marisa; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Using the coupled climate model CLIMBER-3a, we investigate changes in sea surface elevation due to a weakening of the thermohaline circulation (THC). In addition to a global sea level rise due to a warming of the deep sea, this leads to a regional dynamic sea level change which follows quasi-instantaneously any change in the ocean circulation. We show that the magnitude of this dynamic effect can locally reach up to ~1m, depending on the initial THC strength. In some regions the rate of chang...

  18. Upper-level circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ray G.; Stramma, Lothar

    In this paper we present a literature survey of the South Atlantic's climate and its oceanic upper-layer circulation and meridional heat transport. The opening section deals with climate and is focused upon those elements having greatest oceanic relevance, i.e., distributions of atmospheric sea level pressure, the wind fields they produce, and the net surface energy fluxes. The various geostrophic currents comprising the upper-level general circulation are then reviewed in a manner organized around the subtropical gyre, beginning off southern Africa with the Agulhas Current Retroflection and then progressing to the Benguela Current, the equatorial current system and circulation in the Angola Basin, the large-scale variability adn interannual warmings at low latitudes, the Brazil Current, the South Atlantic Current, and finally to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current system in which the Falkland (Malvinas) Current is included. A summary of estimates of the meridional heat transport at various latitudes in the South Atlantic ends the survey.

  19. Linkage analysis of circulating levels of adiponectin in hispanic children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiponectin, a hormone produced exclusively by adipose tissue, is inversely associated with insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study was to find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect circulating levels of adiponectin in Hispanic children participating in the VVA...

  20. Circulating KL-6 levels in patients with drug induced pneumonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Akihito; Yasuhara, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Akira; Naka, Tetsuji; Hamada, Hironobu; Abe, Masahiro; Nishimura, Kazutaka; Higaki, Jitsuo; Ikezoe, Junpei; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2003-01-01

    Background: The circulating level of KL-6/MUC1 is a sensitive marker for various interstitial lung diseases. Previous case reports have suggested that KL-6 may also be increased in some patients with drug induced pneumonitis. A study was undertaken to determine whether serum KL-6 could be a marker for particular types of drug induced pneumonitis. Methods: The findings of high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) chest scans of 30 patients with drug induced pneumonitis were reviewed separate...

  1. Circulating docosahexaenoic acid levels are associated with fetal insulin sensitivity.

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    Jin-Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arachidonic acid (AA; C20∶4 n-6 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22∶6 n-3 are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in maintaining pancreatic beta-cell structure and function. Newborns of gestational diabetic mothers are more susceptible to the development of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. It is not known whether low circulating AA or DHA is involved in perinatally "programming" this susceptibility. This study aimed to assess whether circulating concentrations of AA, DHA and other fatty acids are associated with fetal insulin sensitivity or beta-cell function, and whether low circulating concentrations of AA or DHA are involved in compromised fetal insulin sensitivity in gestational diabetic pregnancies. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort, maternal (32-35 weeks gestation and cord plasma fatty acids were assessed in relation to surrogate indicators of fetal insulin sensitivity (cord plasma glucose-to-insulin ratio, proinsulin concentration and beta-cell function (proinsulin-to-insulin ratio in 108 mother-newborn pairs. Cord plasma DHA levels (in percentage of total fatty acids were lower comparing newborns of gestational diabetic (n = 24 vs. non-diabetic pregnancies (2.9% vs. 3.5%, P = 0.01. Adjusting for gestational age at blood sampling, lower cord plasma DHA levels were associated with lower fetal insulin sensitivity (lower glucose-to-insulin ratio, r = 0.20, P = 0.036; higher proinsulin concentration, r = -0.37, P <0.0001. The associations remained after adjustment for maternal and newborn characteristics. Cord plasma saturated fatty acids C18∶0 and C20∶0 were negatively correlated with fetal insulin sensitivity, but their levels were not different between gestational diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancies. Cord plasma AA levels were not correlated with fetal insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Low circulating DHA levels are associated with

  2. The biophysical properties of ethanolamine plasmalogens revealed by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rog, Tomasz; Koivuniemi, Artturi

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of plasmalogens in cellular membranes and neurodegenerative diseases, a better understanding of how plasmalogens affect the lipid membrane properties is needed. Here we carried out molecular dynamics simulations to study a lipid membrane comprised of ethanolamine plasmalogens (PE-plasmalogens). We compared the results to the PE-diacyl counterpart and palmitoyl-oleyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers. Results show that PE-plasmalogens form more compressed, thicker, and rigid lipid bilayers in comparison with the PE-diacyl and POPC membranes. The results also point out that the vinyl-ether linkage increases the ordering of sn-1 chain substantially and the ordering of the sn-2 chain to a minor extent. Further, the vinyl-ether linkage changes the orientation of the lipid head group, but it does not cause changes in the head group and glycerol backbone tilt angles with respect to the bilayer normal. The vinyl-ether linkage also packs the proximal regions of the sn-1 and sn-2 chains more closely together which also decreases the distance between the rest of the sn-1 and sn-2 chains. PMID:26522077

  3. [Fatty aldehydes of the plasmalogenic form of phosphatidylethanolamine in the vertebrate brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglova, E E

    1979-01-01

    Studies have been made on the composition of fatty aldehydes of plasmalogen form of ethanolamine phospholipid in the brain of 28 fish species (13 cartilaginous and 15 teleost species, exhibiting different level of organization of the nervous system, marine and freshwater, dwelling in different habitats), as well as in the brain of other vertebrates. It was found that in all primitive species of cartilaginous fish high degree of unsaturation of fatty aldehydes is observed; in higher species the degree of unsaturation is much lower. The highest degree of unsaturation of fatty aldehydes was demonstrated for abyssal species of cartilaginous and teleost fishes. In warm-water species which dwell in the upper layers, unlike all other fishes investigated, almost all fatty aldehydes are saturated. The ratio of unsaturated and saturated fatty aldehydes in fish brain depends on the entity of phylogenetic and ecological factors. Studies on other vertebrates show that in warm-blooded animals saturated fatty aldehydes predominate, whereas in cold-blooded-unsaturated ones are more abundant. PMID:314210

  4. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Carli, Jayne F Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A.; Sun, Qi; Kriebel, Jennifer; Feitosa, Mary F.; Hedman, Åsa K.; Drong, Alexander W.; Hayes, James E.; Zhao, Jinghua; Pers, Tune H; Schick, Ursula; Grarup, Niels; Kutalik, Zoltán; Trompet, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P

  5. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Carli, Jayne F Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A.; Sun, Qi; Kriebel, Jennifer; Feitosa, Mary F.; Hedman, Åsa K.; Drong, Alexander W.; Hayes, James E.; Zhao, Jinghua; Pers, Tune H; Schick, Ursula; Grarup, Niels; Kutalik, Zoltán; Trompet, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P < 10(-6) in 19,979 additional individuals. We i...

  6. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Carli, Jayne F Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A.; Sun, Qi; Kriebel, Jennifer; Feitosa, Mary F.; Hedman, Åsa K.; Drong, Alexander W.; Hayes, James E.; Zhao, Jinghua; Pers, Tune H; Schick, Ursula; Grarup, Niels; Kutalik, Zoltán; Trompet, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P<10−6 in 19,979 additional individuals. We ident...

  7. Plasmalogen enrichment in exosomes secreted by a nematode parasite versus those derived from its mouse host: implications for exosome stability and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Simbari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs mediate communication between cells and organisms across all 3 kingdoms of life. Several reports have demonstrated that EVs can transfer molecules between phylogenetically diverse species and can be used by parasites to alter the properties of the host environment. Whilst the concept of vesicle secretion and uptake is broad reaching, the molecular composition of these complexes is expected to be diverse based on the physiology and environmental niche of different organisms. Exosomes are one class of EVs originally defined based on their endocytic origin, as these derive from multivesicular bodies that then fuse with the plasma membrane releasing them into the extracellular environment. The term exosome has also been used to describe any small EVs recovered by high-speed ultracentrifugation, irrespective of origin since this is not always well characterized. Here, we use comparative global lipidomic analysis to examine the composition of EVs, which we term exosomes, that are secreted by the gastrointestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, in relation to exosomes secreted by cells of its murine host. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS analysis reveals a 9- to 62-fold enrichment of plasmalogens, as well as other classes of ether glycerophospholipids, along with a relative lack of cholesterol and sphingomyelin (SM in the nematode exosomes compared with those secreted by murine cells. Biophysical analyses of the membrane dynamics of these exosomes demonstrate increased rigidity in those from the nematode, and parallel studies with synthetic vesicles support a role of plasmalogens in stabilizing the membrane structure. These results suggest that nematodes can maintain exosome membrane structure and integrity through increased plasmalogens, compensating for diminished levels of other lipids, including cholesterol and SM. This work also illuminates the prevalence of

  8. Plasmalogen enrichment in exosomes secreted by a nematode parasite versus those derived from its mouse host: implications for exosome stability and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbari, Fabio; McCaskill, Jana; Coakley, Gillian; Millar, Marissa; Maizels, Rick M; Fabriás, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Buck, Amy H

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate communication between cells and organisms across all 3 kingdoms of life. Several reports have demonstrated that EVs can transfer molecules between phylogenetically diverse species and can be used by parasites to alter the properties of the host environment. Whilst the concept of vesicle secretion and uptake is broad reaching, the molecular composition of these complexes is expected to be diverse based on the physiology and environmental niche of different organisms. Exosomes are one class of EVs originally defined based on their endocytic origin, as these derive from multivesicular bodies that then fuse with the plasma membrane releasing them into the extracellular environment. The term exosome has also been used to describe any small EVs recovered by high-speed ultracentrifugation, irrespective of origin since this is not always well characterized. Here, we use comparative global lipidomic analysis to examine the composition of EVs, which we term exosomes, that are secreted by the gastrointestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, in relation to exosomes secreted by cells of its murine host. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis reveals a 9- to 62-fold enrichment of plasmalogens, as well as other classes of ether glycerophospholipids, along with a relative lack of cholesterol and sphingomyelin (SM) in the nematode exosomes compared with those secreted by murine cells. Biophysical analyses of the membrane dynamics of these exosomes demonstrate increased rigidity in those from the nematode, and parallel studies with synthetic vesicles support a role of plasmalogens in stabilizing the membrane structure. These results suggest that nematodes can maintain exosome membrane structure and integrity through increased plasmalogens, compensating for diminished levels of other lipids, including cholesterol and SM. This work also illuminates the prevalence of plasmalogens in some EVs

  9. Elevated levels of cell-free circulating DNA in patients with acute dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Ngoc Ha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of severe dengue and the release of cell-free DNA into the circulatory system in several medical conditions. Therefore, we investigated circulating DNA as a potential biomarker for severe dengue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A direct fluorometric degradation assay using PicoGreen was performed to quantify cell-free DNA from patient plasma. Circulating DNA levels were significantly higher in patients with dengue virus infection than with other febrile illnesses and healthy controls. Remarkably, the increase of DNA levels correlated with the severity of dengue. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that circulating DNA levels independently correlated with dengue shock syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating DNA levels were increased in dengue patients and correlated with dengue severity. Additional studies are required to show the benefits of this biomarker in early dengue diagnosis and for the prognosis of shock complication.

  10. Circulating Zinc-α2-glycoprotein levels and Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yerui; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Ling; Yin, Jingxia; He, Junying; Yang, Mengliu; Jia, Yanjun; Liu, Dongfang; Liu, Hua; Liao, Yong; Yang, Gangyi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to assess the relationship between zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and androgen excess with insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women. 99 PCOS women and 100 healthy controls were recruited. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC) was preformed to assess their insulin sensitivity. Circulating ZAG was determined with an ELISA kit. In healthy subjects, circulating ZAG levels exhibited a characteristic diurnal rhythm in humans, with a major nocturnal rise occurring between midnight and early morning. Circulating ZAG and M-value were much lower in PCOS women than in the controls. In all population, overweight/obese subjects had significantly lower circulating ZAG levels than lean individuals. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that only M-value and the area under the curve for glucose were independently related factors to circulating ZAG in PCOS women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that circulating ZAG was significantly associated with PCOS even after controlling for anthropometric variables, blood pressure, lipid profile and hormone levels. The PCOS women with high ZAG had fewer MetS, IGT and polycystic ovaries as compared with the low ZAG PCOS women. Taken together, circulating ZAG levels are reduced in women with PCOS and ZAG may be a cytokine associated with insulin resistance in PCOS women. PMID:27180914

  11. Circulating Zinc-α2-glycoprotein levels and Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yerui; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Ling; Yin, Jingxia; He, Junying; Yang, Mengliu; Jia, Yanjun; Liu, Dongfang; Liu, Hua; Liao, Yong; Yang, Gangyi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to assess the relationship between zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and androgen excess with insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women. 99 PCOS women and 100 healthy controls were recruited. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC) was preformed to assess their insulin sensitivity. Circulating ZAG was determined with an ELISA kit. In healthy subjects, circulating ZAG levels exhibited a characteristic diurnal rhythm in humans, with a major nocturnal rise occurring between midnight and early morning. Circulating ZAG and M-value were much lower in PCOS women than in the controls. In all population, overweight/obese subjects had significantly lower circulating ZAG levels than lean individuals. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that only M-value and the area under the curve for glucose were independently related factors to circulating ZAG in PCOS women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that circulating ZAG was significantly associated with PCOS even after controlling for anthropometric variables, blood pressure, lipid profile and hormone levels. The PCOS women with high ZAG had fewer MetS, IGT and polycystic ovaries as compared with the low ZAG PCOS women. Taken together, circulating ZAG levels are reduced in women with PCOS and ZAG may be a cytokine associated with insulin resistance in PCOS women. PMID:27180914

  12. Circulating Irisin Levels Are Positively Associated with Metabolic Risk Factors in Sedentary Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, María; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Serrano, Marta; Ortega, Francisco; Delgado, Elías; Sanchez-Ragnarsson, Cecilia; Valdés, Sergio; Botas, Patricia; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A physically active life-style plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, activates thermogenesis in rodents through increasing beige fat cells abundance within white fat. We aimed to investigate circulating irisin levels in association with the degree of physical activity and various metabolic parameters in humans. Methods Circulating irisin levels (ELISA) and metabolic parameters wer...

  13. Targeted metabolomic analyses of cellular models of pelizaeus-merzbacher disease reveal plasmalogen and myo-inositol solute carrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelzer Lindsay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukodystrophies are devastating diseases characterized by dys- and hypo-myelination. While there are a number of histological and imaging studies of these disorders, there are limited biochemical data available. We undertook targeted lipidomic analyses of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD fibroblasts, PMD lymphocytes, and 158JP oligodendrocytes, a murine model of PMD, to define the lipid changes in these cell models. Further targeted metabolomics analyses were conducted to obtain a preliminary evaluation of the metabolic consequences of lipid changes and gene mutations in these cell models. Results In both PMD fibroblasts and lymphocytes, and 158JP oligodendrocytes, ethanolamine plasmalogens were significantly decreased. Labeling studies with 158JP oligodendrocytes further demonstrated a decreased rate of lipid remodeling at sn-2. Targeted metabolomics analyses of these cells revealed dramatic increases in cellular levels of myo-inositol. Further uptake studies demonstrated increased rates of myo-inositol uptake by PMD lymphocytes. Conclusions Our data demonstrating PlsEtn decrements, support previous studies indicating leukodystrophy cells possess significant peroxisomal deficits. Our data for the first time also demonstrate that decrements in peroxisomal function coupled with the PLP1 gene defects of PMD, result in changes in the function of membrane myo-inositol solute carriers resulting in dramatic increases in cellular myo-inositol levels.

  14. Circulating MKRN3 levels decline during puberty in healthy boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Almstrup, Kristian; Juul, Anders

    2016-01-01

    .8) years at baseline followed for 6.0 (0.5 - 7.6) years (2006 - 2014) with blood sampling every 6 months. INTERVENTION: None Main Outcome Measures: Serum levels of MKRN3: 623 samples, median (range) 12 (2 - 14) per boy. RESULTS: MKRN3 levels declined prior to onset of puberty; the geometric mean (95% CI) 5...

  15. Venus: cloud level circulation during 1982 as determined from Pioneer cloud photopolarimeter images. 11. Solar longitude dependent circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pioneer Venus Orbiter images obtained in 1982 indicate a marked solar-locked dependence of cloud level circulation in both averaged cloud motions and cloud layer UV reflectivity. An apparent relationship is noted between horizontal divergence and UV reflectivity: the highest reflectivities are associated with regions of convergence at high latitudes, while lower values are associated with equatorial latitude regions where the motions are divergent. In solar-locked coordinates, the rms deviation of normalized UV brightness is higher at 45-deg latitudes than in equatorial regions. 37 references

  16. Plasmalogens in the retina: from occurrence in retinal cell membranes to potential involvement in pathophysiology of retinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Sarah; Mazzocco, Julie; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P; Bron, Alain M; Bretillon, Lionel; Acar, Niyazi

    2014-12-01

    Plasmalogens (Pls) represent a specific subclass of glycerophospholipids characterized by the presence of a vinyl-ether bond at the sn-1 position of glycerol. Pls are quantitatively important in membranes of neuronal tissues, including the brain and the retina, where they can represent until almost two-third of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids. They are considered as reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as several studies have shown that arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids are preferentially esterified on Pls when compared to other glycerophospholipids. Reduced levels of Pls were observed in a number of neurodegenerative disorders such as glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. In a mouse model of Pls deficiency, "glaucoma-like" optic nerve abnormalities were observed as well as developmental defects in the eye. These included microphthalmia, dysgenesis of the anterior segment of the eye, and abnormalities in retinal vessel architecture. Several data from animal and in vitro studies suggest that Pls may be involved in the regulation of retinal vascular development through the release of polyunsaturated fatty acids by a calcium-independent phospholipase A2. PMID:25127660

  17. Association between circulating adiponectin levels and polycystic ovarian syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mirza, Saira Saeed; Shafique, Kashif; Shaikh, Abdul Rauf; Khan, Naveed Ali; Anwar Qureshi, Masood

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low adiponectin levels in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been largely attributed to obesity which is common among these patients. In addition, evidence also suggests that low adiponectin in PCOS may be related to insulin resistance (IR) in these women. However, studies on the role of adiponectin in younger and lean patients are limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the association of adiponectin levels in young and lean women with PCOS. Me...

  18. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Carli, Jayne F Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A;

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered....... Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P<10(-6) in 19,979 additional individuals. We identify five loci robustly associated (P<5 × 10(-8)) with leptin levels in/near LEP, SLC32A1, GCKR, CCNL1 and FTO....... Although the association of the FTO obesity locus with leptin levels is abolished by adjustment for BMI, associations of the four other loci are independent of adiposity. The GCKR locus was found associated with multiple metabolic traits in previous GWAS and the CCNL1 locus with birth weight. Knockdown...

  19. Association between circulating adiponectin levels and polycystic ovarian syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Mirza (Saira Saeed); K. Shafique (Kashif); A.R. Shaikh (Abdul Rauf); N.A. Khan (Naveed Ali); M. Anwar Qureshi (Masood)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Low adiponectin levels in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been largely attributed to obesity which is common among these patients. In addition, evidence also suggests that low adiponectin in PCOS may be related to insulin resistance (IR) in these women. However, studi

  20. Circulating exosome levels in the diagnosis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H-Y.; Gao, Y-C.; Wang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Circulating exosomes represent novel biomarkers for multiple diseases. In this study, we investigated whether circulating exosome levels could be used as a diagnostic biomarker for steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Methods We assessed the serum exosome level of 85 patients with steroid-induced ONFH and 115 healthy donors by Nanosight detection. We then assessed the diagnostic accuracy of serum exosomes by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results The circulating exosome level of the ONFH group was significantly lower than that of control group. The area under the curve was 0.72, suggesting that the level of serum exosomes has moderate diagnostic accuracy for steroid-induced ONFH. Conclusion Circulating exosome levels are valuable in the diagnosis of steroid-induced ONFH. Cite this article: H-Y. Zhu, Y-C. Gao, Y. Wang, C-Q. Zhang. Circulating exosome levels in the diagnosis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:276–279. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.56.BJR-2015-0014.R1. PMID:27357384

  1. Do circulating androgen levels predict competitiveness in female athletes?

    OpenAIRE

    Romfo, Marit

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In males a correlation between competitiveness and testosterone have been reported. As no such data is available in females we aimed at investigating the possible association between competitiveness and androgen levels in a sample of female top athletes.Method: Thirty one Norwegian female top athletes completed the competitiveness subscale of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ), underwent a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) test with a following lactate measurement and had ...

  2. Circulating soluble Fas levels and risk of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dysregulation of apoptosis, specifically overexpression of soluble Fas (sFas), has been proposed to play a role in the development of ovarian cancer. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate serum sFas as a potential biomarker of ovarian cancer risk. The association between serum sFas levels and the risk of ovarian cancer was examined in a case-control study nested within three prospective cohorts in New York (USA), Umeå (Sweden), and Milan (Italy). Case subjects were 138 women with primary invasive epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed between 2 months and 13.2 years after the initial blood donation. Control subjects were 263 women who were free of cancer, and matched the case on cohort, menopausal status, age, and enrollment date. Serum sFas levels were determined using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Serum sFas levels were similar in women subsequently diagnosed with ovarian cancer (median, 6.5 ng/mL; range, 4.4 – 10.2) and in controls (median, 6.8 ng/mL; range, 4.5 – 10.1). Statistically significant trends of increasing serum sFas with age were observed among cases (r = 0.39, p < 0.0001) and controls (r = 0.42, p < 0.0001). Compared to women in the lowest third, women in the highest third of serum sFas were not at increased risk of ovarian cancer after adjustment for potential confounders (odd ratio (OR), 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42 – 1.82). The results suggest that serum sFas may not be a suitable marker for identification of women at increased risk of ovarian cancer

  3. Circulating Levels of Irisin in Hypopituitary and Normal Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Bello, Lara; Pértega-Diaz, Sonia; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Outeiriño-Blanco, Elena; Eiras-Leal, Raquel; Varela-Rodriguez, Bárbara; Juiz-Valiña, Paula; Pérez-Fontán, Miguel; Cordido, María; Cordido, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Context The recently identified myokine irisin conveys some of the benefits of exercise. Hypopituitarism with adult growth hormone deficiency (HP) is a situation characterized by decreased GH secretion and an altered body composition. Objective Our aim was to study the skeletal muscle hormone irisin in HP, and compare the results with a similar group of normal subjects. Participants and Methods Seventeen HP patients and fifty-one normal subjects of similar age and sex were studied. The diagnosis of GH deficiency was confirmed by the presence of pituitary disease and a peak GH secretion below 3 μg/L after an insulin tolerance test. The patients were adequately treated for all pituitary hormone deficits, except for GH. Fasting serum irisin was measured with an enzyme immunoassay, and HOMA-IR, QUICKI and HOMA-β were calculated. Results Fasting irisin levels (ng/ml) were similar in normal [208.42 (168.44–249.23)] and HP patients [195.13 (178.44–241.44)]. In the control group there were moderate significant positive correlations between irisin and BMI, waist circumference, leptin, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, triglycerides, and cholesterol. In the control group there were moderate significant negative correlations between irisin and IGF-I and QUICKI. In the hypopituitary group there were moderate significant positive correlations between irisin and body fat and HOMA-β. Conclusions We found similar irisin levels in GH deficiency hypopituitary patients when compared with normal subjects. The correlation between irisin and adiposity related factors suggests that that in the case of this clinical model, irisin is regulated by adiposity and not by GH. PMID:27472279

  4. Stimulated human neutrophils synthesize an ethanolamine plasmalogen analog of platelet-activating factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to platelet-activating factor (PAF), human neutrophils stimulated by ionophore A23187 incorporate [3H] acetate into an additional product that migrates near phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and accounts for approximately 25% of the labeled lipids. We have identified this product as 1-O-alk-1'-enyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine based upon the following data. Acid lability of both the intact phospholipid and the diacetylglycerol derivates prepared by treatment of the intact product with phospholipase C followed by acetylation indicated approximately 80% of the unknown lipid is alk-1'-enyl-linked. Hydrogenation of the diacetyl derivative resulted in a product which no longer chromatographed by TLC with alk-1'-enyldiacetylglycerol, but rather with alkyldiacetylglycerol. The hydrogenated product was no longer sensitive to acid. Treatment with phospholipase A2 resulted in the release of 88% of the radiolabel into the acidified aqueous phase, indicating that the label remained as acetate. The head group was determined to be a primary amine based upon its complete conversion to the trinitrophenyl derivative by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. Investigations using a cell-free system indicate that neutrophils contain an acetyltransferase which, when stimulated, uses acetyl CoA and lysoPE plasmalogen to produce the ethanolamine plasmalogen analog of PAF

  5. Biosynthesis of ether-phospholipids including plasmalogens, peroxisomes and human disease: new insights into an old problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.A. Wanders; P. Brites

    2010-01-01

    Ether-phospholipids represent an important subclass of phospholipids in animal cell membranes characterized by the presence of an ether bond at the sn-I position and the enrichment of PUFAs at the sn-2 position. Of the different ether-phospholipids, plasmalogens are the most abundant form and their

  6. Identification of Plasmalogen Cardiolipins from Pectinatus by Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Matoulková, D.; Kyselová, I.; Sigler, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 12 (2013), s. 1237-1251. ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Pectinatus * Plasmalogens * Cardiolipins Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2013

  7. Decreased circulating endothelial progenitor cell levels and function in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Chiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is associated with advanced atherosclerosis and a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence suggests that injured endothelial monolayer is regenerated by circulating bone marrow derived-endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, and levels of circulating EPCs reflect vascular repair capacity. However, the relation between NAFLD and EPC remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD might have decreased endothelial progenitor cell (EPC levels and attenuated EPC function. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 312 consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary angiography because of suspected coronary artery disease were screened and received examinations of abdominal ultrasonography between July 2009 and November 2010. Finally, 34 patients with an ultrasonographic diagnosis of NAFLD, and 68 age- and sex-matched controls without NAFLD were enrolled. Flow cytometry with quantification of EPC markers (defined as CD34(+, CD34(+KDR(+, and CD34(+KDR(+CD133(+ in peripheral blood samples was used to assess circulating EPC numbers. The adhesive function, and migration, and tube formation capacities of EPCs were also determined in NAFLD patients and controls. Patients with NAFLD had a significantly higher incidence of metabolic syndrome, previous myocardial infarction, hyperuricemia, and higher waist circumference, body mass index, fasting glucose and triglyceride levels. In addition, patients with NAFLD had significantly decreased circulating EPC levels (all P<0.05, attenuated EPC functions, and enhanced systemic inflammation compared to controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that circulating EPC level (CD34(+KDR(+ [cells/10(5 events] was an independent reverse predictor of NAFLD (Odds ratio: 0.78; 95% confidence interval: 0.69-0.89, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD patients have decreased circulating EPC numbers and

  8. Rubella-associated arthritis. II. Relationship between circulating immune complex levels and joint manifestations.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, V. K.; Tingle, A J; Schulzer, M

    1986-01-01

    The role played by raised circulating immune complex (CIC) levels in the pathogenesis of rubella-associated joint reactions has been assessed during the course of RA 27/3 rubella immunisation and epidemic wild rubella infection. CIC levels were evaluated by C1q microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Raji cell ELISA techniques. Mean CIC levels were generally higher both before and after immunisation among individuals developing vaccine-associated arthritis than among those de...

  9. Variability in Solomon Sea circulation derived from altimeter sea level data

    OpenAIRE

    A. Melet; Gourdeau, Lionel; J. Verron

    2010-01-01

    The Solomon Sea is a key region in the Pacific Ocean where equatorial and subtropical circulations are connected. The region exhibits the highest levels in sea level variability in the entire south tropical Pacific Ocean. Altimeter data was utilized to explore sea level and western boundary currents in this poorly understood portion of the ocean. Since the geography of the region is extremely intricate, with numerous islands and complex bathymetry, specifically reprocessed along-track data in...

  10. Simulation of the Low-Level-Jet by general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghan, S.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    To what degree is the low-level jet climatology and it`s impact on clouds and precipitation being captured by current general circulation models? It is hypothesised that a need for a pramaterization exists. This paper describes this parameterization need.

  11. Circulating 20S Proteasome Levels in Patients with Mixed Connective Tissue Disease and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Majetschak, Matthias; Perez, Magdalena; Sorell, Luis T.; Lam, Janet; Maldonado, Marcos E.; Hoffman, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    The associations of circulating 20S proteasomes (c20S) with clinical and serologic disease indices in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) are unknown. We present the initial report that c20S levels are elevated in MCTD and correlate with clinically relevant changes in disease activity in SLE and MCTD.

  12. Higher circulating levels of IGF-1 are associated with longer leukocyte telomere length in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbieri, Michelangela; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Kimura, Masayuki;

    2009-01-01

    Mutations that inhibit the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) extend the lifespan of worms, flies and mice. However, it appears that relatively low circulating levels of IGF-1 in humans are associated with aging-related diseases and diminished longevity. As leukocyte telomere length (LTL...

  13. The Dependence of the Low-Level Equatorial Easterly Jet on Hadley and Walker Circulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, David S.; Ovens, David D.

    1995-11-01

    How the time-mean Hadley and Walker circulations affect the formation of a low-level equatorial easterly jet is investigated. Experiments are conducted for equinoctial conditions using a general circulation model, the Community Climate Model (CCM1), that includes a Kuo convective scheme and a lower boundary that is specified to be water at a fixed sea surface temperature (SST). Several zonally symmetric SST forcings are used to determine how various Hadley circulations affect the tropical zonal wind field. A zonal wavenumber one equatorial SST anomaly superimposed on a zonally symmetric SST distribution forces a wind field that includes both Hadley and Walker circulations.The Hadley circulation experiments produce equatorial easterlies and low-level jets on the poleward sides of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) 10° to 15° from the equator. In an experiment with a single, dominant off-equatorial ITCZ in the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere jet moves to within 7.5° of the equator; yet none of the Hadley circulation cases produce a low-level easterly jet on the equator because they lack a mechanism to vertically confine the flow.The experiment that includes a zonally overturning cell on the equator produces a low-level equatorial easterly jet in the cold tongue region that is similar to the observed jet over the central to eastern Pacific. That case shows that east of the equatorial warm pool the Walker circulation and its induced Kelvin wave response provide the necessary upper-level westerly flow and subsidence to vertically confine the low-level easterlies into a jet. Spring and fall climatological runs of the CCMI with land surfaces, seasonally varying SSTs and insolation, and a moist convective adjustment scheme support the hypothesis that the Walker circulation provides the vertical confinement necessary to form a low-level equatorial easterly jet in the region east of the equatorial convective center, regardless of the Hadley circulation

  14. Analysis of circulating hem-endothelial marker RNA levels in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuint Jacob

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circulating endothelial cells may serve as novel markers of angiogenesis. These include a subset of hem-endothelial progenitor cells that play a vital role in vascular growth and repair. The presence and clinical implications of circulating RNA levels as an expression for hematopoietic and endothelial-specific markers have not been previously evaluated in preterm infants. This study aims to determine circulating RNA levels of hem-endothelial marker genes in peripheral blood of preterm infants and begin to correlate these findings with prenatal complications. Methods Peripheral blood samples from seventeen preterm neonates were analyzed at three consecutive post-delivery time points (day 3–5, 10–15 and 30. Using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction we studied the expression patterns of previously established hem-endothelial-specific progenitor-associated genes (AC133, Tie-2, Flk-1 (VEGFR2 and Scl/Tal1 in association with characteristics of prematurity and preterm morbidity. Results Circulating Tie-2 and SCL/Tal1 RNA levels displayed an inverse correlation to gestational age (GA. We observed significantly elevated Tie-2 levels in preterm infants born to mothers with amnionitis, and in infants with sustained brain echogenicity on brain sonography. Other markers showed similar expression patterns yet we could not demonstrate statistically significant correlations. Conclusion These preliminary findings suggest that circulating RNA levels especially Tie2 and SCL decline with maturation and might relate to some preterm complication. Further prospective follow up of larger cohorts are required to establish this association.

  15. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Carli, Jayne F Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A; Sun, Qi; Kriebel, Jennifer; Feitosa, Mary F; Hedman, Åsa K; Drong, Alexander W; Hayes, James E; Zhao, Jinghua; Pers, Tune H; Schick, Ursula; Grarup, Niels; Kutalik, Zoltán; Trompet, Stella; Mangino, Massimo; Kristiansson, Kati; Beekman, Marian; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Eriksson, Joel; Henneman, Peter; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Luan, Jian'an; Del Greco M, Fabiola; Pasko, Dorota; Renström, Frida; Willems, Sara M; Mahajan, Anubha; Rose, Lynda M; Guo, Xiuqing; Liu, Yongmei; Kleber, Marcus E; Pérusse, Louis; Gaunt, Tom; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Ju Sung, Yun; Ramos, Yolande F; Amin, Najaf; Amuzu, Antoinette; Barroso, Inês; Bellis, Claire; Blangero, John; Buckley, Brendan M; Böhringer, Stefan; I Chen, Yii-Der; de Craen, Anton J N; Crosslin, David R; Dale, Caroline E; Dastani, Zari; Day, Felix R; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela E; Demirkan, Ayse; Finucane, Francis M; Ford, Ian; Garcia, Melissa E; Gieger, Christian; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E; Havulinna, Aki S; Herder, Christian; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Hunter, David J; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Jansson, John-Olov; Jenny, Nancy S; Jørgensen, Marit E; Jørgensen, Torben; Karlsson, Magnus; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kraft, Peter; Kwekkeboom, Joanneke; Laatikainen, Tiina; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; LeDuc, Charles A; Lowe, Gordon; Lu, Yingchang; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meisinger, Christa; Menni, Cristina; Morris, Andrew P; Myers, Richard H; Männistö, Satu; Nalls, Mike A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Peters, Annette; Pradhan, Aruna D; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rice, Treva K; Brent Richards, J; Ridker, Paul M; Sattar, Naveed; Savage, David B; Söderberg, Stefan; Timpson, Nicholas J; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Walker, Mark; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Widén, Elisabeth; Wood, Andrew R; Yao, Jie; Zeller, Tanja; Zhang, Yiying; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Sarzynski, Mark A; Rao, D C; Jousilahti, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G; Heliövaara, Markku; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Huupponen, Risto K; Viikari, Jorma S; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias; Casas, Juan P; Bandinelli, Stefanie; März, Winfried; Isaacs, Aaron; van Dijk, Ko W; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Harris, Tamara B; Bouchard, Claude; Allison, Matthew A; Chasman, Daniel I; Ohlsson, Claes; Lind, Lars; Scott, Robert A; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M; Pramstaller, Peter P; Borecki, Ingrid B; Waterworth, Dawn M; Bergmann, Sven; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Hu, Frank B; Eline Slagboom, P; Grallert, Harald; Spector, Tim D; Jukema, J W; Klein, Robert J; Schadt, Erik E; Franks, Paul W; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Leibel, Rudolph L; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P<10(-6) in 19,979 additional individuals. We identify five loci robustly associated (P<5 × 10(-8)) with leptin levels in/near LEP, SLC32A1, GCKR, CCNL1 and FTO. Although the association of the FTO obesity locus with leptin levels is abolished by adjustment for BMI, associations of the four other loci are independent of adiposity. The GCKR locus was found associated with multiple metabolic traits in previous GWAS and the CCNL1 locus with birth weight. Knockdown experiments in mouse adipose tissue explants show convincing evidence for adipogenin, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, as the novel causal gene in the SLC32A1 locus influencing leptin levels. Our findings provide novel insights into the regulation of leptin production by adipose tissue and open new avenues for examining the influence of variation in leptin levels on adiposity and metabolic health. PMID:26833098

  16. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Carli, Jayne F. Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A.; Sun, Qi; Kriebel, Jennifer; Feitosa, Mary F; Hedman, Åsa K.; Drong, Alexander W.; Hayes, James E.; Zhao, Jinghua; Pers, Tune H.; Schick, Ursula; Grarup, Niels; Kutalik, Zoltán; Trompet, Stella; Mangino, Massimo; Kristiansson, Kati; Beekman, Marian; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Eriksson, Joel; Henneman, Peter; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Luan, Jian'an; Greco M, Fabiola Del; Pasko, Dorota; Renström, Frida; Willems, Sara M.; Mahajan, Anubha; Rose, Lynda M.; Guo, Xiuqing; Liu, Yongmei; Kleber, Marcus E.; Pérusse, Louis; Gaunt, Tom; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ju Sung, Yun; Ramos, Yolande F.; Amin, Najaf; Amuzu, Antoinette; Barroso, Inês; Bellis, Claire; Blangero, John; Buckley, Brendan M.; Böhringer, Stefan; I Chen, Yii-Der; de Craen, Anton J. N.; Crosslin, David R.; Dale, Caroline E.; Dastani, Zari; Day, Felix R.; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela E.; Demirkan, Ayse; Finucane, Francis M.; Ford, Ian; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gieger, Christian; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Havulinna, Aki S; Herder, Christian; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hunter, David J.; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Jansson, John-Olov; Jenny, Nancy S.; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Jørgensen, Torben; Karlsson, Magnus; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kraft, Peter; Kwekkeboom, Joanneke; Laatikainen, Tiina; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; LeDuc, Charles A.; Lowe, Gordon; Lu, Yingchang; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meisinger, Christa; Menni, Cristina; Morris, Andrew P.; Myers, Richard H.; Männistö, Satu; Nalls, Mike A.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Peters, Annette; Pradhan, Aruna D.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rice, Treva K.; Brent Richards, J; Ridker, Paul M.; Sattar, Naveed; Savage, David B.; Söderberg, Stefan; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Walker, Mark; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Widén, Elisabeth; Wood, Andrew R.; Yao, Jie; Zeller, Tanja; Zhang, Yiying; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Rao, D. C.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G.; Heliövaara, Markku; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Huupponen, Risto K.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias; Casas, Juan P.; Bandinelli, Stefanie; März, Winfried; Isaacs, Aaron; van Dijk, Ko W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Bouchard, Claude; Allison, Matthew A.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ohlsson, Claes; Lind, Lars; Scott, Robert A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Bergmann, Sven; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Hu, Frank B.; Eline Slagboom, P; Grallert, Harald; Spector, Tim D.; Jukema, J.W.; Klein, Robert J.; Schadt, Erik E; Franks, Paul W.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P<10−6 in 19,979 additional individuals. We identify five loci robustly associated (P<5 × 10−8) with leptin levels in/near LEP, SLC32A1, GCKR, CCNL1 and FTO. Although the association of the FTO obesity locus with leptin levels is abolished by adjustment for BMI, associations of the four other loci are independent of adiposity. The GCKR locus was found associated with multiple metabolic traits in previous GWAS and the CCNL1 locus with birth weight. Knockdown experiments in mouse adipose tissue explants show convincing evidence for adipogenin, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, as the novel causal gene in the SLC32A1 locus influencing leptin levels. Our findings provide novel insights into the regulation of leptin production by adipose tissue and open new avenues for examining the influence of variation in leptin levels on adiposity and metabolic health. PMID:26833098

  17. Testosterone increases circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in the male rhesus macaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HenrykUrbanski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and its sulfate (DHEAS are two of the most abundant hormones in the human circulation. Furthermore, they are released in a circadian pattern and show a marked age-associated decline. Adult levels of DHEA and DHEAS are significantly higher in males than in females, but the reason for this sexual dimorphism is unclear. In the present study, we administered supplementary androgens (DHEA, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone [DHT] to aged male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. While this paradigm increased circulating DHEAS immediately after DHEA administration, an increase was also observed following either testosterone or DHT administration, resulting in hormonal profile resembling levels observed in young males in terms of both amplitude and circadian pattern. This stimulatory effect was limited to DHEAS, as an increase in circulating cortisol was not observed. Taken together, these data demonstrate an influence of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis on adrenal function in males, possibly by sensitizing the zona reticularis to the stimulating action of adrenocorticopic hormone. This represents a plausible mechanism to explain sex differences in circulating DHEA and DHEAS levels, and may have important implications in the development of hormone therapies designed for elderly men and women.

  18. Impacts of sea-level rise on estuarine circulation: An idealized estuary and San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Vivien P.; Xu, Ming

    2014-11-01

    Estuaries lie at the interface of land and sea, and are particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise due to climate change that might lead to intrusion of salt water further upstream and affect circulation patterns. Climate change is also likely to have a major impact on hydrological cycles and consequently lead to changes in freshwater inflows into estuaries. An idealized estuary model is employed to investigate the effects of sea-level rise and freshwater inflows on estuarine circulation. Rising sea levels result in a stronger longitudinal salinity gradient ∂s/∂x, indicating an increase in the strength of the gravitational circulation UGC, higher longitudinal dispersion coefficients K and enhanced salinity intrusion. Under low-flow conditions, the effects of sea level rise on salinity intrusion are largest because sea-level rise has a greater impact due to weaker vertical stratification. Strong flows increase the strength of the gravitational circulation, resulting in higher vertical stratification, which leads to the nonlinear feedback between vertical mixing and stratification. The effect of sea-level rise on salinity intrusion is reduced owing to the suppression of mixing by stratification. Supporting three-dimensional simulations from northern San Francisco Bay are presented. The intrusion length scale L is used as a substitute for regulating inflows to ensure that sufficient fresh water is available to flush the Bay. Following a set of standards explicitly stated in the 1994 Bay-Delta Accord, a series of simulations is performed and we find that with sea-level rise stronger inflows are required to maintain L at the proposed locations.

  19. Effect of the sea breeze circulation on surface ozone levels at Wallops Island, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface measurements of windspeed, direction, and ozone concentration collected at Walloops Island, Virginia, during the summers of 1977 and 1978 are analyzed to study the effects of the dominant mesoscale sea breeze circulation on th local photochemical oxidant levels. A bimodality in the atmospheric dynamics is linked to systematic variations in ozone concentration. It is concluded that during certain phases of the two circulation modes, increased wind speed reduces the resistance of the earth's surface to the deposition of ozone, and decreased ozone concentration levels result. For other phases, light wind occur, signifying high resistance to deposition and high ozone levels. This modulation by the local dynamics is a major impediment for pollutant studies in coastal environments, especially those centering on transport, because it tends to mask other processes that may be occurring

  20. The effect of the sea breeze circulation on surface ozone levels at Wallops Island, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C. L.; Williams, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    Surface measurements of windspeed, direction, and ozone concentration collected at Wallops Island, Virginia, during the summers of 1977 and 1978 are analyzed to study the effects of the dominant mesoscale sea breeze circulation on the local photochemical oxidant levels. A bimodality in the atmospheric dynamics is linked to systematic variations in ozone concentration. It is concluded that during certain phases of the two circulation modes, increased wind speed reduces the resistance of the earth's surface to the deposition of ozone, and decreased ozone concentration levels result. For other phases, light winds occur, signifying high resistance to deposition and high ozone levels. This modulation by the local dynamics is a major impediment for pollutant studies in coastal environments, especially those centering on transport, because it tends to mask other processes that may be occurring.

  1. Elevated circulating leptin levels in arterial hypertension: relationship to arteriovenous overflow and extraction of leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Holst, J J; Moller, S;

    2000-01-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone produced mainly in fat cells, appears to be important for the regulation of metabolism, insulin secretion/sensitivity and body weight. Recently, elevated plasma leptin levels have been reported in patients with arterial hypertension. Because a change in circulating leptin...... concentrations in such patients could be caused by altered rates of production or disposal, or both, the aim of the present study was to identify regions of leptin overflow into the bloodstream and of leptin extraction. Patients with arterial hypertension (n=12) and normotensive controls (n=20) were studied...... during catheterization with elective blood sampling from different vascular beds (artery, and renal, hepatic, iliac and cubital veins). Plasma leptin was determined by a radioimmunoassay. Patients with hypertension had significantly elevated levels of circulating leptin (12.8 ng/l, compared with 4.1 ng...

  2. High Circulating Adrenaline Levels at Admission Predict Increased Mortality After Trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär Ingemar; Stensballe, Jakob; Rasmussen, Lars Simon;

    2012-01-01

    partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, hematology, biochemistry, circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline, 11 biomarkers of tissue and endothelial damage, glycocalyx degradation, natural anticoagulation and fibrinolysis (histone-complexed DNA fragments, high-mobility group box 1...... adrenaline level was increased in nonsurvivors (p = 0.026), it was independently associated with increased activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.034) and syndecan-1 (p = 0.007), a marker of glycocalyx degradation, and it correlated with biomarkers of tissue and endothelial damage (histone......-complexed DNA, high-mobility group box 1, soluble thrombomodulin) and hyperfibrinolysis (tissue-type plasminogen activator, d-dimer). Furthermore, nonsurvivors had higher syndecan-1, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and d-dimer levels (all p <0.05). Circulating adrenaline was independently associated with 30...

  3. Alcohol modulates circulating levels of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N; Larsen, S; Seidelin, J B;

    2004-01-01

    Cytokines are markers of acute pancreatic inflammation and essential for distant organ injury, but they also stimulate pancreatic fibrogenesis and are thus involved in the progression from acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatic injury and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the...... circulating levels of IL-6, MCP-1, TGF-beta1, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP)....

  4. Circulating levels of ciliary neurotrophic factor in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Akahori, Yoichiro; Takamoto, Norio; Masumoto,Akio; Inoue,Seiji; Nakatsukasa, Hideki; MASUYAMA, HISASHI; Hiramatsu,Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to decrease food intake in mouse models of obesity and to improve insulin sensitivity. It is well known that tight regulation of glucose metabolism is essential for successful gestational outcomes (e.g. fetal growth), and that abnormal insulin resistance is associated with preeclampsia (PE). To investigate the possibility that CNTF might be involved in the regulation of insulin resistance during pregnancy, circulating levels of CNTF w...

  5. The circulating PBEF/NAMPT/visfatin level is associated with a beneficial blood lipid profile

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, P.; Greevenbroek, van, M.M.J.; Bouwman, F.G. (F.G.); Brouwers, M.C.G.J.; Kallen, van der, B.F.; Smit, E.; Keijer, J.; Mariman, E C M

    2007-01-01

    Visfatin with the official gene name pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor 1 (PBEF) and the protein name nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a recently discovered adipocyte-secreted protein that was shown by some to be associated with visceral fat and insulin resistance. To explore the link between PBEF/NAMPT/visfatin and lipid metabolism, we analyzed the relation of its plasma level with several parameters of adiposity, insulin resistance and the circulating blood lipid profile in...

  6. ELEVATED CIRCULATING LEVELS OF MACROPHAGE MIGRATION INHIBITORY FACTOR IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    González, Frank; ROTE, Neal S.; Minium, Judi; Weaver, Amy L.; Kirwan, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low level inflammation which can increase the risk of atherogenesis. We evaluated the status of circulating macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine involved in atherogenesis, in women with PCOS and weight-matched controls. Two-way analysis of variance models adjusted for age were fit to evaluate the effect of PCOS status (PCOS vs. controls) and weight-class (obese vs. lean) on MIF and other parameters. M...

  7. Increased circulating miR-21 levels are associated with kidney fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Glowacki

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of noncoding RNA acting at a post-transcriptional level to control the expression of large sets of target mRNAs. While there is evidence that miRNAs deregulation plays a causative role in various complex disorders, their role in fibrotic kidney diseases is largely unexplored. Here, we found a strong up-regulation of miR-21 in the kidneys of mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction and also in the kidneys of patients with severe kidney fibrosis. In addition, mouse primary fibroblasts derived from fibrotic kidneys exhibited higher miR-21 expression level compared to those derived from normal kidneys. Expression of miR-21 in normal primary kidney fibroblasts was induced upon TGFβ exposure, a key growth factor involved in fibrogenesis. Finally, ectopic expression of miR-21 in primary kidney fibroblasts was sufficient to promote myofibroblast differentiation. As circulating miRNAs have been suggested as promising non-invasive biomarkers, we further assess whether circulating miR-21 levels are associated with renal fibrosis using sera from 42 renal transplant recipients, categorized according to their renal fibrosis severity, evaluated on allograft biopsies (Interstitial Fibrosis/Tubular Atrophy (IF/TA. Circulating miR-21 levels are significantly increased in patients with severe IF/TA grade (IF/TA grade 3: 3.0±1.0 vs lower grade of fibrosis: 1.5±1.2; p = 0.001. By contrast, circulating miR-21 levels were not correlated with other renal histological lesions. In a multivariate linear regression model including IF/TA grade and estimated GFR, independent associations were found between circulating miR-21 levels and IF/TA score (ß = 0.307, p = 0.03, and between miR-21 levels and aMDRD (ß = -0.398, p = 0.006. Altogether, these data suggest miR-21 has a key pathogenic role in kidney fibrosis and may represent a novel, predictive and reliable blood marker of kidney fibrosis.

  8. A multi-level adaptation model of circulation for the western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaji, C.; Bahulayan, N.; Dube, S. K.; Rao, A. D.

    1999-12-01

    A three-dimensional, fully non-linear semi-diagnostic (adaptation) model is described. This model is used to compute the climatological mean circulation and to understand the role of local, steady forcing of the wind and thermohaline forcing on the observed circulation in the western tropical Indian Ocean. The model consists of equations of motion and continuity, sea surface topography, equations of state and temperature, and salinity diffusion equations. While the sea surface topography equation is solved by a successive overrelaxation technique, the other model equations are solved by a leap-frog numerical scheme. Two versions of the model, having 18 and 33 levels in the vertical direction, were prepared to study climatological mean circulation in the western tropical Indian Ocean. The first numerical experiment is carried out with the 18-level adaptation model to study the sensitivity of the solution to different values of eddy coefficients. The main scientific rationale behind these numerical experiments was to obtain the most appropriate values of the eddy coefficients for the realistic computation of climatological circulation in the western tropical Indian Ocean. Three numerical experiments were conducted for the month of February to understand the sensitivity of the model solution to different eddy coefficients. The model reproduced the circulation features during February, even with low values of horizontal and vertical eddy coefficients. In the second experiment, the adaptation model, with 33 levels in the vertical direction, is applied to study the seasonal mean climatological circulation at selected depths during Spring in the western tropical Indian Ocean. Adapted (steady state) results of currents, sea surface topography, temperature and salinity anomaly fields are presented. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the model results on currents and the observational data. The computed anomaly fields for temperature and salinity at selected depths

  9. Circulating levels of ciliary neurotrophic factor in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akahori,Yoichiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF has been shown to decrease food intake in mouse models of obesity and to improve insulin sensitivity. It is well known that tight regulation of glucose metabolism is essential for successful gestational outcomes (e.g. fetal growth, and that abnormal insulin resistance is associated with preeclampsia (PE. To investigate the possibility that CNTF might be involved in the regulation of insulin resistance during pregnancy, circulating levels of CNTF were assessed in non-pregnant, normal pregnant, postpartum, and pregnant women with PE. Sera from healthy non-pregnant women (n10, pregnant women (n30:1st trimester;n10, 2nd trimester n10;3rd trimester;n10, postpartum women (n10, and patients with PE (n11 were studied with Western blotting. Circulating CNTF was detected by Western blotting, and the levels of CNTF in pregnant women were decreased as compared with those in non-pregnant women, and tended to decrease as pregnancy progressed. A significant decrease was found in PE as compared with normal pregnancy. Circulating CNTF might be associated with physiological and abnormal insulin resistance during pregnancy.

  10. Circulating Cytokine Levels as Markers of Inflammation in Philadelphia Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Diagnostic and Prognostic Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Mondet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are well known mediators of numerous physiological and pathological processes. They contribute to the regulation of normal hematopoiesis but increasing data suggest that they also have a clinical impact in some hematopoietic malignancies. In particular, there is evidence that cytokines are implicated in the functional symptoms of Philadelphia negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph− MPNs, suggesting that evaluation of circulating levels of cytokines could be of clinical interest for the characterization of patients at the time of diagnosis and for disease prognosis. In this review, we present the current knowledge on alteration of circulating cytokine profiles in MPNs and their role in myelofibrosis pathogenesis. Phenotypic correlation, prognostic value of cytokines, and impact of JAK inhibitors are also discussed.

  11. High levels of circulating extracellular vesicles with altered expression and function during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Fabiola da Silva; Michelon, Tatiana Ferreira; Neumann, Jorge; Manvailer, Luis Felipe Santos; Wagner, Bettina; Horn, Peter A; Bicalho, Maria da Graça; Rebmann, Vera

    2016-07-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are widely considered important modulators of cell-cell communication and may interact with target cells locally and on a systemic level. Several studies had shown that circulating EVs' levels are increased during pregnancy. However, EVs characteristics, composition and biological functions in pregnancy still need to be clarified. This study aims to determine if circulating EVs during pregnancy are modified regarding levels, markers and cytokine profile as well as their reactivity towards peripheral blood cells. 26 pregnant women (PW) being in the second gestational trimester and 59 non-pregnant women (NPW) were investigated. EVs enrichment was performed by ExoQuick™ or ultracentrifugation; nanoparticle tracking analysis, SDS-PAGE followed by Western Blotting and densitometry, and IFN-γ, IL-10 and TGF-β1 ELISA for EVs characterization; imaging flow cytometry to analyze EVs' uptake by peripheral blood cells and flow cytometry were performed to analyze EVs function regarding induction of caspase-3 activity. Circulating EVs' levels were increased during pregnancy [26.9×10(6)EVs/ml (range: 6.4-46.3); p=0.003] vs NPW [18.9×10(6)EVs/ml (range: 2.5-61.3)]. Importantly, the immunosuppressive TGF-β1 and IL-10 cytokine cargo were increased in EVs of PW even after normalization to 1 million EVs [TGF-β1: 0.25pg/10(6)EVs (range: 0.0-2.0); p<0.0001] and [IL-10: 0.21pg/10(6)EVs (range: 0.0-16.8); p=0.006] vs NPW. Although EVs derived from non-pregnant and pregnant women were taken up by NK cells, the latter exclusively enhanced the caspase-3 activity in CD56(dim) NK cells (8.2±0.9; p=0.02). The qualitative and quantitative pregnancy-related alterations of circulating EVs provide first hints for an immune modulating role of circulating EVs during pregnancy. PMID:27005781

  12. Brain insulin lowers circulating BCAA levels by inducing hepatic BCAA catabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Andrew C.; Fasshauer, Martin; Filatova, Nika; Grundell, Linus A.; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Zhou, Jianying; Scherer, Thomas; Lindtner, Claudia; White, Phillip J.; Lapworth, Amanda L.; Llkayeva, Olka; Knippschild, Uwe; Wolf, Anna M.; Scheja, Ludger; Grove, Kevin L.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun; Lynch, Christopher J.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Buettner, Christoph

    2014-11-04

    Circulating branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels are elevated in obesity and diabetes and are a sensitive predictor for type 2 diabetes. Here we show in rats that insulin dose-dependently lowers plasma BCAA levels through induction of protein expression and activity of branched-chain alpha keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the BCAA degradation pathway in the liver. Selective induction of hypothalamic insulin signaling in rats as well as inducible and lifelong genetic modulation of brain insulin receptor expression in mice both demonstrate that brain insulin signaling is a major regulator of BCAA metabolism by inducing hepatic BCKDH. Further, short-term overfeeding impairs the ability of brain insulin to lower circulating BCAA levels in rats. Chronic high-fat feeding in primates and obesity and/or type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with reduced BCKDH protein expression in liver, further supporting the concept that decreased hepatic BCKDH is a primary cause of increased plasma BCAA levels in insulin-resistant states. These findings demonstrate that neuroendocrine pathways control BCAA homeostasis and that hypothalamic insulin resistance can be a cause of impaired BCAA metabolism in obesity and diabetes.

  13. Increased Circulating Levels of Vitamin D Binding Protein in MS Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Ottavio Rinaldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D (vitD low status is currently considered a main environmental factor in multiple sclerosis (MS etiology and pathogenesis. VitD and its metabolites are highly hydrophobic and circulate mostly bound to the vitamin D binding protein (DBP and with lower affinity to albumin, while less than 1% are in a free form. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the circulating levels of either of the two vitD plasma carriers and/or their relationship are altered in MS. We measured DBP and albumin plasma levels in 28 MS patients and 24 healthy controls. MS patients were found to have higher DBP levels than healthy subjects. Concomitant interferon beta therapy did not influence DBP concentration, and the difference with the control group was significant in both females and males. No significant correlation between DBP and albumin levels was observed either in healthy controls or in patients. These observations suggest the involvement of DBP in the patho-physiology of MS.

