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Sample records for circulating normal cd138

  1. Circulating human B and plasma cells. Age-associated changes in counts and detailed characterization of circulating normal CD138(-) and CD138(+) plasma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caraux, Anouk; Klein, Bernard; Paiva, Bruno; Bret, Caroline; Schmitz, Alexander; Fuhler, Gwenny M.; Bos, Nico A.; Johnsen, Hans E.; Orfao, Alberto; Perez-Andres, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Generation of B and plasma cells involves several organs with a necessary cell trafficking between them. A detailed phenotypic characterization of four circulating B-cell subsets (immature-, naive-, memory- B-lymphocytes and plasma cells) of 106 healthy adults was realized by multiparametric flow cy

  2. Circulating sCD138 and Some Angiogenesis-Involved Cytokines Help to Anticipate the Disease Progression of Early-Stage B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

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    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Syndecan-1 (CD138 is a transmembrane heparin sulfate proteoglycan expressed on distinct stages of differentiation of B-lymphoid cells. Its prognostic value in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL has not been evaluated so far. The serum concentration of sCD138 and some angiogenesis-involved cytokines: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, basis fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and endostatin were studied in 52 previously untreated patients with B-CLL. We found that bFGF and sCD138 levels were significantly higher in B-CLL patients than in controls. In patients with sCD138 level or endostatin level below the median value the lymphocyte count was higher than in patients with serum level of those cytokines above the median value. In patients with progressive disease bFGF level was significantly higher and sCD138 level significantly lower than in patients with stable one. Moreover, high sCD138 level was associated with longer lymphocyte doubling-free survival, and, on the limit of statistical significance, a high endostatin level was associated with shorter progression-free survival. We conclude that serum sCD138 level is increased in early stage B-CLL patients and may have a positive prognostic value as to the dynamics of the disease.

  3. Phenotypic, genomic and functional characterization reveals no differences between CD138++ and CD138low subpopulations in multiple myeloma cell lines.

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    Teresa Paíno

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM, it remains an incurable disease potentially due to the presence of resistant myeloma cancer stem cells (MM-CSC. Although the presence of clonogenic cells in MM was described three decades ago, the phenotype of MM-CSC is still controversial, especially with respect to the expression of syndecan-1 (CD138. Here, we demonstrate the presence of two subpopulations--CD138++ (95-99% and CD138low (1-5%--in eight MM cell lines. To find out possible stem-cell-like features, we have phenotypically, genomic and functionally characterized the two subpopulations. Our results show that the minor CD138low subpopulation is morphologically identical to the CD138++ fraction and does not represent a more immature B-cell compartment (with lack of CD19, CD20 and CD27 expression. Moreover, both subpopulations have similar gene expression and genomic profiles. Importantly, both CD138++ and CD138low subpopulations have similar sensitivity to bortezomib, melphalan and doxorubicin. Finally, serial engraftment in CB17-SCID mice shows that CD138++ as well as CD138low cells have self-renewal potential and they are phenotypically interconvertible. Overall, our results differ from previously published data in MM cell lines which attribute a B-cell phenotype to MM-CSC. Future characterization of clonal plasma cell subpopulations in MM patients' samples will guarantee the discovery of more reliable markers able to discriminate true clonogenic myeloma cells.

  4. Cd138 Expression in Renal Tumors and Its Usage in the Differential Diagnosis

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    Ayhan ÖZCAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The differential diagnosis of kidney tumors, especially those with eosinophilic cytoplasms, can be problematic due to overlapping morphologic features. CD138 is primarily a plasma cell marker but is known to be expressed in the proximal renal tubular epithelium as well. This study aims to investigate the possible contribution of CD138 expression in the differential diagnosis of kidney tumors with eosinophilic cytoplasm.Material and Method: The case series consisted of 15 chromophobe (ChRCC, 5 eosinophilic variant (EoRCC, 10 clear cell (CCRCC and 9 papillary (PRCC renal cell carcinomas, and 13 oncocytomas. Sections obtained from representative paraffin blocks were stained against CD138 antibody.Results: All CCRCC and PRCC showed membranous CD138 expression. In some of the other eosinophilic renal tumors, cytoplasmic CD138 labeling in varying degrees was detected. In CCRCC cases, CD138 expression was especially observed in low grade areas and areas showing cystic and pseudopapillary growth patterns. A similar pattern of cytoplasmic staining was seen in 3 of the EoRCC and the most of the PRCC cases (6/9.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that CD138 may contribute to the differential diagnosis of renal tumors because of the membranous staining pattern in CCRCC and EoRCC cases and the cytoplasmic staining in CHRCC and oncocytoma cases. Its contributory role may be improved by combined usage with markers like Cytokeratin 7 and RCC marker.

  5. A Novel Anti-Human Syndecan-1(CD138) Monoclonal Antibody 4B3: Characterization and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanping Sun; Fengming Wang; Fang Xie; Guoqing Wang; Jin Sun; Gehua Yu; Yuhua Qiu; Xueguang Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Syndecan-1 (CD138), a member of integral membrane heparin sulfate proteoglycans, is an essential matrix receptor for maintaining the normal morphological phenotypes. In this study, we generated a specific mouse anti-human syndecan-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4B3 and identified it by competition assay with the available syndecan-1 mAb (BB4). Stained by 4B3, the expression of syndecan-1 was detected on tumor cell lines, such as 8226,U266, XG-1, XG-2, Daudi and Jurkat. The expression was also found on neuron stem cells. It was established that 4B3 mAb could inhibit XG-1 and XG-2 proliferation. The data not only determined that 4B3 mAb was a functional anti-human syndecan-1 mAb, but also indicated that syndecan-1 might be a valuable surface antigen and play an important role in regulation of tumor pathology and differentiation of neural stem cells. This novel antibody 4B3 may be value of study of tumor proliferation/survival mechanism and contributes to diagnosis and treatment of diverse diseases.

  6. Single-dose anti-CD138 radioimmunotherapy: bismuth-213 is more efficient than lutetium-177 for treatment of multiple myeloma in a preclinical model

    OpenAIRE

    Fichou, Nolwenn; Gouard, Sébastien; Maurel, Catherine; Barbet, Jacques; Ferrer, Ludovic; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Bigot-Corbel, Edith; Davodeau, François; Gaschet, Joëlle; Chérel, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has emerged as a potential treatment option for multiple myeloma (MM). In humans, a dosimetry study recently showed the relevance of RIT using an antibody targeting the CD138 antigen. The therapeutic efficacy of RIT using an anti-CD138 antibody coupled to 213Bi, an α-emitter, was also demonstrated in a preclinical MM model. Since then, RIT with β-emitters has shown efficacy in treating hematologic cancer. In this paper, we investigate the therapeutic eff...

  7. Quantitative proteome profiling of normal human circulating microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer T; Iversen, Line V;

    2012-01-01

    Circulating microparticles (MPs) are produced as part of normal physiology. Their numbers, origin, and composition change in pathology. Despite this, the normal MP proteome has not yet been characterized with standardized high-resolution methods. We here quantitatively profile the normal MP...... proteome using nano-LC-MS/MS on an LTQ-Orbitrap with optimized sample collection, preparation, and analysis of 12 different normal samples. Analytical and procedural variation were estimated in triply processed samples analyzed in triplicate from two different donors. Label-free quantitation was validated...... by the correlation of cytoskeletal protein intensities with MP numbers obtained by flow cytometry. Finally, the validity of using pooled samples was evaluated using overlap protein identification numbers and multivariate data analysis. Using conservative parameters, 536 different unique proteins were quantitated...

  8. Comparative analysis of CD138 antigen targeting for the treatment of multiple myeloma with bismuth-213 and Melphalan chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells within the bone marrow, with the presence of a monoclonal immunoglobulin in serum and/or urine and development of osteolytic bone lesions in human. Despite intense research to develop new treatments, cure is almost never achieved. Alpha-radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has been shown to be effective in vivo in a multiple myeloma model and seems particularly suited for disseminated tumour cells or small clusters of tumour cells. CD138 (Syndecan-1) is found mainly in epithelial cells, but has been shown to be expressed by most myeloma cells, both in human and in mouse. In order to define where alpha RIT stands in MM treatment, the aim of this study was to compare Melphalan, MM standard treatment, with alpha RIT using a bismuth-213-labelled anti-mouse CD138 rat antibody in a syngeneic mouse MM model. Material and Methods: C57BL/KaLwRij mice were grafted with 106 5T33 cells (murine myeloma cells). Luciferase transfected 5T33 were used for in vivo localization of the cells during the course of disease. The first step of the study was to assess the dose-response of Melphalan (100, 200 et 300 μg/mouse), 21 days after engraftment. The second step consisted in therapeutic association: Melphalan followed by RIT at d22 et d25 after engraftment. Toxicity (animal weight, blood cell counts) and treatment efficacy were studied in animals receiving no treatment, injected with Melphalan alone (200 μg), RIT alone at d22 and d25 (3.7 MBq of 213Bi-anti-CD138) and Melphalan combined with alpha RIT. Results: fifty percent of untreated mice died by d64 after MM engraftment. In mice treated with Melphalan alone, only the 200 μg dose improved median survival. No animal was cured after Melphalan treatment whereas 60% of the mice survived with RIT alone at d22 after tumour engraftment. However, the therapeutic window seems to be narrow, indeed no effect was observed with

  9. Validation of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH for multiple myeloma using CD138 positive cells

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    Renata Kiyomi Kishimoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm with acquired genetic abnormalities of clinical and prognostic importance. Multiple myeloma differs from other hematologic malignancies due to a high fraction of low proliferating malignant plasma cells and the paucity of plasma cells in bone marrow aspiration samples, making cytogenetic analysis a challenge. An abnormal karyotype is found in only one-third of patients with multiple myeloma and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization is the most useful test for studying the chromosomal abnormalities present in almost 90% of cases. However, it is necessary to study the genetic abnormalities in plasma cells after their identification or selection by morphology, immunophenotyping or sorting. Other challenges are the selection of the most informative FISH panel and determining cut-off levels for FISH probes. This study reports the validation of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization using CD138 positive cells, according to proposed guidelines published by the European Myeloma Network (EMN in 2012. METHOD: Bone marrow samples from patients with multiple myeloma were used to standardize a panel of five probes [1q amplification, 13q14 deletion, 17p deletion, t(4;14, and t(14;16] in CD138+ cells purified by magnetic cell sorting. RESULTS: This test was validated with a low turnaround time and good reproducibility. Five of six samples showed genetic abnormalities. Monosomy/deletion 13 plus t(4;14 were found in two cases. CONCLUSION: This technique together with magnetic cell sorting is effective and can be used in the routine laboratory practice. In addition, magnetic cell sorting provides a pure plasma cell population that allows other molecular and genomic studies.

  10. Doppler ultrasound scan during normal gestation: umbilical circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine normal umbilical circulation patterns by means of Doppler ultrasound scan in a healthy gestating population without risk factors and with normal perinatal results, and to evaluate any occurring modifications relative to gestational age by obtaining records kept during pregnancy. One hundred and sixteen pregnant women carrying a single fetus have been studied. These women had no risk factors, with both clinical and analytical controls, as well as ultrasound scans, all being normal. There were performed a total of 193 Doppler ultrasound scans between weeks 15 and 41 of gestation, with blood-flow analysis in the arteries and vein of the umbilical cord. The obtained information was correlated with parameters that evaluate fetal well-being (fetal monitoring and/or oxytocin test) and perinatal result (delivery type, birth weight, Apgar score). Statistical analysis was performed with the programs SPSS 6.0.1 for Windows and EPIINFO 6.0.4. With pulsed Doppler, the umbilical artery in all cases demonstrated a biphasic morphology with systolic and diastolic components and without retrograde blood flow. As the gestation period increased, there was observed a progressive decrease in resistance along with an increase in blood-flow velocity during the diastolic phase. The Doppler ultrasound scan is a non-invasive method that permits the hemodynamic study of umbilical blood circulation. A knowledge of normal blood-flow signal morphology, as well as of the normal values for Doppler indices in relation to gestational age would permit us to utilize this method in high-risk pregnancies. (Author) 30 refs

  11. Early differentiated CD138(high MHCII+ IgG+ plasma cells express CXCR3 and localize into inflamed kidneys of lupus mice.

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    Stéphanie Lacotte

    Full Text Available Humoral responses are central to the development of chronic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Indeed, autoantibody deposition is responsible for tissue damage, the kidneys being one of the main target organs. As the source of pathogenic antibodies, plasma cells are therefore critical players in this harmful scenario, both at systemic and local levels. The aim of the present study was to analyze plasma cells in NZB/W lupus mice and to get a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying their involvement in the renal inflammation process. Using various techniques (i.e. flow cytometry, quantitative PCR, ELISpot, we identified and extensively characterized three plasma cell intermediates, according to their B220/CD138/MHCII expression levels. Each of these cell subsets displays specific proliferation and antibody secretion capacities. Moreover, we evidenced that the inflammation-related CXCR3 chemokine receptor is uniquely expressed by CD138(highMHCII(+ plasma cells, which encompass both short- and long-lived cells and mostly produce IgG (autoantibodies. Expression of CXCR3 allows efficient chemotactic responsiveness of these cells to cognate chemokines, which production is up-regulated in the kidneys of diseased NZB/W mice. Finally, using fluorescence and electron microscopy, we demonstrated the presence of CD138(+CXCR3(+IgG(+ cells in inflammatory areas in the kidneys, where they are very likely involved in the injury process. Thus, early differentiated CD138(highMHCII(+ rather than terminally differentiated CD138(highMHCII(low plasma cells may be involved in the renal inflammatory injury in lupus, due to CXCR3 expression and IgG secretion.

  12. Single-dose anti-CD138 radioimmunotherapy: bismuth-213 is more efficient than lutetium-177 for treatment of multiple myeloma in a preclinical model

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    Nolwenn eFichou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Radioimmunotherapy (RIT has emerged as a potential treatment option for multiple myeloma (MM. In humans, a dosimetry study recently showed the relevance of RIT using an antibody targeting the CD138 antigen. The therapeutic efficacy of RIT using an anti-CD138 antibody coupled to 213Bi, an α-emitter, was also demonstrated in a preclinical MM model. Since then, RIT with β-emitters has shown efficacy in treating hematologic cancer. In this paper, we investigate the therapeutic efficacy of RIT in the 5T33 murine MM model using a new anti-CD138 monoclonal antibody labeled either with 213Bi for α-RIT or 177Lu for β-RIT.Methods: A new monoclonal anti-CD138 antibody, 9E7.4, was generated by immunizing a rat with a murine CD138-derived peptide. Antibody specificity was validated by flow cytometry, biodistribution and α-RIT studies. Then, a β-RIT dose-escalation assay with the 177Lu-radiolabeled 9E7.4 mAb was performed in KalwRij C57/BL6 mice 10 days after i.v. engraftment with 5T33 MM cells. Animal survival and toxicological parameters were assessed to define the optimal activity.Results: α-RIT performed with 3.7 MBq of 213Bi-labeled 9E7.4 anti-CD138 mAb increased median survival to 80 days compared to 37 days for the untreated control and effected cure in 45% of animals. β-RIT performed with 18.5 MBq of 177Lu-labeled 9E7.4 mAb was well tolerated and significantly increased mouse survival (54 versus 37 days in the control group; however, no mice were cured with this treatment.Conclusion: This study revealed the advantages of α-RIT in the treatment of MM in a preclinical model where β-RIT shows almost no efficacy.

  13. CD138对不孕合并慢性子宫内膜炎的诊断价值及其相关因素分析%Enhancement of Diagnosis of Chronic Endometritis by CD138 and Assessment of Risk Factors Associated with Chronic Endometritis on Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉清; 方瑞丽; 罗苑娜; 罗灿峤; 聂钊堂

    2015-01-01

    [目的]探讨CD138免疫组化在慢性子宫内膜炎(CE)诊断中的作用,及助孕患者合并CE的高危因素.[方法]选取93例检查证实为正常宫腔形态,准备行助孕治疗的患者为研究对象,取子宫内膜组织进行常规HE染色和CD138免疫组化染色,同时收集患者病史、跟踪其生殖预后.[结果]①CE的检出率:CD138免疫组化高于HE染色(27.96%vs 26.89%,P< 0.05);②妊娠率:CD138阳性患者(7.7%)比CD138阴性患者(31.3%)低(P=0.017);③单因素分析结果表明既往有月经淋漓不尽史、人流史及合并有输卵管堵塞等与CE有一定联系(P<0.05),Logistic回归分析结果证实月经淋漓不尽(P=0.014,OR=5.394,95% CI1.405-20.699),既往人流史(P=0.029,OR=3.194,95% CI1.125-9.073)、输卵管堵塞(P=0.028,OR=3.274,95% CI1.139-9.415)是CD138阳性的独立危险因素.[结论]CD138免疫组化可提高CE诊断率,既往淋漓不尽病史、人流史输卵管堵塞病史是慢性子宫内膜炎的高危因素,应建议其进行CD138免疫组化检测.

  14. Doppler ultrasound scan during normal gestation: umbilical circulation; Ecografia Doppler en la gestacion normal: circulacion umbilical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, T.; Sabate, J.; Martinez-Benavides, M. M.; Sanchez-Ramos, J. [Hospital Virgen Macarena. Sevilla (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    To determine normal umbilical circulation patterns by means of Doppler ultrasound scan in a healthy gestating population without risk factors and with normal perinatal results, and to evaluate any occurring modifications relative to gestational age by obtaining records kept during pregnancy. One hundred and sixteen pregnant women carrying a single fetus have been studied. These women had no risk factors, with both clinical and analytical controls, as well as ultrasound scans, all being normal. There were performed a total of 193 Doppler ultrasound scans between weeks 15 and 41 of gestation, with blood-flow analysis in the arteries and vein of the umbilical cord. The obtained information was correlated with parameters that evaluate fetal well-being (fetal monitoring and/or oxytocin test) and perinatal result (delivery type, birth weight, Apgar score). Statistical analysis was performed with the programs SPSS 6.0.1 for Windows and EPIINFO 6.0.4. With pulsed Doppler, the umbilical artery in all cases demonstrated a biphasic morphology with systolic and diastolic components and without retrograde blood flow. As the gestation period increased, there was observed a progressive decrease in resistance along with an increase in blood-flow velocity during the diastolic phase. The Doppler ultrasound scan is a non-invasive method that permits the hemodynamic study of umbilical blood circulation. A knowledge of normal blood-flow signal morphology, as well as of the normal values for Doppler indices in relation to gestational age would permit us to utilize this method in high-risk pregnancies. (Author) 30 refs.

  15. Tracer exchange in the normal and ischemic coronary circulation

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    Harris, T.R.; Overholser, K.A.; Collins, J.C.

    1984-02-01

    Proper function of the coronary blood-tissue exchange system may be important in the preservation of myocardium threatened by ischemia. Studies have been undertaken in dogs aimed at elucidating the functions of this system under baseline and ischemic conditions. The exchange of (/sup 14/C) sucrose between the coronary capillaries and extravascular space has been studied with the multiple-tracer methods. Protein transport has been examined by measuring the deposition of labeled albumin and by collecting cardiac lymph. Results indicate that reduced-flow ischemia decreases functioning capillary surface area but increases permeability to small molecules and protein. Hyaluronidase and adenosine can restore flow after partial occlusion of the coronary artery. However, only hyaluronidase restores capillary surface to its baseline value. Thus, ischemic effects on exchange are not controlled merely by hemodynamic factors. Reduced-flow ischemia in the heart can induce a vascular permeability change in the lung circulation. It has been concluded that capillary and interstitial transport are altered significantly by ischemia. Preservation of the proper function of these processes may be important in protecting the ischemic myocardium.

  16. Circulating Levels of Irisin in Hypopituitary and Normal Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Bello, Lara; Pértega-Diaz, Sonia; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Outeiriño-Blanco, Elena; Eiras-Leal, Raquel; Varela-Rodriguez, Bárbara; Juiz-Valiña, Paula; Pérez-Fontán, Miguel; Cordido, María; Cordido, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Context The recently identified myokine irisin conveys some of the benefits of exercise. Hypopituitarism with adult growth hormone deficiency (HP) is a situation characterized by decreased GH secretion and an altered body composition. Objective Our aim was to study the skeletal muscle hormone irisin in HP, and compare the results with a similar group of normal subjects. Participants and Methods Seventeen HP patients and fifty-one normal subjects of similar age and sex were studied. The diagnosis of GH deficiency was confirmed by the presence of pituitary disease and a peak GH secretion below 3 μg/L after an insulin tolerance test. The patients were adequately treated for all pituitary hormone deficits, except for GH. Fasting serum irisin was measured with an enzyme immunoassay, and HOMA-IR, QUICKI and HOMA-β were calculated. Results Fasting irisin levels (ng/ml) were similar in normal [208.42 (168.44–249.23)] and HP patients [195.13 (178.44–241.44)]. In the control group there were moderate significant positive correlations between irisin and BMI, waist circumference, leptin, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, triglycerides, and cholesterol. In the control group there were moderate significant negative correlations between irisin and IGF-I and QUICKI. In the hypopituitary group there were moderate significant positive correlations between irisin and body fat and HOMA-β. Conclusions We found similar irisin levels in GH deficiency hypopituitary patients when compared with normal subjects. The correlation between irisin and adiposity related factors suggests that that in the case of this clinical model, irisin is regulated by adiposity and not by GH. PMID:27472279

  17. Doppler assessment of the fetoplacental circulation in normal and growth-retarded fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    Reuwer, P.J.H.M.; Bruinse, H. W.; Stoutenbeek, P.; Haspels, A A

    1984-01-01

    The Pulsatility Index (PI) of Doppler flow signals from umbilical arteries was used to study flow resistance of the placental villous circulation. A preliminary reference curve of PI values in normal pregnancy was composed from 23 healthy women examined every 2 wk from the 16th postmenstrual week until delivery. The gestational age-related decrease of PI values reflects a reduction of flow resistance in the placental villous circulation. In small-for-date fetuses significantly increased PI va...

  18. Pulmonary artery flow pattern in normal babies and those with persistence of fetal circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses how, in normal babies, spectral and color Doppler flow patterns in the main pulmonary artery (MPA) and its branches (the left and right pulmonary arteries [LPA and RPA]) are vastly different from those encountered in babies with persistence of fetal circulation (PFC). Flow velocity from the MPA to the LPA or RPA accelerates by as much as 240% in normal subjects, whereas in babies with PFC, velocity in the MPA, LPA, and RPA are identical. Because of fetal circulation, all babies are born with physiologic peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis. A right-to-left shunt across the patent dictus arteriosus in PFC minimizes the flow through the LPA and RPA, disallowing physiologic acceleration before treatment

  19. Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and CD138+ plasma cells prevail in cerebrospinal fluid in non-paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia with contactin-associated protein-2 antibodies

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    Melzer Nico

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The purpose of this paper is to report a patient with otherwise unexplained cerebellar ataxia with serum antibodies against contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR-2 and provide a detailed description of the composition of cellular infiltrates in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF compared to the peripheral blood (PB. CASPR-2 antibodies strongly labeling axons of cerebellar granule neurons have recently been identified in sera from nine patients with otherwise unexplained progressive cerebellar ataxia with mild to severe cerebellar atrophy. Design This is a report of a single case. Methods The study methods used were neurologic examination, magnetic resonance imaging, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emisson tomography, lumbar puncture and multicolor flow-cytometry. Results A 23-year-old Caucasian male presented with a two-year history of a progressive cerebellar and brainstem syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed pronounced cerebellar atrophy, especially of the medial parts of the hemispheres and the vermis. Cerebral fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET showed pronounced hypometabolism of the whole cerebellum. CASPR-2 antibodies were detected in the serum but not the CSF, and none of the staging and laboratory assessments revealed other causes of progressive cerebellar degeneration. Interestingly, flow-cytometry of the CSF as compared to the PB showed increased fractions of CD138+ plasma cells as well as human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR+ CD8+ T cells suggesting that both B cells and CD8+ T cells were preferentially recruited to and activated within the CSF- (and putatively central nervous system (CNS- compartment. Conclusion We confirm the association of CASPR-2 serum antibodies with cerebellar ataxia and provide the first evidence for a combined humoral and cellular immune response in this novel antibody-associated inflammatory CNS disease.

  20. Circulating levels of ciliary neurotrophic factor in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia

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    Akahori,Yoichiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF has been shown to decrease food intake in mouse models of obesity and to improve insulin sensitivity. It is well known that tight regulation of glucose metabolism is essential for successful gestational outcomes (e.g. fetal growth, and that abnormal insulin resistance is associated with preeclampsia (PE. To investigate the possibility that CNTF might be involved in the regulation of insulin resistance during pregnancy, circulating levels of CNTF were assessed in non-pregnant, normal pregnant, postpartum, and pregnant women with PE. Sera from healthy non-pregnant women (n10, pregnant women (n30:1st trimester;n10, 2nd trimester n10;3rd trimester;n10, postpartum women (n10, and patients with PE (n11 were studied with Western blotting. Circulating CNTF was detected by Western blotting, and the levels of CNTF in pregnant women were decreased as compared with those in non-pregnant women, and tended to decrease as pregnancy progressed. A significant decrease was found in PE as compared with normal pregnancy. Circulating CNTF might be associated with physiological and abnormal insulin resistance during pregnancy.

  1. Syndecan-1 (CD138 modulates triple-negative breast cancer stem cell properties via regulation of LRP-6 and IL-6-mediated STAT3 signaling.

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    Sherif A Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Syndecan-1 (CD138, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, acts as a coreceptor for growth factors and chemokines and is a molecular marker associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition during development and carcinogenesis. Resistance of Syndecan-1-deficient mice to experimentally-induced tumorigenesis has been linked to altered Wnt-responsive precursor cell pools, suggesting a potential role of Syndecan-1 in breast cancer cell stem function. However, the precise molecular mechanism is still elusive. Here, we decipher the functional impact of Syndecan-1 knockdown using RNA interference on the breast cancer stem cell phenotype of human triple-negative MDA-MB-231 and hormone receptor-positive MCF-7 cells in vitro employing an analytical flow cytometric approach. Successful Syndecan-1 siRNA knockdown was confirmed by flow cytometry. Side population measurement by Hoechst dye exclusion and Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity revealed that Syndecan-1 knockdown in MDA-MB-231 cells significantly reduced putative cancer stem cell pools by 60% and 27%, respectively, compared to controls. In MCF-7 cells, Syndecan-1 depletion reduced the side population by 40% and Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 by 50%, repectively. In MDA-MB-231 cells, the CD44(+CD24(-/low phenotype decreased significantly by 6% upon siRNA-mediated Syndecan-1 depletion. Intriguingly, IL-6, its receptor sIL-6R, and the chemokine CCL20, implicated in regulating stemness-associated pathways, were downregulated by >40% in Syndecan-1-silenced MDA-MB-231 cells, which showed a dysregulated response to IL-6-induced shifts in E-cadherin and vimentin expression. Furthermore, activation of STAT-3 and NFkB transcription factors and expression of a coreceptor for Wnt signaling, LRP-6, were reduced by >45% in Syndecan-1-depleted cells compared to controls. At the functional level, Syndecan-1 siRNA reduced the formation of spheres and cysts in MCF-7 cells grown in suspension culture. Our study demonstrates the

  2. Normal venous circulation of the gastroesophageal junction. A route to understanding varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, A; Hayes, P C; Moscoso, G; Driver, M; Portmann, B; Westaby, D; Williams, R

    1987-10-01

    A study into the normal anatomy of the venous circulation of the gastroesophageal junction was undertaken using three complementary techniques (radiology, corrosion casting, and morphometry). Four distinct zones of venous drainage were defined as follows: (a) gastric zone, characterized by a longitudinal venous distribution; (b) palisade zone, composed of parallel vessels arranged in groups, lying mainly within the lamina propria; (c) perforating zone, characterized by "treble clef" shaped veins, which collect and channel blood into extrinsic veins; and (d) truncal zone, composed of four or five deep lying descending veins. This venous system appeared to be mainly distributed within the esophageal mucosal folds. The anatomic pattern suggests that venous flow is bidirectional at the palisade zone, which acts as a high-resistance watershed region between the portal and azygos systems. In patients with portal hypertension this normal vascular system has to accommodate greatly increased venous flow, and the anatomy as demonstrated here offers insight into variceal development. PMID:3623028

  3. Radioimmunoassay of erythropoietin: circulating levels in normal and polycythemic human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J F; Ebbe, S N; Hollander, L; Cutting, H O; Miller, M E; Cronkite, E P

    1982-05-01

    Techniques are described in detail for the RIA of human Ep in unextracted plasma or serum. With 100 microliters of sample, the essay is sensitive at an Ep concentration of approximately 4 mU/ml, and when required, the sensitivity can be increased to 0.4 mU/ml, a range considerably less than the concentration observed in normal human beings. This is approximately 100 times more sensitive than existing in vivo bioassays for this hormone. Studies concerned with the validation of the Ep RIA show a high degree of correlation with the polycythemic mouse bioassay. Dilutions of a variety of human serum samples show a parallel relationship with the standard reference preparation for Ep. Validation of the RIA is further confirmed by observations of appropriate increases or decreases in circulating Ep levels in physiological and clinical conditions known to be associated with stimulation of suppression of Ep secretion. Significantly different mean serum concentrations of 17.2 mU/ml for normal male subjects and 18.8 mU/ml for normal female subjects were observed. Mean plasma Ep concentrations in patients with polycythemia vera are significantly decreased, and those of patients with secondary polycythemia are significantly increased as compared to plasma levels in normal subjects. These results demonstrate an initial practical value of the Ep RIA inthe hematology clinic, which will most certainly be expanded with its more extensive use. PMID:7069267

  4. Radioimmunoassay of erythropoietin: circulating levels in normal and polycythemic human beings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA); Ebbe, S.N.; Hollander, L.; Cutting, H.O.; Miller, M.E.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1982-05-01

    Techniques are described in detail for the RIA of human Ep in unextracted plasma or serum. With 100 ..mu..l of sample, the assay is sensitive at an Ep concentration of approximately 4 mU/ml, and when required, the sensitivity can be increased to 0.4 mU/ml, a range considerably less than the concentration observed in normal human beings. This is approximately 100 times more sensitive than existing in vivo bioassays for this hormone. Studies concerned with the validation of the Ep RIA show a high degree of correlation with the polycythemic mouse bioassay. Dilutions of a variety of human serum samples show a parallel relationship with the standard reference preparation for Ep. Validation of the RIA is further confirmed by observations of appropriate increases or decreases of circulating Ep levels in physiological and clinical conditions known to be associated with stimulation or suppression of Ep secretion. Significantly different mean serum concentrations of 17.2 mU/ml for normal male subjects and 18.8 mU/ml for normal female subjects were observed. Mean plasma Ep concentrations in patients with polycythemia vera are significantly decreased, and those of patients with secondary polycythemia are significantly increased as compared to plasma levels in normal subjects. These results demonstrate an initial practical value of the Ep RA in the hematology clinic, which will most certainly be expanded with its more extensive use.

  5. Circulating cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia determined by multiplex suspension array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekő Gabriella

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is a severe complication of pregnancy characterized by an excessive maternal systemic inflammatory response with activation of both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules are central to innate and adaptive immune processes. The purpose of this study was to determine circulating levels of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia in a comprehensive manner, and to investigate their relationship to the clinical features and laboratory parameters of the study participants, including markers of overall inflammation (C-reactive protein, endothelial activation (von Willebrand factor antigen and endothelial injury (fibronectin, oxidative stress (malondialdehyde and trophoblast debris (cell-free fetal DNA. Results Serum levels of interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-18, interferon (IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, transforming growth factor (TGF-beta1, interferon-gamma-inducible protein (IP-10, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 were measured in 60 preeclamptic patients, 60 healthy pregnant women and 59 healthy non-pregnant women by multiplex suspension array and ELISA. In normal pregnancy, the relative abundance of circulating IL-18 over IL-12p70 and the relative deficiency of the bioactive IL-12p70 in relation to IL-12p40 might favour Th2-type immunity. Although decreased IL-1ra, TNF-alpha and MCP-1 concentrations of healthy pregnant relative to non-pregnant women reflect anti-inflammatory changes in circulating cytokine profile, their decreased serum IL-10 and increased IP-10 levels might drive pro-inflammatory responses. In addition to a shift towards Th1-type immunity (expressed by the increased IL-2/IL-4 and IFN-gamma/IL-4 ratios, circulating levels of

  6. The renal circulation in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia: is there a place for relaxin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Kirk P; Davison, John M

    2014-05-15

    During the first trimester of human pregnancy, the maternal systemic circulation undergoes remarkable vasodilation. The kidneys participate in this vasodilatory response resulting in marked increases in renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Comparable circulatory adaptations are observed in conscious gravid rats. Administration of the corpus luteal hormone relaxin (RLN) to nonpregnant rats and humans elicits vasodilatory changes like those of pregnancy. Systemic and renal vasodilation are compromised in midterm pregnant rats by neutralization or elimination of circulating RLN and in women conceiving with donor eggs who lack a corpus luteum and circulating RLN. Although RLN exerts both rapid (minutes) and sustained (hours to days) vasodilatory actions through different molecular mechanisms, a final common pathway is endothelial nitric oxide. In preeclampsia (PE), maternal systemic and renal vasoconstriction leads to hypertension and modest reduction in GFR exceeding that of RPF. Elevated level of circulating soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 arising from the placenta is implicated in the hypertension and disruption of glomerular fenestrae and barrier function, the former causing reduced Kf and the latter proteinuria. Additional pathogenic factors are discussed. Last, potential clinical ramifications include RLN replacement in women conceiving with donor eggs and its therapeutic use in PE. Another goal has been to apply knowledge gained from investigating circulatory adaptations in pregnancy toward identifying and developing novel therapeutic strategies for renal and cardiovascular disease in the nonpregnant population. So far, one candidate to emerge is RLN and its potential therapeutic use in heart failure. PMID:24647709

  7. Autonomic control of the cerebral circulation during normal and impaired peripheral circulatory control

    OpenAIRE

    Cencetti, S; Lagi, A.; CIPRIANI, M.; Fattorini, L; G. Bandinelli; Bernardi, L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether oscillations in the cerebrovascular circulation undergo autonomic modulation in the same way as cardiovascular oscillations.
DESIGN—Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular oscillations were monitored at rest and during sympathetic stimulation (head up tilt). The association with and transmission of the oscillations in the sympathetic (low frequency, LF) and respiratory (high frequency, HF) bands was assessed.
SUBJECTS—13 healthy volunteers, 10 subjects with vasovagal...

  8. Detection and Characterization of Circulating Tumour Cells in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangxuan Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM remains an incurable disease despite recent therapeutic improvements. The ability to detect and characterize MM circulating tumour cells (CTCs in peripheral blood provides an alternative to replace or augment invasive bone marrow (BM biopsies with a simple blood draw, providing real-time, clinically relevant information leading to improved disease manage‐ ment and therapy selection. Here we have developed and qualified an enrichment-free, cell-based immunofluores‐ cence MM CTC assay that utilizes an automated digital pathology algorithm to distinguish MM CTCs from white blood cells (WBCs on the basis of CD138 and CD45 expression levels, as well as a number of morphological parameters. These MM CTCs were further characterized for expression of phospho-ribosomal protein S6 (pS6 as a readout for PI3K/AKT pathway activation. Clinical feasi‐ bility of the assay was established by testing blood samples from a small cohort of patients, where we detected popu‐ lations of both CD138pos and CD138neg MM CTCs. In this study, we developed an immunofluorescent cell-based assay to detect and characterize CTCs in MM.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of various immunomodulators: independence from normal levels of circulating monocytes and natural killer cells. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morahan, P.S.; Dempsey, W.L.; Volkman, A.; Connor, J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of /sup 89/Sr treatment on the natural host resistance of CD-1 mice and the enhancement of resistance by immunomodulators to infection with Listeria monocytogenes or herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) were determined. In the CD-1 mouse, single-dose treatment with /sup 89/Sr caused a profound decrease in the number of circulating monocytes (Mo), lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) within 1 week. There was also marked functional impairment of the Mo inflammatory response, as well as markedly decreased spontaneous and activatable cytoxicity by splenic natural killer (NK) cells. Despite this profound cellular suppression, there was no significant change in natural resistance of CD-1 mice to L. monocytogenes of HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, prophylactic treatment of mice with the biologic immunomodulator Corynebacterium parvum or the synthetic immunomodulators maleic anhydride-divinyl ether or avridine in liposomes resulted in comparable enhancement of resistance in /sup 89/Sr-treated and normal mice. These data indicate that natural and immunomodulator-enhanced resistance of CD-1 mice to microbail infections do not depend on normal levels of Mo, PMN, or NK cells. The resistance enhancement may rely on activated tissue macrophages. In contrast to the early changes in circulating leukocytes, the residenet peritoneal cell populations were not markedly altered until after day 30. There then was a distinct decline in lymphocytes and a gradual decline in activated tissue macrophages.

  10. Association of circulating irisin levels with normal weight obesity, glycemic and lipid profile

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrabian, Sarvenaz; Taheri, Ehsaneh; Karkhaneh, Maryam; Qorbani, Mostafa; Hosseini, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background Irisin, a recently identified myokine/adipokine, has potential role in type 2 diabetes and obesity. Normal weight obesity (NWO) is associated with a significantly higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate association of irisin level with NWO, glycemicand lipid profile in women. Methods In this matchedcase-control study, 38 subjects with NWO (body mass index (BMI)  30) as case and 26 controls (BMI

  11. Circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations during exercise in patients with exercise induced asthma and normal subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Berkin, K E; Walker, G.; Inglis, G C; S.G. Ball; Thomson, N. C.

    1988-01-01

    A failure of the usual increase in plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations during submaximal exercise has been suggested as a contributory cause of exercise induced asthma. Six normal subjects and six asthmatic patients underwent a standard graded maximal exercise test. Measurements of oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, exercise time, blood lactate concentration, and heart rate indicated that the two groups achieved similarly high work loads during exercise. Mean FEV1 fell by ...

  12. Patients with Tuberculosis Have a Dysfunctional Circulating B-Cell Compartment, Which Normalizes following Successful Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Nonno, Franca; Baiocchini, Andrea; Petrone, Linda; Vanini, Valentina; Smits, Hermelijn H.; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Goletti, Delia; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2016-01-01

    B-cells not only produce immunoglobulins and present antigens to T-cells, but also additional key roles in the immune system. Current knowledge on the role of B-cells in infections caused by intracellular bacteria is fragmentary and contradictory. We therefore analysed the phenotypical and functional properties of B-cells during infection and disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the bacillus causing tuberculosis (TB), and included individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI), active TB, individuals treated successfully for TB, and healthy controls. Patients with active or treated TB disease had an increased proportion of antibodies reactive with mycobacteria. Patients with active TB had reduced circulating B-cell frequencies, whereas only minor increases in B-cells were detected in the lungs of individuals deceased from TB. Both active TB patients and individuals with LTBI had increased relative fractions of B-cells with an atypical phenotype. Importantly, these B-cells displayed impaired proliferation, immunoglobulin- and cytokine- production. These defects disappeared upon successful treatment. Moreover, T-cell activity was strongest in individuals successfully treated for TB, compared to active TB patients and LTBI subjects, and was dependent on the presence of functionally competent B-cells as shown by cellular depletion experiments. Thus, our results reveal that general B-cell function is impaired during active TB and LTBI, and that this B-cell dysfunction compromises cellular host immunity during Mtb infection. These new insights may provide novel strategies for correcting Mtb infection-induced immune dysfunction towards restored protective immunity. PMID:27304615

  13. Serum leptin levels in relation to circulating cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and angiogenic factors in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karádi István

    2011-09-01

    association with leptin levels. There were significant positive correlations between serum leptin concentrations of healthy pregnant women and systolic blood pressure, as well as serum levels of IP-10, while their serum leptin levels correlated inversely with fetal birth weight. In preeclamptic patients, a significant positive correlation was observed between serum concentrations of leptin and IP-10. Furthermore, elevated serum leptin level and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio had an additive (joint effect in the risk of preeclampsia, as shown by the substantially higher odds ratios of their combination than of either alone. Conclusions Simultaneous measurement of leptin with several inflammatory molecules and angiogenic factors in this study enabled us to investigate their relationship, which can help to understand the role of circulating leptin in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia.

  14. Anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibodies and the detection of circulating normal-like breast tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Sieuwerts (Anieta); J. Kraan (Jaco); J. Bolt (Joan); P. van der Spoel (Petra); F. Elstrodt (Fons); A.E.M. Schutte (Mieke); J.W.M. Martens (John); J.W. Gratama (Jan-Willem); S. Sleijfer (Stefan); J.A. Foekens (John)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIdentification of specific subtypes of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of cancer patients can provide information about the biology of metastasis and improve patient management. However, to be effective, the method used to identify circulating tumor cells must detect all tumo

  15. Hepatic and renal extraction of circulating type I procollagen aminopropeptide in patients with normal liver function and in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytte, S; Hansen, M; Møller, S;

    1999-01-01

    40-65, p<0.001). In contrast, serum-PINP did not differ between arterial and hepatic or venous venous blood in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Size-chromatography revealed no significant change in the ratio of the high and low molecular forms of PINP following extraction in liver and kidney. It is...... concluded that circulating PINP is extracted in the normal liver and kidney, and that the serum concentration of PINP is significantly higher in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis than in patients with normal liver function. Both the hepatic and the renal clearance of PINP are seriously impaired/reduced in......The circulating level and splanchnic and renal extraction of serum type I procollagen aminoterminal propeptide (PINP) was studied in 20 patients with normal liver function and in 15 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. In patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, the concentration of PINP in the...

  16. TESTING THE INTERACTION OF HEART LEFT VENTRICLE AND CONTINUOUS-FLOW PUMP ON A MOCK CIRCULATION MODEL UNDER NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Itkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The preliminary study of new developed pumps for circulatory support on the hydrodynamic circulation model is an important step in the process of their designing. Hydrodynamic circulation models that can closely imitate cardio – vascular system are important to defi ne the range of effective functioning of the pumps under normal and heart disease conditions which is of great importance for defi ning the mode of these pumps in real clinical conditions.The aim of study is to create a new hydrodynamic circulation model of the systemic circulation to study the processes of interaction of heart left ventricle and continuous – fl ow pumps.Materials and methods. The main components of the mock circulation model (arterial and venous blocks are designed as closed reservoirs with an air bag providing the necessary elasticity value of these reservoirs. The heart left ventricle was simulated with an artifi cial heart ventricle with a pneumatic drive Sinus-IS which allows to change its options in a wide range. As a test pump we used the fi rst native implantable axial pump VISH – 1. In the course of research we made the registration and recording of the basic hemodynamic parameters (pressure, fl ow with a multichannel module Pumpax for the measurement of pressure parameters.Results. The designed circulation model allows to adequately reproduce the main hemodynamic parameters of the circulatory system in normal (arterial pressure – 110/77 mmHg, left atrium pressure – 7 mmHg and cardiac output – 4.2 l/min and heart failure conditions (arterial pressure – 79/53 mmHg, left atrium pressure – 15 mmHg and cardiac output – 3.1 l/min. On the circulation model the interaction of heart left ventricle and continuous-fl ow pump in heart failure simulation was studied. The dynamics of the main circulation fi gures is shown under conditions of changing of the pump rotor speed. Meanwhile, the conditions of the closing of

  17. Hepatic and renal extraction of circulating type I procollagen aminopropeptide in patients with normal liver function and in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytte, S; Hansen, M; Møller, S;

    1999-01-01

    The circulating level and splanchnic and renal extraction of serum type I procollagen aminoterminal propeptide (PINP) was studied in 20 patients with normal liver function and in 15 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. In patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, the concentration of PINP...... in the femoral artery blood was significantly higher than in the group of patients with normal liver function (median 145 microg/l, 95% CI 98-195 versus 57 microg/l, 95% CI 42-92, p...-92) and the hepatic vein (median 45 microg/l, 95% CI 40-70, pliver function. In this group we also observed a significantly higher concentration of PINP in femoral artery blood (median 60 microg/l, 95% CI 45-87) as compared with that in renal vein (median 50 microg/l, 95% CI...

  18. Circulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in a middle-aged normal population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Garvin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of circulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 have been demonstrated in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD. The aim of this study was to analyse levels of MMP-9 in a population free from symptomatic CAD and investigate their associations with cardiovascular (CV risk factors, including C-reactive protein (CRP. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in a population based random sample aged 45-69 (n = 345, 50% women. MMP-9 levels were measured in EDTA-plasma using an ELISA-method. CV risk factors were measured using questionnaires and standard laboratory methods. RESULTS: Plasma MMP-9 was detectable in all participants, mean 38.9 ng/mL (SD 22.1 ng/mL. Among individuals without reported symptomatic CAD a positive association (p<0.001 was seen, for both men and women, of MMP-9 levels regarding total risk load of eight CV risk factors i.e. blood pressure, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. The association was significant also after adjustment for CRP, and was not driven by a single risk factor alone. In regression models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol intake and CRP, elevated MMP-9 levels were independently positively associated with systolic blood pressure (p = 0.037, smoking (p<0.001, alcohol intake (p = 0.003 and CRP (p<0.001. The correlation coefficient between MMP-9 and CRP was r = 0.24 (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In a population without reported symptomatic CAD, MMP-9 levels were associated with total CV risk load as well as with single risk factors. This was found also after adjustment for CRP.

  19. Circulating thrombopoietin levels in normal healthy blood donors and in aplastic anemia patients in relation to disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombopoietin (TPO is the key hematopoietic growth factor regulating the production of platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes and maintaining platelet hemostasis. This study was done to find any relationship between the levels of thrombopoietin and the severity of disease in patients with aplastic anemia. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of aplastic anemia and 45 normal healthy blood donors of both sexes over a period of 2 years, and TPO was estimated by using commercially available TPO-specific-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The median TPO level of 1190 pg/ml (range 625-7651 pg/ml in aplastic anemia patients was significantly higher than the median TPO level of 121.1 pg/ml (81.25-237.7 pg/ml in normal healthy blood donors (P = 0.000. No significant difference was observed in TPO levels of male and female patients (P = 0.453. The median TPO concentrations observed in very severe aplastic anemia, severe aplastic anemia, and nonsevere aplastic anemia were 2765 pg/ml (range 625-6451 pg/ml, 1190 pg/ml (range 672.1-7651 pg/ml, and 1111.5 pg/ml (range 761.1-2289.2 pg/ml, respectively. TPO in patients of very severe aplastic anemia was significantly higher than patients of nonsevere aplastic anemia (P = 0.043, with no significant relation among rest of the groups. Discussion: TPO levels in aplastic anemia patients were significantly higher than in healthy blood donors; however, in aplastic anemia patients TPO levels were significantly higher only in patients with very severe disease.

  20. The effect of chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure in normal and chronic restraint stressed rats: related with circulating level of blood pressure regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayada, Ceylan; Turgut, Günfer; Turgut, Sebahat; Güçlü, Zuhal

    2015-01-01

    Nesfatin is a peptide secreted by peripheral tissues, central and peripheral nervous system. It is involved in the regulation of homeostasis. Although the effects of nesfatin-1 on nutrition have been studied widely in the literature, the mechanisms of nesfatin-1 action and also relations with other physiological parameters are still not clarified well. We aimed to investigate the effect of peripheral chronic nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure regulation in normal and in rats exposed to restraint immobilization stress. In our study, three month-old male Wistar rats were used. Rats were divided into 4 groups as Control, Stress, Control+Nesfatin-1, Nesfatin-1+Stress. Angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone, cortisol, nesfatin-1 levels were determined in plasma samples by ELISA. Our results have shown that chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration increases blood pressure in normal and in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress. Effect of nesfatin-1 on circulating level of angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone and cortisol has been identified. We can conclude that elevated high blood pressure after chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress may be related to decreased plasma level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase concentration. PMID:25504061

  1. Full-scale modelling of the MNSR reactor to simulate normal operation, transients and reactivity insertion accidents under natural circulation conditions using the thermal hydraulic code ATHLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full-scale ATHLET system model for the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) has been developed. The model represents all reactor components of primary and secondary loops with the corresponding neutronics and thermal hydraulic characteristics. Under the MNSR operation conditions of natural circulation, normal operation, step reactivity transients and reactivity insertion accidents have been simulated. The analyses indicate the capability of ATHLET to simulate MNSR dynamic and thermal hydraulic behaviour and particularly to calculate the core coolant velocity of prevailing natural circulation in presence of the strong negative reactivity feed back of coolant temperature. The predicted time distribution of reactor power, core inlet and outlet coolant temperature follow closely the measured data for the quasi steady and transient states. However, sensitivity analyses indicate the influence of pressure form loss coefficients at core inlet and outlet on the results. The analysis of reactivity accidents represented by the insertion of large reactivity, demonstrates the high inherent safety features of MNSR. Even in case of insertion of total available cold excess reactivity without scram, the high negative reactivity feedback of moderator temperature limits power excursion and avoids consequently the escalation of clad temperature to the level of onset of sub-cooled void formation. The calculated peak power in this case agrees well with the data reported in the safety analysis report. The ATHLET code had not previously been assessed under these conditions. The results of this comprehensive analysis ensure the ability of the code to test some conceptual design modifications of MNSR's cooling system aiming the improvement of core cooling conditions to increase the maximum continuous reactor operation time allowing more effective use of MNSR for irradiation purposes

  2. Full-scale modelling of the MNSR reactor to simulate normal operation, transients and reactivity insertion accidents under natural circulation conditions using the thermal hydraulic code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hainoun, A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: ahainoun@aec.org.sy; Alissa, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2005-01-01

    A full-scale ATHLET system model for the Syrian miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) has been developed. The model represents all reactor components of primary and secondary loops with the corresponding neutronics and thermal hydraulic characteristics. Under the MNSR operation conditions of natural circulation, normal operation, step reactivity transients and reactivity insertion accidents have been simulated. The analyses indicate the capability of ATHLET to simulate MNSR dynamic and thermal hydraulic behaviour and particularly to calculate the core coolant velocity of prevailing natural circulation in presence of the strong negative reactivity feed back of coolant temperature. The predicted time distribution of reactor power, core inlet and outlet coolant temperature follow closely the measured data for the quasi steady and transient states. However, sensitivity analyses indicate the influence of pressure form loss coefficients at core inlet and outlet on the results. The analysis of reactivity accidents represented by the insertion of large reactivity, demonstrates the high inherent safety features of MNSR. Even in case of insertion of total available cold excess reactivity without scram, the high negative reactivity feedback of moderator temperature limits power excursion and avoids consequently the escalation of clad temperature to the level of onset of sub-cooled void formation. The calculated peak power in this case agrees well with the data reported in the safety analysis report. The ATHLET code had not previously been assessed under these conditions. The results of this comprehensive analysis ensure the ability of the code to test some conceptual design modifications of MNSR's cooling system aiming the improvement of core cooling conditions to increase the maximum continuous reactor operation time allowing more effective use of MNSR for irradiation purposes.

  3. Maternal circulating levels of activin A, inhibin A, sFlt-1 and endoglin at parturition in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Reddy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal circulating levels of anti-angiogenic factors such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1, endoglin (sEng and placental proteins like activin A and inhibin A are increased before the onset of pre-eclampsia. There is evidence for oxidative stress in pre eclampsia. Recently it was shown that placental oxygen concentration is related to sFlt-1 and inhibin A. In addition it is reported that oxidative stress markers are increased in placental tissue delivered after labour. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate if these proteins are altered in maternal circulation of labouring pre-eclampsia and normal pregnancies. METHODOLOGY: To assess the effects of labour, samples were taken from 10 normal pregnant (NP and 10 pre-eclamptic (PE women pre-labour, full dilation, placental delivery and 24 h. To assess the effects of placental delivery, plasma samples were taken from 10NP and 10PE women undergoing elective Caesarean section, pre-delivery, placental delivery and 10 min, 60 min and 24 h post delivery. SFlt-1 and sEng and activin A and inhibin A were measured using commercial and in house ELISA's respectively. RESULTS: The levels of sFlt-1 and sEng were significantly higher in PE compared to NP women in both groups. In labour, sFlt-1 levels increased significantly at full dilatation in PE women, before declining by 24 hr. However there was no significant rise in sEng levels in labour. Activin A and inhibin A levels declined rapidly with placental delivery in NP and PE pregnancies. There was a significant rise in activin A levels during labour in PE compared to pre labour, but inhibin levels did not increase. CONCLUSION: Labour in pre-eclamptic women increases the levels of sFlt-1 and activin A. This pilot data suggests that increase in the maternal levels of these factors in labour could predict and/or contribute to the maternal syndrome postpartum.

