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Sample records for circulating luteinizing hormone

  1. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  2. Luteinizing hormone in testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E

    2007-01-01

    alone is not sufficient for normal testicular descent. The regulation of androgen production is influenced both by placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). There is evidence that the longer pregnancy continues, the more important role pituitary LH may have....... Insulin-like hormone-3 (INSL3) is suggested to be the main regulator of gubernacular development and therefore an apparent regulator of testicular descent. INSL3 production is also related to LH, and reduced INSL3 action is a possible cause for cryptorchidism. Cryptorchid boys have normal testosterone...

  3. Relationship of oestrus synchronization method, circulating hormones, luteinizing hormone and prostaglandin F-2 alpha receptors and luteal progesterone concentration to premature luteal regression in superovulated sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiewe, M C; Fitz, T A; Brown, J L; Stuart, L D; Wildt, D E

    1991-09-01

    Ewes were treated with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and oestrus was synchronized using either a dual prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF-2 alpha) injection regimen or pessaries impregnated with medroxy progesterone acetate (MAP). Natural cycling ewes served as controls. After oestrus or AI (Day 0), corpora lutea (CL) were enucleated surgically from the left and right ovaries on Days 3 and 6, respectively. The incidence of premature luteolysis was related (P less than 0.05) to PGF-2 alpha treatment and occurred in 7 of 8 ewes compared with 0 of 4 controls and 1 of 8 MAP-exposed females. Sheep with regressing CL had lower circulating and intraluteal progesterone concentrations and fewer total and small dissociated luteal cells on Day 3 than gonadotrophin-treated counterparts with normal CL. Progesterone concentration in the serum and luteal tissue was higher (P less than 0.05) in gonadotrophin-treated ewes with normal CL than in the controls; but luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors/cell were not different on Days 3 and 6. There were no apparent differences in the temporal patterns of circulating oestradiol-17 beta, FSH and LH. High progesterone in gonadotrophin-treated ewes with normal CL coincided with an increase in total luteal mass and numbers of cells, which were primarily reflected in more small luteal cells than in control ewes. Gonadotrophin-treated ewes with regressing CL on Day 3 tended (P less than 0.10) to have fewer small luteal cells and fewer (P less than 0.05) low-affinity PGF-2 alpha binding sites than sheep with normal CL. By Day 6, luteal integrity and cell viability was absent in ewes with prematurely regressed CL. These data demonstrate that (i) the incidence of premature luteal regression is highly correlated with the use of PGF-2 alpha; (ii) this abnormal luteal tissue is functionally competent for 2-3 days after ovulation, but deteriorates rapidly thereafter and (iii) luteal-dysfunctioning ewes experience a reduction in numbers of

  4. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone and prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, M.K.; Deschepper, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    A combined radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of the anterior pituitary proteins luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) is described and compared with individual RIAs for these hormones. The standard curves and the sample values for LH and PRL were identical when determined in a combined or in an individual RIA. This technique may prove useful to a number of laboratories where it is desirable to determine levels of more than one hormone in limited sample volumes

  5. Radioimmunoassay of luteinizing hormone in hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobieszczyk, S.

    1975-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of luteinizing hormone was performed in 18 women with primary hypothyroidism and 15 women with secondary hypothyroidism. The results of determinations were compared with LH values found in healthy women at reproductive age and after menopause. It was observed that in primary hypothyroidism the level of LH is normal, in young women it was from 6 to 25 m IU/ml, while in the postmenopausal period it increased to 70 to 200 m IU/ml. In secondary hypothyroidism due to pituitary hypofunction the LH level is undetectable or lies in the range of lowest values observed in healthy subjects, not exceeding 8 m IU/ml. Determinations of serum LH may be useful for differential diagnosis of primary and secondary hypothyroidism. (author)

  6. Radioimmunological and clinical studies with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LRH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH have been established. The specificity of the LRH immunoassay was investigated. Problems with direct measurement of LRH in plasmas of radioimmunoassay are encountered. The LRH distribution in various tissues of the rat are investigated. By means of a system for continuous monitoring of LH and FSH in women the lowest effective dose of LRH causing a significant release of LH and FSH could be established. (Auth.)

  7. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides

  8. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Janaky, T; Csernus, V J; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Srkalovic, G; Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1989-08-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. For instance, SB-40, a PtCl2-containing metallopeptide in which platinum is coordinated to an N epsilon-(DL-2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine residue [D-Lys(DL-A2pr] at position 6, showed 50 times higher LH-releasing potency than the native hormone. SB-95, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2, D-Pal(3)2, Arg5,D-Lys[DL-A2pr(Sal2Cu)]6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine, Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine, and copper(II) is coordinated to the salicylideneimino moieties resulting from condensation of salicylaldehyde with D-Lys(DL-A2pr)6, caused 100% inhibition of ovulation at a dose of 3 micrograms in rats. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro (this will be the subject of a separate paper on cytotoxicity evaluation). Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides.

  9. Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janáky, T; Juhász, A; Bajusz, S; Csernus, V; Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Milovanovic, S; Redding, T W; Rékási, Z; Nagy, A

    1992-02-01

    In an attempt to produce better cytotoxic analogues, chemotherapeutic antineoplastic radicals including an alkylating nitrogen mustard derivative of D-phenylalanine (D-melphalan), reactive cyclopropane, anthraquinone derivatives [2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone and the anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin], and an antimetabolite (methotrexate) were coupled to suitably modified agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Analogues with D-lysine6 and D-ornithine6 or N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine and N delta-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-ornithine were used as carriers for one or two cytotoxic moieties. The enhanced biological activities produced by the incorporation of D amino acids into position 6 of the agonistic analogues were further increased by the attachment of hydrophobic cytotoxic groups, resulting in compounds with 10-50 times higher activity than LH-RH. Most of the monosubstituted agonistic analogues showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of human breast cancer cells, while the receptor binding affinities of peptides containing two cytotoxic side chains were lower. Antagonistic carriers [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,D-Lys6,D-Ala10] LH-RH [where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine], [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, and their D-Pal(3)3 homologs [Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] as well as [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Tyr5,N epsilon-(2,3-diamino-propionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH were linked to cytotoxic compounds. The hybrid molecules inhibited ovulation in rats at doses of 10 micrograms and suppressed LH release in vitro. The receptor binding of cytotoxic analogues was decreased compared to the precursor peptides, although analogues with 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone hemiglutarate had high affinities. All of the cytotoxic analogues tested inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in cultures of human breast and prostate cancer cell lines

  10. Acute endocrine correlates of attack by lactating females in male mice: effects on plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone and corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Michael, S D; Svare, B

    1984-05-01

    Immediately following defeat inflicted by lactating Rockland-Swiss (R-S) albino mice, adult R-S male mice exhibited significant reductions in circulating prolactin (PRL) and luteinizing hormone (LH), but not corticosterone (CORT). These results suggest that acute neuroendocrine responses to intersex competition may be as dramatic as those previously reported for intermale encounters.

  11. Radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shiro; Musa, Kimitaka; Oshima, Ichiyo; Yamamoto, Suzuyo; Funato, Toyohiko

    1975-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed capable of measuring LH-RH in extracted human plasma. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, lysine vasopressin and most of LH-RH analogues did not appear to affect the assay. Hypothalamic extract and some of the LH-RH analogues produced displacement curves which were parallel to the curve obtained with the synthetic LH-RH. Sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay was about 3 pg per assay tube. The coefficient of variation of intraassays was 6.4%, while that of interassays was 9.6%. Exogenous LH-RH could be quantitatively extracted by acidic ethanol when varying amounts of synthetic LH-RH were added to the plasma. Immunoreactivity of LH-RH was preserved in plasma for 2 hrs in the cold but was gradually reduced thereafter. The plasma levels of LH-RH were 20 pg/ml or less in normal adults and not detectable in children. Aged males over 60 yr and postmenopausal women showed a tendency to have higher levels of plasma LH-RH. The plasma LH-RH level was significantly higher in midcycle than in the follicular or luteal stages. The disappearance rate of LH-RH from the circulation after intravenous injection could be represented as half-times of 4-6 min. Between 0.2-0.4% of the injected dose was excreted into urine within 1 hr. These results indicate that the determination of LH-RH might be a useful tool for elucidating hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad interactions. (auth.)

  12. Exaggerated gonadotropin response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in amenorrheic runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiro, J; Glass, A R; Fears, W B; Ferguson, E W; Vigersky, R A

    1987-03-01

    Most studies of exercise-induced amenorrhea have compared amenorrheic athletes (usually runners) with sedentary control subjects. Such comparisons will identify hormonal changes that develop as a result of exercise training but cannot determine which of these changes play a role in causing amenorrhea. To obviate this problem, we assessed reproductive hormone status in a group of five amenorrheic runners and compared them to a group of six eumenorrheic runners matched for body fatness, training intensity, and exercise performance. Compared to the eumenorrheic runners, the amenorrheic runners had lower serum estradiol concentrations, similar basal serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations, and exaggerated responses of serum gonadotropins after administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (100 micrograms intravenous bolus). Serum prolactin levels, both basally and after thyrotropin-releasing hormone administration (500 micrograms intravenous bolus) or treadmill exercise, was similar in the two groups, as were serum thyroid function tests (including thyrotropin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone). Changes in serum cortisol levels after short-term treadmill exercise were similar in both groups, and serum testosterone levels increased after exercise only in the eumenorrheic group. In neither group did such exercise change serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, or thyrotropin levels. We concluded that exercise-induced amenorrhea is not solely related to the development of increased prolactin output after exercise training. The exaggerated gonadotropin response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone seen in amenorrheic runners in comparison with matched eumenorrheic runners is consistent with a hypothalamic etiology for the menstrual dysfunction, analogous to that previously described in "stress-induced" or "psychogenic" amenorrhea.