  14. Chasing a ghost? - Issues with the determination of circulating levels of endotoxin in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnauck, Anne; Lentle, Roger Graham; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina

    2016-06-01

    Reliable quantification of bacterial products such as endotoxin is important for the diagnosis of Gram-negative infection and for the monitoring of its treatment. Further, it is important to identify patients with persistent subclinical level of bacterial products in their systemic circulation as data from animal studies also suggest this may be correlated with the onset of metabolic syndrome. In this review, we first aim to describe the principles of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test, an assay that is used to quantify endotoxin, and the various shortcomings that must be addressed before it can become a reliable means of quantifying endotoxin in samples derived from blood. We then review published data regarding endotoxin levels in healthy subjects and those with sepsis, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disorders and metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. We also review the evidence regarding influence of macronutrients in augmenting the levels of systemic endotoxin. The results of this review show that reported mean levels of endotoxin in the systemic circulation of healthy humans and of those with various clinical disorders vary over a wide range. Further, this review shows that a significant proportion of this variation can be related to the method that was used to prepare plasma and serum samples prior to assay and its ability to reduce the effect of various blood borne factors that interfere with the LAL assay. PMID:26732012

  15. Circulating endothelin-1 levels in obese patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, C; Bellini, C; Desideri, G; Baldoncini, R; Properzi, G; Santucci, A; De Mattia, G

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated venous plasma ET-1 concentrations in 18 never-treated obese men (body mass index 31.0 +/- 0.5 kg/m2; age 45.4 +/- 4.3 years) showing the whole features of the above syndrome and 12 control men (age 44.1 +/- 3.6 years). Circulating ET-1 levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls (p < 0.05), and were directly correlated with fasting insulin levels (r = 0.564, p = 0.015) and erythrocyte Na+/Li+ counter-transport activity (r = 0.504, p = 0.033). In conclusion, venous plasma ET-1 levels are elevated in obese men manifesting the whole features of the metabolic syndrome. Due to the biological properties of ET-1, our findings suggest the peptide as a further component of the cluster of cardiovascular risk factors which characterizes this syndrome. PMID:9288542

  16. Levels of circulating peptide and steroid hormones in men with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of circulating peptide (FSH, LH, prolactin, ACTH, calcitonin, gastrin and insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1]) and steroid (estradiol, progesterone, DHEA-S and testosterone)hormones were estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in male patients with lung cancer (n=37) pre-therapeutically and compared with 25 age matched healthy controls. In this retrospective study, FSH, LH, prolactin, ACTH, calcitonin, gastrin and IGF-1 were significantly higher with concomitant lower levels of DHEA-S and testosterone, while the difference was statistically non-significant for estradiol and progesterone in patients with lung cancer when compared with controls. Early stage patients (Stage II) exhibited higher levels of gastrin as compared to advanced stage patients (Stages III and IV). It is suggested that hormonal imbalance might play an important role in the development and progression in male patients with lung cancer. (author)

  17. Prognostic value of circulating catestatin levels for in-hospital heart failure in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀磊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether circulating level of catestatin(CST) could provide prognostic information independently of conventional risk markers for the development of in-hospital heart failure in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction(STEMI).

  18. Sensitivity of Red Sea circulation to sea level and insolation forcing during the last interglacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Trommer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the response of Red Sea circulation to sea level and insolation changes during termination II and across the last interglacial, in comparison with termination I and the Holocene. Sediment cores from the central and northern part of the Red Sea were investigated by micropaleontological and geochemical proxies. The recovery of the planktonic foraminiferal fauna following high salinities during MIS 6 took place at similar sea-level stand (~50 m below present day, and with a similar species succession, as during termination I. This indicates a consistent sensitivity of the basin oceanography and the plankton ecology to sea-level forcing. Based on planktonic foraminifera, we find that increased water exchange with the Gulf of Aden especially occurred during the sea-level highstand of interglacial MIS 5e. From MIS 6 to the peak of MIS 5e, northern Red Sea SST increased from 21 °C to 25 °C, with about 3 °C of this increase taking place during termination II. Changes in planktonic foraminiferal assemblages indicate that the development of the Red Sea oceanography during MIS 5 was strongly determined by insolation and monsoon strength. The SW Monsoon summer circulation mode was enhanced during the termination, causing low productivity in northern central Red Sea core KL9, marked by high abundance of G. sacculifer, which – as in the Holocene – followed summer insolation. Core KL11 records the northern tip of the intruding intermediate water layer from the Gulf of Aden and its planktonic foraminifera fauna shows evidence for elevated productivity during the sea-level highstand in the southern central Red Sea. By the time of MIS 5 sea-level regression, elevated organic biomarker BIT values suggest denudation of soil organic matter into the Red Sea and high abundances of G. glutinata, and high reconstructed chlorophyll-a values, indicate an intensified NE Monsoon winter circulation mode. Our results imply

  19. Sensitivity of Red Sea circulation to sea level and insolation forcing during the last interglacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Trommer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the response of Red Sea circulation to sea level and insolation changes during termination II and across the last interglacial, in comparison with termination I and the Holocene. Sediment cores from the central and northern part of the Red Sea were investigated by micropaleontological and geochemical proxies. The recovery of the planktic foraminiferal fauna following high salinities during marine isotopic stage (MIS 6 took place at similar sea-level stand (~50 m below present day, and with a similar species succession, as during termination I. This indicates a consistent sensitivity of the basin oceanography and the plankton ecology to sea-level forcing. Based on planktic foraminifera, we find that increased water exchange with the Gulf of Aden especially occurred during the sea-level highstand of interglacial MIS 5e. From MIS 6 to the peak of MIS 5e, northern Red Sea sea surface temperature (SST increased from 21 °C to 25 °C, with about 3 °C of this increase taking place during termination II. Changes in planktic foraminiferal assemblages indicate that the development of the Red Sea oceanography during MIS 5 was strongly determined by insolation and monsoon strength. The SW Monsoon summer circulation mode was enhanced during the termination, causing low productivity in northern central Red Sea core KL9, marked by high abundance of G. sacculifer, which – as in the Holocene – followed summer insolation. Core KL11 records the northern tip of the intruding intermediate water layer from the Gulf of Aden and its planktic foraminifera fauna shows evidence for elevated productivity during the sea-level highstand in the southern central Red Sea. By the time of MIS 5 sea-level regression, elevated organic biomarker BIT values suggest denudation of soil organic matter into the Red Sea and high abundances of G. glutinata, and high reconstructed chlorophyll-a values, indicate an intensified NE Monsoon

  20. Associations of Circulating Gut Hormone and Adipocytokine Levels with the Spectrum of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Huei Tseng

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is complex and poorly understood. We aim to investigate the association of various circulating peptide hormones with heterogenous manifestations of GERD.One hundred and four patients that had experienced typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation for at least 3 episodes per week in the past 3 months were enrolled. All patients received a baseline assessment of symptom severity and frequency with the Reflux Disease Questionnaire and an upper endoscopy to classify GERD into erosive esophagitis (EE, n = 67, non-erosive esophagitis (NE, n = 37, and Barrett's esophagus (BE, n = 8. Fifty asymptomatic subjects with an endoscopically normal esophagus were recruited as the control group. Complete anthropometric measures and blood biochemistry were obtained and fasting serum levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin and gut hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all subjects.All circulating peptide hormone levels were not statistically different between the GERD and control groups. However, GERD patients appeared to have lower PYY levels [median (25th-75th percentile, 80.1 (49.8-108.3 vs. 99.4 (65.8-131.9 pg/ml, p = 0.057] compared with control subjects. Among the GERD patients, ghrelin levels were inversely associated with the frequency and severity of acid regurgitation. In male GERD patients, EE was associated with significantly higher PYY levels [107.0 (55.0-120.8 vs. 32.8 (28.7-84.5 pg/ml, p = 0.026] but lower adiponectin levels [6.7 (5.6-9.3 vs. 9.9 (9.6-10.6 μg/ml, p = 0.034] than NE. Patients with BE had significantly lower adiponectin levels [6.0 (5.1-9.2 vs. 9.2 (7.1-11.2 μg/ml, p = 0.026] than those without BE.Humoral derangement of circulating peptide hormones might participate in inflammation and symptom perception in patients suffering from GERD. Further studies to clarify the exact role of these hormones

  1. Elevated circulating levels of betatrophin are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calan, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Ozgur; Kume, Tuncay; Unal Kocabas, Gokcen; Yesil Senses, Pinar; Senses, Yasar Mehmet; Temur, Muzaffer; Gursoy Calan, Ozlem

    2016-07-01

    Betatrophin is a newly identified hormone determined to be a potent inducer of pancreatic beta cell proliferation in response to insulin resistance in mice. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an inflammatory-based metabolic disease associated with insulin resistance. However, no evidence is available indicating whether betatrophin is involved in women with PCOS. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether betatrophin levels are altered in women with PCOS. This study was conducted in secondary referral center. This cross-sectional study included 164 women with PCOS and 164 age- and BMI-matched female controls. Circulating betatrophin levels were measured using ELISA. Metabolic and hormonal parameters were also determined. Circulating betatrophin levels were significantly elevated in women with PCOS compared with controls (367.09 ± 55.78 vs. 295.65 ± 48.97 pg/ml, P PCOS. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the odds ratio for PCOS was 2.51 for patients in the highest quartile of betatrophin compared with those in the lowest quartile (95 % CI 1.31-4.81, P = 0.006). Multivariate regression analyses showed that HOMA-IR, hs-CRP, and free-testosterone were independent factors influencing serum betatrophin levels. Betatrophin levels were increased in women with PCOS and were associated with insulin resistance, hs-CRP, and free-testosterone in these patients. Elevated betatrophin levels were found to increase the odds of having PCOS. Further research is needed to elucidate the physiologic and pathologic significance of our findings. PMID:26832343

  2. Circulating levels of p,p'-DDE are related to prevalent hypertension in the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, P. Monica, E-mail: monica.lind@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Ulleråkersvägen 40, 751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Penell, Johanna [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Ulleråkersvägen 40, 751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van [MTM Research Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro (Sweden); Lind, Lars [Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-02-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin given to experimental animals increase the blood pressure. We therefore investigated if circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were related to hypertension in a population-based sample of men and women. Methods: One thousand and sixteen subjects aged 70 years were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Twenty-three POPs were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, and/or use of antihypertensive medication. Results: Seven hundred and thirty-two subjects (72%) showed hypertension. When the POPs were treated as continuous variables and adjusted for gender only, two PCBs with a low number of chlorine atoms (PCB 105 and 118) were related to prevalent hypertension. Also the OC pesticide p,p'-DDE was related to hypertension. The strongest of these associations was seen for p,p'-DDE (OR 1.35 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.17–1.56, p<0.0001). Following further adjustment also for BMI, smoking status, education level and exercise habits, only p,p'-DDE was still significantly related to hypertension (OR 1.23 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.06–1.43, p=0.006). Conclusion: In this cross-sectional analysis of an elderly population, high levels of circulating levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with prevalent hypertension, further strengthening the experimental findings that POPs might influence blood pressure. - Highlights: • We evaluated the relation between POPs and hypertension. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly men and women were analyzed. • The main exposure was circulating levels of 23 different POPs. • Hypertension was defined as ≥140/90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive treatment. • High levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with

  3. Circulating levels of p,p'-DDE are related to prevalent hypertension in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin given to experimental animals increase the blood pressure. We therefore investigated if circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were related to hypertension in a population-based sample of men and women. Methods: One thousand and sixteen subjects aged 70 years were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Twenty-three POPs were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, and/or use of antihypertensive medication. Results: Seven hundred and thirty-two subjects (72%) showed hypertension. When the POPs were treated as continuous variables and adjusted for gender only, two PCBs with a low number of chlorine atoms (PCB 105 and 118) were related to prevalent hypertension. Also the OC pesticide p,p'-DDE was related to hypertension. The strongest of these associations was seen for p,p'-DDE (OR 1.35 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.17–1.56, p<0.0001). Following further adjustment also for BMI, smoking status, education level and exercise habits, only p,p'-DDE was still significantly related to hypertension (OR 1.23 for a 1 SD change, 95% CI 1.06–1.43, p=0.006). Conclusion: In this cross-sectional analysis of an elderly population, high levels of circulating levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with prevalent hypertension, further strengthening the experimental findings that POPs might influence blood pressure. - Highlights: • We evaluated the relation between POPs and hypertension. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly men and women were analyzed. • The main exposure was circulating levels of 23 different POPs. • Hypertension was defined as ≥140/90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive treatment. • High levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with prevalent hypertension

  4. Obesity suppresses circulating level and function of endothelial progenitor cells and heart function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Tzu-Hsien

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim This study tested the hypothesis that obesity suppresses circulating number as well as the function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. Methods High fat diet (45 Kcal% fat was given to 8-week-old C57BL/6 J mice (n = 8 for 20 weeks to induce obesity (group 1. Another age-matched group (n = 8 were fed with control diet for 20 weeks as controls (group 2. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks after obesity induction. Results By the end of study period, the heart weight, body weight, abdominal fat weight, serum levels of total cholesterol and fasting blood sugar were remarkably higher in group 1 than in group 2 (all p Conclusions Obesity diminished circulating EPC level, impaired the recovery of damaged endothelium, suppressed EPC angiogenesis ability and LVEF, and increased LV remodeling.

  5. Association of circulating omentin-1 level with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Hye

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipokines contribute directly to the atherosclerotic process, connecting metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes to cardiovascular disease. Omentin-1 is a recently discovered novel adipokine, so data about the relationship of this adipokine to vascular health in type 2 diabetes is limited. Methods We enrolled 60 people with type 2 diabetes, with or without carotid plaque, and 30 participants with normal glucose tolerance. We measured serum omentin-1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP levels, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, as well as other cardiovascular risk factors. Vascular health was assessed by brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT. Results Serum omentin-1 levels were significantly decreased in type 2 diabetes patients compared to normal glucose controls and was further reduced in type 2 diabetes patients with carotid plaque compared to those without carotid plaque. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that age, systolic blood pressure, history of use of statins, angiotensin receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and serum omentin-1 level were independent factors determining baPWV in people with type 2 diabetes (r2 = 0.637. Furthermore, in multivariate logistic regression analysis, circulating omentin-1 level was an independent decisive factor for the presence of carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes patients, even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and history of smoking and medication (odds ratio, 0.621; 95% confidence interval, 0.420-0.919; P = 0.017. Conclusions Circulating omentin-1 level was independently correlated with arterial stiffness and carotid plaque in type 2 diabetes, even after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors and detailed medication history.

  6. Exercise-induced changes in circulating levels of transforming growth factor-beta-1 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja; Langberg, Henning; Kjaer, Michael

    resting subjects (reported values range from 500 to 18,300 pg ml(-1)) and also the extent of intra-individual variation is unknown. As a basis for detecting exercise-induced changes in transforming growth factor-beta-1, we measured its concentration, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in plasma from...... eight healthy resting subjects. Plasma was sampled from each subject on five successive days according to a procedure designed to minimize activation of platelets, as platelet alpha-granules contain large amounts of transforming growth factor-beta-1. The mean plasma level was relatively low [1155 (30......Mechanical loading of cells induces the expression of transforming growth factor-beta-1, and acute exercise, which involves mechanical loading of several tissues, could thus increase its circulating level in humans. However, no consensus exists regarding the plasma concentration of this cytokine in...

  7. The rapid and reversible activation of a calcium-independent plasmalogen-selective phospholipase A2 during myocardial ischemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, D. A.; Hazen, S. L.; Saffitz, J E; Gross, R W

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of two members of a novel family of calcium-independent plasmalogen-selective phospholipases A2 in mammalian myocardium (Wolf, R. A., and R. W. Gross. 1985. J. Biol. Chem. 260:7295-7303; and Hazen, S. L., D. A. Ford, and R. W. Gross. 1991. J. Biol. Chem. 266:5629-5633). To examine the potential role of these calcium-independent phospholipases A2 in mediating membrane dysfunction during early myocardial ischemia, the temporal course of alterations...

  8. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    OpenAIRE

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation f...

  9. A two-time-level split-explicit ocean circulation model (MASNUM) and its validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Lei

    2014-01-01

    A two-time-level, three-dimensional numerical ocean circulation model (named MASNUM) was estab-lished with a two-level, single-step Eulerian forward-backward time-differencing scheme. A mathematical model of large-scale oceanic motions was based on the terrain-following coordinated, Boussinesq, Reyn-olds-averaged primitive equations of ocean dynamics. A simple but very practical Eulerian forward-back-ward method was adopted to replace the most preferred leapfrog scheme as the time-differencing method for both barotropic and baroclinic modes. The forward-backward method is of second-order of accuracy, computationally efficient by requiring only one function evaluation per time step, and free of the compu-tational mode inherent in the three-level schemes. This method is superior to the leapfrog scheme in that the maximum time step of stability is twice as large as that of the leapfrog scheme in staggered meshes thus the computational efficiency could be doubled. A spatial smoothing method was introduced to control the nonlinear instability in the numerical integration. An ideal numerical experiment simulating the propa-gation of the equatorial Rossby soliton was performed to test the amplitude and phase error of this new model. The performance of this circulation model was further verified with a regional (northwest Pacific) and a quasi-global (global ocean simulation with the Arctic Ocean excluded) simulation experiments. These two numerical experiments show fairly good agreement with the observations. The maximum time step of stability in these two experiments were also investigated and compared between this model and that model which adopts the leapfrog scheme.

  10. Genetic Variation in the Natriuretic Peptide System, Circulating Natriuretic Peptide Levels, and Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen L; Nielsen, Søren J; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Tine W; Olsen, Michael H; Linneberg, Allan; Madsbad, Sten; Fenger, Mogens; Berg, Nikolaj D

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundIn a large collaborative study (n > 50,000), common variants in the natriuretic peptide (NP) genes were found to be associated with circulating NP levels and also with blood pressure (BP) levels based on office BP measurements (OBPMs). It is unknown if determining an individual's BP by 24......-h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPMs) will influence the effect of NP gene variations on BP levels.MethodsWe used rs632793 at the NPPB (NP precursor B) locus to investigate the relationship between genetically determined serum N-terminal pro-brain NP (NT-proBNP) concentrations and BP levels...... participants with the G:G genotype (geometric mean (95% confidence interval (CI)): 34.8 (31.5-38.4) pg/ml vs. 48.1 (41.9-55.3) pg/ml, P = 0.0002), but higher 24-h ambulatory BP levels (mean difference (95% CI): 2.0 (0.1-4.1) mm Hg, P = 0.043, for systolic BP and 1.7 (0.4-3.1) mm Hg, P = 0.011, for diastolic BP...

  11. The gyre-scale circulation of the North Atlantic and sea level at Brest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Woodworth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the gyre-scale circulation of the North Atlantic, represented by air pressure near to the centre of the sub-tropical gyre, and sea level measured at the eastern boundary of the ocean has been investigated using records commencing in the middle of the 18th century. These time series are twice as long as those employed in an earlier study of this relationship. Near-continuous values of annual mean sea level and mean high water from Brest, and air pressure fields for the eastern North Atlantic derived from terrestrial instrumental pressure records and ship logbook information, have been used to demonstrate that sea level on the eastern boundary does indeed appear to be related to air pressure at the centre of the gyre (subject to reservations concerning short sub-sections of data near to the ends of the records. These findings confirm the earlier conclusions but over much longer timescales. This relationship can explain at least part of the century timescale accelerations in European sea level records obtained from tide gauge and saltmarsh data. This finding has important implications for interpretation of the observed sea level rise and acceleration on the European Atlantic coast, suggesting that redistribution of water could play an important role instead of (or as well as change in ocean volume.

  12. Increased circulating urocortin-3 levels is associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temur, Muzaffer; Yilmaz, Özgür; Aksun, Saliha; Özün Özbay, Pelin; Calan, Mehmet; Küme, Tuncay; Karakulak, Murat; Korkmaz, Hüseyin Anıl

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare serum urocortin-3 (UCN3) levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and healthy women, and establish what role UCN3 levels play in PCOS. Fifty-two patients with PCOS and 55 healthy women were included in the study, matched for age and body mass index. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, hs-CRP, UCN3 and free-testosterone levels of the all participants were measured. HOMA-IR was used to calculate the insulin resistance. Circulating UCN3 levels were significantly increased in women with PCOS than in control subjects (54.49 ± 5.77 versus 51.28 ± 5.86 pmol/l, p = 0.005). Serum insulin, hs-CRP and HOMA-IR levels were higher in women with PCOS than in control group. UCN3 levels positively correlated with hs-CRP in PCOS group (r = 0.391, p = 0.004). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curves were 0.732 (95% CI 0.634-0.830, p optimal cut-off value of UCN3 for detecting PCOS was ≥51.46 pmol/l, at which the sensitivity was 75% and specificity was 68%. Our results suggest that there is a potential link between PCOS and UCN3 levels. The results of this study support the presence of increased UCN3 levels for the association of inflammation with PCOS. PMID:26488073

  13. Levels and values of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, soluble angiogenic factors, and mononuclear cell apoptosis in liver cirrhosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chih-Hung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roles of circulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC and mononuclear cell apoptosis (MCA in liver cirrhosis (LC patients are unknown. Moreover, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1α are powerful endogenous substances enhancing EPC migration into circulation. We assessed the level and function of EPCs [CD31/CD34 (E1, KDR/CD34 (E2, CXCR4/CD34 (E3], levels of MCA, VEGF and SDF-1α in circulation of LC patients. Methods Blood sample was prospectively collected once for assessing EPC level and function, MCA, and plasma levels of VEGF and SDF-1α using flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, respectively, in 78 LC patients and 25 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Results Number of EPCs (E1, E2, E3 was lower (all p 2, E3 was higher but MCA was lower (all p  Conclusion The results of this study demonstrated that level, angiogenic capacity, and function of circulating EPCs were significantly reduced, whereas plasma levels of SDF-1α and circulating MCA were substantially enhanced in cirrhotic patients.

  14. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on Circulating Steroid Levels in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strajhar, P; Schmid, Y; Liakoni, E; Dolder, P C; Rentsch, K M; Kratschmar, D V; Odermatt, A; Liechti, M E

    2016-03-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ) receptor agonist that is used recreationally worldwide. Interest in LSD research in humans waned after the 1970s, although the use of LSD in psychiatric research and practice has recently gained increasing attention. LSD produces pronounced acute psychedelic effects, although its influence on plasma steroid levels over time has not yet been characterised in humans. The effects of LSD (200 μg) or placebo on plasma steroid levels were investigated in 16 healthy subjects using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design. Plasma concentration-time profiles were determined for 15 steroids using liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. LSD increased plasma concentrations of the glucocorticoids cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone compared to placebo. The mean maximum concentration of LSD was reached at 1.7 h. Mean peak psychedelic effects were reached at 2.4 h, with significant alterations in mental state from 0.5 h to > 10 h. Mean maximal concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone were reached at 2.5 h and 1.9 h, and significant elevations were observed 1.5-6 h and 1-3 h after drug administration, respectively. LSD also significantly increased plasma concentrations of the androgen dehydroepiandrosterone but not other androgens, progestogens or mineralocorticoids compared to placebo. A close relationship was found between plasma LSD concentrations and changes in plasma cortisol and corticosterone and the psychotropic response to LSD, and no clockwise hysteresis was observed. In conclusion, LSD produces significant acute effects on circulating steroids, especially glucocorticoids. LSD-induced changes in circulating glucocorticoids were associated with plasma LSD concentrations over time and showed no acute pharmacological tolerance. PMID:26849997

  15. Lead-bismuth cooled reactor with a high level of natural circulation (RBEC-M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RBEC-M is a lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor with a high level of primary coolant natural circulation and a gas lift system in the primary circuit to ensure a supply of inert gas (argon) in the coolant under the core. The name reflects the basic technology of the concept: a fast neutron spectrum, heavy metal lead-bismuth coolant, a high level of natural circulation with a nominal operation of inert gas blowers and safe cooldown of the core after the trip of gas supply blowers. The RBEC-M reactor is a conceptual development based on the preliminary design of the RBEC reactor, hereafter referred to as a 'basic project'. The direct predecessor of the RBEC-M is the design named RBEC, one of the Russian-developed designs of fast reactors with heavy metal coolants. The preliminary design of the RBEC reactor of 900 MW(th) and 340 MW(e) was completed in the 1990s by Russian design and scientific institutions: OKB 'Gidropress', Russian Research Centre (RRC) 'Kurchatov Institute' and IPPE, with the participation of VNIINM and RIAR. The main objective of the development of the RBEC lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor was to provide a reliable solution for nuclear fuel breeding, while using an approach alternative to sodium cooled fast reactors. It was assumed that design development of a nuclear power plant (NPP) with such reactor could be completed in a rather short period, with modest expenditures for additional testing and qualification of separate equipment units

  16. Increased levels of circulating Annexin A5 in Familial Mediterranean fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovhannisyan Lilit P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial Mediterranean fever is a genetic autoinflammatory disease most commonly affecting the ethnic groups originating from around the Mediterranean Sea. Apoptosis plays an important role in down-regulation of the inflammatory response by reducing the lifespan of activated immunocompetent cells. Thus, increased apoptosis may be associated with pathogenesis of familial Mediterranean fever. Methods In the present study we determined the serum levels of apoptotic marker, Annexin A5, in familial Mediterranean fever patients, within an attack and attack-free, in comparison to healthy subjects and assessed the influence of colchicine treatment on this parameter. In addition, in all study subjects serum levels of C-reactive protein and interleukine-1β, and the total leukocyte count were also determined. Results Our results demonstrated that pathogenesis of familial Mediterranean fever is characterized by the increased levels of circulating Annexin A5, which is higher in patients within the attack and which associate with the increased levels of C-reactive protein and interleukine-1β and total leukocyte count. Conclusions The results obtained indicate elevated rates of apoptosis of subpopulations of leukocytes involved in autoinflammation and recurrent episodes of fever in familial Mediterranean fever. It was also revealed that regular colchicine treatment sufficiently decreases the rate of apoptosis in familial Mediterranean fever patients by affecting the intensity of autoinflammatory reactions.

  17. Aquifer-Circulating Water Curtain Cultivation System To Recover Groundwater Level And Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Ko, K.; Chon, C.; Oh, S.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater temperature, which generally ranges 14 to 16 degree of Celsius all year long, can be said to be 'constant' compared to the amplitude of daily variation of air temperature or surface water. Water curtain cultivating method utilizes this 'constant' groundwater temperature to warm up the inside of greenhouse during winter night by splash groundwater on the roof of inner greenhouse. The area of water curtain cultivation system have increased up to 107.5 square kilometers as of 2006 since when it is first introduced to South Korea in 1984. Groundwater shortage problem became a great issue in a concentrated water curtain cultivation area because the pumped and splashed groundwater is abandoned to nearby stream and natural recharge rate is reduced by greenhouses. The amount of groundwater use for water curtain cultivation system in South Korea is calculated to be 587 million cubic meters which is 35% of national agricultural use of groundwater. A new water curtain cultivation system coupled with aquifer circulating of the splashed groundwater and greenhouse roof-top rainwater harvesting is developed and applied to field site in Nonsan-si, Chungnam province to minimize groundwater shortage problem and recover groundwater level. The aquifer circulating water curtain cultivation system is consist of a pumping well and a injection well of 80 m deep, groundwater transfer and splashing system, recovery tank and rainwater collecting waterway. The distance between injection and pumping well is 15 m and an observation well is installed in the middle of the wells. To characterize hydrogeological properties of this site, hydraulic test such as pumping tests and tracer tests with dye tracer, thermal tracer and ion tracer. Once the integrated system is constructed in this site, hydraulic head in all the wells and temperature of air, recovery tank and groundwater in all the wells are monitored during the operation for 3months in winter season. Hydraulic test and tracer

  18. GRP94 Regulates Circulating Cholesterol Levels through Blockade of PCSK9-Induced LDLR Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Poirier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc by hepatic LDL receptors (LDLR is central for vascular health. Secreted by hepatocytes, PCSK9 induces the degradation of LDLR, resulting in higher plasma LDLc levels. Still, it remains unknown why LDLR and PCSK9 co-exist within the secretory pathway of hepatocytes without leading to complete degradation of LDLR. Herein, we identified the ER-resident GRP94, and more precisely its client-binding C-terminal domain, as a PCSK9-LDLR inhibitory binding protein. Depletion of GRP94 did not affect calcium homeostasis, induce ER stress, nor did it alter PCSK9 processing or its secretion but greatly increased its capacity to induce LDLR degradation. Accordingly, we found that hepatocyte-specific Grp94-deficient mice have higher plasma LDLc levels correlated with ∼80% reduction in hepatic LDLR protein levels. Thus, we provide evidence that, in physiological conditions, binding of PCSK9 to GRP94 protects LDLR from degradation likely by preventing early binding of PCSK9 to LDLR within the ER.

  19. Elevated Circulating Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamad Al Shahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We evaluated inflammatory cytokines and chemokine in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in patients with either acute coronary syndrome (ACS or stable coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods. We enrolled 20 ACS patients and 50 stable CAD patients without previous history of ACS who underwent cardiac catheterization. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and C-reactive protein of ≥1.0 mg/dL were excluded. Blood samples were collected from the patients just before catheterization, and PBMCs were isolated from the whole blood. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine were measured by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoassays. Results. The expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin- (IL- 6, IL-10, IL-23A, IL-27, and IL-37 was significantly higher in the ACS group than in the CAD group (P<0.05. In contrast, the expression of IL-33 was significantly lower in the ACS group than in the CAD group (P<0.05. The ACS patients had higher plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in the ACS group than in the CAD group. Conclusion. Circulating levels of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-23A, IL-27, IL-33, and IL-37, may be associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in ACS patients.

  20. Climate-Induced Variability of Sea Level in Stockholm: Influence of Air Temperature and Atmospheric Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This study is focused on climate-induced variation of sea level in Stockholm during 1873-1995. After the effect of the land uplift is removed, the residual is characterized and related to large-scale temperature and atmospheric circulation. The residual shows an overall upward trend, although this result depends on the uplift rate used. However, the seasonal distribution of the trend is uneven. There are even two months (June and August) that show a negative trend. The significant trend in August may be linked to fresh water input that is controlled by precipitation. The influence of the atmospheric conditions on the sea level is mainly manifested through zonal winds, vorticity and temperature. While the wind is important in the period January-May, the vorticity plays a main role during June and December. A successful linear multiple-regression model linking the climatic variables (zonal winds, vorticity and mean air temperature during the previous two months) and the sea level is established for each month. An independent verification of the model shows that it has considerable skill in simulating the variability.

  1. Circulating endothelin-1 levels in lean non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Influence of ACE inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, C; Laurenti, O; Bellini, C; Faldetta, M R; Properzi, G; Santucci, A; De Mattia, G

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of captopril on plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels and insulin sensitivity, 15 lean normotensive men (51.6 +/- 3.8 years) affected by non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) underwent 2-h euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Each patient was then assigned to receive either captopril (25 mg twice daily for 1 week) or placebo, in a double-blind randomized fashion, before repeating clamp. At baseline, plasma ET-1 levels were 0.77 +/- 0.25 pg/mL in captopril (n = 10) and 0.83 +/- 0.3 pg/mL in placebo patients (n = 5). A twofold increase in plasma ET-1 levels occurred during the 2-h insulin infusion in both groups (P < .05 after 60 and 120 min), with a rapid return to baseline after 30 min from insulin withdrawal. After 1 week of therapy, total glucose uptake significantly increased in captopril (from 3.71 +/- 1.70 mg/kg/min to 4.24 +/- 1.72 mg/kg/min, P < .03) but not in placebo patients. Plasma ET-1 levels significantly decreased after captopril therapy (0.48 +/- 0.25 pg/mL at time 0, P < .03 v pretreatment levels), but were unaffected by placebo. Moreover, captopril slightly reduced the magnitude of ET-1 increment during insulin infusion (0.65 +/- 0.28 pg/mL and 0.88 +/- 0.48 pg/mL at 60 and 120 min, respectively, P < .05 v time 0). As a consequence, during the second insulin infusion circulating ET-1 levels were significantly lower in captopril- than in placebo-treated patients at time 0 (P < .02), 60 (P < .002), 120 (P < .004), and 150 min (P < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7734095

  2. A multi-level adaptation model of circulation for the western Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaji, C.; Bahulayan, N.; Dube, S.K.; Rao, A.D.

    without small Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 31: 1221–1264 (1999) CIRCULATION OF WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN 1223 scale ‘noises’. Semi-diagnostic circulation models are effective tools for obtaining mutually adjusted... field and bottom relief of the ocean and that the observed data were found to be fully smoothed during the adaptation stage. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEY WORDS: adaptation model; climatic circulation; sea surface topography; thermohaline...

  3. Evaluation of circulating levels and renal clearance of natural amino acids in patients with Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiano, A; Pivonello, R; Melis, D; Alfieri, R; Filippella, M; Spagnuolo, G; Salvatore, F; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2002-02-01

    Although the hypercortisolism-induced impairment of protein homeostasis is object of several studies, a detailed evaluation of the complete amino acid profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has never been performed. The aim of the current open transversal controlled study was to evaluate serum and urinary concentrations as well as renal clearance of the complete series of natural amino acids and their relationship with glucose tolerance in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Twenty patients with CD (10 active and 10 cured) and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls entered the study. Measurement of serum and urinary levels of the complete series of natural amino acids was performed in all patients analyzed by cationic exchange high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) after 2 weeks of a standardized protein intake regimen. The renal clearance (renal excretion rate) of each amino acid was calculated on the basis of the serum and urinary concentrations of creatinine and the specific amino acid. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin response to standard glucose load, insulinogenic and homeostasis model insulin resistance (Homa-R) indexes were also evaluated and correlated to the circulating levels and renal clearances of each amino acid. Significantly higher serum (p<0.01) and urinary (p<0.05) levels of alanine and cystine, lower serum and higher urinary levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.05) and higher renal excretion rates of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.01) were found in patients with active CD than in patients cured from the disease and in controls. No difference was found between cured patients and controls. Creatinine clearance was similar in active and cured patients and in controls. In patients with active CD, urinary cortisol levels were significantly correlated to urinary cystine levels (r=0.85; p<0.01) and renal excretion rate of leucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05), isoleucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05) and valine (r=-0

  4. Exploring Secondary Students' Epistemological Features Depending on the Evaluation Levels of the Group Model on Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the epistemological features and model qualities depending on model evaluation levels and to explore the reasoning process behind high-level evaluation through small group interaction about blood circulation. Nine groups of three to four students in the eighth grade participated in the modeling practice.…

  5. Prognostic value of circulating microRNA-210 levels in patients with moderate to severe aortic stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Røsjø

    Full Text Available Circulating micro-RNAs have been proposed as a novel class of cardiovascular (CV biomarkers, but whether they meet analytical requirements and provide additional information to establish risk indices have not been established. miR-210 levels are increased in subjects with low VO2 max, which is a recognized risk factor in patients with aortic stenosis (AS, and we hypothesized that circulating miR-210 levels may be increased in patients with AS and associated with a poor prognosis.We measured circulating miR-210 levels by real-time PCR in 57 patients with moderate to severe AS and in 10 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The merit of miR-210 as a biomarker was assessed according to established criteria, including by comparing miR-210 levels with NT-proBNP and miR-22 levels, which is another miRNA biomarker candidate.All patients and control subjects had miR-210 levels within the range of detection (Cq<35 and the analytical variability was low. Circulating miR-210 levels were 2.0±0.2 [mean±SEM] fold increased in AS patients compared to controls (p = 0.002, whereas miR-22 levels were not differently expressed in the AS patients (0.12±0.06 fold increase, p = 0.45. The increase in miR-210 levels in AS patients was comparable to the increment in NT-proBNP levels: [AUC] 0.82 (95% CI 0.70-0.90 vs. 0.85 (0.75-0.93, respectively, p = 0.71. During a median follow-up of 1287 days, 15 patients (26% died. There was a significant association between higher circulating levels of miR-210 and increased mortality during follow-up: hazard ratio [supra- vs. inframedian levels] 3.3 (95% CI 1.1-10.5, p = 0.039. Adjusting for other risk indices in multivariate analysis did not attenuate the prognostic merit of circulating miR-210 levels.Circulating miR-210 levels are increased in patients with AS and provide independent prognostic information to established risk indices. Analytical characteristics were also excellent supporting the potential of

  6. Variability in Solomon Sea circulation derived from altimeter sea level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melet, Angélique; Gourdeau, Lionel; Verron, Jacques

    2010-08-01

    The Solomon Sea is a key region in the Pacific Ocean where equatorial and subtropical circulations are connected. The region exhibits the highest levels in sea level variability in the entire south tropical Pacific Ocean. Altimeter data was utilized to explore sea level and western boundary currents in this poorly understood portion of the ocean. Since the geography of the region is extremely intricate, with numerous islands and complex bathymetry, specifically reprocessed along-track data in addition to standard gridded data were utilized in this study. Sea level anomalies (SLA) in the Solomon Sea principally evolve at seasonal and interannual time scales. The annual cycle is phased by Rossby waves arriving in the Solomon Strait, whereas the interannual signature corresponds to the basin-scale ENSO mode. The highest SLA variability are concentrated in the eastern Solomon Sea, particularly at the mouth of the Solomon Strait, where they are associated with a high eddy kinetic energy signal that was particularly active during the phase transition during the 1997-1998 ENSO event. Track data appear especially helpful for documenting the fine structure of surface coastal currents. The annual variability of the boundary currents that emerged from altimetry compared quite well with the variability seen at the thermocline level, as based on numerical simulations. At interannual time scales, western boundary current transport anomalies counterbalance changes in western equatorial Pacific warm water volume, confirming the phasing of South Pacific western boundary currents to ENSO. Altimetry appears to be a valuable source of information for variability in low latitude western boundary currents and their associated transport in the South Pacific.

  7. The effects of prednisone and azathioprine on circulating immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte subpopulations in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkardt, N E; Kruth, S A; Kaushik, A

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates serum immunoglobulin (SIg) levels and lymphocyte subpopulations in normal dogs in response to putative immunosuppressive doses of prednisone and/or azathioprine. The objectives were to quantify SIg levels and lymphocyte subpopulations, including Thy-1+, CD4+, CD8+ and B cells, in normal dogs both before and after the administration of prednisone and/or azathioprine at 2 mg/kg, PO, each. Eighteen beagles were divided into 3 groups of 6 dogs each. Blood samples for radial immunodiffusion assay of IgG, IgM and IgA, complete blood count (CBC)and flow cytometry were collected prior to the administration of any drugs and again after 14 d of azathioprine, prednisone or azathioprine and prednisone. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated using density centrifugation and were incubated with monoclonal antibodies reacting with CD4+, CD8+, Thy-1+ and membrane immunoglobulin. Lymphocyte subsets were quantified using flow cytometry. Azathioprine-treated dogs had no significant changes in SIg levels or lymphocyte subpopulations. Prednisone-treated dogs had significant (P azathioprine-treated dogs had significant (P dogs also had a significant decrease in erythrocyte number and a significant increase in the monocyte count. These findings suggest that azathioprine and prednisone in combination or prednisone alone may be useful for the treatment of T cell-mediated diseases since decreased circulating T cell levels were demonstrated following treatment. The combination of drugs or azathioprine alone may not be appropriate for treatment of acute or autoantibody-mediated immune disease, because SIg levels were minimally affected by treatment. PMID:9918329

  8. Levels of plasma circulating cell free nuclear and mitochondrial DNA as potential biomarkers for breast tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diesch Claude

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the aim to simplify cancer management, cancer research lately dedicated itself more and more to discover and develop non-invasive biomarkers. In this connection, circulating cell-free DNA (ccf DNA seems to be a promising candidate. Altered levels of ccf nuclear DNA (nDNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have been found in several cancer types and might have a diagnostic value. Methods Using multiplex real-time PCR we investigated the levels of ccf nDNA and mtDNA in plasma samples from patients with malignant and benign breast tumors, and from healthy controls. To evaluate the applicability of plasma ccf nDNA and mtDNA as a biomarker for distinguishing between the three study-groups we performed ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis. We also compared the levels of both species in the cancer group with clinicopathological parameters. Results While the levels of ccf nDNA in the cancer group were significantly higher in comparison with the benign tumor group (P P P P = 0.022. The level of ccf nDNA was also associated with tumor-size (2 cmP = 0.034. Using ROC curve analysis, we were able to distinguish between the breast cancer cases and the healthy controls using ccf nDNA as marker (cut-off: 1866 GE/ml; sensitivity: 81%; specificity: 69%; P P Conclusion Our data suggests that nuclear and mitochondrial ccf DNA have potential as biomarkers in breast tumor management. However, ccf nDNA shows greater promise regarding sensitivity and specificity.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of erythropoietin: circulating levels in normal and polycythemic human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques are described in detail for the RIA of human Ep in unextracted plasma or serum. With 100 μl of sample, the assay is sensitive at an Ep concentration of approximately 4 mU/ml, and when required, the sensitivity can be increased to 0.4 mU/ml, a range considerably less than the concentration observed in normal human beings. This is approximately 100 times more sensitive than existing in vivo bioassays for this hormone. Studies concerned with the validation of the Ep RIA show a high degree of correlation with the polycythemic mouse bioassay. Dilutions of a variety of human serum samples show a parallel relationship with the standard reference preparation for Ep. Validation of the RIA is further confirmed by observations of appropriate increases or decreases of circulating Ep levels in physiological and clinical conditions known to be associated with stimulation or suppression of Ep secretion. Significantly different mean serum concentrations of 17.2 mU/ml for normal male subjects and 18.8 mU/ml for normal female subjects were observed. Mean plasma Ep concentrations in patients with polycythemia vera are significantly decreased, and those of patients with secondary polycythemia are significantly increased as compared to plasma levels in normal subjects. These results demonstrate an initial practical value of the Ep RA in the hematology clinic, which will most certainly be expanded with its more extensive use

  10. Radioimmunoassay of erythropoietin: circulating levels in normal and polycythemic human beings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA); Ebbe, S.N.; Hollander, L.; Cutting, H.O.; Miller, M.E.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1982-05-01

    Techniques are described in detail for the RIA of human Ep in unextracted plasma or serum. With 100 ..mu..l of sample, the assay is sensitive at an Ep concentration of approximately 4 mU/ml, and when required, the sensitivity can be increased to 0.4 mU/ml, a range considerably less than the concentration observed in normal human beings. This is approximately 100 times more sensitive than existing in vivo bioassays for this hormone. Studies concerned with the validation of the Ep RIA show a high degree of correlation with the polycythemic mouse bioassay. Dilutions of a variety of human serum samples show a parallel relationship with the standard reference preparation for Ep. Validation of the RIA is further confirmed by observations of appropriate increases or decreases of circulating Ep levels in physiological and clinical conditions known to be associated with stimulation or suppression of Ep secretion. Significantly different mean serum concentrations of 17.2 mU/ml for normal male subjects and 18.8 mU/ml for normal female subjects were observed. Mean plasma Ep concentrations in patients with polycythemia vera are significantly decreased, and those of patients with secondary polycythemia are significantly increased as compared to plasma levels in normal subjects. These results demonstrate an initial practical value of the Ep RA in the hematology clinic, which will most certainly be expanded with its more extensive use.

  11. Radioimmunoassay of erythropoietin: circulating levels in normal and polycythemic human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J F; Ebbe, S N; Hollander, L; Cutting, H O; Miller, M E; Cronkite, E P

    1982-05-01

    Techniques are described in detail for the RIA of human Ep in unextracted plasma or serum. With 100 microliters of sample, the essay is sensitive at an Ep concentration of approximately 4 mU/ml, and when required, the sensitivity can be increased to 0.4 mU/ml, a range considerably less than the concentration observed in normal human beings. This is approximately 100 times more sensitive than existing in vivo bioassays for this hormone. Studies concerned with the validation of the Ep RIA show a high degree of correlation with the polycythemic mouse bioassay. Dilutions of a variety of human serum samples show a parallel relationship with the standard reference preparation for Ep. Validation of the RIA is further confirmed by observations of appropriate increases or decreases in circulating Ep levels in physiological and clinical conditions known to be associated with stimulation of suppression of Ep secretion. Significantly different mean serum concentrations of 17.2 mU/ml for normal male subjects and 18.8 mU/ml for normal female subjects were observed. Mean plasma Ep concentrations in patients with polycythemia vera are significantly decreased, and those of patients with secondary polycythemia are significantly increased as compared to plasma levels in normal subjects. These results demonstrate an initial practical value of the Ep RIA inthe hematology clinic, which will most certainly be expanded with its more extensive use. PMID:7069267

  12. On the relation between Meridional Overturning Circulation and sea-level gradients in the Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kienert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of model simulations, we examine what information on changes in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC can be extracted from associated changes in sea surface height (SSH, specifically from a broad Atlantic north-south gradient as has been suggested previously in the literature. Since a relation between AMOC and SSH changes can only be used as an AMOC diagnostic if it is valid independently of the specific forcing, we consider three different forcing types: increase of CO2 concentration, freshwater fluxes to the northern convection sites and the modification of Southern Ocean winds. We concentrate on a timescale of 100 yr. We find approximately linear and numerically similar relations between a sea-level difference within the Atlantic and the AMOC for freshwater as well as wind forcing. However, the relation is more complex in response to atmospheric CO2 increase, which precludes this sea-level difference as an AMOC diagnostic under climate change. Finally, we show qualitatively to what extent changes in SSH and AMOC strength that are caused by simultaneous application of different forcings correspond to the sum of the changes due to the individual forcings, a potential prerequisite for more complex SSH-based AMOC diagnostics.

  13. Haplotypes of vitamin D receptor modulate the circulating levels of lead in exposed subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Vania B. [State University of Campinas, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Fernando [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Montenegro, Marcelo F.; Sandrim, Valeria C.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E. [University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Gerlach, Raquel F. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Morphology, Estomatology and Physiology, Dental School of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Genetic factors influence whole blood lead (Pb-B) concentrations in lead exposed subjects. This study aimed at examining the combined effects (haplotype analysis) of three polymorphisms (BsmI, ApaI and FokI) in vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene on Pb-B and on the concentrations of lead in plasma (Pb-P), which is more relevant to lead toxicity, in 150 environmentally exposed subjects. Genotypes were determined by RFLP, and Pb-P and Pb-B were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Subjects with the bb (BsmI polymorphism) or ff (FokI polymorphism) genotypes have lower B-Pb than subjects in the other genotype groups. Subjects with the aa (ApaI polymorphism) or ff genotypes have lower P-Pb than subjects in the other genotype groups. Lower Pb-P, Pb-B, and %Pb-P/Pb-B levels were found in subjects with the haplotype combining the a, b, and f alleles for the ApaI, BsmI, and FokI polymorphisms, respectively, compared with the other haplotype groups, thus suggesting that VDR haplotypes modulate the circulating levels of lead in exposed subjects. (orig.)

  14. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 polymorphisms in relation to circulating levels among African American and Caucasian women

    OpenAIRE

    D’Aloisio, Aimee A.; Schroeder, Jane C; North, Kari E; Poole, Charles; West, Suzanne L.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Baird, Donna D.

    2009-01-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor-one (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels have been associated with common diseases. Although family-based studies suggest that genetic variation contributes to circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels, analyses of associations with multiple IGF-I and IGFBP-3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been limited, especially among African Americans. We evaluated 30 IGF-I and 15 IGFBP-3 SNPs and estimated diplotypes in association with plasma I...

  15. Detection and adequacy evaluation of erythrocyte glutathione transferase on levels of circulating toxins in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rui; Qiu, Hui; Zuo, Huaiyun; Cui, Min; Zhai, Nailiang; Zheng, Hongguang; Zhang, Dewei; Huo, Ping; Hong, Min

    2016-08-01

    To explore detection and adequacy evaluation of erythrocyte glutathione S transferase (GST) on levels of circulating toxins in hemodialysis patients in Qinhuangdao region in China, this study divided 84 cases of long-term, end-stage hemodialysis patients into 2 groups: one group of 33 cases of adequate hemodialysis (spKt/V ≥ 1.3) and another group of 51 cases of inadequate hemodialysis (spKt/V GST, creatinine, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), transferrin saturation (TSAT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), interleukin-2,6,8 (IL-2,6,8) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) in the hemodialysis group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P GST, IL-2, 6, 8, and TNF-a levels in the inadequate hemodialysis group were significantly higher than in the adequate hemodialysis group (P GST and spKt/V, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-a have a positive correlation (P 0.05). There were 23 patients with levels of spKt/V ≥ 1.3 after adjusting the dialysis solution for 51 cases of inadequate hemodialysis patients, and the GST level after the adjustment was significantly lower than that before the adjustment, but still higher than that in the adequate dialysis group. This concludes that the maintenance of hemodialysis in patients has certain relevance on spKt/V and associated inflammatory factors. Through the study, it can be determined that GST can effectively respond to adequate hemodialysis, which has a guiding significance on adjusting the blood dialysis solution in clinical practice. PMID:27121915

  16. Circulating levels of human salusin-β, a potent hemodynamic and atherogenesis regulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi Fujimoto

    Full Text Available Using bioinformatics analysis, we previously identified salusin-β, an endogenous bioactive peptide with diverse physiological activities. Salusin-β is abundantly expressed in the neuroendocrine system and in systemic endocrine cells/macrophages. Salusin-β acutely regulates hemodynamics and chronically induces atherosclerosis, but its unique physicochemical characteristics to tightly adhere to all types of plastic and glassware have prevented elucidation of its precise pathophysiological role. To quantitate plasma total salusin-β concentrations, we produced rabbit and chicken polyclonal antibodies against the C- and N-terminal end sequences, circumvented its sticky nature, and successfully established a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Salusin-β was abundantly present in the plasma of healthy volunteers, ranging from 1.9 to 6.6 nmol/L. Reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that a single immunoreactive salusin-β peak coincided with synthetic authentic salusin-β. Plasma salusin-β concentrations were unaffected by postural changes and by potent vasopressin release stimuli, such as hypertonic saline infusion or smoking. However, salusin-β concentrations showed significant circadian variation; concentrations were high during the daytime and reached the lowest concentrations in the early morning. Plasma salusin-β levels in subjects with diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease showed distinctly higher levels than healthy controls. Patients with panhypopituitarism combined with complete central diabetes insipidus also showed significantly higher plasma salusin-β levels. Therefore, the ELISA system developed in this study will be useful for evaluating circulating total salusin-β levels and for confirming the presence of authentic salusin-β in human plasma. The obtained results suggest a limited contribution of the neuroendocrine system to peripheral total salusin

  17. Circulating heat shock protein 60 levels are elevated in HIV patients and are reduced by anti-retroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaru Anraku

    Full Text Available Circulating heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60 and heat shock protein 10 (Hsp10 have been associated with pro- and anti-inflammatory activity, respectively. To determine whether these heat shock proteins might be associated with the immune activation seen in HIV-infected patients, the plasma levels of Hsp60 and Hsp10 were determined in a cohort of 20 HIV-infected patients before and after effective combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART. We show for the first time that circulating Hsp60 levels are elevated in HIV-infected patients, with levels significantly reduced after cART, but still higher than those in HIV-negative individuals. Hsp60 levels correlated significantly with viral load, CD4 counts, and circulating soluble CD14 and lipopolysaccharide levels. No differences or correlations were seen for Hsp10 levels. Elevated circulating Hsp60 may contribute to the immune dysfunction and non-AIDS clinical events seen in HIV-infected patients.

  18. Elevated levels of circulating microRNA-200 family members correlate with serous epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Casina WS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a critical need for improved diagnostic markers for high grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC. MicroRNAs are stable in the circulation and may have utility as biomarkers of malignancy. We investigated whether levels of serum microRNA could discriminate women with high-grade SEOC from age matched healthy volunteers. Methods To identify microRNA of interest, microRNA expression profiling was performed on 4 SEOC cell lines and normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells. Total RNA was extracted from 500 μL aliquots of serum collected from patients with SEOC (n = 28 and age-matched healthy donors (n = 28. Serum microRNA levels were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR following preamplification. Results microRNA (miR-182, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c were highly overexpressed in the SEOC cell lines relative to normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells and were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate biomarkers. miR-103, miR-92a and miR -638 had relatively invariant expression across all ovarian cell lines, and with small-nucleolar C/D box 48 (RNU48 were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate endogenous normalizers. No correlation between serum levels and age were observed (age range 30-79 years for any of these microRNA or RNU48. Individually, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c normalized to serum volume and miR-103 were significantly higher in serum of the SEOC cohort (P  Conclusions We identified serum microRNAs able to discriminate patients with high grade SEOC from age-matched healthy controls. The addition of these microRNAs to current testing regimes may improve diagnosis for women with SEOC.

  19. Waist circumference does not predict circulating adiponectin levels in sub-Saharan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of previously reported ethnic differences in determinants and markers of obesity and related metabolic disorders, we sought to investigate circulating levels of adiponectin and their correlates in a sub-Saharan African (sSA population. Subjects and Methods We studied 70 non-diabetic volunteers (33M/37F living in Yaoundé, Cameroon, aged 24–69 yr, with BMI 20–42 kg/m2. In all participants we measured waist circumference and total body fat by bioimpedance, and obtained a fasting venous blood sample for measurement of plasma glucose, serum insulin and adiponectin concentrations. We performed a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp in 1/4 subjects, and HOMAIR was used as surrogate of fasting insulin sensitivity index since it best correlates to clamp measurements. Results Males had lower adiponectin levels than females (8.8 ± 4.3 vs. 11.8 ± 5.5 μg/L. There was no significant correlation between adiponectin and total body fat (rs = -0.03; NS, whereas adiponectin was inversely correlated with waist circumference (rs = -0.39; p = 0.001. Adiponectin correlated negatively with insulin resistance (rs = -0.35; p = 0.01. In a regression analysis using fasting adiponectin concentration as the dependent variable, and age, HOMAIR, waist circumference, and fat mass as predictors, waist circumference (β = -3.30; p = 0.002, fat mass (β = -2.68; p = 0.01, and insulin resistance (β = -2.38; p = 0.02 but not age (β = 1.11; p = 0.27 were independent predictors of adiponectin. When considering gender, these relations persisted with the exception of waist circumference in females. Conclusion Adiponectin correlates in this study population are comparable to those observed in Caucasians with the exception of waist circumference in women. The metabolic significance of waist circumference is therefore questioned in sSA women.

  20. Changes in circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 induced by short-term dietary magnesium deficiency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Katsumata, Shinichi; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Kajita, Yasutaka

    2016-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a potent regulator of phosphorus (P) and vitamin D metabolism. Long-term dietary magnesium (Mg) deficiency increases circulating levels of FGF23, whereas the effects of short-term dietary Mg deficiency are unclear. Thus, the present study investigated whether short-term dietary Mg deficiency affects circulating levels of FGF23. We also assessed changes in renal mRNA expression of vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and type II sodium-phosphate (Na/Pi) cotransporters, since these are regulated by FGF23. Rats were fed a control diet (control group) or an Mg-deficient diet (Mg-deficient group) for 2, 4 or 7 days. Serum Mg levels were significantly lower in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group at all time points. Serum FGF23 levels were significantly higher in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group at day 7. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase (24(OH)ase) mRNA levels were significantly higher in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group at day 7 . No significant differences in types IIa and IIc Na/Pi cotransporter mRNA levels were observed between the control and Mg-deficient groups. These results suggest that dietary Mg deficiency causes a rapid increase in circulating levels of FGF23 and renal 24(OH)ase mRNA levels. PMID:27624533

  1. Relationship of circulating cell-free DNA levels to cell-free fetal DNA levels, clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters in preeclampsia

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    Mézes Miklós

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to examine whether increased circulating total cell-free DNA levels are related to the clinical characteristics and standard laboratory parameters of preeclamptic patients, to markers of inflammation, endothelial activation or injury, oxidative stress and to cell-free fetal DNA levels. Methods Circulating total cell-free DNA was measured by real-time quantitative PCR in plasma samples obtained from 67 preeclamptic and 70 normotensive pregnant women. Standard laboratory parameters, C-reactive protein, plasma von Willebrand factor antigen, plasma fibronectin, plasma malondialdehyde and cell-free fetal DNA levels were also determined. Results and Conclusion Circulating total cell-free and fetal deoxyribonucleic acid levels were significantly elevated in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (median: 11.395 vs. 32.460 and 0.001 vs. 0.086 pg/μl; P < .001. The quantity of plasma total cell-free DNA did not correlate with most of the laboratory parameters, except for serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities (correlation coefficient: 0.31; P = 0.012 and 0.46; P < .001. There was no correlation with clinical characteristics, including body mass index. The releases of both free fetal and total cell-free deoxyribonucleic acid were found to be affected in preeclampsia. Hepatocellular necrosis seems to be responsible - at least partly - for increased circulating total DNA levels in preeclampsia, as suggested by the significant correlation with liver enzyme activities.