  4. Decrease in circulating tryptophan availability to the brain after acute ethanol consumption by normal volunteers: implications for alcohol-induced aggressive behaviour and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, A A; Morgan, C J; Lovett, J W; Bradley, D M; Thomas, R

    1995-10-01

    Acute ethanol consumption by fasting male volunteers decreases circulating trytophan (Trp) concentration and availability to the brain as determined by the ratio of (Trp) to the sum of its five competitors ([Trp]/[CAA]ratio). These effects of alcohol are specific to Trp, because levels of the 5 competitors are not increased. The decrease in circulating (Trp) is not associated with altered binding to albumin and may therefore be due to enhancement of hepatic Trp pyrrolase activity. It is suggested that, under these conditions brain serotonin synthesis is likely to be impaired and that, as a consequence, a possible strong depletion of brain serotonin in susceptible individuals may induce aggressive behaviour after alcohol consumption. The possible implications of these findings in the relationship between alcohol and depression are also briefly discussed.

  5. Optimization of an Enrichment process for Circulating tumor cells from the blood of Head and Neck Cancer patients through depletion of normal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Liying; Lang, James C.; Balasubramanian, Priya; Jatana, Kris R.; Schuller, David; Agrawal, Amit; Zborowski, Maciej; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    The optimization of a purely negative depletion, enrichment process for circulating tumor cells, CTC's, in the peripheral blood of Head and Neck cancer patients is presented. The enrichment process uses a red cell lysis step followed by immunomagnetic labeling, and subsequent depletion, of CD45 positive cells. A number of relevant variables are quantified, or attempted to be quantified, which control the performance of the enrichment process. Six different immunomagnetic labeling combinations...

  6. Defining origins of malignant B cells: a new circulating normal human IgM(+)D(+) B-cell subset lacking CD27 expression and displaying somatically mutated IGHV genes as a relevant memory population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston-Bell, N; Townsend, M; Di Genova, G; Forconi, F; Sahota, S S

    2009-11-01

    In probing the cell of origin in malignant B cells, an imprint of somatic hypermutation (SHM) in immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) region genes delineates antigen encounter, and identifying the precise pathway generating SHM in the normal B-cell counterpart becomes relevant. SHM remains the definitive memory imprint in normal human B cells, but CD27 expression also delineates memory. Recently, dye extrusion adenosine triphosphate-binding transporter assays identified circulating isotype-switched memory B cells that lacked CD27, yet exhibited low levels of SHM. To extend findings, we report a pre-switched CD27(-ve) circulating memory B-cell population in normal blood using comparable assays, and isolated CD19(+)IgM(+)D(+)CD27(-ve) cells (>99% purity) for the analysis of IGHV5/IGHV3-IGHM transcripts. Of these (n=334), approximately 78% were germ line and naive B cell derived. Strikingly, 21.9% of the transcripts were mutated. They showed 3-5 mutations (13.5% of sequences) and >5 mutations (8.4% of sequences) per transcript. Accrual of mutations in a subset of CD19(+)IgM(+)D(+)CD27(-ve) cells define a new circulating pre-switched memory B-cell pool, present in substantial numbers in the population harboring naive B cells. These CD19(+)IgM(+)D(+)CD27(-ve) memory B cells may have a distinct lineage and function, and seem relevant to understanding origins of malignant B cells, in particular those of hairy cell leukemia cells, which display mutated V genes yet lack CD27 expression. PMID:19776762

  7. Circulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF Levels in Advanced Stage Cancer Patients Compared to Normal Controls and Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Critical Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoka H. Kusumanto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-angiogenic therapy is emerging as a valuable tool in the treatment of patients with cancer. As VEGF is a central target in anti-angiogenic therapy, its levels in the circulation might be relevant in selecting tumor types or patients likely to respond to this treatment. Additional VEGF has been recognized as a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Recently anti-angiogenic therapy has been advocated in this situation. We measured VEGF levels in whole blood in 42 patients with high grade (n = 26 and low grade (n = 16 end stage cancer, and in 28 healthy controls and 37 patients with diabetes related vascular disease. Only 2/26 patients in the group of high grade cancer had signifi cantly elevated VEGF levels, 1/16 in the low grade group and 1/28 in the healthy control group. In contrast, in 10/37 diabetic patients the mean VEGF levels were significantly elevated compared to the other groups. The mean level in these diabetic patients was significantly elevated compared to the other groups. These data indicate the limitation of the use of circulating VEGF levels as a potential selection criterion for anti-angiogenic therapy in cancer patients and suggest further studies into its application in the management of diabetic complications.

  8. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Fetal Circulation Updated:Jul 8,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  9. Cerebral circulation and metabolism in the patients with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic minor traumatic brain injury. A study by the positron emission tomography in twenty subjects with normal MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabasawa, Hidehiro; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Iida, Akihiko; Matsubara, Michitaka [Nagoya City Rehabilitation and Sports Center (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Many individuals are affected on their higher brain functions, such as intelligence, memory, and attention, even after minor traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Although higher brain dysfunction is based on impairment of the cerebral circulation and metabolism, the precise relationship between them remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the cerebral circulation or cerebral metabolism and higher brain dysfunction. Twenty subjects with higher brain dysfunction caused by chronic MTBI were studied. They had no abnormal MRI findings. The full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) were quantitatively evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the subjects were classified into the normal group and the impaired group. Concurrent with the evaluation of FIQ, positron emission tomography (PET) was performed by the steady state method with {sup 15}O gases inhalation. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) were calculated in the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe. First, of all twenty subjects, we investigated rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} in all regions. Then we compared rCBF, OEF, and CMRO{sub 2} between the normal group and the impaired group based on FIQ score. We also studied the change of FIQ score of 13 subjects 9.3 months after the first evaluation. In addition, we investigated the change of rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} along with the improvement of FIQ score. Although rCBF and OEF of all subjects were within the normal range in all regions, CMRO{sub 2} of more than half of subjects was under the lower normal limit in all regions except in the right occipital lobe, showing the presence of ''relative luxury perfusion''. Comparison of rCBF, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} between normal group and impaired group revealed that CMRO{sub 2} of the impaired group was significantly lower than that of the

  10. Effects of 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist rizatriptan on cerebral blood flow and blood volume in normal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazawa, Hidehiko; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Pagani, Marco; Mori, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masato; Tanaka, Fumiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the vasoconstrictor effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B/1D) receptor agonists for migraine treatment, changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood volume induced by rizatriptan were assessed by positron emission tomography (PET). Eleven healthy volunteers underwent PET studies before and after rizatriptan administration. Dynamic PET data were acquired after bolus injection of H2(15)O to analyze CBF and arterial-to-capillary blood volume (V0) images using the three-weighted integral method. After a baseline scan, three further acquisitions were performed at 40 to 50, 60 and 70 to 80 mins after drug administration. Global and regional differences in CBF and V0 between conditions were compared using absolute values in the whole brain and cortical regions, as well as statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. The global and regional values for CBF and V0 decreased significantly after rizatriptan administration compared with the baseline condition. However, both values recovered to baseline within 80 mins after treatment. The maximal reduction in global CBF and V0 was approximately 13% of baseline value. The greatest decrease in CBF was observed approximately 60 mins after drug administration, whereas the maximal reduction in V0 was observed approximately 5 mins earlier. Statistical parametric mapping did not highlight any regional differences between conditions. Thus, in brain circulation, rizatriptan caused significant CBF and V0 decreases, which are consistent with the vasoconstrictor effect of triptans on the large cerebral arteries. The gradual recovery in the late phase from the maximal CBF and V0 decrease suggests that rizatriptan does not affect the cerebral autoregulatory response in small arteries induced by CBF reduction. PMID:15944648

  11. Nearshore circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.; Sobey, R.J.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Shelf circulation is driven primarily by wind- and tide-induced forces. It is laterally only weakly constrained so that the geostrophic (Coriolis) acceleration is manifest in the response. Nearshore circulation on the other hand is dominated by wave-induced forces associated with shallow-water. wave

  12. Contribution to the study of the thermal and hydrodynamical properties of a two-phase natural circulation flow of normal helium (He I) for the cooling of superconducting magnets; Contribution a l'etude des proprietes thermiques et hydrodynamiques d'un ecoulement d'helium normal (He I) diphasique en circulation naturelle pour le refroidissement des aimants supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkheira, L

    2007-06-15

    The method of cooling based on the thermosyphon principle is of great interest because of its simplicity, its passivity and its low cost. It is adopted to cool down to 4,5 K the superconducting magnet of the CMS particles detector of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment under construction at CERN, Geneva. This work studies heat and mass transfer characteristics of two phase He I in a natural circulation loop. The experimental set-up consists of a thermosyphon single branch loop mainly composed of a phase separator, a downward tube, and a test section. The experiments were conducted with varying several parameters such as the diameter of the test section (10 mm or 14 mm) and the applied heat flux up to the appearance of the boiling crisis. These experiments have permitted to determine the laws of evolution of the various parameters characterizing the flow (circulation mass flow rate, vapour mass flow rate, vapour quality, friction coefficient, two phase heat transfer coefficient and the critical heat flux) as a function of the applied heat flux. On the base of the obtained results, we discuss the validity of the various existing models in the literature. We show that the homogeneous model is the best model to predict the hydrodynamical properties of this type of flow in the vapour quality range 0{<=}x{<=}30%. Moreover, we propose two models for the prediction of the two phase heat transfer coefficient and the density of the critical heat flux. The first one considers that the effects of the forced convection and nucleate boiling act simultaneously and contribute to heat transfer. The second one correlates the measured critical heat flux density with the ratio altitude to diameter. (author)

  13. Immunophenotype of normal vs. myeloma plasma cells: Toward antibody panel specifications for MRD detection in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Montero, Juan; de Tute, Ruth; Paiva, Bruno; Perez, José Juan; Böttcher, Sebastian; Wind, Henk; Sanoja, Luzalba; Puig, Noemí; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Vidriales, María Belén; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Orfao, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several studies on large series of multiple myeloma (MM) patients have demonstrated the clinical utility of flow cytometry monitoring of minimal residual disease (flow-MRD) in bone marrow (BM), for improved assessment of response to therapy and prognostication. However, disturbing levels of variability exist regarding the specific protocols and antibody panels used in individual laboratories. Overall, consensus exists about the utility of combined assessment of CD38 and CD138 for the identification of BM plasma cells (PC); in contrast, more heterogeneous lists of markers are used to further distinguish between normal/reactive PCs and myeloma PCs in the MRD settings. Among the later markers, CD19, CD45, CD27, and CD81, together with CD56, CD117, CD200, and CD307, have emerged as particularly informative; however, no single marker provides enough specificity for clear discrimination between clonal PCs and normal PCs. Accordingly, multivariate analyses of single PCs from large series of normal/reactive vs. myeloma BM samples have shown that combined assessment of CD138 and CD38, together with CD45, CD19, CD56, CD27, CD81, and CD117 would be ideally suited for MRD monitoring in virtually every MM patient. However, the specific antibody clones, fluorochrome conjugates and sources of the individual markers determines its optimal (vs. suboptimal or poor) performance in an eight-color staining. Assessment of clonality, via additional cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (CyIg) κ vs. CyIgλ evaluation, may contribute to further establish the normal/reactive vs. clonal nature of small suspicious PC populations at high sensitivity levels, provided that enough cells are evaluated.

  14. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  15. Natural circulation systems: advantages and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture briefly explains the principle of working of a natural circulation system, its various advantages and applications in nuclear and other industries. The major challenges to be overcome before the wide acceptance of natural circulation as the normal mode of coolant circulation in nuclear power reactors are briefly described. Classification of NCSs and the terminologies commonly encountered in natural circulation literature are also briefly explained. (author)

  16. Circulating levels of sirtuin 4, a potential marker of oxidative metabolism, related to coronary artery disease in obese patients suffering from NAFLD, with normal or slightly increased liver enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Finelli, Carmine; Scopacasa, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Contaldo, Franco; Capone, Domenico; Savastano, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The present study shows low circulating levels of SIRT4 in obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease mirroring its reduced mitochondrial expression in an attempt to increase the fat oxidative capacity and then the mitochondrial function in liver and in muscle. SIRT4 modulates the metabolism of free fatty acids reducing their high circulating levels but, unfortunately, increasing ROS production. Great concentration of free fatty acids, released by adipose tissue, coupled with oxidative stress, directly results in endothelial dysfunction, early atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease risk factor.

  17. Unique case of caecum plasmablastic lymphoma CD138+ in patient with late diagnosed colon neuroendocrine carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroendocrine tumors are frequently associated with other primary malignancies. Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare, aggressive neoplasm, derived from large B-cell, associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Plasmablastic lymphoma cells share many cytomorphologic and immunophenotypic features with plasmablastic cells, causing some diagnostic problems. We present a unique case of coexisting two very uncommon neoplasms: plasmablastic lymphoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma in 54-years-old men. This is the first report of caecum localization of plasmablastic lymphoma. Presented case images diagnostic problems in rare neoplasms. (author)

  18. Associação entre a antropometria e a leptina circulante nos compartimentos materno, fetal e placentário, na gravidez normal Association between anthropometry and circulating leptin in maternal, fetal and placental compartments, in healthy pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cipriano Castro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a importância da leptina materna e fetal circulantes na gestação saudável por meio da avaliação de sua associação com variáveis antropométricas materna, placentária e fetal ao nascimento e as relações entre os compartimentos avaliados. MÉTODOS: em estudo transversal foi incluída amostra de 33 gestações únicas, a termo, com fetos saudáveis. As variáveis avaliadas foram idade materna, peso materno, índice de massa corporal, peso do recém-nascido, peso placentário e índice placentário. Amostras de sangue materno foram obtidas imediatamente antes do parto e em sangue do cordão umbilical ao nascimento. A dosagem da leptina sérica foi realizada por meio de radioimunoensaio convencional. As relações entre as concentrações de leptina sérica materna e da artéria e veia umbilicais com as variáveis de estudo foram verificadas através da regressão linear. RESULTADOS: a leptina foi detectada no sangue de todas as 33 gestantes e seus respectivos recém-nascidos, sendo a concentração no sangue materno (17,1±1,77 ng/ml superior à dos vasos umbilicais (veia 9,0±1,16 ng/mL; artéria 8,2±1,02 ng/mL, pPURPOSE: to evaluate the importance of circulating maternal and fetal leptin in the healthy gestation, using its association with maternal, placental and fetal anthropometric variables, obtained at birth, and the relationship between the evaluated compartments. METHODS: in a transversal study a population of 33 single, healthy and term gestations was studied. The evaluated variables were maternal age, maternal weight, body mass index (BMF, weight of the newborn, placental weight, and placental index. Samples of maternal blood were immediately obtained before birth and from fetal umbilical cord blood at birth. Determination of serum leptin was performed using conventional radioimmunoassay. The relationships between serum leptin concentrations in maternal blood, umbilical artery and vein and the studied

  19. Esearch on the E-commerce's Mobile Trend in China Under New Normal Circulation%流通新常态下我国电子商务移动趋势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张夏恒

    2015-01-01

    新常态推动着电子商务创新,移动电子商务引导着电子商务创新趋势。移动电子商务的移动性、及时性与私密性特征,是传统电子商务所不具备的。新常态带来新机遇与新挑战,也带来了消费需求的个性化与多样化。移动电子商务的发展,正迎合着经济新常态趋势,虽然会遇到诸多发展机遇,但也会面临许多发展障碍。通过诸如线上与线下协同、大数据应用、构建监管体系等一系列具体措施的提出,认为能驱动移动电子商务的健康良性发展。%The new normality takes innovation into e-commerce. The mobile e-commerce is the innovation trend of e-commerce. According to the traditional e-commerce, the mobile e-commerce has several differences, liking mobility, timeliness and privacy. The new normality brings new opportunities and challenges, it also bring the personality and diversifies about consumer demands. The mobile e-commerce 's development is to meet the new normality economy. There are many opportunities and obstacles for its development. Finally, it gives some suggestions, such as big-data applications, the transformation of the internet thinking, online and offline cooperation, trinity regulatory system. They can drive the healthy development of mobile e-commerce.

  20. Microwave circulator design

    CERN Document Server

    Linkhart, Douglas K

    2014-01-01

    Circulator design has advanced significantly since the first edition of this book was published 25 years ago. The objective of this second edition is to present theory, information, and design procedures that will enable microwave engineers and technicians to design and build circulators successfully. This resource contains a discussion of the various units used in the circulator design computations, as well as covers the theory of operation. This book presents numerous applications, giving microwave engineers new ideas about how to solve problems using circulators. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate how to apply the information to real-world design tasks.

  1. Mountains and Tropical Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Z.; Goodman, P. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Malyshev, S.; Russell, J. L.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Observed tropical convection exhibits zonal asymmetries that strongly influence spatial precipitation patterns. The drivers of changes to this zonally-asymmetric Walker circulation on decadal and longer timescales have been the focus of significant recent research. Here we use two state-of-the-art earth system models to explore the impact of earth's mountains on the Walker circulation. When all land-surface topography is removed, the Walker circulation weakens by 33-59%. There is a ~30% decrease in global, large-scale upward vertical wind velocities in the middle of the troposphere, but only minor changes in global average convective mass flux, precipitation, surface and sea-surface temperatures. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is also largely unchanged. Following the spatial pattern of changes to large-scale vertical wind velocities, precipitation becomes less focused over the tropics. The weakening of the Walker circulation, but not the Hadley circulation, is similar to the behavior of climate models during radiative forcing experiments: in our simulations, the weakening is associated with changes in vertical wind velocities, rather than the hydrologic cycle. These results indicate suggest that mountain heights may significantly influence the Walker circulation on geologic time scales, and observed changes in tropical precipitation over millions of years may have been forced by changes in tropical orography.

  2. Clinical observation of heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction treated by traditional Chinese drug of benefiting qi for activating blood circulation%益气活血法治疗左心室射血分数正常心力衰竭40例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂峰; 王占武; 马学鹏

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察益气活血法治疗左心室左心室射血分数正常心力衰竭的临床疗效.方法 将40例左心室射血分数正常心力衰竭患者随机分为治疗组与对照组,各20例.对照组采用常规西药治疗,治疗组在常规西药的基础上加用益气活血中药(生黄芪、丹参、川芎、檀香、桂枝、炙甘草),疗程2周.采用超声心动图检测治疗前后左室舒张功能指标舒张早期二尖瓣血流峰值( Emas),舒张晚期二尖瓣血流峰值(Amas),两者之比值(E/A),左房前后径(LAD),检测血浆脑钠肽(BNP),并观察临床疗效及中医证候疗效.结果 治疗组Emas、E/A、Amas及BNP与治疗前及对照组治疗后比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);中医证候疗效显效率与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).临床疗效治疗组总有效率95%,对照组总有效率70%,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 益气活血中药能够改善左心室射血分数正常心力衰竭患者左室血流动力学状态,提高左室舒张能力,对心力衰竭具有改善作用.%Objective To investigate the effect of traditional Chinese drug of benefiting qi for activating blood circulation on heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction. Methods 40 patients with heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction were randomly divided into the treatment group and control group, 20 cases each group. The control group received routine western medicine therapy. Patients in treatment group received combination of traditional Chinese drug of benefiting qi for activating blood circulation (consisting of Astragalus, dan-shen, hemlock parsley, sandalwood, cassia twig, radix glycyrrhizae preparata) and routine therapy. 2 weeks was as a therapeutic course. Left ventricular diastolic function index including early mitral valve diastolic flow peak velocity . (Emax) , late diastolic peak flow peak velocity( Amax) , ratio of E and A(E/A) , Left

  3. Gaussian Fibonacci Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become important tools in solving integrable system, Hamiltonian structure, and integral equations. In this paper, we prove that Gaussian Fibonacci circulant type matrices are invertible matrices for n>2 and give the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices. Furthermore, the upper bounds for the spread on Gaussian Fibonacci circulant and left circulant matrices are presented, respectively.

  4. The aerodynamics of circulation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    Two dimensional subsonic wind tunnel tests were conducted on a 20% thickness: chord ratio circulation controlled elliptic aerofoil section equipped with forward and reverse blowing slots. Overall performance measurements were made over a range of trailing edge blowing momentum coefficients from 0 to 0.04; some included the effect of leading edge blowing. A detailed investigation of the trailing edge wall jet, using split film probes, hot wire probes and total head tubes, provided measurements of mean velocity components, Reynolds normal and shear stresses, and radial static pressure. The closure of the two dimensional angular momentum and continuity equations was examined using the measured data, with and without correction, and the difficulty of obtaining a satisfactory solution illustrated. Suggestions regarding the nature of the flow field which should aid the understanding of Coanda effect and the theoretical solution of highly curved wall jet flows are presented.

  5. Circulant Double Coverings of a Circulant Graph of Valency Five

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Quan FENG; Jin Ho KWAK

    2007-01-01

    Enumerating the isomorphism classes of several types of graph covering projections is one of the central research topics in enumerative topological graph theory. A covering of G is called circulant if its covering graph is circulant. Recently, the authors [Discrete Math., 277, 73-85 (2004)]enumerated the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a certain type, called a typicalcovering, and showed that no double covering of a circulant graph of valency three is circulant. Also, in [Graphs and Combinatorics, 21, 386-400 (2005)], the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a circulant graph of valency four are enumerated. In this paper, the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a circulant graph of valency five are enumerated.

  6. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Naeije; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associ...

  7. INTERNAL CIRCULATION ENVELOPES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mail Office

    2001-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or a piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration.

  8. The Donders model of the circulation in normo- and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordergraaf, Gerrit J.; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Kortsmit, Wil J.P.M.;

    2006-01-01

    A model of the closed human cardiovascular loop is developed. This model, using one set of 88 equations, allows variations from normal resting conditions to exercise, as well as to the extreme condition of a circulation following cardiac arrest. The principal purpose of the model is to evaluate...... the continuum of physiological conditions to cardiopulmonary resuscitation effects within the circulation.   Within the model, Harvey's view of the circulation has been broadened to include impedance-defined flow as a unifying concept. The cardiac function curve, the relation between ventricular filling...

  9. [Circulating "tumor markers" in gastrointestinal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlinghaus, P; Lamerz, R

    1991-09-01

    Tumor markers (TM) of the neoplastic cell can be divided into non-shedded substances and antigens shedded in blood, urine or other body fluids. For clinicians circulating TM are more important. All relevant circulating TM are not useful in screening of asymptomatic patients because of insufficient sensitivity and specificity. With caution they are useful in the observation of risk groups. Circulating TM have their main significance as additional parameters in monitoring symptomatic patients with malignancies. Several follow up determinations are more important than one single measurement. During follow up of tumor patients TM should not be checked automatically if there are no diagnostic or therapeutical consequences. The clinically most important circulating TM in non-hormone secreting tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are the oncofetal antigens CEA and AFP and antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies e. g. CA 19-9 and CA 72-4. AFP is the primary TM in hepatocellular carcinoma, often elevated in hepatoblastoma and always normal in cholangiocellular carcinoma. CEA is the TM of first choice in patients with colorectal carcinomas and liver metastasis. CA 19-9 is TM of first choice in pancreatic carcinoma and additionally of diagnostic value in cholangiocellular carcinoma and tumors of the bile ducts. In cancer of the stomach CA 19-9 and CEA are secondary TM in combination with CA 72-4 as primary TM. Care should be taken that slight and moderate elevations of TM can be observed in benign diseases of liver, pancreas and bowel.

  10. Modelled Circulation In Storfjorden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogseth, R.; Asplin, L.

    The model area Storfjorden is situated between the islands Spitsbergen, Barentsöya and Edgeöya at the Svalbard Archipelago. The entrance of Storfjorden is defined by a shallow bank Storfjordbanken and some small islands Tusenöyane in southeast, and by an 115m deep sill at about 76 45' N in the south. Maximum depth in Storfjorden is 190m, which is surrounded by gradually shallower shelves in the north, the east and southeast. A steep bottom slope is present on the western side of Storfjorden. He- leysundet and Freemansundet, two sounds between respectively Spitsbergen and Bar- entsöya, and Barentsöya and Edgeöya, define two narrow and shallow entrances in the north and northeast connecting Storfjorden with the northwestern Barents Sea. Strong tidal currents exist in Heleysundet (4-5ms-1) and Freemansundet (2-3ms-1), but the general circulation in Storfjorden is not well known. The coastal current in Storfjor- den is cyclonic directed into Storfjorden south of Edgeöya from the East Spitsbergen Current and out of Storfjorden south of Spitsbergen where it is called Sørkappstrøm- men. A three-dimensional sigma layered numerical ocean model called Bergen Ocean Model (BOM) was used to simulate the circulation in Storfjorden with Freemansundet opened. Two simulations were carried out, one with heat flux (100 Wm-2) and one without heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. The heat flux was applied only in the proper fjord area north of the sill and not outside as a crude approximation of the effects of a polynya in the sea ice cover during winter. Both simulations had a 4km horizontal resolution and 21 sigma layers. The model is forced by winds (from the NCEP reanalyzed fields) and tides. Initial fields are from the DNMI/IMR climatol- ogy. The model simulation without heat flux gave a circulation heavily dependent on tidal forcing, showing strong tidal currents up to 2ms-1 in Freemansundet, between Tusenöyane and on Storfjordbanken southwest of Edgeöya. Earlier

  11. Resolvability in Circulant Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad SALMAN; Imran JAVAID; Muhammad Anwar CHAUDHRY

    2012-01-01

    A set W of the vertices of a connected graph G is called a resolving set for G if for every two distinct vertices u,v ∈ V(G) there is a vertex w ∈ W such that d(u,w) ≠ d(v,w).A resolving set of minimum cardinality is called a metric basis for G and the number of vertices in a metric basis is called the metric dimension of G,denoted by dim(G).For a vertex u of G and a subset S of V(G),the distance between u and S is the number mins∈s d(u,s).A k-partition H ={S1,S2,...,Sk} of V(G) is called a resolving partition if for every two distinct vertices u,v ∈ V(G) there is a set Si in Π such that d(u,Si) ≠ d(v,Si).The minimum k for which there is a resolving k-partition of V(G) is called the partition dimension of G,denoted by pd(G).The circulant graph is a graph with vertex set Zn,an additive group ofintegers modulo n,and two vertices labeled i and j adjacent if and only if i - j (mod n) ∈ C,where C C Zn has the property that C =-C and 0(∈) C.The circulant graph is denoted by Xn,△ where A =|C|.In this paper,we study the metric dimension of a family of circulant graphs Xn,3 with connection set C ={1,-n/2,n - 1} and prove that dim(Xn,3) is independent of choice of n by showing that 3 for all n =0 (mod 4),dim(X,n,3) ={ 4 for all n =2 (mod 4).We also study the partition dimension of a family of circulant graphs Xn,4 with connection set C ={±1,±2} and prove that pd(Xn,4) is independent of choice of n and show that pd(X5,4) =5 and 3 forall odd n≥9,pd(Xn,4) ={ 4 for all even n ≥ 6 and n =7.

  12. Posterior circulation revascularization to manage vertebrobasilar occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHANG Yan-guo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the technique and effect of posterior circulation revascularization to manage vertebrobasilar occlusion. Methods Nine patients with vertebrobasilar occlusion were treated by using occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery bypass, superficial temporal artery-superior cerebellar artery bypass, superficial temporal artery-posterior cerebral artery bypass and occipital artery-vertebral artery bypass with radial artery graft. Results Intraoperative indocyanine green angiography showed all the bypass arteries were patent. Postoperative DSA or CTA showed bypass arteries patent in 8 patients, among whom seven patients got obvious improvement on MR or CT perfusion. One patient died of heart failure on the 15th day postoperative. During the follow-up of eight patients, no stroke reoccurred, four patients got back to nearly normal life. Conclusion Most of the patients with vertebrobasilar occlusion could benefit from the posterior circulation revascularization, which should be confirmed by randomized controlled clinical trials in the future.

  13. North Atlantic Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.

    The intensity of the North Atlantic winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North Atlantic a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North Atlantic with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North Atlantic Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).

  14. Circulation of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  15. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  16. Study on the Effects of Neutral Nature Drugs with Promoting Blood Circulation on Mesenteric Microcirculation and Related Activity Materials of Normal Rats%平性活血药对正常大鼠微循环及相关活性物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓家刚; 韦玮; 黄鑫; 郑作文; 周雅君; 毛健; 黄丽贞; 唐云丽; 谭为; 伦玉宁; 兰太进

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究10味平性活血药对正常大鼠微循环及相关活性物质的影响.方法:灌胃给药,1次/天,连续14天,以5味寒性、5味温性药作对照,末次药后1h观察10味平性药对正常大鼠微循环(血流速度、血管管径、毛细血管网交点计数)及相关活性物质(5 - HT、ADP、ET/NO、cAMP/cGMP)的影响.结果:平性药血竭、王不留行、蒲黄可增加血流速度(P <0.05~0.01);合欢皮、肿节风、蒲黄、血竭可增加网交数(P<0.05~0.01);桃仁、苏木、银杏叶、血竭、三棱、合欢皮、川牛膝、王不留行、蒲黄、肿节风可降低血清中5 - HT和ADP含量(P<0.01);血竭、三棱、王不留行可升高血浆中cAMP/cGMP比值(P <0.05~0.01).结论:6味平性药能增强正常大鼠的微循环功能;10味平性药均可降低血清5 - HT和ADP含量;8味平性药可降低血液ET/NO比值;3味平性药可升高血浆cAMP/cGMP比值.%Objective: To observe the effects of ten kinds neutral drugs with promoting blood circulation on mesenteric microcirculation and related activity materials of the normal rats. Methods: Five kinds of cold drugs and five kinds of warm drugs were as the control drugs forl4 days. 1 hour after the last administration, the effect on microcirculation blood flow, capillary network junction, microvascular diameter and blood -related activity materials (5 - HT, ADP, ET/NO, cAMP/cGMP) of the normal rats were observed. Results: Neutral drugs including Dragons blood, seed of cowherb and Typha orientalis can increase the microcirculation blood flow(P<0.05 or P<0.01 ). Albizzia bark .Sarcandra glabra , Dragons blood and Typha orientalis can increase capillary network junction( P <0. 05or P <0. 01 ). Peach Kernel, Lig-num Sappan,Ginkgo Biloba, Dragon's blood,Rhizome sparganii.bark of Albizzia,Cyathula officinalis Kuan,seed of Cow-herb ,Typha orientalis and Sarcandra glubra decreased the contents of ADP and 5 - HT in blood serum( P < 0. 01

  17. State of the Art Report for a Bearing for VHTR Helium Circulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Seon; Song, Kee Nam; Kim, Yong Wan; Lee, Won Jae

    2008-10-15

    A helium circulator in a VHTR(Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor) plays a core role which translates thermal energy at high temperature from a nuclear core to a steam generator. Helium as a operating coolant circulates a primary circuit in high temperature and high pressure state, and controls thermal output of a nuclear core by controlling flow rate. A helium circulator is the only rotating machinery in a VHTR, and its reliability should be guaranteed for reliable operation of a reactor and stable production of hydrogen. Generally a main helium circulator is installed on the top of a steam generator vessel, and helium is circulated only by a main helium circulator in a normal operation state. An auxiliary or shutdown circulator is installed at the bottom of a reactor vessel, and it is an auxiliary circulator for shutting down a reactor in case of refueling or accelerating cooling down in case of fast cooling. Since a rotating shaft of a helium circulator is supported by bearings, bearings are the important machine elements which determines reliability of a helium circulator and a nuclear reactor. Various types of support bearings have been developed and applied for circulator bearings since 1960s, and it is still developing for developing VHTRs. So it is necessary to review and analyze the current technical state of helium circulator support bearings to develop bearings for Koran developing VHTR helium circulator.

  18. Natural Circulation Phenomena and Modelling for Advanced Water Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of natural circulation in advanced water cooled reactor design has been extended with the adoption of passive safety systems. Some designs utilize natural circulation to remove core heat during normal operation. Most passive safety systems used in evolutionary and innovative water cooled reactor designs are driven by natural circulation. The use of passive systems based on natural circulation can eliminate the costs associated with the installation, maintenance and operation of active systems that require multiple pumps with independent and redundant electric power supplies. However, considering the weak driving forces of passive systems based on natural circulation, careful design and analysis methods must be employed to ensure that the systems perform their intended functions. Several IAEA Member States with advanced reactor development programmes are actively conducting investigations of natural circulation to support the development of advanced water cooled reactor designs with passive safety systems. To foster international collaboration on the enabling technology of passive systems that utilize natural circulation, in 2004 the IAEA initiated a coordinated research project (CRP) on Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling and Reliability of Passive Systems that Utilize Natural Circulation. Three reports were published within the framework of this CRP. The first report (IAEA-TECDOC-1474) contains the material developed for the first IAEA training course on natural circulation in water cooled nuclear power plants. The second report (IAEA-TECDOC-1624) describes passive safety systems in a wide range of advanced water cooled nuclear power plant designs, with the goal of gaining insights into system design, operation and reliability. This third, and last, report summarizes the research studies completed by participating institutes during the CRP period.

  19. Ocean General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun

    2012-09-30

    1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

  20. Percutaneous interventions in Fontan circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Franco

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Interventional catheterization procedures are often necessary to reach and maintain the fragile Fontan circulation, mainly in patients with right morphology systemic ventricles and fenestrated Fontan conduits.

  1. Elevated circulating somatostatin levels in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, M; Porretti, S; Epaminonda, P; Giavoli, C; Gebbia, C; Penati, C; Beck-Peccoz, P; Peracchi, M

    2003-06-01

    GH increases hypothalamic somatostatin (SS) synthesis and secretion but it is unknown if chronic GH excess, as found in acromegaly, may influence circulating SS levels, that are mainly of enteropancreatic source and affect several gastrointestinal functions, including motility. Circulating SS occurs in several post-translational forms including somatostatin-14 (SS-14), somatostatin-28 (SS-28) and other small peptides. The aim of the present study was to characterize the fasting and postprandial pattern of plasma circulating somatostatin in normal subjects and patients with acromegaly. Fasting total SS and SS-28 levels were measured in 32 subjects, 16 acromegalic patients with a new diagnosis (A) (8 F, 8 M, median age 48) and 16 matched healthy volunteers (C) (8 F, 8 M, median age 45). SS was also determined after a standard solid-liquid meal (550 kCal) in 24 of the subjects (12 C and 12 A). Fasting SS and SS-28 were significantly higher in acromegalic patients as compared to healthy subjects. In the former, a positive correlation was found between IGF-I and SS levels (r = 0.525 p acromegaly. Excess GH/IGF-I could be a causal factor in somatostatin hypersecretion. Conceivably this abnormality might play a role in some alterations of gastrointestinal function of acromegalic patients such as prolonged bowel transit.

  2. Sino-Danish Brain Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Du, Xiangyun; Søndergaard, Morten Karnøe

    2014-01-01

    China is faced with urgent needs to develop an economically and environmentally sustainable economy based on innovation and knowledge. Brain circulation and research and business investments from the outside are central for this development. Sino-American brain circulation and research...... and investment by overseas researchers and entrepreneurs are well described. In that case, the US is the center of global R&D and S&T. However, the brain circulation and research and investments between a small open Scandinavian economy, such as Denmark, and the huge developing economy of China are not well...... understood. In this case, Denmark is very highly developed, but a satellite in the global R&D and S&T system. With time and the growth of China as a R&D and S&T power house, both Denmark and China will benefit from brain circulation between them. Such brain circulation is likely to play a key role in flows...

  3. TROPICAL METEOROLOGY & Climate: Hadley Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jian; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-30

    The Hadley circulation, a prominent circulation feature characterized by rising air near the Equator and sinking air in the subtropics, defines the position of dry subtropical areas and is a fundamental regulator of the earth’s energy and momentum budgets. The character of the Hadley circulation, and its related precipitation regimes, exhibits variation and change in response to both climate variability and radiative forcing changes. The strength and position of the Hadley circulation change from year to year paced by El Niño and La Niña events. Over the last few decades of the twentieth century, the Hadley cell has expanded poleward in both hemispheres, with changes in atmospheric composition (including stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increases) thought to have contributed to its expansion. This article introduces the basic phenomenology and driving mechanism of the Hadley circulation and discusses its variations under both natural and anthropogenic climate forcings.

  4. Experimental studies in a single-phase parallel channel natural circulation system. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodkha, Kapil; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Jana, S.S.; Vijayan, P.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Reactor Engineering Div.

    2016-03-15

    Natural circulation systems find extensive applications in industrial engineering systems. One of the applications is in nuclear reactor where the decay heat is removed by natural circulation of the fluid under off-normal conditions. The upcoming reactor designs make use of natural circulation in order to remove the heat from core under normal operating conditions also. These reactors employ multiple vertical fuel channels with provision of on-power refueling/defueling. Natural circulation systems are relatively simple, safe and reliable when compared to forced circulation systems. However, natural circulation systems are prone to encounter flow instabilities which are highly undesirable for various reasons. Presence of parallel channels under natural circulation makes the system more complicated. To examine the behavior of parallel channel system, studies were carried out for single-phase natural circulation flow in a multiple vertical channel system. The objective of the present work is to study the flow behavior of the parallel heated channel system under natural circulation for different operating conditions. Steady state and transient studies have been carried out in a parallel channel natural circulation system with three heated channels. The paper brings out the details of the system considered, different cases analyzed and preliminary results of studies carried out on a single-phase parallel channel system.

  5. The circulation physiology of agroecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Zhiping; Richard Dawson

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents an effort to enlarge the understanding of the biophysical foundation of agroecosystems by using an analogy with the circulation of the blood in the human body. The circulation function in the human body can be represented as arterial pressure. The factors affecting arterial pressure in the human body have direct counterparts in the cultivation-husbandry system. The relationship between circulation pressure and the factors affecting that pressure in the cultivation-husbandry system are similar to the relationship between the arterial pressure and factors affecting arterial pressure in the human body. Furthermore, circulation resistance in the cultivation-husbandry system can be shown to be analogous to the calculation of peripheral resistance in the human body by Poiseuille's formula.

  6. Atmospheric Circulation of Terrestrial Exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Showman, Adam P.; Wordsworth, Robin D.; Merlis, Timothy M.; Kaspi, Yohai

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of planets around other stars began with the study of gas giants, but is now extending to the discovery and characterization of super-Earths and terrestrial planets. Motivated by this observational tide, we survey the basic dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation of terrestrial exoplanets, and discuss the interaction of their circulation with the hydrological cycle and global-scale climate feedbacks. Terrestrial exoplanets occupy a wide range of physical a...

  7. Self-normalized processes

    CERN Document Server

    Heyde, C C

    2008-01-01

    Self-normalized processes are of common occurrence in probabilistic and statistical studies. This volume covers developments in the area, including self-normalized large and moderate deviations, and laws of the iterated logarithms for self-normalized martingales. It treats the theory and applications of self-normalization.

  8. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow. Key Points Sinking occurs in a narrow boundary layer along the eastern boundary Surface western boundary current switches into an eastern boundary current Water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is not hydraulically controlled © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  9. The Invertibility, Explicit Determinants, and Inverses of Circulant and Left Circulant and g-Circulant Matrices Involving Any Continuous Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices play an important role in solving delay differential equations. In this paper, circulant type matrices including the circulant and left circulant and g-circulant matrices with any continuous Fibonacci and Lucas numbers are considered. Firstly, the invertibility of the circulant matrix is discussed and the explicit determinant and the inverse matrices by constructing the transformation matrices are presented. Furthermore, the invertibility of the left circulant and g-circulant matrices is also studied. We obtain the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices of the left circulant and g-circulant matrices by utilizing the relationship between left circulant, g-circulant matrices and circulant matrix, respectively.

  10. [Circulating nucleic acids and infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, E; Mullet, T; Ferrières Hoa, A; Gala, A; Loup, V; Anahory, T; Belloc, S; Hamamah, S

    2015-09-01

    Circulating nucleic acids (cell-free DNA and microRNAs) have for particularity to be easily detectable in the biological fluids of the body. Therefore, they constitute biomarkers of interest in female and male infertility care. Indeed, in female, they can be used to detect ovarian reserve disorders (polycystic ovary syndrome and low functional ovarian reserve) as well as to assess follicular microenvironment quality. Moreover, in men, their expression levels can vary in case of spermatogenesis abnormalities. Finally, circulating nucleic acids have also the ability to predict successfully the quality of in vitro embryo development. Their multiple contributions during assisted reproductive technology (ART) make of them biomarkers of interest, for the development of new diagnostic and/or prognostic tests, applied to our specialty. Circulating nucleic acids would so offer the possibility of personalized medical care for infertile couples in ART. PMID:26298813

  11. Atmospheric Circulation of Terrestrial Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Showman, Adam P; Merlis, Timothy M; Kaspi, Yohai

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of planets around other stars began with the study of gas giants, but is now extending to the discovery and characterization of super-Earths and terrestrial planets. Motivated by this observational tide, we survey the basic dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation of terrestrial exoplanets, and discuss the interaction of their circulation with the hydrological cycle and global-scale climate feedbacks. Terrestrial exoplanets occupy a wide range of physical and dynamical conditions, only a small fraction of which have yet been explored in detail. Our approach is to lay out the fundamental dynamical principles governing the atmospheric circulation on terrestrial planets--broadly defined--and show how they can provide a foundation for understanding the atmospheric behavior of these worlds. We first survey basic atmospheric dynamics, including the role of geostrophy, baroclinic instabilities, and jets in the strongly rotating regime (the "extratropics") and the role of the Hadle...

  12. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R.; Kitzman, Jacob O.; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C.; Daza, Riza; Gligorich, Keith M.; Rostomily, Robert C.; Shendure, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134–144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132–145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA. PMID:27428049

  13. Proper Sizing of Circulation Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    , but the results can be applied to Europe in general. Despite the small sample of houses involved in the test, 15 houses, some rather safe conclusions can be drawn from the results, which showed that newly developed pumps with power consumption around 5-8 W, can perform the task of circulating the water...... as well as their pollution during operation. Policy measures are proposed of how to ensure that in the future only such energy saving pumps are installed. Furthermore, on the basis of the historic experiences with circulation pumps some con¬clusions are drawn on how to investigate, develop and market new...

  14. Human cerebral circulation. Positron emission tomography studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the literature on human cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism, as measured by positron emission tomography (PET), with respect to normal values and of regulation of cerebral circulation. A multicenter study in Japan showed that between-center variations in cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) values were not considerably larger than the corresponding within-center variations. Overall mean±SD values in cerebral cortical regions of normal human subjects were as follows: CBF=44.4±6.5 ml/100 ml/min; CBV=3.8±0.7 ml/100 ml; OEF=0.44±0.06; CMRO2=3.3±0.5 ml/100 ml/min (11 PET centers, 70 subjects). Intrinsic regulation of cerebral circulation involves several factors. Autoregulation maintains CBF in response to changes in cerebral perfusion pressure; chemical factors such as PaCO2 affect cerebral vascular tone and alter CBF; changes in neural activity cause changes in cerebral energy metabolism and CBF; neurogenic control of CBF occurs by sympathetic innervation. Regional differences in vascular response to changes in PaCO2 have been reported, indicating regional differences in cerebral vascular tone. Relations between CBF and CBV during changes in PaCO2 and during changes in neural activity were in good agreement with Poiseuille's law. The mechanisms of vascular response to neural activation and deactivation were independent on those of responses to PaCO2 changes. CBV in a brain region is the sum of three components: arterial, capillary and venous blood volumes. It has been reported that the arterial blood volume fraction is approximately 30% in humans and that changes in human CBV during changes in PaCO2 are caused by changes in arterial blood volume without changes in venous blood volume. These findings should be considered in future studies of the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. (author) 136 refs

  15. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... involves surgical placement of a shunt in the brain to drain excess CSF into the abdomen where it can be absorbed as part of the normal circulatory process. This allows the brain ventricles to return to their normal size. Regular ...

  16. Conservation of Circulation in Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bekenstein, J D; Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Oron, Asaf

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate, both at the Newtonian and (general) relativistic levels, theexistence of a generalization of Kelvin's circulation theorem (for pure fluids)which is applicable to perfect magnetohydrodynamics. The argument is based onthe least action principle for magnetohydrodynamic flow. Examples of the newconservation law are furnished. The new theorem should be helpful inidentifying new kinds of vortex phenomena distinct from magnetic ropes or fluidvortices.

  17. Neural Control of the Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gail D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to highlight key concepts about the neural control of the circulation that graduate and medical students should be expected to incorporate into their general knowledge of human physiology. The focus is largely on the sympathetic nerves, which have a dominant role in cardiovascular control due to their effects to…

  18. VanderLaan Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become a satisfactory tools in control methods for modern complex systems. In the paper, VanderLaan circulant type matrices are presented, which include VanderLaan circulant, left circulant, and g-circulant matrices. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed by the surprising properties of VanderLaan numbers. The exact determinants of VanderLaan circulant type matrices are given by structuring transformation matrices, determinants of well-known tridiagonal matrices, and tridiagonal-like matrices. The explicit inverse matrices of these special matrices are obtained by structuring transformation matrices, inverses of known tridiagonal matrices, and quasi-tridiagonal matrices. Three kinds of norms and lower bound for the spread of VanderLaan circulant and left circulant matrix are given separately. And we gain the spectral norm of VanderLaan g-circulant matrix.

  19. Cardiovascular studies in the rhesus monkey. [brain circulation during stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H. L.; Sandler, H.

    1977-01-01

    Criteria are given for selecting the macaca mulatta as the analogue of the human in the study of cerebral circulation, particularly the control of the cerebral vascular bed during normal and stressful conditions. Topics discussed include surgical preparation of subject; responses to changes in arterial pressure, oxygen, and carbon dioxide; innervation of cerebral vessels; cerebral flow response to acceleration; and cerebral blood flow and cerebellar stimulation.

  20. Doppler velocimetry with emphasis on the fetal cerebral circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Noordam, Marja

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis the following questions were addressed: 1. Are changes in placental vascular resistance associated with alterations in arterial down stream impedance at fetal level? To this purpose placental embolization was carried-out in the fetal lamb with subsequent Doppler velocimetry in the fetal descending aorta (chapter 2). 2. What happens to the human fetal cerebral circulation relative to normal and raised umbilical placental resistance? To answer this question, the human...

  1. Is My Penis Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Is My Penis Normal? KidsHealth > For Teens > Is My Penis Normal? Print A A A Text Size en ... any guy who's ever worried about whether his penis is a normal size. There's a fairly wide ...

  2. Do normal hips dislocate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshameeri, Zeiad; Rehm, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    There have been a small number of case reports describing late normal-hip dislocations in children who were later diagnosed with developmental dysplasia of the hip. Here, we contest the assumption that normal hips can dislocate. We argue that (as in our case) the ultrasound scans in all published case reports on late dislocated normal hips did not show results that were entirely normal and therefore, so far, there has been no convincing evidence of a dislocation of a normal hip. We also want to highlight the importance of meticulous ultrasound and clinical assessments of high-risk children by an experienced orthopaedic surgeon. PMID:25144883

  3. Radioisotopic evaluation of portal circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a radio-tracer of portal circulation through the intestine, should prevent cruel punctures in the portal-vein or spleen as it is usually the case with traditional methods in the study of portal-system. The absorption of I-131 and Tc-99m, previously cheked in rabbits presented similar results in dogs. The time of circulation between terminal large-intestine and the liver (t-RF) was determined by external counting at hepatic level by recording radioactivity variation-time. In healthy animals the t-RF was from 20to 60 seconds, with average time of 42 seconds. In 2 animals with partial binding of portal-vein the t-RF went up to 110 and 120 seconds. (Author)

  4. Journalism as Cultures of Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The universe of journalism has always consisted of interspersed texts, meanings and practices. Yet, much journalism research has often isolated either texts and/or contexts and as such assumed relations between professional practices, informed (rational) readers and (conceived) core texts...... of journalism. It is, however, more important than ever to shift attention away from texts to the processes through which they are circulated. This is partly because the many cultural forms of journalism (textual, institutional, technological, material, behavioural and imagined) are undergoing significant......, likes, comments, searches, journalist roles, writing and reading positions and identities etc. Such forms will be traced within the mediation of a specific event with the overall aim of beginning a theorization of the landscape of journalism as highly interrelated cultures of circulation....

  5. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.;

    2006-01-01

    Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification...... of ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume...... of the magnetic field, as compared to the ECCO simulation. Besides the expected signatures of the global circulation patterns, we find significant seasonal variability of ocean magnetic signals in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Compared to seasonal variation, interannual variations produce weaker signals....

  6. Conservation of circulation in magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekenstein; Oron

    2000-10-01

    We demonstrate at both the Newtonian and (general) relativistic levels the existence of a generalization of Kelvin's circulation theorem (for pure fluids) that is applicable to perfect magnetohydrodynamics. The argument is based on the least action principle for magnetohydrodynamic flow. Examples of the new conservation law are furnished. The new theorem should be helpful in identifying new kinds of vortex phenomena distinct from magnetic ropes or fluid vortices. PMID:11089118

  7. Electronic circulation of accounting documents

    OpenAIRE

    Kremláčková, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes a circulation of accounting documents in an accounting entity, deals with legal requirements of the entire process and discusses it as a part of an internal control system of the entity. In connection with the theme of the work there are also defined legislative conditions for using information and communication technologies and introduced possibilities of involving these technologies in the process of processing of the accounting documents. Above all the electronic data...

  8. Internal variability of the thermohaline ocean circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raa, Lianke Alinda te

    2003-01-01

    Variations in the ocean circulation can strongly influence climate due to the large heat transport by the ocean currents. Variability of the thermohaline ocean circulation, the part of the ocean circulation driven by density gradients, occurs typically on (inter)decadal and longer time scales and is

  9. Main circulator design features for HTR 100, HTR 500 and space heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All design alternatives for modern high-temperature reactors have a common circulator concept: It is based on a vertical shaft design with a flying impeller. The circulators are equipped with active magnetic bearings and are driven by induction motors connected to variable-speed static converters. Due to their multiple functions during normal reactor operation and under accident conditions, extremely high requirements are made to safety-relevant circulators, since with the reactor pressurized as well as under depressurized conditions specified delivery heads and flow rates have to be ensured. The use of active magnetic bearings permits to obtain maintenance-free operation and functional safety to an extent which had not been achieved before. Magnetic bearings are therefore provided for the total range including primary gas circulators of a drive power of several MW as well as circulators for helium loops of reactor auxiliary systems. The essential feature for using active magnetic bearings is the retainer bearing technology, preventing contact between rotor and static circulator parts upon unintended deenergisation of the magnets. Results of current experiments are reported. Another aspect to be considered for reliable long-term operation for several decades is the effect of rotor dynamics. The various natural frequencies resulting from torsion and bending modes in view of a drive by a frequency-controlled induction motor have to be considered as well as the specific characteristics of the active magnetic bearings. Special attention has to be directed to the internal cooling loop so as to ensure that reactor temperature excursions in the event of deviation from normal operation can be overcome without damage. For circulator components exposed to temperature fields the design characteristics are determined by combining experimental and analytical methods. The coordination of all component parts is currently being optimized on a prototype circulator whose detailed

  10. Microfluidic device (ExoChip) for On-Chip isolation, quantification and characterization of circulating exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kanwar, Shailender Singh; Dunlay, Christopher James; Simeone, Diane M; Nagrath, Sunitha

    2014-01-01

    Membrane bound vesicles, including microvesicles and exosomes, are secreted by both normal and cancerous cells into the extracellular space and in blood circulation. These circulating extracellular vesicles (cirEVs) and exosomes in particular are recognized as a potential source of disease biomarkers. However, to exploit the use of circulatory exosomes as a biomarker, a rapid, high-throughput and reproducible method is required for their isolation and molecular analysis. We have developed a s...

  11. Does liver-intestine significantly degrade circulating endogenous substance P in man?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B.; Bülow, J B

    1986-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of circulating substance P in patients with liver insufficiency have been ascribed to decreased hepatic degradation. To establish a possible biodegradation of the peptide in liver-intestine and kidneys, the concentration of endogenous immunoreactive substance P...... was determined in various vascular beds during a right-sided catheterization in 13 subjects without liver insufficiency. All subjects had normal values of circulating substance P, and no significant difference was found between systemic plasma and hepatic venous or renal venous concentrations of substance P....... The results indicate that degradation of circulating endogenous substance P in man is not confined to liver-intestine or kidney but may take place in many tissues....