  13. Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in rat ovarian cells: Hormone production and signal transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that the breakdown of membrane phosphoinositides may participate in the actions of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on hormone production in rat granulosa cells. In cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol or ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid (AA), treatment with LHRH increased the formation of radiolabeled inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol (DG), and the release of radiolabeled AA. Since IP{sub 3} induces intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, changes in the cytosolic free calcium ion concentrations ((Ca{sup 2+})i) induced by LHRH were studied in individual cells using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry. Alterations in (Ca{sup 2+})i induced by LHRH were rapid and transient, and could be completely blocked by a LHRH antagonist. Sustained perifusion of LHRH resulted in a desensitization of the (Ca{sup 2+})i response to LHRH. LHRH treatment accelerated (Ca{sup 2+})i depletion in the cells perifused with Ca{sup 2+} free medium, indicating the involvement of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} pool(s) in (Ca{sup 2+})i changes. The actions of LHRH on the regulation of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production were also examined. LHRH increased basal P{sub 4} production and attenuated FSH induced P{sub 4} production. Both basal and FSH stimulated PGE{sub 2} formation were increased by LHRH. Since LHRH also increased the formation of DG that stimulates the activity of protein kinase C, an activator of protein kinase C (12-0-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate: TPA) was used with the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore A23187 and melittin (an activator of phospholipase A{sub 2}) to examine the roles of protein kinase C, Ca{sup 2+} and free AA, respectively, in LHRH action.

  14. Regional differences in the pituitary distribution of luteinizing hormone in the gonadectomized and proestrous female rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous data have shown regional differences in the presence of anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) that generally correlate with comparable disparities in the distribution of gonadotropes throughout the gland. In female rats, the differences are apparent over the estro...

  15. Highly potent antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone free of edematogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Kovacs, M; Gazdag, M; Bokser, L; Karashima, T; Csernus, V J; Janaky, T; Guoth, J; Schally, A V

    1988-03-01

    To eliminate the undesirable edematogenic effect of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) antagonists containing basic D amino acids at position 6, exemplified by [Ac-D-Phe(pCl)1,2,D-Trp3,D-Arg6,D-Ala10]LH-RH [Phe(pCl) indicates 4-chlorophenylalanine], analogs with D-ureidoalkyl amino acids such as D-citrulline (D-Cit) or D-homocitrulline (D-Hci) at position 6 were synthesized and tested in several systems in vitro and in vivo. HPLC analysis revealed that the overall hydrophobicity of the D-Cit/D-Hci6 analogs was similar to that of the basic D-Arg6 antagonists. In vitro, most of the analogs completely inhibited LH-RH-mediated luteinizing hormone release in perfused rat pituitary cell systems at an antagonist to LH-RH molar ratio of 5:1. In vivo, the most active peptides, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2,D-Trp3,D-Cit6,D-Ala10]LH-RH [Nal(2) indicates 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine] and its D-Hci6 analog, caused 100% inhibition of ovulation in cycling rats in doses of 3 micrograms and suppressed the luteinizing hormone level in ovariectomized female rats for 47 hr when administered at doses of 25 micrograms. Characteristically, these peptides did not exert any edematogenic effects even at 1.5 mg/kg. These properties of the D-Cit/D-Hci6 antagonists may make them useful clinically.

  16. Prolonged inhibition of luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels in male rats with the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist SB-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokser, L; Bajusz, S; Groot, K; Schally, A V

    1990-09-01

    Inhibitory effects of the potent antagonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone N-Ac-[3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine1,4-chloro-D-phenylalanine2,3- (3-pyridyl)-D- alanine3,D-citrulline6,D-alanine10]luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (SB-75) free of edematogenic effects were investigated in male rats. In a study to determine the effect on luteinizing hormone levels in castrated male rats, SB-75 was injected s.c. in doses of 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10 micrograms. Blood samples were taken at different intervals for 48 hr. All doses of SB-75 significantly decreased luteinizing hormone levels for greater than 6 hr (P less than 0.01); this inhibition lasted for greater than 24 hr (P less than 0.01) with a dose of 5.0 micrograms and greater than 48 hr with 10 micrograms (P less than 0.05). Serum testosterone levels were also measured in intact male rats injected with SB-75 in doses of 25, 50, and 100 micrograms. All doses produced a dramatic fall in testosterone to castration levels 6 hr after injection (P less than 0.01); this inhibition of serum testosterone was maintained for greater than 72 hr, but only the 100-micrograms dose could keep testosterone in the castration range for greater than 24 hr (P less than 0.01). In another study using a specific RIA, we obtained the pharmacokinetic release pattern of SB-75 from two sustained delivery formulations of SB-75 pamoate microgranules and examined their effect on serum testosterone. After a single i.m. injection of 20 mg of one batch of microgranules, a large peak corresponding to SB-75 at 45.8 ng/ml was observed, corresponding to the "burst" effect. Levels of the analog decreased to 19.6 ng/ml on day 2, gradually reached a concentration of 4.7 ng/ml on day 7, and kept declining thereafter. Testosterone levels were reduced on day 1 (P less than 0.01) and were maintained at low values for greater than 7 days (P less than 0.05). In rats injected with 10 mg of SB-75 pamoate microgranules of the second batch, SB-75 serum

  17. Nervus terminalis, olfactory nerve, and optic nerve representation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, J W

    1987-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) system was examined immunocytochemically in olfactory bulbs of adult monkeys, including two New World species (squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus and owl monkey, Aotus trivirgatus) and one Old World species (cynomolgus macaque, Macaca fasciculata), and in the brain and nasal region of a fetal rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta. LHRH neurons and fibers were found sparsely distributed in the olfactory bulbs in all adult monkeys. There was more LHRH in the accessory olfactory bulb (which is absent in Old World monkeys). In the fetal macaque there was a rich distribution of LHRH neurons and fibers along the pathway of the nervus terminalis, anterior and ventral to the olfactory bulb, and in the nasal septum, with fibers branching into the olfactory epithelium. In addition, there were LHRH neurons and fibers in the optic nerve.

  18. The effect of ovarian steroid feedback upon radioimmunoreactive luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in the hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanaihara, Takumi; Arai, Kiyoshi; Kanazawa, Motomi; Okinaga, Shoichi; Yanaihara, Noboru

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for luteinizing hormone (LH) releasing hormone (RH) utilizing rabbit antiserum against synthetic (Glu 1 )-LH-RH coupled with human serum albumin at the N-terminus, is described. This assay system for LH-RH also cross-reacted with several LH-RH analogues or fragments, but not with pituitary trophic hormones. The assay was performed on the hypothalamic extracts of adult ovariectomized rats and female immature rats which had been treated with estradiol. The FSH and LH levels in the pituitary gland and serum of the same animals were determined by RIA. The radioimmunoreactive LH-RH content of the stalk median eminence markedly increased seven days after ovariectomy. The serum levels and the pituitary contents of FSH and LH of the same rats were also significantly augmented. In immature rats, the hypothalamic content of LH-RH, as measured by RIA, was significantly increased one hour after the injection of estradiol. The FSH and LH levels in the pituitary showed a significant rise after 7 hours. (auth.)

  19. PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT CAUSED BY BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: EFFECTS ON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT CAUSED BY BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: EFFECTS ON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS Bielmeier1, S.R., D.S. Best2, and M.G. Narotsky2; 1University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Curriculum in Toxicology, 2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Enviro...

  20. Lower testosterone levels with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy than with surgical castration: new insights attained by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Tim M.; Bui, Hong N.; Meuleman, Eric J. H.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Hartman, Jeroen F.; van Adrichem, Nick; Boevé, Egbert; de Ronde, Willem; van Moorselaar, R. Jeroen A.; Vis, André N.

    2012-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy by bilateral orchiectomy (surgical castration) or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy (medical castration) is recommended for advanced or metastatic prostate cancer. Both methods aim at reducing serum testosterone concentrations to a castrate level

  1. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  2. Short-chain analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janáky, T; Juhász, A; Rékási, Z; Serfözö, P; Pinski, J; Bokser, L; Srkalovic, G; Milovanovic, S; Redding, T W; Halmos, G

    1992-11-01

    Five hexapeptide and heptapeptide analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) were synthesized for use as carriers for cytotoxic compounds. These short analogs were expected to enhance target selectivity of the antineoplastic agents linked to them. Native LH-RH-(3-9) and LH-RH-(4-9) containing D-lysine and D-ornithine at position 6 were amidated with ethylamine and acylated on the N terminus. The receptor-binding affinity of one hexapeptide carrier AJ-41 (Ac-Ser-Tyr-D-Lys-Leu-Arg-Pro-NH-Et) to human breast cancer cell membranes was similar to that of [D-Trp6]LH-RH. Alkylating nitrogen mustards (melphalan, Ac-melphalan), anthraquinone derivatives including anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin, antimetabolite (methotrexate), and cisplatin-like platinum complex were linked to these peptides through their omega-amino group at position 6. The hybrid molecules showed no LH-RH agonistic activity in vitro and in vivo but had nontypical antagonistic effects on pituitary cells in vitro at the doses tested. These analogs showed a wide range of receptor-binding affinities to rat pituitaries and cell membranes of human breast cancer and rat Dunning prostate cancer. Several of these conjugates exerted some cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

  3. Cloning and Expression of Luteinizing Hormone Subunits in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Soleimanifar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Luteinizing hormone (LH was secreted by the stimulating cells of the testes and ovaries in the anterior pituitary gland. The application of this hormone is in the treatment of men and women with infertility and amenorrhea respectively.Materials and Methods: In the present study the alpha and beta subunits of human LH gene were cloned into the pEGFP-N1 expression vector and produced the recombinant LH hormone in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO eukaryotic system.Results: Alpha and beta subunits of LH hormone were cloned between NheI and BamHI cut sites of pEGFP_N1 expression plasmid and confirmed by PCR.  Hormone expression was evaluated in CHO cell line by Western blotting using the specific antibody.Conclusion: Alpha and beta subunits of LH hormone were expressed in CHO cell line perfectly.