  2. Circulating Levels of IL-1B+IL-6 Cause ER Stress and Dysfunction in Islets From Prediabetic Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Christina M.; Lu, Christine; Corbin, Kathryn L.; Sharma, Poonam R.; Dula, Stacey B.; Carter, Jeffrey D.; Ramadan, James W.; Xin, Wenjun; Lee, Jae K.; Nunemaker, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines are associated with obesity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism is unknown. We tested whether proinflammatory cytokines IL-1B+IL-6 at low picogram per milliliter concentrations (consistent with serum levels) could directly trigger pancreatic islet dysfunction. Overnight exposure to IL-1B+IL-6 in islets isolated from normal mice and humans disrupted glucose-stimulated intracellular calcium responses; cytokine-induced...

  3. Polymorphisms in the CRP gene moderate an association between depressive symptoms and circulating levels of C Reactive Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Halder, Indrani; Marsland, Anna L; Cheong, JeeWon; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have found psychological depression associated with higher circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), not all findings are consistent. Since DNA sequence variation in the CRP gene has also been shown to predict plasma CRP levels, we hypothesized that plasma CRP may covary with depressive symptomatology as a function of allelic variation in the CRP gene. We tested this hypothesis in 868 healthy community volunteers of European ancestry. Depressive symptomatology was ...

  4. The mean seasonal cycle in sea level estimated from a data-constrained general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Sergey V.; Ponte, Rui M.; Heimbach, Patrick; Wunsch, Carl

    2008-03-01

    A near-global ocean state estimate over the period 1992-2004 is used to study the mean seasonal cycle in sea level ζ. The state estimate combines most available observations, including all the altimetric missions, with a general circulation model in an optimization procedure. The annual cycle tends to be larger than the semi-annual one, except in tropical regions. For global mean ζ, annual thermosteric and freshwater terms are nearly out-of-phase and lead to an annual cycle of only a few mm in amplitude. Regionally, surface wind stress and heat flux are the primary drivers for seasonal ζ variations in the tropics and midlatitudes, respectively, with both mechanisms playing a role at high latitudes. A substantial part of the annual ζ variability can be assigned to changes in thermosteric height in the upper 100 m in midlatitudes and 200 m in the tropics. Bottom pressure variability is larger at high latitudes, and also in some regions in the Southern Ocean and North Pacific. Apparent nonlinear rectification processes lead to a noticeable impact of submonthly forcing on the annual cycle in the western North Atlantic and North Pacific. Other features include the substantial ζ gradients associated with strong spatial variability in seasonal surface heat flux in some western boundary regions, the damping effects of surface heat flux on the seasonal cycle in the tropics, and the importance of wind driving and bottom pressure in shallow regions, which can cause differences in the seasonal cycle in some coastal and contiguous deep-ocean regions.

  5. A moderate elevation of circulating levels of IGF-I does not alter ErbB2 induced mammary tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderately elevated levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are associated with increased risk of breast cancer in women. How circulating IGF-I may promote breast cancer incidence is unknown, however, increased IGF-I signaling is linked to trastuzumab resistance in ErbB2 positive breast cancer. Few models have directly examined the effect of moderately high levels of circulating IGF-I on breast cancer initiation and progression. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of circulating IGF-I to independently initiate mammary tumorigenesis and/or accelerate the progression of ErbB2 mediated mammary tumor growth. We crossed heterozygous TTR-IGF-I mice with heterozygous MMTV-ErbB2 mice to generate 4 different genotypes: TTR-IGF-I/MMTV-ErbB2 (bigenic), TTR-IGF-I only, MMTV-ErbB2 only, and wild type (wt). Virgin females were palpated twice a week and harvested when tumors reached 1000 mm3. For study of normal development, blood and tissue were harvested at 4, 6 and 9 weeks of age in TTR-IGF-I and wt mice. TTR-IGF-I and TTR-IGF-I/ErbB2 bigenic mice showed a moderate 35% increase in circulating total IGF-I compared to ErbB2 and wt control mice. Elevation of circulating IGF-I had no effect upon pubertal mammary gland development. The transgenic increase in IGF-I alone wasn't sufficient to initiate mammary tumorigenesis. Elevated circulating IGF-I had no effect upon ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis or metastasis, with median time to tumor formation being 30 wks and 33 wks in TTR-IGF-I/ErbB2 bigenic and ErbB2 mice respectively (p = 0.65). Levels of IGF-I in lysates from ErbB2/TTR-IGF-I tumors compared to ErbB2 was elevated in a similar manner to the circulating IGF-I, however, there was no effect on the rate of tumor growth (p = 0.23). There were no morphological differences in tumor type (solid adenocarcinomas) between bigenic and ErbB2 mammary glands. Using the first transgenic animal model to

  6. Patients treated with antitumor drugs displaying neurological deficits are characterized by a low circulating level of nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, S; Pace, A; Bove, L; Cognetti, F; Properzi, F; Fiore, M; Triaca, V; Savarese, A; Simone, M D; Jandolo, B; Manzione, L; Aloe, L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore whether nerve growth factor (NGF) plays any role in the development of peripheral neuropathy induced by anticancer treatment. We measured the circulating NGF levels in 23 cancer patients before and after chemotherapy. We evaluated whether the development of peripheral neurotoxicity was associated with changes in basal NGF concentrations in patients studied with a comprehensive neurological and neurophysiological examination. The results of these studies showed that the circulating levels of NGF, which are about 20 pg/ml in plasma of controls, decrease during chemotherapy and in some cases completely disappeared after prolonged treatment with antitumor agents. The decrease in NGF levels seems to be correlated with the severity of neurotoxicity. These results clearly suggest that NGF might become a useful agent to prevent neuropathies induced by antineoplastic drugs and restore peripheral nerve dysfunction induced by these pharmacological compounds. PMID:10656436

  7. Steam drum level dynamics in a multiple loop natural circulation system of a pressure-tube type BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a pressure tube type boiling water reactor employing natural circulation as the mode of heat removal under all the operating conditions. Main Heat Transport System (MHTS) of AHWR is essentially a multi-loop natural circulation system with all the loops connected to each other. Each loop of MHTS has a steam drum that provides for gravity based steam-water separation. Steam drum level is a very critical parameter especially in multi-loop natural circulation systems as large departures from the set point may lead to ineffective separation of steam-water or may affect the driving head. However, such a system is susceptible to steam drum level anomalies under postulated asymmetrical operating conditions among the different quadrants of the core like feedwater flow distribution anomaly among the steam drums or power anomaly among the core quadrants. Analyses were carried out to probe such scenarios and unravel the underlying dynamics of steam drum level using system code RELAP5/Mod3.2. In addition, a scheme to obviate such problem in a passive manner without dependence on level controller was examined. It was concluded that steam drums need to be connected in the liquid as well as steam space to make the system tolerant to asymmetrical operating conditions.

  8. Increased circulating heat shock protein 70 (HSPA1A) levels in gestational diabetes mellitus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamvölgyi, Zoltán; Prohászka, Zoltán; Rigó, János; Kecskeméti, András; Molvarec, Attila

    2015-07-01

    Recent data indicate that serum Hsp70 (HSPA1A) levels are increased in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is no report in the literature on circulating Hsp70 levels in gestational diabetes mellitus. In this pilot study, we measured serum Hsp70 levels in 11 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes, 38 women with gestational diabetes, and 40 healthy pregnant women with ELISA. Plasma glucose levels, serum insulin concentrations, HbA1c values, and the Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index were also determined. According to our results, serum Hsp70 concentrations were significantly higher in women with pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus than in healthy pregnant women. In addition, pregestational diabetic women had significantly higher Hsp70 levels than those with gestational diabetes. Furthermore, in the group of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, serum Hsp70 levels showed a significant positive correlation with HbA1c values. However, there was no other relationship between clinical features and metabolic parameters of the study subjects and their serum Hsp70 levels in either study group. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time in the literature that serum Hsp70 levels are increased and correlate with HbA1c values in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to determine whether circulating Hsp70 plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes or elevated serum Hsp70 levels are only consequences of the disease. PMID:25720752

  9. Smoking decreases the level of circulating CD34+ progenitor cells in young healthy women - a pilot study

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    Baumann Gert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased levels of circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells have been associated with risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis in young women. The aim of this pilot study was to assess in healthy premenopausal women without other risk factors for cardiovascular disease the influence of nicotine abuse on the number of circulating progenitor cells in relation to endothelial function. Methods The number of endothelial progenitor cells, measured as colony-forming units in a cell-culture assay (EPC-CFU and the number of circulating CD34 + and CD34 + /CD133 + cells, measured by flow cytometry, was estimated in 32 women at the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle. In addition, flow-mediated dilation (FMD was assessed as a marker for vascular function. In a subgroup of these women (n = 20, progenitor cells were also investigated at the mid-follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Results Compared to non-smokers, the abundance of circulating CD34 + cells was significantly lower in smoking women in the menstrual, mid-luteal, and mid-follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. The number of CD34 + progenitor cells was revealed to have significant positive correlation with FMD in young healthy women, whereas CD34 + /CD133 + progenitor cells and EPC-CFU showed no significant correlation. Conclusion The number of CD34 + progenitor cells positively correlates with FMD in young healthy women and is decreased by smoking.

  10. IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 polymorphisms predict circulating IGFBP-3 levels among women from high-risk breast cancer families

    OpenAIRE

    Rosendahl, Ann; Hietala, Maria; Henningson, Maria; Olsson, Håkan; Jernström, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway has been implicated as risk modifier in premenopausal breast cancer. In this study, associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and diplotypes in the IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 genes and circulating IGFBP-3 levels, BRCA family status and breast cancer among women from high-risk breast cancer families were investigated. Nine IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 SNPs were genotyped with PCR-based methods in 323 women. Nine IGFBP1 and ten IGFB...

  11. Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I correlate with disease status in leprosy

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    Rodrigues Luciana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caused by Mycobacterium leprae (ML, leprosy presents a strong immune-inflammatory component, whose status dictates both the clinical form of the disease and the occurrence of reactional episodes. Evidence has shown that, during the immune-inflammatory response to infection, the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I plays a prominent regulatory role. However, in leprosy, little, if anything, is known about the interaction between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Methods In the present retrospective study, we measured the serum levels of IGF-I and IGBP-3, its major binding protein. These measurements were taken at diagnosis in nonreactional borderline tuberculoid (NR BT, borderline lepromatous (NR BL, and lepromatous (NR LL leprosy patients in addition to healthy controls (HC. LL and BL patients who developed reaction during the course of the disease were also included in the study. The serum levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α were evaluated at diagnosis and during development of reversal (RR or erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL reaction by the solid phase, enzyme-labeled, chemiluminescent-immunometric method. Results The circulating IGF-I/IGFBP-3 levels showed significant differences according to disease status and occurrence of reactional episodes. At the time of leprosy diagnosis, significantly lower levels of circulating IGF-I/IGFBP-3 were found in NR BL and NR LL patients in contrast to NR BT patients and HCs. However, after treatment, serum IGF-I levels in BL/LL patients returned to normal. Notably, the levels of circulating IGF-I at diagnosis were low in 75% of patients who did not undergo ENL during treatment (NR LL patients in opposition to the normal levels observed in those who suffered ENL during treatment (R LL patients. Nonetheless, during ENL episodes, the levels observed in RLL sera tended to decrease, attaining similar levels to those found in NR LL patients

  12. Exploring Secondary Students' Epistemological Features Depending on the Evaluation Levels of the Group Model on Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the epistemological features and model qualities depending on model evaluation levels and to explore the reasoning process behind high-level evaluation through small group interaction about blood circulation. Nine groups of three to four students in the eighth grade participated in the modeling practice. Their group models, which were represented by discourse and blood circulation diagrams, were analyzed for the development of the framework that informed the model evaluation levels and epistemological features. The model evaluation levels were categorized into levels one to four based on the following evaluation criteria: no evaluation, authoritative sources, superficial criteria, and more comprehensive criteria. The qualities of group models varied with the criteria of model evaluation. While students who used authoritative sources for evaluating the group model appeared to have an absolutist epistemology, students who evaluated according to the superficial criteria and more comprehensive criteria appeared to have an evaluative epistemology. Furthermore, groups with Level four showed a chain reaction of cognitive reasoning during the modeling practice concerning practical epistemology. The findings have implications for science teachers and education researchers who want to understand the context for developing students' practical epistemologies.

  13. Cardiovascular complications and increased levels of circulating modified low density lipoprotein in HIV patients and patients with lipodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R.O.M. Ronchini

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for patients infected with HIV has significantly prolonged the life expectancy and to some extent has restored a functional immune response. However, the premature introduction of HAART has led to a significant and alarming increase in cardiovascular complications, including myocardial infarction and the appearance of abnormal distribution of body fat seen as lipodystrophy. One key element in the development of ischemic coronary artery disease is the presence of circulating and tissue-fixed modified low density lipoprotein (mLDL that contributes to the initiation and progression of arterial lesions and to the formation of foam cells. Even though not completely elucidated, the most likely mechanism involves mLDL in the inflammatory response and the induction of a specific immune response against mLDL. Circulating antibodies against mLDL can serve as an indirect marker of the presence of circulating and vessel-fixed mLDL. In the present study, we measured antibodies to mLDL and correlated them with immune status (i.e., number of CD4+ T cells in 59 HIV patients and with the clinical manifestation of lipodystrophy in 10 patients. We observed a significant reduction in anti-mLDL antibody levels related both to lipodystrophy and to an immunocompromised state in HIV patients. We speculate that these antibodies may explain in part the rapid development of ischemic coronary artery disease in some patients.

  14. Decreased Circulating C3 Levels and Mesangial C3 Deposition Predict Renal Outcome in Patients with IgA Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Jun Kim; Hyang Mo Koo; Beom Jin Lim; Hyung Jung Oh; Dong Eun Yoo; Dong Ho Shin; Mi Jung Lee; Fa Mee Doh; Jung Tak Park; Tae-Hyun Yoo; Shin-Wook Kang; Kyu Hun Choi; Hyeon Joo Jeong; Seung Hyeok Han

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mesangial C3 deposition is frequently observed in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, the role of complement in the pathogenesis or progression of IgAN is uncertain. In this observational cohort study, we aimed to identify the clinical implications of circulating C3 levels and mesangial C3 deposition and to investigate their utility as predictors of renal outcomes in patients with IgAN. METHODS: A total of 343 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN were enrolled betw...

  15. Thermal hydraulic aspects of steam drum level control philosophy for the natural circulation based heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From safety considerations advanced nuclear reactors rely more and more on passive systems such as natural circulation for primary heat removal. A natural circulation based water reactor is relatively larger in size so as to reduce flow losses and channel type for proper flow distribution. From the size of steam drum considerations it has to be multi loop but has a common inlet header. Normally the turbine follows the reactor. This paper addresses the thermal hydraulic aspects of the steam drum pressure and level control philosophy for a four drum, natural circulation based, channel type boiling water advanced reactor. Three philosophies may be followed for drum control viz. individual drum control, one control drum approach and an average of all the four drums. For drum pressure control, the steam flow to the turbine is be regulated. A single point pressure control is better than individual drum pressure control. This is discussed in the paper. But the control point has to be at a place down steam the point where all steam line from individual drum meet. This may lead to different pressure in all the four drums depending on the power produced in the respective loops. The difference in pressure cannot be removed even if the four drums are directly connected through pipes. Also the pressure control scheme with/without interconnection is discussed. For level, the control of individual drum may not be normally possible because of common inlet header. As the frictional pressure drops in the large diameter downcomers are small as compared to elevation pressure drops, the level in all the steam drum tend to equalize. Consequently a single representative drum level may be chosen as a control variable for controlling level in all the four drums. But in case, where all the four loops are producing different powers and single point pressure control is effective, the scheme may not work satisfactorily. the level in a drum may depend on the power produced in the loop

  16. High circulating irisin levels are associated with insulin resistance and vascular atherosclerosis in a cohort of nondiabetic adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesti, G; Andreozzi, F; Fiorentino, T V; Mannino, G C; Sciacqua, A; Marini, M A; Perticone, F

    2014-10-01

    Irisin, a novel myokine, was proposed to be able to regulate glucose homeostasis and obesity in mice. Whether irisin levels are associated with cardio-metabolic variables, insulin sensitivity, and vascular atherosclerosis in humans remain unsettled. To determine the associations between circulating irisin levels, cardio-metabolic variables, insulin sensitivity, and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an indicator of vascular atherosclerosis, a cross-sectional evaluation of circulating irisin levels and cardio-metabolic variables in 192 White adults was conducted. Insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Common carotid IMT was measured by ultrasound. After adjusting for age and gender, irisin levels were positively correlated with body fat mass (r = 0.12, P < 0.05), fasting (r = 0.17, P < 0.01), 2 h post-load insulin (r = 0.15, P < 0.02) levels, and IMT (r = 0.29, P < 0.0001) and were negatively correlated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (r = -0.18, P = 0.007), Matsuda index (r = -0.13, P < 0.04), disposition index (r = -0.278, P < 0.0001), and insulin clearance (r = -0.26, P < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, gender, and BMI, individuals in the highest tertile of irisin levels exhibited higher body fat mass (P < 0.01), fasting (P < 0.05), 2 h post-load (P < 0.01) insulin levels, carotid IMT (P < 0.001), lower insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (P < 0.001), Matsuda index (P < 0.01), disposition index (P < 0.01), and insulin clearance (P < 0.001) as compared with subjects in the lowest tertile of circulating irisin levels. Irisin is inversely associated with insulin sensitivity and positively associated with carotid IMT in humans, suggesting either increased release by adipose/muscle tissue in response to deterioration of insulin sensitivity or a compensatory increase in irisin to overcome an underlying irisin resistance. PMID:24619655

  17. The level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells may be associated with the occurrence and recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The onset of chronic subdural hematoma may be associated with direct or indirect minor injuries to the head or a poorly repaired vascular injury. Endothelial progenitor cells happen to be one of the key factors involved in hemostasis and vascular repair. This study was designed to observe the levels of endothelial progenitor cells, white blood cells, platelets, and other indicators in the peripheral blood of patients diagnosed with chronic subdural hematoma to determine the possible relationship between the endothelial progenitor cells and the occurrence, development, and outcomes of chronic subdural hematoma. METHOD: We enrolled 30 patients with diagnosed chronic subdural hematoma by computer tomography scanning and operating procedure at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from July 2009 to July 2011. Meanwhile, we collected 30 cases of peripheral blood samples from healthy volunteers over the age of 50. Approximately 2 ml of blood was taken from veins of the elbow to test the peripheral blood routine and coagulation function. The content of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The level of endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood was significantly lower in preoperational patients with chronic subdural hematomas than in controls. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the blood routine and coagulation function. However, the levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells were significantly different between the recurrent group and the non-recurrent group. CONCLUSIONS: The level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in chronic subdural hematoma patients was significantly lower than the level in healthy controls. Meanwhile, the level of endothelial progenitor cells in recurrent patients was significantly lower than the level in patients without recurrence. Endothelial progenitor cells may be related to the

  18. On Evaluating circulation and temperature stratification under changing water levels in Lake Mead with a 3D hydrodynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Acharya, K.; Chen, D.; Stone, M.; Yu, Z.; Young, M.; Zhu, J.; Shafer, D. S.; Warwick, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Sustained drought in the western United States since 2000 has led to a significant drop (about 35 meters) in the water level of Lake Mead, the largest reservoir by volume in United States. The drought combined with rapid urban development in southern Nevada and emergence of invasive species has threatened the water quality and ecological processes in Lake Mead. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), was applied to investigate lake circulation and temperature stratification in parts of Lake Mead (Las Vegas Bay and Boulder Basin) under changing water levels. Besides the inflow from Las Vegas Wash and the Colorado River, the model considered atmospheric changes as well as the boundary conditions restricted by the operation of Hoover Dam. The model was calibrated and verified by using observed data including water level, velocity, and temperature from 2003 and 2005. The model was applied to study the hydrodynamic processes at water level 366.8 m (year 2000) and at water level 338.2 m (year 2008). The high-stage simulation described the pre-drought lake hydrodynamic processes while the low-stage simulation highlighted the drawdown impact on such processes. The results showed that both inflow and wind-driven mixing process played major roles in the thermal stratification and lake circulation in both cases. However, the atmospheric boundary played a more important role than inflow temperature on thermal stratification of Lake Mead during water level decline. Further, the thermal stratification regime and flow circulation pattern in shallow lake regions (e.g.., the Boulder Basin area) were most impacted. The temperature of the lake at the high-stage was more sensitive to inflow temperatures than at low-stage. Furthermore, flow velocities decreased with the decreasing water level due to reduction in wind impacts, particularly in shallow areas of the lake. Such changes in temperature and lake current due to present drought have a

  19. Assessment of γ-H2AX levels in circulating tumor cells from patients receiving chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PriyaBalsubramanian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are prognostic markers in a variety of solid tumor malignancies. The potential of CTCs to be used as a “liquid biopsy” to monitor a patient’s condition and predict drug response and resistance is currently under investigation. Using a negative depletion, enrichment methology, CTCs isolated from the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients with stage IV breast cancer undergoing DNA damaging therapy with platinum based therapy were enriched. The enriched cell suspensions, were stained with an optimized labeling protocol targeting: nuclei, cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19, the surface marker CD45, and the presence of the protein ɣ-H2AX. As a direct or indirect result of platinum therapy, double strand break of DNA initiates phosphorylation of the histone H2AX, at serine 139; this phosphorylated form is referred to as ɣ-H2AX. In addition to ɣ-H2AX staining in specific locations with the cell nuclei, consistent with previous reports and referred to as foci, more general staining in the cell cytoplamim was also observed in some cells suggesting the potential of cell apoptosis. Our study underscores the utility and the complexity of investigating CTCs as predictive markers of response to various therapies. Additional studies are ongoing to evaluate the diverse γ-H2AX staining patterns we report here which needs to be further correlated with patient outcomes

  20. Single ingestion of soy β-conglycinin induces increased postprandial circulating FGF21 levels exerting beneficial health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashidume, Tsutomu; Kato, Asuka; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Miyoshi, Shoko; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Nakata, Rieko; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Oikawa, Akira; Nakai, Yuji; Shimizu, Makoto; Inoue, Jun; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Soy protein β-conglycinin has serum lipid-lowering and anti-obesity effects. We showed that single ingestion of β-conglycinin after fasting alters gene expression in mouse liver. A sharp increase in fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) gene expression, which is depressed by normal feeding, resulted in increased postprandial circulating FGF21 levels along with a significant decrease in adipose tissue weights. Most increases in gene expressions, including FGF21, were targets for the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), but not for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. Overexpression of a dominant-negative form of ATF4 significantly reduced β-conglycinin-induced increases in hepatic FGF21 gene expression. In FGF21-deficient mice, β-conglycinin effects were partially abolished. Methionine supplementation to the diet or primary hepatocyte culture medium demonstrated its importance for activating liver or hepatocyte ATF4-FGF21 signaling. Thus, dietary β-conglycinin intake can impact hepatic and systemic metabolism by increasing the postprandial circulating FGF21 levels. PMID:27312476

  1. Mean sea surface heights of the South and East China Seas from ocean circulation model and geodetic leveling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The mean sea surface heights (sea surface topography) of the South China, East China, Yellow and Bohai Seas are derived from an ocean general circulation model and surface air pressure. The circulation model covers the global oceans, with fine grid (1/6°) covering the East Asian marginal seas and coarse grid (3°) covering the rest part of the global oceans. The result shows that the China 1985 National Altitude Datum is 24.7 cm above the mean sea surface height of the world oceans. The mean sea surface in the coastal ocean adjacent to China is higher in the south than in the north. Intercomparison of the model results with the geodetic leveling measurements at 28 coastal tidal stations shows a standard deviation of 4.8 cm and a fitting coefficient of 95.3%. After correction through linear regression, the standard deviation is reduced to 4.5 cm. This indicates that the accuracy of rmodel results is sufficient for practical application. Based on the model results, the mean sea surface heights for the study area with a resolution of 1/6 degree are given. This result also links the mean sea levels at islands with those on the mainland coast and gives the mean sea surface heights at tidal stations in the Taiwan Island, the Dongsha Islands, the Xisha Islands and the Nansha Islands relative to the China 1985 National Altitude Datum.

  2. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lidfeldt, Jonas [Department of Community Health, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Samsioe, Göran [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Halldin, Krister [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Åkesson, Agneta, E-mail: agneta.akesson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  3. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion

  4. Increased Circulating Levels of Alpha-Ketoglutarate in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Martinez, Salomé; Armengol, Sandra; Sabench, Fàtima; Ras, Rosa; Hernandez, Mercè; Aguilar, Carmen; Colom, Josep; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) causes a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. However, simple steatosis (SS) and steatohepatitis (NASH) cannot yet be distinguished by clinical or laboratory features. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between alpha-ketoglutarate and the degrees of NAFLD in morbidly obese patients. Materials and Methods We used a gas chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight-mass spectrometry analysis to quantify alpha-ketoglutarate in serum from normal-weight subjects (n = 30) and morbidly obese women (n = 97) with or without NAFLD. Results We found that serum levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were significantly higher in morbidly obese women than in normal-weight women. We showed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were lower in lean controls and morbidly obese patients without NAFLD. We also found that alpha-ketoglutarate serum levels were higher in both SS and NASH than in normal liver of morbidly obese patients. However, there was no difference between SS and NASH. Moreover, we observed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were associated with glucose metabolism parameters, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and steatosis degree. In addition, diagnostic performance of alpha-ketoglutarate has been analyzed in NAFLD patients. The AUROC curves from patients with liver steatosis exhibited an acceptable clinical utility. Finally, we showed that the combination of biomarkers (AST, ALT and alpha-ketoglutarate) had the highest accuracy in diagnosing liver steatosis. Conclusion These findings suggest that alpha-ketoglutarate can determine the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver in morbidly obese patients but it is not valid a biomarker for NASH. PMID:27123846

  5. FNDC5 expression and circulating irisin levels are modified by diet and hormonal conditions in hypothalamus, adipose tissue and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Rodríguez, B M; Pena-Bello, L; Juiz-Valiña, P; Vidal-Bretal, B; Cordido, F; Sangiao-Alvarellos, S

    2016-01-01

    Irisin is processed from fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5). However, a controversy exists concerning irisin origin, regulation and function. To elucidate the relationship between serum irisin and FNDC5 mRNA expression levels, we evaluated plasma irisin levels and FNDC5 gene expression in the hypothalamus, gastrocnemius muscle and different depots of adipose tissue in models of altered metabolism. In normal rats, blood irisin levels diminished after 48-h fast and with leptin, insulin and alloxan treatments, and serum irisin concentrations increased in diabetic rats after insulin treatment and acute treatments of irisin increased blood insulin levels. No changes were observed during long-term experiments with different diets. We suggested that levels of circulating irisin are the result of the sum of the irisin produced by different depots of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. This study shows for the first time that there are differences in FNDC5 expression depending on white adipose tissue depots. Moreover, a considerable decrease in visceral and epididymal adipose tissue depots correlated with increased FNDC5 mRNA expression levels, probably in an attempt to compensate the decrease that occurs in their mass. Hypothalamic FNDC5 expression did not change for any of the tested diets but increased with leptin, insulin and metformin treatments suggesting that the regulation of central and peripheral FNDC5/irisin expression and functions are different. PMID:27432282

  6. A Statistically-Based Low-Level Cloud Scheme and Its Tentative Application in a General Circulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Fushan; YU Rucong; ZHANG Xuehong; YU Yongqiang

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a statistical cloud scheme is first introduced and coupled with a first-order turbulence scheme with second-order turbulence moments parameterized by the timescale of the turbulence dissipation and the vertical turbulent diffusion coefficient. Then the ability of the scheme to simulate cloud fraction at different relative humidity, vertical temperature profile, and the timescale of the turbulent dissipation is examined by numerical simulation. It is found that the simulated cloud fraction is sensitive to the parameter used in the statistical cloud scheme and the timescale of the turbulent dissipation. Based on the analyses, the introduced statistical cloud scheme is modified. By combining the modified statistical cloud scheme with a boundary layer cumulus scheme, a new statistically-based low-level cloud scheme is proposed and tentatively applied in NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) CCM3 (Community Climate Model version3). It is found that the simulation of low-level cloud fraction is markedly improved and the centers with maximum low-level cloud fractions are well simulated in the cold oceans off the western coasts with the statistically-based low-level cloud scheme applied in CCM3. It suggests that the new statistically-based low-level cloud scheme has a great potential in the general circulation model for improving the low-level cloud parameterization.

  7. Natural circulation steam generator model for optimal steam generator water level control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several authors have cited the control of steam generator water level as an important problem in the operation of pressurized water reactor plants. In this paper problems associated with steam generator water level control are identified, and advantages of modern estimation and control theory in dealing with these problems are discussed. A new state variable steam generator model and preliminary verification results using data from the loss of fluid test (LOFT) plant are also presented

  8. Helicobacter pylori prevalence and circulating micronutrient levels in a low-income United States population

    OpenAIRE

    Epplein, Meira; Signorello, Lisa B.; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Fowke, Jay H.; Correa, Pelayo; Blot, William J.

    2011-01-01

    High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori, the leading cause of gastric cancer, and low levels of micronutrients have been observed in many developing countries, and the question remains as to the whether an association between the two exists. The present study seeks to further our understanding of this potential connection in the Southern Community Cohort Study, representing a low-income population in the United States. Blood levels of antibodies to Helicobacter pylori proteins were assessed us...

  9. The effects of prednisone and azathioprine on circulating immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte subpopulations in normal dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rinkardt, N E; Kruth, S.A.; A Kaushik

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates serum immunoglobulin (SIg) levels and lymphocyte subpopulations in normal dogs in response to putative immunosuppressive doses of prednisone and/or azathioprine. The objectives were to quantify SIg levels and lymphocyte subpopulations, including Thy-1+, CD4+, CD8+ and B cells, in normal dogs both before and after the administration of prednisone and/or azathioprine at 2 mg/kg, PO, each. Eighteen beagles were divided into 3 groups of 6 dogs each. Blood samples for radia...

  10. Circulating irisin levels are not affected by coffee intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R Peter

    Full Text Available Irisin, secreted by skeletal muscle and possibly fat, is hypothesized to play an important role in modulating energy expenditure, obesity and metabolism. Coffee consumption also increases energy expenditure and leads to positive metabolic effects, but whether these effects are mediated by irisin remains unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the association between baseline irisin levels and the metabolic profile in humans and to investigate whether consumption of caffeinated coffee alters irisin levels. To this end, a secondary analysis was performed investigating irisin levels at baseline and after eight weeks in 32 healthy, overweight coffee drinkers who were randomized to consumption of 5 cups per day of instant caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or water. Spearman correlation and analysis of covariance analyses were performed to identify possible associations. Irisin levels were positively correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.41, p = 0.02, fat mass (r = 0.44, p = 0.01 and CRP (r = 0.47, p = 0.007. Though there was a trend towards increased levels of irisin over time in the caffeinated coffee group (+1.8% when compared to the placebo group (24% this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.75 for the trend. This first randomized trial failed to reveal any effects of coffee consumption on irisin levels, but a larger trial, appropriately sized on the basis of data provided by this study, is needed to conclusively investigate such a relationship.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00305097.

  11. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-06-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis.

  12. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis. (paper)

  13. Pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D levels and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedirko, Veronika; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Bamia, Christina;

    2014-01-01

    size or smoking status. Conclusion: In this prospective study on Western European populations, serum levels of 25(OH)D were inversely associated with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Given the rising incidence of this cancer in low-risk developed countries and the strong public health interest......-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] serum levels and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in a prospective, nested case-control study among 520,000 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Each case (n = 138) diagnosed between 1992 and 2010 was matched to one control by...... age, sex, study center, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status. Serum baseline levels of 25(OH)D were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariable incident rate ratios (IRR) of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with continuous (per 10 nmol/L) or...

  14. Circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in patients with incisional hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Nadia A; Sørensen, Lars T; Jorgensen, Lars N;

    2013-01-01

    Incisional hernia formation is a common complication to laparotomy and possibly associated with alterations in connective tissue metabolism. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are closely involved in the metabolism of the extracellular matrix. Our...... aim was to study serum levels of multiple MMPs and TIMPs in patients with and without incisional hernia. Out of 305 patients who underwent laparotomy, 79 (25.9%) developed incisional hernia over a median follow-up period of 3.7 years. Pooled sera from a subset (n = 72) of these patients were screened...... for MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMP-13, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and TIMP-4 using a multiplex sandwich fluorescent immunoassay supplemented with gelatin zymography. The screening indicated differences in serum MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels. Consequently, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels were...

  15. Systematic review and meta-analysis of circulating S100B blood levels in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina Aleksovska

    Full Text Available S100B is a calcium-binding protein secreted in central nervous system from astrocytes and other glia cells. High blood S100B levels have been linked to brain damage and psychiatric disorders. S100B levels have been reported to be higher in schizophrenics than healthy controls. To quantify the relationship between S100B blood levels and schizophrenia a systematic literature review of case-control studies published on this topic within July 3rd 2014 was carried out using three bibliographic databases: Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. Studies reporting mean and standard deviation of S100B blood levels both in cases and controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-Mean Ratio (mMR of S100B blood levels in cases compared to controls was used as a measure of effect along with its 95% Confidence Intervals (CI. 20 studies were included totaling for 994 cases and 785 controls. Schizophrenia patients showed 76% higher S100B blood levels than controls with mMR = 1.76 95% CI: 1.44-2.15. No difference could be found between drug-free patients with mMR = 1.84 95%CI: 1.24-2.74 and patients on antipsychotic medication with mMR = 1.75 95% CI: 1.41-2.16. Similarly, ethnicity and stage of disease didn't affect results. Although S100B could be regarded as a possible biomarker of schizophrenia, limitations should be accounted when interpreting results, especially because of the high heterogeneity that remained >70%, even after carrying out subgroups analyses. These results point out that approaches based on traditional categorical diagnoses may be too restrictive and new approaches based on the characterization of new complex phenotypes should be considered.

  16. Dual-level parallelism exploitation with OpenMP in coastal ocean circulation modeling

    OpenAIRE

    González Tallada, Marc; Ayguadé Parra, Eduard; Martorell Bofill, Xavier; Labarta Mancho, Jesús José; Luong, P V

    2002-01-01

    Two alternative dual-level parallel implementations of the Multiblock Grid Princeton Ocean Model (MGPOM) are compared in this paper. The first one combines the use of two programming paradigms: message passing with the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and shared memory with OpenMP (version called MPI-OpenMP); the second uses only OpenMP (version called OpenMP-Only). MGPOM is a multiblock grid code that enables the exploitation of two levels of parallelism. The MPI-OpenMP implementation use...

  17. Decreased Circulating Interleukin-35 Levels Are Related to Interleukin-4-Producing CD8+ T Cells in Patients with Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Ping; Yang, Jiong

    2015-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-35 is a newly discovered suppressive cytokine and has been shown to alleviate inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate immunomodulatory capacity of IL-35 in patients with allergic asthma. IL-35 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The frequencies of cytotoxic T cells (Tc)1, Tc2 and Tc17 cells were measured by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of IL-35, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlations between plasma IL-35 levels and Tc1, Tc2, and Tc17 cytokine production in allergic asthmatics (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 12) were analyzed by Pearson's test. IL-35 protein and mRNA expression levels were down-regulated in allergic asthmatics compared with healthy controls. The frequencies of Tc2 and Tc17 cells were significantly increased in patients with asthma, and the frequency of Tc1 cells did not differ between asthmatic patients and healthy controls. Similarly, plasma levels of IL-4 and IL-17 were significantly increased in asthmatic patients, while there was no difference in IFN-γ levels between allergic asthma patients and healthy controls. More importantly, plasma IL-35 protein levels were negatively correlated with the frequency of IL-4-producing CD8+ T (Tc2) cells and with the IL-4 level in patients with allergic asthma. Our results suggest that decreased circulating IL-35 levels could contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma by regulating CD8+ T cells. PMID:26547705

  18. Circulating MKRN3 levels decline prior to pubertal onset and through puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Sørensen, Kaspar; Mieritz, Mikkel G;

    2015-01-01

    MKRN3 (rs12148769) affects age at menarche in healthy girls. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether serum levels of MKRN3 declined before pubertal onset in healthy girls. DESIGN: This was a population-based longitudinal study of healthy Danish girls and a cohort study of early...

  19. Circulating levels of platelet α-granule cytokines in trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Nis Agerlin; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Johansson, Per Ingemar;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To elucidate whether platelets differentiate cytokine release following trauma, we prospectively measured three major platelet-derived cytokines in 213 trauma patients on hospital arrival. METHODS: We measured plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory β-thromboglobulins (β...

  20. Elevated circulating stromal-derived factor-1 levels in sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landburg, P P; Nur, E; Maria, N; Brandjes, D P M; Biemond, B J; Schnog, J B; Duits, A J

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation and angiogenesis are of importance in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD). Recently, the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has been shown to be a key mediator of angiogenesis and inflammation. In this study we determined serum SDF-1 levels in consecutive adult sick

  1. Skin fibrosis correlates with circulating thyrotropin levels in systemic sclerosis: translational association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Gian Luca; Roberts, William Neal; Fiorenza, Alessia; Arcuri, Chiara; Certo, Rosaria; Trimarchi, Francesco; Ruggeri, Rosaria Maddalena; Bagnato, Gian Filippo

    2016-02-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease, characterized by cutaneous and multi-organ fibrosis, and vascular abnormalities. Skin thickening is a characteristic feature of SSc and resembles myxedematous skin. Our aim was to correlate the degree of skin involvement in SSc patients with serum TSH levels, since TSH receptors are widely expressed in human tissues, including the skin. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 70 SSc patients, all females with a mean age of 47 ± 11 year. Thirty-five age- and sex-matched HT patients were recruited, as controls. Subjects under L-thyroxine therapy and/or with positive anti-TSH receptor antibodies were excluded. In all subjects, we measured serum TSH, FT4, and free tri-iodothyronine (FT3) levels. Skin thickness was evaluated using the modified Rodnan total skin score (mRSS). mRSS averaged 14 ± 9 for SSc and 4 ± 6 for HT patients. TSH levels positively correlated with skin scores in both SSc and HT patients groups. In SSc patients, FT3 and FT4 showed an inverse correlation with mRSS, while in HT only FT4 levels showed this inverse significance. When divided by cutaneous extent, SSc patients with diffuse disease form had higher TSH serum levels compared to those with the limited form; additionally, the correlations between TSH, FT4, and mRSS reached statistical significance. Our preliminary data clearly indicate that serum TSH is higher in SSc patients with more severe skin disease, and significantly correlate with the mRSS. Therefore, TSH could play a role in the development of cutaneous changes in SSc patients. PMID:25994300

  2. Circulating levels of endothelin-1 in a homogenous Gulf Arab population with untreated essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rectal variations are reported in the natural history of high-tension. For example hypertension is significantly more prevalent in blacks than whites. Endothelial cells are important regulators of vasculars tone and homeostasis, in part through secretions of vasoactive substances including endothelin-I (ET-1), a small peptide with potent vaspressor actions in black hypertensive and normotensive whites. Since ET-I might play a significant role to the development and severity of hypertension in the indigenous Arab population of United Arab Emirates; we investigated the circulatory levels of ET-1 in the homogenous population. ET-I levels were measured in plasma samples from 60 unteated hypertensive Arabs and compared with 60 age and sex matched normotensive controls. ET-I levels were significantly higher in hypertensive (10.1+-pmol/L) than normtensives (mean 2.2+-0.5 pmol/L). Body mass index (BMI) was slightly higher among the hypertensive. For all subjects these levels significantly (P<0.001) correlated with systolic blood pressure and less significantly (P<0.05) with diastolic blood pressure and body weight. The correlation with ET-1 and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure with persistently significant after adjusting for BMI. Plasma concentration of ET-I are significantly higher in hypertensive Gulf Arabs as compared with reported levels in which hypertensives and ET-I could be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in this population. The endothelial sate might be particularly important with respect to hypertension in this racial group and merits further study. (author)

  3. Impact of obesity control on circulating level of endothelial progenitor cells and angiogenesis in response to ischemic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yung-Lung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim We tested the hypothesis that obesity reduced circulating number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, angiogenic ability, and blood flow in ischemic tissue that could be reversed after obesity control. Methods 8-week-old C57BL/6J mice (n = 27 were equally divided into group 1 (fed with 22-week control diet, group 2 (22-week high fat diet, and group 3 (14-week high fat diet, followed by 8-week control diet. Critical limb ischemia (CLI was induced at week 20 in groups 2 and 3. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 22 weeks. Results Heart weight, body weight, abdominal fat weight, serum total cholesterol level, and fasting blood sugar were highest in group 2 (all p  Conclusion Obesity suppressed abilities of angiogenesis and recovery from CLI that were reversed by obesity control.

  4. Association of circulating irisin levels with normal weight obesity, glycemic and lipid profile

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrabian, Sarvenaz; Taheri, Ehsaneh; Karkhaneh, Maryam; Qorbani, Mostafa; Hosseini, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background Irisin, a recently identified myokine/adipokine, has potential role in type 2 diabetes and obesity. Normal weight obesity (NWO) is associated with a significantly higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate association of irisin level with NWO, glycemicand lipid profile in women. Methods In this matchedcase-control study, 38 subjects with NWO (body mass index (BMI)  30) as case and 26 controls (BMI

  5. The Inhomogeneous Tropospheric Warming as the driver of Tropical Sea Level Pressure and Walker Circulation Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Bayr, Tobias; Dommenget, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation we follow the idea to split up the global warming signal in a spatial homogeneous warming and in a spatial inhomogeneous warming. In Bayr and Dommenget (2012) the changes of the tropical sea level pressure (SLP) due to inhomo-geneous tropospheric warming in climate change, which is mostly the land-sea warming contrast, was investigated in a multi model ensemble. The amplitude of the inhomogeneous tropospheric warming is roughly 10 times smaller than the total warming of t...

  6. Circulating levels of citrullinated and MMP-degraded vimentin (VICM) in liver fibrosis related pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Oliveira, Claudia P; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario R;

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether increased levels of vimentin citrullinated peptides identified by MS in articular cartilage can be measured in pathologies other than rheumatoid arthritis and be utilised for diagnostic purposes. METHODS: A monoclonal antibody against the sequence RLRSSVPGV-citrulline ......AIM: To investigate whether increased levels of vimentin citrullinated peptides identified by MS in articular cartilage can be measured in pathologies other than rheumatoid arthritis and be utilised for diagnostic purposes. METHODS: A monoclonal antibody against the sequence RLRSSVPGV......-citrulline (VICM) was developed and evaluated in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) (n=52 + 28 controls) rat model of liver fibrosis and two clinical cohorts of adult patients with hepatitis C (HCV) (n=92) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n=62), and compared to healthy controls. RESULTS: In CCl(4...... ±12 ng/mL, P<0.05), 23.8% in F1 (348 ±12 ng/mL, P<0.05) and 28.8% in F2 (362 ±25 P<0.05). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated increased serological levels of citrullinated and MMP degraded vimentin in an animal model of liver fibrosis and in early fibrosis associated with HCV and NAFLD patients. These data...

  7. Insulin stimulates endothelin-1 secretion from human endothelial cells and modulates its circulating levels in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, C; Pittoni, V; Piccoli, A; Laurenti, O; Cassone, M R; Bellini, C; Properzi, G; Valesini, G; De Mattia, G; Santucci, A

    1995-03-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoactive and mitogenic peptide produced by the vascular endothelium. In this study, we evaluated whether insulin stimulates ET-1 secretion by human endothelial cells derived from umbilical cord veins and by human permanent endothelial hybrid cells Ea.hy 926. Moreover, to provide evidence that insulin may stimulate ET-1 secretion in vivo, plasma ET-1 levels were evaluated in 7 type II diabetic normotensive males (mean age, 54.3 +/- 4.0 yr) during 2-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps (287 pmol insulin/m2.min-1) as well as in 12 obese hypertensive males (mean age, 44.2 +/- 4.6 yr) before and after a 12-week period of caloric restriction. Our results showed that insulin stimulated ET-1 release from cultured endothelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion. ET-1 release persisted for 24 h and was also observed at physiological insulin concentrations (10(-9) mol/L). The insulin-induced ET-1 secretion was inhibited by genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and by cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, suggesting that it requires de novo protein synthesis rather than ET-1 release from intracellular stores. In the in vivo experiments, plasma ET-1 levels rapidly increased during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps (from 0.76 +/- 0.18 pg/mL at time zero to 1.65 +/- 0.21 pg/mL at 60 min; P < 0.05) and persisted elevated until the end of insulin infusion (1.37 +/- 0.37 pg/mL at 120 min; P < 0.05 vs. time zero). In obese hypertensives, plasma ET-1 levels significantly decreased after 12 weeks of caloric restriction (from 0.85 +/- 0.51 to 0.48 +/- 0.28 pg/mL; P < 0.04). The decrease in body weight induced by caloric restriction was accompanied by a significant reduction in fasting insulin levels (from 167.2 +/- 94.0 to 98.9 +/- 44.9 pmol/L; P < 0.05) which correlated with the reduction in plasma ET-1 levels (r = 0.78; P < 0.003). In conclusion, our data show that insulin stimulates both in vitro and in vivo ET-1 secretion. Such interaction

  8. Circulating Glutamate and Taurine Levels Are Associated with the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation

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    Shintaro Takano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, but its proarrhythmic mechanism remains to be elucidated. Glutamate (Glu and taurine (Tau are present in the myocardium at substantially higher concentrations than in the plasma, suggesting their active role in myocardium. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the metabolism of Glu and Tau is altered in association with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in patients with AF. Fifty patients with paroxysmal AF and 50 control subjects without a history of AF were consecutively enrolled. Circulating Glu and Tau levels were measured and correlations between Glu/Tau and ROS levels were examined. Glu/Tau content was significantly higher in patients with AF versus controls (Glu: 79.2±23.9 versus 60.5±25.2 nmol/L; Tau: 78.8±19.8 versus 68.5±20.8 nmol/L; mean ± standard deviation (SD, p<0.001 for both. Glu/Tau levels also showed an independent association with AF by multiple logistic regression analysis. Glu and Tau levels both showed significant positive associations with plasma hydroperoxide concentrations. These data suggest a novel pathophysiological role of Glu and Tau in association with ROS production in paroxysmal AF, providing new insights into the elevated amino acid content in cardiac disease.

  9. Sex Hormones in Allergic Conjunctivitis: Altered Levels of Circulating Androgens and Estrogens in Children and Adolescents with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

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    Marta Sacchetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. Methods. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG were evaluated. Results. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P<0.001. Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P=0.007 and P=0.028, resp. and SHBG (P=0.01 and P=0.002, resp. when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P=0.007. Conclusions and Relevance. VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC.

  10. Tailored antihypertensive drug therapy prescribed to older women attenuates circulating levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α

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    Toledo JO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Juliana O Toledo,1 Clayton F Moraes,2,3 Vinícius C Souza,2 Audrey C Tonet-Furioso,2 Luís CC Afonso,4 Cláudio Córdova,3 Otávio T Nóbrega1,2 1Graduate Program in Health Sciences, 2Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, University of Brasília, Brasília, 3Graduate Program in Gerontology, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, 4Research Center in Biological Sciences, Federal University of Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil Objective: To test the hypothesis that antihypertensive drug therapy produces anti-inflammatory effects in clinical practice, this study investigated circulating levels of selected proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], and interferon-γ [INF-γ] in response to multivariate drug directions for blood pressure (BP control.Methods: Prospective study involving 110 hypertensive, community-dwelling older women with different metabolic disorders. A short-term BP-lowering drug therapy was conducted according to current Brazilian guidelines on hypertension, and basal cytokine levels were measured before and after intervention.Results: Interventions were found to represent current hypertension-management practices in Brazil and corresponded to a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP levels in a whole-group analysis, as well as when users and nonusers of the most common therapeutic classes were considered separately. Considering all patients, mean IL-6 and TNF-α levels showed a significant decrease in circulating concentrations (P<0.01 at the endpoint compared with baseline, whereas the mean INF-γ level was not significantly different from baseline values. In separate analyses, only users of antagonists of the renin–angiotensin system and users of diuretics exhibited the same significant treatment-induced reduction in serum IL-6 and TNF-α observed in the whole group.Conclusion: Our data demonstrates that a clinically guided antihypertensive treatment is effective in

  11. Circulating ADAM17 Level Reflects Disease Activity in Proteinase-3 ANCA-Associated Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Anna; Lovric, Svjetlana; Engel, Alissa; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Hertel, Barbara; Park, Joon-Keun; Becker, Jan U; Kegel, Johanna; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Kirsch, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitides are characterized by inflammatory destruction of small vessels accompanied by enhanced cleavage of membrane-bound proteins. One of the main proteases responsible for ectodomain shedding is disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). Given its potential role in aggravating vascular dysfunction, we examined the role of ADAM17 in active proteinase-3 (PR3)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ADAM17 concentration was significantly increased in plasma samples from patients with active PR3-AAV compared with samples from patients in remission or from other controls with renal nonvascular diseases. Comparably, plasma levels of the ADAM17 substrate syndecan-1 were significantly enhanced in active AAV. We also observed that plasma-derived ADAM17 retained its specific proteolytic activity and was partly located on extracellular microparticles. Transcript levels of ADAM17 were increased in blood samples of patients with active AAV, but those of ADAM10 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, which inhibits ADAMs, were not. We also performed a microRNA (miR) screen and identified miR-634 as significantly upregulated in blood samples from patients with active AAV. In vitro, miR-634 mimics induced a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages, with enhanced expression and release of ADAM17 and IL-6. These data suggest that ADAM17 has a prominent role in AAV and might account for the vascular complications associated with this disease. PMID:25788529

  12. Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41–78 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OHD, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OHD levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s, and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels.

  13. Reductions in circulating endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels in healthy human subjects exposed to chronic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Buqing; Nichiporuk, Igor; Nicolas, Michel; Schneider, Stefan; Feuerecker, Matthias; Vassilieva, Galina; Thieme, Detlef; Schelling, Gustav; Choukèr, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that chronic stress, such as social isolation, plays an important role in the development of a variety of psychiatric and somatic disorders. Meanwhile, chronic stress imposed by prolonged isolation and confinement in the spacecraft is also one of the major concerns for the health of future interplanetary space travelers. Preclinical studies suggest that the peripheral endocannabinoid (eCB) system is involved in the regulation of the stress response and eCB signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of stress-related diseases. However, there are only few human studies addressing this topic, of which most focusing on patients who have already developed a certain type of disorder. It remains unknown whether chronic stress may affect eCB signaling in healthy humans. A 520-d isolation and confinement study simulating a flight to Mars provided an extraordinary chance to study the effects of prolonged stress in healthy humans. During the study period, the participants lived in confinement and could not meet their families, friends, or strangers for more than 500 days. We examined the impact of chronic exposure to isolation and confinement through monitoring their psychological state, brain cortical activity, sympathetic adrenal-medullary system response and eCB signaling response. We observed reduced positive emotion ratings, decreased brain cortical activities and high levels of catecholamine release, indicating that prolonged exposure to isolation and confinement stressors may bring about changes both psychologically and physiologically. Importantly, for eCB signaling response, blood concentrations of eCB 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), but not anandamide (AEA), were significantly reduced (p<0.001), suggesting that dysregulation of 2-AG signaling might be specifically implicated in the response to chronic stressors. PMID:26780604

  14. Circulating levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-7 in women who have undergone bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy

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    Tani A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Tani,1 Toshiyuki Yasui,2 Sumika Matsui,1 Takeshi Kato,1 Naoko Tsuchiya,3 Mitsutoshi Yuzurihara,3 Yoshio Kase,3 Minoru Irahara11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Reproductive Technology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan; 3Pharmacology Research Department, Tsumura Central Research Institute, Ibaraki, JapanPurpose: The aim of the study reported here was to determine the effect of surgical menopause by bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO on circulating levels of cytokines and chemokines related to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.Patients and methods: A total of 110 women were recruited for this study from the outpatient clinic of our facility. We divided the women into three groups: 1 women with a regular menstrual cycle, 2 women in whom less than 5 years had passed since their BSO, and 3 women in whom 5 years or more had passed since their BSO. Concentrations of nine cytokines and chemokines in serum were measured.Results: The serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 level in women in whom less than 5 years had passed since their BSO was significantly higher than in women with a regular menstrual cycle (P<0.05. There were significant differences in serum interleukin (IL-7 among the three groups (P=0.035. MCP-1 showed a significant positive correlation (r=0.320, P=0.008 with follicle-stimulating hormone in women with a regular menstrual cycle and in women in whom less than 5 years had passed since their BSO.Conclusion: A hypoestrogenic state due to BSO induced changes in MCP-1 and IL-7 levels. MCP-1 level showed a significant increase in the early period after BSO, while IL-7 level showed a significant decrease in the late period after BSO.Keywords: follicle-stimulating hormone, cytokines, chemokines, hypoestrogenism, surgical menopause

  15. Circulating levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin after mud-bath therapy in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Giannitti, Chiara; Cheleschi, Sara; Simpatico, Antonella; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    Adipocytokines, including adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin may play an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA, but its mechanisms of action are not completely known. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a cycle of mud-bath therapy (MBT) influences the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin in patients with knee OA. As part of a prospective randomized, single blind-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of MBT in knee OA, we included in this study 95 outpatients. One group ( n = 49) received a cycle of MBT at the spa center of Chianciano Terme (Italy) in addition to the usual treatment, and one group (control group; n = 46) continued their regular care routine alone. Patients were assessed at basal time and at the end of the study (15 days) for clinical and biochemical parameters. Clinical assessments included spontaneous pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) score and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC) subscores for knee OA evaluated as total pain score (W-TPS), total stiffness score (W-TSS), and total physical function score (W-TPFS). Adiponectin, resistin and visfatin serum levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay methods. At the end of the mud-bath therapy, serum adiponectin levels showed a significant decrease ( p adiponectin and resistin but not the circulating levels of visfatin. In view of the recent evidences about the involvement of adiponectin and resistin in the pathogenesis and progression of OA, the decrease of these adipokines after mud-bath therapy may play a protective role in the course of the disease. However, it remains to be clarified which of the mechanisms of action of MBT may have determined the changes in serum levels of adiponectin and resistin that we observed.