  12. Circulating follistatin in relation to energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jakob Schiøler; Plomgaard, Peter

    2016-09-15

    Recently, substantial evidence has emerged that the liver contributes significantly to the circulating levels of follistatin and that circulating follistatin is tightly regulated by the glucagon-to-insulin ratio. Both observations are based on investigations of healthy subjects. These novel findings challenge the present view of circulating follistatin in human physiology, being that circulating follistatin is a result of spill-over from para/autocrine actions in various tissues and cells. Follistatin as a liver-derived protein under the regulation of glucagon-to-insulin ratio suggests a relation to energy metabolism. In this narrative review, we attempt to reconcile the existing findings on circulating follistatin with the novel concept that circulating follistatin is a liver-derived molecule regulated by the glucagon-to-insulin ratio. The picture emerging is that conditions associated with elevated levels of circulating follistatin have a metabolic denominator with decreased insulin sensitivity and/or hyperglucagoneimia. PMID:27264073

  13. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  14. Shared values and normality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-hua; PANG Xue-cheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the normality and the shared values for a meromorphic function on the unit disc △.Based on Marty's normality criterion and through a detailed analysis of the meromorphic functions,it is shown that if for every f∈F,f and f(k) share a and b on △ and the zeros of f(z)-a are of multiplicity k≥3,then F is normal on △,where F is a family of meromorphic functions on the unit disc △,and a and b are distinct values.

  15. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Myers(CERN)

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by c...

  16. Normalizers of Irreducible Subfactors

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Roger R.; White, Stuart A.; Wiggins, Alan D.

    2007-01-01

    We consider normalizers of an irreducible inclusion $N\\subseteq M$ of $\\mathrm{II}_1$ factors. In the infinite index setting an inclusion $uNu^*\\subseteq N$ can be strict, forcing us to also investigate the semigroup of one-sided normalizers. We relate these normalizers of $N$ in $M$ to projections in the basic construction and show that every trace one projection in the relative commutant $N'\\cap $ is of the form $u^*e_Nu$ for some unitary $u\\in M$ with $uNu^*\\subseteq N$. This enabl...

  17. Active Circulation Control for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, Alexandru; Dumitrescu, Horia; Preotu, Octavian

    2011-09-01

    A based method for modeling the aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine has been developed. Circulation control is implemented by tangentially blowing a small high-velocity jet over a highly curved surface, such as a rounded trailing edge. This causes the boundary layer and the jet sheet to remain attached along the curved surface due to the Coanda effect and causing the jet to turn without separation. This analysis has been validated for the experimental data of a rotor tested at NASA Ames Research Center. Comparisons have been done against measurements for surface pressure distribution, force coefficients normal and tangential to the chord line, torque and root bending moments. This approach for enhancing the circulation around the airfoil sections (and hence L/D and power production) has been examined and found to produce useful increases in power at low wind speeds.

  18. Normal Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a ... is "normal" depends upon the child's level of development, which can vary greatly among children of the ...

  19. The amazing normal forces

    CERN Document Server

    Petrache, Horia I

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript is written for students in introductory physics classes to address some of the common difficulties and misconceptions of the normal force, especially the relationship between normal and friction forces. Accordingly, it is intentionally informal and conversational in tone to teach students how to build an intuition to complement mathematical formalism. This is accomplished by beginning with common and everyday experience and then guiding students toward two realizations: (i) That real objects are deformable even when deformations are not easily visible, and (ii) that the relation between friction and normal forces follows from the action-reaction principle. The traditional formulae under static and kinetic conditions are then analyzed to show that peculiarity of the normal-friction relationship follows readily from observations and knowledge of physics principles.

  20. Normality in analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  1. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  2. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  3. Normalized information distance

    OpenAIRE

    Vitányi, P.M.B.; Balbach, F.J.; Cilibrasi, R.L.; M. Li

    2008-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string representation. Second, for names and abstract concepts, page count statistics from the World Wide Web can be used. These practical realizations of the normalized information distance can then be a...

  4. Circulating Fibrocytes Are Increased in Neonates with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Li

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is characterized by the aberrant remodeling of the lung parenchyma, resulting from accumulation of fibroblasts or myofibroblasts. Circulating fibrocytes are implied in pulmonary fibrosis, but whether these cells are associated with the development of BPD or the progressive fibrosis is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of fibrocytes in peripheral venous blood and explore whether these cells might be associated with severity of BPD.We investigated circulating fibrocytes in 66 patients with BPD, 23 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS and 11 normal subjects. Circulating fibrocytes were defined and quantified as cells positive for CD45 andcollagen-1 by flow cytometry. Furthermore, serum SDF-1/CXCL12 and TGF-β1 were evaluated using ELISA methods. We also investigated the clinical value of fibrocyte counts by comparison with standard clinical parameters.The patients with BPD had significantly increased numbers of fibrocytes compared to the controls (p < 0.01. Patients with ARDS were not different from healthy control subjects. There was a correlation between the number of fibrocytes and pulmonary hypertension or oxygen saturation (p < 0.05. Fibrocyte numbers were not correlated with other clinical or functional variables or radiologic severity scores. The fibrocyte attractant chemokine CXCL12 increased in plasma (p < 0.05 and was detectable in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 40% of the patients but not in controls.These findings indicate that circulating fibrocytes are increased in patients with BPD and may contribute to pulmonary fibrosis in BPD. Circulating fibrocytes, likely recruited through the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, might contribute to the production of TGF-β1 for the expansion of fibroblast/myofibroblast population in BPD.

  5. Circulating filarial antigen detection in brugian filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Praveen Kumar; Mahajan, Ramesh Chander; Malla, Nancy; Mewara, Abhishek; Bhattacharya, Shailja Misra; Shenoy, Ranganatha Krishna; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2016-03-01

    Human lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a major cause of disability globally. The success of global elimination programmes for LF depends upon effectiveness of tools for diagnosis and treatment. In this study on stage-specific antigen detection in brugian filariasis, L3, adult worm (AW) and microfilarial antigenaemia were detected in around 90-95% of microfilariae carriers (MF group), 50-70% of adenolymphangitis (ADL) patients, 10-25% of chronic pathology (CP) patients and 10-15% of endemic normal (EN) controls. The sensitivity of the circulating filarial antigen (CFA) detection in serum samples from MF group was up to 95%. In sera from ADL patients, unexpectedly, less antigen reactivity was observed. In CP group all the CFA positive individuals were from CP grade I and II only and none from grade III or IV, suggesting that with chronicity the AWs lose fecundity and start to disintegrate and die. Amongst EN subject, 10-15% had CFA indicating that few of them harbour filarial AWs, thus they might not be truly immune as has been conventionally believed. The specificity for antigen detection was 100% when tested with sera from various other protozoan and non-filarial helminthic infections.

  6. A blood circulation model for reference man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.; Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Div. of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersal of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravascular injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is to improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The total blood volume is partitioned into the blood contents of 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chambers, left heart chambers, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the systemic tissues (aorta and large arteries), and venous return from the systemic tissues (large veins). As a compromise between physical reality and computational simplicity, the circulation of blood is viewed as a system of first-order transfers between blood pools, with the delay time depending on the mean transit time across the pool. The model allows consideration of incomplete, tissue-dependent extraction of material during passage through the circulation and return of material from tissues to plasma.

  7. Circulation of Venus upper mesosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasova, Ludmila; Gorinov, Dmitry; Shakun, Alexey; Altieri, Francesca; Migliorini, Alessandra; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Observation of the O2 1.27 μm airglow intensity distribution on the night side of Venus is one of the methods of study of the circulation in upper mesosphere 90-100 km. VIRTIS-M on board Venus Express made these observations in nadir and limb modes in Southern and Northern hemispheres respectively. Global map of the O2 night glow is published (Piccioni et al. 2009). In this work we use for analysis only data, obtained with exposure > 3 s to avoid high noisy data. It was found that intensity of emission decreases to poles and to terminators (similar to Piccioni et al.2009) in both hemispheres, which gives evidence for existence of SS-AS circulation with transport of the air masses through poles and terminators with ascending/descending flows at SS/AS areas. However, asymmetry of distribution of intensity of airglow is observed in both hemispheres. Global map for southern hemisphere (from nadir data) has good statistics at φ > 10-20° S and pretty poor at low latitude. Maximum emission is shifted from midnight by 1 - 2 hours to the evening (22-23h) and deep minimum of emission is found at LT=2-4 h at φ > 20° S. This asymmetry is extended up to equatorial region, however statistic is poor there. No evident indication for existence of the Retrograde Zonal Superrotation (RZS) is found: maximum emission in this case, which is resulting from downwards flow, should be shifted to the morning. The thermal tides, gravity waves are evidently influence on the night airglow distribution. VIRTIS limb observations cover the low northern latitudes and they are more sparse at higher latitudes. Intensity of airglow at φ = 0 - 20° N shows wide maximum, which is shifted by 1- 2 h from midnight to morning terminator. This obviously indicates that observed O2 night glow distribution in low North latitudes is explained by a superposition of SS-AS flow and RZS circulation at 95-100 km. This behavior is similar to the NO intensity distribution, obtained by SPICAV.

  8. Linear thermal circulator based on Coriolis forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2015-02-01

    We show that the presence of a Coriolis force in a rotating linear lattice imposes a nonreciprocal propagation of the phononic heat carriers. Using this effect we propose the concept of Coriolis linear thermal circulator which can control the circulation of a heat current. A simple model of three coupled harmonic masses on a rotating platform permits us to demonstrate giant circulating rectification effects for moderate values of the angular velocities of the platform.

  9. The Ten Relationships in Rural Land Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Zhirong; Ren, Shuo; Zhang, Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    The ten relationships during land circulation are discussed. Among them, the relationship between peasant household and government indicates that government should only carry out its service and regulatory functions and farmers should be the main body of land circulation, because peasants usually have no discourse power during land circulation. In the relationship between land ownership and contracting management right, we mainly discuss the transfer of land contracting management right and p...

  10. Irregular Labellings of Circulant Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Anholcer, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the \\textit{irregularity strength} ($s(G)$) and \\textit{total vertex irregularity strength} ($tvs(G)$) of circulant graphs $Ci_n(1,2,...,k)$ and prove that $tvs(Ci_n(1,2,...,k))=\\lceil\\frac{n+2k}{2k+1}\\rceil$, while $s(Ci_n(1,2,...,k))=\\lceil\\frac{n+2k-1}{2k}\\rceil$ except the case when $(n \\bmod 4k = 2k+1 \\wedge k\\bmod 2=1) \\vee n=2k+1$ and $s(Ci_n(1,2,...,k))=\\lceil\\frac{n+2k-1}{2k}\\rceil+1$.

  11. Inflammatory response and extracorporeal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Florian; Schmidt, Christoph; Van Aken, Hugo; Zarbock, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation (EC) frequently develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Surgical trauma, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, endotoxaemia and blood contact to nonendothelial circuit compounds promote the activation of coagulation pathways, complement factors and a cellular immune response. This review discusses the multiple pathways leading to endothelial cell activation, neutrophil recruitment and production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. All these factors may induce cellular damage and subsequent organ injury. Multiple organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery with EC is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. In addition to the pathogenesis of organ dysfunction after EC, this review deals with different therapeutic interventions aiming to alleviate the inflammatory response and consequently multiple organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery. PMID:26060024

  12. Role of Circulating Fibrocytes in Cardiac Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Jie Lin; Zi-Zhuo Su; Shu-Min Liang; Yu-Yang Chen; Xiao-Rong Shu; Ru-Qiong Nie; Jing-Feng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It is revealed that circulating fibrocytes are elevated in patients/animals with cardiac fibrosis, and this review aims to provide an introduction to circulating fibrocytes and their role in cardiac fibrosis.Data Sources: This review is based on the data from 1994 to present obtained from PubMed.The search terms were "circulating fibrocytes" and "cardiac fibrosis".Study Selection: Articles and critical reviews, which are related to circulating fibrocytes and cardiac fibrosis, were selected.Results: Circulating fibrocytes, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, represent a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibiting mixed morphological and molecular characteristics ofhematopoietic and mesenchymal cells (CD34+/CD45+/collagen I+).They can produce extracellular matrix and many cytokines.It is shown that circulating fibrocytes participate in many fibrotic diseases, including cardiac fibrosis.Evidence accumulated in recent years shows that aging individuals and patients with hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and atrial fibrillation have more circulating fibrocytes in peripheral blood and/or heart tissue, and this elevation of circulating fibrocytes is correlated with the degree of fibrosis in the hearts.Conclusions: Circulating fibrocytes are effector cells in cardiac fibrosis.

  13. The Rank of Integral Circulant Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hou-qing

    2014-01-01

    A graph is called an integral graph if it has an integral spectrum i.e., all eigen-values are integers. A graph is called circulant graph if it is Cayley graph on the circulant group, i.e., its adjacency matrix is circulant. The rank of a graph is defined to be the rank of its adjacency matrix. This importance of the rank, due to applications in physics, chemistry and combinatorics. In this paper, using Ramanujan sums, we study the rank of integral circulant graphs and gave some simple computational formulas for the rank and provide an example which shows the formula is sharp.

  14. A brief etymology of the collateral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, James E; Chilian, William M; Deindl, Elisabeth; van Royen, Niels; Simons, Michael

    2014-09-01

    It is well known that the protective capacity of the collateral circulation falls short in many individuals with ischemic disease of the heart, brain, and lower extremities. In the past 15 years, opportunities created by molecular and genetic tools, together with disappointing outcomes in many angiogenic trials, have led to a significant increase in the number of studies that focus on: understanding the basic biology of the collateral circulation; identifying the mechanisms that limit the collateral circulation's capacity in many individuals; devising methods to measure collateral extent, which has been found to vary widely among individuals; and developing treatments to increase collateral blood flow in obstructive disease. Unfortunately, accompanying this increase in reports has been a proliferation of vague terms used to describe the disposition and behavior of this unique circulation, as well as the increasing misuse of well-ensconced ones by new (and old) students of collateral circulation. With this in mind, we provide a brief glossary of readily understandable terms to denote the formation, adaptive growth, and maladaptive rarefaction of collateral circulation. We also propose terminology for several newly discovered processes that occur in the collateral circulation. Finally, we include terms used to describe vessels that are sometimes confused with collaterals, as well as terms describing processes active in the general arterial-venous circulation when ischemic conditions engage the collateral circulation. We hope this brief review will help unify the terminology used in collateral research.

  15. Improvement of Classification of Enterprise Circulating Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohanova Hanna O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in revelation of possibilities of increase of efficiency of managing enterprise circulating funds by means of improvement of their classification features. Having analysed approaches of many economists to classification of enterprise circulating funds, systemised and supplementing them, the article offers grouping classification features of enterprise circulating funds. In the result of the study the article offers an expanded classification of circulating funds, which clearly shows the role of circulating funds in managing enterprise finance and economy in general. The article supplements and groups classification features of enterprise circulating funds by: the organisation level, functioning character, sources of formation and their cost, and level of management efficiency. The article shows that the provided grouping of classification features of circulating funds allows exerting all-sided and purposeful influence upon indicators of efficiency of circulating funds functioning and facilitates their rational management in general. The prospect of further studies in this direction is identification of the level of attraction of loan resources by production enterprises for financing circulating funds.

  16. Circulating omentin concentration increases after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricart Wifredo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omentin-1 is a novel adipokine expressed in visceral adipose tissue and negatively associated with insulin resistance and obesity. We aimed to study the effects of weight loss-induced improved insulin sensitivity on circulating omentin concentrations. Methods Circulating omentin-1 (ELISA concentration in association with metabolic variables was measured in 35 obese subjects (18 men, 17 women before and after hypocaloric weight loss. Results Baseline circulating omentin-1 concentrations correlated negatively with BMI (r = -0.58, p Conclusion As previously described with adiponectin, circulating omentin-1 concentrations increase after weight loss-induced improvement of insulin sensitivity.

  17. The Okhotsk-Japan Circulation Pattern and the Heavy Rainfall in Beijing in 2012 Summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using station precipitation and reanalysis data, we examined the evolution of the large-scale circulations associated with the heavy rainfall event that occurred around July 21, 2012 (721 heavy rainfall. This study focuses on a role that the large-scale circulations named “the Okhotsk-Japan (OKJ circulation pattern” played in causing the heavy rainfall case. We found that the 721 heavy rainfall occurred under a background of the OKJ circulation that persisted for about 10 days. However, the pattern was different from the normal OKJ circulation, for this circulation pattern accompanied a blocking high between the Ural Mountains and the Baikal Lake. This difference resulted from the seasonal change of the basic flow. The related Rossby wave propagated eastward during the persisting period of the dominated OKJ pattern. This caused the development of a low-pressure system around the Baikal Lake and the weakening of a ridge around the Okhotsk Sea. The slow evolution of the OKJ circulation created a favorable environment for the moisture transport to northern China, assisting in the generation of the 721 heavy rainfall.

  18. On the purported discovery of the bronchial circulation by Leonardo da Vinci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzner, W; Wagner, E

    1992-09-01

    Among modern physiologists and anatomists, there has been a nearly universal acceptance that Leonardo da Vinci was the first to identify the anatomy of the bronchial circulation. However, because of certain ambiguities in both his anatomic drawing that was supposed to have shown this circulation and the accompanying descriptive text, we questioned whether he really could have been the first to discover this small but important vasculature. To address this question, we set out to repeat Leonardo's dissections in the ox. We reasoned that perhaps the normally tiny bronchial vessels would be considerably more noticeable in this very large species. Our dissections, however, failed to provide any evidence that Leonardo's drawing was that of the bronchial circulation. Furthermore we observed a set of distinct small pulmonary veins to the left upper and right middle lobes that Leonardo, given his lack of understanding of the function of the lung and its circulation, could have easily mistaken for a separate circulation. We thus conclude that Leonardo da Vinci did not describe the anatomy of the bronchial circulation. We believe that the first person to clearly and unequivocally describe the anatomy of this circulation was the Dutch Professor of Anatomy and Botany, Frederich Ruysch.

  19. Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of cloud radiative heating on the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over southeastern China (105°–125°E, 20°–35°N) are addressed by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of clouds, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in normal conditions. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. the different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which consequently enhances updraft. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance. (letter)

  20. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  1. Normalized information distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M.B. Vitányi; F.J. Balbach; R.L. Cilibrasi; M. Li

    2008-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string

  2. Back to Normal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Xinjiang officials speed up the investigation of July 5 riot suspects and restore social order Life in Urumqi has gone back to normal one month after the July 5 riot that killed nearly 200 people in the capital city of China’s northwestern

  3. Kelvin's Canonical Circulation Theorem in Hall Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, B K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, thanks to the restoration of the legitimate connection between the current density and the plasma flow velocity in Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), Kelvin's Circulation Theorem becomes valid in Hall MHD. The ion-flow velocity in the usual circulation integral is now replaced by the canonical ion-flow velocity.

  4. On So's conjecture for integral circulant graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Sander

    2015-04-01

    According to a conjecture of {\\sc So} two integral circulant graphs are isomorphic if and only if they are isospectral, i.e. they have the same eigenvalues (counted with multiplicities. We prove a weaker form of this conjecture, namely, that two integral circulant graphs with multiplicative divisor sets are isomorphic if and only if their spectral vectors coincide.

  5. A new marker set that identifies fetal cells in maternal circulation with high specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatt, Lotte; Brinch, Marie; Singh, Ripudaman;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fetal cells from the maternal circulation (FCMBs) have the potential to replace cells from amniotic fluid or chorionic villi in a diagnosis of common chromosomal aneuploidies. Good markers for enrichment and identification are lacking. METHOD: Blood samples from 78 normal pregnancies...

  6. Research on the Circulation Problems of Contractual Management Right of Rural Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the judicial explanation of the contractual management right of land, the thesis elaborates the definition of main body of contractual management right of rural land; right of possession, use right, usufruct of contractual management right of land; autonomy of production and operation; disposition of the products; expropriation and occupation compensation authority of contractual land respectively, in order to demonstrate the connotation of land contractual management. The thesis also analyzes perspicaciously the phenomenon of non-agricultural-use land and proclaiming phenomenon of contractual management right of land. We should establish normalized rural land property rights register system to perfect contractual management right of land. Proclaiming of agriculture land right also should adopt registration effectiveness so as to guarantee the legality of transference of agricultural land to non-agricultural land in terms of system. We should perfect rural land circulation in terms of normalizing land circulation laws and normalizing contractual farmers fees: in terms of the movable agricultural land right, we should further perfect the types and content of circulation and lessen non-legal form restrictions of circulation; in terms of contractual fees, we should normalize contractual fees of land in order to preclude the contradiction between the contractees and contractors arising from blank space of laws.

  7. Bioimpedance harmonic analysis as a tool to simultaneously assess circulation and nervous control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multicycle harmonic (Fourier) analysis of bioimpedance was employed to simultaneously assess circulation and neural activity in visceral (rat urinary bladder) and somatic (human finger) organs. The informative value of the first cardiac harmonic of the bladder impedance as an index of bladder circulation is demonstrated. The individual reactions of normal and obstructive bladders in response to infusion cystometry were recorded. The potency of multicycle harmonic analysis of bioimpedance to assess sympathetic and parasympathetic neural control in urinary bladder is discussed. In the human finger, bioimpedance harmonic analysis revealed three periodic components at the rate of the heart beat, respiration and Mayer wave (0.1 Hz), which were observed under normal conditions and during blood flow arrest in the hand. The revealed spectrum peaks were explained by the changes in systemic blood pressure and in regional vascular tone resulting from neural vasomotor control. During normal respiration and circulation, two side cardiac peaks were revealed in a bioimpedance amplitude spectrum, whose amplitude reflected the depth of amplitude respiratory modulation of the cardiac output. During normal breathing, the peaks corresponding to the second and third cardiac harmonics were split, reflecting frequency respiratory modulation of the heart rate. Multicycle harmonic analysis of bioimpedance is a novel potent tool to examine the interaction between the respiratory and cardiovascular system and to simultaneously assess regional circulation and neural influences in visceral and somatic organs

  8. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category......, they translate such measurements and recommendations in meaningful ways to fit their everyday life. Conclusions : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people are concerned with their body size and continuously monitor it. Future health promotion work should consider the kind of practices already established...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...

  9. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  10. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  11. Normal Order: Combinatorial Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, A I; Blasiak, P; Horzela, A; Penson, K A; Solomon, Allan I.; Duchamp, Gerard; Blasiak, Pawel; Horzela, Andrzej; Penson, Karol A.

    2004-01-01

    A conventional context for supersymmetric problems arises when we consider systems containing both boson and fermion operators. In this note we consider the normal ordering problem for a string of such operators. In the general case, upon which we touch briefly, this problem leads to combinatorial numbers, the so-called Rook numbers. Since we assume that the two species, bosons and fermions, commute, we subsequently restrict ourselves to consideration of a single species, single-mode boson monomials. This problem leads to elegant generalisations of well-known combinatorial numbers, specifically Bell and Stirling numbers. We explicitly give the generating functions for some classes of these numbers. In this note we concentrate on the combinatorial graph approach, showing how some important classical results of graph theory lead to transparent representations of the combinatorial numbers associated with the boson normal ordering problem.

  12. Normality concerning shared values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Let F be a family of meromorphic functions in a plane domain D, and a and b be finite non-zero complex values such that a/b ∈ N \\ {1}. If for every f ∈ F, f(z) = a =■ f (z) = a and f (z) = b =■ f (z) = b, then F is normal. We also construct a non-normal family F of meromorphic functions in the unit disk Δ = {|z| < 1} such that for every f ∈ F, f(z) = m + 1  f (z) = m + 1 and f (z) = 1  f (z) = 1 in Δ, where m is a given positive integer. This answers Problem 5.1 in the works of Gu, Pang and Fang.

  13. Normality concerning shared values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG JianMing

    2009-01-01

    Let F be a family of meromorphic functions in a plane domain D,and a and b be finite non-zero complex values such that a/b ∈ N \\ {1}.If for every f ∈ F,f(z)=a=>(z) = a and f'(z)=b=>f"(z)=b,then F is normal.We also construct a non-normal family F of meromorphic functions in the unit disk △= {|z|<1} such that for every f ∈F,f(z) =m+1f'(z) = m+1and f'(z)=1 f"(z) = 1 in △ A,where m is a given positive integer.This answers Problem 5.1 in the works of Gu,Pang and Fang.

  14. Model study of the upper circulation in the Sulu Sea and its relation to the South China Sea circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Shuqun; HE Yinghui; LONG Xiaomin; WANG Shengan

    2008-01-01

    According to the satellite remote sensing monthly mean sea surface temperature data from 1998 to 2002, it is shown that, the Sulu Sea is dominated by a cold eddy both in summer and winter. A coupled single-layer/two-layer model is employed here to study the summery and wintry characteristics and dynamic mechanism of the upper circulation in the Sulu Sea. According to the numerical experiments, it is found that, due to the local monsoon stress cud, the upper circulation in the Sulu Sea is dominated by a weak anticyclonic eddy in summer and a strong cyclonic eddy in winter. Once there is a large outflow via the Sibutu Passage flowing out of the Sulu Sea in summer, the upper circulation in the Sulu Sea may be dominated by a cyclonic eddy instead of the normal anti- cyclonic one. Moreover, in summer, the water exchange between the Sulu Sea and South China Sea via the Mindoro and Balabac Straits might have some effect on the separation position and strength of the northward western boundary current next to the Indo - China Peninsula in the southern South China Sea.

  15. Numerical Modeling of Ocean Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert N.

    2007-01-01

    The modelling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science. Features examples and critical examination of ocean modelling and results Demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches Includes exercises to illustrate major points and supplement mathematical and physical details

  16. Parallel Algorithms for Normalization

    CERN Document Server

    Boehm, Janko; Laplagne, Santiago; Pfister, Gerhard; Steenpass, Andreas; Steidel, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Given a reduced affine algebra A over a perfect field K, we present parallel algorithms to compute the normalization \\bar{A} of A. Our starting point is the algorithm of Greuel, Laplagne, and Seelisch, which is an improvement of de Jong's algorithm. First, we propose to stratify the singular locus Sing(A) in a way which is compatible with normalization, apply a local version of the normalization algorithm at each stratum, and find \\bar{A} by putting the local results together. Second, in the case where K = Q is the field of rationals, we propose modular versions of the global and local algorithms. We have implemented our algorithms in the computer algebra system SINGULAR and compare their performance with that of other algorithms. In the case where K = Q, we also discuss the use of modular computations of Groebner bases, radicals and primary decompositions. We point out that in most examples, the new algorithms outperform the algorithm of Greuel, Laplagne, and Seelisch by far, even if we do not run them in pa...

  17. Circulating catecholamines in acute asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ind, P. W.; Causon, R C; Brown, M. J.; Barnes, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured in 15 patients (six male) aged 14-63 years attending the casualty department with acute severe asthma (peak expiratory flow 27% (SEM 3%) of predicted). Nine patients were admitted and six were not. The plasma noradrenaline concentration, reflecting sympathetic nervous discharge, was two to three times normal in all patients and was significantly higher in those who required admission compared with those discharged home (mean 7.7 (SEM 0.6) v 4....

  18. ESBWR - Robust design for natural circulation and stability performance effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESBWR is a 4500 MWt Generation III+ natural circulation reactor with an array of robust design features and passive safety systems to deliver highly effective plant performance during normal operation and to keep the reactor safe during postulated transients and accidents. With the submittal of the latest revision of the Design Control Document (DCD) to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, ESBWR is nearing the completion of the US design certification process. This paper focuses on the natural circulation-driven plant performance aspects during normal operation, and stability evaluation of the robust ESBWR design. The TRACG computer code is used for the analysis of ESBWR plant performance, safety analysis, and stability margins. The paper describes the evaluation of ESBWR stability performance during normal power operation including operation in the Core Power-Feed Water Temperature Operating Domain. For ESBWR the normal power operation condition has the highest power/flow ratio and is limiting from the perspective of stability. The paper includes results from detailed evaluation of the most limiting decay ratio for out-of-phase regional oscillations calculated by perturbing the core inlet flow rate in this out-of-phase mode about the line of symmetry for the azimuthal harmonic mode. The paper also summarizes the ESBWR regional mode stability evaluations during a limiting transient (Loss of Feedwater Heating), and during ATWS (Anticipated Transient without Scram). Nominal decay ratios of limiting Channel oscillation, Core wide oscillation and Regional oscillation are within the maximum acceptance criterion of 0.8, at 95% content and 95% confidence. These stability evaluation results indicate decay ratio is within design limits. The paper also describes the evaluation of ESBWR stability performance during plant startup, and summarizes the defense-in-depth stability solution for ESBWR. (authors)

  19. Circulating parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in rats after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Fung, Paul; Popova, Irina A.; Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone and calcithonin, two major calcium-regulating hormones, were measured in the plasma of five experimental groups of rats to evaluate postflight calcium homeostasis after the 14-day Cosmos 2044 flight. Parathyroid hormone values were slightly higher in the flight animals (F) than in the appropriate cage and diet controls (S) (44 +/- 21 vs 21 +/- 4 pg/ml, P less than 0.05), but they were the same as in the vivarium controls (V), which had different housing and feeding schedules. The difference in F and V (22 +/- 11 vs 49 +/- 16 pg/ml, P less than 0.05) was most likely due to failure of circulating calcitonin in F to show the normal age-dependent increase which was demonstrated in age-matched controls in a separate experiment. Basal values for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin were unchanged after 2 wk of hindlimb suspension, a flight simulation model, in age-matched and younger rats. From a time course experiment serum calcium was higher and parathyroid hormone lower after 4 wk than in ambulatory controls. Postflight circulating levels of parathyroid hormone appear to reflect disturbances in calcium homeostasis from impaired renal function of undetermined cause, whereas levels of calcitonin reflect depression of a normal growth process.

  20. Interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg Paklar, Gordana; Sepic, Jadranka; Grbec, Branka; Dzoic, Tomislav; Kovac, Zarko; Ivatek-Sahdan, Stjepan

    2016-04-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was implemented in order to reproduce interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation. Simulations and model result analysis were performed for a three-year period from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2013. ROMS model run was forced with realistic atmospheric fields obtained from meteorological model Aladin, climatological river discharges, tides and Mediterranean circulation imposed at the southern open boundary. Atmospheric forcing included momentum, heat and water fluxes calculated interactively from the Aladin surface fields during ROMS model simulations. Model results were compared with available CTD and ADCP measurements and discussed in the light of the climatological circulation and thermohaline properties of the Adriatic Sea and its coastal areas. Interannual variability in the Adriatic circulation is related to the prevailing atmospheric conditions, changes in the hydrological conditions and water mass exchange at the Otranto Strait. Basic features of the Adriatic circulation - basin-wide cyclonic circulation with several embedded smaller cyclonic gyres around main pits - are well reproduced by ROMS model. Modelled temperatures and salinities are within corresponding seasonal intervals, although measured profiles generally indicate stronger stratification than modelled ones. Summer circulation in 2011 with current reversal obtained along the eastern Adriatic coast was related to the sampling results of the early fish stages as well as to ARGO drifter movements. Simulated fields from the Adriatic scale model were used to prescribe the initial and open boundary conditions for the interannual simulation in the middle Adriatic coastal domain.

  1. The MAMI C accelerator. The beauty of normal conducting multi-turn re-circulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehn, M.; Aulenbacher, K.; Heine, R.; Kreidel, H.J.; Ludwig-Mertin, U. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat, Institut fur Kernphysik, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Jankowiak, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie GmbH, Elektronenspeicherring BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    The demand for CW (Continuous Wave) electron beam energies of more than 1 GeV led to the decision of constructing a worldwide unique accelerator - the Harmonic Double-Sided Microtron (HDSM). This machine nearly doubles the beam energy of the Mainz Microtron cascade from up to 855 MeV to now 1.6 GeV to extend the experimental capabilities for nuclear and particle physics experiments to higher excitation energies. For the recent decade the construction and commissioning of the HDSM at the Institut fur Kernphysik has been the major task of the accelerator department. This paper describes the HDSM facility, its history and its technological features concerning beam dynamics and beam diagnostics. (authors)

  2. Pancreatic carboxyl ester lipase: a circulating enzyme that modifies normal and oxidized lipoproteins in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Shamir, R; Johnson, W. J.; Morlock-Fitzpatrick, K; Zolfaghari, R; Li, L; mas, e; Lombardo, D.; Morel, D W; Fisher, E A

    1996-01-01

    Pancreatic carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) hydrolyzes cholesteryl esters (CE), triglycerides (TG), and lysophospholipids, with CE and TG hydrolysis stimulated by cholate. Originally thought to be confined to the gastrointestinal system, CEL has been reported in the plasma of humans and other mammals, implying its potential in vivo to modify lipids associated with LDL, HDL (CE, TG), and oxidized LDL (lysophosphatidylcholine, lysoPC). We measured the concentration of CEL in human plasma as 1.2+/-0....

  3. Pulmonary Vascular Stiffness: Measurement, Modeling, and Implications in Normal and Hypertensive Pulmonary Circulations

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Kendall S.; Lammers, Steven R.; Shandas, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of pulmonary vascular stiffness, discusses its increasingly recognized importance as a diagnostic marker in the evaluation of pulmonary vascular disease, and describes methods to measure and model it clinically, experimentally, and computationally. It begins with a description of systems-level methods to evaluate pulmonary vascular compliance and recent clinical efforts in applying such techniques to better predict patient outcomes in pulmonary arterial hyp...

  4. Development of CO2 circulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the basic machine types we have supplied has not been without problems. The Windscale AGR (the prototype AGR) was a small 1.2 MW vertically up circulator with an inlet temperature of 237 deg. C (459 deg. F). Oil leakage problems occurred and were cured in the works test facility and the machine went into service with no other problems. The Horizontal 5 MW machines for Hinkley/Hunterston were not so fortunate with vibration problems, interface corrosion problems (effecting the whole reactor) and material dimensional stability problems. Oil ingress problems did not show up in test work but were later reported from site. These reports were initially exagerated due to the measuring techniques which took the operators some time to resolve. In the vertical 5 MW machines for Hartlepool and Heysham 1 there are two interesting factors, firstly a spar failure and secondly shaft axial stability. Many of the problems were due to modifications at site or our inability to model all aspects of site installation from which lessons for the future can be learned. The latest stations Torness and Heysham II incorporate these lessons. The machines have been designed with so much margin that during the resolution of the reactor control rod gag problems the machines were run continuously at 20% overload (6.3 MW). From an initial accident case of 350 deg. C inlet temperature, this increased to 458 deg. C and now stands at 585 deg. C. No modifications to the impeller were required. The site experience to date is good with no operational problems reported. (author). 4 figs

  5. Circulating miRNA and cancer diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    miRNAs are a class of small RNA molecules with regulatory function, and play an important role in tumor development and progression. It has been demonstrated that tumor-derived miRNAs exist in the circulating nucleic acids of cancer patients. This phenomenon implies that detection of the circulating miRNA may be an effective method for non-invasive diagnosis of cancer. In this review, we summarize the applications of the circulating miRNA as biomarkers in cancer diagnosis, as well as the latest research progress in this area.

  6. Natural Circulation Performance in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with a study of natural circulation in PWR systems, The study consists of two parts: in the first one, natural circulation in experimental facilities simulating PWR plants was analyzed. This made it possible to gather a broad data base which was assumed as a reference for the subsequent part of the research. Seven Nuclear Power Plants nodalizations and additional experimental data from ''non-PWR'' facilities have been considered in the second part of the paper. Conclusions are drawn about natural circulation capabilities derived for the seven Nuclear Power Plants nodalizations and from data base pertinent to three ''non-PWR'' facilities. (author)

  7. What Limits Cardiac Performance during Exercise in Normal Subjects and in Healthy Fontan Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    André La Gerche; Marc Gewillig

    2010-01-01

    Exercise is an important determinant of health but is significantly reduced in the patient with a univentricular circulation. Normal exercise physiology mandates an increase in pulmonary artery pressures which places an increased work demand on the right ventricle (RV). In a biventricular circulation with pathological increases in pulmonary vascular resistance and/or reductions in RV function, exercise-induced augmentation of cardiac output is limited. Left ventricular preload reserve is depe...

  8. Natural circulation in water cooled nuclear power plants: Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e. those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. Further, the IAEA Conference on The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future which was convened in 1991 noted that for new plants 'the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate'. Considering the weak driving forces of passive systems based on natural circulation, careful design and analysis methods must be employed to assure that the systems perform their intended functions. To support the development of advanced water cooled reactor designs with passive systems, investigations of natural circulation are an ongoing activity in several IAEA Member States. Some new designs also utilize natural circulation as a means to remove core power during normal operation. In response to the motivating factors discussed above, and to foster international collaboration on the enabling technology of passive systems that utilize natural circulation, an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling and Reliability of Passive Systems that Utilize Natural Circulation was started in early 2004. Building on the shared expertise within the CRP, this publication presents extensive information on natural circulation phenomena, models, predictive tools and experiments that currently support design and analyses of natural circulation systems and highlights areas where additional research is needed. Therefore, this publication serves both to provide a description of the present state of knowledge on natural circulation in water cooled nuclear power plants and to guide the planning and conduct of the CRP in

  9. Transient behavior of natural circulation for boiling two-phase flow - experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of current light water reactors (LWRs) is too dependent on active engineered safety features to enhance their reliability greatly. Many concepts have been proposed for the next generation of LWRs in which passive safety functions are pursued. A natural-circulation boiling water reactor (BWR), such as the simplified BWR SBWR, is one such proposal. From the viewpoint of core stability, the power density of natural-circulation BWRs is lower than that of current BWRs and their fuel pin length is shorter, so that reactor diameter is larger. Moreover, the size of a reactor vessel is limited by the ability of the present machine, and its output power may be lower than 600 MW(electric). As Japan is a relatively small country, it is difficult to find reactor sites, and Japanese electric power companies are not inclined to introduce small or medium-sized reactors. If the merits of eliminating circulation pumps are truly understood, however, it seems that a series of power generators will be supported by industry and natural-circulation BWRs may thus be introduced in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion on the merits and drawbacks of natural-circulation BWRs. The thermohydraulic behavior of developing processes of natural circulation in boiling two-phase flow has been investigated experimentally by simulating normal and abnormal start-up conditions

  10. Global warming and changes in ocean circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

    1998-02-01

    This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

  11. EOP MIT General Circulation Model (MITgcm)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains a regional implementation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) at a 1-km spatial resolution for the...

  12. Sedimentary response to ocean gateway circulation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Christoph; Crowley, Thomas J.

    1997-12-01

    Previous modeling studies suggested that changes in ocean gateways may have exerted a dramatic influence on the ocean circulation. In this pilot study we extend those results to examining the potential ramifications of circulation changes on the sedimentary record. A version of the Hamburg carbon cycle/sediment model is used in these sensitivity experiments. Results indicate that internal reorganization of the ocean circulation can potentially cause very large regional changes in lysocline depth (1500-3000 m) and opal deposition. These shifts are sometimes comparable in magnitude to those imposed by changes in external forcing (e.g., climate, sea level, and weathering). Comparisons of the model response with the geologic record indicate some significant levels of first-order agreement. This exercise suggests that opportunities now exist for physically based modeling of past sediment responses to circulation and climate changes.

  13. The Nordic Seas circulation and exchanges.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawker, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Nordic Seas provide the main oceanic connection between the Arctic and the deep global oceans via dense overflows between Greenland and Scotland, into the North Atlantic. An understanding of the circulation and exchanges of this region is vital for any consideration of the implications of high latitude climate change to variability in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation and consequences for regional (European) climate. This thesis makes use of a unique data set of near synoptic hyd...

  14. Efficient Circulation of Railway Rolling Stock

    OpenAIRE

    Alfieri, Arianna; Groot, Rutger; Kroon, Leo; Schrijver, Lex

    2002-01-01

    textabstractRailway rolling stock (locomotives, carriages, and train units) is one of the most significant cost sources for operatorsof passenger trains, both public and private. Rolling stock costsare due to material acquisition, power supply, and material maintenance. The efficient circulation of rolling stock material is therefore one of the objectives pursued. In this paper we focus on the circulation of train units on a single line. In order to utilize the train units on this line in an ...

  15. An online educational atmospheric global circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, T.; Schott, C.; Forget, F.

    2015-10-01

    As part of online courses on exoplanets of Observatoire de Paris, an online tool designed to vizualise outputs of the Laboratoire de Métérologie Dynamique (LMD) Global Circulation Model (GCM) for various atmospheric circulation regimes has been developed. It includes the possibility for students to visualize 1D and 2D plots along with animations of atmospheric quantities such as temperature, winds, surface pressure, mass flux, etc... from a state-of-the-art model.

  16. STRUCTURES OF CIRCULANT INVERSE M-MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yurui Lin; Linzhang Lu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we present a useful result on the structures of circulant inverse Mis not a positive matrix and not equal to c0I,then A is an inverse M-matrix if and only if there exists a positive integer k,which is a proper factor of n,such that cjk>0 for The result is then extended to the so-called generalized circulant inverse M-matrices.

  17. Pornography, normalization, and empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Martin S; Williams, Colin J; Kleiner, Sibyl; Irizarry, Yasmiyn

    2010-12-01

    Opponents and proponents of erotic representations (referred to hereafter as "pornography") have described the effects of pornography from their perspective. Little, however, has been done in the way of research to investigate these claims from the consumer's point of view. This especially has been so regarding the positive impact of such consumption on a person's sex life. Using a study group of 245 college students, we examined this question in a framework of scripting theory. We wanted to see whether viewing pornography appeared to expand sexual horizons through normalization and facilitate a willingness to explore new sexual behaviors and sexual relationships through empowerment. The data supported this viewpoint and further showed the effects to be mediated by gender and sexual preference identity. They suggested, however, that established scripts were extended rather than abandoned. We conclude with connections between our findings and the widespread viewing of pornography in contemporary society. PMID:20127507

  18. Evaluating the Normal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a little table-free C function that evaluates the normal distribution with absolute error less than 8 x 10 -16 . A small extension provides relative error near the limit available in double precision: 14 to 16 digits, the limits determined mainly by the computer's ability to evaluate exp(-t for large t. Results are compared with those provided by calls to erf or erfc functions, the best of which compare favorably, others do not, and all appear to be much more complicated than need be to get either absolute accuracy less than 10-15 or relative accuracy to the exp(-limited 14 to 16 digits. Also provided: A short history of the error function erf and its intended use, as well as, in the "browse files" attachment, various erf or erfc versions used for comparison.

  19. Normal shoulder: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relatively poor spatial resolution has been obtained in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the shoulder because the shoulder can only be placed in the periphery of the magnetic field. The authors have devised an anatomically shaped surface coil that enables MR to demonstrate normal shoulder anatomy in different planes with high spatial resolution. In the axial plane anatomy analogous to that seen on computed tomographic (CT) scans can be demonstrated. Variations in scapular position (produced by patient positioning) may make reproducibility of sagittal and coronal plane images difficult by changing the relationship of the plane to the shoulder anatomy. Oblique planes, for which the angle is chosen from the axial image, have the advantage of easy reproducibility. Obliquely oriented structures and relationships are best seen in oblique plane images and can be evaluated in detail

  20. Surgical myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomón Soriano Ordinola Rojas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the immediate postoperative period of patients undergoing myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation with different types of grafts. METHODS: One hundred and twelve patients, 89 (79.5% of whom were males, were revascularized without extracorporeal circulation. Their ages ranged from 39 to 85 years. The criteria for indicating myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation were as follows: revascularized coronary artery caliber > 1.5 mm, lack of intramyocardial trajectory on coronary angiography, noncalcified coronary arteries, and tolerance of the heart to the different rotation maneuvers. RESULTS: Myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation was performed in 112 patients. Three were converted to extracorporeal circulation, which required a longer hospital stay but did not impact mortality. During the procedure, the following events were observed: atrial fibrillation in 10 patients, ventricular fibrillation in 4, total transient atrioventricular block in 2, ventricular extrasystoles in 58, use of a device to retrieve red blood cells in 53, blood transfusion in 8, and arterial hypotension in 89 patients. Coronary angiography was performed in 20 patients on the seventh postoperative day when the grafts were patent. CONCLUSION: Myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation is a reproducible technique that is an alternative for treating ischemic heart disease.

  1. Southern Meridional Atmospheric Circulation Associated with IOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Na; CHEN Hongxia

    2006-01-01

    Using the monthly wind and sea surface temperature (SST) data, southern meridional atmospheric circulation cells associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode (IOD) events in the Indian Ocean are for the first time described and examined. The divergent wind and pressure vertical velocity are employed for the identification of atmospheric circulation cells. During the four different phases of the positive IOD events, the anomalous meridional Hadley circulation over the western Indian Ocean shows that the air rises in the tropics, flows poleward in the upper troposphere, sinks in the subtropics, and returns back to the tropics in the lower troposphere. The anomalous Hadley circulation over the eastern Indian Ocean is opposite to that over the western Indian Ocean. During positive IOD events, the meridional Hadley circulation over the eastern Indian Ocean is weakened while it is strengthened over the western Indian Ocean. Correlation analysis between the IOD index and the indices of the Hadley cells also proves that, the atmospheric circulation patterns are evident in every IOD event over the period of record.

  2. Does liver-intestine significantly degrade circulating endogenous substance P in man?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B; Bülow, J B

    1986-01-01

    was determined in various vascular beds during a right-sided catheterization in 13 subjects without liver insufficiency. All subjects had normal values of circulating substance P, and no significant difference was found between systemic plasma and hepatic venous or renal venous concentrations of substance P......Elevated concentrations of circulating substance P in patients with liver insufficiency have been ascribed to decreased hepatic degradation. To establish a possible biodegradation of the peptide in liver-intestine and kidneys, the concentration of endogenous immunoreactive substance P...

  3. Global climate and ocean circulation on an aquaplanet ocean-atmosphere general circulation model

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, R.; Dubois, C.; Marotzke, J.

    2006-01-01

    A low-resolution coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model (OAGCM) is used to study the characteristics of the large-scale ocean circulation and its climatic impacts in a series of global coupled aquaplanet experiments. Three configurations, designed to produce fundamentally different ocean circulation regimes, are considered. The first has no obstruction to zonal flow, the second contains a low barrier that blocks zonal flow in the ocean at all latitudes, creating a single enclosed ...

  4. Circulation model for water circulation and purification in a water Cerenkov detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hao-Qi; YANG Chang-Gen; WANG Ling-Yu; XU Ji-Lei; WANG aui-Guang; WANG Zhi-Min; WANG Yi-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Owing to its low cost and good transparency, highly purified water is widely used as a medium in large water Cerenkov detector experiments. The water circulation and purification system is usually needed to keep the water in good quality. In this work, a practical circulation model is built to describe the variation of the water resistivity in the circulation process and compared with the data obtained from a prototype experiment. The successful test of the model makes it useful in the future design and optimization of the circulation/purification system.

  5. Experimental and numerical investigation of natural circulation phenomena in a rectangular natural circulation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural circulation is the key phenomena in the passive cooling systems. Thus, it is important to study the flow characteristics and heat transfer behavior in natural circulation. The natural circulation phenomena in steady state and transient form is investigated using 3D CFD simulations, carried out using OpenFoam 2.2.0. The first part consists of a steady-state study, in which the results are validated by data available from a set of experiments conducted over a range of heater power (130W-360W). The second part consists of a transient study of flow development and establishment of natural circulation within this loop. (author)

  6. [Normal aging and cognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle. PMID:16527210

  7. Kumaraswamy Normal and Azzalini's skew Normal modeling asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle A Correa; Denismar Alves Nogueira; Eric Batista Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the comparison of two probability distributions with specific parameters for modelling asymmetry. Kum-normal and Azzalini's skew normal distributions were chosen because they turn, in special case, into the normal distribution. The quality of the fit, flexibility and amount of asymmetry parameters were factors used for comparison. Researches state that the Azzalini's skew normal distribution has limitations regarding the flexibility of the tail, presenting certain resistan...

  8. Combinatorial Maps with Normalized Knot

    CERN Document Server

    Zeps, Dainis

    2010-01-01

    We consider combinatorial maps with fixed combinatorial knot numbered with augmenting numeration called normalized knot. We show that knot's normalization doesn't affect combinatorial map what concerns its generality. Knot's normalization leads to more concise numeration of corners in maps, e.g., odd or even corners allow easy to follow distinguished cycles in map caused by the fixation of the knot. Knot's normalization may be applied to edge structuring knot too. If both are normalized then one is fully and other partially normalized mutually.

  9. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on mourning dove reproduction and circulating progesterone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval, P.J.; Peterle, T.J.; Harder, J.D.

    1987-10-01

    PCBs acquired in sublethal doses increase activation of the liver's microsomal action and hepatic mixed function oxidase (MFO) enzymes. Physiological effects of increase in the MFO system may delay, if not eliminate, avian reproductive behavior and nesting success. No evidence is yet available to clearly link PCBs to lowered levels of circulating steroids in birds. However, data concerning the effects of PCBs on avian reproduction are abundant. Increased degradation of circulating steroids might alter essential hormone dynamics associated with nesting behavior and ovulation. Alternatively, normal feedback regulation by the pituitary-gonadal axis might lead to a full compensatory response to increased MFO such that hormone profiles remain unaltered, suggesting alternative modes of action for PCBs in reproductive disorders. Therefore, the authors investigated the effect of dietary PCBs on circulating progesterone levels prior to and during egg laying in wild-trapped mourning doves (Zenaida macroura).

  10. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal way, not overeat. That is a good habit for lifelong health. Provided by NIBBLES FOR HEALTH 17 Nutrition Newsletters for Parents of Young Children, USDA, Food and Nutrition Service Is My Child’s Appetite Normal? ...

  11. Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers in Biliary Tract Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letelier, Pablo; Riquelme, Ismael; Hernández, Alfonso H.; Guzmán, Neftalí; Farías, Jorge G.; Roa, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are a group of highly aggressive malignant tumors with a poor prognosis. The current diagnosis is based mainly on imaging and intraoperative exploration due to brush cytology havinga low sensitivity and the standard markers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate 19-9 (CA19-9), not having enough sensitivity nor specificity to be used in a differential diagnosis and early stage detection. Thus, better non-invasive methods that can distinguish between normal and pathological tissue are needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules of ~20–22 nucleotides that regulate relevant physiological mechanisms and can also be involved in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are detectable in multiple body fluids, showing great stability, either free or trapped in circulating microvesicles, such as exosomes. miRNAs are ideal biomarkers that may be used in screening and prognosis in biliary tract cancers, aiding also in the clinical decisions at different stages of cancer treatment. This review highlights the progress in the analysis of circulating miRNAs in serum, plasma and bile as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers of BTCs. PMID:27223281

  12. Continuous circulation apparatus for air drilling well bore operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, J.L.

    1982-02-16

    An apparatus is disclosed for maintaining a continuous supply of air pressure downhole during a well bore drilling operation, even during the addition of a pipe section to the drill string. It consists of a housing installed at the surface of the well at the position of the drilling equipment wherein the upper end of the drill string is separated from the drive mechanism in order that a new piece of drill pipe may be added to the drill string, a flapper or closure member pivotally secured within the housing normally held in an open position by the outer periphery of the drill string and spring urged in a direction toward the open end of the sleeve through which the drive mechanism passes when the drive mechanism has been backed off or removed for the addition of a section of pipe to the drill string, and a by-pass line in communication with the interior of the housing for directing air pressure from the air supply to the housing when the flapper member is in the closed position whereby the air pressure may be circulated downwardly through the drill string for maintaining the air circulation downhole during the entire drilling operation.

  13. Nonrandom distribution of iron in circulating human transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, O; Aisen, P

    1986-07-01

    By combining the urea gel electrophoresis technique of Makey and Seal with Western immunoblotting, a method has been developed for analyzing the distribution of iron between the two sites of circulating human transferrin. The new method avoids exposure of samples to a nonphysiologic pH that may promote removal or redistribution of iron from the protein; this facilitates examination of multiple samples at one time. Analysis of 21 freshly drawn specimens from normal human subjects confirms previous reports that iron is not randomly distributed in the specific sites of transferrin. Rather, there is a considerable range in the ratio of occupancies of N-terminal and C-terminal sites (N:C ratio), from 0.31 to 6.87 in the present study, with the N-terminal site predominantly occupied in most subjects. The N:C ratio correlates modestly with serum iron concentration (r = .54). Possible flaws in studies indicating a random occupancy of the specific sites of circulating transferrin may lie in the low pH to which samples may be exposed during procedures based on isoelectric focusing or in drawing inferences from data considering only total monoferric transferrin rather than the two distinguishable monoferric species.

  14. NAO-ocean circulation interactions in a coupled general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, A. [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); Gualdi, S.; Navarra, A. [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Scoccimarro, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    The interplay between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the large scale ocean circulation is inspected in a twentieth century simulation conducted with a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model. Significant lead-lag covariance between oceanic and tropospheric variables suggests that the system supports a damped oscillatory mode involving an active ocean-atmosphere coupling, with a typical NAO-like space structure and a 5 years timescale, qualitatively consistent with a mid-latitude delayed oscillator paradigm. The two essential processes governing the oscillation are (1) a negative feedback between ocean gyre circulation and the high latitude SST meridional gradient and (2) a positive feedback between SST and the NAO. The atmospheric NAO pattern appears to have a weaker projection on the ocean meridional overturning, compared to the gyre circulation, which leads to a secondary role for the thermohaline circulation in driving the meridional heat transport, and thus the oscillatory mode. (orig.)