  4. Serum Testosterone Levels in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Juan; Comas, Inma; Planas, Jacques; Maldonado, Xavier; Celma, Ana; Placer, José; Ferrer, Roser; Carles, Joan; Regis, Lucas

    2018-04-01

    Serum testosterone measurement is recommended to assess the efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and to diagnose castration resistance in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Currently, the accepted castrate level of serum testosterone is 50 ng/dL. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC MSMS) is the appropriate method to measure testosterone, especially at low levels. However, worldwide, chemiluminescent assays (CLIAs) are used in clinical laboratories, despite their lack of accuracy and reproducibility, because they are automatable, fast, sensitive, and inexpensive. We compared serum testosterone levels measured using LC MSMS and CLIAs in 126 patients with PCa undergoing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist therapy. The median serum testosterone level was 14.0 ng/dL (range, 2.0-67.0 ng/dL) with LC MSMS and 31.9 ng/dL (range, 10.0-91.6 ng/dL) with CLIA (P  50 ng/dL in 3 patients (2.4%). These ranges were found in 34 (27%), 72 (57.1%), and 20 (15.9%) patients when testosterone was measured using CLIA (P < .001). The castrate level of serum testosterone using LC MSMS and CLIA was 39.8 ng/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.1-43.4 ng/dL) and 66.5 ng/dL (95% CI, 62.3-71.2 ng/dL), respectively. We found that CLIA overestimated the testosterone levels in PCa patients undergoing LHRH agonist therapy. Thus, the castration level was incorrectly considered inadequate with CLIA in almost 15% of patients. The true castration level of serum testosterone using an appropriate method is < 50 ng/dL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Luteinizing hormone-follicle stimulating hormone ratio as biological predictor of post-partum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran Pillai, R; Sharon, Leena; Premkumar, Nancy R; Kattimani, Shivanand; Sagili, Haritha; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2017-01-01

    Post-partum depression (PPD) is the common adverse outcome of child bearing which affects the wellbeing of both mother and newborn and has long-term effects. Hence, reliable potential biological tests for early detection of PPD are essential. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were associated with depressive disorders and the present study estimated the levels of serum FSH, LH in postpartum depression and explored them as predictive biomarkers in the development of PPD. In this nested case control study done at a tertiary care hospital in South India, 450 postpartum women were screened at 6th week post-delivery for PPD. Socio-demographic and clinical data were recorded and depressive symptoms were assessed using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Out of 450 subjects screened, 100 women with depressive symptoms were categorized as cases and 100 controls were selected from the remaining subjects matching for age and BMI with cases. Serum levels of FSH and LH were measured using direct competitive immunoassay by chemiluminescene technology. Serum LH/FSH ratio was found to be significantly (p=0.02) low in PPD women when compared to normal postpartum subjects. We also found a significant negative correlation between LH/FSH ratio and EPDS scores. Based on the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cut-off value for serum of LH/FSH levels in predicting postpartum depression was estimated to be 0.22mlU/mL with an AUC of 0.598 (95%CI, 0.291-0.859). Our study demonstrated that low LH/FSH ratio after delivery was associated with increased risk for the development of PPD. Low LH/FSH ratio at six-week post delivery can be used as a robust biochemical predictor of post-partum depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biosynthesis and the conjugation of magnetite nanoparticles with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obayemi, J.D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State (Nigeria); Dozie-Nwachukwu, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Danyuo, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Department of Electronics and Electricals Engineering, Nigerian Turkish Nile University, Abuja (Nigeria); Odusanya, O.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Anuku, N. [Department of Chemistry, Bronx Community College, New York, NY 10453 (United States); Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Malatesta, K. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Soboyejo, W.O., E-mail: soboyejo@princeton.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST) Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the biosynthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (BMNPs) with particle sizes between 10 nm and 60 nm. The biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles are produced from Magnetospirillum magneticum (M.M.) bacteria that respond to magnetic fields. M.M. bacteria were cultured and used to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles. This was done in an enriched magnetic spirillum growth medium (EMSGM) at different pH levels. The nanoparticle concentrations were characterized with UV–Visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy, while the particle shapes were elucidated via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structure of the particles was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the hydrodynamic radii, particle size distributions and polydispersity of the nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Carbodiimide reduction was also used to functionalize the BMNPs with a molecular recognition unit (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, LHRH) that attaches specifically to receptors that are over-expressed on the surfaces of most breast cancer cell types. The resulting nanoparticles were examined using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and quantitative image analysis. The implications of the results are then discussed for the potential development of magnetic nanoparticles for the specific targeting and treatment of breast cancer. - Highlights: • Biosynthesis of MNPs with clinically relevant sizes between 10 and 60 nm. • New insights into the effects of pH and processing time on nanoparticle shapes and sizes. • Successful conjugation of biosynthesized magnetite nanoparticles to LHRH ligands. • Conjugated BMNPs that are monodispersed with potential biomedical relevance. • Magnetic properties of biosynthesized MNPs suggest potential for MRI enhancement.

  7. Biosynthesis and the conjugation of magnetite nanoparticles with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayemi, J.D.; Dozie-Nwachukwu, S.; Danyuo, Y.; Odusanya, O.S.; Anuku, N.; Malatesta, K.; Soboyejo, W.O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the biosynthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (BMNPs) with particle sizes between 10 nm and 60 nm. The biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles are produced from Magnetospirillum magneticum (M.M.) bacteria that respond to magnetic fields. M.M. bacteria were cultured and used to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles. This was done in an enriched magnetic spirillum growth medium (EMSGM) at different pH levels. The nanoparticle concentrations were characterized with UV–Visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy, while the particle shapes were elucidated via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structure of the particles was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the hydrodynamic radii, particle size distributions and polydispersity of the nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Carbodiimide reduction was also used to functionalize the BMNPs with a molecular recognition unit (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, LHRH) that attaches specifically to receptors that are over-expressed on the surfaces of most breast cancer cell types. The resulting nanoparticles were examined using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and quantitative image analysis. The implications of the results are then discussed for the potential development of magnetic nanoparticles for the specific targeting and treatment of breast cancer. - Highlights: • Biosynthesis of MNPs with clinically relevant sizes between 10 and 60 nm. • New insights into the effects of pH and processing time on nanoparticle shapes and sizes. • Successful conjugation of biosynthesized magnetite nanoparticles to LHRH ligands. • Conjugated BMNPs that are monodispersed with potential biomedical relevance. • Magnetic properties of biosynthesized MNPs suggest potential for MRI enhancement

  8. Asp330 and Tyr331 in the C-terminal cysteine-rich region of the luteinizing hormone receptor are key residues in hormone-induced receptor activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.P. Bruysters (Martijn); M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor plays an essential role in male and female gonadal function. Together with the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors, the LH receptor forms the family of glycoprotein hormone receptors. All glycoprotein

  9. Ovarian Follicular Dynamics During the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Muraco, Holley; Clough, Pat; Teets, Valerie; Arn, Dennis; Muraco, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the relationship between ovarian follicular dynamics and the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) requires detailed daily monitoring due to the transitory nature of LH and ovulation. Utilizing conditioned dolphins and non-invasive sampling techniques, such as urine collection and trans-abdominal ultrasound exams, provides the means to accurately monitor these fleeting processes. Urine samples and ultrasound exams used in this study were ...

  10. The clinical evaluation of the radioimmunoassay of luteinizing hormone in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobieszczyk, S.

    1975-01-01

    The studies comprised 177 persons: 39 healthy males, 20 women in the reproductive age, 35 postmenopausal women and 83 patients with different types of gonadal insufficiency (gonadal dysgenesis; premature ovarian failure, male hypogonadism, pituitary dwarfism). The luteinizing hormone was determined in acetone extracts of the urine by radioimmunnoassay using double antibody technique. The results of urinary LH assays allowed to differentiate the concentration of this hormone in healthy males from postmenopausal women. In a group of patients with primary ganadal deficiency urinary LH was elevated while there was a lack urinary LH in cases of secondary gonadal insufficiency. (author)

  11. Overnight Levels of Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Growth Hormone before and during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment in Short Boys Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaay, Danielle C. M.; de Jong, Frank H.; Rose, Susan R.; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; Sulkers, Eric J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare growth hormone

  12. Requirement for specific gravity and creatinine adjustments for urinary steroids and luteinizing hormone concentrations in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K S; Balzer, Ben W R; Desai, Reena; Jimenez, Mark; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Handelsman, David J

    2015-11-01

    Urinary hormone concentrations are often adjusted to correct for hydration status. We aimed to determine whether first morning void urine hormones in growing adolescents require adjustments and, if so, whether urinary creatinine or specific gravity are better adjustments. The study population was adolescents aged 10.1 to 14.3 years initially who provided fasting morning blood samples at 0 and 12 months (n = 343) and first morning urine every three months (n = 644). Unadjusted, creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted hormonal concentrations were compared by Deming regression and Bland-Altman analysis and grouped according to self-rated Tanner stage or chronological age. F-ratios for self-rated Tanner stages and age groups were used to compare unadjusted and adjusted hormonal changes in growing young adolescents. Correlations of paired serum and urinary hormonal concentration of unadjusted and creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted were also compared. Fasting first morning void hormone concentrations correlated well and were unbiased between unadjusted or adjusted by either creatinine or specific gravity. Urine creatinine concentration increases with Tanner stages, age and male gender whereas urine specific gravity was not influenced by Tanner stage, age or gender. Adjustment by creatinine or specific gravity of urinary luteinizing hormone, estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations did not improve correlation with paired serum concentrations. Urine steroid and luteinizing hormone concentrations in first morning void samples of adolescents are not significantly influenced by hydration status and may not require adjustments; however, if desired, both creatinine and specific gravity adjustments are equally suitable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. A regulator of G Protein signaling, RGS3, inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musgrove Lois C

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Luteinizing hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland regulates gonadal function. Luteinizing hormone secretion is regulated both by alterations in gonadotrope responsiveness to hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone and by alterations in gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion. The mechanisms that determine gonadotrope responsiveness are unknown but may involve regulators of G protein signaling (RGSs. These proteins act by antagonizing or abbreviating interaction of Gα proteins with effectors such as phospholipase Cβ. Previously, we reported that gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated second messenger inositol trisphosphate production was inhibited when RGS3 and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor cDNAs were co-transfected into the COS cell line. Here, we present evidence for RGS3 inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from cultured rat pituitary cells. Results A truncated version of RGS3 (RGS3T = RGS3 314–519 inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated inositol trisphosphate production more potently than did RSG3 in gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor-bearing COS cells. An RSG3/glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein bound more 35S-Gqα than any other member of the G protein family tested. Adenoviral-mediated RGS3 gene transfer in pituitary gonadotropes inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Adeno-RGS3 also inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulated 3H-inositol phosphate accumulation, consistent with a molecular site of action at the Gqα protein. Conclusions RGS3 inhibits gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated second messenger production (inositol trisphosphate as well as luteinizing hormone secretion from rat pituitary gonadotropes apparently by binding and suppressing the transduction properties of Gqα protein function. A version of RGS3 that is amino

  14. Local Production of Luteinizing Hormone Antisera to Be Used In Radioimmunoassay Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S. M.; Ali, N. I.; Abdullah, O. M.; Albaqi, W. A. A.