  16. Decreased Circulating Interleukin-35 Levels Are Related to Interleukin-4-Producing CD8+ T Cells in Patients with Allergic Asthma

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    Wei Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Interleukin (IL-35 is a newly discovered suppressive cytokine and has been shown to alleviate  inflammatory  and  autoimmune  diseases.  The  purpose  of  this  study  was  to investigate immunomodulatory capacity of IL-35 in patients with allergic asthma.IL-35 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were detected  by  quantitative  real-time  PCR  (qPCR.  The  frequencies  of  cytotoxic  T  cells (Tc1,Tc2  and  Tc17  cells  were  measured  by  flow  cytometry.  Plasma  levels  of  IL-35, interferon (IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The correlations between plasma IL-35 levels and Tc1, Tc2, and Tc17 cytokine production in allergic asthmatics (n = 25 and healthy controls (n = 12 were analyzed by Pearson’s test.IL-35 protein and mRNA expression levels were down-regulated in allergic asthmaticscompared with healthy controls. The frequencies of Tc2 and Tc17 cells were significantly increased in patients with asthma, and the frequency of Tc1 cells did not differ between asthmatic patients and healthy controls. Similarly, plasma levels of IL-4 and IL-17 were significantly increased in asthmatic patients, while there was no difference in IFN-γ levels between allergic asthma patients  and  healthy  controls.  More importantly,  plasma  IL-35 protein levels were negatively correlated with the frequency of IL-4-producing CD8+ T (Tc2 cells and with the IL-4 level in patients with allergic asthma.Our results suggest that decreased circulating IL-35 levels could contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic asthma by regulating CD8+ T cells. 

  17. IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 polymorphisms predict circulating IGF levels but not breast cancer risk: findings from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3.

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    Alpa V Patel

    Full Text Available IGF-1 has been shown to promote proliferation of normal epithelial breast cells, and the IGF pathway has also been linked to mammary carcinogenesis in animal models. We comprehensively examined the association between common genetic variation in the IGF1, IGFBP1, and IGFBP3 genes in relation to circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels and breast cancer risk within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3. This analysis included 6,912 breast cancer cases and 8,891 matched controls (n = 6,410 for circulating IGF-I and 6,275 for circulating IGFBP-3 analyses comprised primarily of Caucasian women drawn from six large cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype patterns were characterized in the regions surrounding IGF1 and the genes coding for two of its binding proteins, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3. In total, thirty haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP were selected to provide high coverage of common haplotypes; the haplotype structure was defined across four haplotype blocks for IGF1 and three for IGFBP1 and IGFBP3. Specific IGF1 SNPs individually accounted for up to 5% change in circulating IGF-I levels and individual IGFBP3 SNPs were associated up to 12% change in circulating IGFBP-3 levels, but no associations were observed between these polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Logistic regression analyses found no associations between breast cancer and any htSNPs or haplotypes in IGF1, IGFBP1, or IGFBP3. No effect modification was observed in analyses stratified by menopausal status, family history of breast cancer, body mass index, or postmenopausal hormone therapy, or for analyses stratified by stage at diagnosis or hormone receptor status. In summary, the impact of genetic variation in IGF1 and IGFBP3 on circulating IGF levels does not appear to substantially influence breast cancer risk substantially among primarily Caucasian postmenopausal women.

  18. Optimisation of an immunohistochemistry method for the determination of androgen receptor expression levels in circulating tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AZD3514 inhibits and down regulates the androgen receptor (AR) and has undergone clinical trials in prostate cancer. To provide proof-of-mechanism (POM) in patients, an immunohistochemistry (IHC) method for determination of AR in circulating tumour cells (CTC) was developed and validated. After an assessment of specificity validation focused on intra- and inter-operator reproducibility utilising a novel modification of incurred sample reanalysis (ISR). β-Content γ-confidence tolerance intervals (BCTI) and Cohen’s Kappa (κ) were employed in statistical analysis of results. In a first set of IHC reproducibility experiments, almost perfect agreement was recorded (κ=0.94) when two different operators scored CTC as overall positive or negative for AR. However, BCTI analysis identified a specific bias in scoring staining intensity, where one operator favoured moderate over strong assignments, whereas the reverse was the case with the second operator. After a period of additional training involving deployment of a panel of standardised images, a second set of validation experiments were conducted. These showed correction of the inter-operator bias by BCTI with κ for scoring intensity increasing from 0.59 to 0.81, indicative of almost perfect agreement. By application of BCTI to the validation of IHC, operator bias and therefore poor reproducibility can be identified, characterised and corrected to achieve a level of error normally associated with a quantitative biomarker assay, such as an ELISA. The methodological approach described herein can be applied to any generic IHC technique

  19. A Python Implementation of an Intermediate-Level Tropical Circulation Model and Implications for How Modeling Science is Done

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. W. B.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, climate models have been developed incrementally and in compiled languages like Fortran. While the use of legacy compiledlanguages results in fast, time-tested code, the resulting model is limited in its modularity and cannot take advantage of functionalityavailable with modern computer languages. Here we describe an effort at using the open-source, object-oriented language Pythonto create more flexible climate models: the package qtcm, a Python implementation of the intermediate-level Neelin-Zeng Quasi-Equilibrium Tropical Circulation model (QTCM1) of the atmosphere. The qtcm package retains the core numerics of QTCM1, written in Fortran, to optimize model performance but uses Python structures and utilities to wrap the QTCM1 Fortran routines and manage model execution. The resulting "mixed language" modeling package allows order and choice of subroutine execution to be altered at run time, and model analysis and visualization to be integrated in interactively with model execution at run time. This flexibility facilitates more complex scientific analysis using less complex code than would be possible using traditional languages alone and provides tools to transform the traditional "formulate hypothesis → write and test code → run model → analyze results" sequence into a feedback loop that can be executed automatically by the computer.

  20. Decreased circulating C3 levels and mesangial C3 deposition predict renal outcome in patients with IgA nephropathy.

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    Seung Jun Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mesangial C3 deposition is frequently observed in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN. However, the role of complement in the pathogenesis or progression of IgAN is uncertain. In this observational cohort study, we aimed to identify the clinical implications of circulating C3 levels and mesangial C3 deposition and to investigate their utility as predictors of renal outcomes in patients with IgAN. METHODS: A total of 343 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN were enrolled between January 2000 and December 2008. Decreased serum C3 level (hypoC3 was defined as C3 <90 mg/dl. The study endpoint was end-stage renal disease (ESRD and a doubling of the baseline serum creatinine (D-SCr. RESULTS: Of the patients, there were 66 patients (19.2% with hypoC3. During a mean follow-up of 53.7 months, ESRD occurred in 5 patients (7.6% with hypoC3 compared with 9 patients (3.2% with normal C3 levels (P = 0.11. However, 12 patients (18.2% with hypoC3 reached D-SCr compared with 17 patients (6.1% with normal C3 levels [Hazard ratio (HR, 3.59; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.33-10.36; P = 0.018]. In a multivariable model in which serum C3 levels were treated as a continuous variable, hypoC3 significantly predicted renal outcome of D-SCr (per 1 mg/dl increase of C3; HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99; P = 0.011. The risk of reaching renal outcome was significantly higher in patients with mesangial C3 deposition 2+ to 3+ than in patients without deposition (HR 9.37; 95% CI, 1.10-80.26; P = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that hypoC3 and mesangial C3 deposition were independent risk factors for progression, suggesting that complement activation may play a pathogenic role in patients with IgAN.

  1. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe;

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids ha...

  2. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe;

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids have...... important biological roles in prepubertal children....

  3. Apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities and high serum levels of circulating nucleosomes and DNA in blood correlate with breast cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As cell-free circulating DNA exists predominantly as mono- and oligonucleosomes, the focus of the current study was to examine the interplay of circulating nucleosomes, DNA, proteases and caspases in blood of patients with benign and malignant breast diseases. The concentrations of cell-free DNA and nucleosomes as well as the protease and caspase activities were measured in serum of patients with benign breast disease (n = 20), primary breast cancer (M0, n = 31), metastatic breast cancer (M1, n = 32), and healthy individuals (n = 28) by PicoGreen, Cell Death Detection ELISA, Protease Fluorescent Detection Kit and Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay, respectively. Patients with benign and malignant tumors had significantly higher levels of circulating nucleic acids in their blood than healthy individuals (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001), whereas these levels could not discriminate between benign and malignant lesions. Our analyses of all serum samples revealed significant correlations of circulating nucleosome with DNA concentrations (p = 0.001), nucleosome concentrations with caspase activities (p = 0.008), and caspase with protease activities (p = 0.0001). High serum levels of protease and caspase activities associated with advanced tumor stages (p = 0.009). Patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer had significantly higher nucleosome levels in their blood than node-negative patients (p = 0.004). The presence of distant metastases associated with a significant increase in serum nucleosome (p = 0.01) and DNA levels (p = 0.04), and protease activities (p = 0.008). Our findings demonstrate that high circulating nucleic acid concentrations in blood are no indicators of a malignant breast tumor. However, the observed changes in apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities along with the elevated serum levels of nucleosomes and DNA in blood are linked to breast cancer progression

  4. Altered circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases and inhibitors associated with elevated type 2 cytokines in lymphatic filarial disease.

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    Rajamanickam Anuradha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti can cause severe disease characterized by subcutaneous fibrosis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of enzymes governing extracellular remodeling by regulating cellular homeostasis, inflammation, and tissue reorganization, while tissue-inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs are endogenous regulators of MMPs. Homeostatic as well as inflammation-induced balance between MMPs and TIMPs is considered critical in mediating tissue pathology. METHODS: To elucidate the role of MMPs and TIMPs in filarial pathology, we compared the plasma levels of a panel of MMPs, TIMPs, other pro-fibrotic factors, and cytokines in individuals with chronic filarial pathology with (CP Ag+ or without (CP Ag- active infection to those with clinically asymptomatic infections (INF and in those without infection (endemic normal [EN]. Markers of pathogenesis were delineated based on comparisons between the two actively infected groups (CP Ag+ compared to INF and those without active infection (CP Ag- compared to EN. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Our data reveal that an increase in circulating levels of MMPs and TIMPs is characteristic of the filarial disease process per se and not of active infection; however, filarial disease with active infection is specifically associated with increased ratios of MMP1/TIMP4 and MMP8/TIMP4 as well as with pro-fibrotic cytokines (IL-5, IL-13 and TGF-β. Our data therefore suggest that while filarial lymphatic disease is characterized by a non-specific increase in plasma MMPs and TIMPs, the balance between MMPs and TIMPs is an important factor in regulating tissue pathology during active infection.

  5. Circulating microparticles and plasma levels of soluble E- and P-selectins in patients with systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars; Østergaard, O; Ullman, S; Nielsen, C T; Halberg, P; Karlsmark, T; Heegaard, Niels Henrik Helweg; Jacobsen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) may be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc), which includes vasculopathy, endothelial cell activation, and coagulation activation. Circulating MPs from SSc patients were characterized and their relationship with soluble markers of vascular activation inves...

  6. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of association between circulating thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance levels and clinicobiochemical parameters in 1,178 middle-aged Japanese men - the Amagasaki Visceral Fat Study

    OpenAIRE

    Okauchi Yukiyoshi; Kishida Ken; Funahashi Tohru; Noguchi Midori; Ogawa Tomoko; Okita Kohei; Iwahashi Hiromi; Ohira Tetsuya; Imagawa Akihisa; Nakamura Tadashi; Shimomura Iichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Circulating thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance (TBARS) levels, a marker of systemic oxidative stress, are predictive of cardiovascular events. However, they has not been evaluated in Japanese, especially with regard to the factors that contribute to the changes in circulating TBARS levels. We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between circulating TBARS levels and various clinicobiochemical parameters in middle-aged men. Methods In this popu...

  7. Perioperative prostate specific antigen levels among coronary artery bypass grafting patients: Does extracorporeal circulation and body temperature induce prostate specific antigen levels alterations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patris, Emmanuel; Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos; Patris, Vasileios; Kuduvalli, Manoj; Argiriou, Mihalis; Charitos, Christos; Kalaitzis, Christos; Touloupidis, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the perioperative total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) levels among coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients with and without extracorporeal circulation (ECC), to investigate the changes overtime of tPSA in each group separately and to determine the effect of body core temperature on tPSA levels. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted. Our sample was allocated to: (a) Seven patients who underwent off pump CABG (Group I) and (b) 16 CABG patients with ECC (Group II). The levels of tPSA were measured preoperatively (baseline), intra-operatively and at the 4th postoperative day. We compared the two groups on their tPSA levels and we investigated the changes of tPSA overtime in each group separately. Results: Intra-operative serum samples were obtained in significantly lower body temperature in patients of Group II than in those of Group I (31°C vs. 36.9°C, P < 0.001). In each group separately, postoperative tPSA levels were increased significantly compared to the baseline values (2.55 ng/ml vs. 0.39 ng/ml for Group I, P = 0.005 and 4.36 ng/ml vs. 0.77 for Group II, P < 0.001). CABG patients with ECC had significantly lower intra-operative tPSA levels than the baseline values (0.67 ng/ml vs. 0.77 ng/ml, P = 0.008). We did not observe significant differences of tPSA levels between the two groups. Conclusions: CABG surgery affects similarly the perioperative tPSA independently the involvement of ECC. Although all patients had significantly higher early postoperative tPSA levels, only those who underwent CABG with ECC had exceeded normal values and significantly decreased intra-operative tPSA. Hypothermia seems to be the causal factor of tPSA reduction. PMID:25657546

  8. Deep circulation in the Indian and Pacific Oceans and its implication for the dumping of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexity of ocean transport processes has meant that the limits for the dumping of low-activity radioactive wastes have had to be based on very simplified models of the oceans. This report discusses the models used to determine dumping limits and contrasts them with the known ocean circulation patterns. The deep circulations of the Indian and Pacific Oceans are reviewed to provide a basis for estimating the possible destinations and likely transit times for dissolved material released at the ocean floor

  9. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Sophie R.; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M.; Parker, Helen; Zac-Varghese, Sagen; Bloom, Stephen R.; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Rutter, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in these cells. Method Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre) to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay. Results Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01) in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01) and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01) GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01). Conclusion AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27010458

  10. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie R Sayers

    Full Text Available Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in these cells.Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay.Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01 in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01 and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01 GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01.AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Common genetic variation in the SERPINF1 locus determines overall adiposity, obesity-related insulin resistance, and circulating leptin levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Böhm

    , obesity-related insulin resistance, and circulating leptin levels.

  12. Elevated circulating levels of an incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1, are associated with metabolic components in high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda Takashi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 is an incretin hormone that has a wide range of effects on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular function (e.g., improving insulin sensitivity, reduction in appetite, modulation of heart rate, blood pressure and myocardial contractility. Metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with an increased risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Novel glycemic control drugs, the dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors, work by inhibiting the inactivation of incretin hormones, GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP. In spite of good effects of these drugs in diabetic patients, circulating levels of incretins and their role in MetS are largely unknown. Methods To examine relationships between incretin hormones and MetS risk factors, we measured circulating levels of incretins in obese high-risk patients for cardiovascular disease. Fasting serum GLP-1 and GIP levels were measured by ELISA. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of metabolic variables in the fasting state in two subject groups: with MetS (n = 60 and pre-MetS (n = 37. Results Fasting levels of Serum GLP -1 in the peripheral circulation were significantly increased correlated with the accumulation of MetS risk factors components (r = 0. 470, P Conclusion Circulating levels of GLP-1 in relation to the accumulation in MetS factors suggested that MetS patients with elevated levels of GLP-1 are high-risk patients for cardiovascular disease, independent with the presence of diabetes.

  13. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Fetal Circulation Updated:Jul 8,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  14. Lower Circulating C1q/TNF-Related Protein-3 (CTRP3 Levels Are Associated with Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa M Wolf

    Full Text Available C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3 is a novel adipokine that lowers blood glucose levels, reduces liver triglyceride synthesis, and is protective against hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mouse models. We hypothesized that higher circulating serum levels of CTRP3 would be associated with a lean body mass index (BMI and a more favorable metabolic profile in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate CTRP3 levels in lean individuals compared to obese individuals.This was a cross-sectional study of obese (n=44 and lean control patients (n=60. Fasting metabolic parameters were measured in all patients and serum CTRP3 levels were measured by ELISA.BMI of the lean group was 21.9 ± 0.2 kg/m2 and obese group was 45.2 ± 1.1 kg/m2. We found significantly lower circulating levels of CTRP3 in obese individuals (405 ± 8.3 vs. 436 ± 6.7 ng/mL, p=0.004 compared to the lean group. Serum CTRP3 levels were inversely correlated with BMI (p=0.001, and triglycerides (p<0.001, and significantly associated with gender (p<0.01, ethnicity (p=0.05, HDL-cholesterol (p<0.01, and adiponectin (p<0.01. We found BMI (p<0.01, gender (p<0.01, and ethnicity (p<0.05 to be significant predictors of CTRP3 levels when controlling for age in multiple regression analysis.CTRP3 is a beneficial adipokine whose circulating levels are significantly lower in obese individuals. Obesity causes dysregulation in adipokine production, including the down-regulation of CTRP3. Lower CTRP3 levels may contribute to the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders associated with obesity. Optimizing CTRP3 levels through novel therapies may improve obesity and its comorbidities.

  15. Circulating vitamin D binding protein levels are not associated with relapses or with vitamin D status in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, J.J.F.M.; Peelen, E.; Thewissen, M.; Menheere, P.; Damoiseaux, J.; Hupperts, R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A low vitamin D status has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Most circulating vitamin D metabolites are bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is an association between MS and DBP. METHODS: We compared DBP

  16. Adiponectin levels are associated with the number and activity of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang YING; Dan-dan ZHONG; Geng XU; Miao-yan CHEN; Qing-yu CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and the functional activities of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Circulating EPCs were enumerated as AC133+/KDR+ cells via flow cytometry and identified by co-staining with Dii-acLDL and fluorescein isothiocy-anate (FITC)-conjugated lectin under a fluorescent microscope. The migratory capacity of EPCs was measured by modified Boyden chamber assay. Adhesion capacity was performed to count adherent cells after replating EPCs on six-well culture dishes coated with fibronectin. Results: The number of circulating EPCs (AC133+/KDR+ cells) decreased significantly in CAD patients, compared with control subjects [(74.2±12.3) vs (83.5±12.9) cells/ml blood, P<0.0\\]. In addition, the number of EPCs also decreased in CAD patients after ex vivo cultivation [(54.4±8.6) vs (71.9±11.6) EPCs/field, P<0.01]. Both circulating EPCs and differentiated EPCs were positively correlated with plasma adiponectin concentration. The functional activities of EPCs from CAD patients, such as migratory and adherent capacities, were also impaired, compared with control subjects, and positively correlated with plasma adiponectin concentration. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that the impairment of the number and functional activities of EPCs in CAD patients is correlated with their lower plasma adiponectin concentrations.

  17. High level of chromosomal instability in circulating tumor cells of ROS1-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailler, E.; Auger, N.; Lindsay, C. R.; Vielh, P.; Islas-Morris-Hernandez, A.; Borget, I.; Ngo-Camus, M.; Planchard, D.; Soria, J.-C.; Besse, B.; Farace, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic aberrations affecting the c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) tyrosine kinase gene have been reported in a small subset of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated whether ROS1-chromosomal rearrangements could be detected in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and examined tumor heterogeneity of CTCs and tumor biopsies in ROS1-rearranged NSCLC patients. Patients and methods Using isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells (ISET) filtration and filter-adapted-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FA-FISH), ROS1 rearrangement was examined in CTCs from four ROS1-rearranged patients treated with the ROS1-inhibitor, crizotinib, and four ROS1-negative patients. ROS1-gene alterations observed in CTCs at baseline from ROS1-rearranged patients were compared with those present in tumor biopsies and in CTCs during crizotinib treatment. Numerical chromosomal instability (CIN) of CTCs was assessed by DNA content quantification and chromosome enumeration. Results ROS1 rearrangement was detected in the CTCs of all four patients with ROS1 rearrangement previously confirmed by tumor biopsy. In ROS1-rearranged patients, median number of ROS1-rearranged CTCs at baseline was 34.5 per 3 ml blood (range, 24–55). In ROS1-negative patients, median background hybridization of ROS1-rearranged CTCs was 7.5 per 3 ml blood (range, 7–11). Tumor heterogeneity, assessed by ROS1 copy number, was significantly higher in baseline CTCs compared with paired tumor biopsies in the three patients experiencing PR or SD (P < 0.0001). Copy number in ROS1-rearranged CTCs increased significantly in two patients who progressed during crizotinib treatment (P < 0.02). CTCs from ROS1-rearranged patients had a high DNA content and gain of chromosomes, indicating high levels of aneuploidy and numerical CIN. Conclusion We provide the first proof-of-concept that CTCs can be used for noninvasive and sensitive detection of ROS1 rearrangement in NSCLC patients. CTCs from ROS1-rearranged

  18. Data regarding association between serum osteoprotegerin level, numerous of circulating endothelial-derived and mononuclear-derived progenitor cells in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander E; Kremzer, Alexander A; Berezina, Tatyana A; Martovitskaya, Yulia V; Gronenko, Elena A

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as cluster of multiple metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) abnormalities included abdominal obesity, high-normal blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, and impaired fasting glucose tolerance that exhibits has a growing prevalence worldwide. We investigated whether an elevated level of osteoprotegerin (OPG) predicts imbalance between different phenotypes of circulating endothelial (EPCs) and mononuclear (MPCs) progenitor cells in MetS patients. We have analyzed data regarding dysmetabolic disorder subjects without known CV disease), as well as with known type two diabetes mellitus. All patients have given their informed written consent for participation in the study. This article contains data on the independent predictors of depletion in numerous of circulating EPCs and MPCs in MetS patients. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed associations of elevated OPG level in MetS patients with numerous of EPCs and MPCs beyond traditional CV risk factors. PMID:27508223

  19. Biological variation in circulating levels of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease-2 and the influence of age, gender and physical exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, H; Christensen, IJ; Thiel, Steffen; Jensenius, Jens Christian; Svendsen, MN; Nielsen, L; Lottenburger, T; Nielsen, HJ

    2007-01-01

    needed. We here investigate variations of MBL and MASP-2 in healthy persons over time and in relation to gender, age and physical activity. MBL and MASP-2 concentrations were determined in serum from healthy adults over a 3-week period and this was repeated 6 months later (n = 32); during a 24-h period...... affect the levels (P > 0.8). Serum and plasma levels were only marginally different, and were independent of age and gender. Circulating levels of MBL and MASP-2 are stable over time in healthy individuals, which is advantageous for their potential application as biomarkers....

  20. Biological Variation in Circulating Levels of Mannan-Binding Lectin (MBL) and MBL-Associated Serine Protease-2 and the Influence of Age, Gender and Physical Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Henriette; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Thiel, S.; Jensenius, J. C.; Nordahl Svendsen, Mads; Nielsen, L.; Lottenburger, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    needed. We here investigate variations of MBL and MASP-2 in healthy persons over time and in relation to gender, age and physical activity. MBL and MASP-2 concentrations were determined in serum from healthy adults over a 3-week period and this was repeated 6 months later (n = 32); during a 24-h period...... affect the levels (P > 0.8). Serum and plasma levels were only marginally different, and were independent of age and gender. Circulating levels of MBL and MASP-2 are stable over time in healthy individuals, which is advantageous for their potential application as biomarkers....

  1. Circulating levels of reactive oxygen species in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and the influence of antioxidant supplementation: 6-month follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Domanico; Serena Fragiotta; Alessandro Cutini; Carmela Carnevale; Luigi Zompatori; Enzo Maria Vingolo

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to evaluate circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in central macular thickness (CMT) in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) after antioxidant supplementation. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 patients (68 eyes) with NPDR were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Treated with antioxidant supplement (Group A) and untreated control group (Group B). Each tablet, for oral administration, containing pycnogen...

  2. Anticipatory and consummatory effects of (hedonic) chocolate intake are associated with increased circulating levels of the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and endocannabinoids in obese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rigamonti, Antonello E.; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Aveta, Teresa; Agosti, Fiorenza; De Col, Alessandra; Bini, Silvia; Cella, Silvano G.; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hedonic hunger refers to consumption of food just for pleasure and not to maintain energy homeostasis. Recently, consumption of food for pleasure was reported to be associated with increased circulating levels of both the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) in normal-weight subjects. To date, the effects of hedonic hunger, and in particular of chocolate craving, on these mediators in obese subjects are still unknown.Methods: To explore...

  3. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Hendel, Helle W;

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower musc...... cytokines are partly derived from this adipose tissue bed. Furthermore, TNF-alpha was related to lower ASM and BCM, suggesting that TNF-alpha contributes to sarcopenia in ageing....

  4. Circulating High-Molecular-Weight (HMW) Adiponectin Level Is Related with Breast Cancer Risk Better than Total Adiponectin: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-ming Guo; Xue-ning Duan; Shu-de Cui; Fu-guo Tian; Xu-chen Cao; Cui-zhi Geng; Zhi-min Fan; Xiang Wang; Shu Wang; Hong-chuan Jiang; Jian-guo Zhang; Feng Jin; Jin-hai Tang; Hong Liang; Zhen-lin Yang

    2015-01-01

    The level of total adiponectin, a mixture of different adiponectin forms, has been reported associated with breast cancer risk with inconsistent results. Whether the different forms play different roles in breast cancer risk prediction is unclear. To examine this, we measured total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in a case-control study (1167 sets). Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was negatively associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for menopausal status and family...

  5. Circulating levels of chromatin fragments are inversely correlated with anti-dsDNA antibody levels in human and murine systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mariann H; Rekvig, Ole Petter; Jacobsen, Rasmus S;

    2011-01-01

    Anti-dsDNA antibodies represent a central pathogenic factor in Lupus nephritis. Together with nucleosomes they deposit as immune complexes in the mesangial matrix and along basement membranes within the glomeruli. The origin of the nucleosomes and when they appear e.g. in circulation is not known...... inverse correlation between DNA concentration and anti-dsDNA antibodies may reflect antibody-dependent deposition of immune complexes during the development of lupus nephritis in autoimmune lupus prone mice. The measurement of circulating DNA in SLE sera by using qPCR may indicate and detect the...... development of lupus nephritis at an early stage....

  6. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor Increases Circulating Zinc-Α2-Glycoprotein Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xin; Wang, Xuemei; Li, Haopeng; Li, Ling; Zhang, Guohao; Yang, Mengliu; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Hua; Yang, Gangyi; Gao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    ZAG has recently been characterized as a potent metabolic regulator, but the effect of anti-diabetic agents on ZAG in humans remains unknown. Our aim was to study the effects of SGLT2 inhibitor on circulating ZAG and ADI in nT2DM. 162 subjects with nT2DM were treated by a placebo or DAPA. After 3-months of DAPA therapy, HbA1c, FBG, 2h-PBG, FFA, TG, blood pressure, BMI, WHR, body weight, FAT%, FINS, and HOMA-IR in T2DM patients decreased significantly, whereas HDL-C was significantly increased. Importantly, circulating ZAG and ADI levels in these patients were also significantly increased after DAPA therapy. Basal ZAG levels were associated with changes in BMI, FAT%, TC, HbA1c, HDL-C and ADI at post-treatment, whereas basal ADI levels were associated with changes in FAT%, TC, HbA1c, FFA and HDL-c. In vitro, DAPA treatment showed increased ZAG expression and secretion in HepG2 cells. When combined with a PPAR-γinhibitor GW9662, the effect of DAPA on ZAG was abrogated. These findings suggest that circulating ZAG can be regulated by DAPA, and DAPA promotes the expression and secretion of ZAG in the liver via the activation of PPAR-γ. The changes in ZAG induced by DAPA may play a physiologic role in enhancing insulin sensitivity. PMID:27611858

  7. Circulating vitamin D binding protein levels are not associated with relapses or with vitamin D status in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Smolders, Joost; Peelen, Evelyn; Thewissen, Marielle; Menheere, Paul; Damoiseaux, Jan; Hupperts, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Background: A low vitamin D status has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Most circulating vitamin D metabolites are bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is an association between MS and DBP. Methods: We compared DBP concentrations in blood samples of controls (n = 30) and subjects with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) during remission (n = 29) and relapse (n = 15). Furthermore, we explored correlations of DBP wit...

  8. High level of chromosomal instability in circulating tumor cells of ROS1-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pailler, E.; Auger, N.; Lindsay, C. R.; Vielh, P; Islas-Morris-Hernandez, A.; Borget, I; Ngo-Camus, M.; Planchard, D.; Soria, J.-C.; Besse, B.; Farace, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic aberrations affecting the c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) tyrosine kinase gene have been reported in a small subset of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated whether ROS1-chromosomal rearrangements could be detected in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and examined tumor heterogeneity of CTCs and tumor biopsies in ROS1-rearranged NSCLC patients. Patients and methods Using isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells (ISET) filtration and filter-adapted-fluoresce...

  9. Multi-level evidence that circulating CK18 is a biomarker of tumour burden in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Greystoke, A; Dean, E; Saunders, M P; Cummings, J; Hughes, A; Ranson, M; Dive, C; Renehan, A G

    2012-01-01

    Background: Circulating total cytokeratin 18 (tCK18) and/or caspase cleaved cytokeratin 18 (cCK18) (measured by M65 and M30 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), respectively) are used as pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarkers of epithelial cell death in clinical trials. Having validated these ELISAs, we assessed their utility in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: We applied the assays in several settings: 53 controls; 97 patients undergoing surgery and 74 patients with metastatic CRC undergoi...

  10. Circulating interferon-α2 levels are increased in the majority of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and are associated with disease activity and multiple cytokine activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Merok, A; Østli-Eilersten, G; Lester, S; Nossent, Jc

    2013-02-01

    Mutations in interferon (IFN) regulatory factor genes and the biological activity of type I IFN on expression of specific genes that are induced by IFN have been associated with various aspects of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Circulating levels of IFN-α in SLE has not been extensively studied because of limited sensitivity of available ELISA assays. We performed a cross-sectional case-control study where circulating levels of IFN-α2 were measured by a highly sensitive, solution phase multiplex magnetized bead assay and investigated the relation of IFN-α2 with autoantibody profiles, clinical disease activity and levels of inflammatory cytokines in SLE patients (n = 87). Cytokine levels were determined on stored sera aliquots with cut-off levels determined by the geometric mean + 2SD in healthy controls (n = 27). IFN-α2 levels were increased in 64% of SLE patients, who displayed more renal disease and higher disease activity (p = 0.06) and had a significantly higher sum of activated cytokines (median 4.5, range 7) compared to patients with normal IFN-α2 (median one, range 3; p phase micro-bead assay thus identified increased IFN-α2 levels in two-thirds of SLE patients with longstanding disease. The association with clinical disease and activation of multiple inflammatory cytokines supports a role for IFN-α2 in disease perpetuation in a large subset of SLE patients. PMID:23213068

  11. Circulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF Levels in Advanced Stage Cancer Patients Compared to Normal Controls and Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Critical Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoka H. Kusumanto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-angiogenic therapy is emerging as a valuable tool in the treatment of patients with cancer. As VEGF is a central target in anti-angiogenic therapy, its levels in the circulation might be relevant in selecting tumor types or patients likely to respond to this treatment. Additional VEGF has been recognized as a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Recently anti-angiogenic therapy has been advocated in this situation. We measured VEGF levels in whole blood in 42 patients with high grade (n = 26 and low grade (n = 16 end stage cancer, and in 28 healthy controls and 37 patients with diabetes related vascular disease. Only 2/26 patients in the group of high grade cancer had signifi cantly elevated VEGF levels, 1/16 in the low grade group and 1/28 in the healthy control group. In contrast, in 10/37 diabetic patients the mean VEGF levels were significantly elevated compared to the other groups. The mean level in these diabetic patients was significantly elevated compared to the other groups. These data indicate the limitation of the use of circulating VEGF levels as a potential selection criterion for anti-angiogenic therapy in cancer patients and suggest further studies into its application in the management of diabetic complications.

  12. Longitudinal Changes in Circulating Testosterone Levels Determined by LC-MS/MS and by a Commercially Available Radioimmunoassay in Healthy Girls and Boys during the Pubertal Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Søeborg, Tue; Johannsen, Trine Holm;

    2014-01-01

    (detection limit 0.23 nmol/l). RESULTS: Serum concentrations of testosterone increased gradually with age by both methods. However, serum testosterone was quantifiable in 9/10 girls prior to pubic hair development measured with LC-MS/MS, and in 2/10 girls measured with immunoassay. In boys, testosterone was...... quantifiable in 10/10 boys 1 year prior to pubic hair development measured with LC-MS/MS, and only in 1/10 boys measured with immunoassay. Serum testosterone levels were quantifiable 1.5 years (range 0.5-2.5) earlier using LC-MS/MS. CONCLUSION: Assessment of longitudinal circulating levels of serum...

  13. Assessment of Cord Blood Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels and Circulating CD34+ Cells in Preterm Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Tawfeek Moawed, Nihad Ahmed El Nashar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS secondary to surfactant deficiency is a common cause of mobility and mortality in premature infants. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a major angiogenic factor and prime regulator of endothelial cells proliferation. So, VEGF may contribute to surfactant secretion and pulmonary maturation. Additionally, circulating CD34+ stem – progenitor cells are elevated along with its mobilizing cytokines in neonatal RDS. Aim of work: This study aimed to elucidate the role of cord blood VEGF and the circulating CD34+ cells in preterm infants with and without RDS. Patients & method: This study was conducted on 55 preterm neonates divided into 25 preterm (15 males/ 10 females without RDS with mean age of 31.60 ± 1.56 weeks and 30 preterm neonates with RDS (18 males/ 12 females with mean age of 29.95 ± 1.09 weeks . Twenty healthy neonates (14 males/ 6 females served as controls with mean age of 38.20 ± 3.57 weeks. All neonates were subjected to full history taking; thorough clinical examination and laboratory investigations including determination of VEGF levels in cord blood samples using ELISA and circulating CD34+ cells in peripheral blood by flowcytometery. Results:The results of this study revealed that cord blood VEGF levels were significantly decreased in preterms with RDS versus preterms without RDS and controls with p values of both < 0.0001. Furthermore, the circulating CD34+ cells were significantly increased in preterm infants with RDS versus preterm infants without RDS and controls (p < 0.05 & < 0.0001 respectively. Premature rupture of the membrane, gender of the newborn, birth weight and antenatal steroid administration had neither significant effect on the cord blood VEGF nor on the number of CD34+ cells. There was inverse significant correlation between GA and the number of CD34+ cells. Conclusion:It was concluded that low cord blood VEGF is associated with RDS and its level negatively

  14. Profile of circulating levels of IL-1Ra, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL4/MIP-1β and CCL2/MCP-1 in dengue fever and parvovirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Maria de-Oliveira-Pinto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV and parvovirus B19 (B19V infections are acute exanthematic febrile illnesses that are not easily differentiated on clinical grounds and affect the paediatric population. Patients with these acute exanthematic diseases were studied. Fever was more frequent in DENV than in B19V-infected patients. Arthritis/arthralgias with DENV infection were shown to be significantly more frequent in adults than in children. The circulating levels of interleukin (IL-1 receptor antagonist (Ra, CXCL10/inducible protein-10 (IP-10, CCL4/macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 were determined by multiplex immunoassay in serum samples obtained from B19V (37 and DENV-infected (36 patients and from healthy individuals (7. Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that circulating CXCL10/IP-10 tends to be associated with DENV infection and that IL-1Ra was significantly associated with DENV infection. Similar analysis showed that circulating CCL2/MCP-1 tends to be associated with B19V infection. In dengue fever, increased circulating IL-1Ra may exert antipyretic actions in an effort to counteract the already increased concentrations of IL-1β, while CXCL10/IP-10 was confirmed as a strong pro-inflammatory marker. Recruitment of monocytes/macrophages and upregulation of the humoral immune response by CCL2/MCP-1 by B19V may be involved in the persistence of the infection. Children with B19V or DENV infections had levels of these cytokines similar to those of adult patients.

  15. Markedly increased circulating pyridoxal-5'-phosphate levels in hypophosphatasia. Alkaline phosphatase acts in vitamin B6 metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, M P; Mahuren, J D; Vrabel, L A; Coburn, S P

    1985-01-01

    Markedly increased circulating concentrations of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) were found in each of 14 patients representing all clinical forms of hypophosphatasia, an inborn error characterized by deficient activity of the tissue nonspecific (bone/liver/kidney) isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (AP). The mean PLP concentration in plasma was 1174 nM (range, 214-3839 nM) in the patients and 57 +/- 26 nM (mean +/- SD) in 38 control subjects. In four affected children, urinary excretion of the P...

  16. Waste and cost reduction using dual wall reverse circulation drilling with multi-level groundwater sampling for contaminant plume delineation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the drilling and sampling methods used to delineate a groundwater contaminant plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) during the Groundwater Monitoring IV characterization. The project was unique in that it relied upon dual wall reverse circulation drilling instead of the traditional hollow stem auger method. The Groundwater Monitoring program sought to characterize the boundaries, both vertically and horizontally, of the northeast plume which contains both 99Tc and trichloroethene. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the drilling method used by investigators

  17. Enhancement of L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels by pantethine. Relevance to dopaminergic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Reggi Max

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The administration of the ketone bodies hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate is known to exert a protective effect against metabolic disorders associated with cerebral pathologies. This suggests that the enhancement of their endogenous production might be a rational therapeutic approach. Ketone bodies are generated by fatty acid beta-oxidation, a process involving a mitochondrial oxido-reductase superfamily, with fatty acid-CoA thioesters as substrates. In this report, emphasis is on the penultimate step of the process, i.e. L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. We determined changes in enzyme activity and in circulating ketone body levels in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Since the active moiety of CoA is pantetheine, mice were treated with pantethine, its naturally-occurring form. Pantethine has the advantage of being known as an anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic agent with very few side effects. Results We found that dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels were drastically reduced by the neurotoxin MPTP, whereas treatment with pantethine overcame these adverse effects. Pantethine prevented dopaminergic neuron loss and motility disorders. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that the protection was associated with enhancement of glutathione (GSH production as well as restoration of respiratory chain complex I activity and mitochondrial ATP levels. Remarkably, pantethine treatment boosted the circulating ketone body levels in MPTP-intoxicated mice, but not in normal animals. Conclusions These finding demonstrate the feasibility of the enhancement of endogenous ketone body production and provide a promising therapeutic approach to Parkinson's disease as well as, conceivably, to other neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Anticipatory and consummatory effects of (hedonic chocolate intake are associated with increased circulating levels of the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and endocannabinoids in obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello E. Rigamonti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hedonic hunger refers to consumption of food just for pleasure and not to maintain energy homeostasis. Recently, consumption of food for pleasure was reported to be associated with increased circulating levels of both the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG in normal-weight subjects. To date, the effects of hedonic hunger, and in particular of chocolate craving, on these mediators in obese subjects are still unknown. Methods: To explore the role of some gastrointestinal orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides and endocannabinoids (and some related congeners in chocolate consumption, we measured changes in circulating levels of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY, anandamide (AEA, 2-AG, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, and oleoylethanolamide (OEA in 10 satiated severely obese subjects after consumption of chocolate and, on a separate day, of a non-palatable isocaloric food with the same bromatologic composition. Evaluation of hunger and satiety was also performed by visual analogic scale. Results: The anticipatory phase and the consumption of food for pleasure were associated with increased circulating levels of ghrelin, AEA, 2-AG, and OEA. In contrast, the levels of GLP-1, PYY, and PEA did not differ before and after the exposure/ingestion of either chocolate or non-palatable foods. Hunger and satiety were higher and lower, respectively, in the hedonic session than in the non-palatable one. Conclusions: When motivation to eat is generated by exposure to, and consumption of, chocolate a peripheral activation of specific endogenous rewarding chemical signals, including ghrelin, AEA, and 2-AG, is observed in obese subjects. Although preliminary, these findings predict the effectiveness of ghrelin and endocannabinoid antagonists in the treatment of obesity.

  19. Circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol levels of stallions before and after short road transport: stress effect of different distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasso Loredana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since transport evokes physiological adjustments that include endocrine responses, the objective of this study was to examine the responses of circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels to transport stress in stallions. Methods Forty-two healthy Thoroughbred and crossbred stallions were studied before and after road transport over distances of 100, 200 and 300 km. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein: first in a single box immediately before loading (pre-samples, then immediately after transport and unloading on arrival at the breeding stations (post-samples. Results An increase in circulating β-endorphin levels after transport of 100 km (P P P P P > 0.05 between horses of different ages and different breeds were observed for β-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol levels. Conclusion The results obtained for short term transportation of stallions showed a very strong reaction of the adrenocortical system. The lack of response of β-endorphin after transport of 200–300 km and of ACTH after transport of 300 km seems to suggest a soothing effect of negative feedback of ACTH and cortisol levels.

  20. Lung Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Karthik; Shimoda, Larissa A

    2016-01-01

    The circulation of the lung is unique both in volume and function. For example, it is the only organ with two circulations: the pulmonary circulation, the main function of which is gas exchange, and the bronchial circulation, a systemic vascular supply that provides oxygenated blood to the walls of the conducting airways, pulmonary arteries and veins. The pulmonary circulation accommodates the entire cardiac output, maintaining high blood flow at low intravascular arterial pressure. As compared with the systemic circulation, pulmonary arteries have thinner walls with much less vascular smooth muscle and a relative lack of basal tone. Factors controlling pulmonary blood flow include vascular structure, gravity, mechanical effects of breathing, and the influence of neural and humoral factors. Pulmonary vascular tone is also altered by hypoxia, which causes pulmonary vasoconstriction. If the hypoxic stimulus persists for a prolonged period, contraction is accompanied by remodeling of the vasculature, resulting in pulmonary hypertension. In addition, genetic and environmental factors can also confer susceptibility to development of pulmonary hypertension. Under normal conditions, the endothelium forms a tight barrier, actively regulating interstitial fluid homeostasis. Infection and inflammation compromise normal barrier homeostasis, resulting in increased permeability and edema formation. This article focuses on reviewing the basics of the lung circulation (pulmonary and bronchial), normal development and transition at birth and vasoregulation. Mechanisms contributing to pathological conditions in the pulmonary circulation, in particular when barrier function is disrupted and during development of pulmonary hypertension, will also be discussed. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:897-943, 2016. PMID:27065170

  1. Alterations in Circulating miRNA Levels following Early-Stage Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Resection in Post-Menopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kodahl, Annette R; Zeuthen, Pernille; Binder, Harald; Knoop, Ann S; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2014-01-01

    alterations were also observed in an independent data set. METHODS: Global miRNA analysis was performed on prospectively collected serum samples from 24 post-menopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer before surgery and 3 weeks after tumor resection using global LNA...... design and the same qPCR profiling platform, resulting in limited agreement. CONCLUSIONS: A panel of 4 circulating miRNAs exhibited significantly altered levels following radical resection of primary ER+ breast cancers in post-menopausal women. These specific miRNAs may be involved in tumorigenesis and...

  2. Levels of circulating CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cells correlate with outcome in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, F.; Gross-Goupil, M; Tournay, E; Taylor, M; Vimond, N.; Jacques, N; Billiot, F.; Mauguen, A.; Hill, C.; Escudier, B

    2011-01-01

    Background: Predicting the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy would be of clinical value in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We tested the hypothesis that circulating endothelial cell (CEC), bone marrow-derived CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cell or plasma angiogenic factor levels are associated with clinical outcome in mRCC pts undergoing treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Methods: Fifty-five mRCC pts were prospectively monitored at baseline (day 1) a...

  3. Levels of circulating CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cells correlate with outcome in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, F; Gross-Goupil, M; Tournay, E; Taylor, M; Vimond, N; Jacques, N; Billiot, F; Mauguen, A; Hill, C; Escudier, B

    2011-01-01

    Background: Predicting the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy would be of clinical value in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We tested the hypothesis that circulating endothelial cell (CEC), bone marrow-derived CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cell or plasma angiogenic factor levels are associated with clinical outcome in mRCC pts undergoing treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Methods: Fifty-five mRCC pts were prospectively monitored at baseline (day 1) and day 14 during treatment (46 pts received sunitinib and 9 pts received sorafenib). Circulating endothelial cells (CD45−CD31+CD146+7-amino-actinomycin (7AAD)− cells) were measured in 1 ml whole blood using four-color flow cytometry (FCM). Circulating CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cells were measured in progenitor-enriched fractions by four-color FCM. Plasma VEGF, sVEGFR2, SDF-1α and sVCAM-1 levels were determined by ELISA. Correlations between baseline CEC, CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cells, plasma factors, as well as day 1–day 14 changes in CEC, CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor, plasma factor levels, and response to TKI, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: No significant correlation between markers and response to TKI was observed. No association between baseline CEC, plasma VEGF, sVEGFR-2, SDF-1α, sVCAM-1 levels with PFS and OS was observed. However, baseline CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+7AAD− progenitor cell levels were associated with PFS (P=0.01) and OS (P=0.006). Changes in this population and in SDF-1α levels between day 1 and day 14 were associated with PFS (P=0.03, P=0.002). Changes in VEGF and SDF-1α levels were associated with OS (P=0.02, P=0.007). Conclusion: Monitoring CD45dimCD34+VEGFR2+ progenitor cells, plasma VEGF and SDF-1α levels could be of clinical interest in TKI-treated mRCC pts to predict outcome. PMID:21386843

  4. Dynamic study on the influence of 131I treatment on the circulating sFas levels in patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the influence of 131I treatment on the circulating sFas levels of patients with Graves' disease (GD) before and after treatment with 131I. Methods: Using the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay, the levels of sFas in serum and thyroid hormone of GD 52 patients were measured before and after 131I therapy while 30 healthy subjects with age and sex matched served as controls, and the results were compared with that of the control group. Results: The sFas levels in serum of GD patients were significantly higher than that of the control group (P131I at 180 d, but still higher than that of the normal controls (P3, FT4 and TSH). Conclusions: Abnormal concentration of sFas in serum can be observed in patients with GD. 131I therapy would suppress the auto-immune status in GD patients, and the circulating sFas may play a role in the pathogenesis of GD. (authors)

  5. Individual, temporal, and population-level variations in circulating 11-ketotestosterone and 17beta-estradiol concentrations in the oyster toadfish Opsanus tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruska, Karen P; Korzan, Wayne J; Mensinger, Allen F

    2009-04-01

    Sex steroid hormones are important for reproduction in all vertebrates, but few studies examine inter-individual, temporal, and population-level variations, as well as environmental influences on circulating steroid levels within the same species. In this study we analyzed plasma 11-ketotoestosterone (11-KT) and 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) levels in the oyster toadfish to test for 1) individual and temporal variations by serially sampling the same individuals during the reproductive and post-reproductive period, 2) variations in steroid levels among toadfish obtained from different sources or maintained under different holding conditions, and 3) correlations with environmental parameters. Results from serial sampling showed marked inter-individual variations in male 11-KT levels in two separate groups of toadfish, but no temporal differences from June to September. Females also showed inter-individual variations in E(2) concentrations, but most had elevated levels late in the reproductive season coincident with oocyte growth prior to winter quiescence. E(2) concentration, but not 11-KT, was positively correlated with water temperature, and negatively correlated with daylength and lunar phase. Maricultured toadfish held under constant conditions had elevated levels of E(2) and 11-KT that should be considered when using these fish for experimentation. This study provides important comparative information on the relationship between individual variations in steroid levels, and how they relate to physiological and environmental correlates in a model marine teleost. PMID:19167510

  6. A Fasting Insulin–Raising Allele at IGF1 Locus Is Associated with Circulating Levels of IGF-1 and Insulin Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Greco, Annalisa; De Lorenzo, Carlo; Andreozzi, Francesco; Marini, Maria A.; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Background A meta-analysis of genome-wide data reported the discovery of the rs35767 polymorphism near IGF1 with genome-wide significant association with fasting insulin levels. However, it is unclear whether the effects of this polymorphism on fasting insulin are mediated by a reduced insulin sensitivity or impaired insulin clearance. We investigated the effects of the rs35767 polymorphism on circulating IGF-1 levels, insulin sensitivity, and insulin clearance. Methodology/Principal Findings Two samples of adult nondiabetic white Europeans were studied. In sample 1 (n=569), IGF-1 levels were lower in GG genotype carriers compared with A allele carriers (190±77 vs. 218±97 ng/ml, respectively; P=0.007 after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI). Insulin sensitivity assessed by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp was lower in GG genotype carriers compared with A allele carriers (8.9±4.1 vs. 10.1±5.1 mg x Kg-1 free fat mass x min-1, respectively; P=0.03 after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI). The rs35767 polymorphism did not show significant association with insulin clearance. In sample 2 (n=859), IGF-1 levels were lower in GG genotype carriers compared with A allele carriers (155±60 vs. 164±63 ng/ml, respectively; P=0.02 after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI). Insulin sensitivity, as estimated by the HOMA index, was lower in GG genotype carriers compared with A allele carriers (2.8±2.2 vs. 2.5±1.3, respectively; P=0.03 after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI). Conclusion/Significance The rs35767 polymorphism near IGF1 was associated with circulating IGF-1 levels, and insulin sensitivity with carriers of the GG genotype exhibiting lower IGF-1 concentrations and insulin sensitivity as compared with subjects carrying the A allele. PMID:24392014

  7. A fasting insulin-raising allele at IGF1 locus is associated with circulating levels of IGF-1 and insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Chiara Mannino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A meta-analysis of genome-wide data reported the discovery of the rs35767 polymorphism near IGF1 with genome-wide significant association with fasting insulin levels. However, it is unclear whether the effects of this polymorphism on fasting insulin are mediated by a reduced insulin sensitivity or impaired insulin clearance. We investigated the effects of the rs35767 polymorphism on circulating IGF-1 levels, insulin sensitivity, and insulin clearance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two samples of adult nondiabetic white Europeans were studied. In sample 1 (n=569, IGF-1 levels were lower in GG genotype carriers compared with A allele carriers (190±77 vs. 218±97 ng/ml, respectively; P=0.007 after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI. Insulin sensitivity assessed by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp was lower in GG genotype carriers compared with A allele carriers (8.9±4.1 vs. 10.1±5.1 mg x Kg(-1 free fat mass x min(-1, respectively; P=0.03 after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI. The rs35767 polymorphism did not show significant association with insulin clearance. In sample 2 (n=859, IGF-1 levels were lower in GG genotype carriers compared with A allele carriers (155±60 vs. 164±63 ng/ml, respectively; P=0.02 after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI. Insulin sensitivity, as estimated by the HOMA index, was lower in GG genotype carriers compared with A allele carriers (2.8±2.2 vs. 2.5±1.3, respectively; P=0.03 after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The rs35767 polymorphism near IGF1 was associated with circulating IGF-1 levels, and insulin sensitivity with carriers of the GG genotype exhibiting lower IGF-1 concentrations and insulin sensitivity as compared with subjects carrying the A allele.

  8. Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor-21 increase with age independently of body composition indices among healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynae J. Hanks

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Our findings in a healthy population display an age-related increase in serum FGF21, highlighting a potential age effect in response to metabolic demand over the lifecourse. FGF21 levels increase with age independently of body composition. At lower levels of FGF21, BMD, but not other body composition parameters, attenuates the association between FGF21 level and age, suggesting the metabolic demand of the skeleton may provide a link between FGF21 and energy metabolism.

  9. Circulating Management Ideas: Towards a Better Understanding of the Reciprocal Relationships between Field-level Dynamics and Micro-level Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Agger; Mathiassen, Lars; Newell, Sue

    social levels, including the macro (societal or field) and micro (organizational or individual), one level is relegated to the background in most studies, assumed but not investigated. On this backdrop this paper advance new understandings of how field-level dynamics and micro-level processes coevolve as...

  10. Ultra-high-density 3D DNA arrays within nanoporous biocompatible membranes for single-molecule-level detection and purification of circulating nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, M.; Shimoni, O.; Fox, K.; Karle, T. J.; Lohrmann, A.; Ostrikov, K.; Prawer, S.; Cervenka, J.

    2015-03-01

    Extracellular nucleic acids freely circulating in blood and other physiologic fluids are important biomarkers for non-invasive diagnostics and early detection of cancer and other diseases, yet difficult to detect because they exist in very low concentrations and large volumes. Here we demonstrate a new broad-range sensor platform for ultrasensitive and selective detection of circulating DNA down to the single-molecule level. The biosensor is based on a chemically functionalized nanoporous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated alumina membrane. The few nanometer-thick, yet perfect and continuous DLC-coating confers the chemical stability and biocompatibility of the sensor, allowing its direct application in biological conditions. The selective detection is based on complementary hybridization of a fluorescently-tagged circulating cancer oncomarker (a 21-mer nucleic acid) with covalently immobilized DNA on the surface of the membrane. The captured DNAs are detected in the nanoporous structure of the sensor using confocal scanning laser microscopy. The flow-through membrane sensor demonstrates broad-range sensitivity, spanning from 1015 molecules per cm2 down to single molecules, which is several orders of magnitude improvement compared to the flat DNA microarrays. Our study suggests that these flow-through type nanoporous sensors represent a new powerful platform for large volume sampling and ultrasensitive detection of different chemical biomarkers.Extracellular nucleic acids freely circulating in blood and other physiologic fluids are important biomarkers for non-invasive diagnostics and early detection of cancer and other diseases, yet difficult to detect because they exist in very low concentrations and large volumes. Here we demonstrate a new broad-range sensor platform for ultrasensitive and selective detection of circulating DNA down to the single-molecule level. The biosensor is based on a chemically functionalized nanoporous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated

  11. Basal, But Not Pulsatile, Growth Hormone Secretion Determines the Ambient Circulating Levels of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I

    OpenAIRE

    Faje, Alexander T.; Barkan, Ariel L.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Previous studies have shown that mean 24-h GH concentrations determine plasma IGF-I levels in patients with acromegaly. However, we have recently shown that continuous GH infusion, mimicking the interpulse GH levels, was significantly more effective than the pulsatile GH administration at increasing IGF-I concentrations.

  12. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  13. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egloff, Caroline [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Porter, Emily; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  14. Circulating levels of cell adhesion molecule L1 as a prognostic marker in gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (CD171) is expressed in many malignant tumors and its expression correlates with unfavourable outcome. It thus represents a target for tumor diagnosis and therapy. An earlier study conducted by our group identified L1 expression levels in primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) as a prognostic marker. The aim of the current study was to compare L1 serum levels of GIST patients with those of healthy controls and to determine whether levels of soluble L1 in sera could serve as a prognostic marker. Using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), soluble L1 was measured in sera of 93 GIST patients und 151 healthy controls. Soluble L1 levels were then correlated with clinicopathological data. Median levels of soluble L1 were significantly higher (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U test) in sera of GIST patients compared to healthy individuals. Median soluble L1 levels were particularly elevated in patients with recurrence and relapse (p < 0.05; Mann Whitney U test). These results suggest that high soluble L1 levels predict poor prognosis and may thus be a promising tumor marker that can contribute to individualise therapy

  15. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Turgut

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Burak Turgut, Murat Kaya, Sermal Arslan, Tamer Demir, Mete Güler, Mehmet Kaan KayaFırat University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Elazıg, TurkeyObjective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy, vitamin B6 (vit-B6, serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12, and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG, or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.Study design: A prospective controlled trial.Participants and methods: Forty healthy subjects, 48 patients with NTG, 38 patients with PXG, and 34 patients with POAG were included in the study. Those who used vitamin supplements or medications affecting Hcy and vitamin levels were excluded from the study. The levels of Hcy and vit-B6 were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The levels of serum vit-B12 and folic acid were measured by competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CEI. One-way analysis if variance (ANOVA, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, and the Tukey honestly significant difference test were used for statistical analysis.Results: The mean Hcy level of the PXG group was 15.46 ± 9.27 μmol/L which was significantly higher (P = 0.03 than that of the control group. There were no statistical differences in serum vit-B12 and folate levels among control subjects and NTG, PXG and POAG groups (P > 0.05. It was found that the mean plasma vit-B6 level was significantly higher in subjects with NTG (P = 0.03 and POAG (P = 0.025 versus controls. Mean vit-B6 levels in NTG and POAG were 30.50 ± 11.29 μg/L and 30 ± 12.15 μg/L, respectively.Conclusions: The plasma level of Hcy was found to be increased only in PXG patients and the plasma levels of vit-B6 were found to increase in the NTG and POAG sample groups. Using homocysteine and vit-B6 levels as the determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia still needs further research.Keywords: normal tension glaucoma, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, primary open

  16. The Reduction in Circulating Melatonin Level May Contribute to the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Cancer: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Wan, Jiayi; Zeng, Ke; Tong, Mancy; Lee, Arier C; Ding, Jinxin; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the third most common gynaecological malignancy. Changes in circadian rhythms such as bright light exposure may affect female reproductive physiology. Night shift work is associated with higher risks of developing gynaecological cancers. In addition, the season of birth is also suggested as an important environmental risk factor for developing gynaecological cancers. Melatonin may play an important role in this association as a marker of circadian rhythms. Serum from 96 women with ovarian cancer and 40 healthy women were collected and the level of melatonin was measured. In addition 277 women with ovarian cancer and 1076 controls were retrospectively collected for season of birth analysis over seven years. The serum levels of melatonin were significantly lower in women with ovarian cancer compared with healthy women (p<0.05). However there was no difference in melatonin levels in perimenopausal and postmenopausal patients. In addition, there is no statistically significant difference in seasonal distribution of birth between ovarian cancer patients and the control group. The melatonin levels in ovarian cancer patients and controls were not associated with the season of birth. Our results demonstrate the lower serum levels of melatonin in ovarian cancer patients which may contribute to the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. The incidence of ovarian cancer was not associated with the season of birth. The serum levels of melatonin do not appear to be associated with season of birth in ovarian cancer patients. PMID:27162542

  17. Circulating levels of cell adhesion molecule L1 as a prognostic marker in gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schachner Melitta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L1 cell adhesion molecule (CD171 is expressed in many malignant tumors and its expression correlates with unfavourable outcome. It thus represents a target for tumor diagnosis and therapy. An earlier study conducted by our group identified L1 expression levels in primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST as a prognostic marker. The aim of the current study was to compare L1 serum levels of GIST patients with those of healthy controls and to determine whether levels of soluble L1 in sera could serve as a prognostic marker. Methods Using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, soluble L1 was measured in sera of 93 GIST patients und 151 healthy controls. Soluble L1 levels were then correlated with clinicopathological data. Results Median levels of soluble L1 were significantly higher (p p Conclusion These results suggest that high soluble L1 levels predict poor prognosis and may thus be a promising tumor marker that can contribute to individualise therapy.