  15. The stability of a zonally averaged thermohaline circulation model

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, G A

    1995-01-01

    A combination of analytical and numerical techniques are used to efficiently determine the qualitative and quantitative behaviour of a one-basin zonally averaged thermohaline circulation ocean model. In contrast to earlier studies which use time stepping to find the steady solutions, the steady state equations are first solved directly to obtain the multiple equilibria under identical mixed boundary conditions. This approach is based on the differentiability of the governing equations and especially the convection scheme. A linear stability analysis is then performed, in which the normal modes and corresponding eigenvalues are found for the various equilibrium states. Resonant periodic solutions superimposed on these states are predicted for various types of forcing. The results are used to gain insight into the solutions obtained by Mysak, Stocker and Huang in a previous numerical study in which the eddy diffusivities were varied in a randomly forced one-basin zonally averaged model. Resonant stable oscillat...

  16. Circulating Endothelial Microparticles in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Tramontano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial Microparticles (EMPs are small vesicles shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells and involved in cellular cross-talk. Whether EMP immunophenotypes vary according to stimulus in Diabetes Mellitus (DM is not known. We studied the cellular adhesion molecule (CAM profile of circulating EMPs in patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus type 2, who were undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. Methods and Results. EMPs were analyzed by flow cytometry. The absolute median number of EMPs (EMPs/L specific for CD31, CD105, and CD106 was significantly increased in the DM population. The ratio of CD62E/CD31 EMP populations reflected an apoptotic process. Conclusion. Circulating CD31+, CD105+, and CD106+ EMPs were significantly elevated in patients with DM. EMPs were the only independent predictors of DM in our study cohort. In addition, the EMP immunophenotype reflected an apoptotic process. Circulating EMPs may provide new options for risk assessment.

  17. Walker circulation in a transient climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesca, Elina; Grützun, Verena; Buehler, Stefan A.

    2016-04-01

    The tropical overturning circulations modulate the heat exchange across the tropics and between the tropics and the poles. The anthropogenic influence on the climate system will affect these circulations, impacting the dynamics of the Earth system. In this work we focus on the Walker circulation. We investigate its temporal and spatial dynamical changes and their link to other climate features, such as surface and sea-surface temperature patterns, El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and ocean heat-uptake, both at global and regional scale. In order to determine the impact of anthropogenic climate change on the tropical circulation, we analyze the outputs of 28 general circulation models (GCMs) from the CMIP5 project. We use the experiment with 1% year-1 increase in CO2 concentration from pre-industrial levels to quadrupling of the concentration. Consistent with previous studies (ex. Ma and Xie 2013), we find that for this experiment most GCMs associate a weakening Walker circulation to a warming transient climate. Due to the role of the Walker Pacific cell in the meridional heat and moisture transport across the tropical Pacific and also the connection to ENSO, we find that a weakened Walker circulation correlates with more extreme El-Niño events, although without a change in their frequency. The spatial analysis of the Pacific Walker cell suggests an eastward displacement of the ascending branch, which is consistent with positive SST anomalies over the tropical Pacific and the link of the Pacific Walker cell to ENSO. Recent studies (ex. England et al. 2014) have linked a strengthened Walker circulation to stronger ocean heat uptake, especially in the western Pacific. The inter-model comparison of the correlation between Walker circulation intensity and ocean heat uptake does not convey a robust response for the investigated experiment. However, there is some evidence that a stronger weakening of the Walker circulation is linked to a higher transient climate

  18. Tropical convective transport and the Walker circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hosking

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a methodology to visualise rapid vertical and zonal tropical transport pathways. Using prescribed sea-surface temperatures in four monthly model integrations for 2005, preferred transport routes from the troposphere to the stratosphere are found in the model over the Maritime Continent (MC in November and February, i.e., boreal winter. In these months, the ascending branch of the Walker Circulation over the MC is formed in conjunction with strong deep convection, allowing fast transport into the stratosphere. At the same time, the downwelling branch of the Walker Circulation is enhanced over the East Pacific, compared to other months in 2005, reducing locally the upward transport from emissions below. We conclude that the Walker circulation plays an important role in the seasonality of fast tropical transport from the troposphere to the stratosphere and so impacts at the same time the potential supply of surface emissions.

  19. Experimental study of natural circulation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian, E-mail: wlemos@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LASME/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Simulacao e Metodos Numericos; Faccini, Jose L.H., E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (LTE/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental

    2011-07-01

    This work presents an experimental study about fluid flows behavior in natural circulation, under conditions of single-phase flow. The experiment was performed through experimental thermal-hydraulic circuit built at IEN. This test equipment has performance similar to passive system of residual heat removal present in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (APWR). This experimental study aims to observing and analyzing the natural circulation phenomenon, using this experimental circuit that was dimensioned and built based on concepts of similarity and scale. This philosophy allows the analysis of natural circulation behavior in single-phase flow conditions proportionally to the functioning real conditions of a nuclear reactor. The experiment was performed through procedures to initialization of hydraulic feeding of primary and secondary circuits and electrical energizing of resistors installed inside heater. Power controller has availability to adjust values of electrical power to feeding resistors, in order to portray several conditions of energy decay of nuclear reactor in a steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and monitoring of the evolution of the temperature in various points through thermocouples installed in strategic points along hydraulic circuit. The behavior of the natural circulation phenomenon was monitored by graphical interface on computer screen, showing the temperature evolutions of measuring points and results stored in digital spreadsheets. The results stored in digital spreadsheets allowed the getting of data to graphic construction and discussion about natural circulation phenomenon. Finally, the calculus of Reynolds number allowed the establishment for a correlation of friction in function of geometric scales of length, heights and cross section of tubing, considering a natural circulation flow throughout in the region of hot leg. (author)

  20. Plasma plume circulation and impact in an MHD substorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. E.; Fok, M.-C.; Delcourt, D. C.; Slinker, S. P.; Fedder, J. A.

    2008-06-01

    We investigate the fate of a plasmaspheric plume generated by a discrete period of southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) to assess its contribution to plasma sheet and ring current pressure and compare with that for other sources. We use test particle motions in Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global circulation model fields. The inner magnetosphere is simulated with the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) model of Fok and Wolf, driven by the transpolar potential developed by the LFM magnetosphere. A variant of the Ober plasmasphere model is embedded within the models and driven by them. Global circulation is stimulated by a period of southward IMF embedded within a long interval of northward IMF. This leads to the production of a well-defined plasmaspheric plume, enhancing the plasma density sunward of the plasmasphere. Test particles are launched with the properties of plasmaspheric ions on the L = 6.6 RE shell and weighted with densities as specified by the Ober model, as it responds to convection imposed by CRCM. Particles are tracked until they are lost from the system downstream or into the atmosphere, using the Delcourt full equations of motion, implemented for finite element fields. Results are compared with earlier computations of polar and auroral wind outflows. The plume produces an enhanced flow of plasma ˜10 times the normal polar wind global fluence. However, we find that most of the "plasmaspheric wind" is lost from the magnetosphere such that its contribution to the ring current energy density is comparable to that of the normal polar wind for this type of event.

  1. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.56 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are too numerous to name them all, but the 3 most prominent ones are at the centre (left to right): Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, with his hand on the control box), Eifionydd Jones (white shirt), Simon van der Meer (spiritus rector and Joint AA Project Leader). The first antiprotons were injected, made to circulate and cooled soon after, on 14 July 1980.

  2. Blowing Circulation Control on a Seaplane Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B. D.; Liu, P. Q.; Qu, Q. L.

    2011-09-01

    RANS simulations are presented for blowing circulation control on a seaplane airfoil. Realizable k-epsilon turbulent model and pressure-based coupled algorithm with second-order discretization were adopted to simulate the compressible flow. Both clear and simple flap configuration were simulated with blowing momentum coefficient Cμ = 0, 0.15 and 0.30. The results show that blowing near the airfoil trailing edge could enhance the Coanda effect, delay the flow separation, and increase the lift coefficient dramatically. The blowing circulation control is promising to apply to taking off and landing of an amphibious aircraft or seaplane.

  3. Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ishida, Naoki [Daihatsu Motor Company, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity.

  4. Applications of Circulation Control, Yesterday and Today

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Kweder; Chad C. Panthe; James E. Smit

    2010-01-01

    Circulation control, an aerodynamic method of changing the properties of an airfoil, such as lift, camber and angle of attack, has been used in several unique ways since its inception, as an enhancement to fixed wing aircraft, in the 1960’s. Early in the research venture, this technology was used on the main wing of an aircraft in conjunction with a Coandă surface, such as a rounded trailing edge or a deployable flap. Research during this time proved to be the foundation of the circulation co...

  5. Applications of Circulation Control, Yesterday and Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Kweder

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Circulation control, an aerodynamic method of changing the properties of an airfoil, such as lift, camber and angle of attack, has been used in several unique ways since its inception, as an enhancement to fixed wing aircraft, in the 1960’s. Early in the research venture, this technology was used on the main wing of an aircraft in conjunction with a Coandă surface, such as a rounded trailing edge or a deployable flap. Research during this time proved to be the foundation of the circulation control technology and showed that small amounts of exit jet velocity could have a large impact on the aerodynamics of an airfoil. In the 1970’s the inspirations that drove circulation control research changed from design work to optimization of the parameters which were found to have the most effect on circulation control. These studies included slot placement, favorable momentum coefficient, and pressurization benefits and determents. This research period also allowed for expansion of the uses of circulation control to submarine/hydrodynamic and rotary wing applications. Newest research has brought on several propeller driven applications and the recent push for efficient renewable research has allowed circulation control research technologies to evolve into use in wind turbine and water turbine applications. The idea being that with circulation control the turbine can adapt easier to the changing wind velocity and direction and ultimately capture more power than an un-augmented turbine. As with most new and novel technologies there is a process and time delay associated with their development and ultimate application. For some technologies the market, or the supporting hardware, are lacking and sometimes the technology has strong advocacies for yet to be fulfilled expectations. In most of these cases a strong idea will re-surface repeatedly until the art has matured, or the better solution is found. This paper will focus on the previously developed

  6. Dynamic CT in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horibe, Kunio; Akagi, Katsuhito; Go, Junto; Kohmura, Eiji; Yamazaki, Mami

    1984-11-01

    In order to elucidate the cerebral circulation before and after shunt in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus(NPH), a comparative study of 12 cases was performed using dynamic CT. In the effective shunt group, blood flow in the frontal gray matter and PVL was improved. The improvement in PVL was particularly marked. On the other hand, in the non-effective group, blood flow in the frontal gray matter was reduced compared with that before operation. In regard to predicting the effectiveness of the shunt from the features of preoperative dynamic CT study in NPH, it is suggested that blood flow in the frontal gray matter was lower in the effective shunt group than in the non-effective group. This cerebral circulation study using dynamic CT, which can be easily manipulated, is non-invasive, and is thought to be a useful method when highly reproducible parameters are chosen. (Author).

  7. Assessment of Circulating microRNAs in Plasma of Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Fortunato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide and numerous ongoing research efforts are directed to identify new strategies for its early detection. The development of non-invasive blood-based biomarkers for cancer detection in its preclinical phases is crucial to improve the outcome of this deadly disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a new promising class of circulating biomarkers for cancer detection and prognosis definition, but lack of consensus on data normalization methods for circulating miRNAs and the critical issue of haemolysis, has affected the identification of circulating miRNAs with diagnostic potential. We describe here an interesting approach for profiling circulating miRNAs in plasma samples based on the evaluation of reciprocal miRNA levels measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR. By monitoring changes of plasma miRNA-ratios, it is possible to assess the deregulation of tumor-related miRNAs and identify signatures with diagnostic and prognostic value. In addition, to avoid bias due to the release of miRNAs from blood cells, a miRNA-ratios signature distinguishing haemolyzed samples was identified. The method described was validated in plasma samples of lung cancer patients, but given its reproducibility and reliability, could be potentially applied for the identification of diagnostic circulating miRNAs in other diseases.

  8. Performance evaluation approach for the supercritical helium cold circulators of ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghela, H.; Sarkar, B.; Bhattacharya, R.; Kapoor, H.; Chalifour, M.; Chang, H.-S.; Serio, L.

    2014-01-01

    The ITER project design foresees Supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling for the main cryogenic components, namely, the superconducting (SC) magnets and cryopumps (CP). Therefore, cold circulators have been selected to provide the required SHe mass flow rate to cope with specific operating conditions and technical requirements. Considering the availability impacts of such machines, it has been decided to perform evaluation tests of the cold circulators at operating conditions prior to the series production in order to minimize the project technical risks. A proposal has been conceptualized, evaluated and simulated to perform representative tests of the full scale SHe cold circulators. The objectives of the performance tests include the validation of normal operating condition, transient and off-design operating modes as well as the efficiency measurement. A suitable process and instrumentation diagram of the test valve box (TVB) has been developed to implement the tests at the required thermodynamic conditions. The conceptual engineering design of the TVB has been developed along with the required thermal analysis for the normal operating conditions to support the performance evaluation of the SHe cold circulator.

  9. The Comparison Study of Renin and Angiotensin A H Levels on Normal Tension Glaucoma Patients and Normal Individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongmin Yun; Pei Fu; Kexi Ding; Qi Yang

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the levels of renin-angiotension system (RAS) components in normal tension glaucoma patients and normal controls.Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 11 normal tension glaucoma(NTG)patients and 11 age and sex matched controls. The levels of renin and angiotensin A Ⅱ of 11 NTG patients and normal controls were examined by radio-immunity test. Statistical analyses were performed by paired t test.Results :The levels of renin of NTG patients and normal controls are (769.085±183.217) pg/ml/n and (822.035±124.140) pg/ml/n, while the levels of angiotensin A Ⅱ of NTG patients and normal controls are (37.347±10.669)pg/ml and (24.836±10.665)pg/ml respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between the levels of renin and angiotensin among NTG patients and normal controls.Conclusion:There were not many abnormalities of the levels of circulating rennin and angiotensin A Ⅱ of NTG patients in our study.

  10. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells in kidney transplant patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana S Di Marco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation (RTx leads to amelioration of endothelial function in patients with advanced renal failure. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs may play a key role in this repair process. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of RTx and immunosuppressive therapy on the number of circulating EPCs. METHODS: We analyzed 52 RTx patients (58±13 years; 33 males, mean ± SD and 16 age- and gender-matched subjects with normal kidney function (57±17; 10 males. RTx patients received a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI-based (65% or a CNI-free therapy (35% and steroids. EPC number was determined by double positive staining for CD133/VEGFR2 and CD34/VEGFR2 by flow cytometry. Stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1 levels were assessed by ELISA. Experimentally, to dissociate the impact of RTx from the impact of immunosuppressants, we used the 5/6 nephrectomy model. The animals were treated with a CNI-based or a CNI-free therapy, and EPCs (Sca+cKit+ and CD26+ cells were determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Compared to controls, circulating number of CD34+/VEGFR2+ and CD133+/VEGFR2+ EPCs increased in RTx patients. There were no correlations between EPC levels and statin, erythropoietin or use of renin angiotensin system blockers in our study. Indeed, multivariate analysis showed that SDF-1--a cytokine responsible for EPC mobilization--is independently associated with the EPC number. 5/6 rats presented decreased EPC counts in comparison to control animals. Immunosuppressive therapy was able to restore normal EPC values in 5/6 rats. These effects on EPC number were associated with reduced number of CD26+ cells, which might be related to consequent accumulation of SDF-1. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that kidney transplantation and its associated use of immunosuppressive drugs increases the number of circulating EPCs via the manipulation of the CD26/SDF-1 axis. Increased EPC count may be associated to endothelial repair and function in

  11. Development of essential system technologies for advanced reactor - Development of natural circulation analysis code for integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Goon Cherl; Park, Ik Gyu; Kim, Jae Hak; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Tae Wan [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the natural circulation characteristics of integral type reactors and to develope the natural circulation analysis code for integral type reactors. This study is focused on the asymmetric 3-dimensional flow during natural circulation such as 1/4 steam generator section isolation and the inclination of the reactor systems. Natural circulation experiments were done using small-scale facilities of integral reactor SMART (System-Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor). CFX4 code was used to investigate the flow patterns and thermal mixing phenomena in upper pressure header and downcomer. Differences between normal operation of all steam generators and the 1/4 section isolation conditions were observed and the results were used as the data 1/4 section isolation conditions were observed and the results were used as the data for RETRAN-03/INT code validation. RETRAN-03 code was modified for the development of natural circulation analysis code for integral type reactors, which was development of natural circulation analysis code for integral type reactors, which was named as RETRAN-03/INT. 3-dimensional analysis models for asymmetric flow in integral type reactors were developed using vector momentum equations in RETRAN-03. Analysis results using RETRAN-03/INT were compared with experimental and CFX4 analysis results and showed good agreements. The natural circulation characteristics obtained in this study will provide the important and fundamental design features for the future small and medium integral reactors. (author). 29 refs., 75 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. Influence of external circulation on sludge characteristics during start-up of internal circulation reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Jian-nan; WANG Dian-zuo

    2005-01-01

    The start-up of external circulation-added internal circulation(IC) reactor was finished in 26 d, 32 d fewer than that of IC reactor. To evaluate the influence of the added external circulation on the development of granular sludge, the characteristics of the granular sludge taken from the two tested laboratory-scale reactors during start-up were studied. The results show that the added external circulation can enhance biomass granulation, accelerate granule development and improve sludge characteristics. At the end of start-up, the granular size of sludge in external circulation-added IC reactor greatly increases with a size distribution much better than that of sludge in IC reactor. The granular sludge originated from external circulation-added IC reactor contains more extracellular polymers and has a greater settling velocity than that from IC reactor. Methanogenic activity of the granular sludge from the external circulation-added IC reactor started 26 d ago reaches 358.23 mL·g-1·d-1, 1.66 and 1.20 times as great as that of the sludge from the IC reactor started 26 d and 58 d ago respectively.

  13. Studying the normal-fluid flow in Helium-II using metastable helium molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, W; Cahn, S B; Nikkel, J A; McKinsey, D N

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that metastable helium molecules can be used as tracers to visualize the flow of the normal fluid in superfluid $^{4}$He using a laser-induced-fluorescence technique. The flow pattern of a normal-fluid jet impinging on the center of a copper disc is imaged. A ring-shaped circulation structure of the normal fluid is observed as the jet passes across the disc surface. The fluorescence signal for the molecules trapped in the circulation structure is measured as a function of time after we turn off the molecule source. The radiative lifetime and density of the molecules can be determined by fitting the measured data using a simple analytic model. We also discuss a proposed experiment on using a previously developed molecule tagging-imaging technique to visualize the normal-fluid velocity profile during the transition of quantum turbulence in a thermal counterflow channel.

  14. Redefining circulating tumor cells by image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the blood of patients with metastatic carcinomas are associated with poor survival and can be used to guide therapy. However, CTC are very heterogeneous in size and shape, and are present at very low frequencies. Missing or misjudging a few events may have great cons

  15. On Pareto theory of circulation of elites

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo P\\'erez-Marco

    2014-01-01

    We prove that Pareto theory of circulation of elites results from our wealth evolution model, Kelly criterion for optimal betting and Keynes' observation of "animal spirits" that drive the economy and cause that human financial decisions are prone to excess risk-taking.

  16. A Circulation Model for Busy Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagust, A.

    1983-01-01

    Develops stochastic model of library borrowing using Negative Binomial distribution applied to circulation data obtained from Huddersfield Public Library. Evidence concerning process of popularity decay is presented and method is given by which relegation tests can be constructed to maintain optimum turnover. Eight references and statistical…

  17. Detecting Holocene changes in thermohaline circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Keigwin, L. D.; Boyle, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    Throughout the last glacial cycle, reorganizations of deep ocean water masses were coincident with rapid millennial-scale changes in climate. Climate changes have been less severe during the present interglacial, but evidence for concurrent deep ocean circulation change is ambiguous.

  18. Detecting holocene changes in thermohaline circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigwin, L D; Boyle, E A

    2000-02-15

    Throughout the last glacial cycle, reorganizations of deep ocean water masses were coincident with rapid millennial-scale changes in climate. Climate changes have been less severe during the present interglacial, but evidence for concurrent deep ocean circulation change is ambiguous. PMID:10677463

  19. Unsteady flow about a circulation control airfoil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶昌; 孙茂; 吴礼义

    1996-01-01

    The unsteady flow around a circulation control (CC) airfoil was investigated with Navier-Stokes method,which includes the flow around CC airfoil with pulsating jet,the flow around oscillating CC airfoil,and the flow around oscillating CC airfoil with pulsating jet.Dynamic properties of the flow and the aerodynamic forces were rewaled.

  20. A self-circulation helium liquefaction system with five 4 K G-M cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Gong, Linghui; Li, Laifeng; Xu, Xiangdong; Xie, Zuqi; Zhao, Hongwei; Guo, Xiaohong

    2011-06-01

    A self-circulation helium liquefaction system (SCHLS) with five 4 K G-M cryocoolers is developed to supply liquid helium (LHe) for SECRAL (a superconducting ECR ion source used in Lanzhou city, China). LHe is vaporized in SECRAL and warmed up to room temperature. SCHLS will re-liquefy the helium gas at a rate of 83.2 L/day under normal atmosphere pressure. With SCHLS, SECRAL system can run online without any interruption of refilling LHe.

  1. Decontamination of CAGR gas circulator components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development and full-scale trial of two methods for removal of radioactive contamination on the surfaces of CAGR gas circulator components. The two methods described are a particle impact cleaning (PIC) decontamination technique and an electrochemical technique, 'electro-swabbing', which is based on the principle of decontamination by electro-polishing. In developing these techniques it was necessary to take account of the physical and chemical nature of the surface deposits on the gas circulator components; these were shown to consist of magnetite-type oxide and carbonaceous material. In order to follow the progress of the decontamination it was also necessary to develop a surface sampling technique which was effective and precise under these conditions; an electrochemical technique, employing similar principles to the electro-swabbing process, was developed for this purpose. The full-scale trial of the PIC decontamination technique was carried out on an inlet guide vane (IGV) assembly, this having been identified as the component from the gas circulator which contributes most to the radiation dose accumulated during routine circulator maintenance. The technique was shown to be practically viable and some 99% of the radioactive contamination was readily removed from the treated surfaces with only negligible surface damage being caused. The full-scale trial of the electro-swabbing decontamination technique was carried out on a gas circulator impeller. High decontamination factors were again achieved with ≥ 99% of the radioactive contamination being removed from the treated surfaces. The technique has practical limitations in terms of handling and treatment of waste-arisings. However, the use of specially-designed swabbing electrodes may allow the treatment of constricted geometries inaccessible to techniques such as PIC. The technique is also highly suitable for the treatment of soft-finish materials and of components fabricated from a

  2. Effects of Microtopography on Overmarsh Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J. C.; Torres, R.; Garrett, A.

    2013-12-01

    Authors: J.C. Sullivan, R. Torres, A.J. Garrett In this study we systematically degrade a high-resolution, high precision salt marsh DEM and characterize the effects of DEM smoothing on overmarsh circulation. The question driving this effort is: How much topographic detail is needed to accurately simulate salt marsh circulation? The hydrodynamic model Delft3D was applied to data from a previous dye-tracer study in a 2 km2 semi-enclosed salt marsh basin at Skidaway Institute of Oceanography near Savannah, Georgia, USA. Overmarsh circulation was simulated for each smoothed DEM over a 5 day period corresponding to spring tide conditions. Results show that flood and ebb pathways differ significantly, but this effect is less apparent as the DEM is smoothed. Also, the flushing time (Tf) decreases with smoothing leading to greater dilution of a dye tracer with each tidal cycle. Observations at the macro, meso and micro scale show that flood and ebb flows become stronger through a consistent set of flow paths, including intertidal creeks, and differences in overmarsh circulation are more apparent in low marsh and channel head areas. This work shows that accurate representation of overmarsh circulation requires that the DEM resolve creek and low lying marsh structures at a spatial scale of 2-4m, but not necessarily the smallest tidal creeks (< 1m in width and depth). The next phase of this work will be to incorporate spatial variations in vegetation cover using RULLI (Remote Ultra Low-Light Imaging) remote sensing technology developed by the Department of Energy.

  3. Observations of the summer Red Sea circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofianos, Sarantis S.; Johns, William E.

    2007-06-01

    Aiming at exploring and understanding the summer circulation in the Red Sea, a cruise was conducted in the basin during the summer of 2001 involving hydrographic, meteorological, and direct current observations. The most prominent feature, characteristic of the summer circulation and exchange with the Indian Ocean, is a temperature, salinity, and oxygen minimum located around a depth of 75 m at the southern end of the basin, associated with Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water inflowing from the Gulf of Aden during the summer season as an intruding subsurface layer. Stirring and mixing with ambient waters lead to marked increases in temperature (from 16.5 to almost 33°C) and salinity (from 35.7 to more than 38 psu) in this layer by the time it reaches midbasin. The observed circulation presents a very vigorous pattern with strong variability and intense features that extend the width of the basin. A permanent cyclone, detected in the northern Red Sea, verifies previous observations and modeling studies, while in the central sector of the basin a series of very strong anticyclones were observed with maximum velocities exceeding 1 m/s. The three-layer flow pattern, representative of the summer exchange between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, is observed in the strait of Bab el Mandeb. In the southern part of the basin the layer flow is characterized by strong banking of the inflows and outflows against the coasts. Both surface and intermediate water masses involved in the summer Red Sea circulation present prominent spatial variability in their characteristics, indicating that the eddy field and mixing processes play an important role in the summer Red Sea circulation.

  4. Relationship between Estradiol and Progesterone Concentrations and Cognitive Performance in Normally Cycling Female Cynomolgus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Kromrey, Sarah A.; Czoty, Paul W; Nader, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that cognitive function may be influenced by estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations, although few cognition studies involve normally cycling females. The present study examined cognitive performance in normally cycling female cynomolgus macaques (n=14), a species with similarities to humans in brain organization and a nearly identical menstrual cycle to women. Initial assessments compared cognitive measures to circulating concentrations of E2...

  5. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghandi

    Full Text Available Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN, to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  6. Development Strategies for Rural Key Circulation Service Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The rural key circulation service network is an important channel for ensuring agricultural products’entry to market and urban industrial products’entry to rural areas.Through in-depth survey and research,we took a look at development changes and current situations of three circulation service networks,namely,circulation of nondurable consumer goods,circulation of agricultural means of production,and circulation of agricultural products.Based on several key problems in rural circulation service network,such as logistics problem,delivery problem,backward transaction mode,and the last kilometer information,we put forward corresponding development countermeasures.

  7. [Elective cerebral arteriovenous malformation treatment with onyx after coil embolization of ruptured, flow-realeted aneurysm of the posterior circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Falkowski, Aleksander; Rać, Monika; Sagan, Leszek; Kojder, Ireneusz

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial arteriovenous posterior circulation malformation was planned to embolize by onyx injection after acute coil embolization of ruptured flow-realeted aneurysm of posterior cerebral artery. Control angiography revealed completely embolized malformation with normal vessel patency at the end of procedure. There were no adverse events related to this procedure and no neurologic deficit at the discharge. PMID:23276020

  8. [Circulating immune complexes in acute and prolonged hepatitis A infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautović-Krkić, Sajma; Gribajcević, Mehmed

    2002-01-01

    Level and dynamics activity of circulating immune complexes (CiC) and persistence CiC in the sera in the acute and prolonged HAV-infection was examined. In the same time we explored the relation of level and dynamics CiC compared with level, dynamics and persistence length ALT and IgM anti-HAV in sera, longitude excretion HAV Ag in stool and intensity patohistological damage in liver. Research have been undertaken in the prospected study on two groups with 90 patients in total: 60 patients with prolonged form of the hepatitis A, and 30 patients with HAV-infection with normal development. CiC was prescribe with fotometer in sediment of poliethilenglicol, and IgM anti HAV with ELISA technique. Ag-HAV in stool was prescribe with methodImmuno/electro/osmophoresis. Results of examination showed that high level values of CiC had present in all patients with HAV-infection, bat yet middle values of CiC had significantly higher in prolonged forms (p CiC persistence almost three times longer than in HAV infection with normal development. The highest value of CiC have been found from one to two weeks after e peak ALT in HAV and in PTHA 4-6 weeks later. Persistence of elevated values CiC responded to the middle length persistence of Igm anti HAV-in the sera. PMID:12378858

  9. Divergent relationship of circulating CTRP3 levels between obesity and gender: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Roy Marshal; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Clark, William Andrew

    2016-01-01

    C1q TNF Related Protein 3 (CTRP3) is a novel adipose tissue derived secreted factor, or adipokine, which has been linked to a number of beneficial biological effects on metabolism, inflammation, and survival signaling in a variety of tissues. However, very little is known about CTRP3 in regards to human health. The purpose of this project was to examine circulating CTRP3 levels in a clinical population, patients with symptoms requiring heart catheterization in order to identify the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). It was hypothesized that serum CTRP3 levels would be decreased in the presence of CAD. Methods Body mass index (BMI), diabetes status, and plasma samples were collected from 100 patients who were >30 years of age and presented at the East Tennessee State University Heart Clinic with symptoms requiring heart catheterization in order to identify the presence of cardiovascular blockages (n = 52 male, n = 48 female). Circulating CTRP3 levels were quantified using commercially available ELISA. Results Circulating CTRP3 levels had no relationship to the presence of CAD regardless of gender. However, circulating concentrations of CTRP3 were significantly higher in normal weight (BMI obesity (BMI > 30) resulted in an increase in circulating CTRP3 levels in male subjects (0.74 ± 0.08 µg/ml) but showed a significant decrease in female subjects (0.58 ± 0.07 µg/ml). Additionally, there was a significant reduction in circulating CTRP3 levels in female subjects who were diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes compared with patients without (0.79 ± 0.08 vs. 0.42 ± 0.10 µg/ml). There was no relationship between diabetes status and circulating CTRP3 levels in male subjects. Conclusion Circulating CTRP3 levels had a different relationship with diabetes and obesity status between male and female patients. It is possible that circulating CTRP3 levels are controlled by hormonal status, however more research is needed to explore this relationship

  10. Warm World Ocean Thermohaline Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Modern day ocean circulation is dominated by thermal convection with cold waters subsiding in the Northern Atlantic, filling the ocean interior with cold and heavy water. However, ocean circulation diminished during the last glaciation and consequently the downwelling of the cold. Therefore interior ocean water temperatures must have been affected by other mechanisms which are negligible in the current state. We propose that the submergence of highly saline water from warm seas with high rates of evaporation (like the Red or Mediterranean Sea) was a major factor controlling ocean circulation during the last glaciation. Even today, waters in these poorly connected seas are the heaviest waters in the World ocean (1.029 g/cm3). The second mechanism affecting ocean temperature is the geothermal heat flux. With no heat exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean, geothermal heat flux through the ocean floor is capable of increasing ocean temperature by tens of degrees C over a 100 thousand year glacial cycle. To support these hypotheses we present an ocean box model that describes thermohaline circulation in the World Ocean. According to the model parameters, all water circulation is driven by the water density gradient. Boxes include high-latitude seas, high salinity seas, surface ocean, glaciers, and rift and lateral zones of the ocean interior. External heat sources are radiative forcing, affected by Milankovich cycles, and geothermal heat flux. Additionally this model accounts for the heat produced by organic rain decay. Taking all input parameters close to currently observed values, the model manages to recreate the glacial-interglacial cycles. During the glacial periods only haline circulation takes place, the ocean is strongly stratified, and the interior ocean accumulates heat while high-latitudes accumulate ice. 112,000 years after glaciation starts, water density on the ocean bottom becomes equal to the density of water in high-latitude seas, strong thermal

  11. Surfaces parametrised by the normals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    For a surface with non vanishing Gaussian curvature the Gauss map is regular and can be inverted. This makes it possible to use the normal as the parameter, and then it is trivial to calculate the normal and the Gauss map. This in turns makes it easy to calculate offsets, the principal curvatures...

  12. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs

  13. Normalizing Catastrophe: An Educational Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jickling, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Processes of normalizing assumptions and values have been the subjects of theoretical framing and critique for several decades now. Critique has often been tied to issues of environmental sustainability and social justice. Now, in an era of global warming, there is a rising concern that the results of normalizing of present values could be…

  14. Managing incontinence: women's normalizing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoner, M M; Haylor, M J

    1993-01-01

    Women's strategies for managing urinary incontinence were examined in a grounded-theory study. The women's basic social concern was dealing with incontinence in a manner that enabled them to feel normal. Feeling normal meant being able to do what they wanted to do and needed to do to have a normal life-style as they perceived it. This goal was accomplished by normalizing incontinence and its management. Normalization was achieved by directing its course through self-management, accounting for it in terms of personal history and life experiences, and delaying medical counsel. These strategies are described. The findings provide fresh insights about women's response to incontinence and their practice of self-managing its consequences. PMID:8138472

  15. Normal BGG solutions and polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Cap, A; Hammerl, M

    2012-01-01

    First BGG operators are a large class of overdetermined linear differential operators intrinsically associated to a parabolic geometry on a manifold. The corresponding equations include those controlling infinitesimal automorphisms, higher symmetries, and many other widely studied PDE of geometric origin. The machinery of BGG sequences also singles out a subclass of solutions called normal solutions. These correspond to parallel tractor fields and hence to (certain) holonomy reductions of the canonical normal Cartan connection. Using the normal Cartan connection, we define a special class of local frames for any natural vector bundle associated to a parabolic geometry. We then prove that the coefficient functions of any normal solution of a first BGG operator with respect to such a frame are polynomials in the normal coordinates of the parabolic geometry. A bound on the degree of these polynomials in terms of representation theory data is derived. For geometries locally isomorphic to the homogeneous model of ...

  16. Silent Circulation of Ross River Virus in French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Aubry

    2015-08-01

    Discussion: Our results support the existence of autochthonous RRV transmission and suggest that this pathogen has silently circulated in French Polynesia. These findings raise the question of possible undetected circulation of RRV in other Pacific Island Countries and Territories.

  17. A monsoon-like Southwest Australian circulation and its relation with rainfall in Southwest Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juan; Li, Jianping; Li, Yun

    2010-05-01

    Using the NCEP/NCAR, ERA-40 reanalysis, and precipitation data from CMAP and Australian Bureau of Meteorology, the variability and circulation features influencing the southwest Western Australia (SWWA) winter rainfall are investigated. It is found that the climate of southwest Australia bears a strong seasonality in the annual cycle and exhibits a monsoon-like atmospheric circulation, which is termed as the southwest Australian circulation (SWAC) for its several distinct features characterizing a monsoonal circulation: the seasonal reversal of winds, alternate wet and dry seasons, and an evident land-sea thermal contrast. The seasonal march of the SWAC in extended winter (May to October) is demonstrated by pentad data. An index based on the dynamics normalized seasonality was introduced to describe the behavior and variation of the winter SWAC. It is found that the winter rainfall over SWWA has a significant positive correlation with the SWAC index in both early (May to July) and late (August to October) winter. In weaker winter SWAC years there is an anti-cyclonic anomaly over southern Indian Ocean resulting in weaker westerlies and northerlies which are not favorable for more rainfall over SWWA, and the opposite combination is true in the stronger winter SWAC years. The SWAC explains not only a large portion of the interannual variability of SWWA rainfall in both early and late winter, but also the long term drying trend over SWWA in early winter. The well-coupled SWAC-SWWA rainfall relationship seems to be largely independent of the well-known effects of large-scale atmospheric circulations such as the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM), El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and ENSO Modoki (EM). The result offers qualified support for the argument that the monsoon-like circulation may contribute to the rainfall decline in early winter over SWWA.

  18. Anti-cyclonic circulation driven by the estuarine circulation in a gulf type ROFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, T.; Sanford, L. P.; Nakatsuji, K.; Sugiyama, Y.

    1997-08-01

    Baroclinic residual circulation processes are examined in gulf type Regions Of Freshwater Influence (ROFIs), which have large rivers discharging into a rounded head wider than the Rossby internal deformation radius. Theoretical and observational investigations concentrate on Ise Bay, Japan, with supporting data from Osaka Bay and Tokyo Bay. Simplified analytical solutions are derived to describe the primary features of the circulation. Three dimensional residual current data collected using moored current meters and shipboard acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCPs), satellite imagery and density structure data observed using STDs, are presented for comparison to the theoretical predictions. There are three key points to understanding the resulting circulation in gulf type ROFIs. First, there are likely to be three distinct water masses: the river plume, a brackish upper layer, and a higher salinity lower layer. Second, baroclinic processes in gulf type ROFIs are influenced by the Earth's rotation at first order. Residual currents are quasi-geostrophic and potential vorticity is approximately conserved. Third, the combined effects of a classical longitudinal estuarine circulation and the Earth's rotation are both necessary to produce the resulting circulation. Anti-cyclonic vorticity is generated in the upper layer by the horizontal divergence associated with upward entrainment, which is part of the estuarine circulation. The interaction between anti-cyclonic vorticity and horizontal divergence results in two regions of qualitatively different circulation, with gyre-like circulation near the bay head and uniformly seaward anti-cyclonicly sheared flow further towards the mouth. The stagnation point separating the two regions is closer to (further away from) the bay head for stronger (weaker) horizontal divergence, respectively. The vorticity and spin-up time of this circulation are-(ƒ-ω 1)/2 and h/2w 0, respectively, where ƒ is the Coriolis parameter, ω 1 is

  19. Formation and plasma circulation of solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Solar prominences are long-lived cool and dense plasma curtains in the hot and rarefied outer solar atmosphere or corona. The physical mechanism responsible for their formation and especially for their internal plasma circulation has been uncertain for decades. The observed ubiquitous down flows in quiescent prominences are difficult to interpret as plasma with high conductivity seems to move across horizontal magnetic field lines. Here we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of prominence formation and evolution in an elongated magnetic flux rope as a result of in-situ plasma condensations fueled by continuous plasma evaporation from the solar chromosphere. The prominence is born and maintained in a fragmented, highly dynamic state with continuous reappearance of multiple blobs and thread structures that move mainly downward dragging along mass-loaded field lines. The prominence plasma circulation is characterized by the dynamic balance between the drainage of prominence plasma back to the chromos...

  20. [William Harvey, discoverer of the blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    v Mühlendahl, K E

    2007-06-01

    William Harvey (1578-1657), living at the turn to modern times, scientifically speaking, was an eminent physician and scientist. He developed the concept of the circulation of the blood and his findings have proved to be correct in nearly all details to this day. He published his physiological findings and interpretations in a small, albeit epoch-making, volume: Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus, published in Frankfurt in 1628. On the occasion of the 350th anniversary of his death on June 3, 2007, this essay commemorates the work of this important physician, illustrating his brilliant conception of the blood circulation by quoting passages from De motu cordis et sanguinis.

  1. Modeling mesoscale circulation of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotenko, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    An eddy-resolving (1/30)° version of the DieCAST low-dissipative model, adapted to the Black Sea circulation, is presented. Under mean climatological forcing, the model realistically reproduces major dominant large-scale and mesoscale structures of seasonal sea circulation, including the Rim Current, coastal anticyclonic eddies, mushroom currents, etc. Due to its extremely low dissipation and high resolution, the model makes it possible to trace the development of the baroclinic instability along the Turkish and Caucasian coasts, reproduce mesoscale structures generated by this mechanism, and assess the scales of these structures. The model also realistically reproduces short-term effects of bora winds on the evolution of subsurface layer structures.

  2. Meridional circulation in turbulent protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Fromang, Sebastien; Masset, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    Based on viscous disk theory, a number of recent studies have suggested the existence of a large scale meridional circulation in protoplanetary disks. Such a flow could account for the presence of crystalline silicates, among which Calcium and Aluminium-rich Inclusions (CAIs), at large distances from the sun. This paper aims at examining whether such large scale flows exist in turbulent protoplanetary disks. High resolution global hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical numerical simulations of turbulent protoplanetary disks are used to infer the properties of the flow in such disks. By performing hydrodynamic simulations using explicit viscosity, we demonstrate that our numerical setup does not suffer from any numerical artifact. The aforementioned meridional circulation is readily recovered in viscous and laminar disks. In MHD simulations, the magneto-rotational instability drives turbulence in the disks. Averaging out the turbulent fluctuations over long timescale, the results fail to show any large scale...

  3. Circulation control STOL aircraft design aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Since Davidson patented Circulation Control Airfoils in 1960, there have been only 2 aircraft designed and flown with circulation control (CC). Designing with CC is complex for the following reasons: the relation between lift increase and blowing momentum is nonlinear; for good cruise performance one must change the wing geometry in flight from a round to a sharp trailing edge. The bleed air from the propulsion engines or an auxiliary compressor, must be used efficiently. In designing with CC, the propulsion and control aspects are just as important as aerodynamics. These design aspects were examined and linearized equations are presented in order to facilitate a preliminary analysis of the performance potential of CC. The thrust and lift requirements for takeoff make the calculated runway length very sensitive to the bleed air ratio. Thrust vectoring improves performance and can offset nose down pitching moments. The choice of blowing jet to free stream velocity ratio determines the efficiency of applying bleed air power.

  4. The design of large natural circulation BWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiling water reactors (BWR) with natural circulation are applied for capacities up to 60 MWe. Based on scale studies, however, it appears that larger production units are more efficient. It is recommended to investigate the bottlenecks in realizing larger reactors (>1000 MWe). The aim of the study on the title subject is to study to what extent the production capacity of BWRs with natural circulation can be increased. Based on data from the literature a simple analytic method has been chosen and existing BWR designs were compared. Capacities of 1300 MWe appear to be possible. These reactors will have a smaller pin diameter and a lower water supply temperature. Also steam separators with a minor pressure reduction must be available. The reliability of the stability measurement must be increased. Based on the results of this investigation the priorities for research on the design of future BWRs have been determined

  5. Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators in Circulation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Lars; Tian, Qinghai; Kaiser, Elisabeth; Xian, Wenying; Müller, Andreas; Oberhofer, Martin; Ruppenthal, Sandra; Sinnecker, Daniel; Tsutsui, Hidekazu; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Moretti, Alessandra; Lipp, Peter

    2015-09-08

    Membrane potentials display the cellular status of non-excitable cells and mediate communication between excitable cells via action potentials. The use of genetically encoded biosensors employing fluorescent proteins allows a non-invasive biocompatible way to read out the membrane potential in cardiac myocytes and other cells of the circulation system. Although the approaches to design such biosensors date back to the time when the first fluorescent-protein based Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors were constructed, it took 15 years before reliable sensors became readily available. Here, we review different developments of genetically encoded membrane potential sensors. Furthermore, it is shown how such sensors can be used in pharmacological screening applications as well as in circulation related basic biomedical research. Potentials and limitations will be discussed and perspectives of possible future developments will be provided.

  6. Cluster Dynamics in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, C.P.; Breault, R.W.

    2006-11-01

    A common hydrodynamic feature in industrial scale circulating fluidized beds is the presence of clusters. The continuous formation and destruction of clusters strongly influences particle hold-up, pressure drop, heat transfer at the wall, and mixing. In this paper fiber optic data is analyzed using discrete wavelet analysis to characterize the dynamic behavior of clusters. Five radial positions at three different axial locations under five different operating were analyzed using discrete wavelets. Results are summarized with respect to cluster size and frequency.

  7. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.5 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are to numerous to name them all. Heribert Koziol, apparently asleep, is answering the call from an impatient director. See also 8007094.

  8. Water circulation forecasting in Spanish harbours

    OpenAIRE

    Grifoll, Manel; Jordá, Gabriel; Sotillo, Marcos G.; Ferrer, Luis; Espino, Manuel; Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; Álvarez-Fanjul, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the first harbour circulation forecasting system implemented in Spain. The configuration design was based on previous analyses of the morphologic and hydrodynamic behaviour of three harbours: Barcelona, Tarragona and Bilbao. A nested system of oceanic models was implemented, with a scope ranging from the regional scale (with a mean horizontal resolution of 5 km) to the harbour scale (with a mean horizontal resolution of 40 m). A set of sensitivity tests was carried out in...

  9. The creation and circulation of public geographies

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchin, Rob; Linehan, Denis; O'Callaghan, Cian; Lawton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In response to the commentaries, we discuss further how social media disrupts and remakes the creation and circulation of geographical knowledges and potentially reconfigures the moral economy of the social sciences. In particular, we examine questions of what is meant by public geography, the publics which such geographies serve, alternative and complementary approaches to social media, the politics of authorship within collective blogs, the politics and mechanisms of knowledge c...

  10. Parallel Computing of Ocean General Circulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the parallel computing of the thirdgeneration Ocea n General Circulation Model (OGCM) from the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Mo deling for Atmospheric Science and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics(LASG),Institute of Atmosphere Physics(IAP). Meanwhile, several optimization strategies for paralle l computing of OGCM (POGCM) on Scalable Shared Memory Multiprocessor (S2MP) are presented. Using Message Passing Interface (MPI), we obtain super linear speedup on SGI Origin 2000 for parallel OGCM(POGCM) after optimization.

  11. Circulating fluidized bed boilers design and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Prabir

    1991-01-01

    This book provides practicing engineers and students with insight into the design and operation of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. Through a combination of theoretical concepts and practical experience, this book gives the reader a basic understanding of the many aspects of this subject.Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of pres

  12. Circulating somatostatin. Physiological regulator of pancreatic function?

    OpenAIRE

    Gyr, K; Beglinger, C; Köhler, E; Trautzl, U; Keller, U.; Bloom, S R

    1987-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether somatostatin is released into the circulation in sufficient amounts to regulate exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function and to evaluate the possible role of somatostatin as a hormonal regulator of the pancreas. Mean plasma somatostatin levels (SLI) increased from 11 +/- 2 pmol liter-1 to peak concentrations of 18 +/- 2 in six healthy male volunteers after a steak meal (P less than 0.05). Infusion of somatostatin inhibited hormone-induced ...

  13. When Prostate Cancer Circulates in the Bloodstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Vlaeminck-Guillem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Management of patients with prostate cancer is currently based on imperfect clinical, biological, radiological and pathological evaluation. Prostate cancer aggressiveness, including metastatic potential, remains difficult to accurately estimate. In an attempt to better adapt therapeutics to an individual (personalized medicine, reliable evaluation of the intrinsic molecular biology of the tumor is warranted, and particularly for all tumor sites (primary tumors and secondary sites at any time of the disease progression. As a consequence of their natural tendency to grow (passive invasion or as a consequence of an active blood vessel invasion by metastase-initiating cells, tumors shed various materials into the bloodstream. Major efforts have been recently made to develop powerful and accurate methods able to detect, quantify and/or analyze all these circulating tumor materials: circulating tumors cells, disseminating tumor cells, extracellular vesicles (including exosomes, nucleic acids, etc. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about these circulating tumor materials and their applications in translational research.

  14. Acoustic streaming and Sun's meridional circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel

    2016-09-01

    A vast number of physical processes involving oscillations of a bounded viscous fluid are relevantly influenced by acoustic streaming. When this happens a steady circulation of fluid develops in a thin boundary adjacent to the interface. Some examples are refracted sound waves, a fluid inside a spherical cavity undergoing torsional oscillations or a pulsating liquid droplet. Steady streaming around circular interfaces consists of a hemispherically symmetric recirculation of fluid from the equatorial plane to the polar axes closely resembling the meridional circulation pattern observed in the Sun's convection zone that determines the solar cycle. In this paper, it is argued that the acoustic pulsations exhibited by the Sun would lead to acoustic streaming in the boundary of the convection zone. A simple estimation using a typical dominant frequency of 3 mHz and the observed surface oscillation amplitude yields a steady streaming velocity us ∼ 10 m s‑1, which is on the order of the meridional circulation velocity observed in the Sun's convection zone.

  15. Circulation in a Short Cylindrical Couette System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akira Kageyama; Hantao Ji; Jeremy Goodman

    2003-07-08

    In preparation for an experimental study of magnetorotational instability (MRI) in liquid metal, we explore Couette flows having height comparable to the gap between cylinders, centrifugally stable rotation, and high Reynolds number. Experiments in water are compared with numerical simulations. The flow is very different from that of an ideal, infinitely long Couette system. Simulations show that endcaps co-rotating with the outer cylinder drive a strong poloidal circulation that redistributes angular momentum. Predicted toroidal flow profiles agree well with experimental measurements. Spin-down times scale with Reynolds number as expected for laminar Ekman circulation; extrapolation from two-dimensional simulations at Re less than or equal to 3200 agrees remarkably well with experiment at Re approximately equal to 106. This suggests that turbulence does not dominate the effective viscosity. Further detailed numerical studies reveal a strong radially inward flow near both endcaps. After turning vertically along the inner cylinder, these flows converge at the midplane and depart the boundary in a radial jet. To minimize this circulation in the MRI experiment, endcaps consisting of multiple, differentially rotating rings are proposed. Simulations predict that an adequate approximation to the ideal Couette profile can be obtained with a few rings.

  16. The protein corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchetti, Sara; Colapicchioni, Valentina; Digiacomo, Luca; Caracciolo, Giulio; Pozzi, Daniela; Capriotti, Anna Laura; La Barbera, Giorgia; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-02-01

    Following systemic administration, liposomes are covered by a 'corona' of proteins, and preserving the surface functionality is challenging. Coating the liposome surface with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the most widely used anti-opsonization strategy, but it cannot fully preclude protein adsorption. To date, protein binding has been studied following in vitro incubation to predict the fate of liposomes in vivo, while dynamic incubation mimicking in vivo conditions remains largely unexplored. The main aim of this investigation was to determine whether shear stress, produced by physiologically relevant dynamic flow, could influence the liposome-protein corona. The corona of circulating PEGylated liposome was thoroughly compared with that formed by incubation in vitro. Systematic comparison in terms of size, surface charge and quantitative composition was made by dynamic light scattering, microelectrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Size of coronas formed under static vs. dynamic incubation did not appreciably differ from each other. On the other side, the corona of circulating liposomes was more negatively charged than its static counterpart. Of note, the variety of protein species in the corona formed in a dynamic flow was significantly wider. Collectively, these results demonstrated that the corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes can be considerably different from that formed in a static fluid. This seems to be a key factor to predict the biological activity of a liposomal formulation in a physiological environment.

  17. Tropical convective transport and the Walker circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hosking

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a methodology to visualise rapid vertical and zonal tropical transport pathways. Using prescribed sea-surface temperatures in four monthly model integrations for 2005, we characterise preferred transport routes from the troposphere to the stratosphere in a high resolution climate model. Most efficient transport is modelled over the Maritime Continent (MC in November and February, i.e., boreal winter. In these months, the ascending branch of the Walker Circulation over the MC is formed in conjunction with strong deep convection, allowing fast transport into the stratosphere. In the model the upper tropospheric zonal winds associated with the Walker Circulation are also greatest in these months in agreement with ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We conclude that the Walker circulation plays an important role in the seasonality of fast tropical transport from the lower and middle troposphere to the upper troposphere and so impacts at the same time the potential supply of surface emissions to the tropical tropopause layer (TTL and subsequently to the stratosphere.

  18. No evidence of circulating autoantibodies against osteoprotegerin in patients with celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiziana Larussa; Evelina Suraci; Immacolata Nazionale; Isabella Leone; Tiziana Montalcini; Ludovico Abenavoli; Maria Imeneo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) in celiac disease (CD) patients,focusing on circulating autoantibodies against osteoprotegerin (OPG).METHODS:Seventy asymptomatic CD adult patients on gluten-free diet (GFD) and harbouring persistent negative CD-related serology were recruited.Conventional risk factors for osteoporosis (e.g.,age,sex,menopausal status,history of fractures,smoke,and body mass index) were checked and BMD was assessed by dual energy X ray absorptiometry.Serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were evaluated.Thirty-eight patients underwent repeat duodenal biopsy.Serum samples from a selected sub-group of 30 patients,who were also typed for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2 and DQ8 haplotype,were incubated with homodimeric recombinant human OPG and tested by western blotting with an anti-OPG antibody after immunoprecipitation.RESULTS:Despite persistent negative CD-related serology and strict adherence to GFD,49 out of the 70 (74%) patients displayed low BMD.Among these patients,13 (24%) showed osteoporosis and 36 (76%)osteopenia.With the exception of age,conventional risk factors for osteoporosis did not differ between patients with normal and low BMD.Circulating serum calcium and PTH levels were normal in all patients.Duodenal mucosa healing was found in 31 (82%) out of 38 patients who underwent repeat duodenal biopsy with 20 (64%) still displaying low BMD.The remaining 7 patients had an incomplete normalization of duodenal mucosa with 6 (84%) showing low BMD.No evidence of circulating antibodies against OPG was found in the serum of 30 celiac patients who were tested for,independent of BMD,duodenal histology,and HLA status.CONCLUSION:If any,the role of circulating autoantibodies against OPG in the pathogenesis of bone derangement in patients with CD is not a major one.