    2004-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone. It is one of the coordinate pituitary regulators of gonadal function (2). Serum LH concentration increase in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) which is the most common cause of infertility among infertile women. (3). The expensive imported LH kits lead us to think seriously to develop our local reagents. The antibody is a backbone of RIA reagents and this study is describing how to raise LH antibody and how to use it for a local LH kit production. Human LH was emulsified to Freunds adjuvant and acted as an immunogen Local Sudanese sheep was used to raise anti-LH antisera. The obtained antisera were adsorbed physically onto polystyrene beads with a dilution of 1/100.000 in order to develop an RIA kit. Optimization of LH assay conditions including incubation temperature and reaction time were performed. Assay validation tests including specificity, sensitivity, linearity, recovery, reproducibility and comparability for the local kit were performed. The polystyrene beads RIA LH system showed a minimum detectable dose of 0.04 m U/L. For the linearity and recovery tests, the regression coefficients were found to be 0.99, 0.997 respectively. The assay was found to be reproducible where the coefficients of variation within and between assays were less than 10%. Comparison between local and Chinese reagents for Luteinizing hormone determination in serum showed high correlation where r=0.96. (Authors)

  15. Local production of luteinizing hormone antisera to be used in radioimmunoassay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S. M.; Ali, N. I.; Abdullah, O. M.; Almahi, W. A. A.

    2004-12-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone. It is one of the coordinate pituitary regulators of gonadal function (2). Serum LH concentration increase in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) which is the most common cause of infertility among infertile women (3). The expensive imported LH kits lead us to think seriously to develop our local reagents. The antibody is a backbone of RIA reagents and this study is describing how to raise LH antibody and how to use it for a local LH kit production. Human LH was emulsified to Freunds adjuvant and acted as an immunogen local Sudanese sheep was used to raise anti-LH antisera. The obtained antisera were adsorbed physically onto polystyrene beads with a dilution of 1/100.000 in order to develop an RIA kit. Optimization of LH assay conditions including incubation temperature and reaction time were performed. Assay validation tests including specificity, sensitivity, linearity, recovery, reproducibility and comparability for the local kit were performed. The polystyrene beads RIA LH system showed a minimum detectable dose of 0.04 m U/L. For the linearity and recovery tests, the regression coefficients were found to be 0.99, 0.997 respectively. The assay was found to be reproducible where the coefficients of variation within and between assays were less than 10%. Comparison between local and Chinese reagents for luteinizing hormone determination in serum showed high correlation where r=0.96. (Author)

  16. Synthesis and in vitro anti-cancer evaluation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-conjugated peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin; Qiu, Qianqian; Ma, Ke; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-11-01

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is a decapeptide hormone released from the hypothalamus and shows high affinity binding to the LHRH receptors. It is reported that several cancer cells also express LHRH receptors such as breast, ovarian, prostatic, bladder and others. In this study, we linked B1, an anti-cancer peptide, to LHRH and its analogs to improve the activity against cancer cells with LHRH receptor. Biological evaluation revealed that TB1, the peptide contains triptorelin sequence, present favorable anti-cancer activity as well as plasma stability. Further investigations disclosed that TB1 trigger apoptosis by activating the mitochondria-cytochrome c-caspase apoptotic pathway, it also exhibited the anti-migratory effect on cancer cells.

  17. Preparation of high-quality iodine-125-labeled pituitary luteinizing hormone for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, H.; Wajchenberg, B.L.; Higa, O.Z.; Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Werner, R.S.; Pieroni, R.R.

    1974-01-01

    High quality pituitary luteinizing hormone labeled with 125 I was obtained after separating out the more heavily iodinated fractions, through starch gel electrophoresis, using the cathodal component (fraction 1) which was further purified on Sephadex G-100, with the obtention of an almost pure 125 I-LH preparation, presenting excellent immunoreactivity and low levels of damage on incubation in plasma. The quality control of the steps of the technique was done with plasma-coated talc (200 mg) which compared favorably, as far indicating undamaged labeled LH, with the more time-consuming chromatoelectrophoresis

  18. Ontogenesis of neurons producing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in the nervus terminalis of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzel-Fukuda, M; Morrell, J I; Pfaff, D W

    1985-08-15

    Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) was first detected at 15 days of gestation in ganglion cells associated with the peripheral, intracranial, and central parts of the nervus terminalis of the rat. LHRH was not detected in any other structure of the central nervous system at this age. In the 17-day-old fetal rat, 62% of the total LHRH-reactive neuronal population was found in ganglion cells of the nervus terminalis. At this same age, immunoreactive beta-luteinizing hormone (beta-LH) was first seen in gonadotropes of the anterior pituitary gland. At 19 days of gestation, 31% of the total number of LHRH-reactive neurons observed in the rat brain was found in the nervus terminalis, and immunoreactive processes were first seen in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and in the median eminence. Our data indicate that from 15 to 19 days of gestation the nervus terminalis is a principal source of LHRH in the fetal rat. Presence of the decapeptide in the nervus terminalis prior to appearance of beta-LH in the anterior pituitary suggests a possible role for LHRH in this system on maturation of the gonadotropes and differentiation of the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  19. Application of ovine luteinizing hormone (LH) radioimmunoassay in the quantitation of LH in different mammalian species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, R.P.; Aehnelt, C.

    1977-01-01

    A sensitive double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed for measuring luteinizing hormone (LH) in various African mammalian species, using rabbit anti-ovine LH serum (GDN 15) and radioiodinated rat LH or ovine LH. Serum and pituitary homogenates from some African mammals (hyrax, reedbuck, sable, impala, tsessebe, thar, spring-hare, ground squirrel and cheetah, as well as the domestic sheep, cow and horse and laboratory rat and hamster) produced displacement curves parallel to that of the ovine LH standards. The specificity of the assay was examined in detail for one species, the rock hyrax. Radioimmunoassay and bioassay estimates of LH in hyrax pituitaries containing widely differing quantities of pituitary hormones were similar. In sexually active male hyrax mean plasma LH was 12.1 ng/ml and pituitary LH 194 μg/gland, but in sexually quiescent hyrax mean plasma LH was 2.4 ng/ml and mean pituitary LH 76 μg/gland. Intravenous injection of 10 μg of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone increased mean LH levels in hyrax from 0.9 ng/ml to 23.2 ng/ml by 30 min. Conversely, im injection of 250 μg testosterone induced a fall in LH levels in male hyrax from 1.7 ng/ml to 0.7 ng/ml 6 h after administration. Although the specificity of the assay for quantitating plasma LH in other species was not categorically established, there was a good correlation between plasma LH concentration and reproductive state in the bontebok, impala, spring-hare, thar, cheetah, domestic horse and laboratory rat, suggesting the potential use of the antiserum in quantitating LH in a variety of mammalian species

  20. The detection of ovulation with a two-hour radioimmunoassay for human plasma luteinizing hormone using the Centria Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, S.

    1980-01-01

    We describe a rapid (2-h) radioimmunoassay for human plasma luteinizing hormone which utilizes the reagents from a commercially available kit. Standardization of the assay was achieved using plasma standards instead of a buffer system and the Centria radioimmunoassay centrifugal analyzer which allowed simultaneous initiation and termination of reactions in all assay tubes. The specificity, precision, and accuracy of the assay were equal to or better than the conventional 24-h assay. Since this assay is designed to detect the mid-cycle surge of luteinizing hormone, its decreased sensitivity was small price to pay for the speed with which a result could be obtained. (orig.) [de

  1. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (Buserelin) treatment for central precocious puberty: a multi-centre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werther, G A; Warne, G L; Ennis, G; Gold, H; Silink, M; Cowell, C T; Quigley, C; Howard, N; Antony, G; Byrne, G C

    1990-02-01

    A multi-centre open trial of Buserelin, a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue, was conducted in 13 children with central precocious puberty. Eleven children (eight girls and three boys), aged 3.4-10.2 years at commencement, completed the required 12 month period of treatment. Initially all patients received the drug by intranasal spray in a dose of 1200 micrograms/day, but by the end of the 12 month period two were having daily subcutaneous injections and three were receiving an increased dose intranasally. The first month of treatment was associated in one boy with increased aggression and masturbation, and in the girls with an increase in the prevalence of vaginal bleeding. Thereafter, however, both behavioural abnormalities and menstruation were suppressed. Median bone age increased significantly during the study, but without any significant change in the ratio of height age to bone age. The median predicted adult height for the group therefore did not alter significantly over the twelve months of the study. Buserelin treatment caused a reduction in the peak luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) responses to LHRH, mostly to prepubertal levels, and also suppressed basal FSH. In the first weeks of treatment, the girls' serum oestradiol levels rose significantly and then fell to prepubertal or early pubertal levels. A similar pattern was seen for serum testosterone levels. Serum somatomedin-C levels, however, showed little fluctuation over the course of the study. Buserelin treatment was safe and well accepted, and offers the promise of improved linear growth potential in precocious puberty.

  2. The problem of anti-doping control of luteinizing hormone in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llouquet, Jean Louis; Crepin, Nathalie; Lasne, Françoise

    2013-04-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is physiologically produced by the anterior pituitary gland. Male athletes may use pharmaceutical LH for doping since it increases the production of testosterone by testes. This hormone is thus on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list of substances prohibited for males. Anti-doping laboratories perform the assay of this hormone in urine and report abnormally elevated results. We observed a highly significant prevalence of abnormal results in samples taken after a boxing match. Comparison of the descriptive statistics for 426 LH values observed in boxing and other sports showed significant differences. An experimental study comparing urinary LH levels in 17 boxers before and after a match demonstrated a clear increase after the match. The same observation was made for urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in all of the eight boxers tested for this other pituitary gonadotropin. These observations have consequences for anti-doping controls, as the reference range for urinary LH levels must take into account the specificities of boxers. They also suggest consequences for the health of boxers. Although to our knowledge such observations have never been described, other pituitary disorders have been reported. Our results deserve further investigation from a medical point of view. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT® analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Stricker, Reto; Eberhart, Raphael; Chevailler, Marie-Christine; Quinn, Frank A.; Bischof, Paul; Stricker, René

    2017-01-01

    During a normal menstrual cycle, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and progesterone can vary widely between cycles for the same woman, as well as between different woman. Reliable reference values based on the local population are important for correct interpretation of laboratory results. The purpose of our study was to determine detailed reference values for these hormones throughout the menstrual cycle using the Abbott ARCHITECT system...

  4. Global but not gonadotrope-specific disruption of Bmal1 abolishes the luteinizing hormone surge without affecting ovulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, Adrienne; Zhu, Lei; Blum, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    While there is evidence for a circadian regulation of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, the contributions of individual tissue clocks to this process remain unclear. We studied female mice deficient in the Bmal1 gene (Bmal1(-/-)), which is essential for circadian clock function, an...