  18. AFP mRNA level in enriched circulating tumor cells from hepatocellular carcinoma patient blood samples is a pivotal predictive marker for metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junhua; Niu, Xiaojuan; Zou, Lihui; Li, Lin; Li, Shugang; Han, Jingli; Zhang, Peiying; Song, Jinghai; Xiao, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) quantification may be helpful for evaluating cancer dissemination, predicting prognosis and assessing therapeutic effectiveness and safety. In the present study, CTCs from blood samples of 72 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were enriched with anti-EpCAM nanoparticles. AFP mRNA level was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after enrichment of CTCs from HCC blood samples at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after hepatectomy, respectively. AFP mRNA expression in CTCs was positive in 43 patients (59.7%) and negative in 29 patients (40.3%) before hepatectomy. Among 43 patients with positive AFP mRNA expression in CTCs before hepatectomy, 10 and 11 were diagnosed as intrahepatic/extrahepatic metastasis before and after hepatectomy, respectively. In addition, these 21 patients with metastasis had persisting positive AFP mRNA of CTCs during the whole tested year. Specifically, 3 patients with AFP mRNA negative in CTCs before hepatectomy changed to be positive at 6 and 9 months, and 2 of them were diagnosed as metastasis 12 months after hepatectomy. We conclude that the positive AFP mRNA of CTCs can be a pivotal predictor for HCC metastasis before and after hepatectomy. The release of AFP expression from hepatocellular carcinoma cells into circulation must be a major source of HCC metastasis. PMID:27160647

  19. Circulating thrombopoietin levels in normal healthy blood donors and in aplastic anemia patients in relation to disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombopoietin (TPO is the key hematopoietic growth factor regulating the production of platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes and maintaining platelet hemostasis. This study was done to find any relationship between the levels of thrombopoietin and the severity of disease in patients with aplastic anemia. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of aplastic anemia and 45 normal healthy blood donors of both sexes over a period of 2 years, and TPO was estimated by using commercially available TPO-specific-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The median TPO level of 1190 pg/ml (range 625-7651 pg/ml in aplastic anemia patients was significantly higher than the median TPO level of 121.1 pg/ml (81.25-237.7 pg/ml in normal healthy blood donors (P = 0.000. No significant difference was observed in TPO levels of male and female patients (P = 0.453. The median TPO concentrations observed in very severe aplastic anemia, severe aplastic anemia, and nonsevere aplastic anemia were 2765 pg/ml (range 625-6451 pg/ml, 1190 pg/ml (range 672.1-7651 pg/ml, and 1111.5 pg/ml (range 761.1-2289.2 pg/ml, respectively. TPO in patients of very severe aplastic anemia was significantly higher than patients of nonsevere aplastic anemia (P = 0.043, with no significant relation among rest of the groups. Discussion: TPO levels in aplastic anemia patients were significantly higher than in healthy blood donors; however, in aplastic anemia patients TPO levels were significantly higher only in patients with very severe disease.

  20. Circulating ZBED3 level is associated with insulin resistance in subjects with different status of glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗涌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the plasma zinc-finger BED domain-containing 3(ZBED3)levels in subjects with different status of glucose tolerance,and to explore the relationship between ZBED3 and insulin resistance.Methods There were 109 patients with newly diagnosed type 2diabetes mellitus(T2DM),89 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance(IGT),113 sex-,age-,and body mass index(BMI)-matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance(NGT)included in this study.Plasma ZBED3 level

  1. Influence of insulin therapy on circulating ghrelin and insulin-like ghrelinowth factor-1(IGF-1) levels in children with type-1 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes mellitus type 1 (IDDM)is a chronic disease associated with alterations in the growth hormone/insulin -like growth factor (GH-IGF) system and ghrelin level which may lead to changes in metabolic control. This study aimed to evaluate the circulating levels of the gut-derived peptides (ghrelin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in children with IDDM and to link these two peptides with the glucose level in diabetic children at diagnoses and after insulin therapy. Design and methods: the studied group consisted of 30 newly diagnosed diabetic children (17 females and 13 males) diagnosed in paediatric diabetes unit, children's hospital, Ain shams university. Their age ranged from (6.2-11.8) years with mean of 10.10± 1.74 years. Twenty non diabetic healthy children matching in age and sex served as controls. Serum ghrelin was determined by enzyme linked immuno absorbanet assay (ELISA), while IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factors binding proteins -1 and 3 (IGFBPs) were assessed by radioimmunoassay(RIA). Results: body mass index (BMI) in patients was significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the healthy group at diagnosis. After insulin therapy BMI was significantly increase as compared to its value at diagnosis (p< 0.05) such increase was not significant on comparing to controls. Regarding blood glucose level there was very highly significant decrease in the level of HBAI (glycolated HB) in diabetic patients after insulin therapy (p<0.0001) than at diagnosis . The mean ghrelin level was highly significantly decreased in diabetic children at diagnosis and after insulin therapy as compared to controls (p<0.0001). No differences were found in the mean ghrelin levels in diabetic children at diagnosis or after insulin therapy.conclusions : the decrease in mean gherlin levels in this study at diagnosis and after therapy could reflect an attempt by the body to decrease the glucose level and thus may prevent hyperglycemia in diabetic patients

  2. Joint analysis of individual participants' data from 17 studies on the association of the IL6 variant -174G>C with circulating glucose levels, interleukin-6 levels, and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huth, Cornelia; Illig, Thomas; Herder, Christian; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Vollmert, Caren; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Hamid, Yasmin H; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Thorand, Barbara; Meisinger, Christa; Doring, Angela; Klopp, Norman; Gohlke, Henning; Lieb, Wolfgang; Hengstenberg, Christian; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Groop, Leif; Ireland, Helen; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid; Jansson, John-Olov; Boeing, Heiner; Mohlig, Matthias; Stringham, Heather M; Boehnke, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Fernandez-Real, Jose-Manuel; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Gallart, Luis; Vendrell, Joan; Humphries, Steve E; Kronenberg, Florian; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heid, Iris M

    2009-01-01

    associated with glucose and circulating interleukin-6 concentrations as well as body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Individual-level data from all studies of the IL6-T2DM consortium on Caucasian subjects with available BMI were collected. As study-specific estimates did not show heterogeneity (P>0.1), they were...... combined by using the inverse-variance fixed-effect model. RESULTS: The main analysis included 9440, 7398, 24,117, or 5659 non-diabetic and manifest T2DM subjects for fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, BMI, or circulating interleukin-6 levels, respectively. IL6 -174 C-allele carriers had significantly lower...... fasting glucose (-0.091 mmol/L, P=0.014). There was no evidence for association between IL6 -174G>C and BMI or interleukin-6 levels, except in some subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that C-allele carriers of the IL6 -174G>C polymorphism have lower fasting glucose levels on average, which...

  3. Circulating levels of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease 2 in endemic pemphigus foliaceus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messias-Reason, I; Bosco, DG; Nisihara, RM; Jakobsen, LH; Petzl-Erler, ML; Jensenius, Jens Christian

    2008-01-01

    Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is an autoimmune disease, which occurs in Brazil and other regions of South America. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease (MASP-2) play a key role in innate immunity, and its deficiency has been related to increased susceptibility to...... infection and autoimmune diseases. MBL and MASP-2 serum levels were measured in 114 patients with EPF and in 100 healthy individuals in Brazil. MBL and MASP-2 levels were measured by sandwich assays (time-resolved immunofluorimetic assay) using monoclonal antibodies. No difference was observed in the MBL...... level in patients with EPF compared with controls [mean +/- SEM 1230.07 +/- 132.18 ng/mL (median 789.0 ng/mL) vs. 1036.98 +/- 117.99 ng/mL (median 559.5 ng/mL), P = 0.32]. Non-significant lower MASP-2 levels were observed in EPF [274.34 +/- 15.66 ng/mL (median 239.5 ng/mL ) vs. 304.72 +/- 15.28 ng...

  4. Dietary supplementation of extracts from a halophyte affects the level of the circulating enzymes in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. G.; Lee, B. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. H.; Youn, Y. D. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Extracts from Salicornia herbacea with two extraction methods (using water or ethanol) were examined for their potential as a radioprotector. This plant accumulates a great amount of salt , Mg, Ca, Fe, and K and thus contains high levels of mineral in its body. It is famous as a remedial material for the constipation and glycosuria in folk medicine. The present study was designed to explore the in vivo antioxidant effects of water - and ethanol- extracts of S. herbacea. Both extracts of the plants were tested for their free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH assay. For the in vivo studies, male F344 rats (3 week- old) received po administration of both extracts 0.5 mg/ml during 5 days before whole- body irradiation. Six hours after irradiation, we measured the body and organ weight and collected blood. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed a similar pattern six hours after irradiation. In case of the water extract - dietary group after irradiation, the levels of all enzymes had a tendency to decrease toward to the base level. Therefore, the results reflects the antioxidant activity of S. herbacea extracts and its potential to protect against radiation damage.

  5. Altered Circulating Levels of Serotonin and Immunological Changes in Laying Hens Divergently Selected for Feather Pecking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Kjaer, Jørgen B.; Labouriau, Rodrigo;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in immunological parameters as well as changes with respect to plasma levels of serotonin and tryptophan in lines selected for and against feather pecking (FP) behavior [high FP (HP) line and low FP (LP) line] for 5 generations. The hens from the...

  6. High circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in centenarians are not associated with increased production in T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandmand, Marie; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Kemp, Kåre;

    2003-01-01

    humans. METHODS: TNF-alpha production by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry following stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin in 28 young controls, 14, 81-year-olds and 25 centenarians. RESULTS: Plasma levels of TNF-alpha increased with increasing age. An...

  7. Dietary supplementation of extracts from a halophyte affects the level of the circulating enzymes in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracts from Salicornia herbacea with two extraction methods (using water or ethanol) were examined for their potential as a radioprotector. This plant accumulates a great amount of salt , Mg, Ca, Fe, and K and thus contains high levels of mineral in its body. It is famous as a remedial material for the constipation and glycosuria in folk medicine. The present study was designed to explore the in vivo antioxidant effects of water - and ethanol- extracts of S. herbacea. Both extracts of the plants were tested for their free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH assay. For the in vivo studies, male F344 rats (3 week- old) received po administration of both extracts 0.5 mg/ml during 5 days before whole- body irradiation. Six hours after irradiation, we measured the body and organ weight and collected blood. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed a similar pattern six hours after irradiation. In case of the water extract - dietary group after irradiation, the levels of all enzymes had a tendency to decrease toward to the base level. Therefore, the results reflects the antioxidant activity of S. herbacea extracts and its potential to protect against radiation damage

  8. Developmental Coexposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Has Additive Effects on Circulating Thyroxine Levels in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Veronica M; Sanchez-Morrissey, Susana; Brosch, Karl O; Seegal, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in seafood and dairy products. PCBs and PBDEs are structurally similar chemicals and affect thyroid hormone function and behavior in children and laboratory rodents. Although coexposure frequently exists, the in vivo developmental effects of combined exposure to PCBs and PBDEs on thyroxine (T4) levels are unknown. We examined the effects of PCB and PBDE coexposure from g...

  9. Associations between circulating endostatin levels and vascular organ damage in systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) are chronic immune-mediated disorders complicated by vascular organ damage. The aim of this study was to examine the serum levels of the markers of neoangiogenesis: endostatin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in our unselected cohorts of SSc and MCTD. Methods Sera of SSc patients (N = 298) and MCTD patients (N = 162) from two longitudinal Norwegian cohorts were included. Blood donors were included a...

  10. Effect of Abciximab on the Levels of Circulating Microparticles in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated by Primary Angioplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Jung-Joon; Kim, Jong-Youn; Choi, Eui-Young; Min, Pil-Ki; Cho, Minhee; Lee, Da-Lyung; Hong, Sung-Yu; Yoon, Young-Won; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Hong, Bum-Kee; Rim, Se-Joong; Kwon, Hyuck Moon

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives We investigated the effect of the additional use of abciximab during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the level of procoagulant microparticles (MPs) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who had undergone primary PCI. Subjects and Methods In this study, we studied 86 patients with STEMI (72 men, age 58±13) who had undergone primary PCI. The decision to administer abciximab immediately prior to PCI was left to the discretion of...

  11. Increasing Circulating IGFBP1 Levels Improves Insulin Sensitivity, Promotes Nitric Oxide Production, Lowers Blood Pressure, and Protects Against Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rajwani, Adil; Ezzat, Vivienne; Smith, Jessica; Yuldasheva, Nadira Y.; Duncan, Edward R.; Gage, Matthew; Cubbon, Richard M.; Kahn, Matthew B.; Imrie, Helen; Abbas, Afroze; Viswambharan, Hema; Aziz, Amir; Sukumar, Piruthivi; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Sethi, Jaswinder K.

    2012-01-01

    Low concentrations of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-1 (IGFBP1) are associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether increasing IGFBP1 levels can prevent the development of these disorders. Metabolic and vascular phenotype were examined in response to human IGFBP1 overexpression in mice with diet-induced obesity, mice heterozygous for deletion of insulin receptors (IR+/−), and ApoE−/− mice. Direct effects of human (h)IGFBP1 on...

  12. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Turgut, Burak; KAYA, Murat; ARSLAN, Sermal; Demir, Tamer; Güler, Mete; Kaya, Mehmet Kaan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B6 (vit-B6), serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12), and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG), or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Study design: A prospective controlled trial. Participants and methods: Forty healthy subjects, 48 patients with NTG, 38 patients with PXG, and 34 patients with POAG were included in the study. Those who used vitamin suppleme...

  13. Circulating thrombopoietin levels in normal healthy blood donors and in aplastic anemia patients in relation to disease severity

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the key hematopoietic growth factor regulating the production of platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes and maintaining platelet hemostasis. This study was done to find any relationship between the levels of thrombopoietin and the severity of disease in patients with aplastic anemia. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of aplastic anemia and 45 normal healthy blood donors of both sexes over a pe...

  14. Circulating Osteocalcin Level Is Not Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, You-Cheol; Jee, Jae-Hwan; Jeong, In-Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent human studies suggested that serum osteocalcin is associated with the cross-talk between bone and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether serum osteocalcin level is independently associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A retrospective cohort study was performed of 1,229 nondiabetic men, aged 25–60 years, who were recruited from the Health Promotion Center, Samsung Medical Center, between January 1997 and Decemb...

  15. Genetic variations altering FSH action affect circulating hormone levels as well as follicle growth in healthy peripubertal girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Hagen, Casper; Almstrup, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    FSHR c.2039A>G alleles were positively associated with FSH levels in early-pubertal girls (B2 + B3, n = 327, r = 0.1, P = 0.02) and in young adolescents (B4 + B5, n = 149, r = 0.2, P = 0.01). Serum AMH and inhibin B levels were not significantly influenced by the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs......). Single SNPs were not associated with follicles counts, however, a cumulative minor allele count (FSHB c.-211 G>T and FSHR c.-29G>A) was negatively associated with the number of large follicles (≥5 mm) (n = 91, P = 0.04) (adjusted for Tanner stages). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Since we studied...... FSHR genetic variants and physiological as well as pathological conditions is being increasingly elucidated. The variant triplet set might serve as diagnostic and pharmacogenetic marker. For the first time, we show an additional effect of FSHR c.-29G>A on serum FSH levels in healthy girls. Moreover...

  16. Higher circulating levels of chemokines CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in patients with ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa, A; Rashidinejad, H R; Khalili, M; Dabiri, S; Nemati, M; Mohammadi, M M; Jafarzadeh, A

    2016-07-01

    Recruitment of leukocytes is one of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and chemokines play an important role in the migration of these cells into the inflammation sites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4508917, rs6749704 and rs4359426 in chemokine genes in patients with IHD to clarify any association. A total of 300 patients with IHD as having acute myocardial infarction (AMI; n=100), stable angina (SA; n=100) or unstable angina (UA; n=100) and 100 healthy subjects as a control group were enrolled to study. Serum samples from all participants were tested for the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels by using ELISA. The SNPs were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The mean serum concentrations of CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in AMI patients (395.97±21.20Pg/mL, 108.38±10.31Pg/mL and 1852.58±205.77Pg/mL), SA patients (405.48±27.36Pg/mL, 90.20±7.69Pg/mL and 2322.04±231.23Pg/mL) and UA patients (396.69±22.79Pg/mL, 141.87±18.10Pg/mL and 2754.89±211.70Pg/mL) were significantly higher than in the healthy group (179.38±8.85Pg/mL, 51.92±4.62Pg/mL and 451.82±23.76Pg/mL, respectively; PACE) inhibitors and patients without mentioned treatment regarding the levels of chemokines. The frequency of the GG genotype at SNP rs4508917 in CXCL10 gene was higher, whereas the frequency of the AA genotype at SNP rs4359426 in CCL22 gene was lower in total patients with IHD as compared with healthy subjects (P<0.04 and P<0.002, respectively). These results showed that the higher levels of CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 were associated with IHD. The serum levels of chemokines may influence by the certain traditional risk factors of IHD and some studied SNPs, but did not influence by treatment and gender of patients. PMID:27152707

  17. Circulating levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate are elevated in severe, but not mild psoriasis and are unresponsive to anti-TNF-α treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Antonio; Xu, Ning; Sar, Daniel G.; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Ståhle, Mona; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2015-07-01

    Sphingolipids are bioactive molecules with a putative role in inflammation. Alterations in sphingolipids, in particular ceramides, have been consistently observed in psoriatic skin. Herein, we quantified the circulating sphingolipid profile in individuals with mild or severe psoriasis as well as healthy controls. In addition, the effects of anti-TNF-α treatment were determined. Levels of sphingoid bases, including sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), increased in severe (P fatty acid chain length-dependent manner. These alterations were also observed in psoriasis skin lesions and were associated with changes in mRNA levels of ceramide synthases. The lack of S1P response to treatment may have pathobiological implications due to its close relation to the vascular and immune systems. In particular, increased levels of sphingolipids and especially S1P in severe psoriasis patients requiring biological treatment may potentially be associated with cardiovascular comorbidities. The fact that shifts in S1P levels were not ameliorated by anti-TNF-α treatment, despite improvements in the skin lesions, further supports targeting S1P receptors as therapy for severe psoriasis.

  18. Circulating levels of reactive oxygen species in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and the influence of antioxidant supplementation: 6-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Domanico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to evaluate circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and changes in central macular thickness (CMT in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR after antioxidant supplementation. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 patients (68 eyes with NPDR were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Treated with antioxidant supplement (Group A and untreated control group (Group B. Each tablet, for oral administration, containing pycnogenol 50 mg, Vitamin E 30 mg and coenzyme Q10 20 mg. CMT and free oxygen radical test (FORT were analyzed at baseline (T0, 3 (T1 and 6 (T2 months in both groups. Results: In Group A, FORT levels and CMT were significantly reduced over time (P < 0.001 for both. In Group B, FORT levels were increased (P < 0.001 and CMT did not vary significantly (P = 0.81 over 3 time points. Conclusions: This is the first study showing the reduction of ROS levels in patients with NPDR thanks to antioxidant therapy. Moreover, our findings have suggested also an influence on retinal thickness.

  19. Two seconds is all it takes: European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increase levels of circulating glucocorticoids after witnessing a brief raptor attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blake C; Smith, Adam D; Bebus, Sara E; Schoech, Stephan J

    2016-02-01

    Researchers typically study "acute" activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by measuring levels of circulating glucocorticoids in animals that have been exposed to a predator or a cue from a predator (e.g., odor), or have experienced a standardized capture-and-restraint protocol, all of which are many minutes in duration. However, exposure to predators in the "wild", either as the subject of an attack or as a witness to an attack, is generally much shorter as most depredation attempts upon free-living animals last capture-and-restraint protocol. Glucocorticoid levels of individuals following the control treatment were similar to baseline levels, and those that witnessed a human "attack" had intermediate levels. Our results demonstrate that witnessing a predator attack of very brief duration triggers a profound adrenocortical stress response. Given the considerable evidence of a role for glucocorticoids in learning and memory, such a response may affect how individuals learn to recognize and appropriately react to predators. PMID:26522494

  20. Circulating IGF-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) levels are elevated in patients with endometriosis or undergoing diabetic hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sasajima Koji; Matsuda Akihisa; Matsutani Takeshi; Higuma Chinatsu; Itokazu Osamu; Isaka Keiichi; Momose Katsutoshi; Ishihara Ryosuke; Kutsukake Masahiko; Hara Takahiko; Tamura Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) is a secretory protein with a molecular mass of approximately 30 kDa. It is abundantly expressed in the uterine endometrium during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle. Decreased IGFBP7 expression has been observed in some cancers and leiomyomata. Methods To determine whether serum IGFBP7 levels reflect changes in uterine IGFBP7 expression in humans during the menstrual cycle, and to examine whether serum IGFBP7 l...

  1. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Burak Turgut; Murat Kaya; Sermal Arslan; et al

    2010-01-01

    Burak Turgut, Murat Kaya, Sermal Arslan, Tamer Demir, Mete Güler, Mehmet Kaan KayaFırat University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Elazıg, TurkeyObjective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B6 (vit-B6), serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12), and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG), or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).Study design: A prospective controlled trial.Participan...

  2. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Turgut, Burak

    2010-01-01

    Burak Turgut, Murat Kaya, Sermal Arslan, Tamer Demir, Mete Güler, Mehmet Kaan KayaFırat University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Elazıg, TurkeyObjective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B6 (vit-B6), serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12), and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG), or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).Study design: A prospective controlled trial.Particip...

  3. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 gene is related to circulating PCB118 levels in a population-based sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. the dioxin-like PCBs, are known to induce the P450 enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah)-receptor. We evaluated if circulating levels of PCBs in a population sample were related to genetic variation in the genes encoding these CYPs. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), 21 SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genes were genotyped. Sixteen PCB congeners were analysed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ HRMS). Of the investigated relationships between SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 and six PCBs (congeners 118, 126, 156, 169, 170 and 206) that captures >80% of the variation of all PCBs measured, only the relationship between CYP1A1 rs2470893 was significantly related to PCB118 levels following strict adjustment for multiple testing (p=0.00011). However, there were several additional SNPs in the CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that showed nominally significant associations with PCB118 levels (p-values in the 0.003–0.05 range). Further, several SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene were related to both PCB156 and PCB206 with p-values in the 0.005–0.05 range. Very few associations with p<0.05 were seen for PCB126, PCB169 or PCB170. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 was related to circulating PCB118 levels in the general elderly population. Genetic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 might also be associated with other PCBs. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between PCBs and the genetic variation in the CYP genes. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly were analysed. • The PCB levels were evaluated versus 21 SNPs in three CYP genes. • PCB 118 was related to variation in the CYP1A1 gene

  4. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 gene is related to circulating PCB118 levels in a population-based sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Lars [Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Penell, Johanna [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Syvänen, Anne-Christine; Axelsson, Tomas [Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Ingelsson, Erik [Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van [MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro (Sweden); Lind, P. Monica, E-mail: monica.lind@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    Several of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. the dioxin-like PCBs, are known to induce the P450 enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah)-receptor. We evaluated if circulating levels of PCBs in a population sample were related to genetic variation in the genes encoding these CYPs. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), 21 SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genes were genotyped. Sixteen PCB congeners were analysed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ HRMS). Of the investigated relationships between SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 and six PCBs (congeners 118, 126, 156, 169, 170 and 206) that captures >80% of the variation of all PCBs measured, only the relationship between CYP1A1 rs2470893 was significantly related to PCB118 levels following strict adjustment for multiple testing (p=0.00011). However, there were several additional SNPs in the CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that showed nominally significant associations with PCB118 levels (p-values in the 0.003–0.05 range). Further, several SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene were related to both PCB156 and PCB206 with p-values in the 0.005–0.05 range. Very few associations with p<0.05 were seen for PCB126, PCB169 or PCB170. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 was related to circulating PCB118 levels in the general elderly population. Genetic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 might also be associated with other PCBs. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between PCBs and the genetic variation in the CYP genes. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly were analysed. • The PCB levels were evaluated versus 21 SNPs in three CYP genes. • PCB 118 was related to variation in the CYP1A1 gene.

  5. Circulating levels of the innate and humoral immune regulators CD14 and CD23 are associated with adult glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Wiemels, Joseph L; Bracci, Paige M; Wrensch, Margaret R; McCoy, Lucie S; Rice, Terri; Sison, Jennette D; Patoka, Joseph S; Wiencke, John K

    2010-10-01

    Allergy history has been consistently inversely associated with glioma risk. Two serologic markers, soluble CD23 (sCD23) and soluble CD14 (sCD14), are part of the innate and adaptive humoral immune systems and modulate allergic responses in opposite directions, with sCD23 enhancing and sCD14 blunting inflammatory responses. We measured sCD23 and sCD14 in serum from blood that was drawn at a single time point from 1,079 glioma patients postdiagnosis and 736 healthy controls. Glioma was strongly associated with high sCD14 [highest versus lowest quartile odds ratio (OR), 3.94; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.98-5.21] and low sCD23 (lowest versus highest quartile OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.89-3.23). Results were consistent across glioma histologic types and grades, but were strongest for glioblastoma. Whereas temozolomide treatment was not associated with either sCD14 or sCD23 levels among cases, those taking dexamethasone had somewhat lower sCD23 levels than those not taking dexamethasone. However, sCD23 was associated with case status regardless of dexamethasone treatment. These results augment the long-observed association between allergies and glioma and support a role for the innate and adaptive humoral functions of the immune system, in particular immunoregulatory proteins, in gliomagenesis. PMID:20719886

  6. Decreased Circulating Interleukin-35 Levels Are Related to Interleukin-4-Producing CD8+ T Cells in Patients with Allergic Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Ping Li; Jiong Yang

    2015-01-01

     Interleukin (IL)-35 is a newly discovered suppressive cytokine and has been shown to alleviate  inflammatory  and  autoimmune  diseases.  The  purpose  of  this  study  was  to investigate immunomodulatory capacity of IL-35 in patients with allergic asthma.IL-35 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected  by  quantitative  real-time  PCR  (qPCR).  The  frequencies  of  cytotoxic  T  cells (Tc)1,Tc2  and  Tc17  cells  were  measured  by  flow  cytometry...

  7. Circulating levels of matrix proteases and their inhibitors in pregnant women with and without a history of recurrent pregnancy loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tin C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently shown that serum relaxin-2 levels are attenuated in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL. We sought to determine whether a history of RPL is also associated with changes in serum matrix metalloproteases (MMPs and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases (TIMP -1 and -2. Methods We obtained serum from 20 pregnant women with a history of RPL and 20 age-matched pregnant women with no history of RPL (NRPL at 6-8, 10-12, 20, and 34 weeks gestation, and from cord blood. We quantified total serum concentrations of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 by ELISA. We determined whether these serum marker levels were associated with a history of RPL and delivery before 37 weeks gestation. Results There was no difference in the rates of miscarriage, preterm birth or prelabour rupture of fetal membranes between RPL and NRPL. However babies born to RPL were lighter than those born to NRPL. Serum MMP-1, 9, and TIMP-1 did not differ between RPL and NRPL but MMP-3 was higher in RPL vs. NRPL at 6-8 weeks (P Conclusions Women with a history of RPL demonstrate increased serum TIMP-2 and reduced RLX-2 during a subsequent viable pregnancy. Determination of both markers in early pregnancy enhances the discrimination of women with a history of RPL. These observations suggest roles for these two peptides in early implantation and placental development. Whether these may prove to be reliable early predictive markers for subsequent pregnancy loss in the index pregnancy is unknown and will require further studies.

  8. Circulating level of CTRP1 in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD: is it through insulin resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Shabani

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is considered as one of the most common liver diseases. It is robustly linked to obesity and insulin resistance and is regarded as hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Adipokines are involved in the pathophysiology of liver diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma concentrations of CTRP1 (complement-C1q TNF-related protein 1 in 22 patients with NAFLD, 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, 22 patients with NAFLD+T2DM and 21 healthy controls, as well as their correlation with the level of metabolic and hepatic parameters. Plasma concentration of CTRP1 was measured with ELISA method. Plasma concentration of CTRP1 in patients with NAFLD, T2DM and NAFLD+T2DM were significantly higher than healthy subjects (p<0.0001. Moreover, we observed significant positive correlations between plasma level of CTRP1 and fasting blood glucose (FBG (p<0.001, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p<0.001, body mass index (BMI (p = 0.001, alanine amino transferase (ALT (p = 0.002, gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT (p<0.001 and liver stiffness (LS (p<0.001. Our results indicate the strong association of CTRP1 with insulin resistance in NAFLD. Also, it seems that CTRP1 can be considered as an emerging biomarker for NAFLD, however, more studies are necessary to unravel the role of CTRP1 in NAFLD pathogenesis.

  9. Measurement of Circulating Filarial Antigen Levels in Human Blood with a Point-of-Care Test Strip and a Portable Spectrodensitometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Vlaminck, Johnny; Kunyu-Shako, Billy; Pion, Sébastien D; Awaca-Uvon, Naomi-Pitchouna; Weil, Gary J; Mumba, Dieudonné; Boussinesq, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS) is a qualitative, point-of-care diagnostic tool that detects Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in human blood, serum, or plasma. The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis employs the FTS for mapping filariasis-endemic areas and assessing the success of elimination efforts. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the intensity of positive test lines obtained by FTS with CFA levels as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with blood and plasma samples from 188 individuals who live in a filariasis-endemic area. The intensity of the FTS test line was assessed visually to provide a semiquantitative score (visual Filariasis Test Strip [vFTS]), and line intensity was measured with a portable spectrodensitometer (quantitative Filariasis Test Strip [qFTS]). These results were compared with antigen levels measured by ELISA in plasma from the same subjects. qFTS measurements were highly correlated with vFTS scores (ρ = 0.94; P bancrofti CFA levels in human blood, which are correlated with adult worm burdens. This tool may be useful for assessing the impact of treatment on adult filarial worms in individuals and communities. PMID:27114288

  10. The effect of chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure in normal and chronic restraint stressed rats: related with circulating level of blood pressure regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayada, Ceylan; Turgut, Günfer; Turgut, Sebahat; Güçlü, Zuhal

    2015-01-01

    Nesfatin is a peptide secreted by peripheral tissues, central and peripheral nervous system. It is involved in the regulation of homeostasis. Although the effects of nesfatin-1 on nutrition have been studied widely in the literature, the mechanisms of nesfatin-1 action and also relations with other physiological parameters are still not clarified well. We aimed to investigate the effect of peripheral chronic nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure regulation in normal and in rats exposed to restraint immobilization stress. In our study, three month-old male Wistar rats were used. Rats were divided into 4 groups as Control, Stress, Control+Nesfatin-1, Nesfatin-1+Stress. Angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone, cortisol, nesfatin-1 levels were determined in plasma samples by ELISA. Our results have shown that chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration increases blood pressure in normal and in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress. Effect of nesfatin-1 on circulating level of angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone and cortisol has been identified. We can conclude that elevated high blood pressure after chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress may be related to decreased plasma level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase concentration. PMID:25504061

  11. CXC chemokine CXCL12 tissue expression and circulating levels in peptic ulcer patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Vahid; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Mirzaee, Vahid; Khorramdelazad, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is among the most prevalent human infections. CXCL12 is a well-known CXC chemokine involved in inflammation and play major roles in angiogenesis. There is currently very limited data on the role of CXCL12 in peptic ulcer disease. Hence, we aimed to explore whether CXCL12 is involved in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer induced by H. pylori. In this study, we enrolled 102 H. pylori-infected patients, including 51 with active ulcer (GA) and 51 with healing ulcer (GH). We also recruited 50 healthy subjects as control, which did not show any sign or symptoms of chronic inflammatory diseases, infection, or immune-related disorders. Endoscopy was performed to determine the stage of the disease. ELISA was used for detection of H. pylori infection and CXCL12 measurement. We also employed western blotting to detect CXCL12 in ulcerative lesions of H. pylori. Demographic data were also collected by questionnaire. Our results demonstrated that CXCL12 serum levels in GA group (151.8±18.31pg/mL) were significantly higher than those in GH (36.89±6.78pg/mL) and control groups (33.77±9.12pg/mL) (Pdisease. PMID:27269177

  12. Successful Antiparasitic Treatment for Cysticercosis is Associated with a Fast and Marked Reduction of Circulating Antigen Levels in a Naturally Infected Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Garcia, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zimic, Mirko; Castillo, Yesenia; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of humans and pigs. We evaluated the posttreatment evolution of circulating parasite-specific antigen titers in 693 consecutive blood samples from 50 naturally infected cysticercotic pigs, which received different regimes of antiparasitic drugs (N = 39, 7 groups), prednisone (N = 5), or controls (N = 6). Samples were collected from baseline to week 10 after treatment, when pigs were euthanized and carefully dissected at necropsy. Antigen levels decreased proportionally to the efficacy of treatment and correlated with the remaining viable cysts at necropsy (Pearson's p = 0.67, P = 0.000). A decrease of 5 times in antigen levels (logarithmic scale) compared with baseline was found in 20/26 pigs free of cysts at necropsy, compared with 1/24 of those who had persisting viable cysts (odds ratio [OR] = 76.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1-3308.6, P < 0.001). Antigen monitoring reflects the course of infection in the pig. If a similar correlation exists in infected humans, this assay may provide a minimally invasive and easy monitoring assay to assess disease evolution and efficacy of antiparasitic treatment in human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26392159

  13. Assessing the role of insulin-like growth factors and binding proteins in prostate cancer using Mendelian randomization: Genetic variants as instruments for circulating levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J; Rowlands, Mari-Anne; Gaunt, Tom R; Davey Smith, George; Gunnell, David; Palmer, Tom; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Travis, Ruth C; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Blot, William J; Thibodeau, Stephen; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pandha, Hardev; Lathrop, Mark; Martin, Richard M; Holly, Jeff M P

    2016-10-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) are associated with prostate cancer. Using genetic variants as instruments for IGF peptides, we investigated whether these associations are likely to be causal. We identified from the literature 56 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IGF axis previously associated with biomarker levels (8 from a genome-wide association study [GWAS] and 48 in reported candidate genes). In ∼700 men without prostate cancer and two replication cohorts (N ∼ 900 and ∼9,000), we examined the properties of these SNPS as instrumental variables (IVs) for IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3. Those confirmed as strong IVs were tested for association with prostate cancer risk, low (IGFBP1/IGFBP3 gene region, particularly rs11977526, were strong instruments for IGF-II and IGFBP-3, less so for IGF-I. Rs11977526 was associated with high (vs. low) Gleason grade (OR per IGF-II/IGFBP-3 level-raising allele 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.10). Using rs11977526 as an IV we estimated the causal effect of a one SD increase in IGF-II (∼265 ng/mL) on risk of high vs. low grade disease as 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.31). Because of the potential for pleiotropy of the genetic instruments, these findings can only causally implicate the IGF pathway in general, not any one specific biomarker. PMID:27225428

  14. Endurance training-induced increase in circulating irisin levels is associated with reduction of abdominal visceral fat in middle-aged and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Miyamoto-Mikami

    Full Text Available To elucidate the effects of endurance training on circulating irisin levels in young and middle-aged/older adults, and to determine the association between endurance training-induced alteration of irisin and reduction in body fat. Twenty-five healthy young (age 21 ± 1 years; 16 men, 9 women and 28 healthy middle-aged/older adults (age 67 ± 8 years; 12 men, 16 women participated in the study. Each age cohort was divided into two groups: the endurance-training group (14 young, 14 middle-aged/older and the control group. Subjects in the training groups completed an 8-week endurance-training program (cycling at 60-70% peak oxygen uptake [V̇O2peak] for 45 min, 3 days/week. Before and after the intervention, we evaluated serum irisin level, V̇O2peak, and body composition. The increase in V̇O2peak in the young and middle-aged/older training groups after the intervention period was significantly greater than those in the young and middle-aged/older control groups (P < 0.05. Serum irisin level was significantly increased in the middle-aged/older training group after the intervention period (P < 0.01, but not in the young training group. Furthermore, in the middle-aged/older training group, the endurance training-induced reduction in visceral adipose tissue area was negatively correlated with the change in serum irisin level (r = -0.54, P < 0.05. These results suggest a possible role for secreted irisin in the exercise-induced alteration of abdominal visceral fat in middle-aged and older adults.

  15. Optimizing 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of vessel wall inflammation: the impact of 18F-FDG circulation time, injected dose, uptake parameters, and fasting blood glucose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-FDG PET is increasingly used for imaging of vessel wall inflammation. However, limited data are available on the impact of methodological variables, i.e. prescan fasting glucose, FDG circulation time and injected FDG dose, and of different FDG uptake parameters, in vascular FDG PET imaging. Included in the study were 195 patients who underwent vascular FDG PET/CT of the aorta and the carotids. Arterial standardized uptake values (meanSUVmax), target-to-background ratios (meanTBRmax) and FDG blood-pool activity in the superior vena cava (SVC) and the jugular veins (JV) were quantified. Vascular FDG uptake values classified according to the tertiles of prescan fasting glucose levels, the FDG circulation time, and the injected FDG dose were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the potential impact of all variables described on the arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. Tertile analyses revealed FDG circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels of less than 7.0 mmol/l, showing a favorable relationship between arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. FDG circulation times showed negative associations with aorticmeanSUVmax values as well as SVC and JV FDG blood-pool activity, but positive correlations with aortic and carotidmeanTBRmax values. Prescan glucose levels were negatively associated with aortic and carotidmeanTBRmax and carotidmeanSUVmax values, but were positively correlated with SVC blood-pool uptake. The injected FDG dose failed to show any significant association with vascular FDG uptake. FDG circulation times and prescan blood glucose levels significantly affect FDG uptake in the aortic and carotid walls and may bias the results of image interpretation in patients undergoing vascular FDG PET/CT. The injected FDG dose was less critical. Therefore, circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels less than 7.0 mmol/l should be preferred in this setting. (orig.)

  16. Presence of Circulating Levels of Interferon-g, Interleukin-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-a in Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Marques de MEDEIROS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental murine L. major infection is characterized by the expansion of distinct CD4+ T cell subsets. The Th1 response is related to production of IFN-g and resolution of infection, whereas Th-2 response with production of IL-4 and IL-10 and dissemination of infection. The objective of this study was to measure the circulating levels of IFN-g, IL-10 and TNF-a in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL before, during and at the end of therapy and to examine the association between cytokine levels and activity of VL. Fifteen patients with VL were evaluated. The cytokine determinations were done by using the enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA before, during and at the end of therapy. At baseline, we detected circulating levels of IFN-g in 13 of 15 patients (median = 60 pg/ml; IL-10 in 14 of 15 patients (median = 141.4 pg/ml; and TNF-a in 13 of 14 patients (median = 38.9 pg/ml. As patients improved, following antimonial therapy, circulating levels of IL-10 showed an exponential decay (y = 82.34 e–0,10367x, r = –0.659; p g was no longer detected after 7/14 days of therapy. On the other hand, circulating levels of TNF-a had a less pronounced decay with time on therapy, remaining detectable in most patients during the first seven days of therapy (y = 36.99-0.933x, r = –0.31; p = 0.05. Part of the expression of a successful response to therapy may, therefore, include reduction in secretion of inflammatory as well as suppressive cytokines. Since IL-10 and IFN-g are both detected prior to therapy, the recognized cellular immune depression seen in these patients may be due to biological predominance of IL-10 (type 2 cytokine, rather than lack of IFN-g (type 1 cytokine production.Infecção murina experimental por L. major caracteriza-se pela expansão de subpopulações distintas de células T CD4+. A resposta Th-1 relaciona-se com a produção de IFN-g e resolução da infecção, enquanto a resposta Th-2 com a produção de IL-4 e IL-10 e

  17. A prospective study of circulating C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor α receptor 2 levels and risk of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Elizabeth M; Lee, I-Min; Ridker, Paul M; Buring, Julie E; Hankinson, Susan E; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2013-10-15

    Chronic inflammation may play a role in ovarian carcinogenesis. We examined associations between 3 plasma biomarkers of inflammation-C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor α receptor 2-and risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer in prospectively collected samples from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1989-2010), Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II; 1996-2009), and the Women's Health Study (WHS; 1992-2011) and performed a meta-analysis including data from previous publications. Associations with ovarian cancer risk were calculated using logistic regression (NHS/NHS II; n = 217 cases) or Cox proportional hazards regression (WHS; n = 159 cases). Study-specific results were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. In the NHS/NHS II and WHS, we observed a 53% increased risk of invasive ovarian cancer when comparing women in the fourth quartile of CRP with women in the first quartile (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 2.23). A CRP level of >10 mg/L versus a level of ≤1 mg/L was associated with a 2.16-fold increased risk (95% CI: 1.23, 3.78). In a meta-analysis of published studies, women in the third tertile of CRP had a 35% increased risk (95% CI: 1.10, 1.67) compared with women in the first tertile. There were no significant associations between interleukin 6 or tumor necrosis factor α receptor 2 and risk in the NHS/NHS II. Our results support the hypothesis that higher levels of circulating CRP are associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer, indicating that the role of inflammation in ovarian cancer requires further elucidation. PMID:23966559

  18. Assessing the role of insulin‐like growth factors and binding proteins in prostate cancer using Mendelian randomization: Genetic variants as instruments for circulating levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J.; Rowlands, Mari‐Anne; Gaunt, Tom R.; Davey Smith, George; Gunnell, David; Palmer, Tom; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Neal, David E.; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote‐Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Travis, Ruth C.; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay‐Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Blot, William J.; Thibodeau, Stephen; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon‐Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Pandha, Hardev; Lathrop, Mark; Holly, Jeff M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Circulating insulin‐like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) are associated with prostate cancer. Using genetic variants as instruments for IGF peptides, we investigated whether these associations are likely to be causal. We identified from the literature 56 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IGF axis previously associated with biomarker levels (8 from a genome‐wide association study [GWAS] and 48 in reported candidate genes). In ∼700 men without prostate cancer and two replication cohorts (N ∼ 900 and ∼9,000), we examined the properties of these SNPS as instrumental variables (IVs) for IGF‐I, IGF‐II, IGFBP‐2 and IGFBP‐3. Those confirmed as strong IVs were tested for association with prostate cancer risk, low (level‐raising allele 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.10). Using rs11977526 as an IV we estimated the causal effect of a one SD increase in IGF‐II (∼265 ng/mL) on risk of high vs. low grade disease as 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.31). Because of the potential for pleiotropy of the genetic instruments, these findings can only causally implicate the IGF pathway in general, not any one specific biomarker. PMID:27225428

  19. Circulating levels of osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis randomized to etanercept alone or in combination with methotrexate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, H.; Sørensen, Steen; Østergaard, Mikkel;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether circulating levels of osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (total sRANKL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) change in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during...

  20. Circulating Levels of MicroRNA from Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes and Healthy Controls: Evidence That miR-25 Associates to Residual Beta-Cell Function and Glycaemic Control during Disease Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. B.; Wang, C.; Sorensen, K.;

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify key miRNAs in circulation, which predict ongoing beta-cell destruction and regeneration in children with newly diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). We compared expression level of sera miRNAs from new onset T1D children and age-matched healthy controls and related the miRN...

  1. Lipidomic analysis of bacterial plasmalogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Křesinová, Zdena; Kolouchová, I.; Sigler, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 5 (2012), s. 463-472. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215; GA MŠk 2B06156 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : plasmogens * lipids * liquid chromatography Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.791, year: 2012

  2. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  3. Circulating PD-L1 in NSCLC patients and the correlation between the level of PD-L1 expression and the clinical characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie; Gao, Jing; Li, Yanyan; Nie, Jun; Ling DAI; Weiheng HU; CHEN, XIAOLING; Jindi HAN; Ma, Xiangjuan; Tian, GuangMing; Wu, Di; Shen, Lin; Fang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background The programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death-1 ligand (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway plays a crucial role in tumor evasion. This study evaluated the association between circulating PD-L1 expression and clinical characteristics in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods A total of 109 advanced NSCLC and 65 healthy patients from the Beijng Cancer Hospital were enrolled in the study. Circulating PD-L1 expression was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Th...

  4. Impact of Circulating Vitamin D Binding Protein Levels on the Association Between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Kopp, William; Rager, Helen; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2012-01-01

    High concentrations of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] have been associated with elevated pancreatic cancer risk. As this is contrary to an expected inverse association between vitamin D status and cancer, we examined whether vitamin D binding protein (DBP), the primary carrier of vitamin D compounds in circulation, plays a role in this relationship. Prediagnostic serum DBP and 25(OH)D were studied in relation to risk of pancreatic cancer in a nested case-control study of 234 pancre...

  5. Optimizing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging of vessel wall inflammation: the impact of {sup 18}F-FDG circulation time, injected dose, uptake parameters, and fasting blood glucose levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Moncrieff, Colin [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Machac, Josef [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Fuster, Valentin [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); The Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid (Spain); Farkouh, Michael E. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Imaging Clinical Trials Unit, New York, NY (United States); Tawakol, Ahmed [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Rudd, James H.F. [Cambridge University, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET is increasingly used for imaging of vessel wall inflammation. However, limited data are available on the impact of methodological variables, i.e. prescan fasting glucose, FDG circulation time and injected FDG dose, and of different FDG uptake parameters, in vascular FDG PET imaging. Included in the study were 195 patients who underwent vascular FDG PET/CT of the aorta and the carotids. Arterial standardized uptake values ({sub mean}SUV{sub max}), target-to-background ratios ({sub mean}TBR{sub max}) and FDG blood-pool activity in the superior vena cava (SVC) and the jugular veins (JV) were quantified. Vascular FDG uptake values classified according to the tertiles of prescan fasting glucose levels, the FDG circulation time, and the injected FDG dose were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the potential impact of all variables described on the arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. Tertile analyses revealed FDG circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels of less than 7.0 mmol/l, showing a favorable relationship between arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. FDG circulation times showed negative associations with aortic{sub mean}SUV{sub max} values as well as SVC and JV FDG blood-pool activity, but positive correlations with aortic and carotid{sub mean}TBR{sub max} values. Prescan glucose levels were negatively associated with aortic and carotid{sub mean}TBR{sub max} and carotid{sub mean}SUV{sub max} values, but were positively correlated with SVC blood-pool uptake. The injected FDG dose failed to show any significant association with vascular FDG uptake. FDG circulation times and prescan blood glucose levels significantly affect FDG uptake in the aortic and carotid walls and may bias the results of image interpretation in patients undergoing vascular FDG PET/CT. The injected FDG dose was less critical. Therefore, circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels less than 7.0 mmol

  6. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of association between circulating thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance levels and clinicobiochemical parameters in 1,178 middle-aged Japanese men - the Amagasaki Visceral Fat Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okauchi Yukiyoshi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circulating thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance (TBARS levels, a marker of systemic oxidative stress, are predictive of cardiovascular events. However, they has not been evaluated in Japanese, especially with regard to the factors that contribute to the changes in circulating TBARS levels. We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between circulating TBARS levels and various clinicobiochemical parameters in middle-aged men. Methods In this population-based study (The Amagasaki Visceral Fat Study, 1,178 Japanese male urban workers who had undergone health check-ups in 2006, 2007 and 2008 and were not on medications for metabolic disorders during the follow-up period, were enrolled. Serum TBARS levels were measured by the method of Yagi. The estimated visceral fat area (eVFA by bioelectrical impedance was measured annually. After health check-ups, subjects received health education with lifestyle modification by medical personnel. Results The number of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hyperglycemia, low HDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia, hyper-LDL-C and impaired renal function augmented with the increases in log-eVFA (p Conclusions The present study showed a significant cross-sectional and longitudinal correlation between TBARS and eVFA, as well as BMI and γ- GTP, eGFR. Visceral fat reduction may independently associate with the improvement in systemic ROS in middle-aged Japanese men. Trial Registration The Amagasaki Visceral Fat Study UMIN000002391.

  7. Circulating follistatin in relation to energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jakob Schiøler; Plomgaard, Peter

    2016-09-15

    Recently, substantial evidence has emerged that the liver contributes significantly to the circulating levels of follistatin and that circulating follistatin is tightly regulated by the glucagon-to-insulin ratio. Both observations are based on investigations of healthy subjects. These novel findings challenge the present view of circulating follistatin in human physiology, being that circulating follistatin is a result of spill-over from para/autocrine actions in various tissues and cells. Follistatin as a liver-derived protein under the regulation of glucagon-to-insulin ratio suggests a relation to energy metabolism. In this narrative review, we attempt to reconcile the existing findings on circulating follistatin with the novel concept that circulating follistatin is a liver-derived molecule regulated by the glucagon-to-insulin ratio. The picture emerging is that conditions associated with elevated levels of circulating follistatin have a metabolic denominator with decreased insulin sensitivity and/or hyperglucagoneimia. PMID:27264073

  8. Optimizing 18F-FDG PET/CT Imaging of Vessel Wall Inflammation –The Impact of 18F-FDG Circulation Time, Injected Dose, Uptake Parameters, and Fasting Blood Glucose Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucerius, Jan; Mani, Venkatesh; Moncrieff, Colin; Machac, Josef; Fuster, Valentin; Farkouh, Michael E.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Rudd, James H. F.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly used for imaging of vessel wall inflammation. However, limited data is available regarding the impact of methodological variables, i. e. patient’s pre-scan fasting glucose, the FDG circulation time, the injected FDG dose, and of different FDG uptake parameters, in vascular FDG-PET imaging. Methods 195 patients underwent vascular FDG-PET/CT of the aorta and the carotids. Arterial standard uptake values (meanSUVmax) as well as target-to-background-ratios (meanTBRmax) and the FDG blood pool activity in the superior vein cava (SVC) and the jugular veins (JV) were quantified. Vascular FDG uptake classified according to tertiles of patient’s pre-scan fasting glucose levels, the FDG circulation time, and the injected FDG dose was compared using ANOVA. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the potential impact of all variables described on the arterial and blood pool FDG uptake. Results Tertile analyses revealed FDG circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels of less than 7.0 mmol/l showing favorable relations between the arterial and blood pool FDG uptake. FDG circulation times showed negative associations with the aortic meanSUVmax values as well as SVC- and JV FDG blood pool activity but a positive correlation with the aortic- and carotid meanTBRmax values. Pre-scan glucose was negatively associated with aortic- and carotid meanTBRmax and carotid meanSUVmax values, but correlated positively with the SVC blood pool uptake. Injected FDG dose failed to show any significant association with the vascular FDG uptake. Conclusion FDG circulation times and pre-scan blood glucose levels significantly impact FDG uptake within the aortic and carotid wall and may bias the results of image interpretation in patients undergoing vascular FDG-PET/CT. FDG dose injected was less critical. Therefore, circulation times of about 2.5 h and pre-scan glucose levels

  9. Effect of the rs2259816 polymorphism in the HNF1A gene on circulating levels of c-reactive protein and coronary artery disease (the ludwigshafen risk and cardiovascular health study)

    OpenAIRE

    Renner Wilfried; Grammer Tanja B; Kleber Marcus E; März Winfried

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background C-reactive protein is a well established marker of inflammation and has been used to predict future cardiovascular disease. It is still controversial if it plays an active role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Recently, polymorphisms in the gene for HNF1α have been linked to the levels of C-reactive protein and coronary artery disease. Methods We investigated the association of the rs2259816 polymorphism in the HNF1A gene with the circulating level of C-reacti...

  10. A preliminary study of pamidronic acid downregulation of angiogenic factors IGF-1/PECAM-1 expression in circulating level in bone metastatic breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Z; Lei L; Cai X; Chen LY; Yuan M; Yang G; Huang P; Wang X

    2016-01-01

    Zeng Wang,1,2 Lei Lei,2,3 Xin-jun Cai,4 Ling Ya Chen,1,2 Meiqin Yuan,2,3 Guonong Yang,1,2 Ping Huang,1,2 Xiaojia Wang2,3 1Department of Pharmacy, 2Zhejiang Key Lab of Diagnosis & Treatment Technology on Thoracic Oncology, 3Department of Chemotherapy Center, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, 4Department of Pharmacy, Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Objective: To evaluate the expressions of circulating angi...

  11. Relative levels of the proprotein and cleavage‐activated form of circulating human anti‐Müllerian hormone are sexually dimorphic and variable during the life cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Pankhurst, Michael W.; Chong, Yih Harng; McLennan, Ian S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Anti‐Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a gonadal hormone, which induces aspects of the male phenotype, and influences ovarian follicular recruitment. AMH is synthesized as a proprotein (proAMH), which is incompletely cleaved to the receptor‐competent AMHN ,C. AMH ELISAs have not distinguished between proAMH and AMHN ,C; consequently, the physiological ranges of circulating proAMH and AMHN ,C are unknown. A novel proAMH ELISA has been used to assay serum proAMH in humans. Total AMH was also ...

  12. Improvement of Classification of Enterprise Circulating Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohanova Hanna O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in revelation of possibilities of increase of efficiency of managing enterprise circulating funds by means of improvement of their classification features. Having analysed approaches of many economists to classification of enterprise circulating funds, systemised and supplementing them, the article offers grouping classification features of enterprise circulating funds. In the result of the study the article offers an expanded classification of circulating funds, which clearly shows the role of circulating funds in managing enterprise finance and economy in general. The article supplements and groups classification features of enterprise circulating funds by: the organisation level, functioning character, sources of formation and their cost, and level of management efficiency. The article shows that the provided grouping of classification features of circulating funds allows exerting all-sided and purposeful influence upon indicators of efficiency of circulating funds functioning and facilitates their rational management in general. The prospect of further studies in this direction is identification of the level of attraction of loan resources by production enterprises for financing circulating funds.