  19. Circulating miRNA biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Kumar

    Full Text Available A minimally invasive diagnostic assay for early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD is required to select optimal patient groups in clinical trials, monitor disease progression and response to treatment, and to better plan patient clinical care. Blood is an attractive source for biomarkers due to minimal discomfort to the patient, encouraging greater compliance in clinical trials and frequent testing. MiRNAs belong to the class of non-coding regulatory RNA molecules of ∼22 nt length and are now recognized to regulate ∼60% of all known genes through post-transcriptional gene silencing (RNAi. They have potential as useful biomarkers for clinical use because of their stability and ease of detection in many tissues, especially blood. Circulating profiles of miRNAs have been shown to discriminate different tumor types, indicate staging and progression of the disease and to be useful as prognostic markers. Recently their role in neurodegenerative diseases, both as diagnostic biomarkers as well as explaining basic disease etiology has come into focus. Here we report the discovery and validation of a unique circulating 7-miRNA signature (hsa-let-7d-5p, hsa-let-7g-5p, hsa-miR-15b-5p, hsa-miR-142-3p, hsa-miR-191-5p, hsa-miR-301a-3p and hsa-miR-545-3p in plasma, which could distinguish AD patients from normal controls (NC with >95% accuracy (AUC of 0.953. There was a >2 fold difference for all signature miRNAs between the AD and NC samples, with p-values<0.05. Pathway analysis, taking into account enriched target mRNAs for these signature miRNAs was also carried out, suggesting that the disturbance of multiple enzymatic pathways including lipid metabolism could play a role in AD etiology.

  20. Detection and isolation of circulating melanoma cells using photoacoustic flowmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Christine M; Rood, Kyle; Sengupta, Shramik; Gupta, Sagar K; DeSouza, Thiago; Cook, Aaron; Viator, John A

    2011-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are those cells that have separated from a macroscopic tumor and spread through the blood and lymph systems to seed secondary tumors(1,2,3). CTCs are indicators of metastatic disease and their detection in blood samples may be used to diagnose cancer and monitor a patient's response to therapy. Since CTCs are rare, comprising about one tumor cell among billions of normal blood cells in advanced cancer patients, their detection and enumeration is a difficult task. We exploit the presence of pigment in most melanoma cells to generate photoacoustic, or laser induced ultrasonic waves in a custom flow cytometer for detection of circulating melanoma cells (CMCs)(4,5). This process entails separating a whole blood sample using centrifugation and obtaining the white blood cell layer. If present in whole blood, CMCs will separate with the white blood cells due to similar density. These cells are resuspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and introduced into the flowmeter. Rather than a continuous flow of the blood cell suspension, we induced two phase flow in order to capture these cells for further study. In two phase flow, two immiscible liquids in a microfluidic system meet at a junction and form alternating slugs of liquid(6,7). PBS suspended white blood cells and air form microliter slugs that are sequentially irradiated with laser light. The addition of a surfactant to the liquid phase allows uniform slug formation and the user can create different sized slugs by altering the flow rates of the two phases. Slugs of air and slugs of PBS with white blood cells contain no light absorbers and hence, do not produce photoacoustic waves. However, slugs of white blood cells that contain even single CMCs absorb laser light and produce high frequency acoustic waves. These slugs that generate photoacoustic waves are sequestered and collected for cytochemical staining for verification of CMCs. PMID:22143421

  1. Formation of germline chimera Gaok chicken used circulation primordial germ cells (circulation PGCs fresh and thawed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostaman T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation of germline chimeras by transfer of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs is one of the effective techniques for preservation and regeneration of genetic resources in chickens. This study attempted to form germline chimeras of Gaok chicken buy purifying circulated PGCs of donor embryo before it is transferred to the recipient (White Leghorn chickens=WL and studied the ability of recipient embryo on survival in incubators, and hatchability. This study used 200 fertile eggs of Gaok and 90 fertile WL breed all of the eggs was incubated at 380C and 60% humidity in a portable incubator. PGCs-circulation of the blood collected Gaok embryos at stage 14-16 were taken from the dorsal aorta, and then purified by centrifugation method using nycodenz. PGCs-circulation results further purification frozen in liquid nitrogen before being transferred to the recipient embryo. The results showed that for the development of embryos transferred to the fresh circulation of PGCs-circulation as many as 25 cells can survive up to day 14, while one of the transferred of 50 and 100 cells into recipient embryos was hatched (10%. On the contrari recipient embryos that are transferred to the frozen PGCs-circulation the embryos development was shorter, and only survived until day 10th (treatment 25 cells, day 14th (treatment of 50 cells and day 17th (treatment of 100 cells. It is concluded that the amount of PGCs-circulation embryos transferred to the recipient is one factor that influence the success of the development germline chimeras.

  2. 19 CFR 207.63 - Circulation of draft questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Circulation of draft questionnaires. 207.63... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Five-Year Reviews § 207.63 Circulation of draft questionnaires. (a) The Director shall circulate draft questionnaires to the parties for comment in each full review....

  3. Algorithms for Finding the Inverses of Factor Block Circulant Matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, algorithms for finding the inverse of a factor block circulant matrix,a factor block retrocirculant matrix and partitioned matrix with factor block circulant blocks over the complex field are presented respectively. In addition, two algorithms for the inverse of a factor block circulant matrix over the quaternion division algebra are proposed.

  4. Normal families of meromorphic functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chao-wei; WANG Yong-jun

    2007-01-01

    A normal theorem concerning meromorphic functions sharing values was proved with the method of Zalcman-Pang.The theorem is as follows.If for each f in F,all zeros of f-a have multiplicity at least k(k≥2),f and its k-th derivative function share a,and if f=b whenever its k-th denvative equal b,then F is normal in D.This theorem improved the result of Chen and Fang[Chen HH,Fang ML,Shared values and normal families of meromorphic functions,Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications,2001,260:124-1 32].

  5. Lightweight Magnetic Cooler With a Reversible Circulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weibo; McCormick, John

    2011-01-01

    A design of a highly efficient and lightweight space magnetic cooler has been developed that can continuously provide remote/distributed cooling at temperatures in the range of 2 K with a heat sink at about 15 K. The innovative design uses a cryogenic circulator that enables the cooler to operate at a high cycle frequency to achieve a large cooling capacity. The ability to provide remote/distributed cooling not only allows flexible integration with a payload and spacecraft, but also reduces the mass of the magnetic shields needed. The active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) system is shown in the figure. This design mainly consists of two identical magnetic regenerators surrounded by their superconducting magnets and a reversible circulator. Each regenerator also has a heat exchanger at its warm end to reject the magnetization heat to the heat sink, and the two regenerators share a cold-end heat exchanger to absorb heat from a cooling target. The circulator controls the flow direction, which cycles in concert with the magnetic fields, to facilitate heat transfer. Helium enters the hot end of the demagnetized column, is cooled by the refrigerant, and passes into the cold-end heat exchanger to absorb heat. The helium then enters the cold end of the magnetized column, absorbing heat from the refrigerant, and enters the hot-end heat exchanger to reject the magnetization heat. The efficient heat transfer in the AMRR allows the system to operate at a relatively short cycle period to achieve a large cooling power. The key mechanical components in the magnetic cooler are the reversible circulator and the magnetic regenerators. The circulator uses non-contacting, self-acting gas bearings and clearance seals to achieve long life and vibration- free operation. There are no valves or mechanical wear in this circulator, so the reliability is predicted to be very high. The magnetic regenerator employs a structured bed configuration. The core consists of a stack of thin

  6. Normality Criteria of Meromorphic Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qiong; Yuan Wen-jun; Chen Wei; Tian Hong-gen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider normality criteria for a family of meromorphic functions concerning shared values. Let F be a family of meromorphic functions defined in a domain D, m, n, k and d be four positive integers satisfying m≥n+2 and d≥ k+1m−n−1 , and a(̸=0), b be two finite constants. Suppose that every f ∈F has all its zeros and poles of multiplicity at least k and d, respectively. If (fn)(k)−afm and (gn)(k)−agm share the value b for every pair of functions (f, g) of F, then F is normal in D. Our results improve the related theorems of Schwick (Schwick W. Normality criteria for families of meromorphic function. J. Anal. Math., 1989, 52:241–289), Li and Gu (Li Y T, Gu Y X. On normal families of meromorphic functions. J. Math. Anal. Appl., 2009, 354: 421–425).

  7. Circulating levels of chromatin fragments are inversely correlated with anti-dsDNA antibody levels in human and murine systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mariann H; Rekvig, Ole Petter; Jacobsen, Rasmus S;

    2011-01-01

    Anti-dsDNA antibodies represent a central pathogenic factor in Lupus nephritis. Together with nucleosomes they deposit as immune complexes in the mesangial matrix and along basement membranes within the glomeruli. The origin of the nucleosomes and when they appear e.g. in circulation is not known....... Serum samples from autoimmune (NZBxNZW)F1 mice, healthy BALB/c mice, patients with SLE, RA and normal healthy individuals were analyzed for presence and amount of circulating anti-dsDNA antibodies and nucleosomal DNA. Here we use a quantitative PCR to measure circulating DNA in sera. We demonstrate...

  8. The stability of the thermohaline circulation in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Mikolajewicz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Voss, R. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-02-01

    The stability of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation against meltwater input is investigated in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. The meltwater input to the Labrador Sea is increased linearly for 250 years to a maximum input of 0.625 Sv and then reduced again to 0 (both instantaneously and slowly decreasing over 250 years). The resulting freshening forces a shutdown of the formation of North Atlantic deepwater and a subsequent reversal of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic, filling the deep Atlantic with Antarctic bottom water. The change in the overturning pattern causes a drastic reduction of the Atlantic northward heat transport, resulting in a strong cooling with maximum amplitude over the northern North Atlantic and a southward shift of the sea-ice margin in the Atlantic. Due to the increased meridional temperature gradient, the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone is displaced southward and the westerlies in the northern hemisphere gain strength. We identify four main feedbacks affecting the stability of the thermohaline circulation: the change in the overturning circulation of the Atlantic leads to longer residence times of the surface waters in high northern latitudes, which allows them to accumulate more precipitation and runoff from the continents, which results in an increased stability in the North Atlantic.

  9. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 1. Model validation and summer circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2014-04-01

    The overturning circulation in the Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonally reversing pattern and is studied using high-resolution MIT general circulation model simulations. In the first part of this study, the vertical and horizontal structure of the summer overturning circulation and its dynamical mechanisms are presented from the model results. The seasonal water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is successfully simulated, and the structures of the intruding subsurface Gulf of Aden intermediate water are in good agreement with summer observations in 2011. The model results suggest that the summer overturning circulation is driven by the combined effect of the shoaling of the thermocline in the Gulf of Aden resulting from remote winds in the Arabian Sea and an upward surface slope from the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden set up by local surface winds in the Red Sea. In addition, during late summer two processes associated, respectively, with latitudinally differential heating and increased salinity in the southern Red Sea act together to cause the reversal of the contrast of the vertical density structure and the cessation of the summer overturning circulation. Dynamically, the subsurface northward pressure gradient force is mainly balanced by vertical viscosity resulting from the vertical shear and boundary friction in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb. Unlike some previous studies, the three-layer summer exchange flows in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb do not appear to be hydraulically controlled.

  10. Forward recursions and normalizing constant

    OpenAIRE

    Guyon, Xavier; Hardouin, Cécile

    2009-01-01

    Maximum likelihood parameter estimation is frequently replaced by various techniques because of its intractable normalizing constant. In the same way, the literature displays various alternatives for distributions involving such unreachable constants. In this paper, we consider a Gibbs distribution $\\pi $ and present a recurrence formula allowing a recursive calculus of the marginals of $\\pi $ and in the same time its normalizing constant$.$ The numerical performance of this algorithm is eval...

  11. How much coughing is normal?

    OpenAIRE

    Munyard, P; Bush, A

    1996-01-01

    A new multiparametric device (RBC-7) was used for recording cough in ambulatory children over a 24 hour period. The number of coughs and the pattern of coughing can easily be studied with the aid of a personal computer and dedicated computer software. Forty one 'normal' children were recorded, identified from a primary school with the aid of a questionnaire. They were free from any respiratory infection for one month, and had a normal examination and spirometry immediately before recording. C...

  12. Eastern Pacific cooling and Atlantic overturning circulation during the last deglaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienast, Markus; Kienast, Stephanie S; Calvert, Stephen E; Eglinton, Timothy I; Mollenhauer, Gesine; François, Roger; Mix, Alan C

    2006-10-19

    Surface ocean conditions in the equatorial Pacific Ocean could hold the clue to whether millennial-scale global climate change during glacial times was initiated through tropical ocean-atmosphere feedbacks or by changes in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. North Atlantic cold periods during Heinrich events and millennial-scale cold events (stadials) have been linked with climatic changes in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and South America, as well as the Indian and East Asian monsoon systems, but not with tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures. Here we present a high-resolution record of sea surface temperatures in the eastern tropical Pacific derived from alkenone unsaturation measurements. Our data show a temperature drop of approximately 1 degrees C, synchronous (within dating uncertainties) with the shutdown of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich event 1, and a smaller temperature drop of approximately 0.5 degrees C synchronous with the smaller reduction in the overturning circulation during the Younger Dryas event. Both cold events coincide with maxima in surface ocean productivity as inferred from 230Th-normalized carbon burial fluxes, suggesting increased upwelling at the time. From the concurrence of equatorial Pacific cooling with the two North Atlantic cold periods during deglaciation, we conclude that these millennial-scale climate changes were probably driven by a reorganization of the oceans' thermohaline circulation, although possibly amplified by tropical ocean-atmosphere interaction as suggested before. PMID:17051216

  13. Identification of circulating tumor cells as a promising method of genitourinary cancer diagnosis 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gurtowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are cells circulating in the blood, which in terms of antigenic or genetic profile correspond to a particular type of cancer. It is suspected that CTCs possess properties of cancer stem cells. Detection, quantification and characterization of CTCs in the peripheral blood can be of great importance for modern oncology. In the case of early-stage disease, CTCs may help in cancer detection, estimation of metastasis risk and treatment prognosis. In advanced cancer patients, CTCs may also have prognostic significance and may facilitate monitoring response to treatment. Identification of CTCs in the circulation and their differentiation from hematopoietic cells and normal epithelial cells could be based on physical and biological properties such as size, density and expression of specific proteins. Immunomagnetic techniques are the most commonly used methods of CTCs isolation. CellSearch System (CSS is the only test for detecting CTCs in the peripheral blood approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for clinical use. The paper presents the characteristics of circulating tumor cell isolation methods and the results of studies concerning CTCs isolation in patients with prostate, bladder and kidney cancer. 

  14. Use of Na{sup 24} in a circulation study on a patient believed to have impaired circulation in the left leg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, E.; Hogness, J.R.

    1949-04-19

    This report describes a diagnostic study utilizing sodium 24 on a patient with a vascular disorder in a left lower extremity. Five cc. of normal saline containing 50 microcuries of radioactive sodium were injected into the left antecubital vein. Radioactivity was determined at the soles of both feet for 30 seconds until the counts had levelled off and the exchange of sodium had apparently reached equilibrium. Circulation time from arm to foot was measured and was found to be 30 seconds in both extremities.

  15. Explicit Determinants of the RFPrLrR Circulant and RLPrFrL Circulant Matrices Involving Some Famous Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices may play a crucial role in solving various differential equations. In this paper, the techniques used herein are based on the inverse factorization of polynomial. We give the explicit determinants of the RFPrLrR circulant matrices and RLPrFrL circulant matrices involving Fibonacci, Lucas, Pell, and Pell-Lucas number, respectively.

  16. Is normal science good science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Kępińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available “Normal science” is a concept introduced by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962. In Kuhn’s view, normal science means “puzzle solving”, solving problems within the paradigm—framework most successful in solving current major scientific problems—rather than producing major novelties. This paper examines Kuhnian and Popperian accounts of normal science and their criticisms to assess if normal science is good. The advantage of normal science according to Kuhn was “psychological”: subjective satisfaction from successful “puzzle solving”. Popper argues for an “intellectual” science, one that consistently refutes conjectures (hypotheses and offers new ideas rather than focus on personal advantages. His account is criticized as too impersonal and idealistic. Feyerabend’s perspective seems more balanced; he argues for a community that would introduce new ideas, defend old ones, and enable scientists to develop in line with their subjective preferences. The paper concludes that normal science has no one clear-cut set of criteria encompassing its meaning and enabling clear assessment.

  17. Effect of vegetation on the Late Miocene ocean circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lohmann

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A weak and shallow thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean is related to an open Central American gateway and exchange with fresh Pacific waters. We estimate the effect of vegetation on the ocean general circulation using the atmospheric circulation model simulations for the Late Miocene climate. Caused by an increase in net evaporation in the Miocene North Atlantic, the North Atlantic water becomes more saline which enhances the overturning circulation and thus the northward heat transport. This effect reveals a potentially important feedback between the ocean circulation, the hydrological cycle and the land surface cover for Cenozoic climate evolution.

  18. Dynamic CT study of normal-pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, Norihiko; Kojima, Noriaki; Shirakuni, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    1984-08-01

    A dynamic CT study was performed in 14 patients with presumed normal-pressure hydrocephalus, of which diagnosis had been made by clinical symptomatology, CT findings, the results of the continuous monitoring of intracranial pressure, and CT cisternographic findings. It is demonstrated by serial CT scans that the cerebral arteries and arterioles were initially filled with contrast media, which were followed by the symmetrical and homogeneous staining of the cortical gray matter and basal ganglia, the diencephalia, and then the white matter. The venous system was stained in the late phase. The contrast media was finally cleared out from the intracranial space. Thus, the staining of the cerebral vessels and brain parenchym showed a uniform pattern in all cases. Functional CT images revealed that the patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus who responded well to the shunt procedure had areas of prolonged mean circulation time scattered diffusely not only in the paraventricular structures, but also in the cortical gray matter of all the cerebral hemispheres. Following the shunt procedure, the hemodynamic conditions improved in almost all the areas mentioned above, but especially in the frontal and temporal gray matters and the paraventricular structures. In the patients who did not benefit from the shunt operation, however, there was no special abnormality of hemodynamic distribution. The analysis of the mean circulation time in the region of interest demonstrated that a significant improvement in cerebral hemodynamics was noted in the regions of the frontal and temporal gray matters, the periventricular white matter, and the caudate nucleus in patients who benefitted from the shunt operation. In patients who did not improve after the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, however, there was no statistically significant difference between pre- and post-shunt mean circulation times. (J.P.N.).

  19. Clinical relevance of circulating cell-free microRNAs in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koji; Sawada, Kenjiro; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Kinose, Yasuto; Nakatsuka, Erika; Kimura, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    normalize for circulating miRNA levels, as well as differing extraction and quantification methods, are the pitfalls to be resolved before clinical application. There is still a long way, however, before this can be achieved, and further evidence would make it possible to apply circulating cell-free miRNAs not only as biomarkers but also as potential therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer in the future. PMID:27343009

  20. Wall jet analysis for circulation control aerodynamics. Part 2: Zonal modeling concepts for wall jet/potential flow coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Frank A.; Dash, Sanford M.

    1987-01-01

    Work currently in progress to update an existing transonic circulation control airfoil analysis method is described. Existing methods suffer from two dificiencies: the inability to predict the shock structure of the underexpanded supersonic jets; and the insensitivity of the calculation to small changes in the Coanda surface geometry. A method developed for the analysis of jet exhaust plumes in supersonic flow is being modified for the case of the underexpanded wall jet. In the subsonic case, the same wall jet model was modified to include the calculation of the normal pressure gradient. This model is currently being coupled with the transonic circulation control airfoil analysis.

  1. IgG subclass switching and clonal expansion in cutaneous melanoma and normal skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Louise; Ilieva, Kristina M; Bax, Heather J; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Correa, Isabel; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Irene; Josephs, Debra H; Tosi, Isabella; Egbuniwe, Isioma U; Lombardi, Sara; Crescioli, Silvia; Hobbs, Carl; Villanova, Federica; Cheung, Anthony; Geh, Jenny L C; Healy, Ciaran; Harries, Mark; Sanz-Moreno, Victoria; Fear, David J; Spicer, James F; Lacy, Katie E; Nestle, Frank O; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2016-01-01

    B cells participate in immune surveillance in human circulation and tissues, including tumors such as melanoma. By contrast, the role of humoral responses in cutaneous immunity is underappreciated. We report circulating skin-homing CD22+CLA+B cells in healthy volunteers and melanoma patients (n = 73) and CD22+ cells in melanoma and normal skin samples (n = 189). Normal and malignant skin featured mature IgG and CD22 mRNA, alongside mRNA for the transiently-expressed enzyme Activation-induced cytidine Deaminase (AID). Gene expression analyses of publically-available data (n = 234 GEO, n = 384 TCGA) confirmed heightened humoral responses (CD20, CD22, AID) in melanoma. Analyses of 51 melanoma-associated and 29 normal skin-derived IgG sequence repertoires revealed lower IgG1/IgGtotal representation compared with antibodies from circulating B cells. Consistent with AID, comparable somatic hypermutation frequencies and class-switching indicated affinity-matured antibodies in normal and malignant skin. A melanoma-associated antibody subset featured shorter complementarity-determining (CDR3) regions relative to those from circulating B cells. Clonal amplification in melanoma-associated antibodies and homology modeling indicated differential potential antigen recognition profiles between normal skin and melanoma sequences, suggesting distinct antibody repertoires. Evidence for IgG-expressing B cells, class switching and antibody maturation in normal and malignant skin and clonally-expanded antibodies in melanoma, support the involvement of mature B cells in cutaneous immunity. PMID:27411958

  2. Gas cooled fast breeder reactor design for a circulator test facility (modified HTGR circulator test facility)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    A GCFR helium circulator test facility sized for full design conditions is proposed for meeting the above requirements. The circulator will be mounted in a large vessel containing high pressure helium which will permit testing at the same power, speed, pressure, temperature and flow conditions intended in the demonstration plant. The electric drive motor for the circulator will obtain its power from an electric supply and distribution system in which electric power will be taken from a local utility. The conceptual design decribed in this report is the result of close interaction between the General Atomic Company (GA), designer of the GCFR, and The Ralph M. Parson Company, architect/engineer for the test facility. A realistic estimate of total project cost is presented, together with a schedule for design, procurement, construction, and inspection.

  3. Gas cooled fast breeder reactor design for a circulator test facility (modified HTGR circulator test facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A GCFR helium circulator test facility sized for full design conditions is proposed for meeting the above requirements. The circulator will be mounted in a large vessel containing high pressure helium which will permit testing at the same power, speed, pressure, temperature and flow conditions intended in the demonstration plant. The electric drive motor for the circulator will obtain its power from an electric supply and distribution system in which electric power will be taken from a local utility. The conceptual design decribed in this report is the result of close interaction between the General Atomic Company (GA), designer of the GCFR, and The Ralph M. Parson Company, architect/engineer for the test facility. A realistic estimate of total project cost is presented, together with a schedule for design, procurement, construction, and inspection

  4. How normal is variable, or how variable is normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touwen, B C

    1993-09-01

    Variability is an important property of the central nervous system, and it shows characteristic changes during infancy and childhood. The large amount of variations in the performance of sensomotor functions in infancy is called indiscriminate or primary variability. During toddling age the child develops the capacity to select adaptive variations, and then automatize them: secondary or adaptive variability. The latter is required for the development of motor skills during later preschool age and school age. The question 'How normal is variable or how variable is normal is a wrong question, as any form of variability must be interpreted according to its extent, type and age adequacy. PMID:8275868

  5. Atmospheric General Circulation Changes under Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipane, Erool

    The work in this thesis is mainly two-fold. First we study the internal variability of the general circulation and focus our study on the annular modes and how important it is to simulate the subsynoptic scales in the circulation. In the next major section we will try to understand the mechanisms of the forced response and the mechanisms leading towards the jet shift from transient evolution in Atmospheric general circulation models. In the first part, in an attempt to assess the benefit of resolving the sub-synoptic to mesoscale processes, the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Annular Modes (AMs), in particular those related to the troposphere-stratosphere interaction, are evaluated for moderate- and high-horizontal resolution simulations with a global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), in comparison with the ERA40 re- analysis. Relative to the CMIP-type climate models, the IFS AGCM demonstrates notable improvement in capturing the key characteristics of the AMs. Notably, the performance with the high horizontal resolution version of the model is systematically superior to the moderate resolution on all metrics examined, including the variance of the AMs at different seasons of the year, the intrinsic e-folding time scales of the AMs, and the downward influence from the stratosphere to troposphere in the AMs. Moreover, the high-resolution simulation with a greater persistence in the intrinsic variability of the SAM projects an appreciably larger shift of the surface westerly wind during the Southern Hemisphere summer under climate change. In the second part, the response of the atmospheric circulation to greenhouse gas-induced SST warming is investigated using large ensemble experiments with two AGCMs, with a focus on the robust feature of the poleward shift of the eddy driven jet. In these experiments, large ensembles of simulations are conducted by abruptly switching the SST forcing on from January 1st to focus on the wintertime circulation

  6. Estuarine circulation in the Taranto Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascalis, Francesca De; Petrizzo, Antonio; Ghezzo, Michol; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Manfè, Giorgia; Alabiso, Giorgio; Zaggia, Luca

    2016-07-01

    The Taranto basin is a shallow water marine system in the South of Italy characterized by the presence of a lagoon environment together with a semi-enclosed bay connected to the Ionian Sea. This marine system experienced over the last few decades strong biochemical pollution and environmental degradation, and it is considered a hotspot study site for economic, ecological and scientific reasons. The aim of this study was to examine, on an annual temporal scale and with high spatial resolution, the main hydrodynamical processes and transport scales of the system by means of a 3D finite element numerical model application, adopting the most realistic forcing available. The model allowed us to assess the role played by baroclinic terms in the basin circulation, describing its estuarine nature. In particular, the main features of water circulation, salinity and temperature distribution, water renewal time and bottom stress were investigated. Our results allowed us to equate this system dynamic to that of a weakly stratified estuary, identifying the main driving sources of this mechanism. The vertical stratification over the whole year was proved to be stable, leading to a dual circulation flowing out on the surface, mainly through Porta Napoli channel, and inflowing on the bottom mainly through Navigabile channel. This process was responsible also for the renewal time faster on the bottom of the Mar Piccolo basin than the surface. Due to the great importance of the Taranto basin for what concerns sediment pollution, also the effect of currents in terms of bottom stress was investigated, leading to the conclusion that only in the inlets area the values of bottom stress can be high enough to cause erosion. PMID:26408109

  7. Pure midbrain ischemia and hypoplastic vertebrobasilar circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberti, Nicola; Gamba, Massimo; Costa, Angelo; Vergani, Veronica; Spezi, Raffaella; Pezzini, Alessandro; Volonghi, Irene; Mardighian, Dikran; Gasparotti, Roberto; Padovani, Alessandro; Magoni, Mauro

    2014-02-01

    Isolated midbrain infarction is rare and little is known about etiology and patient's long-term follow up. We aimed to describe the clinical features, the causative diseases and the outcome of patients with isolated midbrain infarction who were admitted to our center, focusing on vascular abnormalities of posterior circulation. All patients with first acute ischemic stroke limited to the midbrain were included and their demographic features, neurological symptoms, neuroimaging data, and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Functional outcome, using modified Rankin scale, was assessed at discharge and at the 3 month follow up evaluation. We found nine patients with acute isolated midbrain infarction, representing 0.61 % of all ischemic stroke admitted to our center. The most common cause of stroke was small-vessel disease (88.8 %). At stroke onset, none of the patients had consciousness disturbances, and four patients (44.4 %) had gait impairment, five patients (55.5 %) presented with diplopia due to involvement of the third nerve or fascicular type of third-nerve palsy, seven patients (77.7 %) had vascular anomalies of vertebrobasilar circulation: the most frequent was vertebral artery hypoplasia [four patients (44.4 %)]. At follow up evaluation, seven patients (77.7 %) had a good functional outcome and no patients experienced recurrence of cerebrovascular events. As isolated midbrain infarction is uncommon, specific ocular motor signs, mainly third-nerve palsy, may help to identify and localize the mesencephalic infarct. Abnormalities in vertebrobasilar circulation, such as hypoplastic basilar or vertebral artery, are frequently associated with isolated midbrain ischemia. The hypoplastic vertebrobasilar system may predispose to posterior ischemic stroke.

  8. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  9. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-31

    During the fourth quarter of 1990, steady-state performance testing at the Nucla Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) resumed under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. Co-sponsorship of the Demonstration Test Program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was completed on June 15, 1990. From October through December, 1990, Colorado-Ute Electric Association (CUEA) completed a total of 23 steady-state performance tests, 4 dynamic tests, and set operating records during November and December as the result of improved unit operating reliability. Highlight events and achievements during this period of operation are presented.

  10. Biodegradable Long-Circulating Polymeric Nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gref, Ruxandra; Minamitake, Yoshiharu; Peracchia, Maria Teresa; Trubetskoy, Vladimir; Torchilin, Vladimir; Langer, Robert

    1994-03-01

    Injectable nanoparticulate carriers have important potential applications such as site-specific drug delivery or medical imaging. Conventional carriers, however, cannot generally be used because they are eliminated by the reticulo-endothelial system within seconds or minutes after intravenous injection. To address these limitations, monodisperse biodegradable nanospheres were developed from amphiphilic copolymers composed of two biocompatible blocks. The nanospheres exhibited dramatically increased blood circulation times and reduced liver accumulation in mice. Furthermore, they entrapped up to 45 percent by weight of the drug in the dense core in a one-step procedure and could be freeze-dried and easily redispersed without additives in aqueous solutions.

  11. Effects of Buoyancy on Langmuir Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jun; SONG Jin-Bao

    2008-01-01

    Based on the Navier-Stokes equation,an equation describing the Langmuir circulation is derived by a perturbation method when the influences of Coriolis force and buoyancy force are both considered.The approach used in the analysis is similar to the works carried out by Craik and Leibovich[J.Fluid Mech.73 (1976)401],Leibovich [J.Fluid Mech.79 (1977) 715]and Huang[J.Fluid Mech.91 (1979) 191].Potential applications of the equation proposed are discussed in the area of Antarctic circumpolar current.

  12. Tropical Atmospheric Circulations with Humidity Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Hsia, Chun-Hsiung; Ma, Tian; Wang, Shouhong

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to study the effect of the moisture on the planetary scale atmospheric circulation over the tropics. The modeling we adopt is the Boussinesq equations coupled with a diffusive equation of humidity and the humidity dependent heat source is modeled by a linear approximation of the humidity. The rigorous mathematical analysis is carried out using the dynamic transition theory. In particular, we obtain the same types of transitions and hence the scenario of the El Ni\\~no mechanism as described in \\cite{MW2,MW3}. The effect of the moisture only lowers slightly the magnitude of the critical thermal Rayleigh number.

  13. Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskakov, A. P.; Munts, V. A.; Pavlyuk, E. Yu.

    2013-11-01

    Transients in a circulating fluidized bed boiler firing biomass are considered. An attempt is made to describe transients with the use of concepts applied in the automatic control theory. The parameters calculated from an analysis of unsteady heat balance equations are compared with the experimental data obtained in the 12-MW boiler of the Chalmers University of Technology. It is demonstrated that these equations describe the transient modes of operation with good accuracy. Dependences for calculating the time constants of unsteady processes are obtained.

  14. Biodegradable long-circulating polymeric nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gref, R; Minamitake, Y; Peracchia, M T; Trubetskoy, V; Torchilin, V; Langer, R

    1994-03-18

    Injectable nanoparticulate carriers have important potential applications such as site-specific drug delivery or medical imaging. Conventional carriers, however, cannot generally be used because they are eliminated by the reticulo-endothelial system within seconds or minutes after intravenous injection. To address these limitations, monodisperse biodegradable nanospheres were developed from amphiphilic copolymers composed of two biocompatible blocks. The nanospheres exhibited dramatically increased blood circulation times and reduced liver accumulation in mice. Furthermore, they entrapped up to 45 percent by weight of the drug in the dense core in a one-step procedure and could be freeze-dried and easily redispersed without additives in aqueous solutions.

  15. Caffeine induced changes in cerebral circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the caffeine induced cerebral vasoconstriction is well documented, the effects of oral ingestion of the drug in a dose range comparable to the quantities in which it is usually consumed and the intensity and duration of the associated reduction in cerebral circulation are unknown. Cerebral blood flow was measured via the 133Xenon inhalation technique before and thirty and ninety minutes after the oral administration of 250 mg of caffeine or a placebo, under double-blind conditions. Caffeine ingestion was found to be associated with significant reductions in cerebral perfusion thirty and ninety minutes later. The placebo group showed no differences between the three sets of cerebral blood flow values

  16. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods.

  17. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  18. Conductivity Modulation in a gated Normal-CDW-Normal configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Saumya; Lake, Roger

    There is considerable interest in switching by exploiting a voltage controlled phase transition, and one such phase is the charge density wave phase that occurs in a number of quasi one dimensional and two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Voltage controlled switching of the charge density wave transition in 1T-TaS2 has recently been demonstrated. We consider a transistor geometry with normal metal contacts and a channel of CDW material. The interaction is modeled with a negative U Hubbard term. Normal-CDW-temperature-U phase diagrams show the regime of the CDW in the ideal lattice. The wavelength of the CDW in the transistor channel is determined by both the conditions of Fermi surface nesting and also the condition of commensurability with the channel length between the two normal leads. Moving the Fermi level of the channel first results in phase boundaries within the CDW as the conditions of commensurability and Fermi surface nesting become incompatible. Moving the Fermi level from half filling by few tens of meV causes a collapsing of the CDW gap and an effective CDW-normal transition, leaving vestiges of the CDW in the channel. The transition is accompanied by one to two orders of magnitude increase in the conductivity. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. 1124733 and the Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) Nanoelectronic Research Initiative as a part of the Nanoelectronics for 2020 and Beyond (NEB-2020) program.

  19. Detection of micrometastasis of gastric carcinoma in peripheral blood circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Mei Chen; Guo-Yu Chen; Zhi-Rong Wang; Feng-Shang Zhu; Xiao-Lei Wang; Xia Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To detect the micrometastasis of gastric carcinoma in peripheral blood circulation using immunomagnetic beads sorting technique and RT-PCR technique, and to discuss its significance and the difference between the two methods. METHODS: Density gradient centrifugation was used to isolate mononuclear cells from peripheral blood, immunomagnetic beads sorting technique and RT-PCR technique were used to detect the disseminated carcinoma cells. HE, immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence staining were also used to identify the characteristics of the cells separated with immunomagnetic beads sorting technique. RESULTS: Cells expressing cytokeratin were separated and enriched from the peripheral blood specimens of patients suffering from gastric carcinoma or chronic gastritis. After HE staining, two kinds of cells with little cytoplasm were found. Majority of these cells had small and round nuclei, even chromatins and the thickness of nuclear membrane was normal. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that there were CD34 and CD45 expression on the cell membrane of this kind of cells and these cells also showed expressed human telomerase reverse transcriptase by immunofluorescence staining, but the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen was absent. So, these cells might hematopoiesis precursors.Another kind of cells had larger and abnormal nuclei with thicker nuclear membranes. Massed chromatins and poly nucleoli were found in the nuclei. These cells expressed human telomerase reverse transcriptase and carcinoembryonic antigen, but CD34 and CD45 were not found on the cell membrane. So, these cells were considered as gastric carcinoma cells escaping from the original focuses and existing in the peripheral blood circulation. Carcinoma cells were found in 25 of 60(41.7%) specimens of peripheral blood from patients with gastric carcinoma, while there were no such cells separated from the blood specimens of chronic gastritis patients. The difference of positive rates of

  20. Circulating Cytokine Levels as Markers of Inflammation in Philadelphia Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Diagnostic and Prognostic Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Mondet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are well known mediators of numerous physiological and pathological processes. They contribute to the regulation of normal hematopoiesis but increasing data suggest that they also have a clinical impact in some hematopoietic malignancies. In particular, there is evidence that cytokines are implicated in the functional symptoms of Philadelphia negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph− MPNs, suggesting that evaluation of circulating levels of cytokines could be of clinical interest for the characterization of patients at the time of diagnosis and for disease prognosis. In this review, we present the current knowledge on alteration of circulating cytokine profiles in MPNs and their role in myelofibrosis pathogenesis. Phenotypic correlation, prognostic value of cytokines, and impact of JAK inhibitors are also discussed.

  1. Circulating microRNAs as Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Vasehus Schou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available MiRNAs are suggested as promising cancer biomarkers. They are stable and extractable from a variety of clinical tissue specimens (fresh frozen or formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue and a variety of body fluids (e.g., blood, urine, saliva. However, there are several challenges that need to be solved, considering their potential as biomarkers in cancer, such as lack of consistency between biomarker panels in independent studies due to lack of standardized sample handling and processing, use of inconsistent normalization approaches, and differences in patients populations. Focusing on colorectal cancer (CRC, divergent results regarding circulating miRNAs as prognostic or predictive biomarkers are reported in the literature. In the present review, we summarize the current data on circulating miRNAs as prognostic/predictive biomarkers in patients with localized and metastatic CRC (mCRC.

  2. Thermal-hydraulic stability analysis of a natural circulation based BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a light water cooled and heavy water moderated pressure tube type boiling water reactor. The reactor is designed with the twin objective of utilization of abundant thorium resources and to meet the future challenges to nuclear power such as enhanced safety and reliability, better economy and proliferation resistance. In AHWR, it is proposed to remove the core heat by natural circulation during start-up, power raising, normal operation, transients and accidental conditions. A methodology has been presented for analysing the stability behaviour of a multi-channel natural circulation system having different channel layouts. The proposed methodology has been applied to Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) and the stable zone of operation for the reactor has been presented

  3. Formation and Plasma Circulation of Solar Prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.

    2016-05-01

    Solar prominences are long-lived cool and dense plasma curtains in the hot and rarefied outer solar atmosphere or corona. The physical mechanism responsible for their formation and especially for their internal plasma circulation has been uncertain for decades. The observed ubiquitous downflows in quiescent prominences are difficult to interpret because plasma with high conductivity seems to move across horizontal magnetic field lines. Here we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of prominence formation and evolution in an elongated magnetic flux rope as a result of in situ plasma condensations fueled by continuous plasma evaporation from the solar chromosphere. The prominence is born and maintained in a fragmented, highly dynamic state with continuous reappearance of multiple blobs and thread structures that move mainly downward, dragging along mass-loaded field lines. The circulation of prominence plasma is characterized by the dynamic balance between the drainage of prominence plasma back to the chromosphere and the formation of prominence plasma via continuous condensation. Plasma evaporates from the chromosphere, condenses into the prominence in the corona, and drains back to the chromosphere, establishing a stable chromosphere-corona plasma cycle. Synthetic images of the modeled prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly closely resemble actual observations, with many dynamical threads underlying an elliptical coronal cavity.

  4. Measurement of cerebral circulation time in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, inexpensive method for measuring the cerebral circulation time (CCT) was developed. The CCT was considered to be equal to the time that an intravenously injected bolus of sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m took to go from the subclavian artery to the posterior venous confluence. The dilution curves were externally recorded at these two vessels. Particular attenion was given to the curve treatment. The computer programmes were specially conceived in order to detect and, if possible, correct the experimental curve defects. Several reliability criteria were also defined in order to test the validity of each measurement. From a physiological point of view, the CCT is equal to the ratio of the global cerebral blood volume to the global cerebral blood flow. Thus, it can be widely applied in clinical research. For example, in a study of the relationship between CCT and age, sex and light cerebrovascular impairment, the technique was sensitive enough to discriminate between healthy subjects and patients suffering from-transient ischemic attack, or regressive stroke, and to show the action of a drug on the cerebral circulation in such patients. (orig.)

  5. ENDEMIC ORTHOPOXVIRUS CIRCULATING IN PROCYONIDS IN MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Emerson, Ginny L; Martínez-Martínez, Flor O; Doty, Jeffrey B; Nakazawa, Yoshinori J; Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Muñoz-García, Claudia I; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Ramírez-Cid, Citlali; Gama-Campillo, Lilia M; Gual-Sill, Fernando; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro; Carroll, Darin S

    2016-07-01

    Limited serosurveillance studies suggested that orthopoxviruses (OPXV) are widespread in the US (e.g., Raccoonpox virus, Skunkpox virus, Volepox virus) and Brazil (Vaccinia virus); however, their animal reservoir(s) remain unconfirmed. Mexican mammal diversity includes several species related to those in which evidence for OPXV infections has been found (Oryzomys, Peromyscus, Microtus, and Procyonidae). The presence of these groups of mammals in Mexico and the evidence of their possible involvement in the maintenance of OPXV in nature suggest the same or similar OPXV are circulating in Mexico. We tested 201 sera from 129 procyonids via modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) to estimate OPXV antibody prevalence in these animals. We detected a prevalence of 16.67% in Nasua narica (white-nosed coati), 35% in Procyon lotor (raccoon), and 30.4% in Bassariscus astutus (ring-tailed cat) when tested by either ELISA or WB. Western blot results presented protein bands consistent with the size of some OPXV immunodominant bands (14, 18, 32, 36, and 62 kDa). These results support the hypothesis that OPXV circulate in at least three genera of Procyonidae in Central and Southeast Mexico. PMID:27224209

  6. Causal mechanisms in airfoil-circulation formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J. Y.; Liu, T. S.; Liu, L. Q.; Zou, S. F.; Wu, J. Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we trace the dynamic origin, rather than any kinematic interpretations, of lift in two-dimensional flow to the physical root of airfoil circulation. We show that the key causal process is the vorticity creation by tangent pressure gradient at the airfoil surface via no-slip condition, of which the theoretical basis has been given by Lighthill ["Introduction: Boundary layer theory," in Laminar Boundary Layers, edited by L. Rosenhead (Clarendon Press, 1963), pp. 46-113], which we further elaborate. This mechanism can be clearly revealed in terms of vorticity formulation but is hidden in conventional momentum formulation, and hence has long been missing in the history of one's efforts to understand lift. By a careful numerical simulation of the flow around a NACA-0012 airfoil, and using both Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions, we illustrate the detailed transient process by which the airfoil gains its circulation and demonstrate the dominating role of relevant dynamical causal mechanisms at the boundary. In so doing, we find that the various statements for the establishment of Kutta condition in steady inviscid flow actually correspond to a sequence of events in unsteady viscous flow.

  7. Reversing circulation patterns in a tropical estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Bosley, Kathryn T.

    2003-10-01

    A combination of current velocity and water density measurements was used to characterize the basic patterns of water exchange in the Gulf of Fonseca, a tropical estuary on the Pacific Ocean side of Central America. The measurements were obtained during spring and neap tides in March (dry season) and June (wet season) of 2001 and consisted of profiles of current velocity and density along four transects. From mid-March to mid-April a time series of hourly surface current velocity maps was also obtained with a high-frequency radar system of two antennas. The sampling transects and the radar coverage concentrated in the portion of the estuary that has open communication with the ocean. During the dry season, water exchange at the entrance to the gulf suggested an inverse estuarine circulation that was more robust, and its dynamics were closer to geostrophy during neap than during spring tides. It is likely that salinity increased toward the tributaries of the system and then decreased within those tributaries because of the persistent influence of fresh water. In contrast, during the wet season, salinity decreased into the estuary, and the circulation resembled that of a typical estuary. In this season the fortnightly modulation of exchange flows was masked by wind effects, which also played a relevant role in the dynamics. The net volume inflows measured in both seasons suggested that the residence time of the Gulf of Fonseca varies from 2 weeks to 1 month.

  8. The biology of circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantel, K; Speicher, M R

    2016-03-10

    Metastasis is a biologically complex process consisting of numerous stochastic events which may tremendously differ across various cancer types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cells that are shed from primary tumors and metastatic deposits into the blood stream. CTCs bear a tremendous potential to improve our understanding of steps involved in the metastatic cascade, starting from intravasation of tumor cells into the circulation until the formation of clinically detectable metastasis. These efforts were propelled by novel high-resolution approaches to dissect the genomes and transcriptomes of CTCs. Furthermore, capturing of viable CTCs has paved the way for innovative culturing technologies to study fundamental characteristics of CTCs such as invasiveness, their kinetics and responses to selection barriers, such as given therapies. Hence the study of CTCs is not only instrumental as a basic research tool, but also allows the serial monitoring of tumor genotypes and may therefore provide predictive and prognostic biomarkers for clinicians. Here, we review how CTCs have contributed to significant insights into the metastatic process and how they may be utilized in clinical practice.

  9. Measurement of cerebral circulation time in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celsis, P.; Chan, M.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Leydet, P.; Viallard, G.; Charlet, J.P.; Danet, B.

    1985-05-01

    A simple, inexpensive method for measuring the cerebral circulation time (CCT) was developed. The CCT was considered to be equal to the time that an intravenously injected bolus of sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m took to go from the subclavian artery to the posterior venous confluence. The dilution curves were externally recorded at these two vessels. Particular attention was given to the curve treatment. The computer programmes were specially conceived in order to detect and, if possible, correct the experimental curve defects. Several reliability criteria were also defined in order to test the validity of each measurement. From a physiological point of view, the CCT is equal to the ratio of the global cerebral blood volume to the global cerebral blood flow. Thus, it can be widely applied in clinical research. For example, in a study of the relationship between CCT and age, sex and light cerebrovascular impairment, the technique was sensitive enough to discriminate between healthy subjects and patients suffering from-transient ischemic attack, or regressive stroke, and to show the action of a drug on the cerebral circulation in such patients.

  10. Numerical simulation of a natural circulation loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verissimo, Gabriel L.; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes; Faccini, Jose Luiz H., E-mail: gabrielverissimo@poli.ufrj.b, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.b, E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents a numerical simulation of a natural circulation loop using computational fluid dynamics. The simulated loop is an experimental model in a reduced scale of 1:10 of a passive heat removal system typical of advanced PWR reactors. The loop is composed of a heating vessel containing 52 electric heaters, a vertical shell-tube heat exchanger and a column of expansion. The working fluid is distilled water. Initially it was created a tridimensional geometric model of the loop components. After that, it was generated a tridimensional mesh of finite elements in order to calculate the variables of the problem. The boundaries of the numerical simulation were the power of the electric resistances and the cooling flow in the secondary side of the heat exchanger. The initial conditions were the temperature, the pressure and the fluid velocity at the time just before the power has been switched on. The results of this simulation were compared with the experimental data, in terms of the evolution of the temperatures in different locations of the loop, and of the average natural circulation flow as a function of time for a given power. (author)

  11. Circulating Tumor Cells Measurements in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Chiappini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh in women. During the past 20 years, the incidence of HCC has tripled while the 5-year survival rate has remained below 12%. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC reflects the aggressiveness nature of a tumor. Many attempts have been made to develop assays that reliably detect and enumerate the CTC during the development of the HCC. In this case, the challenges are (1 there are few markers specific to the HCC (tumor cells versus nontumor cells and (2 they can be used to quantify the number of CTC in the bloodstream. Another technical challenge consists of finding few CTC mixed with million leukocytes and billion erythrocytes. CTC detection and identification can be used to estimate prognosis and may serve as an early marker to assess antitumor activity of treatment. CTC can also be used to predict progression-free survival and overall survival. CTC are an interesting source of biological information in order to understand dissemination, drug resistance, and treatment-induced cell death. Our aim is to review and analyze the different new methods existing to detect, enumerate, and characterize the CTC in the peripheral circulation of patients with HCC.

  12. Bone mineral density and circulating cytokines in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, S; Di Somma, C; Di Rella, F; Angelillo, N; Ferone, D; Colao, A; Merola, B; Lombardi, G

    1998-11-01

    Acromegalic patients present an increase of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, showing a different effect on the axial and appendicular skeletal structures. At this regard controversial data about bone mineral density (BMD) have been published in literature. In fact an increase of BMD levels in femoral neck and Ward's triangle without any difference in lumbar spine has been described. On the other hand normal BMD levels at forearm and reduced BMD levels at lumbar spine were found. These patients seem to have a reduction of trabecular BMD similar to postmenopausal osteoporotic patients despite normal or slightly elevated cortical BMD. Recently, it has been described that cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), are implicated in the pathogenetic mechanism of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Taking into account that growth hormone (GH) can increase TNF-alpha and IL-1 secretion by mononuclear blood cells, the evaluation of possible relationship between the reduced BMD at lumbar spine and circulating cytokines levels was carried out in acromegalic patients. In addition we evaluated the effect of acute octreotide administration on serum TNF-alpha and IL-I concentrations. Eleven patients with active acromegaly and eleven healthy age-, sex-, weight- and heightmatched subjects were enrolled in this study. BMD was significantly reduced at lumbar spine (0.80 +/- 0.29 g/cm2 vs 1.02 +/- 0.11 g/cm2; p affect bone turnover inducing an increase of cytokines acting by a paracrine/autocrine mechanism cannot be ruled out.

  13. Challenges posed to the maternal circulation by pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdés G

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gloria Valdés, Jenny CorthornCentro de Investigaciones Médicas y Departamento Nefrología, Escuela Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica, Santiago, ChileAbstract: In primates, adequate growth of the fetus depends on the development of the uteroplacental unit. On the fetal side, this is achieved by the creation of the vascular network of the placenta. On the maternal side, the transformation of the spiral arteries into saccular nonreactive vessels by the trophoblast provides high blood flow to the intervillous space. Apart from the changes in the uterine arteries, the mother expands her plasma volume – at the expense of stimulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system – and her cardiac output. In the maintaining of normotension in the face of an increased cardiac output and plasma volume, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system requires an enhanced vasodilator synthesis. Finally, in the late stages of pregnancy, a normal endothelial function is required to provide an ample margin to the activation provoked by deportation of syncytiotrophoblast fragments/factors to the maternal circulation. These four adaptative processes require various interrelated vasodilator systems. Deficient adaptations cause isolated or proteinuric arterial hypertension, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and stillbirths, among others. Moreover, a normal or a defective adaptation to pregnancy influences maternal cardiovascular health in later life, as evidenced by various studies, most of them epidemiological; thus, pregnancy is now considered a stress test to the maternal cardiovascular system. Because of this, women planning to become pregnant should be screened for clinical and biochemical cardiovascular risks. Inversely, women presenting with hypertension in pregnancy should be thoroughly studied to detect and correct cardiovascular risks. The incorporation of the predictive value of a hypertensive pregnancy should help reduce

  14. Mechanical cavopulmonary assist for the univentricular Fontan circulation using a novel folding propeller blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, Amy L; Ballman, Kimberly K; Myers, Cynthia D; Litwak, Kenneth N; Frankel, Steven H; Rodefeld, Mark D

    2007-01-01

    A blood pump specifically designed to operate in the unique anatomic and physiologic conditions of a cavopulmonary connection has never been developed. Mechanical augmentation of cavopulmonary blood flow in a univentricular circulation would reduce systemic venous pressure, increase preload to the single ventricle, and temporarily reproduce a scenario analogous to the normal two-ventricle circulation. We hypothesize that a folding propeller blood pump would function optimally in this cavopulmonary circulation. The hydraulic performance of a two-bladed propeller prototype was characterized in an experimental flow loop using a blood analog fluid for 0.5-3.5 lpm at rotational speeds of 3,600-4,000 rpm. We also created five distinctive blood pump designs and evaluated their hydraulic performance using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The two-bladed prototype performed well over the design range of 0.5-3.5 lpm, producing physiologic pressure rises of 5-18 mm Hg. Building upon this proof-of-concept testing, the CFD analysis of the five numerical models predicted a physiologic pressure range of 5-40 mm Hg over 0.5-4 lpm for rotational speeds of 3,000-7,000 rpm. These preliminary propeller designs and the two-bladed prototype achieved the expected hydraulic performance. Optimization of these configurations will reduce fluid stress levels, remove regions of recirculation, and improve the hydraulic performance of the folding propeller. This propeller design produces the physiologic pressures and flows that are in the ideal range to mechanically support the cavopulmonary circulation and represents an exciting new therapeutic option for the support of a univentricular Fontan circulation. PMID:18043158

  15. Identification of reference genes for relative quantification of circulating microRNAs in bovine serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Seon Bae

    Full Text Available Circulating microRNAs in body fluids have been implicated as promising biomarkers for physiopathology disorders. Currently, the expression levels of circulating microRNAs are estimated by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Use of appropriate reference microRNAs for normalization is critical for accurate microRNA expression analysis. However, no study has systematically investigated reference genes for evaluating circulating microRNA expression in cattle. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of appropriate reference microRNAs for use in the normalization of circulating microRNA levels in bovine serum. We evaluated the expression stability of ten candidate reference genes in bovine serum by using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper statistical algorithms. The results consistently showed that a combination of miR-93 and miR-127 provided the most stably expressed reference. The suitability of these microRNAs was validated, and even when compared among different genders or breeds, the combination of miR-93 and miR-127 was ranked as the most stable microRNA reference. Therefore, we conclude that this combination is the optimal endogenous reference for reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based detection of microRNAs in bovine serum. The data presented in this study are crucial to successful biomarker discovery and validation for the diagnosis of physiopathological conditions in cattle.