  5. Variation of luteinizing hormone and androgens in oligomenorrhoea and its implications for the study of polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooff, M. H.; van der Meer, M.; Lambalk, C. B.; Schoemaker, J.

    1999-01-01

    We measured luteinizing hormone (LH) and androgen concentrations in patients at different phases of the oligomenorrhoeic cycle and compared the results with those of patients with normogonadotrophic amenorrhoea. Several blood samples separated by >/=7 days were obtained from each of 72 patients with

  6. Luteinizing hormone receptors in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamoto, M.; Nakano, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Ikoma, H.; Furukawa, K.

    1986-01-01

    The binding of 125 I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (hLH) to the 2000-g fraction of human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the entire menstrual cycle was examined. Specific high affinity, low capacity receptors for hLH were demonstrated in the 2000-g fraction of both follicles and corpora lutea. Specific binding of 125 I-labeled hLH to follicular tissue increased from the early follicular phase to the ovulatory phase. Specific binding of 125 I-labeled hLH to luteal tissue increased from the early luteal phase to the midluteal phase and decreased towards the late luteal phase. The results of the present study indicate that the increase and decrease in receptors for hLH during the menstrual cycle might play an important role in the regulation of the ovarian cycle

  7. Luteinizing hormone receptors in human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamoto, M.; Nakano, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Ikoma, H.; Furukawa, K.

    1986-08-01

    The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled human luteinizing hormone (hLH) to the 2000-g fraction of human ovarian follicles and corpora lutea during the entire menstrual cycle was examined. Specific high affinity, low capacity receptors for hLH were demonstrated in the 2000-g fraction of both follicles and corpora lutea. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to follicular tissue increased from the early follicular phase to the ovulatory phase. Specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hLH to luteal tissue increased from the early luteal phase to the midluteal phase and decreased towards the late luteal phase. The results of the present study indicate that the increase and decrease in receptors for hLH during the menstrual cycle might play an important role in the regulation of the ovarian cycle.

  8. Active Immunization and Evaluation Against Luteinizing Hormone for Radioimmunoassay Technique in Human Serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeid, N.H.; Shafik, H.M.; Ayoub, S.M.; Mehany, N.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the antigenicity of luteinizing hormone conjugate with Bovine Serum Albumin (LH-BSA). The conjugation of LH- BSA was carried out by 1-Ethyl-3-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl) Carbodiimide HCl (ECDI). Three rabbits were immunized against LH-BSA. Two rabbits were immunized against nonconjugated LH and two rabbits against BSA only. Immunization was carried out through primary injection and 4 boosters. The preparation of the radioiodinated 125 I-LH was carried out using N- Bromo-Succinimide as oxidizing agent. The preparation of LH standards was carried out. The obtained LH antisera were characterized of titer, immuno response and displacement profile formulation, optimization and validation of the local liquid phase LH- Radioimmunoassay (RIA) system was carried out. The results provide a highly sensitive and accurate RIA system of LH-BSA. This technique could be used in measuring LH in human serum to investigate fertility especially disorders of the hypothalamic / pituitary / gonadal axis

  9. Estriol administration modulates luteinizing hormone secretion in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genazzani, Alessandro D; Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Santagni, Susanna; Rattighieri, Erica; Ricchieri, Federica; Chierchia, Elisa; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of estriol administration on the hypothalamus-pituitary function and gonadotropins secretion in patients affected by functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). Controlled clinical study. Patients with FHA in a clinical research environment. Twelve hypogonadotropic patients affected by FHA. Pulsatility study of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test (10 μg in bolus) at baseline condition and after 8 weeks of therapy with 2 mg/day of estriol. Measurements of plasma LH, FSH, estradiol (E(2)), androstenedione (A), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), cortisol, androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT(3)), free thyroxine (fT(4)), and insulin, and pulse detection. After treatment, the FHA patients showed a statistically significant increase of LH plasma levels (from 0.7 ± 0.1 mIU/mL to 3.5 ± 0.3 mIU/mL) and a statistically significant increase of LH pulse amplitude with no changes in LH pulse frequency. In addition, the LH response to the GnRH bolus was a statistically significant increase. Estriol administration induced the increase of LH plasma levels in FHA and improved GnRH-induced LH secretion. These findings suggest that estriol administration modulates the neuroendocrine control of the hypothalamus-pituitary unit and induces the recovery of LH synthesis and secretion in hypogonadotropic patients with FHA. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural and functional plasticity of the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotrophin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppmann, Britta; Kleinau, Gunnar; Krause, Gerd; Gromoll, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In recent years it became evident that several types of the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotrophin receptor (LHCGR) exist. In addition to the classical receptor type known in rodents, an LHCGR type containing an additional exon is present in primates and humans. This specific exon 6A introduces a hitherto unknown regulatory pathway of the LHCGR at the transcriptional level which can lead to the expression of an alternative protein covering the extracellular part only. Furthermore, an LHCGR type lacking exon 10 at the mRNA and protein levels has been described in the New World primate lineage, giving rise to an additional receptor type in which amino acids of the extracellular hinge region connecting the leucine-rich repeat domain and transmembrane domain are missing. METHODS Topic-related information was retrieved by systematic searches using Medline/PubMed. Structural homology models were retrieved from a glycoprotein hormone receptors web application and from recent publications. RESULTS In a novel approach, we combine functional aspects with three-dimensional properties of the LHCGR and the different receptor types to deduce causative relationships between these two parameters. On this basis, the physiological impact and patho-physiological consequences of the different LHCGR types are inferred. CONCLUSIONS The complex system of different LHCGR types and two corresponding hormones (LH and CG) represents a major challenge for future studies on selective hormone binding, signal transduction and receptor regulation. The presence of these naturally occurring LHCGR types requires re-examining of our present view on receptor function, experimental set-ups and data interpretation, but also offers new clinical approaches to interfere with LH/CG action in humans.

  11. Radioimmunoassay of bovine, ovine and porcine luteinizing hormone with a monoclonal antibody and a human tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosberg, M; Tagle, R; Madej, A; Molina, J R; Carlsson, M -A

    1993-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for bovine (bLH), ovine (oLH) and porcine (pLH) luteinizing hormone was developed using a human [sup 125]ILH tracer from a commercial kit and a monoclonal antibody (518B7) specific for LH but with low species specificity. Standard curves demonstrated similar binding kinetics when bLH, oLH and pLH were incubated with tracer and antibody for 2 h at room temperature. A 30-min delay in the addition of the tracer gave sufficient sensitivity when analysing pLH. Separation of antibody-bound LH from free hormone was achieved by using second antibody-coated micro Sepharose beads. The assay was validated and the performance compared with that of an RIA currently in use for determination of bLH (coefficient of correlation: 0.99 and 0.98). Regardless of the standards used, intra-assay coefficients of variation were <10% for LH concentrations exceeding 1 [mu]g/L. The inter-assay coefficients of variation were <15%. The assay was used for clinical evaluation demonstrating the pre-ovulatory LH surge in two cyclic cows, LH pulsatility in an oophorectomized ewe and LH response to GnRH injection in a boar. (au) (7 refs.).

  12. Synthesis and release of luteinizing hormone in vitro: manipulations of Ca2+ environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T.C.; Jackson, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors determined if luteinizing hormone (LH) synthesis is Ca2+ dependent and coupled to LH release. They monitored LH synthesis when LH release was stimulated either by specific [gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)] or nonspecific stimuli (50 mM K+ and 2 or 20 microM Ca2+ ionophore A23187) and inhibited by Ca2+-reduced medium. LH synthesis was estimated by measuring incorporation of [ 3 H]glucosamine (glycosylation) and [ 14 C]alanine (translation) into total (cell and medium) immunoprecipitable LH by cultured rat anterior pituitary cells. Both GnRH (1 nM) and 50 mM K+ significantly stimulated LH release and glycosylation, but had no effect on LH translation. A23187 also stimulated LH release, but significantly depressed glycosylation of LH and total protein and [ 14 C]alanine uptake. Deletion of Ca2+ from the medium depressed both GnRH-induced LH release and glycosylation. Addition of 0.1 mM EGTA to Ca2+-free medium not only inhibited GnRH-induced release and glycosylation of LH but also uptake of precursors and glycosylation and translation of total protein. Thus, glycosylation and release of LH are Ca2+ dependent. Whether parallel changes in LH release and glycosylation reflect a cause and effect relationship remains to be determined

  13. Decapeptides as effective agonists from L-amino acids biologically equivalent to the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkers, K.; Bowers, C.Y.; Tang, P.L.; Kubota, M.

    1986-01-01

    Apparently, no agonist has been found that is comparable in potency to the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) for release of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) without substitutions with unnatural or D forms of natural amino acids. Of 139 known agonist analogs of LHRH, two were active in the range of 65%. The four LHRHs known to occur in nature involve a total of six amino acids (Tyr, His, Leu, Trp, Arg, Gln) in positions 5, 7, and 8. There are 16 possible peptides with these six amino acids in positions 5, 7, and 8, of which 4 are the known LHRHs, and 2 more were synthesized. The authors have synthesized the 10 new peptides and assayed 11 in vivo and in vitro, and they found not only 1 but a total of 5 that have activity equivalent to or greater than that of LHRH for the release of LH and/or FSH under at least one assay condition. These five are as follows: [His 5 ,Trp 7 ,Gln 8 ]LHRH; [His 5 ,Trp 7 ,Leu 8 ]LHRH; [His 5 ,Trp 7 ]LHRH; [Trp 7 ]LHRH; [His 5 ]LHRH. These structures are a basis for the design of antagonists without Arg 8 toward avoiding histamine release. Complete inhibition of LH and FSH release in vivo may be induced by joint use of Arg 8 and Gln 8 or Leu 8 antagonists. These potent agonists, related to LHRH, may be therapeutically useful in disorders of reproduction, the central nervous system, and for the control of hormone-dependent carcinomas. Radioreceptor assays and radioimmunoassays were utilized

  14. Highly potent analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing D-phenylalanine nitrogen mustard in position 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Janaky, T; Csernus, V J; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Srkalovic, G; Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1989-08-01

    The nitrogen mustard derivatives of 4-phenylbutyric acid and L-phenylalanine, called chlorambucil (Chl) and melphalan (Mel), respectively, have been incorporated into several peptide hormones, including luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). The alkylating analogues of LH-RH were prepared by linking Chl, as an N-acyl moiety, to the complete amino acid sequence of agonistic and antagonistic analogues. These compounds, in particular the antagonistic analogues, showed much lower potency than their congeners carrying other acyl groups. To obtain highly potent alkylating analogues of LH-RH, the D enantiomer of Mel was incorporated into position 6 of the native hormone and some of its antagonistic analogues. Of the peptides prepared, [D-Mel6]LH-RH (SB-05) and [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Arg5,D-Mel6,D-Ala10++ +]LH-RH [SB-86, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine and Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] possessed the expected high agonistic and antagonistic activities, respectively, and also showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary cells, human breast cancer cells, human prostate cancer cells, and rat Dunning R-3327 prostate tumor cells. These two analogues exerted cytotoxic effects on human and rat mammary cancer cells in vitro. Thus these two D-Mel6 analogues seem to be particularly suitable for the study of how alkylating analogues of LH-RH could interfere with intracellular events in certain cancer cells.