  13. A preliminary study of pamidronic acid downregulation of angiogenic factors IGF-1/PECAM-1 expression in circulating level in bone metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zeng Wang,1,2 Lei Lei,2,3 Xin-jun Cai,4 Ling Ya Chen,1,2 Meiqin Yuan,2,3 Guonong Yang,1,2 Ping Huang,1,2 Xiaojia Wang2,3 1Department of Pharmacy, 2Zhejiang Key Lab of Diagnosis & Treatment Technology on Thoracic Oncology, 3Department of Chemotherapy Center, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, 4Department of Pharmacy, Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Objective: To evaluate the expressions of circulating angiogenic factors affected by pamidronic acid (PA intravenous infusion in bone metastatic breast cancer patients and the impact on their prognosis.Methods: Peripheral blood of ten bone metastatic breast cancer patients was collected for serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 expression detection just before and 2 days after PA infusion.Results: Both IGF-1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 concentrations decreased after PA treatment for 48 hours (P<0.05. Modification was defined as >20% decrease recorded 2 days after PA administration. The decrease of IGF-1 was more significant in breast cancer patients who had received previous hormonotherapy. Moreover, the progression-free survival of first-line chemotherapy treatment of IGF-1 modified patients was longer than that of IGF-1 unmodified patients (P=0.009.Conclusion: PA treatment could suppress circulating serum IGF-1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 concentrations; moreover, the prognosis of patients in IGF-1 unmodified group was relatively poor. Keywords: pamidronic acid, insulin-like growth factor-1, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, bone metastatic breast cancer, prognosis

  14. Conservation of Circulation in Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bekenstein, J D; Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Oron, Asaf

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate, both at the Newtonian and (general) relativistic levels, theexistence of a generalization of Kelvin's circulation theorem (for pure fluids)which is applicable to perfect magnetohydrodynamics. The argument is based onthe least action principle for magnetohydrodynamic flow. Examples of the newconservation law are furnished. The new theorem should be helpful inidentifying new kinds of vortex phenomena distinct from magnetic ropes or fluidvortices.

  15. Dual wall reverse circulation drilling with multi-level groundwater sampling for groundwater contaminant plume delineation at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual wall reverse circulation (DWRC) drilling was used to drill 48 borings during a groundwater contaminant investigation at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. This method was selected as an alternative to conventional hollow stem auger drilling for a number of reasons, including the expectation of minimizing waste, increasing the drilling rate, and reducing the potential for cross contamination of aquifers. Groundwater samples were collected from several water-bearing zones during drilling of each borehole. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds using a field gas chromatograph. This approach allowed the investigation to be directed using near-real-time data. Use of downhole geophysical logging, in conjunction with lithologic descriptions of borehole cuttings, resulted in excellent correlation of the geology in the vicinity of the contaminant plume. The total volume of cuttings generated using the DWRC drilling method was less than half of what would have been produced by hollow stem augering; however, the cuttings were recovered in slurry form and had to be dewatered prior to disposal. The drilling rate was very rapid, often approaching 10 ft/min; however, frequent breaks to perform groundwater sampling resulted in an average drilling rate of < 1 ft/min. The time required for groundwater sampling could be shortened by changing the sampling methodology. Analytical results indicated that the drilling method successfully isolated the various water bearing zones and no cross contamination resulted from the investigation

  16. Positive correlation between circulating cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (hCAP18/LL-37) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, Brian M; Barker, Tyler; McKinnon, Toni;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Transcription of the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is induced by binding of the bioactive form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, to the vitamin D receptor. Significant levels of the protein hCAP18/LL-37 are found in the blood and may protect against...... = 0.63). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that plasma hCAP18 levels correlate with serum 25(OH)D levels in subjects with concentrations of 25(OH)D 32 ng/ml and that vitamin D status may regulate systemic levels of hCAP18/LL-37....

  17. Measurement of circulating levels of VEGF-A,-C,and -D and their receptors,VEGFR-1 and -2 in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour S Al-Houndhd; A Al-Shukaili; M Al-Nabhani; B Al-Bahrani; IA Burney; A Rizivi; SS Ganguly

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the serum levels and prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -A,-C,and -D,and their receptors,VEGFR-1 and -2 in gastric adenocarcinomas.METHODS: The serum levels of VEGF family members were measured in 76 control subjects and 76 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).These measurements were correlated with clinco-pathological features and survival rates.RESULTS: The serum levels of VEGF-A and its receptor,VEGFR-1,were significantly higher in patients with gastric cancer than in healthy donors (t = 2.3,P = 0.02 and t = 4.2,P<0.0001,respectively).In contrast,the serum levels of VEGF-D were significantly higher in control subjects than in patients (t = 2.9,P = 0.004).There was no significant difference in serum levels of VEGF-C and VEGFR-2 between patients and controls.VEGF-C was associated with advanced tumor stage and presence of metastasis.VEGFR-1 was associated with metastasis,advanced overall stage,tumor differentiation and survival.VEGFR-2 levels were associated with poor tumor differentiation.There was no significant prognostic value for any of the VEGF family members or their receptors except for VEGFR-1 where high levels were associated with a poor overall survival.CONCLUSION: Serum VEGF levels vary significantly in the same cohort of patients with variable clinicopathological features and prognostic values.The simultaneous measurement of VFGF receptors levels in sera may overcome the limitations of a single biomarker assay.

  18. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Global Data, Version 2: Sea level data on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0000313)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea level and pressure data were collected using CTD casts in a world-wide distribution from January 1, 1905 to December 31, 1999. Data were submitted by University...

  19. Levels and Value of Soluble P-Selectin Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: Evaluating the Link between Soluble P-selectin Levels and Recruitment of Circulating White Blood Cells and the Marker for the Rapid Diagnosis of Chest Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-An Chiu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet activation that results from coronary plaque rupture is important inthe pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Soluble p-selectin(sP-selectin is crucial in modulating leukocyte adhesion to both platelets andendothelial cells during inflammatory response and thrombus formation. Wehypothesized that sP-selectin, an index of both platelet activation and acuteinflammation, rapidly increases and modulates the recruitment of circulatingwhite blood cells (WBC in patients following AMI.Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 142 consecutive patients withST-segment elevated AMI of onset 0.10 in three intervals from the start of chest painto blood sample collection (< 180 min, ≥ 180 < 360, and ≥ 360 < 720 followingAMI. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the increase in the plasmalevel of sP-selectin was significantly related to the circulating WBCcount (r = 0.248, p = 0.003.Conclusions: sP-selectin was markedly elevated in an early phase of AMI. sP-selectin maybe involved in modulating the recruitment of circulating WBC during AMI.These findings raise the need for a prospective investigation of sP-selectin asa potential reliable clinical tool for rapidly diagnosing AMI.

  20. Microwave circulator design

    CERN Document Server

    Linkhart, Douglas K

    2014-01-01

    Circulator design has advanced significantly since the first edition of this book was published 25 years ago. The objective of this second edition is to present theory, information, and design procedures that will enable microwave engineers and technicians to design and build circulators successfully. This resource contains a discussion of the various units used in the circulator design computations, as well as covers the theory of operation. This book presents numerous applications, giving microwave engineers new ideas about how to solve problems using circulators. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate how to apply the information to real-world design tasks.

  1. Serial measurement of the circulating levels of tumour necrosis factor and its soluble receptors 1 and 2 for monitoring leprosy patients during multidrug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Dias Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is an infectious and contagious spectral disease accompanied by a series of immunological events triggered by the host response to the aetiologic agent, Mycobacterium leprae . The induction and maintenance of the immune/inflammatory response in leprosy are linked to multiple cell interactions and soluble factors, primarily through the action of cytokines. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the serum levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α and its soluble receptors (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 in leprosy patients at different stages of multidrug treatment (MDT in comparison with non-infected individuals and to determine their role as putative biomarkers of the severity of leprosy or the treatment response. ELISA was used to measure the levels of these molecules in 30 healthy controls and 37 leprosy patients at the time of diagnosis and during and after MDT. Our results showed increases in the serum levels of TNF-α and sTNF-R2 in infected individuals in comparison with controls. The levels of TNF-α, but not sTNF-R2, decreased with treatment. The current results corroborate previous reports of elevated serum levels of TNF-α in leprosy and suggest a role for sTNF-R2 in the control of this cytokine during MDT.

  2. Nutrition, anthropometry, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and circulating levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha receptor I and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in children during stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, B. U.; Pærregaard, Anders; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Andersen, J.; Heilmann, C. J.; Muller, Klaus; Andreassen, B U; Pærregaard, A; Michaelsen, K F; Andersen, J; Heilmann, C J; Müller, K

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate anthropometry, nutrition and gastrointestinal dysfunction, and to characterize the relation between these parameters and the inflammatory activity evaluated by plasma levels of soluble tumour necrosis factor alpha receptor I (sTNFRI) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) levels...... during stem cell transplantation (SCT) in children. Clinical assessments and blood sampling were performed on days -3, 0, +7, +15 and +31 in eight children undergoing SCT. Energy intake, anthropometry, gastrointestinal dysfunction (WHO toxicity score) and sTNFRI and IL-1Ra were evaluated. The energy...... intake was below recommended levels. There was a loss of lean body mass (arm muscle area)(median, 2031 mm(2) (day -3) vs 1477 mm(2) (day 31); p = 0.04), and of fat mass (arm fat area) (791 mm(2) (day -3) vs 648 mm(2) (day +31); p = 0.04). sTNFRI was elevated throughout the course of transplantation, and...

  3. The short-term effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the circulating levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in patients with chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Kitty George

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent epidemiological studies have shown that periodontal infection is a risk factor for a number of systemic diseases and conditions. In addition to the conventional risk factors, chronic infection and the subsequent generation of a systemic inflammatory response may be associated with this increased risk. Aims: This study was conducted to determine whether the presence of chronic periodontitis and subsequent non-surgical periodontal therapy could influence the serum levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP in patients with severe chronic generalized periodontitis. Settings and Design: Participants were selected from subjects who attended the Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantololgy, Government Dental College, Thiruvananthapuram. Materials and Methods: Sera were obtained from 25 patients with periodontitis for baseline examination and reassessment after completion of treatment. As a control, sera were also obtained from 20 subjects without periodontitis. Interleukin-6 was determined by sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP was measured using latex turbidometric immunoassay. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using computer software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 10. Results: The level of interleukin-6 and hsCRP in the sera of periodontitis patients was seen to be higher than those of healthy controls. Interleukin-6 level tended to decrease with improvement of the periodontal condition following treatment and approached that of control subjects, and this decline was statistically significant. The hsCRP levels also showed a decreasing trend following periodontal treatment. Conclusions: In this study, we were able to show that periodontal disease significantly affects the serum levels of systemic inflammatory markers and that non-surgical periodontal therapy could bring about a decrease in the levels of these inflammatory markers.

  4. [Differences in the dynamics of the eosinophilia, blood immunoglobulin E and the level of circulating immune complexes in patients with chronic opisthorchiasis treated with different doses of praziquantel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legon'kov, Iu A; Ozeretskovskaia, N N; Gervazieva, V B; Ovsiannikova, I G; Bronshteĭn, A M

    1992-01-01

    Sixty patients with a chronic Opisthorchis felineus infection were administered one-day therapy with praziquantel in doses 25, 40, or 60-75 mg/kg b. m. The former two doses of the drug did not much improve the levels of the examined immunologic parameters. In patients treated with the highest dose of praziquantel a significant decrease of the total and specific IgE and CIC levels, reaching that in the reference groups, was observed in 6-8 months after the treatment, this indicating a 92% efficacy of the drug in this group of patients. PMID:1299753

  5. Zoledronic acid increases the circulating soluble RANKL level in mice, with a further increase in lymphocyte-derived soluble RANKL in zoledronic acid- and glucocorticoid-treated mice stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takahiro; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Hori, Naoko; Shimamura, Yumiko; Sato, Tomoya; Yoda, Tetsuya

    2016-07-01

    The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BP) zoledronic acid (ZA) is a potent antiresorptive drug used in conjunction with standard cancer therapy to treat osteolysis or hypercalcemia due to malignancy. However, it is unclear how ZA influences the circulating levels of bone remodeling factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ZA on the serum levels of soluble receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The following four groups of C57BL/6 mice were used (five mice per group): (1) the placebo+phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group, in which placebo-treated mice were injected once weekly with PBS for 4weeks; (2) the placebo+ZA group, in which placebo-treated mice were injected once weekly with ZA for 4weeks; (3) the prednisolone (PSL)+PBS group, in which PSL-treated mice were injected once weekly with PBS for 4weeks; and (4) the PSL+ZA group, in which PSL-treated mice were injected once weekly with ZA for 4weeks. At the 3-week time point, all mice were subjected to oral inflammatory stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The sera of these mice were obtained every week and the levels of sRANKL and OPG were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At the time of sacrifice, femurs were prepared for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histological, and histomorphometric analyses. Our data indicated that ZA administration remarkably reduced bone turnover and significantly increased the basal level of sRANKL. Interestingly, the PSL+ZA group showed a dramatically elevated sRANKL level after LPS stimulation. In contrast, the PSL+ZA group in nonobese diabetic mice with severe combined immunodeficiency disease (NOD-SCID mice), which are characterized by the absence of functional T- and B-lymphocytes, showed no increase in the sRANKL level. Our data suggest that, particularly with combination treatment of ZA and glucocorticoids, surviving lymphocytes might be the source of inflammation-induced sRANKL. Thus

  6. Correlation between circulating white blood cell counts and level of protective immune response against bovine viral diarrhea virus elicited by a modified live vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials (T1 and T2) were conducted to examine the range of responses elicited against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) by vaccination with modified live vaccine and to determine the level of response required for prevention of clinical disease. For T1, BVDV neutralizing (BVDV VN) titers were de...

  7. Circulating mannan-binding lectin, M-, L-, H-ficolin and collectin-liver-1 levels in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Tea Lund; Sandahl, Thomas D; Støy, Sidsel;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The complement system is activated in liver diseases including acute liver failure (ALF); however, the role of the lectin pathway of complement has scarcely been investigated in ALF. The pathway is initiated by soluble pattern recognition molecules: mannan-binding lectin (MBL), M......-, L-, and H-ficolin and collectin-liver-1 (CL-L1), which are predominantly synthesized in the liver. We aimed to study lectin levels in ALF patients and associations with clinical outcome. METHODS: Serum samples from 75 patients enrolled by the US ALF Study Group were collected on days 1 and 3. We...... day 3 [3.35(1.84)(P = 0.006)]. H- and L-ficolin levels were similar to healthy controls. Spontaneous ALF survivors had higher levels of MBL at day 1 [0.96 μg/ml(1.15) vs. 0.60(0.60)(P = 0.02)] and lower levels of L-ficolin by day 3 compared with patients who died or were transplanted [1.61 μg/ml(1...

  8. The effect of warm liver ischaemia & reperfusion injury on circulating plasma lipid levels & lipolytic enzyme activity in rat & the impact of ischaemic preconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanitis, Sophocles; Lolis, Evangelos; Dafnios, Nikolaos; Sgourakis, George; Voros, Dionysios C.; Vassiliou, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) associated with major liver surgery compromises liver function. Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) may be effective in minimizing hepatic I/R injury. This study aimed to investigate the impact of liver ischaemic manipulations on lipid metabolism in rat during the process of liver recovery after liver surgery. Methods: Sixty three male Wistar rats were assigned to three groups: the sham group, the I/R group which underwent warm ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R), and the IPC group. The animals were subdivided in 3 groups [1st, 3rdand 7th postoperative day (PO)]. Hepatic lipase (HL) and total lipase (TL) activity and the levels of aspartate and alanine transaminases (AST, ALT), triglycerides, HDL and cholesterol were measured in plasma. Results: There was no significant difference in the activity of HL and TL between the groups. Significant higher levels of HDL (P<0.0001) were observed in the IPC group when compared to the other groups on the 3rd PO day. Triglycerides (P<0.0001) and HDL (P=0.003) in the IPC group were higher than the sham group on the 7th PO day while HDL was also higher in the I/R group. Significantly higher cholesterol levels were found in the I/R and IPC groups on the 7th PO day, which were not observed in the sham group. There was a similar curve for triglycerides in the sham and IPC groups while there were significantly higher levels of triglycerides on day 7 for the I/R group. The levels of HDL in the IPC group were higher on the 3rd and 7th PO day, compared to day 1. Interpretation & conclusion: Warm ischaemia and I/R injury do not seem to affect lipolytic enzyme activity after the 1st PO day despite the effects on plasma lipids. IPC seems to prevent accumulation of triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma. PMID:22960895

  9. Variable expression levels of keratin and vimentin reveal differential EMT status of circulating tumor cells and correlation with clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CTCs expressing variable levels of epithelial and mesenchymal markers in breast cancer have previously been reported. However, no information exists for keratin expression levels of CTCs in association with disease status, whereas assays for the characterization of transitional EMT phenotypes of CTCs in breast cancer are rather lacking. We investigated the correlation between keratin expression of CTCs and patients’ outcome and characterized the EMT status of CTCs via the establishment of a numerical “ratio” value of keratin and vimentin expression levels on a single cell basis. Keratin expression was evaluated in 1262 CTCs from 61 CTC-positive patients with metastatic breast cancer, using analysis of images obtained through the CellSearch System. For the determination of vimentin/keratin (vim/K) ratios, expression levels of keratin and vimentin were measured in cytospin preparations of luminal (MCF-7 and T47D) and basal (MDA.MB231 and Hs578T) breast cancer cell lines and 110 CTCs from 5 CTC-positive patients using triple immunofluorescence laser scanning microscopy and image analysis. MCF-7 and T47D displayed lower vim/K ratios compared to MDA.MB231 and Hs578T cells, while MCF-7 cells that had experimentally undergone EMT were characterized by varying intermediate vim/K ratios. CTCs were consisted of an heterogeneous population presenting variable vim/K values with 46% of them being in the range of luminal breast cancer cell lines. Keratin expression levels of CTCs detected by the CellSearch System correlated with triple negative (p = 0.039) and ER-negative (p = 0.025) breast cancer, and overall survival (p = 0.038). Keratin expression levels of CTCs correlate with tumor characteristics and clinical outcome. Moreover, CTCs display significant heterogeneity in terms of the degree of EMT phenotype that probably reflects differential invasive potential. The assessment of the vim/K ratios as a surrogate marker for the EMT status of CTCs merits further

  10. Comparisons of the effect of naturally acquired maternal pertussis antibodies and antenatal vaccination induced maternal tetanus antibodies on infant's antibody secreting lymphocyte responses and circulating plasma antibody levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Alam, Jahangir; Afsar, Nure Alam; Huda, Nazmul; Kabir, Yearul; Qadri, Firdausi; Raqib, Rubhana; Stephensen, Charles B

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of trans-placental tetanus toxoid (TT) and pertussis (PT) antibodies on an infant's response to vaccination in the context of antenatal immunization with tetanus but not with pertussis. 38 mothers received a single dose of TT vaccine during pregnancy. Infants received tetanus and pertussis vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 wk of age. TT and PT anti-IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes was measured at 15 wk. Plasma antibodies were measured at 6 wk (pre-vaccination), 15 wk and 1 y of age. Prior to vaccination, TT and PT antibody were detected in 94.6% and 15.2% of infants. At 15 wk anti-TT-IgG and anti-PT-IgG in plasma was increased by 7-9 fold over pre-vaccination levels, while at 1 y plasma anti-TT-IgG was decreased by approximately 5-fold from the peak and had returned to near the pre-vaccination level. At 1 y plasma anti-PT-IgG was decreased by 2-fold 1 yfrom the 15 wk level. However, 89.5% and 82.3% of infants at 1 y had protective levels of anti-TT and anti-PT IgG, respectively. Pre-vaccination plasma IgG levels were associated with lower vaccine-specific IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes at 15 wk (p < 0.10). This apparent inhibition was seen for anti-TT-IgG at both 15 wk (p < 0.05) and t 1 y (p < 0.10) of age. In summary, we report an apparent inhibitory effect of passively derived maternal antibody on an infants' own antibody response to the same vaccine. However, since the cut-off values for protective titers are low, infants had protective antibody levels throughout infancy. PMID:27176823

  11. Effects of a 7-day continuous infusion of octreotide on circulating levels of growth factors and binding proteins in growth hormone (GH)-treated GH-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Møller, Jens; Fisker, Sanne;

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In patients with acromegaly, clinical improvement has been reported after octreotide (OCT) treatment, even in cases of only a moderate suppression of growth hormone (GH) levels. In rats, OCT suppresses IGF-I mRNA expression and generation of serum and tissue IGF-I levels. A direct effect...... of OCT on the IGF system could have therapeutical implications in diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and certain malignancies in which IGF-I might be involved. The aim of this study was to examine possible GH-independent effects of OCT on IGF components in humans. Six GH-deficient (GHD......) patients were studied for 24 h after each of the following treatment regimens (each of 1 weeks duration): (a) daily s.c. GH injection (2 IU/m(2)); (b) as (a) + continuous s.c. infusion of OCT (200 microg/24 h) by means of a portable pump (Nordic Infuser); (c) no treatment. Serum GH binding protein (GHBP...

  12. Combined effects of circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin d and Th1 and th2 cytokines on breast cancer estrogen receptor status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Song; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Quan, Lei; Gong, Zhihong; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44-21.98), with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09). There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:24473087

  13. Combined Effects of Circulating Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Th1 and Th2 Cytokines on Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44−21.98, with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09. There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.

  14. Combined Effects of Circulating Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Th1 and Th2 Cytokines on Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Song, E-mail: song.yao@roswellpark.org; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E.; Zirpoli, Gary; Quan, Lei; Gong, Zhihong [Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Johnson, Candace S. [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Trump, Donald L. [Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Ambrosone, Christine B. [Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States)

    2014-01-27

    Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44−21.98), with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09). There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.

  15. Retinol-binding protein 4 in twins: regulatory mechanisms and impact of circulating and tissue expression levels on insulin secretion and action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Friedrichsen, Martin; Vaag, Allan;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Retinol-binding protein (RBP) 4 is an adipokine of which plasma levels are elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aims of the study were to identify determinants of plasma RBP4 and RBP4 mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscle and to investigate th...... expression was not associated with circulatory RBP4. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data indicate that RBP4 levels in plasma, skeletal muscle, and fat may be linked to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in a secondary and noncausal manner.......OBJECTIVE: Retinol-binding protein (RBP) 4 is an adipokine of which plasma levels are elevated in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aims of the study were to identify determinants of plasma RBP4 and RBP4 mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscle and to investigate the...... twins. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity was assessed by a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and beta-cell function was estimated from an intravenous glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: The influence of environmental versus genetic factors in the regulation of plasma RBP4 increased with age...

  16. Combined Effects of Circulating Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Th1 and Th2 Cytokines on Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44−21.98), with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09). There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy

  17. Conservation of circulation in magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekenstein; Oron

    2000-10-01

    We demonstrate at both the Newtonian and (general) relativistic levels the existence of a generalization of Kelvin's circulation theorem (for pure fluids) that is applicable to perfect magnetohydrodynamics. The argument is based on the least action principle for magnetohydrodynamic flow. Examples of the new conservation law are furnished. The new theorem should be helpful in identifying new kinds of vortex phenomena distinct from magnetic ropes or fluid vortices. PMID:11089118

  18. Influence of a chinese traditional medicine recipes for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation on levels of serum with interleukin-6 and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism in female rats after ovariectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the influence of a Chinese traditional medicine recipe for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation (CRRK) in female rats on serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism after ovariectomy. Methods: Ninety female SD rats were divided into 6 groups: control, model (ovariectomy only) treated with nyl-estriol, treated with CRRK (high, moderate and low doses). CRRK (Gu Kang) was administered at the three dose levels for 90 days. Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the serum levels of estradiol (E2), IL-6, calcitonin (CT) and BGP. The weight and histo-morphology of the uterus of the rats sacrificed after 90 days of treatment was also studied. Results: Compared with the control group, the levels of IL-6 in the model group were significantly higher (P 2 and CT, BGP were significantly lower (P 2 and BGP were significantly higher (P < 0.05-0.001). The weight of uterus was also increased (P < 0.05). The composite recipe proved to have definite effects on normalizing the uterine histomorphology. Conclusion: The results had showed that the composite recipe had good effects on prevention and therapy of osteoporosis after ovariectomy in rats

  19. Low circulating levels of IGF-1 in healthy adults are associated with reduced β-cell function, increased intramyocellular lipid, and enhanced fat utilization during fasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thankamony, Ajay; Capalbo, Donatella; Marcovecchio, M Loredana;

    2014-01-01

    free fatty acids (P = .028) and β-hydroxybutyrate (P = .014), increased accumulation of IMCLs in tibialis anterior muscle (P = .008), and a tendency for elevated fat oxidation rates (P = .058); however, glycerol Ra values were similar. Gene expression of the fatty acid metabolism pathway (P = .0014......) was upregulated, whereas the GLUT1 gene was downregulated (P = .005) in the skeletal muscle in low-IGF subjects. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that serum IGF-1 levels could be an important marker of β-cell function and glucose as well as lipid metabolic responses during fasting....

  20. Circulating complement-C1q TNF-related protein 1 levels are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes and are associated with insulin sensitivity in Chinese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebo Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complement-C1q TNF-related protein 1 (CTRP1, a member of the CTRP superfamily, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects in mice. However, the clinical relevance of CTRP1 has been seldom explored. The current study aimed to investigate the association of circulating CTRP1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in a Chinese population. DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum CTRP1 and adiponectin levels of 96 T2DM patients and 85 healthy subjects were determined by ELISA, and their associations with adiposity, glucose and lipid profiles were studied. In a subgroup of this study, the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed in 20 healthy and 20 T2DM subjects to evaluate the relationship among serum levels of CTRP1 and adiponectin, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: Serum CTRP1 levels were significantly increased in patients with T2DM, compared with healthy controls (p<0.001. Similar to adiponectin, serum levels of CTRP1 were significantly correlated to several parameters involved in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, and independently associated with fasting glucose levels (p<0.05 after BMI and gender adjustments. Furthermore, CTRP1 levels were positively correlated to insulin secretion, while negatively to insulin sensitivity, as measured by OGTT. CONCLUSION: CTRP1 is a novel adipokine associated with T2DM in humans. The paradoxical increase of serum CTRP1 levels in T2DM subjects may be due to a compensatory response to the adverse glucose and lipid metabolism, which warrants further investigation.

  1. Circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL and their complex MMP-9/NGAL in breast cancer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonni Afroditi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL expression is induced in many types of human cancer, while detection of its complex with matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is correlated with cancer disease status. We aim to evaluate the serum expression of MMP-9, NGAL and their complex (MMP-9/NGAL during the diagnostic work-up of women with breast abnormalities and investigate their correlation with disease severity. Methods The study included 113 women with non-palpable breast lesions undergoing vacuum-assisted breast biopsy for histological diagnosis, and 30 healthy women, which served as controls. Expression levels of MMP-9, NGAL and their complex MMP-9/NGAL were determined in peripheral blood samples with immunoenzymatic assays. Results Women with invasive ductal carcinoma exhibited significantly increased levels of MMP-9, NGAL and MMP-9/NGAL compared to healthy controls (MMP-9: p Conclusion These findings suggest that the serum measurement of MMP-9 and NGAL may be useful in non-invasively monitoring breast cancer progression, while supporting their potential role as early biomarkers of breast disease status.

  2. Cardio-Metabolic Disease Risks and Their Associations with Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Omega-3 Levels in South Asian and White Canadians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wu Xiao

    Full Text Available This study compared cardio-metabolic disease risk factors and their associations with serum vitamin D and omega-3 status in South Asian (SAC and White Canadians (WC living in Canada's capital region.Fasting blood samples were taken from 235 SAC and 279 WC aged 20 to 79 years in Ottawa, and 22 risk factors were measured.SAC men and women had significantly higher fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, ratios of total (TC to HDL cholesterol (HDLC and ApoB to ApoA1, leptin, E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and omega-3 (p 4%-<8% or high (≥ 8% levels of omega-3 indices were related to lower E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and higher HDLC, 25(OHD levels in WC, but not in SAC. The BMIs of ≤ 25 kg/m2 were related to lower LDLC, ApoB, VEGF, creatinine and higher 25(OHD in WC, but not in SAC.The associations of vitamin D, omega-3 status, BMI and risk factors were more profound in the WC than SAC. Compared to WC, vitamin D status and omega-3 index may not be good predictive risk factors for the prevalence of CVD and diabetes in SAC.

  3. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Weis, Nina;

    2003-01-01

    mass. Twenty young controls, (20-35 yr), 20 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 yr) and 16 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (65-80 yr) were included in a cross sectional study. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured after an overnight fast. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body...... potassium counting measured truncal fat, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and body cell mass (BCM), respectively. TNF-alpha, IL-6 and the relative truncal fat mass were higher in elderly compared with young controls. ASM was lower in diabetic men than in young controls and BCM was lower in elderly...... men compared with young men. TNF-alpha and IL-6 were correlated with the absolute as well as the relative truncal fat mass in univariate regression analyses. Similar results were found in multivariate linear regression analyses after adjusting for the effect of age and gender. TNF-alpha was related to...

  4. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga; Castellote, Ana I; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Nurmi, Tarja; Poulsen, Henrik E; Gaddi, Antonio V; Kaikkonen, Jari; Zunft, Hans-Franz; Kiesewetter, Holger; Fitó, Montserrat; Covas, María-Isabel; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2010-01-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed...... in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were...... fatty acids (P <0.001). Plasma oxLDL concentrations were negatively correlated with the LDL phenol levels (r = -0.296; P = 0.013). Phenols in LDL were not associated with other oxidation markers. In summary, the phenol concentration of olive oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after...

  5. Early Response Roles for Prolactin Cortisol and Circulating and Cellular Levels of Heat Shock Proteins 72 and 90α in Severe Sepsis and SIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vardas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the early heat shock protein (HSP and hormonal stress response of intensive care unit (ICU patients with severe sepsis/septic shock (SS or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS compared to healthy subjects (H. Methods. Patients with early (first 48 hrs SS (n=29 or SIRS (n=29 admitted to a university ICU and 16 H were enrolled in the study. Serum prolactin, cortisol, and plasma ACTH were determined using immunoassay analyzers. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSPs (eHSP90α, eHSP72 and interleukins. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI values for intracellular HSPs (iHSP72, iHSP90α were measured using 4-colour flow-cytometry. Results. Prolactin, cortisol, and eHSP90α levels were significantly increased in SS patients compared to SIRS and H (P<0.003. ACTH and eHSP72 were significantly higher in SS and SIRS compared to H (P<0.005. SS monocytes expressed lower iHSP72 MFI levels compared to H (P=0.03. Prolactin was related with SAPS III and APACHE II scores and cortisol with eHSP90α, IL-6, and lactate (P<0.05. In SS and SIRS eHSP90α was related with eHSP72, IL-6, and IL-10. Conclusion. Prolactin, apart from cortisol, may have a role in the acute stress response in severe sepsis. In this early-onset inflammatory process, cortisol relates to eHSP90α, monocytes suppress iHSP72, and plasma eHSP72 increases.

  6. Mendelian Randomisation Studies Do Not Support a Causal Role for Reduced Circulating Adiponectin Levels in Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Lamina, Claudia; Scott, Robert A;

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin is strongly inversely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes but its causal role remains controversial. We used a Mendelian randomisation approach to test the hypothesis that adiponectin causally influences insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We used genetic variants......,969 individuals) and type 2 diabetes (15,960 cases and 64,731 controls). In conventional regression analyses a 1 SD decrease in adiponectin levels was correlated with a 0.31 SD (95%CIs: 0.26-0.35) increase in fasting insulin, a 0.34 SD (0.30-0.38) decrease in insulin sensitivity and a type 2 diabetes odds ratio.......20 SD; 95%CIs: -0.38, -0.02; N=1,860) and no evidence of a relationship with type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 0.94; 95%CIs: 0.75, 1.19; N= 2,777 cases and 13,011 controls). Using the ADIPOQ summary statistics genetic risk scores we found no evidence of an association between adiponectin lowering alleles...

  7. Circulating Levels of PAI-1 and SERPINE1 4G/4G Polymorphism Are Predictive of Poor Prognosis in HCC Patients Undergoing TACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Divella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although several molecular markers have been proposed as prognostic of disease progression in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, predictive markers of response to treatment are still unsatisfactory. Here, we propose a genetic polymorphism as a potential predictive factor of poor prognosis in HCC patients treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE. In particular, we show that the guanosine insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of SERPINE1 gene at the −675 bp position, named 4G/4G, predicts poor prognosis in a cohort of 75 patients with HCC undergoing TACE. By a combination of ELISA and SERPINE1 promoter study, we found that the presence of elevated plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 in patients with 4G/4G genotype is significantly associated with reduced overall survival compared to patients with 5G/5G or 4G/5G genotype in HCC patients after TACE. Our analysis provided evidence that variation in SERPINE1 gene plays a role in defining the outcome in patients treated with TACE. In addition to a poor disease outcome, the 4G/4G variant represents an unfavorable predictive factor for response to chemotherapy as well.

  8. Repetitive hypoglycemia increases circulating adrenaline level with resultant worsening of intimal thickening after vascular injury in male Goto-Kakizaki rat carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Eisuke; Mita, Tomoya; Osonoi, Yusuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Goto, Hiromasa; Ohmura, Chie; Kanazawa, Akio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2014-06-01

    Hypoglycemia associated with diabetes management is a potential risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of hypoglycemic episodes including a surge of sympathetic activity on the progression of neointima formation after vascular injury remains largely unknown. In this study, insulin was injected intraperitoneally into nonobese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, once every 3 days for 4 weeks after balloon injury of carotid artery to induce hypoglycemia. Then, we evaluated balloon injury-induced neointima formation. Insulin treatment enhanced neointima formation and increased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells in the carotid artery. Injection of glucose with insulin prevented hypoglycemia and abrogated intimal thickening. Also, bunazosin, an α1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, prevented intimal thickening and accumulation of PCNA-positive cells induced by insulin treatment despite the presence of concomitant hypoglycemia and high adrenaline levels. Incubation of cultured smooth muscle cells with adrenaline resulted in a significant increase in their proliferation and G0/G1 to S phase progression, which was associated with activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, enhanced expression of cell cycle regulatory molecules such as cyclin D1, and cyclin E, and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. These adrenaline-induced effects were abrogated by bunazosin. Our data indicated that increased adrenaline induced by repetitive hypoglycemia promotes intimal thickening and smooth muscle cell proliferation after endothelial denudation in GK rats. PMID:24684300

  9. Natural Circulation with Boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of parameters with dominant influence on the power level at hydrodynamic instability in natural circulation, two-phase flow, have been studied experimentally. The geometrical dependent quantities were: the system driving head, the boiling channel and riser dimensions, the single-phase as well as the two phase flow restrictions. The parameters influencing the liquid properties were the system pressure and the test section inlet subcooling. The threshold of instability was determined by plotting the noise characteristics in the mass flow records against power. The flow responses to artificially obtained power disturbances at instability conditions were also measured in order to study the nature of hydrodynamic instability. The results presented give a review over relatively wide ranges of the main parameters, mainly concerning the coolant performance in both single and parallel boiling channel flow. With regard to the power limits the experimental results verified that the single boiling channel performance was intimately related to that of the parallel channels. In the latter case the additional inter-channel factors with attenuating effects were studied. Some optimum values of the parameters were observed

  10. Sedimentary response to ocean gateway circulation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Christoph; Crowley, Thomas J.

    1997-12-01

    Previous modeling studies suggested that changes in ocean gateways may have exerted a dramatic influence on the ocean circulation. In this pilot study we extend those results to examining the potential ramifications of circulation changes on the sedimentary record. A version of the Hamburg carbon cycle/sediment model is used in these sensitivity experiments. Results indicate that internal reorganization of the ocean circulation can potentially cause very large regional changes in lysocline depth (1500-3000 m) and opal deposition. These shifts are sometimes comparable in magnitude to those imposed by changes in external forcing (e.g., climate, sea level, and weathering). Comparisons of the model response with the geologic record indicate some significant levels of first-order agreement. This exercise suggests that opportunities now exist for physically based modeling of past sediment responses to circulation and climate changes.

  11. Radioisotopic evaluation of portal circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a radio-tracer of portal circulation through the intestine, should prevent cruel punctures in the portal-vein or spleen as it is usually the case with traditional methods in the study of portal-system. The absorption of I-131 and Tc-99m, previously cheked in rabbits presented similar results in dogs. The time of circulation between terminal large-intestine and the liver (t-RF) was determined by external counting at hepatic level by recording radioactivity variation-time. In healthy animals the t-RF was from 20to 60 seconds, with average time of 42 seconds. In 2 animals with partial binding of portal-vein the t-RF went up to 110 and 120 seconds. (Author)

  12. Concepts in Assisted Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lefemine, Armand A.; Dunbar, Jacob; DeLucia, Anthony

    1986-01-01

    Assisted circulation by extracorporeal and extracardiac bypass techniques must be based on the requirements of the heart and of the total body, though these may differ. The cardiac problem in cardiogenic shock is more likely to be a biventricular problem demanding decompression of both sides. Extra pulmonary oxygenation should be avoided because of complexity in long-term use. Principles of assisted circulation may be applied in an extra-thoracic temporary manner or as an intracorporeal long-...

  13. Gaussian Fibonacci Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become important tools in solving integrable system, Hamiltonian structure, and integral equations. In this paper, we prove that Gaussian Fibonacci circulant type matrices are invertible matrices for n>2 and give the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices. Furthermore, the upper bounds for the spread on Gaussian Fibonacci circulant and left circulant matrices are presented, respectively.

  14. Numerical experimentation of a diagnostic model of 3-D circulation in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaji, C.; Bahulayan, N.; Dube, S.K.; Rao, A.D

    Climatic circulation in the upper levels of the Arabian Sea and western equatorial Indian Ocean are computed using a 3-dimensional, 33 level diagnostic circulation model. A steady state solution is obtained within 30 days of model integration. Model...

  15. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Naeije; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associ...

  16. Influence of platelet-activating factor, lyso-platelet-activating factor and edelfosine on Langmuir monolayers imitating plasma membranes of cell lines differing in susceptibility to anti-cancer treatment: the effect of plasmalogen level

    OpenAIRE

    Flasiński, Michał; Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Wydro, Paweł; Dynarowicz-Łątka, Patrycja

    2014-01-01

    Three structurally related but differing in biological activities single-chained ether phospholipids (PAF (platelet-activating factor) and lyso-PAF) and an anti-cancer drug (edelfosine (ED)) were investigated in Langmuir monolayers imitating natural membranes. The aim of the undertaken experiments was to study the influence of these lipids on monolayers mimicking plasma membranes of cell lines differing in susceptibility to the anti-cancer activity of ED, i.e. promyelocytic leukaemia cells (H...

  17. INTERNAL CIRCULATION ENVELOPES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2001-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or a piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration.

  18. Effect of Vegetation on the Late Miocene Ocean Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Lohmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine the role of the vegetation cover and the associated hydrological cycle on the deep ocean circulation during the Late Miocene (~10 million years ago. In our simulations, an open Central American gateway and exchange with fresh Pacific waters leads to a weak and shallow thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean which is consistent with most other modeling studies for this time period. Here, we estimate the effect of a changed vegetation cover on the ocean general circulation using atmospheric circulation model simulations for the late Miocene climate with 353 ppmv CO2 level. The Late Miocene land surface cover reduces the albedo, the net evaporation in the North Atlantic catchment is affected and the North Atlantic water becomes more saline leading to a more vigorous North Atlantic Deep Water circulation. These effects reveal potentially important feedbacks between the ocean circulation, the hydrological cycle and the land surface cover for Cenozoic climate evolution.

  19. Experimental study of the natural circulation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to study the natural circulation in experimental loops and extend the results to nuclear facilities. New generation of compact nuclear power plants use the natural circulation as cooling and residual heat removal systems in case of accidents or shutdown. Lately the interest in this phenomenon, by scientific community, has increased. The experimental loop, described in this paper, was assembled at Escola Politecnica - USP at the Chemical Engineering Department. It is the goal to generate information to help with the understanding of the one and two phase natural circulation phenomena. Some experiments were performed with different levels of heat power and different flow of the cooling water at the secondary circuit. The data generated from these experiments are going to be used to validate some computational thermal hydraulic codes. Experimental results for one and two phase regimes are presented as well as the proposed model to simulate the flow regimes with the RELAP5 code. (author)

  20. Fluctuation Theorem in an Atmospheric Circulation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Schalge, Bernd; Wouters, Jeroen; Fraedrich, Klaus; Lunkeit, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for the validity of the Fluctuation Theorem (FT) in an atmospheric Global Circulation Model is found. The model is hydrostatic with variable numbers of vertical levels and different horizontal resolutions. For finite time intervals the largest local Lyapunov exponent (LLLE) is found to be negative consistent with predictions of the FT. The effect is present for resolutions up to wave numbers l=42 (~ 250km) and 10 levels.

  1. Resolvability in Circulant Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad SALMAN; Imran JAVAID; Muhammad Anwar CHAUDHRY

    2012-01-01

    A set W of the vertices of a connected graph G is called a resolving set for G if for every two distinct vertices u,v ∈ V(G) there is a vertex w ∈ W such that d(u,w) ≠ d(v,w).A resolving set of minimum cardinality is called a metric basis for G and the number of vertices in a metric basis is called the metric dimension of G,denoted by dim(G).For a vertex u of G and a subset S of V(G),the distance between u and S is the number mins∈s d(u,s).A k-partition H ={S1,S2,...,Sk} of V(G) is called a resolving partition if for every two distinct vertices u,v ∈ V(G) there is a set Si in Π such that d(u,Si) ≠ d(v,Si).The minimum k for which there is a resolving k-partition of V(G) is called the partition dimension of G,denoted by pd(G).The circulant graph is a graph with vertex set Zn,an additive group ofintegers modulo n,and two vertices labeled i and j adjacent if and only if i - j (mod n) ∈ C,where C C Zn has the property that C =-C and 0(∈) C.The circulant graph is denoted by Xn,△ where A =|C|.In this paper,we study the metric dimension of a family of circulant graphs Xn,3 with connection set C ={1,-n/2,n - 1} and prove that dim(Xn,3) is independent of choice of n by showing that 3 for all n =0 (mod 4),dim(X,n,3) ={ 4 for all n =2 (mod 4).We also study the partition dimension of a family of circulant graphs Xn,4 with connection set C ={±1,±2} and prove that pd(Xn,4) is independent of choice of n and show that pd(X5,4) =5 and 3 forall odd n≥9,pd(Xn,4) ={ 4 for all even n ≥ 6 and n =7.

  2. Circulation of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  3. Low concentration of circulating antimüllerian hormone is not predictive of reduced fecundability in young healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Vestergaard, Sonja; Juul, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women.......To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women....

  4. Ocean General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun

    2012-09-30

    1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi: circulating antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bongertz

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available Circulating antigens were detected in sera of mice experimentally infected with a high close of Trypanosoma cruzi by reaction with sera from chronically infected mice. The immunodiffusion reaction between homologous acute and chronic sera produced four precipitation lines. By reaction with chronic mouse serum, circulating antingens were detected in sera from heavily infected hamsters, dogs, rabbits and in sera from chagasic patients. A reaction was also found in urine from acutely infected mice and dogs. Trypanosoma cruzi exoantigen was detected in trypanosome culture medium and in the supernatant of infected cell cultures. Attempts to isolate the antigens are described.Antígenos circulantes foram detectados em soros de camundongos infectados experimentalmente com elevadas doses de Trypanosoma cruzi pela reação com soros obtidos de camundongos em fase crônica de infecção. A reação de imunodifusão entre soros homólogos agudo e crônico produziu quatro linhas de precipitação. Por reação com soro crônico de camundongo antígenos circulantes foram detectados em soros de crícetos, cães e coelhos infectados com doses elevadas de Trypanosoma cruzi e em soros de pacientes chagásicos. Uma reação foi também observada com urina de camundongos e cães infectados de forma aguda. Exoantígeno de Trypanosoma cruzi foi detectado em meio de cultura de tripanosomas e em sobrenadantes de culturas de células infectadas. Tentativas de isolamento dos antigenos são descritas.

  6. Observational Evidence for Poleward Expansion of the Hadley Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yongyun; ZHOU Chen; LIU Jiping

    2011-01-01

    How the Hadley circulation changes in response to global climate change and how its change impacts upon regional and global climates has generated a lot of interest in the literature in the past few years. In this paper, consistent and statistically significant poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation in the past few decades is demonstrated, using independent observational datasets as proxy measures of the Hadley circulation. Both observational outgoing longwave radiation and precipitation datasets show an annual average total poleward expansion of the Hadley cells of about 3.6° latitude. Sea level pressure from observational and reanalysis datasets show smaller magnitudes of poleward expansion, of about 1.2° latitude. Ensemble general circulation model simulations forced by observed time-varying sea surface temperatures were found to generate a total poleward expansion of about 1.23° latitude. Possible mechanisms behind the changes in the horizontal extent of the Hadley circulation are discussed.

  7. Circulating somatostatin. Physiological regulator of pancreatic function?

    OpenAIRE

    Gyr, K; Beglinger, C; Köhler, E; Trautzl, U; Keller, U.; Bloom, S R

    1987-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether somatostatin is released into the circulation in sufficient amounts to regulate exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function and to evaluate the possible role of somatostatin as a hormonal regulator of the pancreas. Mean plasma somatostatin levels (SLI) increased from 11 +/- 2 pmol liter-1 to peak concentrations of 18 +/- 2 in six healthy male volunteers after a steak meal (P less than 0.05). Infusion of somatostatin inhibited hormone-induced ...

  8. TROPICAL METEOROLOGY & Climate: Hadley Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jian; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-30

    The Hadley circulation, a prominent circulation feature characterized by rising air near the Equator and sinking air in the subtropics, defines the position of dry subtropical areas and is a fundamental regulator of the earth’s energy and momentum budgets. The character of the Hadley circulation, and its related precipitation regimes, exhibits variation and change in response to both climate variability and radiative forcing changes. The strength and position of the Hadley circulation change from year to year paced by El Niño and La Niña events. Over the last few decades of the twentieth century, the Hadley cell has expanded poleward in both hemispheres, with changes in atmospheric composition (including stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increases) thought to have contributed to its expansion. This article introduces the basic phenomenology and driving mechanism of the Hadley circulation and discusses its variations under both natural and anthropogenic climate forcings.

  9. Sino-Danish Brain Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Du, Xiangyun; Søndergaard, Morten Karnøe

    2014-01-01

    China is faced with urgent needs to develop an economically and environmentally sustainable economy based on innovation and knowledge. Brain circulation and research and business investments from the outside are central for this development. Sino-American brain circulation and research...... and investment by overseas researchers and entrepreneurs are well described. In that case, the US is the center of global R&D and S&T. However, the brain circulation and research and investments between a small open Scandinavian economy, such as Denmark, and the huge developing economy of China are not well...... understood. In this case, Denmark is very highly developed, but a satellite in the global R&D and S&T system. With time and the growth of China as a R&D and S&T power house, both Denmark and China will benefit from brain circulation between them. Such brain circulation is likely to play a key role in flows...

  10. The relationship between urbanization and commodity circulation: a theoretical and positive research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Weilong

    2006-01-01

    "Town" and commodity circulation are two closely interrelated concepts.A town is born through the exchange of commodities;it is formed by an increase in trade efficiency.The trade efficiency caused by the density of economy is the standard of rationalization of the town scale.The development of a town promotes the development from simple commodity circulation to developed commodity circulation,while the difference in the level of urbanization is an important reason for differences in the circulation level.Therefore,the strategy of being guided by circulation will be a basic way to push forward urbanization healthily in China.

  11. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  12. Circulation patterns in active lava lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, T. C.; Lev, E.

    2014-12-01

    Active lava lakes provide a unique window into magmatic conduit processes. We investigated circulation patterns of 4 active lava lakes: Kilauea's Halemaumau crater, Mount Erebus, Erta Ale and Nyiragongo, and in an artificial "lava lake" constructed at the Syracuse University Lava Lab. We employed visual and thermal video recordings collected at these volcanoes and use computer vision techniques to extract time-dependent, two-dimensional surface velocity maps. The large amount of data available from Halemaumau enabled us to identify several characteristic circulation patterns. One such pattern is a rapid acceleration followed by rapid deceleration, often to a level lower than the pre-acceleration level, and then a slow recovery. Another pattern is periodic asymmetric peaks of gradual acceleration and rapid deceleration, or vice versa, previously explained by gas pistoning. Using spectral analysis, we find that the dominant period of circulation cycles at approximately 30 minutes, 3 times longer than the dominant period identified previously for Mount Erebus. Measuring a complete surface velocity field allowed us to map and follow locations of divergence and convergence, therefore upwelling and downwelling, thus connecting the surface flow with that at depth. At Nyiragongo, the location of main upwelling shifts gradually, yet is usually at the interior of the lake, for Erebus it is usually along the perimeter yet often there is catastrophic downwelling at the interior; For Halemaumau upwelling/downwelling position is almost always on the perimeter. In addition to velocity fields, we developed an automated tool for counting crustal plates at the surface of the lava lakes, and found a correlation, and a lag time, between changes if circulation vigor and the average size of crustal plates. Circulation in the artificial basaltic lava "lake" was limited by its size and degree of foaming, yet we measured surface velocities and identify patterns. Maximum surface velocity

  13. The circulation physiology of agroecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Zhiping; Richard Dawson

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents an effort to enlarge the understanding of the biophysical foundation of agroecosystems by using an analogy with the circulation of the blood in the human body. The circulation function in the human body can be represented as arterial pressure. The factors affecting arterial pressure in the human body have direct counterparts in the cultivation-husbandry system. The relationship between circulation pressure and the factors affecting that pressure in the cultivation-husbandry system are similar to the relationship between the arterial pressure and factors affecting arterial pressure in the human body. Furthermore, circulation resistance in the cultivation-husbandry system can be shown to be analogous to the calculation of peripheral resistance in the human body by Poiseuille's formula.

  14. Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

  15. Atmospheric Circulation of Terrestrial Exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Showman, Adam P.; Wordsworth, Robin D.; Merlis, Timothy M.; Kaspi, Yohai

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of planets around other stars began with the study of gas giants, but is now extending to the discovery and characterization of super-Earths and terrestrial planets. Motivated by this observational tide, we survey the basic dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation of terrestrial exoplanets, and discuss the interaction of their circulation with the hydrological cycle and global-scale climate feedbacks. Terrestrial exoplanets occupy a wide range of physical a...

  16. Circulating Vitamin D and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan A. Arslan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a nested case-control study within two prospective cohorts, the New York University Women's Health Study and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study, to examine the association between prediagnostic circulating levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and the risk of subsequent invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. The 25(OHD levels were measured in serum or plasma from 170 incident cases of EOC and 373 matched controls. Overall, circulating 25(OHD levels were not associated with the risk of EOC in combined cohort analysis: adjusted OR for the top tertile versus the reference tertile, 1.09 (95% CI, 0.59–2.01. In addition, there was no evidence of an interaction effect between VDR SNP genotype or haplotype and circulating 25(OHD levels in relation to ovarian cancer risk, although more complex gene-environment interactions may exist.

  17. The effects of ageing on the immune response to Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm by measuring circulating immune complexes, C3, IgG, IgA and IgM levels in residents of Omi dam area of Kogi State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyinka, G O; Awogun, I A; Akande, T M; Awarun, J A; Arinola, O G; Salimonu, L S

    2003-09-01

    In this study, the effects of infestation (with Schistosoma haematobium or hookworm) during host ageing on the serum levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC), C3, IgG, IgA and IgM were examined in residents of Omi dam area of Kogi state, Nigeria. S. haematobium-infested and hookworm-infested individuals showed no significant alteration in the levels of CIC, C3, IgG, IgA and IgM in comparison with controls. These levels were the same in infested subjects and controls even when the patients were pooled. Infested old people had the same concentrations of serum CIC, C3 IgG and IgM in comparison with infested young people but IgA levels were higher in the aged group (t=2.100; P0.20) was observed in the overall population of infested subjects; and infestation in old age did not alter CIC, C3, IgG, IgA and IgM levels in comparison with uninfested young people. For the uninfested, IgG, IgA and IgM values were similar in the aged and the young but the levels of CIC were higher (t=2.156; P0.10) in the aged. The results of this study suggest that the elevated CIC levels found in old people is age-related; and that the contribution of parasitic infestation to these raised levels is uncertain. PMID:15030085

  18. Empirical Study on Factors Influencing Farmland Circulation in Economically Developed Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunfang; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    Farmland circulation is the foundation of development of regional farmland market.With the aid of survey data of Jiangsu Province and using Heckman two-stage method,this paper analyzed factors influencing farmland circulation from supply and demand of land.Results showed that non-agricultural employment,social security level,and regional economic development level are key factors.In view of these factors,it is recommended to improve rural labor quality,establish perfect rural social security system,and constantly improve rural security level,which are fundamental ways to promoting farmland circulation and improve circulation market.

  19. Circulating mesenchymal stem cells and their clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is a new cell source for tissue regeneration and tissue engineering. The characteristics of circulating MSCs are similar to those of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs, but they exist at a very low level in healthy individuals. It has been demonstrated that MSCs are able to migrate to the sites of injury and that they have some distinct genetic profiles compared to BM-MSCs. The current review summaries the basic knowledge of circulating MSCs and their potential clinical applications, such as mobilizing the BM-MSCs into circulation for therapy. The application of MSCs to cure a broad spectrum of diseases is promising, such as spinal cord injury, cardiovascular repair, bone and cartilage repair. The current review also discusses the issues of using of allogeneic MSCs for clinical therapy.

  20. Circulation weather types and their influence on precipitation in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putniković, Suzana; Tošić, Ivana; Đurđević, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    An objective classification scheme of atmospheric circulation, in which daily circulation is determined by the strength, direction, and vorticity of geostrophic flow, has been applied to the atmosphere over Serbia for the time period 1961-2010. The results for the sea level and isobaric level of 500 hPa for winter and summer are presented. The 26 circulation types (eight pure direction, 16 hybrid, cyclonic, and anticyclonic types) are determined and described. Each of the circulation types has a distinct underlying synoptic pattern that produces the expected type and direction of flow over the study area. The relative frequencies of the circulation types, and the relationship between the precipitation and circulation types at three stations on a seasonal time scale are analyzed. The anticyclonic weather type dominates in winter (18.93 %) and summer (18.70 %), followed by the northeasterly type (16.65 %) in summer, and the cyclonic type (12.83 %) in winter. The cyclonic types (C and hybrid) have a higher than average probability of rain at all stations. Conversely, the anticyclonic types are associated with a lower than average probability and intensity of rainfall.

  1. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow. Key Points Sinking occurs in a narrow boundary layer along the eastern boundary Surface western boundary current switches into an eastern boundary current Water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is not hydraulically controlled © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  2. The Invertibility, Explicit Determinants, and Inverses of Circulant and Left Circulant and g-Circulant Matrices Involving Any Continuous Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices play an important role in solving delay differential equations. In this paper, circulant type matrices including the circulant and left circulant and g-circulant matrices with any continuous Fibonacci and Lucas numbers are considered. Firstly, the invertibility of the circulant matrix is discussed and the explicit determinant and the inverse matrices by constructing the transformation matrices are presented. Furthermore, the invertibility of the left circulant and g-circulant matrices is also studied. We obtain the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices of the left circulant and g-circulant matrices by utilizing the relationship between left circulant, g-circulant matrices and circulant matrix, respectively.

  3. Circulating Fibronectin Controls Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja von Au

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibronectin is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix, and experimental evidence has shown that it modulates blood vessel formation. The relative contribution of local and circulating fibronectin to blood vessel formation in vivo remains unknown despite evidence for unexpected roles of circulating fibronectin in various diseases. Using transgenic mouse models, we established that circulating fibronectin facilitates the growth of bone metastases by enhancing blood vessel formation and maturation. This effect is more relevant than that of fibronectin produced by endothelial cells and pericytes, which only exert a small additive effect on vessel maturation. Circulating fibronectin enhances its local production in tumors through a positive feedback loop and increases the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF retained in the matrix. Both fibronectin and VEGF then cooperate to stimulate blood vessel formation. Fibronectin content in the tumor correlates with the number of blood vessels and tumor growth in the mouse models. Consistent with these results, examination of three separate arrays from patients with breast and prostate cancers revealed that a high staining intensity for fibronectin in tumors is associated with increased mortality. These results establish that circulating fibronectin modulates blood vessel formation and tumor growth by modifying the amount of and the response to VEGF. Furthermore, determination of the fibronectin content can serve as a prognostic biomarker for breast and prostate cancers and possibly other cancers.