  16. Placental exosomes in normal and complicated pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Murray D; Peiris, Hassendrini N; Kobayashi, Miharu; Koh, Yong Q; Duncombe, Gregory; Illanes, Sebastian E; Rice, Gregory E; Salomon, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    While there is considerable contemporary interest in elucidating the role of placenta-derived extracellular vesicles in normal and complicated pregnancies and their utility as biomarkers and therapeutic interventions, progress in the field is hindered by a lack of standardized extracellular vesicle taxonomy and isolation protocols. The term "extracellular vesicle" is nonspecific and refers to all membrane-bound vesicles from nanometer to micrometer diameters and of different biogenic origins. To meaningfully ascribe biological function and/or diagnostic and therapeutic utility to extracellular vesicles, and in particular exosomes, greater specificity and vesicle characterization is required. The current literature relating to exosome biology must be interpreted in this context. Exosomes are a subtype of extracellular vesicle that are specifically defined by an endosomal biogenesis and particle size (40-120 nm) and density (1.13-1.19 g/mL(-1)). Exosomes are specifically package with signaling molecules (including protein, messenger RNA, microRNA, and noncoding RNA) and are released by exocytosis into biofluid compartments. Exosomes regulate the activity of both proximal and distal target cells, including translational activity, angiogenesis, proliferation, metabolism, and apoptosis. As such, exosomal signaling represents an integral pathway mediating intercellular communication. During pregnancy, the placenta releases exosomes into the maternal circulation from as early as 6 weeks of gestation. Release is regulated by factors that include both oxygen tension and glucose concentration and correlates with placental mass and perfusion. The concentration of placenta-derived exosomes in maternal plasma increases progressively during gestation. Exosomes isolated from maternal plasma are bioactive in vitro and are incorporated into target cells by endocytosis. While the functional significance of placental exosomes in pregnancy remains to be fully elucidated, available

  17. [Effect of exercise in water on maternal blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, M; Saegusa, S; Yamada, A; Suzuki, M; Noguchi, M; Niwa, S; Nakanishi, M

    1994-02-01

    To elucidate the effects of exercise in water on the maternal circulation, twenty normal pregnancies were examined under the following three conditions; 1) on the land at rest, 2) during water immersion and 3) after the exercise in water. Their gestational ages were from 25 to 37 weeks (31 +/- 4 weeks, mean +/- S.D., n = 20). We examined the blood pressure, the urine volume throughout the examination, CBC and the levels of vasopressin, plasma renin activity and human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP). The blood volume calculated from the Hb and Ht were significantly (p water immersion (105.8 +/- 2.5%), even after the exercise (101.6 +/- 2.9%). Vasopressin was decreased during the water immersion and increased after the exercise, but plasma renin activity was decreased in these two conditions. The hANP concentration was significantly (p exercise in water and correlated with the urine volume (ml/hour) during the examination. These results show that the decline in blood pressure and the increase in the urine volume during the maternal swimming were caused by the decreased plasma renin activity and the increased hANP concentration resulted from the blood volume expansion during the exercise in water.

  18. Micromixing in the Submerged Circulative Impinging Stream Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍沅; 肖杨; 周玉新

    2003-01-01

    Micromixing in the submerged circulative impinging stream reactor (SCISR) developed by the authors is investigated with the Bourne's reaction scheme. The values measured for the impinging velocity, u0, under the conditions of SCISR normal operation, only is of the order of 0.1m·s-1, are much slower than that inferred,suggesting low power requirement for operation. The values of the characteristic time constant for micromixing,tM, determined in the impinging velocity range of 0.184m·s-1 < u0 < 0.326m·s-1 are ranged from 192ms to 87 ms, showing that impinging streams promotes micromixing very efficiently. The data follow approximately the relationship of tM∝ u0-1.5. A comparative study shows that the micromixing performance of SCISR is much better than that of the traditional stirred tank reactor. The tM values predicted with the existing theoretical model are systematically longer than those measured by about 2--3 times, implying that the regularity of impinging streams promoting micromixing is unclear yet.

  19. Circulating protein and antibody biomarker for personalized cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianda

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint blockade therapies are revolutionizing standard cancer treatments. Immune checkpoint inhibitors likely function to enhance the tumor specific antigen response in order to achieve favorable clinical outcomes. Thus, continuous efforts to identify the common tumor-specific antigens are essential for the broad clinical application of these therapies. Several immunoproteomics approaches have been used in order to screen for this specificity. In a recent article from Jhaveri and colleagues published in the February issue of Cancer Immunology Research, antibody biomarkers were screened in pancreatic cancer patients who received allogeneic, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor-secreting pancreatic cancer vaccine (GVAX) by using a serum antibody-based SILAC immunoprecipitation (SASI) approach. Using this assay, several new tumor antigens (MYPT1, PSMC5 and TRFR) were identified that were found to have significantly different expression in tumors compared with normal tissue. Moreover, patients with detectable antibodies showed improved disease-free survival after GVAX therapy. These targets need to be further validated to determine the full spectrum of tumor antigen immunogencity and their potential clinical application. In addition to antibodies, circulating protein, DNA and RNA in peripheral blood are under clinical investigation as liquid biopsies and have the potential to provide guidance for future personalized cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Electrical Detection Method for Circulating Tumor Cells Using Graphene Nanoplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-I; Han, Ki-Ho

    2015-10-20

    This paper presents a microfluidic device for electrical discrimination of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) using graphene nanoplates (GNPs) as a highly conductive material bound to the cell surface. For two-step cascade discrimination, the microfluidic device is composed of a CTC-enrichment device and an impedance cytometry. Using lateral magnetophoresis, the CTC-enrichment device enriches rare CTCs from millions of background blood cells. Then, the impedance cytometry electrically identifies CTCs from the enriched sample, containing CTCs and persistent residual blood cells, based on the electrical impedance of CTCs modified by the GNPs. GNPs were used as a highly conductive material for modifying surface conductivity of CTCs, thereby improving the accuracy of electrical discrimination. The experimental results showed that a colorectal cancer cell line (DLD-1) spiked into peripheral blood was enriched by nearly 500-fold by the CTC-enrichment device. The phase of the electrical signal measured from DLD-1 cells covered by GNPs shifted by about 100° in comparison with that from normal blood cells, which allows the impedance cytometry to identify CTCs at a rate of 94% from the enriched samples. PMID:26402053

  1. Circulating levels of the interleukin (IL)-4 receptor and of IL-18 in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkmann, Thomas; Winkler, Heidi; Graninger, Wolfgang; Kremsner, Peter G; Winkler, Stefan

    2005-02-21

    Circulating levels of sIL-4R, IL-18 and IFN-gamma were studied by ELISA in 36 Gabonese patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria (29 children, 7 adults). Drug induced clearance of parasitemia, studied in 22 patients with mild disease, was accompanied by a rapid decrease of sIL-4R and IFN-gamma to normal values and an increase of circulating IL-18, suggesting the downregulation of a type 2 biased immune response and a dissociated type 1 responsiveness while resolving parasitemia. Comparing subgroups with hyperparasitemia/severe anemia and mild malaria, children with severe malaria had significant higher levels of sIL-4R and IFN-gamma, whereas IL-18 levels were not statistically different. Furthermore, among those children, higher levels of circulating IL-18 correlated with a lower degree of parasitemia.

  2. A normal paediatric amylase range.

    OpenAIRE

    Aggett, P J; Taylor, F.(Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States of America)

    1980-01-01

    A normal paediatric range of plasma alpha-amylase activity was determined using the Phadebas blue starch method. The range for children over one year was 98--405 IU/l. Plasma amylase activity increased throughout infancy. Mature levels of activity were observed in some children by age 2 months and in most of them by 9 months.

  3. Transforming Normal Programs by Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro; Pettorossi, A.

    1992-01-01

    The replacement transformation operation, already defined in [28], is studied wrt normal programs. We give applicability conditions able to ensure the correctness of the operation wrt Fitting's and Kunen's semantics. We show how replacement can mimic other transformation operations such as thinning,

  4. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of ‘complete normal ordering’ (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting ‘trick’ we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  5. Striving for the unknown normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    the ADHD diagnosis both answers and produces existential questions on what counts as normal behaviour and emotions. The diagnosis helps the diagnosed to identify, accept and handle problems by offering concrete explanations and solutions to diffuse experienced problems. But the diagnostic process...

  6. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background) perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to 'complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all 'cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of 'complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting 'trick' we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  7. Normal saline wound dressing--is it really normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J K; Saliba, L; Smith, M J; McTavish, J; Raine, C; Curtin, P

    2000-01-01

    Gauze swabs soaked in normal saline are frequently used as dressing on open wounds. Their exact mechanism of action is not known. This study was designed to assess the hypothesis that normal saline dressings act in part as an osmotic dressing. Ten patients had skin ulcers (n = 10) dressed with normal saline soaked sponges. Acting as controls (n = 10) identical sponges were placed upon intact skin. The sponge fluid osmolarity and electrolyte concentrations were serially assayed to test our hypothesis. In the control group, the osmolarity, sodium and chloride concentrations increased with time as a result of evaporation, altering it from an isotonic to a hypertonic dressing. However, in the ulcer group, the osmolarity, sodium and chloride concentrations in the sponge fluid remained relatively isotonic with time. This result is statistically significant (Pisotonicity. The dressing remains functional provided that the wound fluid is absorbed freely from the wound. This process is terminated when either the dressing completely absorbs the wound fluid or the dressing dries out. The latter often occurs prematurely in a contaminated wound or in a wound where exudate forms a non-permeable barrier which prevents osmosis and allows the remaining water in the dressing to evaporate completely. This correlates with the observation in clinical practice that for maximum efficacy the dressing should be changed regularly. PMID:10657448

  8. Interannual variability of South American monsoon circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Gan, Manoel; Rafaele Araújo Lima, Jeane

    2016-04-01

    The South America Monsoon System (SAMS) is responsible for influencing the atmospheric circulation and precipitation over most of tropical South America (SA) during the summer season. Studies for aiming to understand the temporal variability of this system have great value to the scientific community, because the processes that control the monsoon climate are not totally clear. Thus, the main objective of this research is to investigate the possible large-scale climatic factors and the remote interaction mechanisms, which may be associated with summer season interannual variability focusing on identifying the main differences between dry and wet extremes rainy season in the South-eastern Amazon Basin (SAB), Central-West (WC) and Southeast (SE) of Brazil, which are areas influenced by the summer monsoon regime. For such analyzes, Pearson correlations, quantile method and composite analysis were used during the period from 1979 to 2014. The correlation between precipitation anomaly in SAB and the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) and wind at 850hPa and 300hPa indicate El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influence. Precipitation anomalies in WC did not show significant correlation with SSTA. However, a pattern similar to ENSO Modoki type was observed in the composite analysis. At 850 hPa, the presence of an anomalous cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation was observed over the central region of SA during wet (dry) summers seasons. Over SE region of Brazil, a dipole SSTA pattern over the South Atlantic was identified, as well the presence of anomalous circulations with an equivalent barotropic structure over these SSTA areas. This pattern is more evident in case of dry summer on the SE. At 300 hPa, the wave train between 30°S-60°S was observed presenting a feature curvature from 120°W reaching SA, similar to the Pacific-South American pattern (PSA). Analysis of the summer interannual variability indicated the manifestation of wet summers more frequently than dry

  9. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Balaji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation is very complex and variable. Surgical approaches to this area are considered risky due to the presence of the various important blood vessels and neural structures. Aims: To document the microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation along with variations in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: The authors studied 25 cadaveric brain specimens. Microsurgical dissection was carried out from the vertebral arteries to the basilar artery and its branches, the basilar artery bifurcation, posterior cerebral artery and its various branches. Measurements of the outer diameters of the vertebral artery, basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery and their lengths were taken. Results: The mean diameter of the vertebral artery was 3.4 mm on the left and 2.9 mm on the right. The diameter of the basilar artery varied from 3-7 mm (mean of 4.3 mm. The length varied from 24-35 mm (mean of 24.9 mm. The basilar artery gave off paramedian and circumferential perforating arteries. The origin of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA varied from 0-21 mm (mean 10.0 mm from the vertebrobasilar junction. The diameter of the AICA varied from being hypoplastic i.e., < 0.5 mm to 2 mm (mean 1.0 mm. The superior cerebellar artery (SCA arises very close to the basilar bifurcation, in our series (1-3 mm from the basilar artery bifurcation. The diameter of the SCA varied from 0.5-2.5 mm on both sides. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA is divided into four segments. The PCA gave rise to perforators (thalamoperforators, thalamogeniculate arteries, circumflex arteries and peduncular arteries, medial posterior choroidal artery, lateral posterior choroidal artery and cortical branches. In 39 specimens the P1 segment was found to be larger than the posterior communicating artery, in six specimens it was found to be equal to the diameter of the posterior communicating artery and in five specimens it

  10. Hadley Circulation Response to Orbital Precession. Part I: Aquaplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Merlis, Timothy M.; Schneider, Tapio; Bordoni, Simona; Eisenman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The response of the monsoonal and annual-mean Hadley circulation to orbital precession is examined in an idealized atmospheric general circulation model with an aquaplanet slab-ocean lower boundary. Contrary to expectations, the simulated monsoonal Hadley circulation is weaker when perihelion occurs at the summer solstice than when aphelion occurs at the summer solstice. The angular momentum balance and energy balance are examined to understand the mechanisms that produce this result. That th...

  11. The ElGamal cryptosystem over circulant matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Mahalanobis, Ayan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study extensively the discrete logarithm problem in the group of non-singular circulant matrices. The emphasis of this study was to find the exact parameters for the group of circulant matrices for a secure implementation. We tabulate these parameters. We also compare the discrete logarithm problem in the group of circulant matrices with the discrete logarithm problem in finite fields and with the discrete logarithm problem in the group of rational points of an elliptic curve.

  12. Spontaneous circulation of confined active suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Francis G; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2012-10-19

    Many active fluid systems encountered in biology are set in total geometric confinement. Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells is a prominent and ubiquitous example, in which cargo-carrying molecular motors move along polymer filaments and generate coherent cell-scale flow. When filaments are not fixed to the cell periphery, a situation found both in vivo and in vitro, we observe that the basic dynamics of streaming are closely related to those of a nonmotile stresslet suspension. Under this model, it is demonstrated that confinement makes possible a stable circulating state; a linear stability analysis reveals an activity threshold for spontaneous autocirculation. Numerical analysis of the longtime behavior reveals a phenomenon akin to defect separation in nematic liquid crystals and a high-activity bifurcation to an oscillatory regime. PMID:23215137

  13. Bordetella pertussis: why is it still circulating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiso, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is the causal agent of whooping cough, a highly contagious respiratory disease that is life-threatening in infants under the age of three months and may also be very severe in pregnant women and seniors. This disease can be prevented by vaccination but it remains a public health problem in many developed and developing countries.(1) So, why is B. pertussis still circulating? We need to consider several aspects of this vaccine-preventable disease when answering this question: (i) the history of the disease and the historical context in which the vaccine was developed; (ii) the type of vaccine used; (iii) the vaccination strategy and coverage; (iv) the disease surveillance after the introduction of generalized vaccination and (v) the surveillance for the causal agent of the disease.

  14. Circulating Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Brian [Institute of Urology, University of Southern California, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 7416, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Rochefort, Holly [Department of Surgery, University of Southern California, 1520 San Pablo Street, HCT 4300, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Goldkorn, Amir, E-mail: agoldkor@usc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Suite 3440, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2013-12-04

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can provide a non-invasive, repeatable snapshot of an individual patient’s tumor. In prostate cancer, CTC enumeration has been extensively studied and validated as a prognostic tool and has received FDA clearance for use in monitoring advanced disease. More recently, CTC analysis has been shifting from enumeration to more sophisticated molecular characterization of captured cells, which serve as a “liquid biopsy” of the tumor, reflecting molecular changes in an individual’s malignancy over time. Here we will review the main CTC studies in advanced and localized prostate cancer, highlighting the important gains as well as the challenges posed by various approaches, and their implications for advancing prostate cancer management.

  15. Circulating Tumor Cells, Enumeration and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Mei Hou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The detection and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs has shown significant clinical utility with respect to prognosis in breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. Emerging studies show that CTCs can provide pharmacodynamic information to aid therapy decision making. CTCs as a ‘virtual and real-time biopsy’ have clear potential to facilitate exploration of tumor biology, and in particular, the process of metastasis. The challenge of profiling CTC molecular characteristics and generating CTC signatures using current technologies is that they enrich rather than purify CTCs from whole blood; we face the problem of looking for the proverbial ‘needle in the haystack’. This review summarizes the current methods for CTC detection and enumeration, focuses on molecular characterization of CTCs, unveils some aspects of CTC heterogeneity, describes attempts to purify CTCs and scans the horizon for approaches leading to comprehensive dissection of CTC biology.

  16. [Harvey and his theory of circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    In 1628 the English physician William Harvey (1578-1657) published his revolutionary theory that blood circulates through the body driven by the heart. This challenged the long-standing teachings of Hippocrates and Galen concerning 4 different bodily fluids or 'humours' that flowed through separate arterial and venous vascular systems. Harvey gained considerable influence in society as a member of the prestigious Royal College of Physicians in London and as personal physician to King James I and King Charles I. He strove for a more empirical foundation of medicine by means of anatomic demonstrations and vivisections. Despite enduring considerable criticism he managed to disseminate his ideas around the influential universities of Europe in the course of his lifetime. However, consequent changes in practice would not be brought about until decades after Harvey's death, when Galenist treatments such as blood-letting were gradually abandoned.

  17. Circulating Tumor Cells in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs can provide a non-invasive, repeatable snapshot of an individual patient’s tumor. In prostate cancer, CTC enumeration has been extensively studied and validated as a prognostic tool and has received FDA clearance for use in monitoring advanced disease. More recently, CTC analysis has been shifting from enumeration to more sophisticated molecular characterization of captured cells, which serve as a “liquid biopsy” of the tumor, reflecting molecular changes in an individual’s malignancy over time. Here we will review the main CTC studies in advanced and localized prostate cancer, highlighting the important gains as well as the challenges posed by various approaches, and their implications for advancing prostate cancer management.

  18. Genetic architecture of circulating lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirkan, Ayşe; Amin, Najaf; Isaacs, Aaron;

    2011-01-01

    Serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) are important heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of circulating lipid...... suggested a small overlap between the polygenic backgrounds involved in determining LDL-C, HDL-C and TG levels. Pathway analysis utilizing the best polygenic score for TC uncovered extra information compared with using only genome-wide significant loci. These results suggest that the genetic architecture...... levels have identified numerous loci, a substantial portion of the heritability of these traits remains unexplained. Evidence of unexplained genetic variance can be detected by combining multiple independent markers into additive genetic risk scores. Such polygenic scores, constructed using results from...

  19. Meridional circulation in the Sun and stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchatinov, L L

    2016-01-01

    Mean-field hydrodynamics advanced to clear explanations for the origin and properties of the global meridional flow in stellar convection zones. Qualitative arguments and analysis of basic equations both show that the meridional circulation is driven by non-conservative centrifugal and buoyancy forces and results from a slight disbalance between these two drivers. The deviations from the thermal wind balance are relatively large near the boundaries of convection zones. Accordingly, the meridional flow attains its largest velocities in the boundary layers and decreases inside the convection zone. This picture, however, is neither supported nor dismissed by the conflicting results of recent helioseismic soundings or 3D numerical experiments. The relevant physics of the differential temperature and its possible relation to the solar oblateness are briefly discussed.

  20. Circulating Tumor Cells, Enumeration and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has shown significant clinical utility with respect to prognosis in breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. Emerging studies show that CTCs can provide pharmacodynamic information to aid therapy decision making. CTCs as a ‘virtual and real-time biopsy’ have clear potential to facilitate exploration of tumor biology, and in particular, the process of metastasis. The challenge of profiling CTC molecular characteristics and generating CTC signatures using current technologies is that they enrich rather than purify CTCs from whole blood; we face the problem of looking for the proverbial ‘needle in the haystack’. This review summarizes the current methods for CTC detection and enumeration, focuses on molecular characterization of CTCs, unveils some aspects of CTC heterogeneity, describes attempts to purify CTCs and scans the horizon for approaches leading to comprehensive dissection of CTC biology

  1. Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, Raymond E.

    1991-10-01

    Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute's decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.

  2. Circulation and Dissipation on Hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Many global circulation models predict supersonic zonal winds and large vertical shears in the atmospheres of short-period jovian exoplanets. Using linear analysis and nonlinear local simulations, we investigate hydrodynamic dissipation mechanisms to balance the thermal acceleration of these winds. The adiabatic Richardson criterion remains a good guide to linear stability, although thermal diffusion allows some modes to violate it at very long wavelengths and very low growth rates. Nonlinearly, wind speeds saturate at Mach numbers $\\approx 2$ and Richardson numbers $\\lesssim 1/4$ for a broad range of plausible diffusivities and forcing strengths. Turbulence and vertical mixing, though accompanied by weak shocks, dominate the dissipation, which appears to be the outcome of a recurrent Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. An explicit shear viscosity, as well as thermal diffusivity, is added to ZEUS to capture dissipation outside of shocks. The wind speed is not monotonic nor single valued for shear viscosities larger...

  3. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, Raymond E.; Heller, Thomas J.; Bush, Stuart A.

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report on Colorado-Ute Electric Association's NUCLA Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Demonstration Program covers the period from February 1987 through December 1988. The outline for presentation in this report includes a summary of unit operations along with individual sections covering progress in study plan areas that commenced during this reporting period. These include cold-mode shakedown and calibration, plant commercial performance statistics, unit start-up (cold), coal and limestone preparation and handling, ash handling system performance and operating experience, tubular air heater, baghouse operation and performance, materials monitoring, and reliability monitoring. During this reporting period, the coal-mode shakedown and calibration plan was completed. (VC)

  4. Circulating tumor cells: utopia or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conteduca, Vincenza; Zamarchi, Rita; Rossi, Elisabetta; Condelli, Valentina; Troiani, Laura; Aieta, Michele

    2013-09-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) could be considered a sign of tumor aggressiveness, but highly sensitive and specific methods of CTC detection are necessary owing to the rarity and heterogeneity of CTCs in peripheral blood. This review summarizes recent studies on tumor biology, with particular attention to the metastatic cascade, and the molecular characterization and clinical significance of CTCs. Recent technological approaches to enrich and detect these cells and challenges of CTCs for individualized cancer treatment are also discussed. This review also provides an insight into the positive and negative features of the future potential applications of CTC detection, which sometimes remains still a 'utopia', but its actual utility remains among the fastest growing research fields in oncology. PMID:23980681

  5. Boiling Heat Transfer in Circulating Fluidized Beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利斌; 李修伦

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to predict boiling heat transfer coefficient in a three-phase circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which is a new type of evaporation boiling means for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling. To verify the model, experiments are conducted in a stainless steel column with 39 mm ID and 2.0 m height, in which the heat transfer coefficient is measured for different superficial velocities, steam pressures, particle concentrations and materials of particle. As the steam pressure and particle concentrations increase, the heat transfer coefficient in the bed increases. The heat transfer coefficient increases with the liquid velocity but it exhibits a local minimum.The heat transfer coefficient is correlated with cluster renewed model and two-mechanism method. The prediction of the model is in good agreement with experimental data.

  6. Boiling Heat Transfer in Circulating Fluidized Beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to predict boiling heat transfer coefficient in a three-phase circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which is a new type of evaporation boiling means for enhancing heat transfer and preventing fouling. To verify the model, experiments are conducted in a stainless steel column with 39mm ID and 2.0m height, in which the heat transfer coefficient is measured for different superficial velocities, steam pressures, particle concentrations and materials of particle. As the steam pressure and particle concentrations increase, the heat transfer coefficient in the bed increases. The heat transfer coefficient increases with the liquid velocity but it exhibits a local minimum. The heat transfer coefficient is correlated with cluster renewed model and two-mechanism method. The prediction of the model is in good agreement with experimental data.

  7. The Circulation Pattern in Simulated Contact Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Patrick M.; Frank, J.; Tohline, J. E.

    2006-06-01

    We present a three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of an initially symmetric (equal mass) binary where both components are marginally in contact. The simulation evolves the binary through approximately 150 orbital periods and within the first 20 orbits, a global velocity field is established that carries material between both components. In the equatorial plane, the flow is along a figure eight pattern with streams of material sliding past one another in the neighborhood of the inner Lagrange point. For our chosen equation of state, mass transfer is ultimately unstable in this binary though the growth time is long compared to the orbital period. We are therefore able to observe that the circulation pattern, once established, is quite close to steady state. We explore the role that similar steady state flows may play in real contact systems.

  8. Circulating amounts of osteoprotegerin and RANK ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Hjelmborg, Jacob Vb; Kostenuik, Paul;

    2005-01-01

    was 1.04 +/- 0.11 g/cm2. Serum levels of OPG and RANKL were measured by ELISA (Biomedica, Vienna, Austria). Thisregister covers twins born in Denmark since 1870. Heritability and environmental influence was assessed using a maximum-likelihood model for genetic pleiotropy. RESULTS: RANKL levels showed...... only a weak relation to BMD in healthy women. Phenotype correlations indicate that the genes that contribute to twin similarity for BMD are not genes regulating serum levels of RANKL or OPG. The weak correlation with BMDappears to consist in shared environmental factors....... and cytokines. The influence of genetic factors on circulating amounts of OPG and RANKL is not known. BMD has been demonstrated to have a high heritability and there is evidence also that bone turnover and bone loss rates are controlled at least in part by genetic factors. OBJECTIVE: Assessing the genetic...

  9. Modelling Seasonal Circulation and Thermohaline Structure of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gunduz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind and buoyancy driven seasonal circulation of the Caspian Sea is investigated for a better understanding of its basin-wide and meso-scale dynamics, mixing and transport. The model successfully reproduces the following basic elements of the circulation: the southward flowing current systems along the eastern and western coasts, the upwelling along the eastern coast, the cyclonic circulation in the Middle Caspian Sea (MCS especially in winter, and the cyclonic and anticyclonic cells of circulation in the South Caspian Sea (SCS. The observed seasonal variability of sea level and sea surface temperature (SST is well reproduced. Mesoscale structures, not always evident from hydrographic observations, are identified.

  10. Modelling seasonal circulation and thermohaline structure of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gunduz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wind- and buoyancy-driven seasonal circulation of the Caspian Sea is investigated for a better understanding of its basin-wide and mesoscale dynamics, mixing and transport. The model successfully reproduces the following basic elements of the circulation: the southward-flowing current systems along the eastern and western coasts, the upwelling along the eastern coast, the cyclonic circulation in the Middle Caspian Sea (MCS, especially in winter, and the cyclonic and anticyclonic cells of circulation in the South Caspian Sea (SCS. The observed seasonal variability of sea level and sea surface temperature (SST is well reproduced. Mesoscale structures, not always evident from hydrographic observations, are identified.

  11. Anthropogenic forcing on the Hadley circulation in CMIP5 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lijun; Hu, Yongyun; Liu, Jiping

    2016-05-01

    Poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation has been an important topic in climate change studies in the past few years, and one of the critically important issues is how it is related to anthropogenic forcings. Using simulations from the coupled model intercomparison projection phase 5 (CMIP5), we study influences of anthropogenic forcings on the width and strength of the Hadley circulation. It is found that significant poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation can be reproduced in CMIP5 historical all-forcing simulations although the magnitude of trends is much weaker than observations. Simulations with individual forcings demonstrate that among three major types of anthropogenic forcings, increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and stratospheric ozone depletion all cause poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation, whereas anthropogenic aerosols do not have significant influences on the Hadley circulation. Increasing GHGs cause significant poleward expansion in both hemispheres, with the largest widening of the northern cell in boreal autumn. Stratospheric ozone depletion forces significant poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation for the southern cell in austral spring and summer and for the northern cell in boreal spring. In CMIP5 projection simulations for the twenty-first century, the magnitude of poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation increases with GHG forcing. On the other hand, ozone recovery competes with increasing GHGs in determining the width of the Hadley circulation, especially in austral summer. In both historical and projection simulations, the strength of the Hadley circulation shows significant weakening in winter in both hemispheres.

  12. Optimization of reverse circulation bit based on field experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong REN; Kun YIN; Kun BO

    2008-01-01

    By field experiment in Sandaozhuang W-Mo mining area in Luanchuan of Henan Province, the authors analyzed the Experimental result of reverse circulation bit on the basis of different structures and obtained the following conclusion: the design parameter of reverse circulation bit, the number, diameter and angle of the spurt hole can influence on the reverse circulation effect. The bit with inner spurt hole is better obviously than that one without inner spurt hole in reverse circulation, one or two right and the best choice of inner spurt hole is that the diameter is Φ8, the angle is 30° dip up and the suitable number is two to three.

  13. BIM-enabled Conceptual Modelling and Representation of Building Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kook Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how a building information modelling (BIM-based approach for building circulation enables us to change the process of building design in terms of its computational representation and processes, focusing on the conceptual modelling and representation of circulation within buildings. BIM has been designed for use by several BIM authoring tools, in particular with the widely known interoperable industry foundation classes (IFCs, which follow an object-oriented data modelling methodology. Advances in BIM authoring tools, using space objects and their relations defined in an IFC’s schema, have made it possible to model, visualize and analyse circulation within buildings prior to their construction. Agent-based circulation has long been an interdisciplinary topic of research across several areas, including design computing, computer science, architectural morphology, human behaviour and environmental psychology. Such conventional approaches to building circulation are centred on navigational knowledge about built environments, and represent specific circulation paths and regulations. This paper, however, places emphasis on the use of ‘space objects’ in BIM-enabled design processes rather than on circulation agents, the latter of which are not defined in the IFCs’ schemas. By introducing and reviewing some associated research and projects, this paper also surveys how such a circulation representation is applicable to the analysis of building circulation-related rules.

  14. Circulating Biomarker Panels in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafari, Sachli; Backes, Christina; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The early diagnosis of diseases frequently represents an important unmet clinical need supporting in-time treatment of pathologies. This also applies to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, estimated to affect millions of individuals worldwide. The respective diagnostic and prognostic markers, especially for the preclinical stages of AD, are expected to improve patients' outcome significantly. In the last decades, many approaches to detecting AD have been developed, including markers to discover changes in amyloid-β levels [from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or using positron emission tomography] or other brain imaging technologies such as structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional-connectivity MRI or task-related functional MRI. A major challenge is the detection of AD using minimally or even noninvasive biomarkers from body fluids such as plasma or serum. Circulating biomarker candidates based on mRNAs or proteins measured from blood cells, plasma or serum have been proposed for various pathologies including AD. As for other diseases, there is a tendency to use marker signatures obtained by high-throughput approaches, which allow the generation of profiles of hundreds to thousands of biomarkers simultaneously [microarrays, mass spectrometry or next-generation sequencing (NGS)]. Beyond mRNAs and proteins, recent approaches have measured small noncoding RNA (so-called microRNA) profiles in AD patients' blood samples using NGS or array-based technologies. Generally, the development of marker panels is in its early stages and requires further, substantial clinical validation. In this review, we provide an overview of different circulating AD biomarkers, starting with a brief summary of CSF markers and focusing on novel biomarker signatures such as small noncoding RNA profiles.

  15. Conveying Global Circulation Patterns in HDTV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, N.; Janowiak, J.; Kinzler, R.; Trakinski, V.

    2006-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History has partnered with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to educate general audiences about weather and climate using high definition video broadcasts built from half-hourly global mosaics of infrared (IR) data from five geostationary satellites. The dataset being featured was developed by NCEP to improve precipitation estimates from microwave data that have finer spatial resolution but poorer temporal coverage. The IR data span +/-60 degrees latitude and show circulation patterns at sufficient resolution to teach informal science center visitors about both weather and climate events and concepts. Design and editorial principles for this media program have been guided by lessons learned from production and annual updates of visualizations that cover eight themes in both biological and Earth system sciences. Two formative evaluations on two dates, including interviews and written surveys of 480 museum visitors ranging in age from 13 to over 60, helped refine the design and implementation of the weather and climate program and demonstrated that viewers understood the program's initial literacy objectives, including: (1) conveying the passage of time and currency of visualized data; (2) geographic relationships inherent to atmospheric circulation patterns; and (3) the authenticity of visualized data, i.e., their origin from earth-orbiting satellites. Surveys also indicated an interest and willingness to learn more about weather and climate principles and events. Expanded literacy goals guide ongoing, biweekly production and distribution of global cloud visualization pieces that reach combined audiences of approximately 10 million. Two more rounds of evaluation are planned over the next two years to assess the effectiveness of the media program in addressing these expanded literacy goals.

  16. MRI of normal achilles tendon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollandi, G.A. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Bertolotto, M. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Perrone, R. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Garlaschi, G. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Derchi, L.E. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    To investigate the normal internal structure of tendons 11 volunteers without clinical evidence of tendinopathy were examined using conventional spin-echo T1-, T2- and proton-density weighted sequences. The Achilles tendon was chosen because of its high frequency of injury in athletic activity, large size, superficial position and because it is oriented nearly parallel to the static magnetic field, therefore minimizing the ``magic angle phenomenon``. The tendons exhibited areas of slighly increased signal in four T1-weighted and in all but one proton-density-weighted scans. No intratendinous signal was detected in T2-weighted images. The possible origin of these findings is discussed. We conclude that the knowledge of these normal signals may be useful to avoid incorrectly diagnosing as pathological. (orig.). With 2 figs.

  17. Modeling biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qi

    In this thesis, the modeling of biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds was studied. The hydrodynamics of a circulating fluidized bed operating on biomass particles were first investigated, both experimentally and numerically. Then a comprehensive mathematical model was presented to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation plant. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test its response to several gasifier operating conditions. The model was validated using the experimental results obtained from the plant and two other circulating fluidized bed biomass gasifiers (CFBBGs). Finally, an ASPEN PLUS simulation model of biomass gasification was presented based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction system at chemical equilibrium. Hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of gas-solid circulating fluidized beds (CFBs). A 2-dimensional mathematical model was developed considering the hydrodynamic behavior of CFB gasifiers. In the modeling, the CFB riser was divided into two regions: a dense region at the bottom and a dilute region at the top of the riser. Kunii and Levenspiel (1991)'s model was adopted to express the vertical solids distribution with some other assumptions. Radial distributions of bed voidage were taken into account in the upper zone by using Zhang et al. (1991)'s correlation. For model validation purposes, a cold model CFB was employed, in which sawdust was transported with air as the fluidizing agent. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation demonstration plant in China. Hydrodynamics as well as chemical reaction kinetics were considered. The fluidized bed riser was divided into two distinct sections: (a) a dense region at the bottom of the bed where biomass undergoes mainly heterogeneous reactions and (b) a dilute region at the top where most of homogeneous

  18. Complete normal ordering 1:Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.(Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, King's College London, London, WC2R 2LS, United Kingdom); Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background) perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman...

  19. Iris Recognition Without Iris Normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenina Birgale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In any real time biometric system processing speed and recognition time are crucial parameters. Reducing processing time involves many parameters like normalization, FAR, FRR, management of eyelid and eyelash occlusions, size of signature etc. Normalization consumes substantial amount of time of the system. This study contributes for improved iris recognition system with reduced processing time, False Acceptance Rate (FAR and False Rejection Rate (FRR. Approach: To improve system performance and reliability of a biometric system. It avoided the iris normalization process used traditionally in iris recognition systems. The technique proposed here used different masks to filter out iris image from an eye. Comparative study of different masks was done and optimized mask is proposed. The experiment was carried on CASIA database consisting of 756 iris images of 108 persons. Each person contributes seven images of eye (108×7 = 756 images in the database. Results: In the proposed method: (1 Normalization step is avoided; (2 Computational time is reduced by 0.3342 sec; (3 Iris signature size is reduced; (4 Improved performance parameters. (With reduced feature size, proposed method achieves 99.4866% accuracy, 0.0069% FAR, 1.0198% FRR and significant increase in speed of the system. Conclusion: Iris signature proposed was comparatively small just of 1×24 size. Though Daugman’s method gives best accuracy of 99.90% but the iris signature length used by that algorithm is comparatively very high that is 1×2048 phase vector. Also Daugman has used phase information in signature formation. Our method gives a accuracy of 99.474% with a signature of comparatively very small length. This has definitely contributed to improve the speed.

  20. Normal Functions Concerning Shared Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIAO-JING

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss normal functions concerning shared values. We obtain the follow result. Let F be a family of meromorphic functions in the unit disc △, and a be a nonzero finite complex number. If for any f ∈ F, the zeros of f are of multiplicity, f and f' share a, then there exists a positive number M such that for any f ∈ F, (1 -|z|~2)(|f'(z)|)/(1+|f(z)|~2)≤ M.

  1. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doglioni, C.; Carminati, E.; Petricca, P.; Riguzzi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  2. "Ser diferente é normal?"/"Being different: is it normal?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Veras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A pergunta título deste trabalho retoma o slogan “Ser diferente é normal”, que é parte da campanha criada para uma organização não-governamental que atende portadores de Síndrome de Down. O objetivo é a inclusão social da pessoa com deficiência e o primeiro passo foi propor a inclusão de um grupo de diferentes no grupo dito normal. No vídeo de lançamento da campanha, o diferente, identificado como normal, é mostrado por meio de exemplos – um negro com cabelo black-power, um skin-head, um corpo tatuado, um corpo feminino halterofílico, uma família hippie, uma garota com síndrome de Down. A visão da adolescente dançando reduz, de certo modo, o efeito imaginário que vai além da síndrome, uma vez que apenas o corpo com seus olhinhos puxados se destacam, e não se interrogam questões cognitivas. Minha proposta é refletir sobre o estatuto paradoxal do exemplo, tal como é trabalhado nesse vídeo: se, por definição, um exemplo mostra de fato seu pertencimento a uma classe, pode-se concluir que é exatamente por ser exemplar que ele se encontra fora dela, no exato momento em que a exibe e define. The question in the title of this paper refers to the slogan "ser diferente é normal" ("It´s normal to be different", which is part of a campaign created for a NGO that supports people with Down syndrome. The objective of the campaign is to promote the social inclusion of individuals with Down syndrome, and the first step was to propose the inclusion of a group of "differents" in the so-called normal group. The film launching the campaign shows the different identified as normal by means of examples: a black man exhibiting blackpower haircut, a skin-head, a tattooed body, an over-athletic female body, a hippie family and a girl with Down syndrome. The vision of the dancing teenager lessens the imaginary effect that surpasses the syndrome, since only her body and her little oriental eyes stand out and no cognitive issues are

  3. Sickle Cell Vaso-occlusive Crisis Induces the Release of Circulating Serum Heat Shock Protein-70

    OpenAIRE

    Adewoye, Adeboye H; Klings, Elizabeth S.; Farber, Harrison W.; Palaima, Elizabeth; Bausero, Maria A.; McMahon, Lillian; Odhiambo, Adam; Surinder, Safaya; Yoder, Mark; Martin H Steinberg; Asea, Alexzander

    2005-01-01

    Inflammation may play an important role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD), and recent studies have identified the 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) as an important mediator of inflammatory responses. Here we demonstrate a significant increase in circulating serum Hsp70 level in SCD during vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) as compared with baseline steady-state levels (P < 0.05) and a significant increase in Hsp70 levels in SCD at baseline compared with normal controls (P < 0.05). ...

  4. Circulating levels of neuropeptides (CGRP, VIP, NPY) in patients with fulminant hepatic failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strauss, Gitte Irene; Edvinsson, L; Larsen, F S;

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the circulating levels and cerebral fluxes of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and their relation to cerebral blood flow (CBF) during normoventilation and hyperventilation in patients with fulminant...... in FHF than in cirrhosis, 87 (55-218) vs. 29 (21-42) pmol/L, and 11 (6-29) vs. 5 (3-9)pmol/L, respectively. NPY was normal, none of the measures were related to CBF, and there was no detectable net brain fluxes. Hyperventilation did not alter any of the measures. CGRP and VIP in FHF seem to reflect...

  5. Understanding the Limitations of Circulating Cell Free Fetal DNA: An Example of Two Unique Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Ganheart, Cecily A; Iqbal, Sara N; Brown, Donna L; Black, Susan; Fries, Melissa H

    2014-05-01

    Circulating cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) is an effective screening modality for fetal aneuploidy. We report two cases of false positive results. The first case involves a female, with self-reported Down syndrome. CffDNA returned positive for trisomy 18 leading to a maternal diagnosis of mosaicism chromosome 18 with normal fetal karyotype. The second case involves a patient with an anomalous fetal ultrasound and cffDNA positive for trisomy 13. Amniocentesis demonstrated a chromosome 8p duplication/deletion. False positive cffDNA may arise in clinical scenarios where diagnostic testing is clearly indicated. Practitioners should recognize the limitations of cffDNA. PMID:25298847

  6. Non-normal Hasemann Boundary Value Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We will discuss the non-normal Hasemann boundary value problem:we may find these results are coincided with those of normal Hasemann boundary value problem and non normal Riemann boundary value problem.

  7. Climatology of the HOPE-G global ocean general circulation model - Sea ice general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legutke, S. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Maier-Reimer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    The HOPE-G global ocean general circulation model (OGCM) climatology, obtained in a long-term forced integration is described. HOPE-G is a primitive-equation z-level ocean model which contains a dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model. It is formulated on a 2.8 grid with increased resolution in low latitudes in order to better resolve equatorial dynamics. The vertical resolution is 20 layers. The purpose of the integration was both to investigate the models ability to reproduce the observed general circulation of the world ocean and to obtain an initial state for coupled atmosphere - ocean - sea-ice climate simulations. The model was driven with daily mean data of a 15-year integration of the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM4, the atmospheric component in later coupled runs. Thereby, a maximum of the flux variability that is expected to appear in coupled simulations is included already in the ocean spin-up experiment described here. The model was run for more than 2000 years until a quasi-steady state was achieved. It reproduces the major current systems and the main features of the so-called conveyor belt circulation. The observed distribution of water masses is reproduced reasonably well, although with a saline bias in the intermediate water masses and a warm bias in the deep and bottom water of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The model underestimates the meridional transport of heat in the Atlantic Ocean. The simulated heat transport in the other basins, though, is in good agreement with observations. (orig.)

  8. Circulating Tumor Cell and Cell-free Circulating Tumor DNA in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Zaini, Jamal; Putra, Andika Chandra; Andarini, Sita; Hudoyo, Achmad; Syahruddin, Elisna; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-09-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are tumor cells that are separated from the primary site or metastatic lesion and disseminate in blood circulation. CTCs are considered to be part of the long process of cancer metastasis. As a 'liquid biopsy', CTC molecular examination and investigation of single cancer cells create an important opportunity for providing an understanding of cancer biology and the process of metastasis. In the last decade, we have seen dramatic development in defining the role of CTCs in lung cancer in terms of diagnosis, genomic alteration determination, treatment response and, finally, prognosis prediction. The aims of this review are to understand the basic biology and to review methods of detection of CTCs that apply to the various types of solid tumor. Furthermore, we explored clinical applications, including treatment monitoring to anticipate therapy resistance as well as biomarker analysis, in the context of lung cancer. We also explored the potential use of cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the genomic alteration analysis of lung cancer. PMID:27689025

  9. Circulating Tumor Cell and Cell-free Circulating Tumor DNA in Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Jamal; Putra, Andika Chandra; Andarini, Sita; Hudoyo, Achmad; Syahruddin, Elisna; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are tumor cells that are separated from the primary site or metastatic lesion and disseminate in blood circulation. CTCs are considered to be part of the long process of cancer metastasis. As a 'liquid biopsy', CTC molecular examination and investigation of single cancer cells create an important opportunity for providing an understanding of cancer biology and the process of metastasis. In the last decade, we have seen dramatic development in defining the role of CTCs in lung cancer in terms of diagnosis, genomic alteration determination, treatment response and, finally, prognosis prediction. The aims of this review are to understand the basic biology and to review methods of detection of CTCs that apply to the various types of solid tumor. Furthermore, we explored clinical applications, including treatment monitoring to anticipate therapy resistance as well as biomarker analysis, in the context of lung cancer. We also explored the potential use of cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the genomic alteration analysis of lung cancer.

  10. Response of the South Atlantic circulation to an abrupt collapse of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurian, Audine [University of Hawai' i at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Drijfhout, Sybren S. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    The South Atlantic response to a collapse of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is investigated in the ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate model. A reduced Agulhas leakage (about 3.1 Sv; 1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) is found to be associated with a weaker Southern Hemisphere (SH) supergyre and Indonesian throughflow. These changes are due to reduced wind stress curl over the SH supergyre, associated with a weaker Hadley circulation and a weaker SH subtropical jet. The northward cross-equatorial transport of thermocline and intermediate waters is much more strongly reduced than Agulhas leakage in relation with an AMOC collapse. A cross-equatorial gyre develops due to an anomalous wind stress curl over the tropics that results from the anomalous sea surface temperature gradient associated with reduced ocean heat transport. This cross-equatorial gyre completely blocks the transport of thermocline waters from the South to the North Atlantic. The waters originating from Agulhas leakage flow somewhat deeper and most of it recirculates in the South Atlantic subtropical gyre, leading to a gyre intensification. This intensification is consistent with the anomalous surface cooling over the South Atlantic. Most changes in South Atlantic circulation due to global warming, featuring a reduced AMOC, are qualitatively similar to the response to an AMOC collapse, but smaller in amplitude. However, the increased northward cross-equatorial transport of intermediate water relative to thermocline water is a strong fingerprint of an AMOC collapse. (orig.)

  11. Circulating Levels of IL-1B+IL-6 Cause ER Stress and Dysfunction in Islets From Prediabetic Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Christina M.; Lu, Christine; Corbin, Kathryn L.; Sharma, Poonam R.; Dula, Stacey B.; Carter, Jeffrey D.; Ramadan, James W.; Xin, Wenjun; Lee, Jae K.; Nunemaker, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines are associated with obesity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism is unknown. We tested whether proinflammatory cytokines IL-1B+IL-6 at low picogram per milliliter concentrations (consistent with serum levels) could directly trigger pancreatic islet dysfunction. Overnight exposure to IL-1B+IL-6 in islets isolated from normal mice and humans disrupted glucose-stimulated intracellular calcium responses; cytokine-induced...

  12. Fetal circulation in left-sided congenital heart disease measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Al Nafisi, Bahiyah; van Amerom, Joshua FP; Forsey, Jonathan; Jaeggi, Edgar; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Macgowan, Christopher K; Seed, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Background The distribution of blood flow in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) is likely to influence fetal growth, organ development, and postnatal outcome, but has previously been difficult to study. We present the first measurements of the distribution of the fetal circulation in left-sided CHD made using phase contrast cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods Twenty-two fetuses with suspected left-sided CHD and twelve normal controls underwent fetal CMR and echocardiography at ...

  13. Vortices with half-integer number of circulation quanta in superfluid 3He-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is proposed for the experimental observation of the exotic vortices with a half-integer number of superfluid velocity circulation quanta in rotating 3He-A. The existence of such vortices in 3He-A is possible due to the presence of discrete combined symmetry (gauge transformation+spin rotation). This symmetry couples in a nontrivial manner the superfluid and magnetic properties of the liquid and gives rise to the hybrid of the vortex and disclination in the field of the magnetic anisotropy vector. In a free geometry such vortices are energetically not advantageous due to the spin-orbit (dipole) energy since they are termination lines of the topological solitons. For a parallel-plane geometry with distances between the planes which are smaller than the dipole lenght and in the presence of a sufficiently strong magnetic field normal to the plates the dipole energy is neutralized, and the vortices with half-integer circulation may compete successfully with other types of vortices. Vortices with a half-integer number of quanta should lead to a characteristic behaviour of the NMR signal, and on this basis they may distinguished from singular vortices with a single circulation quantum and from nonsingular vortices with two quanta

  14. The roles of serum CXCL16 in circulating Tregs and gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Jun-Yan; Xu, Hui-Mian

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common sarcomas of the digestive system. Abnormal expression of CXCL16 and its sole receptor, CXCR6, has been demonstrated in many cancers. However, no studies have shown the relationship between CXCL16 or CXCR6 expression and GIST. In this study, we detected CXCL16 and CXCR6 expression in GIST patient samples by using immunohistochemistry analysis and Western blot analysis. Serum CXCL16 level was determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Circulating Tregs were isolated by using flow cytometry. MTT assay, cell cycle assay, and transwell assay were used to test the effects of recombinant CXCL16 on Tregs and GIST cells in vitro. The levels of CXCL16 and CXCR6 protein were higher in cancer tissues than in normal tissues. Serum CXCL16 level and circulating Tregs were higher in GIST patients than that in the healthy volunteers. CXCL16, CXCR6, serum CXCL16, and circulating Tregs were significantly associated with a decreased survival time of patients. Relative to control cells, high concentration recombinant CXCL16 treated Tregs and GIST cells exhibited lower proliferation and mobility rates as assessed by MTT assay and transwell assay, respectively. Taken together, CXCL16 was observed to mediate the inhibitory effects in Tregs and GIST cells, and these involved suppression of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27418838

  15. Circulation, bone scans, and tetracycline labeling in microvascularized and vascular bundle implanted rib grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The circulation in microvascularized rib grafts has been compared with that in conventional rib grafts and in those augmented by a direct vascular bundle implantation into the bone grafts. A new experimental model has been designed to correlate vascular perfusion, bone scan patterns, tetracycline labeling, and histological findings in these bone grafts. Posterior microvascularized rib grafts were found to have a circulatory pattern identical to that of the normal rib. Failed microvascularized rib grafts were revascularized more slowly than conventional rib grafts. Vascular bundles implanted into rib grafts remained patent and increased the rate of revascularization. The stripping or preservation of periosteum had no observable effects on the rate or pattern of conventional rib graft revascularization. The circulation in rib grafts was accurately reflected in technetium 99 bone scans, as was the patency of the anastomoses of microvascularized rib grafts and of implanted vascular bundles. In contrast, tetracycline labeling was repeatedly observed in avascular areas of bone grafts and, therefore, is not a reliable indicator of bone graft circulation

  16. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  17. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Willemijn M.; Bosboom, Dennis G.H.; Koopmanschap, Desiree H.J.L.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  18. Forcing mechanisms of the Bay of Bengal circulation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.; Sengupta, D.; Gadgil, S.

    A state-of-the-art ocean general circulation model, set up for the North Indian Ocean and driven by climatological wind stress simulates most of the observed features of the near-surface circulation of the Bay of Bengal. The prominent features...

  19. Natural Circulation Characteristics of a Symmetric Loop under Inclined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural circulation is an important process for primary loops of some marine integrated reactors. The reactor works under inclined conditions when severe accidents happen to the ship. In this paper, to investigate the characteristics of natural circulation, experiments were conducted in a symmetric loop under the inclined angle of 0~45°. A CFD model was also set up to predict the behaviors of the loop beyond the experimental scope. Total circulation flow rate decreases with the increase of inclined angle. Meanwhile one circulation is depressed while the other is enhanced, and accordingly the disparity between the branch circulations arises and increases with the increase of inclined angle. Circulation only takes place in one branch circuit at large inclined angle. Also based on the CFD model, the influences of flow resistance distribution and loop configuration on natural circulation are predicted. The numerical results show that to design the loop with the configuration of big altitude difference and small width, it is favorable to reduce the influence of inclination; however too small loop width will cause severe reduction of circulation ability at large angle inclination.

  20. CellTracks cytometer for detection of circulating tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibbe, A.G.J.; Kooi, van der A.; Groot, de M.R.; Vermes, I.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: In patients with carcinomas, tumor cells are shed into the circulation. The number of the circulating tumor cells is low and technology is needed that has sufficient sensitivity and specificity to enumerate and characterize these cells. The CellTracks system was developed to provide an

  1. Independent review of SCDAP/RELAP5 natural circulation calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G.M.; Gross, R.J.; Martinez, M.J.; Rightley, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    A review and assessment of the uncertainties in the calculated response of reactor coolant system natural circulation using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code were completed. The SCDAP/RELAP5 calculation modeled a station blackout transient in the Surry nuclear power plant and concluded that primary system depressurization from natural circulation induced primary system failure is more likely than previously thought.