  15. Highly potent analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing D-phenylalanine nitrogen mustard in position 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    The nitrogen mustard derivatives of 4-phenylbutyric acid and L-phenylalanine, called chlorambucil (Chl) and melphalan (Mel), respectively, have been incorporated into several peptide hormones, including luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). The alkylating analogues of LH-RH were prepared by linking Chl, as an N-acyl moiety, to the complete amino acid sequence of agonistic and antagonistic analogues. These compounds, in particular the antagonistic analogues, showed much lower potency than their congeners carrying other acyl groups. To obtain highly potent alkylating analogues of LH-RH, the D enantiomer of Mel was incorporated into position 6 of the native hormone and some of its antagonistic analogues. Of the peptides prepared, [D-Mel 6 ]LH-RH (SB-05) and [Ac-D-Nal(2) 1 ,D-Phe(pCl) 2 ,D-Pal(3) 3 ,Arg 5 ,D-Mel 6 ,D-Ala 10 ]LH-RH [SB-86, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine and Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] possessed the expected high agonistic and antagonistic activities, respectively, and also showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary cells, human breast cancer cells, human prostate cancer cells, and rat Dunning R-3327 prostate tumor cells. These two analogues exerted cytotoxic effects on human and rat mammary cancer cells in vitro. Thus these two D-Mel 6 analogues seem to be particularly suitable for the study of how alkylating analogues of LH-RH could interfere with intracellular events in certain cancer cells

  16. Is radiation-induced ovarian failure in rhesus monkeys preventable by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists?: Preliminary observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataya, K.; Pydyn, E.; Ramahi-Ataya

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of cancer therapy, increasing numbers of cancer patients are achieving long term survival. Impaired ovarian function after radiation therapy has been reported in several studies. Some investigators have suggested that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) can prevent radiation-induced ovarian injury in rodents. Adult female rhesus monkeys were given either vehicle or Leuprolide acetate before, during, and after radiation. Radiation was given in a dose of 200 rads/day for a total of 4000 rads to the ovaries. Frequent serum samples were assayed for estradiol (E 2 ) and FSH. Ovariectomy was performed later. Ovaries were processed and serially sectioned. Follicle count and size distribution were determined. Shortly after radiation started, E 2 dropped to low levels, at which it remained, whereas serum FSH level, which was low before radiation, rose soon after starting radiation. In monkeys treated with a combination of LHRHa and radiation, FSH started rising soon after the LHRHa-loaded minipump was removed (after the end of radiation). Serum E 2 increased after the end of LHRHa treatment in the non-irradiated monkey, but not in the irradiated monkey. Follicle counts were not preserved in the LHRHa-treated monkeys that received radiation. The data demonstrated no protective effect of LHRHa treatment against radiation-induced ovarian injury in this rhesus monkey model. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Menstruation recovery after chemotherapy and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist plus tamoxifen therapy for premenopausal patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kenichi; Matsuo, Sadanori; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao; Shiono, Motomi

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the period required for menstruation recovery after long-term luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist plus tamoxifen therapy following chemotherapy. In this study we investigated the period required for menstruation recovery after the therapy. The subjects comprised 105 premenopausal breast cancer patients who had undergone surgery. All patients were administered an LH-RH agonist for 24 months and tamoxifen for 5 years following the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, and the status of menstruation recovery was examined. Menstruation resumed in 16 cases (15.2%) after the last LH-RH agonist treatment session. The mean period from the last LH-RH agonist treatment to the recovery of menstruation was 6.9 months. The rate of menstruation recovery was 35.5% in patients aged 40 years or younger and 8.0% in those aged 41 years or older, and it was significantly higher in those aged 40 years or younger. The period until menstruation recovery tended to be longer in older patients at the end of treatment. This study showed that menstruation resumed after treatment at higher rates in younger patients. However, because it is highly likely that ovarian function will be destroyed by the treatment even in young patients, it is considered necessary to explain the risk to patients and obtain informed consent before introducing this treatment modality.

  18. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), ch. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchimont, P.

    1976-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for FSH and LH is described. Both FSH and LH were labelled with 131 I by the Greenwood method. The FSH iodination mixture is purified by passing over a column of DEAE cellulose. The LH iodination mixture can be purified by sephadex gel filtration or by cellulose adsorption chromatography. After incubation, the bound and free-labelled hormones are separated by the double antibody technique

  19. A neurokinin 3 receptor-selective agonist accelerates pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in lactating cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sho; Wakabayashi, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takashi; Ohkura, Satoshi; Matsuyama, Shuichi

    2017-07-01

    Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, which is indispensable for follicular development, is suppressed in lactating dairy and beef cattle. Neurokinin B (NKB) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus are considered to play an essential role in generating the pulsatile mode of GnRH/luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. The present study aimed to clarify the role of NKB-neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) signaling in the pulsatile pattern of GnRH/gonadotropin secretion in postpartum lactating cattle. We examined the effects of the administration of an NK3R-selective agonist, senktide, on gonadotropin secretion in lactating cattle. The lactating cattle, at approximately 7 days postpartum, were intravenously infused with senktide (30 or 300 nmol/min) or vehicle for 24 h. The administration of 30 or 300 nmol/min senktide significantly increased LH pulse frequency compared to in the control group during 0-4 or 20-24 h after infusion, respectively. Moreover, LH and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were gradually increased by 300 nmol/min administration of senktide during the 0-4-h sampling period. Ultrasonography of the ovaries was performed to identify the first postpartum ovulation in senktide-administered lactating cattle. The interval from calving to first postpartum ovulation was significantly shorter in the 300 nmol/min senktide-administered group than in the control group. Taken together, these findings suggest that senktide infusion elicits an increase in LH pulse frequency that may stimulate follicular development and, in turn, induce the first postpartum ovulation in lactating cattle. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Association of luteinizing hormone chorionic gonadotropin receptor gene polymorphism (rs2293275) with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thathapudi, Sujatha; Kodati, Vijayalakshmi; Erukkambattu, Jayashankar; Addepally, Uma; Qurratulain, Hasan

    2015-03-01

    Polycystic ovaries and irregular menstruation/anovulation are important diagnostic criteria along with hyperandrogenism as per the Androgen Excess Society-2006 criteria for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). In the etiopathogenesis of PCOS, one of the candidate genes causing ovarian failure is the luteinizing hormone (LH) chorionic gonadotropin hormone receptor (LHCGR). Our aim was to study the association of LHCGR polymorphism (rs2293275) with PCOS in our study population. Genetic case-control study from multiple gynecological centers from Hyderabad, a cosmopolitan city in South India. The study involved 204 women with PCOS and 204 healthy, sex-, and age-matched controls. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles were taken in a well-designed pro forma. Isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and genotype analysis were done for the entire study population using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method followed by 12% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In this study, we have demonstrated an association between LHCGR (rs2293275) polymorphism and PCOS. The frequency of the G allele was 0.60 in PCOS and 0.49 in controls (odds ratio [OR] 1.531, confidence interval [CI] 1.16-2.01, and p-value=0.0026), which indicates that the G allele is associated with PCOS in our population. The GG genotype conferred a significant risk of developing PCOS (OR 3.36, CI 1.96-5.75, and p-value<0.0001). We found a significant association of the GG allele with body-mass index, waist to hip ratio, insulin resistance, LH, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio in PCOS when compared with controls. The AA allele showed high basal FSH levels. This study suggests that LHCGR (rs2293275) polymorphism is associated with PCOS and could be used as a relevant molecular marker to identify women with the risk of developing PCOS in our population and may provide an understanding about the etiology of PCOS.

  1. Cortisol Interferes with the Estradiol-Induced Surge of Luteinizing Hormone in the Ewe1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R.; Breen, Kellie M.; Oakley, Amy E.; Pierce, Bree N.; Tilbrook, Alan J.; Turner, Anne I.; Karsch, Fred J.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that cortisol interferes with the positive feedback action of estradiol that induces the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Ovariectomized sheep were treated sequentially with progesterone and estradiol to create artificial estrous cycles. Cortisol or vehicle (saline) was infused from 2 h before the estradiol stimulus through the time of the anticipated LH surge in the artificial follicular phase of two successive cycles. The plasma cortisol increment produced by infusion was ∼1.5 times greater than maximal concentrations seen during infusion of endotoxin, which is a model of immune/inflammatory stress. In experiment 1, half of the ewes received vehicle in the first cycle and cortisol in the second; the others were treated in reverse order. All ewes responded with an LH surge. Cortisol delayed the LH surge and reduced its amplitude, but both effects were observed only in the second cycle. Experiment 2 was modified to provide better control for a cycle effect. Four treatment sequences were tested (cycle 1-cycle 2): vehicle-vehicle, cortisol-cortisol, vehicle-cortisol, cortisol-vehicle. Again, cortisol delayed but did not block the LH surge, and this delay occurred in both cycles. Thus, an elevation in plasma cortisol can interfere with the positive feedback action of estradiol by delaying and attenuating the LH surge. PMID:19056703

  2. Determination of luteinizing hormone in bovine blood by radioligand receptor assay and comparison with radioimmunological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schams, D.; Menzer, C.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioligand receptor assay (RRA) using rat testis homogenate as the receptor source is described for measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) in bovine blood. Interfering and nonspecific substances in blood were removed by means of ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50. Criteria of validation such as recovery of added LH to plasma or serum, reproducibility, and specificity gave good results. Inhibition curves obtained with bovine plasma and serum were parallel to those obtained with the bovine standard preparation. The range of the dose-response curve was between 0.5-20 ng of bovine LH. The pattern of LH concentrations in purified serum samples under different physiological conditions such as during the oestrous cycle and after administration of GnRH showed a very close correlattion whether measured by means of radioimmunoassay (RIA) or receptor assay. Values of RRA-LH were consistently higher than those of RIA-LH. Thus the lower the RIA-LH levels, the more pronounced were the discrepancies between results of both assay systems. The mean ratio of RRA-LH/RIA-LH for basal levels (less than 1 ng RIA-LH/ml plasma) was 17.8 as compared to a mean ratio for higher peak values (more than 20 ng RIA-LH/ml plasma) of only 1.2. (author)

  3. Radioimmunological and serological assay of the urinary excretion of the luteinizing hormone in women with amenorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, W.