  4. 基于SD的食用油料生产流通多级库存管理模式研究%Study on SD-based Multi-level Inventory Management Model in Production and Circulation of Edible Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明葆; 杜志平

    2015-01-01

    采用系统动力学方法,运用VENSIM仿真软件,以山东某食用油生产企业的供应链为例,构建了食用油生产流通环节的多级库存控制供应链模型,并对其进行了系统仿真,通过对现有库存控制模式和VMI模式进行对比,并对个别参数进行灵敏度分析,揭示了现行库存控制模式的弊端.最后,根据仿真结果给出库存控制的优化建议,为降低供应链中多级库存的牛鞭效应以及由于库存波动而产生的风险提供技术支持.%In this paper, using the system dynamics process and the VENSIM software and in the case of a certain edible oil producer in Shandong, we built the multi-echelon inventory control model for the production and circulation links of the edible oil and then simulated the model using VENSIM. Next through comparing it with the VMI mode we carried out the sensitive analysis of some of the parameters, uncovered the shortcomings of the current inventory control mode, and at the end gave the corresponding suggestions for optimization.

  5. Monsoon-extratropical circulation interactions in Himalayan extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellore, Ramesh K.; Kaplan, Michael L.; Krishnan, R.; Lewis, John M.; Sabade, Sudhir; Deshpande, Nayana; Singh, Bhupendra B.; Madhura, R. K.; Rama Rao, M. V. S.

    2015-08-01

    Extreme precipitation and flood episodes in the Himalayas are oftentimes traced to synoptic situations involving connections between equatorward advancing upper level extratropical circulations and moisture-laden tropical monsoon circulation. While previous studies have documented precipitation characteristics in the Himalayan region during severe storm cases, a comprehensive understanding of circulation dynamics of extreme precipitation mechanisms is still warranted. In this study, a detailed analysis is performed using rainfall observations and reanalysis circulation products to understand the evolution of monsoon-extratropical circulation features and their interactions based on 34 extreme precipitation events which occurred in the Western Himalayas (WEH) during the period 1979-2013. Our results provide evidence for a common large-scale circulation pattern connecting the extratropics and the South Asian monsoon region, which is favorable for extreme precipitation occurrences in the WEH region. This background upper level large-scale circulation pattern consists of a deep southward penetrating midlatitude westerly trough, a blocking high over western Eurasia and an intensifying Tibetan anticyclone. It is further seen from our analysis that the key elements of monsoon-midlatitude interactions, responsible for extreme precipitation events over the WEH region, are: (1) midlatitude Rossby wave breaking, (2) west-northwest propagation of monsoon low-pressure system from the Bay of Bengal across the Indian subcontinent, (3) eddy shedding of the Tibetan anticyclone, (4) ageostrophic motions and transverse circulation across the Himalayas, and (5) strong moist convection over the Himalayan foothills. Furthermore, high-resolution numerical simulations indicate that diabatic heating and mesoscale ageostrophic effects can additionally amplify the convective motions and precipitation in the WEH region.

  6. Atmospheric Circulation of Terrestrial Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Showman, Adam P; Merlis, Timothy M; Kaspi, Yohai

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of planets around other stars began with the study of gas giants, but is now extending to the discovery and characterization of super-Earths and terrestrial planets. Motivated by this observational tide, we survey the basic dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation of terrestrial exoplanets, and discuss the interaction of their circulation with the hydrological cycle and global-scale climate feedbacks. Terrestrial exoplanets occupy a wide range of physical and dynamical conditions, only a small fraction of which have yet been explored in detail. Our approach is to lay out the fundamental dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation on terrestrial planets--broadly defined--and show how they can provide a foundation for understanding the atmospheric behavior of these worlds. We first survey basic atmospheric dynamics, including the role of geostrophy, baroclinic instabilities, and jets in the strongly rotating regime (the "extratropics") and the role of the Hadle...

  7. Perinatal hypophosphatasia: tissue levels of vitamin B6 are unremarkable despite markedly increased circulating concentrations of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate. Evidence for an ectoenzyme role for tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase.

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, M P; Mahuren, J D; Fedde, K. N.; Cole, F. S.; McCabe, E. R.; Coburn, S P

    1988-01-01

    "Perinatal" hypophosphatasia is the most severe form of this inborn error of metabolism, which is characterized by deficient activity of the tissue-nonspecific (liver/bone/kidney) isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (TNSALP). We report that autopsy tissue from three affected subjects, which was profoundly low in ALP activity, had essentially unremarkable levels of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal, and total vitamin B6 content despite markedly elevated plasma PLP levels (5,800, 14,5...

  8. Heparin defends against the toxicity of circulating histones in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Zhang, Naipu; Li, Biru; Liu, Lanbo; Ding, Lei; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Yimin; Mo, Xi; Cao, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Although circulating histones were demonstrated as major mediators of death in septic mice models, their roles in septic patients are not clarified. The present study sought to evaluate the clinical relevance of the circulating histone levels in septic children, and the antagonizing effects of heparin on circulating histones. Histone levels in the plasma of septic children were significantly higher than healthy controls, and positively correlated with disease severity. Histone treatment could activate NF-κB pathway of the endothelial cells and induce the secretion of large amount of cytokines that further amplify inflammation, subsequently leading to organ damage. Co-injection of low dose heparin with lethal dose histones could protect mouse from organ damage and death by antagonizing circulating histones, and similar effects were also observed in other septic models. Collectively, these findings indicated that circulating histones might serve as key factors in the pathogenesis of sepsis and their levels in plasma might be a marker for disease progression and prognosis. Furthermore, low dose heparin might be an effective therapy to hamper sepsis progression and reduce the mortality. PMID:25961556

  9. Minor effect of meltwater on the ocean circulation during deglaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lohmann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Decaying Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during deglaciation affect the high latitude hydrological balance in the North Atlantic and therefore the ocean circulation after the Last Glacial Maximum. Surprisingly, geological data suggest that meltwater fluxes of about 14–20 m sea-level equivalent flushed into the North Atlantic without significantly influencing the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Using a three-dimensional ocean circulation model coupled to an energy balance model of the atmosphere, we investigate the response of the ocean circulation to spatio-temporal variable deglacial freshwater discharges. Freshwater inputs are simulated by a three-dimensional thermo-mechanical ice sheet model of the Northern Hemisphere. In our experiments, we find a strong sensitivity of the ocean circulation when the deglacial meltwater is injected into the surface layers yielding a quasi shut-down. On the other hand, the parameterization of huge sub-glacial outbursts as so-called hyperpycnal flows are mimicked through bottom injections in ocean models leading to a reduced sensitivity of the overturning circulation against freshwater perturbations and providing a consistent representation of the deglacial climate evolution.

  10. VanderLaan Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become a satisfactory tools in control methods for modern complex systems. In the paper, VanderLaan circulant type matrices are presented, which include VanderLaan circulant, left circulant, and g-circulant matrices. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed by the surprising properties of VanderLaan numbers. The exact determinants of VanderLaan circulant type matrices are given by structuring transformation matrices, determinants of well-known tridiagonal matrices, and tridiagonal-like matrices. The explicit inverse matrices of these special matrices are obtained by structuring transformation matrices, inverses of known tridiagonal matrices, and quasi-tridiagonal matrices. Three kinds of norms and lower bound for the spread of VanderLaan circulant and left circulant matrix are given separately. And we gain the spectral norm of VanderLaan g-circulant matrix.

  11. Neural Control of the Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gail D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to highlight key concepts about the neural control of the circulation that graduate and medical students should be expected to incorporate into their general knowledge of human physiology. The focus is largely on the sympathetic nerves, which have a dominant role in cardiovascular control due to their effects to…

  12. The association of circulating levels of complement-C1q TNF-related protein 5 (CTRP5) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes: a case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Emamgholipour, Solaleh; Moradi, Nariman; Beigy, Maani; Shabani, Parisa; Fadaei, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein; Doosti, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well-established that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Complement-C1q TNF-related protein 5 (CTRP5) is a novel adipokine involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. We aimed to assess plasma levels of CTRP5 in patients with NAFLD (n = 22), T2DM (n = 22) and NAFLD with T2DM (NAFLD + T2DM) (n = 22) in comparison with healthy subjects (n = 21) and also to study the association between CTRP5 levels and NA...

  13. Effects of 2-year calorie restriction on circulating levels of IGF-1, IGF-binding proteins and cortisol in non-obese men and women: a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-onset calorie restriction (CR) in rodents decreases serum IGF-1 concentration and increases serum corticosterone levels, which have been hypothesized to play major roles in mediating its anti-cancer and anti-aging effects. However, little is known on the effects of CR on the IGF-1 system and c...

  14. The Congo Basin Walker circulation: dynamics and connections to precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kerry H.; Vizy, Edward K.

    2016-08-01

    The existence, seasonality, and variability of a Congo Basin Walker circulation are investigated in reanalyses, and connections with rainfall are explored. A zonal overturning circulation along the equator connects rising motion in the Congo Basin and sinking in the eastern Atlantic during June through October. This timing is out of phase with precipitation over equatorial Africa, which greatest during spring and fall, and does not correlate with the seasonality of land temperatures. Rather, the zonally-overturning circulation only occurs when the Atlantic cold tongue has formed. Although the cold tongue formation is essential for setting up the Congo Basin Walker circulation, variations in equatorial eastern Atlantic sea surface temperatures are not associated with interannual variability in the strength of the circulation. When cold tongue SSTs are anomalously cool (warm), evaporation from the ocean surface is reduced (enhanced) and the westerly flow advects less (more) moisture into the base of the Congo Basin Walker circulation. This reduces (increases) the release of latent heat in the upbranch and weakens (strengthens) the Walker circulation. This process dominates the pure dry dynamical response to enhanced land/sea temperature differences, which has an opposite sign. A positive correlation connects low-level vertical velocity in the Congo basin with low-level vertical velocity and precipitation over West Africa. A wave response to anomalous vertical velocity in the Congo Basin in several reanalyses suggests a teleconnection into West Africa such that an anomalously strong (weak) upbranch is associated with anomalously strong (weak) rainfall over the Guinean coast and southern Sahel.

  15. In Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Type 2 Diabetes, SIRT1 Expression in Circulating Mononuclear Cells Is Associated with Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines but Not with Coronary Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanmin Li; Jing Ni; Rong Guo; Weiming Li

    2016-01-01

    While SIRT1 is significantly associated with atherosclerosis and diabetic complications, its relevance to coronary lesions in patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes has not been specifically investigated. Thus, we assessed SIRT1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in these patients. We found that SIRT1 expression did not significantly correlate with syntax scores from coronary angiography (p > 0.05). Notably, plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokines tumor ne...

  16. In Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Type 2 Diabetes, SIRT1 Expression in Circulating Mononuclear Cells Is Associated with Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines but Not with Coronary Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanmin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While SIRT1 is significantly associated with atherosclerosis and diabetic complications, its relevance to coronary lesions in patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes has not been specifically investigated. Thus, we assessed SIRT1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in these patients. We found that SIRT1 expression did not significantly correlate with syntax scores from coronary angiography (p>0.05. Notably, plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were markedly higher in diabetic patients (p<0.05. In addition, SIRT1 expression was negatively correlated with levels of these cytokines, as well as that of interleukin-6 (p<0.05. In summary, the data indicate that SIRT1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is significantly correlated with inflammatory cytokines levels in patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes but not with the severity of coronary lesions.

  17. Containment air circulation for optimal hydrogen recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accepted first-line defense for hydrogen mitigation is to design for the hydrogen to be rapidly mixed with the containment atmosphere and diluted to below flammability concentrations. Then, as hydrogen continues to be produced in the longer term, recombiners can be used to remove hydrogen: recombiners can be located in forced-air ducts or passive recombiners can be distributed within containment and the heat of recombination used to promote local air circulation. However, this principle does not eliminate the possibility of high hydrogen concentrations at locations removed from the recombiners. An improvement on this strategy is to arrange for a specific, buoyancy-driven, overall circulation of the containment atmosphere such that the recombiners can be located within the recirculation flow, immediately downstream of the hydrogen source. This would make the mixing process more predictable and solve the mass-transfer problem associated with distributed recombiners. Ideally, the recombiners would be located just above the hydrogen source so that the heat of recombination would assist the overall circulation. In this way, the hydrogen would be removed as close as possible to the source, thereby minimizing the amount of hydrogen immediately downstream of the source and reducing the hydrogen concentration to acceptable levels at other locations. Such a strategy requires the containment volume to be divided into an upflow path, past the hydrogen source and the recombiner, and a downflow path to complete the circuit. The flow could be generated actively using fans or passively using buoyancy forces arising from the difference in density of gases in the upfiow and downflow paths; the gases in the downflow path being cooled at an elevated heat sink. (author)

  18. Circulating levels of interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and total aggrecan in spondyloarthritis patients during 3 years of treatment with TNFα inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Hetland, Merete Lund; Sørensen, Inge Juul; Østergaard, Mikkel; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Johansen, Julia Sidenius

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate short and long-term changes and relations to treatment response of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and total aggrecan in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) treated...... with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) inhibitors and to compare with levels in healthy subjects. Biomarkers were measured in an observational cohort of 49 SpA patients (ankylosing spondylitis, n=32, and psoriatic arthritis, n=17) initiating TNFα inhibitor therapy (infliximab, n=38; etanercept, n=8...

  19. Circulating levels of interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and total aggrecan in spondyloarthritis patients during 3 years of treatment with TNF alpha inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.J.; Hetland, M.L.; Sørensen, Inge Juul; Østergaard, Mikkel; Nielsen, H.J.; Johansen, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate short and long-term changes and relations to treatment response of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and total aggrecan in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) treated...... with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) inhibitors and to compare with levels in healthy subjects. Biomarkers were measured in an observational cohort of 49 SpA patients (ankylosing spondylitis, n = 32, and psoriatic arthritis, n = 17) initiating TNF alpha inhibitor therapy (infliximab, n = 38...

  20. Circulating levels of interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and total aggrecan in spondyloarthritis patients during 3 years of treatment with TNFα inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Inge Juul; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Hetland, Merete Lund; Østergaard, Mikkel; Johansen, Julia Sidenius

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate short and long-term changes and relations to treatment response of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and total aggrecan in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) treated...... with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa) inhibitors and to compare with levels in healthy subjects. Biomarkers were measured in an observational cohort of 49 SpA patients (ankylosing spondylitis, n=32, and psoriatic arthritis, n=17) initiating TNFa inhibitor therapy (infliximab, n=38; etanercept, n=8...

  1. Effect of folic acid supplementation on levels of circulating Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and the presence of intravascular ultrasound derived virtual histology thin-cap fibroatheromas in patients with stable angina pectoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil H Løland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Virtual Histology Intravascular Ultrasound (VH-IVUS may be used to detect early signs of unstable coronary artery disease. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1 is linked with coronary atherosclerosis and plaque instability and could potentially be modified by folic acid treatment. METHODS: In a randomized, prospective study, 102 patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP received percutaneous coronary intervention and established medical treatment as well as either homocysteine-lowering folic acid/vitamin B12 (± B6 or placebo (± B6 for 1 year before VH-IVUS was performed. The presence of VH-Thin-Cap Fibroatheroma (VH-TCFA in non-intervened coronary vessels was registered and serum levels of MCP-1 were measured. The patients were subsequently followed for incident myocardial infarction (MI. RESULTS: Patients treated with folic acid/vitamin B12 had a geometric mean (SD MCP-1 level of 79.95 (1.49 versus 86.00 (1.43 pg/mL for patients receiving placebo (p-value 0.34. VH-TCFA lesions were present in 7.8% of patients and did not differ between intervention arms (p-value 0.47. Serum levels of MCP-1 were 1.46 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.92 times higher in patients with VH-TCFA lesions than in those without (p-value 0.005. Afterwards, patients were followed for median 2.1 years and 3.8% experienced a myocardial infarction (MI, which in post-hoc Cox regression analyses was independently predicted by both MCP-1 (P-value 0.006 and VH-TCFA (p-value 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with SAP receiving established medical treatment, folic acid supplementation is not associated with either presence of VH-TCFA or levels of MCP-1. MCP-1 is however associated with VH-TCFA, a finding corroborated by increased risk for future MI. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00354081.

  2. Journalism as Cultures of Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The universe of journalism has always consisted of interspersed texts, meanings and practices. Yet, much journalism research has often isolated either texts and/or contexts and as such assumed relations between professional practices, informed (rational) readers and (conceived) core texts...... of journalism. It is, however, more important than ever to shift attention away from texts to the processes through which they are circulated. This is partly because the many cultural forms of journalism (textual, institutional, technological, material, behavioural and imagined) are undergoing significant......, likes, comments, searches, journalist roles, writing and reading positions and identities etc. Such forms will be traced within the mediation of a specific event with the overall aim of beginning a theorization of the landscape of journalism as highly interrelated cultures of circulation....

  3. Proper Sizing of Circulation Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust, but the...... results can be applied to Europe in general. Despite the small sample of houses involved in the test, 15 houses, some rather safe conclusions can be drawn from the results, which showed that newly developed pumps with power consumption around 5-8 W, can perform the task of circulating the water...... sufficiently to keep the houses satisfactorily warm during the heating season of the test. The old replaced pumps used 5-10 times more power. In Europe alone, a gradual replacement of the present vastly oversized pumps with such small but sufficient pumps can save the construction of 17 large power plants as...

  4. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.;

    2006-01-01

    Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification of...... ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume an...... magnetic field, as compared to the ECCO simulation. Besides the expected signatures of the global circulation patterns, we find significant seasonal variability of ocean magnetic signals in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Compared to seasonal variation, interannual variations produce weaker signals....

  5. The Sun's Shallow Meridional Circulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hathaway, David H

    2011-01-01

    The Sun's global meridional circulation is evident as a slow poleward flow at its surface. This flow is observed to carry magnetic elements poleward - producing the Sun's polar magnetic fields as a key part of the 11-year sunspot cycle. Current theories for the sunspot cycle assume that this surface flow is part of a circulation which sinks inward at the poles and turns equatorward at depths below 100 Mm. Here we use the advection of the Sun's convection cells by the meridional flow to map the flow velocity in latitude and depth. Our measurements show the largest cells clearly moving equatorward at depths below 35 Mm - the base of the Sun's surface shear layer. This surprisingly shallow return flow indicates the need for substantial revisions to solar/stellar dynamo theory.

  6. Natural circulation systems: advantages and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture briefly explains the principle of working of a natural circulation system, its various advantages and applications in nuclear and other industries. The major challenges to be overcome before the wide acceptance of natural circulation as the normal mode of coolant circulation in nuclear power reactors are briefly described. Classification of NCSs and the terminologies commonly encountered in natural circulation literature are also briefly explained. (author)

  7. The general circulation of the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Tapio

    2006-01-01

    Theories of how Earth's surface climate may change in the future, of how it may have been in the past, and of how it is related to climates of other planets must build upon a theory of the general circulation of the atmosphere. The view of the atmospheric general circulation presented here focuses not on Earth's general circulation as such but on a continuum of idealized circulations with axisymmetric flow statistics. Analyses of observational data for Earth's atmosphere, simulations with ide...

  8. Electronic circulation of accounting documents

    OpenAIRE

    Kremláčková, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes a circulation of accounting documents in an accounting entity, deals with legal requirements of the entire process and discusses it as a part of an internal control system of the entity. In connection with the theme of the work there are also defined legislative conditions for using information and communication technologies and introduced possibilities of involving these technologies in the process of processing of the accounting documents. Above all the electronic data...

  9. Purchase, circulation and fuel taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade, the UK and many other developed nations have reformed existing forms of road transport taxation to address a number of transport policy goals. This has involved modifying the design of purchase, circulation and fuel taxation to promote: • More fuel efficient vehicles • Alternative fuel vehicles • Cleaner fuels (lower emissions and/or low carbon) • Modal shift and traffic volume • Congestion reduction This chapter particularly explores the use of...

  10. Examples of natural circulation in PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this lecture is to provide deep insight into the complex natural circulation phenomena in the core of a Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor. A detailed account of natural circulation tests conducted in an Indian PHWR is given in this lecture. This will enable the participants to appreciate the importance of natural circulation in a nuclear reactor to a greater extent. (author)

  11. Atmospheric General Circulation Changes under Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipane, Erool

    The work in this thesis is mainly two-fold. First we study the internal variability of the general circulation and focus our study on the annular modes and how important it is to simulate the subsynoptic scales in the circulation. In the next major section we will try to understand the mechanisms of the forced response and the mechanisms leading towards the jet shift from transient evolution in Atmospheric general circulation models. In the first part, in an attempt to assess the benefit of resolving the sub-synoptic to mesoscale processes, the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Annular Modes (AMs), in particular those related to the troposphere-stratosphere interaction, are evaluated for moderate- and high-horizontal resolution simulations with a global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), in comparison with the ERA40 re- analysis. Relative to the CMIP-type climate models, the IFS AGCM demonstrates notable improvement in capturing the key characteristics of the AMs. Notably, the performance with the high horizontal resolution version of the model is systematically superior to the moderate resolution on all metrics examined, including the variance of the AMs at different seasons of the year, the intrinsic e-folding time scales of the AMs, and the downward influence from the stratosphere to troposphere in the AMs. Moreover, the high-resolution simulation with a greater persistence in the intrinsic variability of the SAM projects an appreciably larger shift of the surface westerly wind during the Southern Hemisphere summer under climate change. In the second part, the response of the atmospheric circulation to greenhouse gas-induced SST warming is investigated using large ensemble experiments with two AGCMs, with a focus on the robust feature of the poleward shift of the eddy driven jet. In these experiments, large ensembles of simulations are conducted by abruptly switching the SST forcing on from January 1st to focus on the wintertime circulation

  12. Sustaining observations of the unsteady ocean circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajka-Williams, E

    2014-09-28

    Sustained observations of ocean properties reveal a global warming trend and rising sea levels. These changes have been documented by traditional ship-based measurements of ocean properties, whereas more recent Argo profiling floats and satellite records permit estimates of ocean changes on a near real-time basis. Through these and newer methods of observing the oceans, scientists are moving from quantifying the 'state of the ocean' to monitoring its variability, and distinguishing the physical processes bringing signals of change. In this paper, I give a brief overview of the UK contributions to the physical oceanographic observations, and the role they have played in the wider global observing systems. While temperature and salinity are the primary measurements of physical oceanography, new transbasin mooring arrays also resolve changes in ocean circulation on daily timescales. Emerging technologies permit routine observations at higher-than-ever spatial resolutions. Following this, I then give a personal perspective on the future of sustained observations. New measurement techniques promise exciting discoveries concerning the role of smaller scales and boundary processes in setting the large-scale ocean circulation and the ocean's role in climate. The challenges now facing the scientific community include sustaining critical observations in the case of funding system changes or shifts in government priorities. These long records will enable a determination of the role and response of the ocean to climate change. PMID:25157191

  13. Climatology of the HOPE-G global ocean general circulation model - Sea ice general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legutke, S. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Maier-Reimer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    The HOPE-G global ocean general circulation model (OGCM) climatology, obtained in a long-term forced integration is described. HOPE-G is a primitive-equation z-level ocean model which contains a dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model. It is formulated on a 2.8 grid with increased resolution in low latitudes in order to better resolve equatorial dynamics. The vertical resolution is 20 layers. The purpose of the integration was both to investigate the models ability to reproduce the observed general circulation of the world ocean and to obtain an initial state for coupled atmosphere - ocean - sea-ice climate simulations. The model was driven with daily mean data of a 15-year integration of the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM4, the atmospheric component in later coupled runs. Thereby, a maximum of the flux variability that is expected to appear in coupled simulations is included already in the ocean spin-up experiment described here. The model was run for more than 2000 years until a quasi-steady state was achieved. It reproduces the major current systems and the main features of the so-called conveyor belt circulation. The observed distribution of water masses is reproduced reasonably well, although with a saline bias in the intermediate water masses and a warm bias in the deep and bottom water of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The model underestimates the meridional transport of heat in the Atlantic Ocean. The simulated heat transport in the other basins, though, is in good agreement with observations. (orig.)

  14. Factors affecting the enterohepatic circulation of oral contraceptive steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, M L; Back, D J

    1990-12-01

    Oral contraceptive steroids may undergo enterohepatic circulation, but it is relevant for only estrogens, because these compounds can be directly conjugated in the liver. Animal studies show convincing evidence of the importance of the enterohepatic circulation, but studies in humans are much less convincing. The importance of the route and the rate of metabolism of ethinyl estradiol are reviewed. Some antibiotics have been reported anecdotally to reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptive steroids, but controlled studies have not confirmed this observation. Although gut flora are altered by oral antibiotics, the blood levels of ethinyl estradiol are not reduced, and one antibiotic at least (cotrimoxazole) enhances the activity of ethinyl estradiol. PMID:2256523

  15. Natural circulation flow behavior at reduced inventory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flow instability behaviour of a natural circulation loop was studied at reduced inventory conditions, which is important during a LOCA situation in a nuclear reactor with non-availability of circulating pumps. For this, experiments were conducted at low steam drum levels. Large amplitude U-tube type oscillations were observed at low power condition when the system was mostly under single-phase condition. With rise in power when boiling was initiated in the loop, low quality Type I density-wave instabilities were observed. The characteristics of Type I instabilities are found to be quite different from the oscillations observed under single-phase conditions. (author)

  16. Influence of obesity and androgen deficiency on prostatic blood circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Study at 120 Diabetes Mellitus II type men the high frequency Obesity (71,7% and Androgen Deficiency (52,8—64,5% of the patients depending on a degree of the indemnification and them pathogenic authentic communications were shown. The blood level of total testosterone was represented by the critical factor of Prostatic arterial Blood Circulation. Obesity and Androgen Deficiency are seem as independent risk factors to development of ischemic prostatopathy, such as Prostatic blood circulation Disorders can develop earlier than other variants of the diabetic microangiophaty.

  17. Aspects of Numerical Simulation of Circulation Control Airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, R. C.; Rumsey, C. L.; Anders, S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The mass-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved for circulation control airfoils. Numerical solutions are computed with a multigrid method that uses an implicit approximate factorization smoother. The effects of flow conditions (e.g., free-stream Mach number, angle of attack, momentum coefficient) and mesh on the prediction of circulation control airfoil flows are considered. In addition, the impact of turbulence modeling, including curvature effects and modifications to reduce eddy viscosity levels in the wall jet (i.e., Coanda flow), is discussed. Computed pressure distributions are compared with available experimental data.

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with circulating phospho- and sphingolipid concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Demirkan

    Full Text Available Phospho- and sphingolipids are crucial cellular and intracellular compounds. These lipids are required for active transport, a number of enzymatic processes, membrane formation, and cell signalling. Disruption of their metabolism leads to several diseases, with diverse neurological, psychiatric, and metabolic consequences. A large number of phospholipid and sphingolipid species can be detected and measured in human plasma. We conducted a meta-analysis of five European family-based genome-wide association studies (N = 4034 on plasma levels of 24 sphingomyelins (SPM, 9 ceramides (CER, 57 phosphatidylcholines (PC, 20 lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC, 27 phosphatidylethanolamines (PE, and 16 PE-based plasmalogens (PLPE, as well as their proportions in each major class. This effort yielded 25 genome-wide significant loci for phospholipids (smallest P-value = 9.88×10(-204 and 10 loci for sphingolipids (smallest P-value = 3.10×10(-57. After a correction for multiple comparisons (P-value<2.2×10(-9, we observed four novel loci significantly associated with phospholipids (PAQR9, AGPAT1, PKD2L1, PDXDC1 and two with sphingolipids (PLD2 and APOE explaining up to 3.1% of the variance. Further analysis of the top findings with respect to within class molar proportions uncovered three additional loci for phospholipids (PNLIPRP2, PCDH20, and ABDH3 suggesting their involvement in either fatty acid elongation/saturation processes or fatty acid specific turnover mechanisms. Among those, 14 loci (KCNH7, AGPAT1, PNLIPRP2, SYT9, FADS1-2-3, DLG2, APOA1, ELOVL2, CDK17, LIPC, PDXDC1, PLD2, LASS4, and APOE mapped into the glycerophospholipid and 12 loci (ILKAP, ITGA9, AGPAT1, FADS1-2-3, APOA1, PCDH20, LIPC, PDXDC1, SGPP1, APOE, LASS4, and PLD2 to the sphingolipid pathways. In large meta-analyses, associations between FADS1-2-3 and carotid intima media thickness, AGPAT1 and type 2 diabetes, and APOA1 and coronary artery disease were observed. In conclusion, our

  19. Through thick and thin: A circulating growth factor inhibits age-related cardiac hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    McPherron, Alexandra C

    2013-01-01

    In an intriguing new study, Loffredo et al., report that joining the circulation of old mice with that of young mice reduces age-related cardiac hypertrophy. They also found that the growth factor GDF11 is a circulating negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy which suggests that raising GDF11 levels may be useful to treat cardiac hypertrophy associated with aging.

  20. A semi-diagnostic calculation of climatic circulation in the western Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shaji, C.; Bahulayan, N.; Dube, S.K.; Rao, A.D.

    A 3-dimensional, semi-diagnostic circulation model is used to compute the climatic circulation in the upper levels of western tropical Indian Ocean (20 degrees S-30 degrees N and 35 degrees E-80 degrees E) during the premonsoon month of May...

  1. Ovarian expression of insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and its receptor (RXFP2) during development of bovine antral follicles and corpora lutea and measurement of circulating INSL3 levels during synchronized estrous cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchell, Leanne; Glister, Claire; Bleach, Emma C; Glencross, Richard G; Bicknell, Andrew B; Dai, Yanzhenzi; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Ivell, Richard; Knight, Philip G

    2013-05-01

    Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3), a major product of testicular Leydig cells, is also expressed by the ovary, but its functional role remains poorly understood. Here, we quantified expression of INSL3 and its receptor RXFP2 in theca interna cell (TIC) and granulosa cell compartments of developing bovine antral follicles and in corpora lutea (CL). INSL3 and RXFP2 mRNA levels were much higher in TIC than granulosa cell and increased progressively during follicle maturation with INSL3 peaking in large (11-18 mm) estrogen-active follicles and RXFP2 peaking in 9- to 10-mm follicles before declining in larger (11-18 mm) follicles. Expression of both INSL3 and RXFP2 in CL was much lower than in TIC. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry confirmed abundant expression of INSL3 mRNA and protein in TIC. These observations indicate follicular TIC rather than CL as the primary site of both INSL3 production and action, implying a predominantly autocrine/paracrine role in TIC. To corroborate the above findings, we showed that in vitro exposure of TIC to a luteinizing concentration of LH greatly attenuated expression of both INSL3 and its receptor while increasing progesterone secretion and expression of STAR and CYP11A1. Moreover, in vivo, a significant cyclic variation in plasma INSL3 was observed during synchronized estrous cycles. INSL3 and estradiol-17β followed a similar pattern, both increasing after luteolysis, before falling sharply after the LH surge. Thus, theca-derived INSL3, likely from the dominant preovulatory follicle, is detectable in peripheral blood of cattle, and expression is down-regulated during luteinization induced by the preovulatory LH surge. Collectively, these findings underscore the likely role of INSL3 as an important intrafollicular modulator of TIC function/steroidogenesis, while raising doubts about its potential contribution to CL function. PMID:23546605

  2. Ensemble meteorological reconstruction using circulation analogues of 1781–1785

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yiou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a method of atmospheric flow analogues to reconstruct an ensemble of atmospheric variables (namely sea-level pressure, surface temperature and wind speed between 1781 and 1785. The properties of this ensemble are investigated and tested against observations of temperature. The goal of the paper is to assess whether the atmospheric circulation during the Laki volcanic eruption (in 1783 and the subsequent winter were similar to the conditions that prevailed in the winter 2009/2010 and during spring 2010. We find that the three months following the Laki eruption in June 1783 barely have analogues in 2010. The cold winter of 1783/1784 yields circulation analogues in 2009/2010. Our analysis suggests that it is unlikely that the Laki eruption was responsible for the cold winter of 1783/1784, of the relatively short memory of the atmospheric circulation.

  3. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, Goekcen; Cifci, Egemen; Yildirim, Erkan; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey)

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  4. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  5. Vascular endothelial growth factor in the circulation in cancer patients may not be a relevant biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Tatjana M H Niers; Richel, Dick J.; Meijers, Joost C.M.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Levels of circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have widely been used as biomarker for angiogenic activity in cancer. For this purpose, non-standardized measurements in plasma and serum were used, without correction for artificial VEGF release by platelets activated ex vivo. We hypothesize that "true" circulating (c)VEGF levels in most cancer patients are low and unrelated to cancer load or tumour angiogenesis. METHODOLOGY: We determined VEGF levels in PECT, a medi...

  6. Early concepts and charts of ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. G.; Stramma, L.; Kortum, G.

    Charts of ocean currents from the late nineteenth century show that already by then the patterns of surface circulation in regions away from polar latitudes were well understood. This fundamental knowledge accumulated gradually through centuries of sea travel and had reached a state of near correctness by the time dedicated research cruises, full-depth measurements and the practical application of the dynamical method were being instituted. Perhaps because of the foregoing, many of the pioneering works, critical to establishing what the upper-level circulation is like, the majority of the charts accompanying them, and several of the groundbreaking theoretical treatments on the physics of currents, are only poorly known to present-day oceanographers. In this paper we trace Western developments in knowledge and understanding of ocean circulation from the earliest times to the late-1800s transition into the modern era. We also discuss certain peripheral advances that proved critical to the subject. The earliest known ideas, dating from the Bronze Age and described by Homer, necessarily reflect severe limitations to geographical knowledge, as well as basic human predilections toward conjecture and exaggeration in the face of inadequate information. People considered the earth to be flat and circular, with the ocean flowing like a river around it. They also believed in horrific whirlpools, a concept that persisted into the Renaissance and which would later provide subject material for modern literature. From the Greek Classical Age, we find hydrologic theories of Earth's interior being laced with subterranean channels (Socrates) and all motion deriving from a divine force forever propelling the heavens toward the west, the primum mobile (Aristotle). These ideas, particularly the latter, dominated opinions about ocean circulation into the late Renaissance. By late Antiquity mariners had very likely acquired intimate knowledge of coastal currents in the Mediterranean, but

  7. Circulating serum trefoil factors increase dramatically during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund; Vestergaard, E M; Milman, N; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexo, E

    2008-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are 7-12 kDa peptides secreted by mucosal surfaces, with changing levels of expression reflected in serum concentrations. The genes for the peptides are located on chromosome 21, the chromosome duplicated in trisomy 21. We studied the levels of circulating TFFs in pregnant...... women carrying trisomy 21 foetuses and in women with normal pregnancies, throughout pregnancy and postpartum....

  8. Circulating Vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Humans: An Important Tool to Define Adequate Nutritional Vitamin D Status

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce W Hollis; Wagner, Carol L.; Drezner, Mark K.; Binkley, Neil C

    2007-01-01

    Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is generally considered the means by which we define nutritional vitamin D status. There is much debate, however, with respect to what a healthy minimum level of circulation 25(OH)D should be. Recent data using various biomarkers such as intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), intestinal calcium absorption, and skeletal density measurements suggest this minimum level to be 80 nmol (32 ng/mL). Surprisingly, the relationship between circulating vitamin D3 and...

  9. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of 86Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with 141Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO2) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines

  10. The anticyclonic circulation in the southern South China Sea: Observed structure, seasonal development and interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Rong; Fang, Wendong; Zhou, Sheng-Qi

    2016-02-01

    In situ hydrographic and current observations from cruises in 1998 and 1999, together with 20-year (1993-2012) sea level anomaly (SLA) data from satellite altermeter, have been used to study the vertical structure, seasonal development, and interannual variability of the anticyclonic circulation in the southern South China Sea (SCS). The relationship between the anticyclonic circulation and its northern flanking cyclonic eddy are described. Three associated circulation patterns are identified. The anticyclonic circulation is present for an average of 108 ± 30 days per year, while its northern flanking cyclonic eddy is present for an average of 54 ± 25 days per year. The intraseasonal variability of the anticyclonic circulation is intense as a result of advection with the flanking northern cyclone, which accompanies the gyre on average about 60% of the time. The vertical structure of the anticyclonic circulation in 1998 (1999) penetrated much deeper, and its horizontal scope became wider in June (July) than in April. The anticyclonic circulation shows some difference between 1998 and 1999, displaying earlier appearance, more northward position, and non-dipole pattern in 1998, suggesting that the interannual variability of the anticyclonic circulation is related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The effect of Sverdrup balance via westward propagating Rossby wave on the seasonal development of the anticyclonic circulation has been discussed.

  11. Extraction and metabolism of circulating catecholamines by the trout gill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction and metabolism of [3H]-norepinephrine (NE) and [3H]epinephrine (E) by the respiratory (efferent branchial) and filamental (venous) vasculature of the trout gill were examined using an isolated perfused arch technique in which outflow from the two circulations was separated. Deaminated and O-methylated metabolites in the effluent were identified by ion-exchange chromatography. Metabolism by tissue homogenates was also measured. Gill homogenates deaminate catecholamines (CAs) faster than homogenates of liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle; branchial O-methylation was comparable to that of liver and kidney. The perfused gill extracted 60% of a NE pulse and 47% of an E pulse. During continuous CA perfusion the gill removed greater than 30% of the NE from the circulation through extraction and metabolism; only 7% of the E was removed. The gill venous system extracts and metabolizes more CAs than the efferent. NE is the preferred substrate for extraction and metabolism. A mechanism is proposed whereby high circulating CA levels, common during stress, are maintained through CA-induced reduction in venous blood flow. After the stress is alleviated, CA levels begin to fall, flow to the venous pathway increases, and the rate of inactivation of circulating CAs increases

  12. Circulating humanin levels are associated with preserved coronary endothelial function

    OpenAIRE

    Widmer, R. J.; Flammer, A J; Herrmann, J.; Rodriguez-Porcel, M; Wan, J.; Cohen, P; Lerman, L O; Lerman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Humanin is a small endogenous antiapoptotic peptide, originally identified as protective against Alzheimer's disease, but subsequently also found on human endothelium as well as carotid artery plaques. Endothelial dysfunction is a precursor to the development of atherosclerotic plaques, which are characterized by a highly proinflammatory, reactive oxygen species, and apoptotic milieu. Previous animal studies demonstrated that humanin administration may improve endothelial function. Thus the a...

  13. The impact on vessel level measurement due to natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The Core Cooling and Monitoring System (CCMS) of CPR1000 nuclear power station supplies monitoring means for two primary state functions defined in State Oriented Procedure (SOP). Purpose: We aim to deal with the errors caused by L VSL measurement and discuss the influence on SOP accident treatment. Methods: The calculation formula of natural recirculation flow rate was estimated. The maximum flow rates of single phase natural recirculation (at the time of reactor trip) and two phase natural recirculation (the void fraction in hot leg was 0.2) were calculated. The impact on SOP due to the measurement error of L VSL was analyzed. Results: Firstly, in the condition of single phase recirculation, the estimated error of L VSL measurement induced by the natural recirculation was less than 1.6%. Secondly, in the condition of two phase natural recirculation, the natural recirculation induced an over-estimated error' about 3.6% to L VSL measurement when the void fraction in hot leg was 0.2. Conclusion: As multi-parameters are adopted for SOP to diagnose the core cooling state, the implementation of the safety related operations is guaranteed. (authors)

  14. Genome-wide association study of circulating retinol levels

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Yu, Kai; Wheeler, William; Zhang, Hong; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Major, Jacqueline M.; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Männistö, Satu; Hazra, Aditi; Hsing, Ann W.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Eliassen, Heather; Tanaka, Toshiko; Reding, Douglas J.; Hendrickson, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Retinol is one of the most biologically active forms of vitamin A and is hypothesized to influence a wide range of human diseases including asthma, cardiovascular disease, infectious diseases and cancer. We conducted a genome-wide association study of 5006 Caucasian individuals drawn from two cohorts of men: the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. We identified two independent single-nucl...

  15. A blood circulation model for reference man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.; Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Div. of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersal of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravascular injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is to improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The total blood volume is partitioned into the blood contents of 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chambers, left heart chambers, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the systemic tissues (aorta and large arteries), and venous return from the systemic tissues (large veins). As a compromise between physical reality and computational simplicity, the circulation of blood is viewed as a system of first-order transfers between blood pools, with the delay time depending on the mean transit time across the pool. The model allows consideration of incomplete, tissue-dependent extraction of material during passage through the circulation and return of material from tissues to plasma.

  16. Circulation of Venus upper mesosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasova, Ludmila; Gorinov, Dmitry; Shakun, Alexey; Altieri, Francesca; Migliorini, Alessandra; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Observation of the O2 1.27 μm airglow intensity distribution on the night side of Venus is one of the methods of study of the circulation in upper mesosphere 90-100 km. VIRTIS-M on board Venus Express made these observations in nadir and limb modes in Southern and Northern hemispheres respectively. Global map of the O2 night glow is published (Piccioni et al. 2009). In this work we use for analysis only data, obtained with exposure > 3 s to avoid high noisy data. It was found that intensity of emission decreases to poles and to terminators (similar to Piccioni et al.2009) in both hemispheres, which gives evidence for existence of SS-AS circulation with transport of the air masses through poles and terminators with ascending/descending flows at SS/AS areas. However, asymmetry of distribution of intensity of airglow is observed in both hemispheres. Global map for southern hemisphere (from nadir data) has good statistics at φ > 10-20° S and pretty poor at low latitude. Maximum emission is shifted from midnight by 1 - 2 hours to the evening (22-23h) and deep minimum of emission is found at LT=2-4 h at φ > 20° S. This asymmetry is extended up to equatorial region, however statistic is poor there. No evident indication for existence of the Retrograde Zonal Superrotation (RZS) is found: maximum emission in this case, which is resulting from downwards flow, should be shifted to the morning. The thermal tides, gravity waves are evidently influence on the night airglow distribution. VIRTIS limb observations cover the low northern latitudes and they are more sparse at higher latitudes. Intensity of airglow at φ = 0 - 20° N shows wide maximum, which is shifted by 1- 2 h from midnight to morning terminator. This obviously indicates that observed O2 night glow distribution in low North latitudes is explained by a superposition of SS-AS flow and RZS circulation at 95-100 km. This behavior is similar to the NO intensity distribution, obtained by SPICAV.

  17. A reliable method to concentrate circulating DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryzgunova, Olga; Bondar, Anna; Morozkin, Evgeniy; Mileyko, Vladislav; Vlassov, Valentin; Laktionov, Pavel

    2011-01-15

    Concentration of circulating DNA probes is required to increase the amount of DNA involved in subsequent study (by polymerase chain reaction, sequencing, and microarray). This work was dedicated to the comparison of five different methods used for concentration of DNA circulating in blood. Precipitation of circulating DNA with acetone in the presence of triethylamine provides minimal DNA loss, high reproducibility, and at least three times higher DNA yield in comparison with the standard ethanol protocol. PMID:20828533

  18. Space-Time Radar Waveforms: Circulating Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Babur, G.; Aubry, P.; Le Chevalier, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a concept of the circulating codes covering the whole class of the space-time codes. The circulating codes do not narrow the radiated pattern of the antenna array, thus providing a wide angular coverage, possibly tunable. In turn, the beam-forming on transmit is achievable by means of the signal processing in one (or each) receiver channel. The modelling results demonstrate the efficiency of the circulating codes based on their multidimensional ambiguity functions.

  19. Linear thermal circulator based on Coriolis forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2015-02-01

    We show that the presence of a Coriolis force in a rotating linear lattice imposes a nonreciprocal propagation of the phononic heat carriers. Using this effect we propose the concept of Coriolis linear thermal circulator which can control the circulation of a heat current. A simple model of three coupled harmonic masses on a rotating platform permits us to demonstrate giant circulating rectification effects for moderate values of the angular velocities of the platform. PMID:25768443

  20. The Ten Relationships in Rural Land Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Zhirong; Ren, Shuo; Zhang, Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    The ten relationships during land circulation are discussed. Among them, the relationship between peasant household and government indicates that government should only carry out its service and regulatory functions and farmers should be the main body of land circulation, because peasants usually have no discourse power during land circulation. In the relationship between land ownership and contracting management right, we mainly discuss the transfer of land contracting management right and p...

  1. Circulating Immune Complexes among Diabetic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nicoloff

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is an autoimmune disease associated with the presence of different types of autoantibodies. The presence of these antibodies and the corresponding antigens in the circulation leads to the formation of circulating immune complexes (CIC. CIC are known to persist in the blood for long periods of time. Such CIC following deposition in the small blood vessels have the potential to lead to microangiopathy with debilitating clinical consequences. The aim of our pilot study was to investigate whether a correlation exists between CIC and the development of microvascular complications in diabetic children. Isolation of a new glycoprotein complement inhibition factor (CIF from the parasitic plant Cuscuta europea seed, which appears to bind specifically to complement component C3 has provided an unique tool for the measurement of immune complexes by means of ELISA-type techniques (CIF-ELISA. We studied the levels of CIC (IgG, IgM and IgA in 58 diabetic children (mean age 12.28±4.04 years, diabetes duration 5.3±3.7 years, 29 of them had vascular complications (group 1 and the other 29 were without vascular complications (group 2. As controls, we studied sera samples from 21 healthy children (mean age 13.54±4.03 years. Sera from the diabetic patients showed statistically significant higher levels of CIC IgG ( p=0.03 than sera from the control group. In sera from group 1 values of CIC IgG showed statistically significant higher levels than controls (0.720±0.31 vs. 0.46±0.045; p=0.011 Sera from 59% of the patients were positive for CIC IgG, 36% for CIC IgM and 9% for CIC IgA. Among 26 patients with microalbuminuria, sera from 17/26 (65% were positive for CIC IgG, 8/26 (31% for CIC IgM and 2/26 (8% for CIC IgA. CIC IgG correlated with HbA1c (r=0.51; p=0.005 and microalbuminuria (r=0.42, p=0.033. CIC IgA correlated with age (r=0.44, p=0.03. CIC IgM correlated with the duration of diabetes (r=0.63, p=0.02. These

  2. Station blackout analysis of natural circulation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The natural circulation reactor is a vertical pressure tube type boiling light water cooled and heavy water moderated reactor. One of the important passive design features of this reactor is that the heat removal is achieved through natural circulation of primary coolant at all power level with no primary coolant pumps. There is no auxiliary feed pump available as Isolation Condenser (IC) is meant to remove decay heat. Station Blackout lead to feed water pump trip and loss of condenser vacuum which in turn results in to loss of feed water as well as the turbine trip on low condenser vacuum signal. This leads to bottle up of the system, leading to pressure rise in PHT. The bypass flow is not available due to loss of condenser vacuum. Reactor is tripping on high pressure signal. As the pressure continue to raise, IC valve starts opening at a pressure of 76.0 bar to limit the pressure rise. Relief valve may open in case of IC's capacity is not adequate. This analysis highlights the thermal hydraulic conditions following station blackout with IC's to limit the pressure rise. The paper discusses the thermal hydraulic transient analysis for evaluating the safety of the reactor; following station blackout with IC's using RELAP5/MOD3.2. Predictions are made for different parameters like pressure, temperature, steam quality and flow in different parts of the Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system. In this paper summary of analysis for event is presented. In this paper, various modeling complexities are brought out; evaluation of acceptance criteria is made and design implications of event are discussed. (authors)

  3. Role of Circulating Fibrocytes in Cardiac Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Jie; Su, Zi-Zhuo; Liang, Shu-Min; Chen, Yu-Yang; Shu, Xiao-Rong; Nie, Ru-Qiong; Wang, Jing-Feng; Xie, Shuang-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It is revealed that circulating fibrocytes are elevated in patients/animals with cardiac fibrosis, and this review aims to provide an introduction to circulating fibrocytes and their role in cardiac fibrosis. Data Sources: This review is based on the data from 1994 to present obtained from PubMed. The search terms were “circulating fibrocytes” and “cardiac fibrosis”. Study Selection: Articles and critical reviews, which are related to circulating fibrocytes and cardiac fibrosis, were selected. Results: Circulating fibrocytes, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, represent a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibiting mixed morphological and molecular characteristics of hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells (CD34+/CD45+/collagen I+). They can produce extracellular matrix and many cytokines. It is shown that circulating fibrocytes participate in many fibrotic diseases, including cardiac fibrosis. Evidence accumulated in recent years shows that aging individuals and patients with hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and atrial fibrillation have more circulating fibrocytes in peripheral blood and/or heart tissue, and this elevation of circulating fibrocytes is correlated with the degree of fibrosis in the hearts. Conclusions: Circulating fibrocytes are effector cells in cardiac fibrosis. PMID:26831236

  4. A blood circulation model for reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersion of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravenous injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The model partitions the blood volume into 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chamber, left heart chamber, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the aorta and large arteries, and venous return via the large veins. Model results were compared to data obtained from injection of carbon 11 labeled carbon monoxide or rubidium 86

  5. Irregular Labellings of Circulant Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Anholcer, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the \\textit{irregularity strength} ($s(G)$) and \\textit{total vertex irregularity strength} ($tvs(G)$) of circulant graphs $Ci_n(1,2,...,k)$ and prove that $tvs(Ci_n(1,2,...,k))=\\lceil\\frac{n+2k}{2k+1}\\rceil$, while $s(Ci_n(1,2,...,k))=\\lceil\\frac{n+2k-1}{2k}\\rceil$ except the case when $(n \\bmod 4k = 2k+1 \\wedge k\\bmod 2=1) \\vee n=2k+1$ and $s(Ci_n(1,2,...,k))=\\lceil\\frac{n+2k-1}{2k}\\rceil+1$.

  6. Inflammatory response and extracorporeal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Florian; Schmidt, Christoph; Van Aken, Hugo; Zarbock, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation (EC) frequently develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Surgical trauma, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, endotoxaemia and blood contact to nonendothelial circuit compounds promote the activation of coagulation pathways, complement factors and a cellular immune response. This review discusses the multiple pathways leading to endothelial cell activation, neutrophil recruitment and production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. All these factors may induce cellular damage and subsequent organ injury. Multiple organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery with EC is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. In addition to the pathogenesis of organ dysfunction after EC, this review deals with different therapeutic interventions aiming to alleviate the inflammatory response and consequently multiple organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery. PMID:26060024

  7. The aerodynamics of circulation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    Two dimensional subsonic wind tunnel tests were conducted on a 20% thickness: chord ratio circulation controlled elliptic aerofoil section equipped with forward and reverse blowing slots. Overall performance measurements were made over a range of trailing edge blowing momentum coefficients from 0 to 0.04; some included the effect of leading edge blowing. A detailed investigation of the trailing edge wall jet, using split film probes, hot wire probes and total head tubes, provided measurements of mean velocity components, Reynolds normal and shear stresses, and radial static pressure. The closure of the two dimensional angular momentum and continuity equations was examined using the measured data, with and without correction, and the difficulty of obtaining a satisfactory solution illustrated. Suggestions regarding the nature of the flow field which should aid the understanding of Coanda effect and the theoretical solution of highly curved wall jet flows are presented.

  8. Development of a Multi Megawatt Circulator for X Band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research is in progress on a TeV-scale linear collider that will operate at 5-10 times the energy of present-generation accelerators. This will require development of high power RF sources generating of 50-100 MW per source. Transmission of power at this level requires overmoded waveguide to avoid breakdown. In particular, the TE01 circular waveguide mode is currently the mode of choice for waveguide transmission at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the Multimode Delay Line Distribution System (MDLDS). A common device for protecting an RF source from reflected power is the waveguide circulator. A circulator is typically a three-port device that allows low loss power transmission from the source to the load, but diverts power coming from the load (reflected power) to a third terminated port. To achieve a low loss, matched, three port junction requires nonreciprocal behavior. This is achieved using ferrites in a static magnetic field which introduces a propagation constant dependent on RF field direction relative to the static magnetic field. Circulators are currently available at X-Band for power levels up to 1 MW in fundamental rectangular waveguide; however, the next generation of RF sources for TeV-level accelerators will require circulators in the 50-100 MW range. Clearly, conventional technology is not capable of reaching the power level required. In this paper, we discuss the development of an X-Band circulator operating at multi-megawatt power levels in overmoded waveguide. The circulator will employ an innovative coaxial geometry using the TE01 mode. Difficulties in maintaining mode purity in oversized rectangular guide preclude increasing guide area to allow increasing the power level to the desired 50-100 MW range. The TE01 mode in circular waveguide is very robust mode for transmission of high power in overmoded waveguide. The mode is ideal for transmission of high power microwaves because of its low-losses, zero tangential field on the guide

  9. Restoring the DHA levels in the brains of Zellweger patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M

    2001-01-01

    Patients with the Zellweger syndrome and its variants have very low levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the brain, retina, and other tissues. Such a marked DHA deficiency could be related to the pathogenesis of peroxisomal disorders. Therefore, restoring the DHA levels in these patients can probably improve the clinical course of the disease. With this rationale, 20 patients with generalized peroxisomal disorders have been treated to date with DHA ethyl ester, at daily doses of 100-500 mg, for variable periods of time. Treatment has been always accompanied by a nutritious diet, normal for the age, in order to provide all the necessary nutrients and avoid a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) imbalance. The most constant improvement has been normalization of the DHA levels and liver function. Vision has improved in about half the patients and muscle tone has generally increased. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed improvement of myelination in 9 patients. Significantly, the clinical improvement has been most marked in those patients who started the treatment before 6 mo of age. Biochemically, the plasma very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) 26:0 and 26:1n-9 decreased markedly despite the complete diet provided. In erythrocytes, the plasmalogen ratio 18: ODMA/18:0 increased in most cases, and sometimes even normalized. All these beneficial effects suggest that DHA deficiency plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of peroxisomal disease. Because DHA accretion is maximal during early brain development, it is essential to initiate the treatment as soon as possible. Otherwise, restoration of brain DHA levels and prevention of further damage will not be possible. PMID:11478386

  10. Visual and optical evaluation of bank notes in circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Sara; Lacelle, Martine; Garanzotis, Theodoros

    2006-02-01

    A method for comparing quality of bank notes in circulation based on both a subjective visual sorting technique and on quantitative wear evaluations is described and applied to circulated Canadian bank notes. The sample notes, which were part of a $5 circulation trial, issued over a 4 to 6 week period, had been in circulation for roughly 6 months. Notes were first sorted visually into four defined substrate categories (No Edge Wear, Corner Folds, Minimal Edge Wear and Edge Wear) and four surface wear categories (None, Low, Medium and High). Samples of each category were tested at Crane and Co. using a range of physical and optical techniques: air resistance, air permeability, stiffness deflection, double folds, gray scale, brightness, perimeter length, and top/bottom mean and maximum deviations. The visual sort showed that neither soiling nor ink loss are the major wear problems for bank notes in Canada. However, the substrate does become tattered and worn. The mechanical and optical wear tests show that most of the parameters change logically as the soil level increases. The changes for other parameters are less clear as a function of wear categories, but are relatively consistent in distinguishing between the No Edge Wear and Edge Wear. Impact of wear on the effectiveness of security features will also be described.

  11. Glacial aridity in central Indonesia coeval with intensified monsoon circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecky, Bronwen; Russell, James; Bijaksana, Satria

    2016-03-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum was cool and dry over the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP), a key region driving global oceanic-atmospheric circulation. Both low- and high-latitude teleconnections with insolation, ice sheets, and sea level have been suggested to explain the pervasive aridity observed in paleoecological and geomorphic data. However, proxies tracking the H- and O-isotopic composition of rainfall (e.g., speleothems, sedimentary biomarkers) suggest muted aridity or even wetter conditions than the present, complicating interpretations of glacial IPWP climate. Here we use multiproxy reconstructions from lake sediments and modern rainfall isotopic measurements from central Indonesia to show that, contrary to the classical "amount effect," intensified Australian-Indonesian monsoon circulation drove lighter H- and O-isotopic composition of IPWP rainfall during the LGM, while at the same time, dry conditions prevailed. Precipitation isotopes are particularly sensitive to the apparent increase in monsoon circulation and perhaps also decreased moisture residence time implied by our data, explaining contrasts among proxy records while illuminating glacial IPWP atmospheric circulation, a key target for climate models.