  2. Impact of interocean exchange on the Atlantic overturning circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.

    2001-01-01

    The awareness that human activity could change climate has greatly raised public and scientific interest in climate. One issue of present-day climate research is the stability of the thermohaline circulation. This overturning circulation, popularly known as the `conveyor belt', redistributes w

  3. Conceptual models of the wind-driven and thermohaline circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, S.S.; Marshall, D.P.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual models are a vital tool for understanding the processes that maintain the global ocean circulation, both in nature and in complex numerical ocean models. In this chapter we provide a broad overview of our conceptual understanding of the wind-driven circulation, the thermohaline circulatio

  4. University of Waterloo Library Report on the Circulation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterloo Univ. (Ontario). Dana Porter Arts Library.

    The circulation system of the University of Waterloo (Ontario) Library is analyzed. The analysis includes the environment in which the circulation system must function, general objectives and functional requirements of the system, and a description and evaluation of the existing system. Both the automated and manual elements of the circulation…

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON FLOW AND SEDIMENT MOVEMENT IN CAVITY CIRCULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingquan LIU

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports a flume experiment of flow and sediment movement in a cavity. The flow velocity,sediment concentration and the mechanism of hydraulic sorting in the circulation flow are discussed.The quantity and patterns of sediment deposition in the circulation area are studied as well.

  6. Development of experimental apparatus about reverse circulation bit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A set of experimental apparatus on reverse circulation bit are developed, in order to lucubrate the mechanism of the new type reverse circulation bits, and the structure of the bits influencing the ability of taking core and carrying powder.Both the major structure of the equipment and the procession of experiment are described.

  7. Tablets: A Survey of Circulation Policies at Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, Janice; Tolppanen, Bradley P.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a Web-based survey regarding the circulation of tablets in academic libraries. The survey, which was completed by 61 respondents, identifies the most common circulation policies and procedures used. These results will help other academic institutions develop their own policy or update existing ones. Areas of…

  8. Circulation Price Elasticity in the Daily Newspaper Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotta, Gerald L.; Taylor, Michael Lee

    Pricing of subscriptions and single copies has historically been arbitrary. Evidence indicates that the newspaper industry has tended to overestimate the elasticity of demand for newspaper circulation. This study analyzed price changes, circulation changes, and population changes for all daily newspapers in the United States between 1970 and 1975.…

  9. Unique Protein Signature of Circulating Microparticles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer; Iversen, Line V;

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases.......To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases....

  10. Internal variability of the wind-driven ocean circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsman, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The ocean circulation is known to vary on a multitude of time and spatial scales. Due to the large heat capacity of the oceans, variations in its circulation have a profound impact on climate. Therefore, understanding the origin of this variability and its sensitivity to physical parameters is an i

  11. A Model for Library Book Circulations Incorporating Loan Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Quentin L.; Fenton, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes and explains a modification of the mixed Poisson model for library circulations which takes into account the periods when a book is out on loan and therefore unavailable for borrowing. Highlights include frequency of circulation distributions; negative binomial distribution; and examples of the model at two universities. (Contains 34…

  12. Tidal stream energy impacts on estuarine circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The impact of a tidal stream plant on the estuarine hydrodynamic was analyzed. • A 3D model was used to determine the hydrodynamics on the ria. • The model was successfully validated with field measurements. • The momentum sink approach is used to simulate the tidal farm. • The 3D alteration on the transient and residual circulation is presented. - Abstract: Among the impacts on the marine environment associated with the operation of a tidal farm, the alteration of the transient and residual flow velocities must be assessed in detail, for they constitute the driving force of important environmental processes such as sediment and pollutant transport, and nutrient dispersion. The objective of this study is to assess the impacts caused by the operation of a tidal farm on the transient and residual flow by means of a case study: a tidal stream farm in Ria de Ribadeo, an estuary in NW Spain. For this purpose a 3D numerical model of the estuary is implemented and successfully validated based on field data of tidal levels and flow velocities. The energy extracted by the tidal stream farm from the flow is accounted for by adding a momentum sink term in the equations of the model. Two scenarios representative of typical winter and summer conditions are considered. The results show that the disturbances to the transient flow patterns are concentrated in the proximity of the farm, with a weakening of the flow upstream and, especially, downstream of the farm (up to 0.25 ms−1) and an intensification on both sides (up to 0.10 ms−1). As for the residual flow, we find that the operation of the tidal farm does not disrupt the complex 3D residual circulation of the ria, but it does lead to modifications of the residual flow of up to 0.025 ms−1, or approximately 10% of the baseline residual flow, which affect a much larger area than in the case of the transient flow (up to approximately 2 km from the farm). The repercussions of these alterations of the

  13. Circulating Immune Complexes among Diabetic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nicoloff

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is an autoimmune disease associated with the presence of different types of autoantibodies. The presence of these antibodies and the corresponding antigens in the circulation leads to the formation of circulating immune complexes (CIC. CIC are known to persist in the blood for long periods of time. Such CIC following deposition in the small blood vessels have the potential to lead to microangiopathy with debilitating clinical consequences. The aim of our pilot study was to investigate whether a correlation exists between CIC and the development of microvascular complications in diabetic children. Isolation of a new glycoprotein complement inhibition factor (CIF from the parasitic plant Cuscuta europea seed, which appears to bind specifically to complement component C3 has provided an unique tool for the measurement of immune complexes by means of ELISA-type techniques (CIF-ELISA. We studied the levels of CIC (IgG, IgM and IgA in 58 diabetic children (mean age 12.28±4.04 years, diabetes duration 5.3±3.7 years, 29 of them had vascular complications (group 1 and the other 29 were without vascular complications (group 2. As controls, we studied sera samples from 21 healthy children (mean age 13.54±4.03 years. Sera from the diabetic patients showed statistically significant higher levels of CIC IgG ( p=0.03 than sera from the control group. In sera from group 1 values of CIC IgG showed statistically significant higher levels than controls (0.720±0.31 vs. 0.46±0.045; p=0.011 Sera from 59% of the patients were positive for CIC IgG, 36% for CIC IgM and 9% for CIC IgA. Among 26 patients with microalbuminuria, sera from 17/26 (65% were positive for CIC IgG, 8/26 (31% for CIC IgM and 2/26 (8% for CIC IgA. CIC IgG correlated with HbA1c (r=0.51; p=0.005 and microalbuminuria (r=0.42, p=0.033. CIC IgA correlated with age (r=0.44, p=0.03. CIC IgM correlated with the duration of diabetes (r=0.63, p=0.02. These

  14. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas

  15. Increased circulating miR-21 levels are associated with kidney fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Glowacki

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of noncoding RNA acting at a post-transcriptional level to control the expression of large sets of target mRNAs. While there is evidence that miRNAs deregulation plays a causative role in various complex disorders, their role in fibrotic kidney diseases is largely unexplored. Here, we found a strong up-regulation of miR-21 in the kidneys of mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction and also in the kidneys of patients with severe kidney fibrosis. In addition, mouse primary fibroblasts derived from fibrotic kidneys exhibited higher miR-21 expression level compared to those derived from normal kidneys. Expression of miR-21 in normal primary kidney fibroblasts was induced upon TGFβ exposure, a key growth factor involved in fibrogenesis. Finally, ectopic expression of miR-21 in primary kidney fibroblasts was sufficient to promote myofibroblast differentiation. As circulating miRNAs have been suggested as promising non-invasive biomarkers, we further assess whether circulating miR-21 levels are associated with renal fibrosis using sera from 42 renal transplant recipients, categorized according to their renal fibrosis severity, evaluated on allograft biopsies (Interstitial Fibrosis/Tubular Atrophy (IF/TA. Circulating miR-21 levels are significantly increased in patients with severe IF/TA grade (IF/TA grade 3: 3.0±1.0 vs lower grade of fibrosis: 1.5±1.2; p = 0.001. By contrast, circulating miR-21 levels were not correlated with other renal histological lesions. In a multivariate linear regression model including IF/TA grade and estimated GFR, independent associations were found between circulating miR-21 levels and IF/TA score (ß = 0.307, p = 0.03, and between miR-21 levels and aMDRD (ß = -0.398, p = 0.006. Altogether, these data suggest miR-21 has a key pathogenic role in kidney fibrosis and may represent a novel, predictive and reliable blood marker of kidney fibrosis.

  16. Compressed Sensing for Thoracic MRI with Partial Random Circulant Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Haneishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of Circulant matrix as the sensing matrix in compressed sensing (CS scheme has recently been proposed to overcome the limitation of random or partial Fourier matrices. Aside from reducing computational complexity, the use of circulant matrix for MR image offers the feasibility in hardware implementations. This paper presents the simulation of compressed sensing for thoracic MR imaging with circulant matrix as the sensing matrix. The comparisons of reconstruction of three different type MR images using circulant matrix are investigated in term of number of samples, number of iteration and signal to noise ratio (SNR. The simulation results showed that Circulant Matrix works efficiently for encoding the MR image of respiratory organ, especially for smooth and sparse image in spatial domain.

  17. Observational Evidence for Poleward Expansion of the Hadley Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yongyun; ZHOU Chen; LIU Jiping

    2011-01-01

    How the Hadley circulation changes in response to global climate change and how its change impacts upon regional and global climates has generated a lot of interest in the literature in the past few years. In this paper, consistent and statistically significant poleward expansion of the Hadley circulation in the past few decades is demonstrated, using independent observational datasets as proxy measures of the Hadley circulation. Both observational outgoing longwave radiation and precipitation datasets show an annual average total poleward expansion of the Hadley cells of about 3.6° latitude. Sea level pressure from observational and reanalysis datasets show smaller magnitudes of poleward expansion, of about 1.2° latitude. Ensemble general circulation model simulations forced by observed time-varying sea surface temperatures were found to generate a total poleward expansion of about 1.23° latitude. Possible mechanisms behind the changes in the horizontal extent of the Hadley circulation are discussed.

  18. Meteor radar observation of circulation near mesopause over Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jiangang; WAN Weixin; NING Baiqi; LIU Libo

    2003-01-01

    The Wuhan meteor radar is the first all-sky meteor radar in China. The circulation near the mesopause from February to September 2002 is studied based on the data obtained by the Wuhan meteor radar. The zonal wind is usually eastward in winter from 80 to 100 km. The mean zonal wind become westward from March to early of May, when the winter circulation reverses to the summer circulation. But at the meteor heights, the zonal circulation usually becomes eastward after the middle of May. The meridional circulation is always equatorward. The peaks of the meridional wind move downward with the height, and the peak value reaches its maximum of 21 ms-1 in July. Having made a comparison between monthly mean wind and HWM93 model wind, the value of southward wind, the maximal value of eastward wind as well as the reversal height of zonal wind are found to be quite different from each other.

  19. Update on normal tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotiranjan Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is labelled when typical glaucomatous disc changes, visual field defects and open anterior chamber angles are associated with intraocular pressure (IOP constantly below 21 mmHg. Chronic low vascular perfusion, Raynaud's phenomenon, migraine, nocturnal systemic hypotension and over-treated systemic hypertension are the main causes of normal tension glaucoma. Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography and visual field analysis are the main tools of investigation for the diagnosis of NTG. Management follows the same principles of treatment for other chronic glaucomas: To reduce IOP by a substantial amount, sufficient to prevent disabling visual loss. Treatment is generally aimed to lower IOP by 30% from pre-existing levels to 12-14 mmHg. Betaxolol, brimonidine, prostaglandin analogues, trabeculectomy (in refractory cases, systemic calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine and 24-hour monitoring of blood pressure are considered in the management of NTG. The present review summarises risk factors, causes, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of NTG.

  20. Passive safety systems and natural circulation in water cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power produces 15% of the world's electricity. Many countries are planning to either introduce nuclear energy or expand their nuclear generating capacity. Design organizations are incorporating both proven means and new approaches for reducing the capital costs of their advanced designs. In the future most new nuclear plants will be of evolutionary design, often pursuing economies of scale. In the longer term, innovative designs could help to promote a new era of nuclear power. Since the mid-1980s it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e. those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially improve economics of new nuclear power plant designs. The IAEA Conference on The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future, which was convened in 1991, noted that for new plants 'the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate'. Some new designs also utilize natural circulation as a means to remove core power during normal operation. The use of passive systems can eliminate the costs associated with the installation, maintenance, and operation of active systems that require multiple pumps with independent and redundant electric power supplies. However, considering the weak driving forces of passive systems based on natural circulation, careful design and analysis methods must be employed to ensure that the systems perform their intended functions. To support the development of advanced water cooled reactor designs with passive systems, investigations of natural circulation are conducted in several IAEA Member States with advanced reactor development programmes. To foster international collaboration on the enabling technology of passive systems that utilize natural circulation, the IAEA

  1. A study of radionuclide noninvasive method for the evaluation of portal circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for evaluating portal systemic circulation was presented. Following transrectal administration of 99mTc-MIBI it was feasible to detect the presence of portasystemic shunting in both animal and patient studies. The heart-liver ratio (H/L ratio) and the portosystemic shunt index (SI) in normal controls were 0.21 +- 0.08 and 0.17 +- 0.06. Whereas in patients of liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension were 1.12 +- 0.18 and 0.54 +- 0.07 respectively. And showed a significant difference (p<0.01) between normal and cirrhosis group. A good correlation between the H/L, SI and the portal pressure measurement during operation (r = 0.93) was also found. Thereby it seems that portasystemic shunting can be quantified with this radionuclide noninvasive method

  2. Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells by Dielectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoyne, Peter R. C., E-mail: pgascoyn@mdanderson.org [Department of Imaging Physics Research, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Unit 951, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Shim, Sangjo [Department of Imaging Physics Research, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Unit 951, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C0800, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Present address: Micro & Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, 208 North Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-03-12

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an electrokinetic method that allows intrinsic dielectric properties of suspended cells to be exploited for discrimination and separation. It has emerged as a promising method for isolating circulation tumor cells (CTCs) from blood. DEP-isolation of CTCs is independent of cell surface markers. Furthermore, isolated CTCs are viable and can be maintained in culture, suggesting that DEP methods should be more generally applicable than antibody-based approaches. The aim of this article is to review and synthesize for both oncologists and biomedical engineers interested in CTC isolation the pertinent characteristics of DEP and CTCs. The aim is to promote an understanding of the factors involved in realizing DEP-based instruments having both sufficient discrimination and throughput to allow routine analysis of CTCs in clinical practice. The article brings together: (a) the principles of DEP; (b) the biological basis for the dielectric differences between CTCs and blood cells; (c) why such differences are expected to be present for all types of tumors; and (d) instrumentation requirements to process 10 mL blood specimens in less than 1 h to enable routine clinical analysis. The force equilibrium method of dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF) is shown to offer higher discrimination and throughput than earlier DEP trapping methods and to be applicable to clinical studies.

  3. The Zonal Structure of the Hadley Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of the mass transport of the Hadley circulation is presented, with regard to its longitudinal structure. Data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set for the period 1948-2005 is examined,focusing on the solsticial seasons of June-August and December-February. Quantitative estimates have been extracted from the data to observe connections between the zonal mean of the upper tropospheric north/south mass transports and their relationship to the driving factor of tropical precipitation (implying latent heat release) and subsidence in the subtropical high pressure belts. The longitudinal structure of this flow is then examined with regard to these three main variables. The poleward upper tropospheric transport has four (JJA) or three (DJF) main branches, which link regions of major precipitation with corresponding regions of large subsidence, and one (June, July, August) or two (December, January, February) reverse branches. This structure has remained stable over the past sixty years. Although the total upper tropospheric transport in each season is less than the total sinking transport in the target subtropical high pressure belt, this does not apply to the individual branches, the balance being made up by the upper tropospheric reverse transports. An analysis of correlations between all of these various components shows, however, that the complete picture is more complex, with some precipitation regions being linked to subsidence regions outside their own branch.

  4. Circulating CXCL16 in Diabetic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Elewa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic kidney disease and, specifically, diabetic kidney disease, is among the fastest increasing causes of death worldwide. A better understanding of the factors contributing to the high mortality may help design novel monitoring and therapeutic approaches. CXCL16 is both a cholesterol receptor and a chemokine with a potential role in vascular injury and inflammation. We aimed at identifying predictors of circulating CXCL16 levels in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: We have now studied plasma CXCL16 in 134 European patients with diabetic kidney disease with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR categories G1-G4 and albuminuria categories A1-A3, in order to identify factors influencing plasma CXCL16 in this population. Results: Plasma CXCL16 levels were 4.0±0.9 ng/ml. Plasma CXCL16 increased with increasing eGFR category from G1 to G4 (that is, with decreasing eGFR values and with increasing albuminuria category. Plasma CXCL16 was higher in patients with prior cardiovascular disease (4.33±1.03 vs 3.88±0.86 ng/ml; p=0.013. In multivariate analysis, eGFR and serum albumin had an independent and significant negative correlation with plasma CXCL16. Conclusion: In diabetic kidney disease patients, GFR and serum albumin independently predicted plasma CXCL16 levels.

  5. Circulating endothelial cells in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Christopher J; Lip, Gregory Y H; Blann, Andrew D

    2006-10-17

    Quantification of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in peripheral blood is developing as a novel and reproducible method of assessing endothelial damage/dysfunction. The CECs are thought to be mature cells that have detached from the intimal monolayer in response to endothelial injury and are a different cell population to endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The EPCs are nonleukocytes derived from the bone marrow that are believed to have proliferative potential and may be important in vascular regeneration. Currently accepted methods of CEC quantification include the use of immunomagnetic bead separation (with cell counting under fluorescence microscopy) and flow cytometry. Several recent studies have shown increased numbers of CECs in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, such as unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and critical limb ischemia, but no change in stable intermittent claudication, essential hypertension, or atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, CEC quantification at 48 h after acute myocardial infarction has been shown to be an accurate predictor of major adverse coronary events and death at both 1 month and 1 year. This article presents an overview of the pathophysiology of CECs in the setting of cardiovascular disease and a brief comparison with EPCs. PMID:17045885

  6. Circulating tumor cells in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel; Pailler, Emma; Billiot, Fanny; Drusch, Françoise; Barthelemy, Amélie; Oulhen, Marianne; Besse, Benjamin; Soria, Jean-Charles; Farace, Françoise; Vielh, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have emerged as potential biomarkers in several cancers such as colon, prostate, and breast carcinomas, with a correlation between CTC number and patient prognosis being established by independent research groups. The detection and enumeration of CTCs, however, is still a developing field, with no universal method of detection suitable for all types of cancer. CTC detection in lung cancer in particular has proven difficult to perform, as CTCs in this type of cancer often present with nonepithelial characteristics. Moreover, as many detection methods rely on the use of epithelial markers to identify CTCs, the loss of these markers during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in certain metastatic cancers can render these methods ineffective. The development of personalized medicine has led to an increase in the advancement of molecular characterization of CTCs. The application of techniques such as FISH and RT-PCR to detect EGFR, HER2, and KRAS abnormalities in lung, breast, and colon cancer, for example, could be used to characterize CTCs in real time. The use of CTCs as a 'liquid biopsy' is therefore an exciting possibility providing information on patient prognosis and treatment efficacy. This review summarizes the state of CTC detection today, with particular emphasis on lung cancer, and discusses the future applications of CTCs in helping the clinician to develop new strategies in patient treatment. PMID:23207444

  7. Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells by Dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. C. Gascoyne

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dielectrophoresis (DEP is an electrokinetic method that allows intrinsic dielectric properties of suspended cells to be exploited for discrimination and separation. It has emerged as a promising method for isolating circulation tumor cells (CTCs from blood. DEP-isolation of CTCs is independent of cell surface markers. Furthermore, isolated CTCs are viable and can be maintained in culture, suggesting that DEP methods should be more generally applicable than antibody-based approaches. The aim of this article is to review and synthesize for both oncologists and biomedical engineers interested in CTC isolation the pertinent characteristics of DEP and CTCs. The aim is to promote an understanding of the factors involved in realizing DEP-based instruments having both sufficient discrimination and throughput to allow routine analysis of CTCs in clinical practice. The article brings together: (a the principles of DEP; (b the biological basis for the dielectric differences between CTCs and blood cells; (c why such differences are expected to be present for all types of tumors; and (d instrumentation requirements to process 10 mL blood specimens in less than 1 h to enable routine clinical analysis. The force equilibrium method of dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (DEP-FFF is shown to offer higher discrimination and throughput than earlier DEP trapping methods and to be applicable to clinical studies.

  8. In Vivo Biomechanics of Human Pulmonary Circulation /

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Tatsuya J.

    2013-01-01

    Gas exchange between inhaled alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood occurs in the lung. The relationship between ventilation and perfusion determines the global efficiency of gas exchange in the lung. The normal healthy lung maintains a regional ventilation-perfusion ratio close to unity, whereas in disease, the regional ventilation-perfusion mismatch results in inefficient gas exchange, leading to arterial hypoxemia. The original research presented in this dissertation focused on factors...

  9. Epileptic seizures in patients with a posterior circulation infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Kaplan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of seizures and the clinical features of patients with seizures related to a posterior circulation infarct (POCI. METHODS: We reviewed all ischemic stroke patients admitted to our clinic between January 2011 and January 2012. The patients’ database information was retrospectively analyzed. Fifty-five patients with a POCI were included in the study. We reviewed all patients with epileptic seizures related to a POCI. Age, gender, recurrent stroke, risk factors, etiology, radiographic localization, the seizure type and onset time, and the electroencephalographic findings of patients were evaluated. We excluded all patients who had precipitating conditions during seizures such as taking drugs, acid-base disturbances, electrolyte imbalance, and history of epilepsy. RESULTS: Seizures were observed in four patients (3 male, 1 female with a POCI related epileptic seizures (7.2%. The etiology of strokes was cardiac-embolic in 3 patients and vertebral artery dissection in 1 patient. Seizures occurred in 2 patients as presenting finding, in 1 patient within 7 days, and 1 patient within 28 days. Primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in 3 patients and simple partial seizures with secondary generalization in 1 patient. Three patients had cerebellum infarction at the left hemisphere. One patient had lateral medullary infarction at the right side. The electroencephalographic findings of patients were normal. CONCLUSION: Studies involving patients with seizures related to a POCI are novel and few in number. Three patients with seizure had cerebellum infarction. The cerebellum in these patients may contribute via different mechanisms over seizure activity.

  10. Lipid composition of circulating multiple-modified low density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiev, E R; Sukhorukov, V N; Melnichenko, A A; Sobenin, I A; Ivanova, E A; Orekhov, A N

    2016-01-01

    Atherogenic modified low- density lipoprotein (LDL) induces pronounced accumulation of cholesterol and lipids in the arterial wall, while native LDL seems to lack such capability. Therefore, modified LDL appears to be a major causative agent in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Possible modifications of LDL particles include changes in size and density, desialylation, oxidation and acquisition of negative charge. Total LDL isolated from pooled plasma of patients with coronary atherosclerosis, as well as from healthy subjects contains two distinct subfractions: normally sialylated LDL and desialylated LDL, which can be isolated by binding to a lectin affinity column. We called the desialylated LDL subfraction circulating modified LDL (cmLDL). In this study, we focused on lipid composition of LDL particles, analysing the total LDL preparation and two LDL subfractions: cmLDL and native LDL. The composition of LDL was studied using thin-layer chromatography. We found that cmLDL subfraction had decreased levels of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids (except for lysophosphatidylcholine) and sphingomyelin in comparison to native LDL. On the other hand, levels of mono-, and diglycerides, lysophosphatidylcholine and free fatty acids were higher in cmLDL than in native LDL. Our study demonstrated that lipid composition of cmLDL from atherosclerotic patients was altered in comparison to healthy subjects. In particular, phospholipid content was decreased, and free fatty acids levels were increased in cmLDL. This strengthens the hypothesis of multiple modification of LDL particles in the bloodstream and underscores the clinical importance of desialylated LDL as a possible marker of atherosclerosis progression. PMID:27558696

  11. V1a vasopressin receptors maintain normal blood pressure by regulating circulating blood volume and baroreflex sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Koshimizu, Taka-aki; Nasa, Yoshihisa; Tanoue, Akito; Oikawa, Ryo; Kawahara, Yuji; Kiyono, Yasushi; ADACHI, TETSUYA; Tanaka, Toshiki; Kuwaki, Tomoyuki; Mori, Toyoki; Takeo, Satoshi; Okamura, Hitoshi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

    2006-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) is a hormone that is essential for both osmotic and cardiovascular homeostasis, and exerts important physiological regulation through three distinct receptors, V1a, V1b, and V2. Although AVP is used clinically as a potent vasoconstrictor (V1a receptor-mediated) in patients with circulatory shock, the physiological role of vasopressin V1a receptors in blood pressure (BP) homeostasis is ill-defined. In this study, we investigated the functional roles of the V1a recept...

  12. Vortex line density in counterflowing He II with laminar and turbulent normal fluid velocity profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Baggaley, A W

    2013-01-01

    Superfluid helium is an intimate mixture of a viscous normal fluid, with continuous vorticity, and an inviscid superfluid, where vorticity is constrained to thin, stable topological defects. One mechanism to generate turbulence in this system is through the application of a heat flux, so called thermal counterflow. Of particular interest is how turbulence in the superfluid responds to both a laminar and turbulent normal fluid in the presence of walls. We model superfluid vortex lines as reconnecting space curves with fixed circulation, and consider both laminar (Poiseuille) and turbulent normal fluid flows in a channel configuration. Using high resolution numerical simulations we show that turbulence in the normal fluid sustains a notably higher vortex line density than a laminar flow with the same mean flow rate. We exam Vinen's relation, $\\sqrt{L}=\\gamma v_{ns}$, between the steady state vortex line density $L$ and the counterflow velocity $v_{ns}$. Our results support the hypothesis that transition to turb...

  13. Automatic Radiometric Normalization of Multitemporal Satellite Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton J.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Schmidt, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The linear scale invariance of the multivariate alteration detection (MAD) transformation is used to obtain invariant pixels for automatic relative radiometric normalization of time series of multispectral data. Normalization by means of ordinary least squares regression method is compared...... normalization, compare favorably with results from normalization from manually obtained time-invariant features....

  14. The construction of normal expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2008-01-01

    and transdisciplinary and draws on a wide range of sociological, anthropological, and economic theories. The empirical basis comprises a combination of statistics, a review of magazine and media coverage, visits to exhibitions, and qualitative interviews. A variety of consumption drivers are identified. Among...... the drivers are the increasing importance of the home as a core identity project and a symbol of the unity of the family, the opportunities for creative work, the convenience of more grooming capacity during the busy family’s rush hours, the perceived need for retreat and indulgence in a hectic everyday life......, and the increased focus on body care and fitness. The contours of the emerging normal expectations are outlined and discussed in an environmental perspective....

  15. Appearance normalization of histology slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicory, Jared; Couture, Heather D; Thomas, Nancy E; Borland, David; Marron, J S; Woosley, John; Niethammer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the plane estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearance across slides and is effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols and counteracting slide fading. The approach is validated against non-prior plane-fitting using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. Results of application of the method to adjustment of faded slides are given, and the effectiveness of the method in aiding statistical classification is shown.

  16. IIH with normal CSF pressures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soh Youn Suh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is a condition of raised intracranial pressure (ICP in the absence of space occupying lesions. ICP is usually measured by lumbar puncture and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure above 250 mm H 2 O is one of the diagnostic criteria of IIH. Recently, we have encountered two patients who complained of headaches and exhibited disc swelling without an increased ICP. We prescribed acetazolamide and followed both patients frequently; because of the definite disc swelling with IIH related symptoms. Symptoms and signs resolved in both patients after they started taking acetazolamide. It is generally known that an elevated ICP, as measured by lumbar puncture, is the most important diagnostic sign of IIH. However, these cases caution even when CSF pressure is within the normal range, that suspicion should be raised when a patient has papilledema with related symptoms, since untreated papilledema may cause progressive and irreversible visual loss.

  17. Chapter 1: Direct Normal Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Daryl R.

    2016-04-15

    This chapter addresses the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the solar resource, the direct solar radiation. It discusses the total or integrated broadband direct beam extraterrestrial radiation (ETR). This total integrated irradiance is comprised of photons of electromagnetic radiation. The chapter also discusses the impact of the atmosphere and its effect upon the direct normal irradiance (DNI) beam radiation. The gases and particulates present in the atmosphere traversed by the direct beam reflect, absorb, and scatter differing spectral regions and proportions of the direct beam, and act as a variable filter. Knowledge of the available broadband DNI beam radiation resource data is essential in designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. Spectral variations in the DNI beam radiation affect the performance of a CPV system depending on the solar cell technology used. The chapter describes propagation and scattering processes of circumsolar radiation (CSR), which includes the Mie scattering from large particles.

  18. Short-term overfeeding increases circulating adiponectin independent of obesity status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Cahill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is an adipose tissue derived hormone which strengthens insulin sensitivity. However, there is little data available regarding the influence of a positive energy challenge (PEC on circulating adiponectin and the role of obesity status on this response. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate how circulating adiponectin will respond to a short-term PEC and whether or not this response will differ among normal-weight(NW, overweight(OW and obese(OB. DESIGN: We examined adiponectin among 64 young men (19-29 yr before and after a 7-day overfeeding (70% above normal energy requirements. The relationship between adiponectin and obesity related phenotypes including; weight, percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, body mass index (BMI, total cholesterol, HDLc, LDLc, glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and β-cell function (HOMA-β were analyzed before and after overfeeding. RESULTS: Analysis of variance (ANOVA and partial correlations were used to compute the effect of overfeeding on adiponectin and its association with adiposity measurements, respectively. Circulating Adiponectin levels significantly increased after the 7-day overfeeding in all three adiposity groups. Moreover, adiponectin at baseline was not significantly different among NW, OW and OB subjects defined by either %BF or BMI. Baseline adiponectin was negatively correlated with weight and BMI for the entire cohort and %TF, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR in OB. However, after controlling for insulin resistance the correlation of adiponectin with weight, BMI and %TF were nullified. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that the protective response of adiponectin is preserved during a PEC regardless of adiposity. Baseline adiponectin level is not directly associated with obesity status and weight gain in response to short-term overfeeding. However, the significant increase of

  19. Identification of circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers for detecting acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhi

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is the most common acute leukemia in adults. The disease is characterized by various cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities with distinct prognoses and gene expression profiles. Emerging evidence has suggested that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs could serve as noninvasive biomarkers for cancer detection; however, little is known about circulating miRNA profiles in AML patients. In this study, a genome-wide serum miRNA expression analysis was performed using Solexa sequencing for initial screen, followed by validation with real-time PCR assays. The analysis was conducted on training and verification sets of serum samples from 140 newly diagnosed AML patients and 135 normal adult donors. After a two-phase selection and validation process, 6 miRNAs, miR-10a-5p, miR-93-5p, miR-129-5p, miR-155-5p, miR-181b-5p and miR-320d, were found to have significantly different expression levels in AML compared with control serum samples. Furthermore, unsupervised clustering analysis revealed the remarkable ability of the 6-miRNA profile to differentiate between AML patients and normal controls. The areas under the ROC curve for the selected miRNAs ranged from 0.8129 to 0.9531. More importantly, miR-181b-5p levels in serum were significantly associated with overall survival. These data demonstrated that the expression patterns of circulating miRNAs were systematically altered in AML and miR-181b-5p may serve as a predictor for overall survival in AML patients.

  20. Heat shock protein 90 is responsible for hyperdynamic circulation in portal hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hua Ai; Zhen Yang; Fa-Zu Qiu; Tong Zhu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To examine the participation of HSP90 in portal hypertensive rat mesentery in vitro.METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and Western-blot were used to examine the expression of HSP90 in mesenteric vasculature. HSP90 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR, and the role of HSP90 in hyperdynamic circulation was examined by in vitro mesenteric perfusion studies.RESULTS: HSP90 was overexpressed in endothelium of mesentery vasculature in animals with experimental portal hypertension induced by partial portal vein ligation (PVL) compared with normal animals. Geldanamycin (GA), a special inhibitor of HsPg0 signaling, attenuated ACh-dependent vasodilation but did not affect vasodilation in response to sodium nitroprusside in normal rats. In PVL animals, the perfused mesentery was hyporesponsive to vasoconstrictor methoxamine. GA significantly potentiated methoxamineinduced vasoconstrictor after PVL.CONCLUSION: HsPg0 plays a key role in NO-dependent hyperdynamic circulation in portal hypertension and provides a novel method for future treatment of portal hypertension.

  1. Relationship between entero-hepatic bile acid circulation and interdigestive migrating myoelectrical activity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Fang; Lei Dong; Wei-Jin Zhang; Jin-Yan Luo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of entero-hepatic bile acid circulation on the inter-digestive migrating myoelectrical complex (MMC) in rats.METHODS: Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups.Three pairs of bipolar silver electrodes were chronically implanted in the antrum, duodenum and jejunum. Three groups of them were ligated around the upper part of common bile duct (CBD). The experiments were performed in conscious and fasting state. The gastrointestinal myoelectrical activity was recorded. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and saline were then perfused into stomachs of two groups with CBD obstruction and the effects of them on the MMC were observed.RESULTS: A typical pattern of MMC was observed in normal fasting rats. MMC of antral and duodenal origin disappeared temporarily in earlier stage of CBD obstruction. While MMC of jejunum origin appeared.increased MMC cycle duration was seen after 4 d in rats with CBD obstruction. The MMC after CBD obstruction was characterized by an increased duration of phase Ⅱ-like activity and decreased duration of phase Ⅰ & Ⅲ activity.Perfusion into stomachs with UDCA resulted in a shorter MMC cycle duration and a longer duration of phase Ⅲ of duodenal origin compared to the normal group.CONCLUSION: Entero-hepatic bile acid circulation initiates inter-digestive MMC of duodenal origin.

  2. Analysis of Skeletal Muscle Torque Capacity and Circulating Ceramides in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunjes, Danielle L.; Dunlop, Mark; Wu, Christina; Jones, Meaghan; Kato, Tomoko S.; Kennel, Peter J.; Armstrong, Hilary F.; Choo, Tse-Hwei; Bartels, Matthew N.; Forman, Daniel E.; Mancini, Donna M.; Schulze, P. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF)-related exercise intolerance is thought to be perpetuated by peripheral skeletal muscle functional, structural, and metabolic abnormalities. We analyzed specific dynamics of muscle contraction in patients with HF compared with healthy, sedentary controls. Methods Isometric and isokinetic muscle parameters were measured in the dominant upper and lower limbs of 45 HF patients and 15 healthy age-matched controls. Measurements included peak torque normalized to body weight, work normalized to body weight, power, time to peak torque, and acceleration and deceleration to maximum strength times. Body morphometry (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan) and circulating fatty acids and ceramides (lipodomics) were analyzed in a subset of subjects (18 HF and 9 controls). Results Extension and flexion time-to-peak torque was longer in the lower limbs of HF patients. Furthermore, acceleration and deceleration times in the lower limbs were also prolonged in HF subjects. HF subjects had increased adiposity and decreased lean muscle mass compared with controls. Decreased circulating unsaturated fatty acids and increased ceramides were found in subjects with HF. Conclusions Delayed torque development suggests skeletal muscle impairments that may reflect abnormal neuromuscular functional coupling. These impairments may be further compounded by increased adiposity and inflammation associated with increased ceramides. PMID:26879888

  3. Radioprotection of normal tissue cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Patrick; Wenz, Frederik; Herskind, Carsten [Heidelberg University, Department of Radiation Oncology Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Improvements of radiotherapy in combination with surgery and systemic therapy have resulted in increased survival rates of tumor patients. However, radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is still dose limiting. Several strategies have been pursued with the goal to develop substances which may prevent or reduce damage to normal tissue. Drugs applied before radiotherapy are called radioprotectors; those given after radiotherapy to reduce long-term effects are radiomitigators. Despite more than 50 years of research, until now only two substances, amifostine and palifermin, have overcome all obstacles of clinical approval and are applied during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer or total body irradiation, respectively. However, better understanding of the cellular pathways involved in radiation response has allowed the development of several highly promising drugs functioning as scavengers of reactive oxygen species or targeting specific molecules involved in regulation of cell death pathways or cell cycle arrest. The present review describes the major targets for radioprotectors or radiomitigators currently tested in clinical trials. (orig.) [German] Verbesserungen in der Radiotherapie in Kombination mit Chirurgie und Chemotherapie fuehrten zu erhoehten Ueberlebensraten von Tumorpatienten. Trotzdem sind Strahlenfolgen am Normalgewebe weiterhin dosislimitierend. Verschiedene Ansaetze wurden verfolgt, um Substanzen zu entwickeln, die Normalgewebstoxizitaeten verhindern oder verringern. Medikamente, die vor der Radiotherapie verabreicht werden, heissen Radioprotektoren, solche die danach gegeben werden, um langfristige Effekte zu reduzieren, Radiomitigatoren. Trotz mehr als 50 Jahre Forschung ueberwanden nur zwei Substanzen, Amifostin und Palifermin, alle Huerden der klinischen Pruefung und sind fuer die Anwendung waehrend der Radiotherapie von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren bzw. bei Ganzkoerperbestrahlung zugelassen. Jedoch erlaubte das bessere Verstaendnis der Signalwege

  4. Multivariate normal-Laplace distribution and processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanichukattu Korakutty Jose

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The normal-Laplace distribution is considered and its properties are discussed. A multivariate normal-Laplace distribution is introduced and its properties are studied. First order autoregressive processes with these stationary marginal distributions are developed and studied. A generalized multivariate normal-Laplace distribution is introduced. Multivariate geometric normal-Laplace distribution and multivariate geometric generalized normal-Laplace distributions are introduced and their properties are studied. Estimation of parameters and some applications are also discussed.

  5. On affine connections in a Riemannian manifold with a circulant metric and two circulant affinor structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuzova, Iva

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper it is considered a class V of 3-dimensional Riemannian manifolds M with a metric g and two affinor tensors q and S. It is defined another metric \\bar{g} in M. The local coordinates of all these tensors are circulant matrices. It is found: 1)\\ a relation between curvature tensors R and \\bar{R} of g and \\bar{g}, respectively; 2)\\ an identity of the curvature tensor R of g in the case when the curvature tensor \\bar{R} vanishes; 3)\\ a relation between the sectional curvature of a 2-section of the type \\{x, qx\\} and the scalar curvature of M.

  6. Use of the Natural Circulation Flow Map for Natural Circulation Systems Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cherubini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to collect and resume the work done to build and develop, at the University of Pisa, an engineering tool related to the natural circulation. After a brief description of the different loop flow regimes in single phase and two phase, the derivation of a suitable tool to judge the NC performance in a generic system is presented. Finally, an extensive comparison among the NC performance of various nuclear power plants having different design is done to show a practical application of the NC flow map.

  7. A study on the baroclinic structure of the abyssal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, De-Hai; Huang, Fei

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, the linear continuously tratified model of the abyssal circulation proposed by Pedlosky (1992) was extended to include the second order term -(γθ zzz ) in the vertical turbulent mixing parameterization of - overline {(w' θ ' )} _z = k_u θ _{zz} - γ θ _{zzz} , in which k v is a vertical diffusion coefficient, and γ is the second order coefficient of turbulent mixing (or simply called γ-term and γ<0 is only allowed). The influence of the γ-term on the baroclinic structure of the abyssal circulation driven by upwelling out of the abyss was investigated. It was found that the γ-term has a noticeable influence on the baroclinic structure of the upwelling driven abyssal circulation. For uniform upwelling, it favors the baroclinic layering of the abyssal circulation in the eastern part of the basin, but prevents the layering in the west. In addition, this parameter was found to decrease the vertically averaging meridional velocity of the abyssal circulation from the west to the east on the southern boundary. For upwelling localized near the eastern boundary, the γ-term favors baroclinic layering of the abyssal circulation in the whole basin. Especially, on the southern boundary the γ-term could strengthen the vertically averaging meridional velocity in the west, but greatly weaken it in the east. The model presented here might be considered as an extension of the Pedlosky baroclinic model of the abyssal circulation.

  8. A STUDY ON THE BAROCLINIC STRUCTURE OF THE ABYSSAL CIRCULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the linear continuously stratified model of the abyssal circulation proposed by Pedlosky (1992) was extended to include the second order term -(γθzzz) in the vertical turbulent mixing parameterization of -(w′θ′)z=kυθzz-γθzzz, in which kυ is a vertical diffusion coefficient, and γ is the second order coefficient of turbulent mixing (or simply called γ-term and γ<0 is only allowed). The influence of the γ-term on the baroclinic structure of the abyssal circulation driven by upwelling out of the abyss was investigated. It was found that the γ-term has a noticeable influence on the baroclinic structure of the upwelling driven abyssal circulation. For uniform upwelling, it favors the baroclinic layering of the abyssal circulation in the eastern part of the basin, but prevents the layering in the west. In addition, this parameter was found to decrease the vertically averaging meridional velocity of the abyssal circulation from the west to the east on the southern boundary. For upwelling localized near the eastern boundary, the γ-term favors baroclinic layering of the abyssal circulation in the whole basin. Especially, on the southern boundary the γ-term could strengthen the vertically averaging meridional velocity in the west, but greatly weaken it in the east. The model presented here might be considered as an extension of the Pedlosky baroclinic model of the abyssal circulation.

  9. Enceladus' Interior: A Liquid Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Dennis L.; Johnson, Torrence; Lunine, Jonathan; Castillo-Rogez, Julie

    We are studying a model for Enceladus' interior in which the water, gas, dust and heat are supplied to the plumes by a relatively deeply circulating brine solution. Data indicates such a source for the erupting material. On the basis of ammonia in the plume gas Waite et al. [1] suggested that the jets might originate from a liquid water region under Enceladus' icy surface. Postberg et al. [2] noted that the presence of ". . . grains that are rich in sodium salts (0.5-2 percent by mass). . . can arise only if the plumes originate from liquid water." Waite et al. [1] also regard the some of the plume chemicals as evidence for interactions with an ice layer presumably overlying the liquid water reservoir. They suggest that this could be in the form of dissociation of clathrate hydrates [3]. Additionally, there is a large heat flow of more than 15 GW [4, 5] coming out of Enceladus' south polar region. We consider a model that brings heat and chemical species up to the surface from a reservoir or "ocean" located below the ice crust that may be many tens of kilometers thick. Water transits to the surface via vertical conduits. The Cassini INMS data suggest that the water has a relatively large gas content of order a few percent. As the water travels upward and the pressure is released, exolving gases form bubbles. Since the bubbly liquid is less dense than the ice, it moves upward. (This part of the model is a variant of the "Perrier Ocean" Europa model of Crawford and Stevenson [6]. A similar model was studied for Ganymede by Murchie and Head [7].) Postberg et al. [2] model the plume eruptions that result from the water, gases, salts, and other chemicals that our circulation model provides. In the near-surface reservoir feeding the plumes, bubbles reaching the surface of the water pop and throw a very fine spray. Some of these very small droplets of brine exit with the plume gas and provide the observed salt-rich dust particles [2]. Much of the water-borne heat is

  10. Snow Hydrology in a General Circulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Susan; Roads, John O.; Glatzmaier, Gary

    1994-08-01

    A snow hydrology has been implemented in an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). The snow hydrology consists of parameterizations of snowfall and snow cover fraction, a prognostic calculation of snow temperature, and a model of the snow mass and hydrologic budgets. Previously, only snow albedo had been included by a specified snow line. A 3-year GCM simulation with this now more complete surface hydrology is compared to a previous GCM control run with the specified snow line, as well as with observations. In particular, the authors discuss comparisons of the atmospheric and surface hydrologic budgets and the surface energy budget for U.S. and Canadian areas.The new snow hydrology changes the annual cycle of the surface moisture and energy budgets in the model. There is a noticeable shift in the runoff maximum from winter in the control run to spring in the snow hydrology run. A substantial amount of GCM winter precipitation is now stored in the seasonal snow pack. Snow cover also acts as an important insulating layer between the atmosphere and the ground. Wintertime soil temperatures are much higher in the snow hydrology experiment than in the control experiment. Seasonal snow cover is important for dampening large fluctuations in GCM continental skin temperature during the Northern Hemisphere winter.Snow depths and snow extent show good agreement with observations over North America. The geographic distribution of maximum depths is not as well simulated by the model due, in part, to the coarse resolution of the model. The patterns of runoff are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to observed patterns of streamflow averaged over the continental United States. The seasonal cycles of precipitation and evaporation are also reasonably well simulated by the model, although their magnitudes are larger than is observed. This is due, in part, to a cold bias in this model, which results in a dry model atmosphere and enhances the hydrologic cycle everywhere.

  11. Snow hydrology in a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Susan; Roads, John O.; Glatzmaier, Gary

    1994-01-01

    A snow hydrology has been implemented in an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). The snow hydrology consists of parameterizations of snowfall and snow cover fraction, a prognostic calculation of snow temperature, and a model of the snow mass and hydrologic budgets. Previously, only snow albedo had been included by a specified snow line. A 3-year GCM simulation with this now more complete surface hydrology is compared to a previous GCM control run with the specified snow line, as well as with observations. In particular, the authors discuss comparisons of the atmospheric and surface hydrologic budgets and the surface energy budget for U.S. and Canadian areas. The new snow hydrology changes the annual cycle of the surface moisture and energy budgets in the model. There is a noticeable shift in the runoff maximum from winter in the control run to spring in the snow hydrology run. A substantial amount of GCM winter precipitation is now stored in the seasonal snowpack. Snow cover also acts as an important insulating layer between the atmosphere and the ground. Wintertime soil temperatures are much higher in the snow hydrology experiment than in the control experiment. Seasonal snow cover is important for dampening large fluctuations in GCM continental skin temperature during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Snow depths and snow extent show good agreement with observations over North America. The geographic distribution of maximum depths is not as well simulated by the model due, in part, to the coarse resolution of the model. The patterns of runoff are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to observed patterns of streamflow averaged over the continental United States. The seasonal cycles of precipitation and evaporation are also reasonably well simulated by the model, although their magnitudes are larger than is observed. This is due, in part, to a cold bias in this model, which results in a dry model atmosphere and enhances the hydrologic cycle everywhere.

  12. Metabolic Rather Than Body Composition Measurements Are Associated With Lower Serum Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations in Normal Weight and Obese Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Nielsen, Søren J; Andersen, Ulrik B;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that obese persons have lower circulating natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations. The cause of the relative NP deficiency seen in obese persons is poorly understood, although variation in body composition and metabolic abnormalities has been suggested to play...... a role. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess whether variation in circulating NP concentrations would be associated with differences in metabolic disturbances rather than with differences in body composition. METHODS: In 27 normal weight men (body mass index (BMI) = 20.0-24.9kg/m(2)) and 103 obese...... weight ± SD was 74.9±6.7kg in the normal weight men and 106.1±10.8kg in obese men. Applying multiple regressions, adjusting for age and weight status (normal weight vs. obese), serum MR-proANP concentrations were significantly inversely associated with serum insulin concentrations (β = -0.39; P

  13. A new barotropic model of the wind-driven circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆华; 曲媛媛; 李坚克

    1999-01-01

    Rationalized by the observational circulation pattern in the upper ocean of the North Pacific, meridional friction term is first incorporated in a barotropic theoretical model of the wind-driven circulation. The governing potential vortieity equation thence has β term and wind stress curl term (the two of the Sverdrup balance), zonal friction term and meridional friction term. The analytical solution satisfactorily captures many important features of the wind-driven circulation in the North Pacific: Kuroshio, Oyashio, Kuroshio extension, North Equatorial Current, and especially the eastern boundary currents in the North Pacific, i.e. California current and Alaska current.

  14. Application of natural circulation systems: advantages and challenges - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of natural circulation systems are provided for advanced light water reactor designs. Design features proposed for the passive advanced light water reactors include the use of passive, gravity-fed water supplies for emergency core cooling and natural circulation decay heat removal from the primary system and the containment, and natural circulation cooling within the core for all conditions. Examples are given from different types of advanced reactor designs for the use of passive safety systems under the operational, transient, and accident conditions. Challenges encountered in the design of passive safety systems for HPLWR are discussed in short, as an example case. (author)

  15. The Role of Eddy-Tansport in the Thermohaline Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paola Cessi

    2011-11-17

    Several research themes were developed during the course of this project. (1) Low-frequency oceanic varibility; (2) The role of eddies in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) region; (3) Deep stratification and the overturning circulation. The key findings were as follows: (1) The stratification below the main thermocline (at about 500m) is determined in the circumpolar region and then communicated to the enclosed portions of the oceans through the overturning circulation. (2) An Atlantic pole-to-pole overturning circulation can be maintained with very small interior mixing as long as surface buoyancy values are shared between the northern North Atlantic and the ACC region.

  16. GENUINE-OPTIMAL CIRCULANT PRECONDITIONERS FOR WIENER-HOPF EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-rong Lin

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the genuine-optimal circulant preconditioner for finitesection Wiener-Hopf equations. The genuine-optimal circulant preconditioner is defined as the minimizer of Hilbert-Schmidt norm over certain integral operators. We prove that the difference between the genuine-optimal circulant preconditioner and the original integral operator is the sum of a small norm operator and a finite rank operator. Thus, the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method, when applied to solve the preconditioned equations, converges superlinearly. Finally, we give an efficient algorithm for the solution of Wiener-Hopf equation discretized by high order quadrature rules.

  17. Gas-cooled reactor coolant circulator and blower technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous 17 meetings held within the framework of the International Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors, a wide variety of topics and components have been addressed, but the San Diego meeting represented the first time that a group of specialists had been convened to discuss circulator and blower related technology. A total of 20 specialists from 6 countries attended the meeting in which 15 technical papers were presented in 5 sessions: circulator operating experience I and II (6 papers); circulator design considerations I and II (6 papers); bearing technology (3 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. 76 FR 12217 - Exempt Discretionary Program Grants (Section 5309) for Urban Circulator Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... program funds for the Urban Circulator program in support of DOT's Livability Initiative, which was... Federal Transit Administration Exempt Discretionary Program Grants (Section 5309) for Urban Circulator Systems AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ] ACTION: Urban Circulator Systems...

  19. Cultivation of rice for animal feed with circulated irrigation of treated municipal wastewater for enhanced nitrogen removal: comparison of cultivation systems feeding irrigation water upward and downward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, A; Ito, H; Sasaki, A; Kajihara, A; Watanabe, T

    2015-01-01

    To achieve enhanced nitrogen removal, we modified a cultivation system with circulated irrigation of treated municipal wastewater by using rice for animal feed instead of human consumption. The performance of this modified system was evaluated through a bench-scale experiment by comparing the direction of circulated irrigation (i.e. passing through paddy soil upward and downward). The modified system achieved more than three times higher nitrogen removal (3.2 g) than the system in which rice for human consumption was cultivated. The removal efficiency was higher than 99.5%, regardless of the direction of circulated irrigation. Nitrogen in the treated municipal wastewater was adsorbed by the rice plant in this cultivation system as effectively as chemical fertilizer used in normal paddy fields. Circulated irrigation increased the nitrogen released to the atmosphere, probably due to enhanced denitrification. Neither the circulation of irrigation water nor its direction affected the growth of the rice plant and the yield and quality of harvested rice. The yield of rice harvested in this system did not reach the target value in normal paddy fields. To increase this yield, a larger amount of treated wastewater should be applied to the system, considering the significant amount of nitrogen released to the atmosphere.