    1975-01-01

    The radioimmunological and serological assay of the urinary excretion of the luteinizing hormone (LH) was performed in 6 women treated with monopausal gonadotropin - because of amenorrhoe. The observations of the course of treatment demonstrated different concentration of LH in women treated because of primary and secondary amenorrhoe. In cases of primary amenorrhoe increase of the LH concentration appeared in the form of ovulation peak being closely correlated with the first injection of Biogonadyl (HCG) preparation. Different observations were made in the secondary amenorrhoe group, where urinary LH increase proceeded for some hours the adminstration of the exogenous chrionic gonadotropin. This may prove the induction of ovulation without the participation of HCG, as an effect of the menopausal gonadotropin (Menogonadyl) with established 1:1 ratio of FSH:LH. In the examined group of women with secondary amenorrhoe the radioimmunologic assay demonstrated persisting through several days high levels of urinary LH - undetectable by serological methods. In 4 cases corpus luteum appeared in the course of treatment - confirmed by cytologic examination and by determination of urainary pregnandiol activity. (author)

  4. Estradiol and luteinizing hormone regulate recognition memory following subchronic phencyclidine: Evidence for hippocampal GABA action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Alexander J; Schaler, Ari W; Fried, Jenny; Paine, Tracie A; Thornton, Janice E

    2018-05-01

    The cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are poorly understood and difficult to treat. Estrogens may mitigate these symptoms via unknown mechanisms. To examine these mechanisms, we tested whether increasing estradiol (E) or decreasing luteinizing hormone (LH) could mitigate short-term episodic memory loss in a phencyclidine (PCP) model of schizophrenia. We then assessed whether changes in cortical or hippocampal GABA may underlie these effects. Female rats were ovariectomized and injected subchronically with PCP. To modulate E and LH, animals received estradiol capsules or Antide injections. Short-term episodic memory was assessed using the novel object recognition task (NORT). Brain expression of GAD67 was analyzed via western blot, and parvalbumin-containing cells were counted using immunohistochemistry. Some rats received hippocampal infusions of a GABA A agonist, GABA A antagonist, or GAD inhibitor before behavioral testing. We found that PCP reduced hippocampal GAD67 and abolished recognition memory. Antide restored hippocampal GAD67 and rescued recognition memory in PCP-treated animals. Estradiol prevented PCP's amnesic effect in NORT but failed to restore hippocampal GAD67. PCP did not cause significant differences in number of parvalbumin-expressing cells or cortical expression of GAD67. Hippocampal infusions of a GABA A agonist restored recognition memory in PCP-treated rats. Blocking hippocampal GAD or GABA A receptors in ovx animals reproduced recognition memory loss similar to PCP and inhibited estradiol's protection of recognition memory in PCP-treated animals. In summary, decreasing LH or increasing E can lessen short-term episodic memory loss, as measured by novel object recognition, in a PCP model of schizophrenia. Alterations in hippocampal GABA may contribute to both PCP's effects on recognition memory and the hormones' ability to prevent or reverse them. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Luteinizing hormone reduction by the male potency herb, Butea superba Roxb.

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    S. Malaivijitnond

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine if Butea superba Roxb., a traditional Thai male potency herb, has androgenic activity in 60-day-old male Wistar rats, we measured its effects on the pituitary-testicular axis and sex organs. Intact and orchidectomized adult male rats were subdivided into five groups (10 rats/group: distilled water, Butea superba (BS-10, BS-50, BS-250, and testosterone propionate (TP. They received 0, 10, 50, and 250 mg·kg body weight-1·day-1 BS in distilled water by gavage and 6 mg·kg body weight-1·day-1 TP sc, respectively, during the 30-day treatment period. Blood was collected every 15 days and luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and testosterone were measured. Changes of weight and histological appearance of sex organs were determined at the end of the 30-day treatment and 15-day post-treatment periods. TP treatment reduced serum FSH and LH levels and significantly increased the weight of the seminal vesicles and epididymis, in accordance with histopathological changes, in both intact and orchidectomized rats. No changes in serum testosterone, LH, and FSH levels were observed in any of the intact rats treated with BS, but a significant increase in seminal vesicle weight was observed only in the BS-250 group. Although a significant reduction in serum LH was detected in the BS-50 and BS-250 groups of orchidectomized rats, no significant change in weight or histology of sex organs was observed. Thus, we conclude that B. superba needs endogenous testosterone to work synergistically to stimulate the accessory sex organ of intact animals and can potentially exhibit an LH reduction effect in orchidectomized animals.

  6. Genetic Variants Associated with Circulating Parathyroid Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Lutsey, Pamela L; Kleber, Marcus E; Nielson, Carrie M; Mitchell, Braxton D; Bis, Joshua C; Eny, Karen M; Portas, Laura; Eriksson, Joel; Lorentzon, Mattias; Koller, Daniel L; Milaneschi, Yuri; Teumer, Alexander; Pilz, Stefan; Nethander, Maria; Selvin, Elizabeth; Tang, Weihong; Weng, Lu-Chen; Wong, Hoi Suen; Lai, Dongbing; Peacock, Munro; Hannemann, Anke; Völker, Uwe; Homuth, Georg; Nauk, Matthias; Murgia, Federico; Pattee, Jack W; Orwoll, Eric; Zmuda, Joseph M; Riancho, Jose Antonio; Wolf, Myles; Williams, Frances; Penninx, Brenda; Econs, Michael J; Ryan, Kathleen A; Ohlsson, Claes; Paterson, Andrew D; Psaty, Bruce M; Siscovick, David S; Rotter, Jerome I; Pirastu, Mario; Streeten, Elizabeth; März, Winfried; Fox, Caroline; Coresh, Josef; Wallaschofski, Henri; Pankow, James S; de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2017-05-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a primary calcium regulatory hormone. Elevated serum PTH concentrations in primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism have been associated with bone disease, hypertension, and in some studies, cardiovascular mortality. Genetic causes of variation in circulating PTH concentrations are incompletely understood. We performed a genome-wide association study of serum PTH concentrations among 29,155 participants of European ancestry from 13 cohort studies ( n =22,653 and n =6502 in discovery and replication analyses, respectively). We evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with natural log-transformed PTH concentration adjusted for age, sex, season, study site, and principal components of ancestry. We discovered associations of SNPs from five independent regions with serum PTH concentration, including the strongest association with rs6127099 upstream of CYP24A1 ( P =4.2 × 10 -53 ), a gene that encodes the primary catabolic enzyme for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Each additional copy of the minor allele at this SNP associated with 7% higher serum PTH concentration. The other SNPs associated with serum PTH concentration included rs4074995 within RGS14 ( P =6.6 × 10 -17 ), rs219779 adjacent to CLDN14 ( P =3.5 × 10 -16 ), rs4443100 near RTDR1 ( P =8.7 × 10 -9 ), and rs73186030 near CASR ( P =4.8 × 10 -8 ). Of these five SNPs, rs6127099, rs4074995, and rs219779 replicated. Thus, common genetic variants located near genes involved in vitamin D metabolism and calcium and renal phosphate transport associated with differences in circulating PTH concentrations. Future studies could identify the causal variants at these loci, and the clinical and functional relevance of these variants should be pursued. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. [Diagnostic value of baseline serum luteinizing hormone level for central precocious puberty in girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Li-Xue; Yang, Fan

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of baseline serum luteinizing hormone (LH) level for central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls. A total of 279 girls with precocious puberty were subjected to assessment of growth and development, bone age determination, baseline LH test, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) test, gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test, and other related examinations. Of the 279 patients, 175 were diagnosed with CPP and 104 with premature thelarche (PT). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of baseline LH and FSH levels and their peak levels for CPP, and the correlation between the baseline LH level and the peak LH level was analyzed. The CPP group had significantly higher bone age, baseline LH and FSH levels, peak LH and FSH levels, and ratio of peak LH level to peak FSH level than the PT group (Pbaseline LH level and peak LH level had good diagnostic values for CPP. Among the three bone age subgroups in the CPP group (7.0-9.0 years, 9.0-11.0 years, and >11.0 years), baseline LH level showed the best diagnostic value in the >11.0 years subgroup, with the largest area under the ROC curve. At a baseline LH level of 0.45 IU/L, the Youden index reached the peak value, and the sensitivity and specificity were 66.7% and 80% respectively, for the diagnosis of CPP. At a peak LH level of 9.935 IU/L, the Youden index reached the peak value, and the sensitivity and specificity were 74.8% and 100% respectively, for the diagnosis of CPP. The baseline LH level was positively correlated with the peak LH level (r=0.440, PBaseline LH level can be used as an primary screening index for the diagnosis of CPP. It has a certain diagnostic value for CPP at different bone ages, and may be used as a monitoring index during the treatment and follow-uP.