  12. Nucleic acids in circulation: Are they harmful to the host?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indraneel Mittra; Naveen Kumar Nair; Pradyumna Kumar Mishra

    2012-06-01

    It has been estimated that 1011–1012 cells, primarily of haematogenous origin, die in the adult human body daily, and a similar number is regenerated to maintain homeostasis. Despite the presence of an efficient scavenging system for dead cells, considerable amounts of fragmented genetic material enter the circulation in healthy individuals. Elevated blood levels of extracellular nucleic acids have been reported in various disease conditions; such as ageing and age-related degenerative disorders, cancer; acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, severe trauma and autoimmune disorders. In addition to genomic DNA and nucleosomes, mitochondrial DNA is also found in circulation, as are RNA and microRNA. There is extensive literature that suggests that extraneously added nucleic acids have biological actions. They can enter into cells in vitro and in vivo and induce genetic transformation and cellular and chromosomal damage; and experimentally added nucleic acids are capable of activating both innate and adaptive immune systems and inducing a sterile inflammatory response. The possibility as to whether circulating nucleic acids may, likewise, have biological activities has not been explored. In this review we raise the question as to whether circulating nucleic acids may have damaging effects on the host and be implicated in ageing and diverse acute and chronic human pathologies.

  13. Improving the gas productivity of the alkaline electrolyzer through the circulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitipong Tangphant

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study and improve the efficiency of a KOH electrolyzer through the gas productivity of the electrolyzer with different the circulation technique. In this work, the conceptual design of an electrolyzer falls into 2 categories; without pumping and with pumping. Direct current electricity at 5 different levels of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 A are charged into the system and the gas flow rate generated from the electrolyzer is subsequently monitored. The results show that at 30 A the gas generated from the circulation with pumping and the circulation without pumping are 2.31 litre/min and 1.76 litre/min, respectively. It is also found that the energy consumed by both techniques is the same; however, the circulation with pumping design shows the better gas productivity than that of the circulation without pumping design.

  14. Unit group of algebra of circulant matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Let Crn(Fp denote the algebra of nXn circulant matrices over Fp, finite field of order p of prime characteristic p. The order of the unit groups U(Cr3(Fp, U(Cr4(Fp and U(Cr5(Fp of algebras of circulant matrices over Fp are characterized.

  15. Introduction to instabilities in natural circulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture reviews the various natural circulation instabilities and their classification instabilities observed during various stages of natural circulation such as single-phase, boiling inception and fully developed two-phase flow are described. The mechanisms causing the instabilities are also briefly described. (author)

  16. Kelvin's Canonical Circulation Theorem in Hall Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, B K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, thanks to the restoration of the legitimate connection between the current density and the plasma flow velocity in Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), Kelvin's Circulation Theorem becomes valid in Hall MHD. The ion-flow velocity in the usual circulation integral is now replaced by the canonical ion-flow velocity.

  17. Circulating Nonphosphorylated Carboxylated Matrix Gla Protein Predicts Survival in ESRD

    OpenAIRE

    Schlieper, Georg; Westenfeld, Ralf; Krüger, Thilo; Cranenburg, Ellen C.; Magdeleyns, Elke J.; Brandenburg, Vincent M.; Djuric, Zivka; Damjanovic, Tatjana; Ketteler, Markus; Vermeer, Cees; Dimkovic, Nada; Floege, Jürgen; Schurgers, Leon J.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms for vascular calcification and its associated cardiovascular mortality in patients with ESRD are not completely understood. Dialysis patients exhibit profound vitamin K deficiency, which may impair carboxylation of the calcification inhibitor matrix gla protein (MGP). Here, we tested whether distinct circulating inactive vitamin K–dependent proteins associate with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. We observed higher levels of both desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) a...

  18. Doppler velocimetry with emphasis on the fetal cerebral circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Noordam, Marja

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis the following questions were addressed: 1. Are changes in placental vascular resistance associated with alterations in arterial down stream impedance at fetal level? To this purpose placental embolization was carried-out in the fetal lamb with subsequent Doppler velocimetry in the fetal descending aorta (chapter 2). 2. What happens to the human fetal cerebral circulation relative to normal and raised umbilical placental resistance? To answer this question, the human...

  19. Disparity in circulating adiponectin multimers between term and preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Siahanidou, Tania; Garatzioti, Maria; Davradou, Maria; Apostolakou, Filia; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Mandyla, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To study circulating levels and distribution of adiponectin multimers [low molecular weight (LMW)-, medium molecular weight (MMW)- and high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin] in preterm and full-term infants. Methods: Total serum adiponectin and its multimers were measured in 40 healthy infants at the age of one month and associations with anthropometric parameters [body weight and length, body mass index (BMI)], weight gain and metabolic indices (glucose, insulin) were examined. Twen...

  20. Simulating the three-dimensional circulation and hydrography of Halifax Harbour using a multi-nested coastal ocean circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shiliang; Sheng, Jinyu; Thompson, Keith Richard; Greenberg, David Alexander

    2011-07-01

    Halifax Harbour is located on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. It is one of the world's largest, ice-free natural harbours and of great economic importance to the region. A good understanding of the physical processes controlling tides, flooding, transport and dispersion, and hydrographic variability is required for pollution control and sustainable development of the Harbour. For the first time, a multi-nested, finite difference coastal ocean circulation model is used to reconstruct the three-dimensional circulation and hydrography of the Harbour and its variability on timescales of hours to months for 2006. The model is driven by tides, wind and sea level pressure, air-sea fluxes of heat, and terrestrial buoyancy fluxes associated with river and sewage discharge. The predictive skill of the model is assessed by comparing the model simulations with independent observations of sea level from coastal tide gauges and currents from moored instruments. The simulated hydrography is also compared against a new monthly climatology created from all available temperature and salinity observations made in the Harbour over the last century. It is shown that the model can reproduce accurately the main features of the observed tides and storm surge, seasonal mean circulation and hydrography, and wind driven variations. The model is next used to examine the main physical processes controlling the circulation and hydrography of the Harbour. It is shown that non-linear interaction between tidal currents and complex topography occurs over the Narrows. The overall circulation can be characterized as a two-layer estuarine circulation with seaward flow in the thin upper layer and landward flow in the broad lower layer. An important component of this estuarine circulation is a relatively strong, vertically sheared jet situated over a narrow sill connecting the inner Harbour to the deep and relatively quiescent Bedford Basin. Local wind driven variability is strongest in

  1. Circulatory shear flow alters the viability and proliferation of circulating colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Emery, Travis; Zhang, Yongguo; Xia, Yuxuan; Sun, Jun; Wan, Jiandi

    2016-06-01

    During cancer metastasis, circulating tumor cells constantly experience hemodynamic shear stress in the circulation. Cellular responses to shear stress including cell viability and proliferation thus play critical roles in cancer metastasis. Here, we developed a microfluidic approach to establish a circulatory microenvironment and studied circulating human colon cancer HCT116 cells in response to a variety of magnitude of shear stress and circulating time. Our results showed that cell viability decreased with the increase of circulating time, but increased with the magnitude of wall shear stress. Proliferation of cells survived from circulation could be maintained when physiologically relevant wall shear stresses were applied. High wall shear stress (60.5 dyne/cm2), however, led to decreased cell proliferation at long circulating time (1 h). We further showed that the expression levels of β-catenin and c-myc, proliferation regulators, were significantly enhanced by increasing wall shear stress. The presented study provides a new insight to the roles of circulatory shear stress in cellular responses of circulating tumor cells in a physiologically relevant model, and thus will be of interest for the study of cancer cell mechanosensing and cancer metastasis.

  2. Circulatory shear flow alters the viability and proliferation of circulating colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Emery, Travis; Zhang, Yongguo; Xia, Yuxuan; Sun, Jun; Wan, Jiandi

    2016-01-01

    During cancer metastasis, circulating tumor cells constantly experience hemodynamic shear stress in the circulation. Cellular responses to shear stress including cell viability and proliferation thus play critical roles in cancer metastasis. Here, we developed a microfluidic approach to establish a circulatory microenvironment and studied circulating human colon cancer HCT116 cells in response to a variety of magnitude of shear stress and circulating time. Our results showed that cell viability decreased with the increase of circulating time, but increased with the magnitude of wall shear stress. Proliferation of cells survived from circulation could be maintained when physiologically relevant wall shear stresses were applied. High wall shear stress (60.5 dyne/cm2), however, led to decreased cell proliferation at long circulating time (1 h). We further showed that the expression levels of β-catenin and c-myc, proliferation regulators, were significantly enhanced by increasing wall shear stress. The presented study provides a new insight to the roles of circulatory shear stress in cellular responses of circulating tumor cells in a physiologically relevant model, and thus will be of interest for the study of cancer cell mechanosensing and cancer metastasis. PMID:27255403

  3. Numerical Modeling of Ocean Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert N.

    2007-01-01

    The modelling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science. Features examples and critical examination of ocean modelling and results Demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches Includes exercises to illustrate major points and supplement mathematical and physical details

  4. Detection and Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Richard

    2009-03-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) occur in blood below the concentration of 1 cell in a hundred thousand white blood cells and can provide prognostic and diagnostic information about the underlying disease. While numeration of CTCs has provided useful information on progression-free and overall survival, it does not provide guidance of treatment choice. Since CTCs are presumed contain features of the metastatic tissue, characterization of cancer markers on these cells could help selection of treatment. At such low concentrations, reliable location and identification of these cells represents a significant technical challenge. Automated digital microscopy (ADM) provides high levels of sensitivity, but the analysis time is prohibitively long for a clinical assay. Enrichment methods have been developed to reduce sample size but can result in cell loss. A major barrier in reliable enrichment stems from the biological heterogeneity of CTCs, exhibited in a wide range of genetic, biochemical, immunological and biological characteristics. We have developed an approach that uses fiber-optic array scanning technology (FAST) to detect CTCs. Here, laser-printing optics are used to excite 300,000 cells/sec, and fluorescence from immuno-labels is collected in an array of optical fibers that forms a wide collection aperture. The FAST cytometer can locate CTCs at a rate that is 500 times faster than an ADM with comparable sensitivity and improved specificity. With this high scan rate, no enrichment of CTCs is required. The target can be a cytoplasm protein with a very high expression level, which reduces sensitivity to CTC heterogeneity. We use this method to measure expression levels of multiple markers on CTCs to help predict effective cancer treatment.

  5. Dominance-related seasonal song production is unrelated to circulating testosterone in a subtropical songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Jenny E; Radford, Andrew N; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G; Young, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Circulating testosterone (T) is widely considered to play a key role in the production of sexual displays by male vertebrates. While numerous studies support a role for circulating T in promoting the production of song in male birds, this understanding is based primarily on evidence from seasonally breeding northern temperate species, leaving it unclear whether this mechanism generalizes to other regions of the world. Here we investigate whether variation in circulating levels of T can explain the marked within- and among-individual variation in male song performance observed in a subtropical population of the year-round territorial white-browed sparrow weaver (Plocepasser mahali mahali). Our findings reveal that both circulating T and male song production peaked at a similar time point, halfway through the population-level breeding season. However, while dominant males were more likely to sing and sang for longer than subordinate males, within-group paired comparisons revealed no dominance-related differences in circulating T. Moreover, comparisons both among and within individual dominant males revealed that song duration, syllable rate and proportion of time spent singing were all unrelated to circulating T. Together, our findings suggest that natural variation in male song production, at least in this population of white-browed sparrow weavers, is achieved principally through mechanisms other than variation in circulating T concentration. More widely, our results are in line with the view that male song production is not exclusively regulated by gonadally synthesized steroids. PMID:27179883

  6. Identification of liver CYP51 as a gene responsive to circulating cholesterol in a hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Xie, Zhuohong; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for CVD, which is a leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The biosynthetic pathways for cholesterol metabolism are well understood; however, the regulation of circulating cholesterol by diet is still not fully elucidated. The present study aimed to gain more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between circulating cholesterol levels and molecular effects in target tissues using the hamster model. Male golden Syrian hamsters were fed with chow or diets containing 36 % energy from fat with or without 1 % cholesteyramine (CA) as a modulator of circulating cholesterol levels for 35 d. It was revealed that the expression of lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) instead of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase mRNA expression was responsive to circulating cholesterol in hamsters fed hypercholesterolaemic diets. The high-fat diet increased circulating cholesterol and down-regulated CYP51, but not HMG-CoA reductase. The CA diet decreased cholesterol and increased CYP51 expression, but HMG-CoA reductase expression was not affected. The high-fat diet and CA diet altered the expression level of cholesterol, bile acids and lipid metabolism-associated genes (LDL receptor, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), liver X receptor (LXR) α, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 5/8 (ABCG5/8)) in the liver, which were significantly correlated with circulating cholesterol levels. Correlation analysis also showed that circulating cholesterol levels were regulated by LXR/retinoid X receptor and PPAR pathways in the liver. Using the hamster model, the present study provided additional molecular insights into the influence of circulating cholesterol on hepatic cholesterol metabolism pathways during hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:27110359

  7. Interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg Paklar, Gordana; Sepic, Jadranka; Grbec, Branka; Dzoic, Tomislav; Kovac, Zarko; Ivatek-Sahdan, Stjepan

    2016-04-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was implemented in order to reproduce interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation. Simulations and model result analysis were performed for a three-year period from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2013. ROMS model run was forced with realistic atmospheric fields obtained from meteorological model Aladin, climatological river discharges, tides and Mediterranean circulation imposed at the southern open boundary. Atmospheric forcing included momentum, heat and water fluxes calculated interactively from the Aladin surface fields during ROMS model simulations. Model results were compared with available CTD and ADCP measurements and discussed in the light of the climatological circulation and thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea and its coastal areas. Interannual variability in the Adriatic circulation is related to the prevailing atmospheric conditions, changes in the hydrological conditions and water mass exchange at the Otranto Strait. Basic features of the Adriatic circulation - basin-wide cyclonic circulation with several embedded smaller cyclonic gyres around main pits - are well reproduced by ROMS model. Modelled temperatures and salinities are within corresponding seasonal intervals, although measured profiles generally indicate stronger stratification than modelled ones. Summer circulation in 2011 with current reversal obtained along the eastern Adriatic coast was related to the sampling results of the early fish stages as well as to ARGO drifter movements. Simulated fields from the Adriatic scale model were used to prescribe the initial and open boundary conditions for the interannual simulation in the middle Adriatic coastal domain.

  8. The thyroid gland is a major source of circulating T3 in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Chanoine, J P; Braverman, L E; Farwell, A P; Safran, M.; Alex, S.; Dubord, S; Leonard, J L

    1993-01-01

    In rats, the respective contribution of the thyroid and peripheral tissues to the pool of T3 remains unclear. Most, if not all, of the circulating T3 produced by extrathyroidal sources is generated by 5'-deiodination of T4, catalyzed by the selenoenzyme, type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase (5'D-I). 5'D-I in the liver and kidney is almost completely lost in selenium deficiency, resulting in a marked decrease in T4 deiodination and an increase in circulating T4 levels. Surprisingly, circulating ...

  9. Genome-wide circulating microRNA expression profiling indicates biomarkers for epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Yu, Jin-Tai; Tan, Lin; Tian, Yan; Ma, Jing; Tan, Chen-Chen; Wang, Hui-Fu; Liu, Ying; Tan, Meng-Shan; Jiang, Teng; Tan, Lan

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as biomarkers for cancer and other diseases due to their stability in serum. In epilepsy, miRNAs have almost been studied in brain tissues and in animals' circulation, but not in circulation of human. To date, a major challenge is to develop biomarkers to improve the current diagnosis of epilepsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether circulating miRNAs can be used as biomarkers for epilepsy. We measured the differences in serum miRNA levels betwe...

  10. Effect of chronic morphine administration on circulating dendritic cells in SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, William D; Wagner, Wendeline; Lewis, Mark G; Fan, Xiaoxuan; Rappaport, Jay; Rogers, Thomas J

    2016-06-15

    We studied the effect of chronic morphine administration on the circulating dendritic cell population dynamics associated with SIV infection using rhesus macaques. Animals were either first infected with SIV and then given chronic morphine, or visa versa. SIV infection increased the numbers of myeloid DCs (mDCs), but morphine treatment attenuated this mDC expansion. In contrast, morphine increased the numbers of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in SIV-infected animals. Finally, chronic morphine administration (no SIV) transiently increased the numbers of circulating pDCs. These results show that chronic morphine induces a significant alteration in the available circulating levels of critical antigen-presenting cells. PMID:27235346

  11. Remote ischemic preconditioning does not increase circulating or effector organ concentrations of proopiomelanocortin derivates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Thomas; Obad, Damir; Matejec, Reginald;

    2015-01-01

    -min inflation of a pneumatic tourniquet to 200 mmHg interrupted by 5 min of deflation. Subsequently, circulating plasma levels of POMC derivates, cortisol, and lactate were measured. After 3 days, the volunteers completed a vigorous exercise program, after which the same compounds were measured....... Results. While rIPC was not associated with any significant increase in circulating POMC derivates or lactate, exercise induced significant elevation of both compared with baseline. Conclusions. We were not able to demonstrate a detectable increase in circulating POMC derivates by a standard rIPC stimulus......, suggesting that rIPC effect is not mediated by local or detectable central release of these derivates....

  12. Development of CO2 circulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the basic machine types we have supplied has not been without problems. The Windscale AGR (the prototype AGR) was a small 1.2 MW vertically up circulator with an inlet temperature of 237 deg. C (459 deg. F). Oil leakage problems occurred and were cured in the works test facility and the machine went into service with no other problems. The Horizontal 5 MW machines for Hinkley/Hunterston were not so fortunate with vibration problems, interface corrosion problems (effecting the whole reactor) and material dimensional stability problems. Oil ingress problems did not show up in test work but were later reported from site. These reports were initially exagerated due to the measuring techniques which took the operators some time to resolve. In the vertical 5 MW machines for Hartlepool and Heysham 1 there are two interesting factors, firstly a spar failure and secondly shaft axial stability. Many of the problems were due to modifications at site or our inability to model all aspects of site installation from which lessons for the future can be learned. The latest stations Torness and Heysham II incorporate these lessons. The machines have been designed with so much margin that during the resolution of the reactor control rod gag problems the machines were run continuously at 20% overload (6.3 MW). From an initial accident case of 350 deg. C inlet temperature, this increased to 458 deg. C and now stands at 585 deg. C. No modifications to the impeller were required. The site experience to date is good with no operational problems reported. (author). 4 figs

  13. Solar cycle influences in tropospheric circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mean latitude at which surface depressions cross a given longitude in the N.E. Atlantic/N.W. Europe sector during the winter months of the year has been found to show a solar cycle dependence over the last five cycles. The average track crossing the region at latitudes north of 500N is some 2 1/20 of latitude further south at sunspot maximum than at sunspot minimum. The effect arises from an increase at sunspot maximum in the proportion of depressions that are diverted from a main track across the Norwegian Sea into a subsidiary track further south crossing the North Sea. For the much smaller number of depressions which follow a more southerly route (south of 500N) towards the Mediterranean there is a suggestion of a latitude change with the solar cycle in the opposite sense to that found for the northerly depressions. This phenomenon has also been examined in relation to the possible steering of cyclone tracks by the mean tropospheric flow at the 500 mb level. The results are discussed in relation to other published work, and some suggestions are made linking the phenomenon with other aspects of solar activity influences on the general circulation of the atmosphere. (author)

  14. Natural Circulation Performance in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with a study of natural circulation in PWR systems, The study consists of two parts: in the first one, natural circulation in experimental facilities simulating PWR plants was analyzed. This made it possible to gather a broad data base which was assumed as a reference for the subsequent part of the research. Seven Nuclear Power Plants nodalizations and additional experimental data from ''non-PWR'' facilities have been considered in the second part of the paper. Conclusions are drawn about natural circulation capabilities derived for the seven Nuclear Power Plants nodalizations and from data base pertinent to three ''non-PWR'' facilities. (author)

  15. Natural circulation performance in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with a study of natural circulation in PWR systems. The study consists of two parts: in the first one, natural circulation in experimental facilities simulating PWR plants was analysed. This made it possible to gather a broad data base which was assumed as a reference for the subsequent part of the research. Seven Nuclear Power Plants nodalization and additional experimental data from 'non-PWR' facilities have been considered in the second part of the paper. Conclusions are drawn about natural circulation capabilities derived for the seven Nuclear Power Plants nodalization and from data base pertinent to three 'non-PWR' facilities. (author)

  16. General Circulation Modeling of the Jovian stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethunadh, J.; Medvedev, A. S.; Hartogh, P.

    2014-04-01

    The middle atmosphere of Jupiter (1 bar to 1 μ bar) is primarily driven by the heat generated in the interior and by radiative heating and cooling. The stratosphere of Jupiter is less studied, and the mechanisms behind many observed phenomena (e.g.,QQO) in the middle atmosphere as well as the stratospheric circulation patterns remain unknown. We have developed a new General Circulation Model (GCM) to simulate the middle atmospheres of gas giants, which can give important insights to the stratospheric circulation and to the physical and dynamical processes underlying the observed middle atmospheric phenomena.

  17. Circulating miRNA and cancer diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    miRNAs are a class of small RNA molecules with regulatory function, and play an important role in tumor development and progression. It has been demonstrated that tumor-derived miRNAs exist in the circulating nucleic acids of cancer patients. This phenomenon implies that detection of the circulating miRNA may be an effective method for non-invasive diagnosis of cancer. In this review, we summarize the applications of the circulating miRNA as biomarkers in cancer diagnosis, as well as the latest research progress in this area.

  18. Tidal stream energy impacts on estuarine circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The impact of a tidal stream plant on the estuarine hydrodynamic was analyzed. • A 3D model was used to determine the hydrodynamics on the ria. • The model was successfully validated with field measurements. • The momentum sink approach is used to simulate the tidal farm. • The 3D alteration on the transient and residual circulation is presented. - Abstract: Among the impacts on the marine environment associated with the operation of a tidal farm, the alteration of the transient and residual flow velocities must be assessed in detail, for they constitute the driving force of important environmental processes such as sediment and pollutant transport, and nutrient dispersion. The objective of this study is to assess the impacts caused by the operation of a tidal farm on the transient and residual flow by means of a case study: a tidal stream farm in Ria de Ribadeo, an estuary in NW Spain. For this purpose a 3D numerical model of the estuary is implemented and successfully validated based on field data of tidal levels and flow velocities. The energy extracted by the tidal stream farm from the flow is accounted for by adding a momentum sink term in the equations of the model. Two scenarios representative of typical winter and summer conditions are considered. The results show that the disturbances to the transient flow patterns are concentrated in the proximity of the farm, with a weakening of the flow upstream and, especially, downstream of the farm (up to 0.25 ms−1) and an intensification on both sides (up to 0.10 ms−1). As for the residual flow, we find that the operation of the tidal farm does not disrupt the complex 3D residual circulation of the ria, but it does lead to modifications of the residual flow of up to 0.025 ms−1, or approximately 10% of the baseline residual flow, which affect a much larger area than in the case of the transient flow (up to approximately 2 km from the farm). The repercussions of these alterations of the

  19. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas

  20. Effects of Elevated Circulating Cortisol Concentrations on Maternal Behavior in Common Marmoset Monkeys (Callithrix jacchus)

    OpenAIRE

    Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Both acute and chronic stress can impair maternal behavior and increase rates of infant abuse in several species. The mechanisms inducing these effects are unknown, but experimental manipulation of circulating corticosterone levels alters maternal behavior in rats, and circulating or excreted cortisol concentrations have been found to correlate either positively or negatively with maternal behavior in humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, therefore, we experimentally tested the hypothe...

  1. Does Circulating Antibody Play a Role in the Protection of Piglets against Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus?

    OpenAIRE

    Poonsuk, Korakrit; Giménez-Lirola, Luis Gabriel; Zhang, Jianqiang; Arruda, Paolo; Chen, Qi; Correa da Silva Carrion, Lucas; Magtoto, Ronaldo; Pineyro, Pablo; Sarmento, Luciana; Wang, Chong; Sun, Yaxuan; Madson, Darin; Johnson, John; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of circulating antibody to the protection of naïve piglets against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was evaluated using a passive antibody transfer model. Piglets (n = 62) derived from 6 sows were assigned to one of 6 different treatments using a randomized block design which provided for allocation of all treatments to all sows' litters. Each treatment was designed to achieve a different level of circulating anti-PEDV antibody via intraperitoneally administration of co...

  2. Circulating biologically active oxidized phospholipids show on-going and increased oxidative stress in older male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbo Liu

    2013-01-01

    Significance: Oxidatively modified phospholipids are increased in the circulation during common, mild oxidant stresses of aging, or in male compared to female animals. Turnover of these biologically active phospholipids by rapid transport into liver and kidney is unchanged, so circulating levels reflect continuously increased production.

  3. Assessment of Radiation Risk by Circulating microRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jufang

    2016-07-01

    Highly energized particles delivered by galactic cosmic rays as well as solar particle events are one of the most severe detrimental factors to the health of crews during long-term space missions. Researches related to the assessment of radiation risk have been carried out with ground-based accelerator facilities all around the world. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in blood have the advantages of specificity and stability, which could be used as disease biomarkers and potential bio-dosimeters to monitor the radiation risk. Based on this backgroud, circulating miRNAs were isolated from blood after Kunming mice were whole-body exposed to 300MeV/u carbon ion beam which were generated by the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), and the levels of miRNA expression were detected by miRNA PCR array. It was found that more than one hundred of circulating miRNAs were responded to carbon ion irradiation. Among these radiosensitive miRNAs, most of them were closely associated with immune system and hematopoietic system. The miRNA levels changed more than 2-fold were further verified by qRT-PCR analysis following exposure to X rays and iron ion beam. Some miRNAs such as let-7a, miR-34a, miR-223 and miR-150 showed obvious radio-sensitivity and dose-dependent effect, demonstrating that they were potential biomarkers of radiation and could be used as ideal bio-dosimeters. Those findings indicate that with the properties of high radio-sensitivity and time-saving quantification method by standard PCR assay, circulating miRNAs may become potential biomarkers for radiation detection in space exploration.

  4. EOP MIT General Circulation Model (MITgcm)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains a regional implementation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) at a 1-km spatial resolution for the...

  5. Global warming and changes in ocean circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

    1998-02-01

    This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

  6. GCFR main helium circulator and electric drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major objectives of the helium circulators for the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) is to achieve the highest possible operational reliability. This is no simple task considering the plant system integration requirements, auxiliary support systems, all possible transient requirements, and resulting complexity in supplying the driving power, primary coolant flow control, and lubrication and sealing. Therefore, the design of the circulator itself is highly dependent on the type of prime mover selected to drive the circulator, e.g., series turbine, parallel turbine, or electric motor. The circulator main drive has evolved from the series steam turbine drive into the variable-speed, synchronous electric motor drive mounted externally to the reactor and controlled by thyristor variable frequency controller. This design is a result of 18 months of joint effort by General Atomic Company and Westinghouse Electric Corporation

  7. STRUCTURES OF CIRCULANT INVERSE M-MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yurui Lin; Linzhang Lu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we present a useful result on the structures of circulant inverse Mis not a positive matrix and not equal to c0I,then A is an inverse M-matrix if and only if there exists a positive integer k,which is a proper factor of n,such that cjk>0 for The result is then extended to the so-called generalized circulant inverse M-matrices.

  8. Dynamic Transition Theory for Thermohaline Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Tian; Wang, Shouhong

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this and its accompanying articles is to derive a mathematical theory associated with the thermohaline circulations (THC). This article provides a general transition and stability theory for the Boussinesq system, governing the motion and states of the large-scale ocean circulation. First, it is shown that the first transition is either to multiple steady states or to oscillations (periodic solutions), determined by the sign of a nondimensional parameter $K$, depending o...

  9. Efficient Circulation of Railway Rolling Stock

    OpenAIRE

    Alfieri, Arianna; Groot, Rutger; Kroon, Leo; Schrijver, Lex

    2002-01-01

    textabstractRailway rolling stock (locomotives, carriages, and train units) is one of the most significant cost sources for operatorsof passenger trains, both public and private. Rolling stock costsare due to material acquisition, power supply, and material maintenance. The efficient circulation of rolling stock material is therefore one of the objectives pursued. In this paper we focus on the circulation of train units on a single line. In order to utilize the train units on this line in an ...

  10. The Nordic Seas circulation and exchanges.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawker, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Nordic Seas provide the main oceanic connection between the Arctic and the deep global oceans via dense overflows between Greenland and Scotland, into the North Atlantic. An understanding of the circulation and exchanges of this region is vital for any consideration of the implications of high latitude climate change to variability in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation and consequences for regional (European) climate. This thesis makes use of a unique data set of near synoptic hyd...

  11. Local phenomena associated with natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this lecture is to impart to the participants an adequate knowledge of various phenomena encountered in the natural circulation systems of a nuclear reactor. All the components of the primary system of a nuclear reactor are described and phenomena occurring in each of them are explained. A comprehensive coverage of related thermohydraulic relationships is provided which will enable the participants to carryout the process design of a natural circulation system. (author)

  12. Southern Meridional Atmospheric Circulation Associated with IOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Na; CHEN Hongxia

    2006-01-01

    Using the monthly wind and sea surface temperature (SST) data, southern meridional atmospheric circulation cells associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode (IOD) events in the Indian Ocean are for the first time described and examined. The divergent wind and pressure vertical velocity are employed for the identification of atmospheric circulation cells. During the four different phases of the positive IOD events, the anomalous meridional Hadley circulation over the western Indian Ocean shows that the air rises in the tropics, flows poleward in the upper troposphere, sinks in the subtropics, and returns back to the tropics in the lower troposphere. The anomalous Hadley circulation over the eastern Indian Ocean is opposite to that over the western Indian Ocean. During positive IOD events, the meridional Hadley circulation over the eastern Indian Ocean is weakened while it is strengthened over the western Indian Ocean. Correlation analysis between the IOD index and the indices of the Hadley cells also proves that, the atmospheric circulation patterns are evident in every IOD event over the period of record.

  13. Global climate and ocean circulation on an aquaplanet ocean-atmosphere general circulation model

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, R.; Dubois, C.; Marotzke, J.

    2006-01-01

    A low-resolution coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model (OAGCM) is used to study the characteristics of the large-scale ocean circulation and its climatic impacts in a series of global coupled aquaplanet experiments. Three configurations, designed to produce fundamentally different ocean circulation regimes, are considered. The first has no obstruction to zonal flow, the second contains a low barrier that blocks zonal flow in the ocean at all latitudes, creating a single enclosed ...

  14. Circulation model for water circulation and purification in a water Cerenkov detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hao-Qi; YANG Chang-Gen; WANG Ling-Yu; XU Ji-Lei; WANG aui-Guang; WANG Zhi-Min; WANG Yi-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Owing to its low cost and good transparency, highly purified water is widely used as a medium in large water Cerenkov detector experiments. The water circulation and purification system is usually needed to keep the water in good quality. In this work, a practical circulation model is built to describe the variation of the water resistivity in the circulation process and compared with the data obtained from a prototype experiment. The successful test of the model makes it useful in the future design and optimization of the circulation/purification system.

  15. Experimental and numerical investigation of natural circulation phenomena in a rectangular natural circulation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural circulation is the key phenomena in the passive cooling systems. Thus, it is important to study the flow characteristics and heat transfer behavior in natural circulation. The natural circulation phenomena in steady state and transient form is investigated using 3D CFD simulations, carried out using OpenFoam 2.2.0. The first part consists of a steady-state study, in which the results are validated by data available from a set of experiments conducted over a range of heater power (130W-360W). The second part consists of a transient study of flow development and establishment of natural circulation within this loop. (author)

  16. Circulating MicroRNA Let-7d in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li Hui; Peng, Min; Yu, Mei; Zhao, Qian Lei; Li, Chao; Jin, Yu Tong; Jiang, Yong; Chen, Zhong Yi; Deng, Nian Hui; Sun, Hui; Wu, Xing Zhong

    2015-06-01

    Up to date, there has been no molecular signature available in the clinical practice for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To investigate circulating miRNA let-7d significance in ADHD, we investigated serum miRNA let-7d in 35 newly diagnosed ADHD subjects who were randomly selected from 406 patients out of 7450 children, paired with gender- and age-matched control through case-control study. We observed that circulating miRNA let-7d was significantly higher in ADHD subjects than in control (p < 0.05). Higher circulation level of miRNA let-7d was significantly associated with ADHD (odds ratio 16.7; 95% confidence, p < 0.05). Meanwhile, serum galectin-3 level was down-regulated in ADHD subjects and the subjects with low galectin-3 expression accounted for 66% in ADHD. The difference of the serum galectin-3 levels between ADHD and non-ADHD groups reached significance (p < 0.05). In 1-year follow-up, a significantly higher rate of clinical improvement was noted in subjects with low level of circulating miRNA let-7d (p < 0.05) than those with high level of circulating miRNA let-7d. Our data demonstrated that miRNA let-7d was elevated in the serum of ADHD subjects, which might be a novel, useful molecule signature for ADHD. PMID:25724585

  17. Land cover, landscape structure, and West Nile virus circulation in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradier, S; Leblond, A; Durand, B

    2008-04-01

    The transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) is strongly influenced by environmental factors. In France, two endemic areas for WNV have been identified: Camargue and Var. The objective of our study was to test whether landscape characteristics could be associated with the risk of endemic circulation of WNV in these two ecologically different areas. Equine serological data collected during outbreaks in Var (2003) and Camargue (2004) were used. Both areas were marked out in cells of 5 km(2), and data were aggregated for each cell. Sixteen cells, classified as "high" level viral circulation, and 28 cells, classified as "low" level viral circulation were used for the analysis. The Corine Land Cover database (European Environment Agency) was used to evaluate, for each geographic cell, the area covered by 12 land cover classes, as well as the value of 5 landscape metrics (patch richness and density, edge density, the Shannon's diversity index, and interspersion and juxtaposition index (IJI). Multivariate linear generalized regression showed that IJI as well as the surface covered by heterogeneous agricultural areas were significantly higher in high level WNV circulation cells than in low level ones (p = 0.01 and 0.05 respectively). Both variables are indicators of a complex spatial biotope configuration that may favor the co-existence of competent vectors and reservoir hosts: the structure of the landscape thus appeared as a key element in WNV circulation. An internal validation was performed and the model was used to compute a risk map for the French Mediterranean coast. Cells with a probability > 0.8 of having a high level of viral circulation were found near Aix-en-Provence, Beziers, and Perpignan, areas where no serological study has yet been conducted. Equine cases reported in 2006 were all located in the neighborhood of cells having a > 0.8 probability for high WNV circulation status. PMID:18429693

  18. OPG's approach of crediting natural circulation in outage heat sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of crediting natural circulation as a backup means of removing the reactor core decay heat during an outage in Ontario Power Generation's nuclear stations was completed in 2000. The objective was to define the configurations and conditions under which natural circulation can be confidently credited as an effective heat transport mechanism for use in shutdown heat sink management. The project was an interdisciplinary program, and involved analyses in the areas of heat transport system thermalhydaulics, fuel and fuel channel thermal and mechanical behaviour, radiation physics, and probabilistic risks. The assessment shows that it is economically acceptable to credit natural circulation as a backup means of removing the core decay heat whenever the no fuel failure criteria are met. The economic risks associated with such a potential use decrease with time after shutdown. The waiting times after shutdown when there would be various levels of risks of damaging the pressure tubes and fuel bundles were derived for use in planning maintenance activities so as to minimize the economic risks. (author)

  19. Autoregressive logistic regression applied to atmospheric circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanche, Y.; Mínguez, R.; Méndez, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Autoregressive logistic regression models have been successfully applied in medical and pharmacology research fields, and in simple models to analyze weather types. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce a general framework to study atmospheric circulation patterns capable of dealing simultaneously with: seasonality, interannual variability, long-term trends, and autocorrelation of different orders. To show its effectiveness on modeling performance, daily atmospheric circulation patterns identified from observed sea level pressure fields over the Northeastern Atlantic, have been analyzed using this framework. Model predictions are compared with probabilities from the historical database, showing very good fitting diagnostics. In addition, the fitted model is used to simulate the evolution over time of atmospheric circulation patterns using Monte Carlo method. Simulation results are statistically consistent with respect to the historical sequence in terms of (1) probability of occurrence of the different weather types, (2) transition probabilities and (3) persistence. The proposed model constitutes an easy-to-use and powerful tool for a better understanding of the climate system.

  20. Immunological status of ENL (Erythema Nodosum Leprosum patients: its relationship to bacterial load and levels of circulanting IL-2R Perfil imunológico de pacientes com ENL (Erythema Nodosum Leprosum: relação entre carga bacilar e os níveis de IL-2R circulantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila M.M. Vieira

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent data suggest that the clinical course of reactional states in leprosy is closely related to the cytokine profile released locally or systemically by the patients. In the present study, patients with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL were grouped according to the intensity of their clinical symptoms. Clinical and immunological aspects of ENL and the impact of these parameters on bacterial load were assessed in conjunction with patients' in vitro immune response to mycobacterial antigens. In 10 out of the 17 patients tested, BI (bacterial index was reduced by at least 1 log from leprosy diagnosis to the onset of their first reactional episode (ENL, as compared to an expected 0.3 log reduction in the unreactional group for the same MDT (multidrug therapy period. However, no difference in the rate of BI reduction was noted at the end of MDT among ENL and unreactional lepromatous patients. Accordingly, although TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor levels were enhanced in the sera of 70.6% of the ENL patients tested, no relationship was noted between circulating TNF-alpha levels and the decrease in BI detected at the onset of the reactional episode. Evaluation of bacterial viability of M. leprae isolated from the reactional lesions showed no growth in the mouse footpads. Only 20% of the patients demonstrated specific immune response to M. leprae during ENL. Moreover, high levels of soluble IL-2R (interleukin-2 receptor were present in 78% of the patients. Circulating anti-neural (anti-ceramide and anti-galactocerebroside antibodies and anti-mycobacterial antibodies were detected in ENL patients' sera as well, which were not related to the clinical course of disease. Our data suggest that bacterial killing is enhanced during reactions. Emergence of specific immune response to M. leprae and the effective role of TNF-alpha in mediating fragmentation of bacteria still need to be clarified.Dados recentes sugerem que o curso clínico dos estados reacionais

  1. Andreev Level Qubit

    OpenAIRE

    Zazunov, A.; Shumeiko, V. S.; Bratus', E. N.; Lantz, J.; Wendin, G.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a two-level Andreev bound state system in a transmissive quantum point contact embedded in an rf-SQUID. Coherent coupling of the Andreev levels to the circulating supercurrent allows manipulation and read out of the level states. The two-level Hamiltonian for the Andreev levels is derived, and the effect of interaction with the quantum fluctuations of the induced flux is studied. We also consider an inductive coupling of qubits, and discuss the relevant SQUID pa...

  2. Response of the Walker Circulation to LGM Forcing: Implications for Detection in Proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Nezio, P. N.; Clement, A. C.; Vecchi, G. A.; Broccoli, A. J.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.

    2010-12-01

    The response of the Walker circulation to Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate forcing is analysed using an ensemble of 6 coordinated coupled climate models. Unlike global warming experiments, in which all six models simulate a robust weakening of the Walker circulation, the models do not agree in the response to LGM forcing. Two opposing mechanisms operating over the ascending branch of the Walker circulation in the LGM experiments could explain the inter-model differences. The Walker circulation strengthens due to a constrain imposed by changes in the hydrological cycle, consistent with the mechanism proposed to explain the response to global warming. However, the Walker circulation is also weakened by a reduction in convection over the Maritime Continent due to increased land surface resulting from a lowered sea level. Even those models that simulate a stronger Walker circulation do not simulate a clear La Nina-like ocean cooling opposite to the robust El Nino-like warming simulated in the global warming experiments. Instead, the changes in the Walker circulation have a robust and unambiguous signature on the tilt of the equatorial thermocline as expected from momentum balance. The models also indicate that due to competing dynamical and thermodynamical effects the changes in the thermocline do not agree with the changes in the depth of the 18C isotherm. The changes in the Walker circulation have a clear signature on the precipitation changes, but these changes fail to translate into a clear signature in surface salinity. These results indicate that real LGM changes in the Walker circulation can only be detected by proxies of thermocline depth.

  3. [Circulating immune complexes in the pathogenesis of recurrent erysipelas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, A F; Rychnev, V E; Frolov, V M; Bala, M A

    1985-11-01

    The dynamics of circulating immune complexes (CIC) in comparison with the level of SH-groups of serum deproteinate and other characteristics of cell-mediated and humoral immunity (the reaction of the inhibition of antibodies, the levels of T-cells and their main subpopulations) was studied in 103 erysipelas patients and in 46 persons having had the disease at the acute period of this infection and at the periods between relapses. The elevated levels of CIC and SH-groups of serum deproteinate were found to be directly correlated with the inhibition index. The study showed that, as a rule, in patients with the elevated level of CIC the frequently relapsing form of erysipelas, accompanied by the formation of relative hypersuppressor-type secondary immunodeficiency and by a decrease in the functional activity of dermal macrophages, was observed. PMID:2936048

  4. Changing Sea Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, David

    2004-04-01

    Flooding of coastal communities is one of the major causes of environmental disasters world-wide. This textbook explains how sea levels are affected by astronomical tides, weather effects, ocean circulation and climate trends. Based on courses taught by the author in the U.K. and the U.S., it is aimed at undergraduate students at all levels, with non-basic mathematics being confined to Appendices and a website http://publishing.cambridge.org/resources/0521532183/.

  5. Gemfibrozil disrupts the metabolism of circulating lipids in bobwhite quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière-Côté, Sophie; Omlin, Teye; de Càssia Pinheiro, Eliana; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    The circulating lipids of birds play essential roles for egg production and as an energy source for flight and thermogenesis. How lipid-lowering pharmaceuticals geared to prevent heart disease in humans and that are routinely released in the environment affect their metabolism is unknown. This study assesses the impact of the popular drug gemfibrozil (GEM) on the plasma phospholipids (PL), neutral lipids (NL), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) of bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus). Results show that bird lipoproteins are rapidly altered by GEM, even at environmentally-relevant doses. After 4 days of exposure, pharmacological amounts cause an 83% increase in circulating PL levels, a major decrease in average lipoprotein size measured as a 56% drop in the NL/PL ratio, and important changes in the fatty acid composition of PL and NEFA (increases in fatty acid unsaturation). The levels of PL carrying all individual fatty acids except arachidonate are strongly stimulated. The large decrease in bird lipoprotein size may reflect the effects seen in humans: lowering of LDL that can cause atherosclerosis and stimulation of HDL that promote cholesterol disposal. Lower (environmental) doses of GEM cause a reduction of %palmitate in all the plasma lipid fractions of quails, but particularly in the core triacylglycerol of lipoproteins (NL). No changes in mRNA levels of bird peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) could be demonstrated. The disrupting effects of GEM on circulating lipids reported here suggest that the pervasive presence of this drug in the environment could jeopardize reproduction and migratory behaviours in wild birds. PMID:26432161

  6. Endocan: A novel circulating proteoglycan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunava Kali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocan is a novel endothelium derived soluble dermatan sulfate proteoglycan. It has the property of binding to a wide range of bioactive molecules associated with cellular signaling and adhesion and thus regulating proliferation, differentiation, migration, and adhesion of different cell types in health and disease. An increase in tissue expression or serum level of endocan reflects endothelial activation and neovascularization which are prominent pathophysiological changes associated with inflammation and tumor progression. Consequently, endocan has been used as a blood-based and tissue-based biomarker for various cancers and inflammation and has shown promising results.

  7. MAGNETICALLY CONTROLLED CIRCULATION ON HOT EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the process of thermal ionization, intense stellar irradiation renders hot Jupiter atmospheres electrically conductive. Simultaneously, lateral variability in the irradiation drives the global circulation with peak wind speeds of the order of ∼km s–1. In turn, the interactions between the atmospheric flows and the background magnetic field give rise to Lorentz forces that can act to perturb the flow away from its purely hydrodynamical counterpart. Using analytical theory and numerical simulations, we show here that significant deviations away from axisymmetric circulation are unstable in presence of a non-negligible axisymmetric magnetic field. Specifically, our results suggest that dayside-to-nightside flows, often obtained within the context of three-dimensional circulation models, only exist on objects with anomalously low magnetic fields, while the majority of highly irradiated exoplanetary atmospheres are entirely dominated by zonal jets

  8. Tropical convective transport and the Walker circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hosking

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a methodology to visualise rapid vertical and zonal tropical transport pathways. Using prescribed sea-surface temperatures in four monthly model integrations for 2005, preferred transport routes from the troposphere to the stratosphere are found in the model over the Maritime Continent (MC in November and February, i.e., boreal winter. In these months, the ascending branch of the Walker Circulation over the MC is formed in conjunction with strong deep convection, allowing fast transport into the stratosphere. At the same time, the downwelling branch of the Walker Circulation is enhanced over the East Pacific, compared to other months in 2005, reducing locally the upward transport from emissions below. We conclude that the Walker circulation plays an important role in the seasonality of fast tropical transport from the troposphere to the stratosphere and so impacts at the same time the potential supply of surface emissions.

  9. Use of natural circulation flow map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural circulation in complex systems, considering the experimental simulators of PWR and the experience gained in analyzing natural circulation experiments performed in those systems are referred to. In particular, the NC scenarios occurring at different values of the primary system mass inventory are studied. Data have been gathered and analyzed coming from the experimental facilities (PWR simulators, or Integral Test Facilities, ITF) named Semiscale, Spes, Lobi, Bethsy, Pkl and Lstf. The case of PWR design, the NC should be seen as the fundamental mechanism for removing core following accidents or events that cause unavailability of primary circulation pumps. The NC phenomenon constitutes the basis for the layout of the primary system with core located in the bottom of vessel and steam generators a few meters above the top of the active fuel

  10. Cryogenic hydrogen circulation system of neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold neutron sources of reactors and spallation neutron sources are classic high flux neutron sources in operation all over the world. Cryogenic fluids such as supercritical or supercooled hydrogen are commonly selected as a moderator to absorb the nuclear heating from proton beams. By comparing supercritical hydrogen circulation systems and supercooled hydrogen circulation systems, the merits and drawbacks in both systems are summarized. When supercritical hydrogen circulates as the moderator, severe pressure fluctuations caused by temperature changes will occur. The pressure control system used to balance the system pressure, which consists of a heater as an active controller for thermal compensation and an accumulator as a passive volume controller, is preliminarily studied. The results may provide guidelines for design and operation of other cryogenic hydrogen system for neutron sources under construction

  11. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Bytingsvik, Jenny;

    2015-01-01

    As a top predator in the Arctic food chain, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Because several of these compounds have been reported to alter endocrine pathways, such as the steroidogenesis, potential disruption of the sex steroid...... synthesis by POPs may cause implications for reproduction by interfering with ovulation, implantation and fertility. Blood samples were collected from 15 female polar bears in Svalbard (Norway) in April 2008. The concentrations of nine circulating steroid hormones; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA......-metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs [OH-PCBs] and hydroxylated PBDEs [OH-PBDEs]), steroid hormones, biological and capture variables in female polar bears. Inverse correlations were found between circulating levels of PRE and AN, and circulating levels of OH-PCBs. There were no significant relationships between the steroid...

  12. Quantification of bronchial circulation perfusion in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietholt, Christian; Molthen, Robert C.; Haworth, Steven T.; Roerig, David L.; Dawson, Christopher A.; Clough, Anne V.

    2004-04-01

    The bronchial circulation is thought to be the primary blood supply for pulmonary carcinomas. Thus, we have developed a method for imaging and quantifying changes in perfusion in the rat lung due to development of the bronchial circulation. A dual-modality micro-CT/SPECT system was used to detect change in perfusion in two groups of rats: controls and those with a surgically occluded left pulmonary artery. Both groups were imaged following injections on separate days i) 2mCi of Tc99m labeled macroaggregated albumin (MAA) into the left carotid artery (IA) and ii) a similar injection into the femoral vein (IV). The IA injection resulted in Tc99m accumulation in capillaries of the systemic circulation including the bronchial circulation, whereas the IV resulted in Tc99m accumulation in the pulmonary capillaries. Ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) was used to reconstruct the SPECT image volumes and a Feldkamp algorithm was used to reconstruct the micro-CT image volumes. The micro-CT and SPECT volumes were registered, the SPECT image volume was segmented using the right and left lung boundaries defined from the micro-CT volume, and the ratio of IA radioactivity accumulation in the left lung to IV radioactivity accumulation in both lungs was used as a measure of left lung flow via the bronchial circulation. This ratio was ~0.02 for the untreated rats compared to the treated animals that had an increased flow ratio of ~0.21 40 days after left pulmonary artery occlusion. This increase in flow to the occluded left lung via the bronchial circulation suggests this will be a useful model for further investigating antiangiogenic treatments.

  13. Experimental study of natural circulation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian, E-mail: wlemos@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LASME/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Simulacao e Metodos Numericos; Faccini, Jose L.H., E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (LTE/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental

    2011-07-01

    This work presents an experimental study about fluid flows behavior in natural circulation, under conditions of single-phase flow. The experiment was performed through experimental thermal-hydraulic circuit built at IEN. This test equipment has performance similar to passive system of residual heat removal present in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (APWR). This experimental study aims to observing and analyzing the natural circulation phenomenon, using this experimental circuit that was dimensioned and built based on concepts of similarity and scale. This philosophy allows the analysis of natural circulation behavior in single-phase flow conditions proportionally to the functioning real conditions of a nuclear reactor. The experiment was performed through procedures to initialization of hydraulic feeding of primary and secondary circuits and electrical energizing of resistors installed inside heater. Power controller has availability to adjust values of electrical power to feeding resistors, in order to portray several conditions of energy decay of nuclear reactor in a steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and monitoring of the evolution of the temperature in various points through thermocouples installed in strategic points along hydraulic circuit. The behavior of the natural circulation phenomenon was monitored by graphical interface on computer screen, showing the temperature evolutions of measuring points and results stored in digital spreadsheets. The results stored in digital spreadsheets allowed the getting of data to graphic construction and discussion about natural circulation phenomenon. Finally, the calculus of Reynolds number allowed the establishment for a correlation of friction in function of geometric scales of length, heights and cross section of tubing, considering a natural circulation flow throughout in the region of hot leg. (author)

  14. Fort St. Vrain circulator operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort St. Vrain, on the system of Public Service Company of Colorado, is the only high-temperature gas-cooled power reactor in the United States. Four helium circulators are utilized in this plant to transfer heat from the reactor to the steam generators. These unique machines have a single stage axial flow helium compressor driven by a single stage steam turbine. A single stage water driven (pelton wheel) turbine is the back-up drive utilizing either feed water, condensate, or fire water as the driving fluid. Developmental testing of the circulators was accomplished prior to installation into Fort St. Vrain. A combined machine operating history of approximately 250,000 hours has shown these machines to be of conservative design and proven mechanical integrity. However, many problems have been encountered in operating the complex auxiliaries which are necessary for successful circulator and plant operation. It has been 15 years since initial installation of the circulators occurred at Fort St. Vrain. During this time, a number of significant issues had to be resolved dealing specifically with machine performance. These events include cavitation damage of the pelton wheels during the initial plant hot functional testing, cracks in the water turbine buckets and cervic coupling, static shutdown seal bellows failure, and, most recently, degradation of components within the steam drive assembly. Unreliable operation particularly with the circulator auxiliaries has been a focus of attention by Public Service Company of Colorado. Actions to replace or significantly modify the existing circulators and their auxiliaries are currently awaiting decisions concerning the long-term future of the Fort St. Vrain plant. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Performance Improvement of a Radioactive Forced Circulation Evaporator System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaporation is a proven method for treatment of liquid radioactive wastes providing both good decontamination and high concentration. In a radioactive waste treatment plant a forced circulation evaporator is used to reduce the volume of radioactive liquid wastes arising from different applications of nuclear industries. The safe operation, limiting the composition of the liquid radioactive waste at a prescribed value, with high performance efficiency, requires good control for the evaporator operating pressure and the level of liquid waste inside the separator part of the evaporator. The aim of this work was to improve the safety and performance of a forced-circulation evaporator used in a liquid radioactive wastes treatment plant. In this respect, a level controller system for this type of evaporator was designed, where proportional (P), proportional Integral (PI) and deadbeat response controllers for the separator level system were suggested. More over, an ideal 2×2(2 inputs and 2 outputs )de coupler controller for controlling the operating pressure and the product composition was developed. Computer results demonstrated that the deadbeat response has been success fully obtained from the developed separator control system. The maximum over shoot in the unit-step response curve was reduce d to 25 % and the settling time also was reduced to more than the half; about 26 minutes using Ziegler-Nichols tuning technique.The designed de coupling controller has been found effective in achieving a good trade-off between stability and performance

  16. The stripline circulator theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Helszajn, J

    2008-01-01

    Stripline circulator theory and applications from the world's foremost authority. The stripline junction circulator is a unique three-port non-reciprocal microwave junction used to connect a single antenna to both a transmitter and a receiver. Its operation relies on the interaction between an electron spin in a suitably magnetized insulator with an alternating radio frequency magnetic field. In its simplest form, it consists of a microwave planar gyromagnetic resonator symmetrically coupled by three transmission lines. This book explores the magnetic interaction involved in the stripline circ.

  17. Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ishida, Naoki [Daihatsu Motor Company, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity.

  18. The circulation of the Mozambique channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sætre, Roald; Da Silva, António Jorge

    1984-05-01

    Based on hydrographic data from 1977 to 1980 off the coast of Mozambique and historical data from the Mozambique Channel, the general circulation pattern of the area is described. The circulation pattern is characterized by the influence of three anticyclonic gyres covering the northern, the central, and the southern parts of the channel. Additionally, smaller cyclonic eddies are observed, of which some probably are topographically induced. The results strongly indicate that in the upper 1000 m the role of the Mozambique Current as one of the tributaries to the Agulhas Current is of minor significance and draw into question the concept of the Mozambique Current as a continuous one.

  19. Blowing Circulation Control on a Seaplane Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B. D.; Liu, P. Q.; Qu, Q. L.

    2011-09-01

    RANS simulations are presented for blowing circulation control on a seaplane airfoil. Realizable k-epsilon turbulent model and pressure-based coupled algorithm with second-order discretization were adopted to simulate the compressible flow. Both clear and simple flap configuration were simulated with blowing momentum coefficient Cμ = 0, 0.15 and 0.30. The results show that blowing near the airfoil trailing edge could enhance the Coanda effect, delay the flow separation, and increase the lift coefficient dramatically. The blowing circulation control is promising to apply to taking off and landing of an amphibious aircraft or seaplane.

  20. Scaling Analysis of Natural Circulation Flow Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the thermal margin for the severe accident measures in high-power reactors, engineered corium cooling systems involving boiling-induced two-phase natural circulation have been proposed for decay heat removal. The boiling-induced natural circulation flow is generated in a coolant path between a hot vessel wall and cold coolant reservoir. In general, an increase in the natural circulation mass flow rate of the coolant leads to an increase in the critical heat flux (CHF) on the hot wall, thus enhancing the thermal margin. An ex-vessel core catcher under consideration, which is one of the engineered corium cooling system, is a passive system consisting of an inclined engineered cooling channel made of a single channel between the body of the core catcher and the inside wall of the reactor cavity. Under severe accident conditions, water is supplied from the IRWST to the engineered cooling channel. The water in the inclined channel absorbs the decay heat transferred from the corium through the carbon steel structure of the core catcher body and boils off as steam. The latter is subsequently released into the free volume of the containment above the corium spreading compartment. Water continues to flow from the IRWST to the cooling channel as a result of buoyancy-driven natural circulation. The engineered cooling channel is designed to provide effective long-term cooling and stabilization of the corium mixture in the core catcher body while facilitating steam venting. In this study, the scaling analysis was performed by solving the natural circulation flow loop equation for the cooling channel in the ex-vessel core catcher. The scaling analysis was performed by solving the natural circulation flow loop equation for the cooling channel in the ex-vessel core catcher. The boiling-induced natural circulation flow in the cooling channel of the core catcher has been modeled by considering the conservation of mass, momentum and energy in the two-phase mixture, along