  20. Short stature associated with high circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-1 and low circulating IGF-II: effect of growth hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, A; Bozzola, M; Cesarone, A; Steenbergh, P H; Holthuizen, P E; Severi, F; Giordano, G; Minuto, F

    1998-10-01

    We report a case of short stature associated with high circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-10 and low levels of IGF-II responsive to pharmacological treatment with GH. Our patient suffered severe growth failure from birth (2.06 SD below the mean for normal full-term boys, and 5.2 and 7.3 SD below the mean at 5 and 10 months). Studies carried out before referral to our pediatric unit included normal 46,XY karyotype and normal encephalic imaging. Other endocrine and metabolic alterations and other systemic diseases were excluded. At 1.7 yr of age (length, 6.1 SD; weight, 4.6 SD; head circumference, 1.4 SD below the mean, respectively) the patient was referred to our pediatric unit. The baseline GH concentration was 31 microg/L, and the peak after an arginine load was 59.6 microg/L. In the same samples GH bioactivity was nearly superimposable (RIA/Nb2 bioactivity ratio = 0.9). Fasting insulin and glucose concentrations were 7.4 microU/mL and 65 mg/dL, respectively, both normally responsive to an oral glucose load. GH insensitivity was excluded by a basal IGF-I concentration (64 ng/mL) in the normal range for 0- to 5-yr-old boys and its increase after 2 IU/day hGH administration for 4 days. IGFBP-3 (0.5 microg/mL) was slightly reduced, whereas IGFBP-1 (2218 and 1515 ng/mL in two different basal samples) was well above the normal values for age and was suppressible by GH (maximum suppression, -77% at 84 h) and glucose load (maximum suppression, -46% at 150 min). The basal IGF-II concentration was below the normal range (86 ng/mL), whereas IGFBP-2 was normal (258 ng/mL). Analysis of the promoter region of IGFBP-1 and IGF-II failed to find major alterations. Neutral gel filtration of serum showed that almost all IGF-I activity was in the 35- to 45-kDa complex, coincident with IGFBP-1 peak, while the 150-kDa complex was absent, although the acid-labile subunit was normally represented. At 2.86 yr (height, 65.8 cm; height SD score

  1. A very high resolution general circulation model simulation of the global circulation in austral winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hamilton, K.; Wilson, R.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1997-04-15

    This paper discusses a simulation obtained with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory {open_quotes}SKYHI{close_quotes} troposphere-stratosphere-mesosphere general circulation model run at very high horizontal resolution ({approximately}60-km grid spacing) and without any parameterization of subgrid-scale gravity wave drag. The results are for a period around the austral winter solstice, and the emphasis is on the simulated Southern Hemisphere (SH) winter circulation. Comparisons are made with results obtained from lower horizontal resolutions versions of the same model. The focus in this paper is on two particularly striking features of the high-resolution simulation; the extratropical surface winds and the winter polar middle atmospheric vortex. In the extratropical SH, the simulated surface westerlies and meridional surface pressure gradients in the high-resolution model are considerably stronger than observed and are stronger than those simulated at lower horizontal resolution. In the middle atmosphere, the high-resolution model produces a simulation of the zonal mean winter polar vortex that is considerably improved over that found with lower resolution models (although it is still significantly affected by the usual cold pole bias). Neither the improvement of the middle atmospheric polar vortex simulation nor the deterioration of the simulating of surface winds with increased model resolution shows a clear convergence, even at the {approximately}60-km grid spacing employed here. 29 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Circulating microRNAs in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Margherita; Piscopo, Paola; Crestini, Alessio; Confaloni, Annamaria; Denti, Michela A

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are caused by a combination of events that impair normal neuronal function. Although they are considered different disorders, there are overlapping features among them from the clinical, pathological, and genetic points of view. Synaptic dysfunction and loss, neurite retraction, and the appearance of other abnormalities such as axonal transport defects normally precede the neuronal loss that is a relatively late event. The diagnosis of many neurodegenerative diseases is mainly based on patient's cognitive function analysis, and the development of diagnostic methods is complicated by the brain's capacity to compensate for neuronal loss over a long period of time. This results in the late clinical manifestation of symptoms, a time when successful treatment is no longer feasible. Thus, a noninvasive diagnostic method based on early events detection is particularly important. In the last years, some biomarkers expressed in human body fluids have been proposed. microRNAs (miRNAs), with their high stability, tissue- or cell type-specific expression, lower cost, and shorter time in the assay development, could constitute a good tool to obtain an early disease diagnosis for a wide number of human pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases. The possibilities and challenges of using these small RNA molecules as a signature for neurodegenerative disorders is a highly promising approach for developing minimally invasive screening tests and to identify new therapeutic targets.

  3. Familial idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Joel; Kastinen, Sami; Komulainen, Simo; Oinas, Minna; Avellan, Cecilia; Frantzen, Janek; Rinne, Jaakko; Ronkainen, Antti; Kauppinen, Mikko; Lönnrot, Kimmo; Perola, Markus; Pyykkö, Okko T; Koivisto, Anne M; Remes, Anne M; Soininen, Hilkka; Hiltunen, Mikko; Helisalmi, Seppo; Kurki, Mitja; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Leinonen, Ville

    2016-09-15

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a late-onset surgically alleviated, progressive disease. We characterize a potential familial subgroup of iNPH in a nation-wide Finnish cohort of 375 shunt-operated iNPH-patients. The patients were questionnaired and phone-interviewed, whether they have relatives with either diagnosed iNPH or disease-related symptomatology. Then pedigrees of all families with more than one iNPH-case were drawn. Eighteen patients (4.8%) from 12 separate pedigrees had at least one shunt-operated relative whereas 42 patients (11%) had relatives with two or more triad symptoms. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, familial iNPH-patients had up to 3-fold risk of clinical dementia compared to sporadic iNPH patients. This risk was independent from diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and APOE ε4 genotype. This study describes a familial entity of iNPH offering a novel approach to discover the potential genetic characteristics of iNPH. Discovered pedigrees offer an intriguing opportunity to conduct longitudinal studies targeting potential preclinical signs of iNPH. PMID:27538594

  4. Normalization of emotion control scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatoolah Tahmasebian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion control skill teaches the individuals how to identify their emotions and how to express and control them in various situations. The aim of this study was to normalize and measure the internal and external validity and reliability of emotion control test. Methods: This standardization study was carried out on a statistical society, including all pupils, students, teachers, nurses and university professors in Kermanshah in 2012, using Williams’ emotion control scale. The subjects included 1,500 (810 females and 690 males people who were selected by stratified random sampling. Williams (1997 emotion control scale, was used to collect the required data. Emotional Control Scale is a tool for measuring the degree of control people have over their emotions. This scale has four subscales, including anger, depressed mood, anxiety and positive affect. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using correlation and Cronbach's alpha tests. Results: The results of internal consistency of the questionnaire reported by Cronbach's alpha indicated an acceptable internal consistency for emotional control scale, and the correlation between the subscales of the test and between the items of the questionnaire was significant at 0.01 confidence level. Conclusion: The validity of emotion control scale among the pupils, students, teachers, nurses and teachers in Iran has an acceptable range, and the test itemswere correlated with each other, thereby making them appropriate for measuring emotion control.

  5. Stress inhibits PYY secretion in obese and normal weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessl, Gundula R R; Laessle, Reinhold G

    2016-06-01

    The impact of stress on circulating levels of appetite-regulating hormones remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) secretion in obese and normal weight women. Therefore, we compared pre- and post-prandial plasma PYY secretion of 42 obese and 43 normal weight women in a repeated measure randomized controlled laboratory experiment. PYY and cortisol concentrations were measured and ratings of stress and satiety were also recorded in response to a psychological stressor (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). PYY samples were collected in the fasting state both before participating in the TSST and before a control session. Participants had a standardized meal after the TSST and control session, respectively. PYY was measured both 30 and 60 min after the TSST and control session, respectively. Stress inhibited PYY secretion as well as food intake in all women, but did not influence subjective satiety perception. The present data indicate that despite of lower PYY levels the subjects' requirement to overeat was not increased. From an evolutionary perspective this finding is adaptive. After stress the organism is prepared for fight or flight reaction, whereas not primarily necessary functions are inhibited. Therefore, increased food intake during stress would be dysfunctional. PMID:26497508

  6. Otic artery: a review of normal and pathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasović, Ljiljana; Arsić, Stojanka; Vlajković, Slobodan; Jovanović, Ivan; Jovanović, Predrag; Ugrenović, Sladjana; Andjelković, Zlatibor

    2010-05-01

    Three primitive arteries - the trigeminal, otic and hypoglossal take the names according to their close relation with the V, VIII and XII cranial nerves, while at the cervical level, the first segmental artery is named the primitive proatlantal intersegmental artery. When the human embryo is 4 mm long, these arteries serve as transitory anastomoses between primitive internal carotid arteries and bilateral longitudinal neural arterial plexus, which is the precursor of future basilar artery. Normal and/or abnormal morphofunctional aspects of the prenatal and postnatal forms of the otic artery are described according to the personal and literature data. Many (ab) normal arteries are also noted in differential diagnosis of the otic artery. Postnatally, individual incidence rates of the carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses have been found to be inversely related to their order of disappearance. The persistent trigeminal artery has a reported incidence from 0.06-0.6%, whereas the persistent primitive otic artery has been convincingly documented only in minor rates. Persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses between the anterior and posterior cranial circulation are important to recognize during angiography for endovascular and surgical planning. Most frequently, the otic artery was an incidental finding. PMID:20424561

  7. Experimental Study on an On-Line Measurement of High Temperature Circulating Ash Flux in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Xiaofeng; Li Yourong

    2001-01-01

    A new kind of measuring method that may be used to measure high temperature circulating solid particles flux in a circulating fluidized bed boiler is studied in this paper. The measuring method is founded on the principle of thermal equilibrium. A series of cold tests and hot tests were carried to optimize the structure and collocation of water-cooling tubes and showed that the method had the advantage of simple, accurate, reliable and good applicability for on-line usage in a circulating fluidized bed boiler.

  8. Pyrite Recrystallization Experiments With Circulating Hydrothermal Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, H.; Abe, A.; Tanaka, K.

    2007-12-01

    Pyrite is one of the most common sulfide minerals found in hydrothermal deposits and sea-floor sediments from hydrothermal fumaroles. Hydrothermal fluid flow plays an important role in crystallization of sulfide minerals. In this study, we tried to reproduce pyrite crystallization with one-way flowing hydrothermal fluid. We designed a circuit circulating hydrothermal fluid by thermal convection. A rectangular circuit (42.6 cm by 17.3 cm) of SUS316 pressure tubes with 5 mm in inner diameter was used as a reaction vessel. In the circuit, pyrite dissolves to acidic fluid in upstream region. Then, pyrite will crystallize again in downstream region as temperature decreases. The rectangular plane was held to be 20 degrees inclination to generate thermal convection. One of the long sides of the rectangular was heated by an electric furnace. Starting materials were put in a tube to be heated. Upper half, approximately 20 cm, of the tube was filled with quartz sand. Next quarter was filled with equivalent mass mixture of quartz sand and powdered pyrite crystals. The lowest quarter was filled with mixture of quartz sand, pyrite, anhydrite and sulfur, those mass are equivalent. The solution was a mixture of 0.5mol/l HCl and 3.0mol/l NaCl. Maximum temperature was controlled to approximately 350°C at the center of the heated tube. Experimental durations were up to 9 days. Fluid pressure increased to approximately 6 MPa as heating. After the experiments, the run products were fixed with resin in a sample tube, and vertical sections were observed by SEM. In the run products, pyrite dissolved at the lower part of the starting material. In the upper half of the sample tube, pyrite crystals precipitated on quartz surface. Crystallization density depends on temperature gradient of the fluid. Predominant morphology of the pyrite crystals consists (100) plains. Tiny framboidal aggregates and crystals with (210) plains also occur. In the run products of longer than 3 days run durations

  9. Circulating mesenchymal stem cells and their clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is a new cell source for tissue regeneration and tissue engineering. The characteristics of circulating MSCs are similar to those of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs, but they exist at a very low level in healthy individuals. It has been demonstrated that MSCs are able to migrate to the sites of injury and that they have some distinct genetic profiles compared to BM-MSCs. The current review summaries the basic knowledge of circulating MSCs and their potential clinical applications, such as mobilizing the BM-MSCs into circulation for therapy. The application of MSCs to cure a broad spectrum of diseases is promising, such as spinal cord injury, cardiovascular repair, bone and cartilage repair. The current review also discusses the issues of using of allogeneic MSCs for clinical therapy.

  10. Diagnostic value of circulating tumor cells in cerebrospinal fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Mu; Chunhua Ma; Rong Jiang; Yuan Lv; Jinduo Li; Bin Wang; Liwei Sun

    2016-01-01

    To assess circulating tumor cells in cerebrospinal fluid as a diagnostic approach to identify meningeal metastasis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer by using tumor marker immunostaining–fluorescence in situ hybridization (TM-iFISH).

  11. Diagnostic technologies for circulating tumour cells and exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Huilin; Chung, Jaehoon; Issadore, David

    2015-11-24

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and exosomes are promising circulating biomarkers. They exist in easily accessible blood and carry large diversity of molecular information. As such, they can be easily and repeatedly obtained for minimally invasive cancer diagnosis and monitoring. Because of their intrinsic differences in counts, size and molecular contents, CTCs and exosomes pose unique sets of technical challenges for clinical translation-CTCs are rare whereas exosomes are small. Novel technologies are underway to overcome these specific challenges to fully harness the clinical potential of these circulating biomarkers. Herein, we will overview the characteristics of CTCs and exosomes as valuable circulating biomarkers and their associated technical challenges for clinical adaptation. Specifically, we will describe emerging technologies that have been developed to address these technical obstacles and the unique clinical opportunities enabled by technological innovations.

  12. Circulation and geostrophic transport in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.

    Utilising the hydrographic data collected during the early northeast monsoon of 1983 and southwest monsoon of 1984, the circulation of waters of the Bay of Bengal and the associated volume transport have been studied in the upper 1000 m...

  13. Encryption of Data using Elliptic Curve over Circulant Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Amounas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the properties of circulant matrices are combining with elliptic curve to provide an analogue of ElGamal cryptosystem for encrypting/decrypting process. More precisely, we establish an algorithm to generate data matrix based on elliptic curve, which is randomized by using traversing process. Then, we apply the encryption/decryption technique based on circulant matrices. In the present work the output of ECC algorithm is provided with circulant matrices. Our scheme is secure against most of the current attacking mechanisms. Further, this paper attemps to utilize the properties of circulant matrices in encryption and decryption process with more efficient. The steps of the implementation of our algorithm are also investigated

  14. [Caecal volvulus after heart surgery with artificial circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostelev, A N; Kuznetsov, A M; Chzhao, A V

    2016-01-01

    Presented herein is a description of a rare complication, i.e. caecal volvulus, after heart surgery. This case report illustrates difficulty of diagnosis of abdominal organs complications after artificial circulation and necessity of active surgical policy. PMID:27336350

  15. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin and its subfractions in patients with adult coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciclitira, P.J.; Ellis, H.J. (Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)); Evans, D.J. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1983-08-26

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of circulating antibody titres to wheat gliadin is described. Using this assay, the authors have measured antibody titres to unfractionated gliadin in normal healthy controls, in coeliac patients on a gluten-free or a normal diet, and in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. High titres of antibodies to unfractionated gliadin were observed only in the patients with untreated coeliac disease. Antibody titres to ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.. and ..omega.. gliadin subfractions were measured in patients with untreated coeliac disease and compared with titres in normal controls. Patients with untreated coeliac disease had higher antibody titres to the gliadin subfractions. No specific pattern of circulating antibody titres to gliadin subfractions was observed in the untreated coeliac patients which would provide a diagnostic profile. These results suggest shared antigenicity between the gliadin subfractions.

  16. Global thermohaline circulation. Part II: Sensitivity with interactive atmospheric transports

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X.; Stone, P.; Marotzke, J.

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid coupled ocean-atmosphere model is used to investigate the stability of the thermohaline circulation (THC) to an increase in the surface freshwater forcing in the presence of interactive meridional transports in the atmosphere. The ocean component is the idealized global general circulation model used in Part I. The atmospheric model assumes fixed latitudinal structure of the heat and moisture transports, and the amplitudes are calculated separately for each hemisphere from the large-...

  17. Computation of the q -th roots of circulant matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakizeh Mohammadi Khanghah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper‎, ‎we investigate the reduced form of circulant matrices‎ ‎and we show that the problem of computing the $q$-th roots of a‎ ‎nonsingular circulant matrix $A$ can be reduced to that of computing‎ ‎the $q$-th roots of two half size matrices $B-C$ and $B+C$. 

  18. Circulating osteogenic cells: implications for injury, repair, and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pignolo, Robert J; Kassem, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a critical reading of recent literature pertaining to the presence of circulating, fluid-phase osteoblastic cells and their possible contribution to bone formation. We have termed this group of cells collectively as circulating osteogenic precursor (COP) cells....... We present evidence for their existence, methods used for their isolation and identification, possible physiological and pathophysiological roles, cellular origins, and possible mechanisms for their migration to target tissues....

  19. Ageing in rural China: migration and care circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jieyu

    2016-01-01

    This article applies the concept of care circulation (Baldassar and Merla, Transnational families, migration and the circulation of care: understanding mobility and absence in family life, 2013) to the processes involved in the care of old people in rural China,an area which has hitherto been predominantly located in a quantitatively based intergenerational transfer framework. Drawing upon a qualitative study of rural families in the context of rural to urban migration, this article examines ...

  20. The global Meridional Overturning Circulation's response to variable buoyancy forcing

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    The meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is a large-scale circulation throughout the global ocean and plays a significant role in the complex global climate system. However, our traditional understanding of the processes driving the MOC has been questioned in recent years. In particular, it has been suggested that surface buoyancy forcing plays little energetic role in driving the MOC. Furthermore, doubt has also been cast over the relationship between meridional overturning and meridiona...

  1. Fasudil inhibits the myogenic response in the fetal pulmonary circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tourneux, Pierre; Chester, Marc; Grover, Theresa; Abman, Steven H.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and low pulmonary blood flow, the fetal pulmonary circulation is characterized by mechanisms that oppose vasodilation. Past work suggests that high myogenic tone contributes to high PVR and may contribute to autoregulation of blood flow in the fetal lung. Rho-kinase (ROCK) can mediate the myogenic response in the adult systemic circulation, but whether high ROCK activity contributes to the myogenic response and modulates time-dependent v...

  2. Monitoring coastal water properties and current circulation with ERTS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V.; Otley, M.; Wethe, C.; Rogers, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Imagery and digital tapes from nine successful ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay during different portions of the tidal cycle were analyzed with special emphasis on turbidity, current circulation, waste disposal plumes, and convergent boundaries between different water masses. ERTS-1 image radiance correlated well with Secchi depth and suspended sediment concentration. Circulation patterns observed by ERTS-1 during different parts of the tidal cycle, agreed well with predicted and measured currents throughout Delaware Bay.

  3. The Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and climate experiment (SPICE)

    OpenAIRE

    Ganachaud, Alexandre; Cravatte, Sophie; A. Melet; Schiller, A.; Holbrook, N J; Sloyan, B.M.; Widlansky, M.J.; Bowen, M; Verron, J.; Wiles, P; K. Ridgway; Sutton, P.; Sprintall, J.; Steinberg, C.; Brassington, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) is an international research program under the auspices of CLIVAR. The key objectives are to understand the Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) dynamics, as well as their influence on regional and basin-scale climate patterns. South Pacific thermocline waters are transported in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC) toward Australia and Papua-New Guinea. On its way...

  4. Diagnostic technologies for circulating tumour cells and exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Huilin; Chung, Jaehoon; Issadore, David

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and exosomes are promising circulating biomarkers. They exist in easily accessible blood and carry large diversity of molecular information. As such, they can be easily and repeatedly obtained for minimally invasive cancer diagnosis and monitoring. Because of their intrinsic differences in counts, size and molecular contents, CTCs and exosomes pose unique sets of technical challenges for clinical translation–CTCs are rare whereas exosomes are small. Novel techn...

  5. Minor effect of meltwater on the ocean circulation during deglaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lohmann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Decaying Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during deglaciation affect the high latitude hydrological balance in the North Atlantic and therefore the ocean circulation after the Last Glacial Maximum. Surprisingly, geological data suggest that meltwater fluxes of about 14–20 m sea-level equivalent flushed into the North Atlantic without significantly influencing the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Using a three-dimensional ocean circulation model coupled to an energy balance model of the atmosphere, we investigate the response of the ocean circulation to spatio-temporal variable deglacial freshwater discharges. Freshwater inputs are simulated by a three-dimensional thermo-mechanical ice sheet model of the Northern Hemisphere. In our experiments, we find a strong sensitivity of the ocean circulation when the deglacial meltwater is injected into the surface layers yielding a quasi shut-down. On the other hand, the parameterization of huge sub-glacial outbursts as so-called hyperpycnal flows are mimicked through bottom injections in ocean models leading to a reduced sensitivity of the overturning circulation against freshwater perturbations and providing a consistent representation of the deglacial climate evolution.

  6. Modelling the Seasonal Overturning Circulation in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2015-04-01

    The overturning circulation in the Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonally reversing pattern and is studied using 50-year, high-resolution MIT general circulation model simulations. The seasonal water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is successfully simulated, and the structures of the intruding subsurface Gulf of Aden intermediate water are in good agreement with summer observations in 2011. The model results suggest that the summer overturning circulation is driven by the combined effect of the shoaling of the thermocline in the Gulf of Aden resulting from remote winds in the Arabian Sea and an upward surface slope from the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden set up by local surface winds in the Red Sea. For the winter overturning circulation, the climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24°N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation.

  7. Normal serum levels of immune complexes in postpolio patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Melin

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: There was no increase in circulating immune complex or in tumor necrosis factor-inducing effects of circulating immune complex between postpolio patients and healthy controls, indicating that the postpolio syndrome is not due to an autoimmune reaction.

  8. Evolution of fault permeability during episodic fluid circulation: Evidence for the effects of fluid-rock interactions from travertine studies (Utah-USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frery, Emanuelle; Gratier, Jean-Pierre; Ellouz-Zimmerman, Nadine; Loiselet, Christelle; Braun, Jean; Deschamps, Pierre; Blamart, Dominique; Hamelin, Bruno; Swennen, Rudy

    2015-05-01

    Faults are known to be important pathways for fluid circulation within the crust. The transfer properties along faults can evolve over time and space. The Little Grand Wash and Salt Wash normal faults, located on the Colorado Plateau, are well known examples of natural CO2 leakage systems from depth to surface. Previous studies dated and established a chronology of CO2-enriched fluid source migration along the fault traces and linked the aragonite veins observed close to Crystal Geyser to CO2-pulses. However, multiple circulation events recorded along a given fault segment deserve to be studied in minute detail in order to unravel the chronology of these events, precipitation processes and associated mechanisms. A combination of structural geology, petrography, U/Th dating, oxygen and carbon isotope analysis were used to study the fault related CO2-enriched paleo-circulations in order to build a conceptual model of CO2-circulation along the faults. This study resulted in the precise descriptions of the features attesting CO2-enriched fluid circulation by a characterization of their relationship and architecture at the outcrop scale. These features are witnesses of a large range of circulation/sealing mechanisms, as well as changes in fluid chemistry and thermodynamic state of the system, providing evidence for (i) the evolution of the fluid through a pathway from depth to the surface and (ii) different cycles of fault opening and sealing. Large circulation events linked with fault opening/sealing are observed and calibrated in nature with millennial circulation and sealing time-lapses. Numerical modelling indicates that such sealing timescale can be explained by the introduction of a fault sealing factor that allows modifying permeability with time and that is calibrated by the natural observations.

  9. Completely normal elements in finite abelian extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Koo, Ja Kung

    2011-01-01

    We give a completely normal element in the maximal real subfield of a cyclotomic field over the field of rational numbers, which is different from that of Okada. This result is a consequence of the criterion for a normal element developed in [Normal bases of ray class fields over imaginary quadratic fields, Math. Zeit.]. Furthermore, we find a completely normal element in certain extension of modular function fields in terms of a quotient of the modular discriminant function.

  10. Euler Characteristic and Quadrilaterals of Normal Surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tejas Kalelkar

    2008-05-01

    Let be a compact 3-manifold with a triangulation . We give an inequality relating the Euler characteristic of a surface normally embedded in with the number of normal quadrilaterals in . This gives a relation between a topological invariant of the surface and a quantity derived from its combinatorial description. Secondly, we obtain an inequality relating the number of normal triangles and normal quadrilaterals of , that depends on the maximum number of tetrahedrons that share a vertex in .

  11. Pseudo--Normals for Signed Distance Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The face normals of triangular meshes have long been used to determine whether a point is in- or outside of a given mesh. However, since normals are a differential entity they are not defined at the vertices and edges of a mesh. The latter causes problems in general algorithms for determining the...... mesh. Moreover, our result is an additional argument for the angle weighted pseudo--normals being the natural extension of the face normals....

  12. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of, and addition to, Rate Base. (1) The rate base of an interstate pipeline using tax normalization... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax normalization. 154... Changes § 154.305 Tax normalization. (a) Applicability. An interstate pipeline must compute the income...

  13. Seasonal circulations in the Malay Peninsula Eastern continental shelf from a wave-tide-circulation coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangang, Fredolin T.; Xia, Changsui; Qiao, Fangli; Juneng, Liew; Shan, Feng

    2011-09-01

    A wave-tide-circulation coupled model based on Princeton Ocean Model is established to study the seasonal circulation in the Malay Peninsula Eastern Continental Shelf region. The model successfully reconstructs the observed seasonal variation of the circulation in the region, as well as the main currents. The simulated tidal harmonic constants, sea surface temperature, and sea surface height anomaly agree with the observations well. The model results show that the upper-layer circulation in the region is mainly controlled by the monsoon winds, while there are two transitions in spring and fall. An anti-cyclonic eddy is present off the Peninsular Malaysia's east coast in summer, centered at 5°N and 105.5°E, both in the TOPEX/Poseidon data and in the model. Numerical experiments show that the wind stress curl and bathymetry steering are responsible for its formation.

  14. Adult patients with Fontan circulation: What we know and how to manage adults with Fontan circulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuchi, Hideo

    2016-09-01

    Most of patients after the Fontan operation can reach their adulthood, however, the management strategy for this complex pathophysiology has not been yet established. In general, elevated central venous pressure (CVP) and low cardiac output (CO) due to impaired ventricular preload characterize the Fontan circulation and the ideal hemodynamics could be a combination of a lower CVP with a higher CO. Thus, preserved functional systemic ventricle with low pulmonary artery resistance is thought to be crucial for better long-term outcome. However, on the other hand, because of the unique hemodynamics, these patients have significantly higher incidence of complications, sequelae, and even mortality. The major complications are supraventricular arrhythmias, heart failure, and Fontan-related problems, including protein-losing enteropathy and pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae, both of which are refractory to the treatments, and most of these "Fontan inconveniences" increase as patients age. In addition, one of the recent emerging problems is Fontan-associated liver disease that includes liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, women with Fontan circulation also reach childbearing age and there have been increasing numbers of reports showing a high incidence of pregnancy-associated complications. All these problems may be a part of "Fontan inconveniences" because most of the current Fontan patients are still "young" i.e. in their twenties or thirties and it may be not surprising that more new Fontan-associated pathophysiology emerges as patients age. Recent evidence reminds us of the concept that adult Fontan pathophysiology is not just a cardiovascular disease, rather, a multiorgan disease with many interactions between cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular organs. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory to take care of and anticipate the better long-term outcome. PMID:27134136

  15. Inhibitor of DNA synthesis is present in normal chicken serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (570C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in 3H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of 3H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both 3H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines

  16. Significance of the normalized seasonality of wind field and its rationality for characterizing the monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The significance of the normalized seasonality of wind field is theoretically studied and the intrinsic relationship between its critical value and the definition of the monsoon region is revealed. As a result, the rationality which the monsoon region is characterized by the significant normalized seasonality is proved. Based on this, by use of the NECP/NCAR reanalysis data during 1958-1997, the spatial structure of the significant normalized seasonality of wind field is investigated, and the significant baroclinity of the seasonal variation of the atmospheric general circulation in the vertical direction is verified. Moreover, in the tropics there exists an anti-symmetric distribution between the significant seasonality in the eastern hemisphere and that in the western hemisphere, and the monsoon is linked closely to some important systems such as the subtropical highs, the night jet and the west wind channels.

  17. An analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabe, Hideo; Nagai, Hajime (Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Banno, Tatsuo

    1994-07-01

    Using a cine mode technique and a gradient-echo magnetic resonance (MR) sequencing, the MR signal intensity of the aqueduct has been evaluated in twelve patients suspected of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). In patients with a substantial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation disturbance in the subarachnoid space, marked changes in the signal intensity of the aqueduct were seen during heart cycles, whereas in patients with less of a CSF circulation disturbance, changes in the signal intensity of the aqueduct were not as marked. Further, all patients manifesting marked changes in the signal intensity of the aqueduct showed a clinical improvement in their symptoms after undergoing a shunt. These results suggest that cine-mode MRI is useful for assessing the CSF dynamics and may be helpful in selecting patients who would benefit from shunt therapy. (author).

  18. Relationship between North American winter temperature and large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies and its decadal variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B.; Lin, H.; Wu, Z. W.; Merryfield, W. J.

    2016-07-01

    The interannual relationship between North American (NA) winter temperature and large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies and its decadal variation are analyzed. NA temperature anomalies are dominated by two leading maximum covariance analysis (MCA) modes of NA surface temperature and Northern Hemisphere 500 hPa geopotential anomalies. A new teleconnection index, termed the Asian-Bering-North American (ABNA) pattern, is constructed from the normalized geopotential field after linearly removing the contribution of the Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern. The ABNA pattern is sustained by synoptic eddy forcing. The first MCA mode of NA surface temperature is highly correlated with the PNA and ABNA teleconnections, and the second mode with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). This indicates that NA temperature is largely controlled by these three large-scale atmospheric patterns, i.e., the PNA, ABNA and NAO. These temperature-circulation relationships appear stationary in the 20th century.

  19. MR guided spatial normalization of SPECT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In SPECT population studies where magnetic resonance (MR) scans are also available, the higher resolution of the MR scans allows for an improved spatial normalization of the SPECT scans. In this approach, the SPECT images are first coregistered to their corresponding MR images by a linear (affine) transformation which is calculated using SPM's mutual information maximization algorithm. Non-linear spatial normalization maps are then computed either directly from the MR scans using SPM's built in spatial normalization algorithm, or, from segmented TI MR images using DARTEL, an advanced diffeomorphism based spatial normalization algorithm. We compare these MR based methods to standard SPECT based spatial normalization for a population of 27 fibromyalgia patients and 25 healthy controls with spin echo T1 scans. We identify significant perfusion deficits in prefrontal white matter in FM patients, with the DARTEL based spatial normalization procedure yielding stronger statistics than the standard SPECT based spatial normalization. (author)

  20. DEFORMATION OF MOISTURE FLUX CIRCULATION SURROUNDING THE LANDFALL TYPHOON "BILIS"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Ling-kun; YANG Wen-xia; HONG Yan-chao

    2009-01-01

    The deformation parameter (DP), which is defined as the product of shear deformation and stretching deformation of moisture flux circulation, is introduced. The tendency equation of DP is derived in pressure coordinates. Furthermore, DP is used to diagnose the deformation character of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis. The analysis showed that before Bilis landed, DP presented eight abnormal areas, which distributed alternately and closely encircled the low-pressure center. This indicated that the moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis rotated counterclockwise and stretched longitudinally and latitudinally to deform. After Bilis landed, DP weakened gradually and its regular pattern of horizontal distribution loosened. The shear and stretching deformations of moisture flux circulation surrounding Bilis weakened after the typhoon landed. The deformation of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis mainly appeared in the middle-lower troposphere. There existed 1/2 phase difference between the shear and stretching deformations in the vertical-latitudinal cross section and a π/4 phase difference between them on the horizontal plane. As Bilis landed and further moved inland of China, the intensities of DP, shear and stretching deformations decreased, meanwhile their vertical and horizontal structures became irregular. The chief dynamic factors responsible for the deformation of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis were the three terms associated with the three-dimensional advection transportation of DP, square difference between shear and stretching deformations coupling with Coriolis parameter, and horizontal gradient of geopotential height before Bilis landed. The last two dynamic factors impacted jointly on the deformation of moisture flux circulation after Bilis landed.

  1. The Congo Basin Walker circulation: dynamics and connections to precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kerry H.; Vizy, Edward K.

    2016-08-01

    The existence, seasonality, and variability of a Congo Basin Walker circulation are investigated in reanalyses, and connections with rainfall are explored. A zonal overturning circulation along the equator connects rising motion in the Congo Basin and sinking in the eastern Atlantic during June through October. This timing is out of phase with precipitation over equatorial Africa, which greatest during spring and fall, and does not correlate with the seasonality of land temperatures. Rather, the zonally-overturning circulation only occurs when the Atlantic cold tongue has formed. Although the cold tongue formation is essential for setting up the Congo Basin Walker circulation, variations in equatorial eastern Atlantic sea surface temperatures are not associated with interannual variability in the strength of the circulation. When cold tongue SSTs are anomalously cool (warm), evaporation from the ocean surface is reduced (enhanced) and the westerly flow advects less (more) moisture into the base of the Congo Basin Walker circulation. This reduces (increases) the release of latent heat in the upbranch and weakens (strengthens) the Walker circulation. This process dominates the pure dry dynamical response to enhanced land/sea temperature differences, which has an opposite sign. A positive correlation connects low-level vertical velocity in the Congo basin with low-level vertical velocity and precipitation over West Africa. A wave response to anomalous vertical velocity in the Congo Basin in several reanalyses suggests a teleconnection into West Africa such that an anomalously strong (weak) upbranch is associated with anomalously strong (weak) rainfall over the Guinean coast and southern Sahel.

  2. Characterization of quantum circulant networks having perfect state transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bašić, Milan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we answer the question of when circulant quantum spin networks with nearest-neighbor couplings can give perfect state transfer. The network is described by a circulant graph G, which is characterized by its circulant adjacency matrix A. Formally, we say that there exists a perfect state transfer (PST) between vertices {a,bin V(G)} if | F( τ) ab | = 1, for some positive real number τ, where F( t) = exp(i At). Saxena et al. (Int J Quantum Inf 5:417-430, 2007) proved that | F( τ) aa | = 1 for some {ain V(G)} and {tauin {R}^+} if and only if all eigenvalues of G are integer (that is, the graph is integral). The integral circulant graph ICG n ( D) has the vertex set Z n = {0, 1, 2, . . . , n - 1} and vertices a and b are adjacent if {gcd(a-b,n)in D} , where {D subseteq {d : d mid n, 1 ≤ d < n}} . These graphs are highly symmetric and have important applications in chemical graph theory. We show that ICG n ( D) has PST if and only if {nin 4{N}} and {D=widetilde{D_3} \\cup D_2\\cup 2D_2\\cup 4D_2|cup {n/2^a}} , where {widetilde{D_3}={din D | n/din 8{N}}, D_2= {din D | n/din 8{N}+4}{setminus}{n/4}} and {ain{1,2}} . We have thus answered the question of complete characterization of perfect state transfer in integral circulant graphs raised in Angeles-Canul et al. (Quantum Inf Comput 10(3&4):0325-0342, 2010). Furthermore, we also calculate perfect quantum communication distance (distance between vertices where PST occurs) and describe the spectra of integral circulant graphs having PST. We conclude by giving a closed form expression calculating the number of integral circulant graphs of a given order having PST.

  3. Visible light optical coherence tomography for microvascular oximetry in ocular circulation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Yi, Ji; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-03-01

    Visible light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) is intrinsically capable of optical determination of blood oxygen saturation (sO2). Thanks to its 3D sectioning ability, confounding factors that plaque multi-wavelength fundus photography can be avoided. We further supplemented it with motion-enhanced angiography (vis-OCTA), which allowed us to resolve retinal micro vessels without losing spectral information. As a result, spectroscopic vis-OCTA can extract microvascular sO2 which are generally inaccessible. Here we extend the theoretical formulation of vis-OCTA oximetry to include optical attenuation, scattering and motion contrast. The model allows robust estimation of sO2, while also promising reduction of illuminating power to 1/3 of current value of ~1 mW. To demonstrate the capability of our approach, we performed oxygen challenge while taking vis-OCTA measurements on rat ocular circulation in vivo. We supplied the experiment animal with the following gas mixture: normal air, 5% CO2 air, pure O2 and 10% O2 air. For each inhalation gas, the OCTA measurements were compared with peripheral capillary sO2 (spO2) provided by a pulse oximeter. The retinal artery sO2 measurements corresponded well with spO2 reading as expected (R2 = 0.87). We found that both retinal and choroidal circulation sO2 moderately increased when we supplied 5% CO2 air. 100% O2 inhalation significantly increased both artery and vein oxygenation. On the contrary, 10% O2 air could deplete the oxygen reservoir in the circulation and lead to low sO2 readings.

  4. Numerical simulation of blood flow and pressure drop in the pulmonary arterial and venous circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, M Umar; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin; Peskin, Charles S; Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A

    2014-10-01

    A novel multiscale mathematical and computational model of the pulmonary circulation is presented and used to analyse both arterial and venous pressure and flow. This work is a major advance over previous studies by Olufsen et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 28:1281-1299, 2012) which only considered the arterial circulation. For the first three generations of vessels within the pulmonary circulation, geometry is specified from patient-specific measurements obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Blood flow and pressure in the larger arteries and veins are predicted using a nonlinear, cross-sectional-area-averaged system of equations for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube. Inflow into the main pulmonary artery is obtained from MRI measurements, while pressure entering the left atrium from the main pulmonary vein is kept constant at the normal mean value of 2 mmHg. Each terminal vessel in the network of 'large' arteries is connected to its corresponding terminal vein via a network of vessels representing the vascular bed of smaller arteries and veins. We develop and implement an algorithm to calculate the admittance of each vascular bed, using bifurcating structured trees and recursion. The structured-tree models take into account the geometry and material properties of the 'smaller' arteries and veins of radii ≥ 50 μm. We study the effects on flow and pressure associated with three classes of pulmonary hypertension expressed via stiffening of larger and smaller vessels, and vascular rarefaction. The results of simulating these pathological conditions are in agreement with clinical observations, showing that the model has potential for assisting with diagnosis and treatment for circulatory diseases within the lung. PMID:24610385

  5. Circulating nucleic acids damage DNA of healthy cells by integrating into their genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indraneel Mittra; Naveen Kumar Khare; Gorantla Venkata Raghuram; Rohan Chaubal; Fatema Khambatti; Deepika Gupta; Ashwini Gaikwad; Preeti Prasannan; Akshita Singh; Aishwarya Iyer; Ankita Singh; Pawan Upadhyay; Naveen Kumar Nair; Pradyumna Kumar Mishra; Amit Dutt

    2015-03-01

    Whether nucleic acids that circulate in blood have any patho-physiological functions in the host have not been explored. We report here that far from being inert molecules, circulating nucleic acids have significant biological activities of their own that are deleterious to healthy cells of the body. Fragmented DNA and chromatin (DNAfs and Cfs) isolated from blood of cancer patients and healthy volunteers are readily taken up by a variety of cells in culture to be localized in their nuclei within a few minutes. The intra-nuclear DNAfs and Cfs associate themselves with host cell chromosomes to evoke a cellular DNA-damage-repair-response (DDR) followed by their incorporation into the host cell genomes. Whole genome sequencing detected the presence of tens of thousands of human sequence reads in the recipient mouse cells. Genomic incorporation of DNAfs and Cfs leads to dsDNA breaks and activation of apoptotic pathways in the treated cells. When injected intravenously into Balb/C mice, DNAfs and Cfs undergo genomic integration into cells of their vital organs resulting in activation of DDR and apoptotic proteins in the recipient cells. Cfs have significantly greater activity than DNAfs with respect to all parameters examined, while both DNAfs and Cfs isolated from cancer patients are more active than those from normal volunteers. All the above pathological actions of DNAfs and Cfs described above can be abrogated by concurrent treatment with DNase I and/or anti-histone antibody complexed nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results that circulating DNAfs and Cfs are physiological, continuously arising, endogenous DNA damaging agents with implications to ageing and a multitude of human pathologies including initiation of cancer.

  6. Measurement of cerebral circulation times by means of the analysis of the time-density curve using digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazawa, Toshiaki; Karasawa, Jun; Touho, Hajime; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Nakauchi, Mikio; Kuriyama, Yoshihiro

    1987-04-01

    Five patients who had suffered a transient ischemic attack (TIA) with a normal angiogram were selected as a control group for the study of the internal-carotid-artery system, while 2 patients were selected as the controls in the study of the vertebral-artery system in order to evaluate the effect of cerebrovascular lesions. The cerebral circulation time of the internal carotid artery system was defined as the difference in the arrival times of the intraarterial contrast bolus between Fischer's C1 portion and the middle of the transverse sinus, while that of the vertebral artery system was defined as the difference in arraival times between Krayenbuhl's third or fourth segment and the middle of the transverse sinus. In the internal-carotid-artery system, the circulation time (as the time difference between the two points for the control) was 4.76 +- 0.28 (mean +- SD) sec. in TTP and 4.66 +- 0.11 sec. in MTT. In the vertebral-artery system, it was 3.97 sec. on the average in TTP and 4.16 sec. in MTT. Eleven patients with middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion and one patient with ''MoyaMoya'' disease were selected for a study of the ischemic lesions, while one patient with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was selected for a study of the effect of an arteriovenous shunt. In the symptomatic patients with middle-cerebral-artery occlusion or stenosis, the circulation time was slower than that of the control group both in TTP and in MTT. There was a significant correlation between the values of the circulation time in TTP and that in MTT. The circulation time of the patient with ''MoyaMoya'' disease was significantly slower than that of the control. In the patient with an AVM, the circulation time was much faster than in the control in TTP, while it was normal in MTT. (J.P.N.).

  7. A probabilistic method of calculating circulation-induced trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brox Nilsen, Irene; Stagge, James Howard; Merete Tallaksen, Lena

    2015-04-01

    The water cycle in Europe has changed substantially over the past three decades. Increasing runoff is observed during winter and at northern latitudes in particular. Spring and summer months, as well as southern latitudes, are facing drier conditions. To understand what is driving large-scale changes in runoff, we look into changes in precipitation and temperature and link these to changes in atmospheric circulation. Previous studies have used the method of trend ratios (Cahynová and Huth, 2009) to attribute precipitation and temperature trends to changes in the frequency of circulation types. A trend ratio is the ratio of hypothetical trend, i.e., the trend that would result due to changes in circulation type frequency only, to the observed trend. However, the method of trend ratios has two drawbacks. First, if the observed trend is small, division by a very low value results in a meaningless trend ratio and thus requires a cut-off value to keep the trend ratio within meaningful boundaries. Second, the method does not allow a comparison of the observed trend to the spread of possible outcomes, because the method of hypothetical trends is based on a deterministic model. We propose a new, more robust method for detecting the importance of circulation-induced changes in explaining the observed trends, which has the benefit of being a non-parametric statistical test that assesses the entire range of hypothetical trends. Instead of creating a hypothetical series by replacing the observation on a given day with the long-term climatic mean of a certain month and circulation type (as in the existing trend ratio method), the new approach replaces the observation on a given day with a random sample from the distribution of the variable for the given month and circulation type. The method introduces the possibility to assign a rejection rate, thus allowing statistical significance to be assessed. We apply the method on time series of precipitation and temperature from the

  8. Exact Determinants of Some Special Circulant Matrices Involving Four Kinds of Famous Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyu Jiang; Kicheon Hong

    2014-01-01

    Circulant matrix family is used for modeling many problems arising in solving various differential equations. The RSFPLR circulant matrices and RSLPFL circulant matrices are two special circulant matrices. The techniques used herein are based on the inverse factorization of polynomial. The exact determinants of these matrices involving Perrin, Padovan, Tribonacci, and the generalized Lucas number are given, respectively.

  9. Exact Determinants of Some Special Circulant Matrices Involving Four Kinds of Famous Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrix family is used for modeling many problems arising in solving various differential equations. The RSFPLR circulant matrices and RSLPFL circulant matrices are two special circulant matrices. The techniques used herein are based on the inverse factorization of polynomial. The exact determinants of these matrices involving Perrin, Padovan, Tribonacci, and the generalized Lucas number are given, respectively.

  10. Countermeasures and Investigation of Land Circulation in Less Developed Agricultural Area of Henan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Some places in Henan Province are investigated by using sample surveys and interviews. Result shows that land circulation in less developed agricultural area of Henan Province has the characteristics of small scale,single form,short period,and circulation land in economic core region. Problems in land circulation are as follows:slow transfer of rural surplus labor force,hard implementation of fundamental land circulation,complicated mentality towards rural land circulation,many misgivings about land circulation,the unformed social service system of land circulation,and imperfect agricultural risk prevention mechanism for circulated land use. Based on the characteristics of land circulation,suggestions for promoting the land circulation of less developed agricultural areas are put forward in order to solve the problems in land circulation and to lay the foundation for effective implementation of land circulation,such as speeding up the development of urbanization,developing the circulation of collective land,effectively implementing the laws and regulations of rural collective land circulation,transferring land according to law,establishing market mechanism of agricultural land circulation,promoting the agricultural industrialization,establishing market mechanism of agricultural land circulation,promoting the agricultural industrialization,energetically readjusting rural industrial structure,and developing economy with local characteristics.

  11. Composite circulation index of weather extremes (the example for Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Ustrnul

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation of a composite circulation index of weather extremes (CIE. The new index informs about the synoptic conditions favoring the occurrence of extremes on a regional scale. It was evaluated for temperature and precipitation extremes for Poland. Daily homogenized data obtained from 14 weather stations, which cover most of the country, were used. The data used cover the 60-year period from 1951 to 2010. The index is based on relationships between extremes and mesoscale circulation conditions. The core material also included data describing circulation types for the study period. Three different calendars were used (Grosswetterlagen, by Lity?ski, by Nied?wied?. The conditional probability of the occurrence of extremes for particular types was calculated independently using partial indices (Partial Index of weather Extremes ? PIE. The higher the index values, the more favorable the synoptic situation for the occurrence of extremes. The results were grouped by describing the probability of temperature and precipitation extremes on the IPCC likelihood scale. Three thresholds corresponding to the frequency of an occurrence were identified via a seasonal approach. The CIE was validated using basic correlation coefficients as well as contingency tables based on feature-displacement criteria and Bayesian Probability Methods. The results confirmed the significance of atmospheric circulation in the formation of temperature and precipitation extremes in Poland. The CIE proved the relationship by trying to estimate the probability of temperature and precipitation extremes occurrence depending on the circulation type forecasted.

  12. Multi-stage circulating fluidized bed syngas cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Guan, Xiaofeng; Peng, WanWang

    2016-10-11

    A method and apparatus for cooling hot gas streams in the temperature range 800.degree. C. to 1600.degree. C. using multi-stage circulating fluid bed (CFB) coolers is disclosed. The invention relates to cooling the hot syngas from coal gasifiers in which the hot syngas entrains substances that foul, erode and corrode heat transfer surfaces upon contact in conventional coolers. The hot syngas is cooled by extracting and indirectly transferring heat to heat transfer surfaces with circulating inert solid particles in CFB syngas coolers. The CFB syngas coolers are staged to facilitate generation of steam at multiple conditions and hot boiler feed water that are necessary for power generation in an IGCC process. The multi-stage syngas cooler can include internally circulating fluid bed coolers, externally circulating fluid bed coolers and hybrid coolers that incorporate features of both internally and externally circulating fluid bed coolers. Higher process efficiencies can be realized as the invention can handle hot syngas from various types of gasifiers without the need for a less efficient precooling step.

  13. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, Goekcen; Cifci, Egemen; Yildirim, Erkan; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey)

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  14. Self-biased circulators for high power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Alexander S.

    Self-biased circulators exploit the properties of high anisotropy magnetic field in hexagonal ferrites, thus allowing operation without biasing magnets and a significant size and weight reduction. Although first self-biased circulators were demonstrated more than 20 years ago, all the prototypes constructed so far are unsuitable for practical applications. An attempt to design a self-biased circulator from scratch was made. Novel exceptionally low dielectric loss and high heat conductivity ceramic materials were developed and innovative substrate synthesis techniques were employed. Low temperature cofiring of green body ferrite compacts and dielectric ceramic slurries were mastered, resulting in solid composite substrates. Original device design was developed. Key features (including wide coupling angles, wide microstriplines, thick substrate, and absence of impedance transformers) enable low insertion loss, broadband operation, high power handling, and compact size. Fabrication and testing of Ka band Y-junction self-biased circulator are reported herein. Furthermore, design approach and fabrication techniques developed here can be readily applied for the construction of X-band self-biased circulators, provided that suitable ferrite materials are available. Low temperature cofiring of ferrite and dielectric materials is especially beneficial for various RF and high-frequency applications. Multiple devices can be readily fabricated on a single wafer using conventional lithographic techniques, resulting in true microwave monolithic integrated circuit.

  15. Experimental study of two-phase natural circulation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley Freitas; Su, Jian, E-mail: wlemos@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio, E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), RIo de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on the behavior of fluid flow in natural circulation under single-and two-phase flow conditions. The natural circulation circuit was designed based on concepts of similarity and scale in proportion to the actual operating conditions of a nuclear reactor. This test equipment has similar performance to the passive system for removal of residual heat presents in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (A PWR). The experiment was carried out by supplying water to primary and secondary circuits, as well as electrical power resistors installed inside the heater. Power controller has available to adjust the values for supply of electrical power resistors, in order to simulate conditions of decay of power from the nuclear reactor in steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and control of the temperature at different points by means of thermocouples installed at several points along the circuit. The behavior of the phenomenon of natural circulation was monitored by a software with graphical interface, showing the evolution of temperature measurement points and the results stored in digital format spreadsheets. Besides, the natural circulation flow rate was measured by a flowmeter installed on the hot leg. A flow visualization technique was used the for identifying vertical flow regimes of two-phase natural circulation. Finally, the Reynolds Number was calculated for the establishment of a friction factor correlation dependent on the scale geometrical length, height and diameter of the pipe. (author)

  16. Isotopic composition of precipitation during different atmospheric circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenčič, Mihael; Kononova, Nina; Vreča, Polona

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation generating processes depend on atmospheric circulation patterns and consequently it is expected that its water stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen is related to them. Precipitation generated at similar atmospheric circulation patterns should have similar empirical distribution of δ2H and δ18O values. There are several approaches in which atmospheric circulation patterns are classified as elementary air circulation mechanisms - ECM; in our approach we have applied Dzerdzeevskii classification. Two types of models of relation between ECM and isotopic composition of precipitation are proposed; first is based on the linear combination of δ2H and δ18O values with precipitation amount weighted average (Brenčič et al., 2015) and the second new one is based on the multiple regression approach. Both approaches make possible also to estimate empirical distributions' dispersion parameters. Application of the models is illustrated on the precipitation records from Ljubljana and Portorož GNIP stations, Slovenia. Estimated values of the parameters for empirical distributions of δ2H and δ18O of each ECM subtype have shown that calculated estimates are reasonable. Brenčič, M., Kononova, N.K., Vreča, P., 2015: Relation between isotopic composition of precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns. Journal of Hydrology 529, 1422-1432: doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.08.040

  17. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  18. PWR hot leg natural circulation modeling with MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Jong In [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Previous MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 nodalizations for simulating the counter-current, natural circulation behavior of vapor flow within the RCS hot legs and SG U-tubes when core damage progress can not be applied to the steady state and water-filled conditions during the initial period of accident progression because of the artificially high loss coefficients in the hot legs and SG U-tubes which were chosen from results of COMMIX calculation and the Westinghouse natural circulation experiments in a 1/7-scale facility for simulating steam natural circulation behavior in the vessel and circulation modeling which can be used both for the liquid flow condition at steady state and for the vapor flow condition at the later period of in-vessel core damage. For this, the drag forces resulting from the momentum exchange effects between the two vapor streams in the hot leg was modeled as a pressure drop by pump model. This hot leg natural circulation modeling of MELCOR was able to reproduce similar mass flow rates with those predicted by previous models. 6 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  19. Pseudo-circulator implemented as a multimode fiber coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulota, F.; Bélanger, P.; Leduc, M.; Boudoux, C.; Godbout, N.

    2016-03-01

    We present a linear all-fiber device exhibiting the functionality of a circulator, albeit for multimode fibers. We define a pseudo-circulator as a linear three-port component that transfers most of a multimode light signal from Port 1 to Port 2, and from Port 2 to Port 3. Unlike a traditional circulator which depends on a nonlinear phenomenon to achieve a non-reciprocal behavior, our device is a linear component that seemingly breaks the principle of reciprocity by exploiting the variations of etendue of the multimode fibers in the coupler. The pseudo-circulator is implemented as a 2x2 asymmetric multimode fiber coupler, fabricated using the fusion-tapering technique. The coupler is asymmetric in its transverse fused section. The two multimode fibers differ in area, thus favoring the transfer of light from the smaller to the bigger fiber. The desired difference of area is obtained by tapering one of the fiber before the fusion process. Using this technique, we have successfully fabricated a pseudo-circulator surpassing in efficiency a 50/50 beam-splitter. In all the visible and near-IR spectrum, the transmission ratio exceeds 77% from Port 1 to Port 2, and 80% from Port 2 to Port 3. The excess loss is less than 0.5 dB, regardless of the entry port.

  20. Stability of Thermohaline circulation with respect to fresh water release

    CERN Document Server

    Patwardhan, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    The relatively warm climate found in the North- Western Europe is due to the gulf stream that circulates warm saline water from southern latitudes to Europe. In North Atlantic ocean the stream gives out a large amount of heat, cools down and sinks to the bottom to complete the Thermohaline circulation. There is considerable debate on the stability of the stream to inputs of fresh water from the melting ice in Greenland and Arctic. The circulation, being switched off, will have massive impact on the climate of Europe. Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) has warned of this danger in its recent report. Our aim is to model the Thermohaline circulation at the point where it sinks in the North-Atlantic. We create a two dimensional discrete map modeling the salinity gradient and vertical velocity of the stream. We look for how a perturbation in the form of fresh water release can destabilise the circulation by pushing the velocity below a certain threshold.