  8. Effects of ionizing radiation and pretreatment with [D-Leu6,des-Gly10] luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ethylamide on developing rat ovarian follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; McMahon, A.; Barr, R.; O'Connell, G.; Belbeck, L.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, [D-Leu6,des-Gly10] luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ethylamide, in ameliorating the damage caused by ionizing radiation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist was administered to rats from day 22 to 37 of age in doses of 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 microgram/day or vehicle and the rats were sacrificed on day 44 of age. There were no effects on estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing, or follicle-stimulating hormone, nor an effect on ovarian follicle numbers or development. In separate experiments, rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in doses of 0.04, 0.1, 0.4, or 1.0 microgram/day were either irradiated or sham irradiated on day 30 and all groups sacrificed on day 44 of age. Irradiation produced a reduction in ovarian weight and an increase in ovarian follicular atresia. Pretreatment with the agonist prevented the reduction in ovarian weight and numbers of primordial and preantral follicles but not healthy or atretic antral follicles. Such putative radioprotection should be tested on actual reproductive performance

  9. Constitutive luteinizing hormone receptor signaling causes sexual dysfunction and Leydig cell adenomas in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Lan; Hiremath, Deepak S; Paquet, Marilène; Narayan, Prema

    2017-05-01

    The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) is necessary for fertility, and genetic mutations cause defects in reproductive development and function. Activating mutations in LHCGR cause familial male-limited precocious puberty (FMPP). We have previously characterized a mouse model (KiLHRD582G) for FMPP that exhibits the same phenotype of precocious puberty, Leydig cell hyperplasia, and elevated testosterone as boys with the disorder. We observed that KiLHRD582G male mice became infertile by 6 months of age, although sperm count and motility were normal. In this study, we sought to determine the reason for the progressive infertility and the long-term consequences of constant LHCGR signaling. Mating with superovulated females showed that infertile KiLHRD582G mice had functional sperm and normal accessory gland function. Sexual behavior studies revealed that KiLHRD582G mice mounted females, but intromission was brief and ejaculation was not achieved. Histological analysis of the reproductive tract showed unique metaplastic changes resulting in pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells with cilia in the ampulla and chondrocytes in the penile body of the KiLHRD582G mice. The infertile KiLHRD582G exhibited enlarged sinusoids and a decrease in smooth muscle content in the corpora cavernosa of the penile body. However, collagen content was unchanged. Leydig cell adenomas and degenerating seminiferous tubules were seen in 1-year-old KiLHRD582G mice. We conclude that progressive infertility in KiLHRD582G mice is due to sexual dysfunction likely due to functional defects in the penis. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Neonatal Overnutrition Increases Testicular Size and Expression of Luteinizing Hormone β-Subunit in Peripubertal Male Rats

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    Pilar Argente-Arizón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper nutrition is important for growth and development. Maturation of the reproductive axis and the timing of pubertal onset can be delayed when insufficient nutrition is available, or possibly advanced with nutritional abundance. The childhood obesity epidemic has been linked to a secular trend in advanced puberty in some populations. The increase in circulating leptin that occurs in association with obesity has been suggested to act as a signal that an adequate nutritional status exists for puberty to occur, allowing activation of central mechanisms. However, obesity-associated hyperleptinemia is linked to decreased leptin sensitivity, at least in adults. Here, we analyzed whether neonatal overnutrition modifies the response to an increase in leptin in peripubertal male rats, as previously demonstrated in females. Wistar rats were raised in litters of 4 (neonatal overnutrition or 12 pups (controls per dam. Leptin was administered sc (3 µg/g body weight at postnatal day 35 and the rats killed 45 min or 2 h later. Postnatal overfeeding resulted in increased body weight and circulating leptin levels; however, we found no overweight-related changes in the mRNA levels of neuropeptides involved in metabolism or reproduction. In contrast, pituitary expression of luteinizing hormone (LH beta-subunit was increased in overweight rats, as was testicular weight. There were no basal differences between L4 and L12 males or in their response to leptin administration in pSTAT3 levels in the hypothalamus at either 45 min or 2 h. In contrast, pJAK2 was found to be higher at 45 min in L4 compared to L12 males regardless of leptin treatment, while at 2 h it was higher in L4 leptin-treated males compared to L12 leptin-treated males, as well as L4 vehicle-treated rats. There were no changes in response to leptin administration in the expression of the neuropeptides analyzed. However, serum LH levels rose only in L4 males in response to leptin, but

  11. Neonatal Overnutrition Increases Testicular Size and Expression of Luteinizing Hormone β-Subunit in Peripubertal Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Castro-González, David; Díaz, Francisca; Fernández-Gómez, María J.; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A.; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.

    2018-01-01

    Proper nutrition is important for growth and development. Maturation of the reproductive axis and the timing of pubertal onset can be delayed when insufficient nutrition is available, or possibly advanced with nutritional abundance. The childhood obesity epidemic has been linked to a secular trend in advanced puberty in some populations. The increase in circulating leptin that occurs in association with obesity has been suggested to act as a signal that an adequate nutritional status exists for puberty to occur, allowing activation of central mechanisms. However, obesity-associated hyperleptinemia is linked to decreased leptin sensitivity, at least in adults. Here, we analyzed whether neonatal overnutrition modifies the response to an increase in leptin in peripubertal male rats, as previously demonstrated in females. Wistar rats were raised in litters of 4 (neonatal overnutrition) or 12 pups (controls) per dam. Leptin was administered sc (3 µg/g body weight) at postnatal day 35 and the rats killed 45 min or 2 h later. Postnatal overfeeding resulted in increased body weight and circulating leptin levels; however, we found no overweight-related changes in the mRNA levels of neuropeptides involved in metabolism or reproduction. In contrast, pituitary expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) beta-subunit was increased in overweight rats, as was testicular weight. There were no basal differences between L4 and L12 males or in their response to leptin administration in pSTAT3 levels in the hypothalamus at either 45 min or 2 h. In contrast, pJAK2 was found to be higher at 45 min in L4 compared to L12 males regardless of leptin treatment, while at 2 h it was higher in L4 leptin-treated males compared to L12 leptin-treated males, as well as L4 vehicle-treated rats. There were no changes in response to leptin administration in the expression of the neuropeptides analyzed. However, serum LH levels rose only in L4 males in response to leptin, but with no change

  12. Reduced Luteinizing Hormone Induction Following Estrogen and Progesterone Priming in Female-to-Male Transsexuals

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    Toshiya Funabashi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies have suggested that one of the brain structures involved in gender identity is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, though this brain structure is probably not the only one to control gender identity. We hypothesized that, if this brain area also affected gonadotropin secretion in humans, transsexual individuals might produce different gonadotropin levels in response to exogenous stimulation. In the present study, we examined whether estrogen combined with progesterone might lead to a change in luteinizing hormone (LH secretion in female-to-male (FTM transsexual individuals. We studied female control subjects (n = 9, FTM transsexual subjects (n = 12, and male-to-female (MTF transsexual subjects (n = 8. Ethinyl estradiol (50 μg/tablet was administered orally, twice a day, for five consecutive days. After the first blood sampling, progesterone (12.5 mg was injected intramuscularly. Plasma LH was measured with an immunoradiometric assay. The combination of estrogen and progesterone resulted in increased LH secretion in female control subjects and in MTF subjects, but this increase appeared to be attenuated in FTM transsexual subjects. In fact, the %LH response was significantly reduced in FTM subjects (P < 0.05, but not in MTF subjects (P > 0.5, compared to female control subjects. In addition, the peak time after progesterone injection was significantly delayed in FTM subjects (P < 0.05, but not in MTF subjects (P > 0.5, compared to female control subjects. We then compared subjects according to whether the combination of estrogen and progesterone had a positive (more than 200% increase or negative (less than 200% increase effect on LH secretion. A χ2 analysis revealed significantly different (P < 0.05 effects on LH secretion between female controls (positive n = 7, negative n = 2 and FTM transsexual subjects (positive n = 4, negative n = 8, but not between female

  13. Leucine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity is localized in luteinizing hormone-producing cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hirohumi; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to determine the cell type of leucine-enkephalin (Leu-ENK)-immunoreactive cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary. Immunoreactive cells were scattered throughout the pars distalis except for the dorso-caudal portion. These cells were immuno-positive for luteinizing hormone (LH), but they were immuno-negative for adrenocorticotrophic, growth, and thyroid-stimulating hormones, as well as prolactin. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that Leu-ENK-like substance and LH co-localized within the same secretory granules. Leu-ENK secreted from gonadotrophs may participate in LH secretion in an autocrine fashion, and/or may participate in the release of sex steroids together with LH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Luteinizing hormone pulsatility in females following radiation therapy for central nervous system malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasacchio, R.A.; Constine, L.S.; Woolf, P.; Raubertas, R.F.; Veldhuis, J.D.; Muhs, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Females incidentally irradiated to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (H/P-A) during radiation therapy (RT) for brain tumors may become oligoamenorrheic. We previously demonstrated that these women are hypoestrogenemic but frequently have near normal or only moderately decreased basal luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and maintain appropriate peak pituitary responses to exogenous gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). We postulated that hypothalamic injury resulting in abnormal LH pulsatility could explain this complex of findings. This investigation intended to characterize this hypothalamic injury and test two potentially corrective pharmacologic interventions. Catecholamines (specifically dopamine) and opiates are known to suppress pituitary LH release through inhibition of the pituitary gonadotropes or of the GnRH neuronal terminals in the hypothalamus. Radiation-induced dysfunction of the catecholaminergic or opiate control mechanisms might translate into an increase in dopamine or opiate release or receptor responsiveness, which in turn would inhibit pulsatile gonadotropin secretion, leading to reduced LH pulsatility and to gonadal dysfunction. We therefore determined the pattern of LH release in normal controls and in patients, at baseline as well as after administration of the dopamine receptor antagonist metoclopramide (MCP), and the opiate-receptor antagonist naloxone (NAL). Methods: Patient eligibility criteria included RT to the H/P-A for a non-H/P-A CNS tumor, usually astrocytoma, with subsequent hypoestrogenemia and oligo-amenorrhea. Patients and normal volunteers were studied first under control conditions and then using MCP and NAL in a randomized cross-over manner at monthly intervals. Serum samples for LH determination were taken every 10 minutes for 12 hours during an overnight hospital stay. MCP (10 mg) was administered as an IV bolus every 4.5 hours, and NAL was administered as a continuous infusion (1.6 mg/hour). The following morning each

  15. Treatment of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in men with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: a comparison of treatment with daily injections and with the pulsatile infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shargil, A A

    1987-03-01

    Thirty husbands in childless couples, aged 24 to 35 years, were treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) for idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) of peripubertal (incomplete) type. They were azoospermic or oligospermic, with less than 1.5 X 10(6)/ml nonmotile spermatozoa. The diagnosis of IHH was based on clinical and laboratory features and testicular biopsy specimen study and was further supported by results of stimulation tests and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test. Two treatment modalities were used: subcutaneous injections of 500 micrograms LH-RH twice daily; and perpetual subcutaneous injection, via portable infusion pump, of 25 ng/kg LH-RH, at 90-minute intervals. Two patients required a short second period of pulsatile treatment to cause a second pregnancy of their spouses. The pump proved to yield better results, compared with intermittent injections, in respect to endocrine responses, spermatogenesis, and fertility capacity. Normal levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were reached in 2 to 3 weeks and normal testosterone levels in 8 to 10 weeks from the start of treatment. Sperm counts rose to greater than 60 X 10(6)/ml viable spermatozoa with less than 15% of abnormal forms in 3 to 5 months, and the wives conceived. Of a total of 18 deliveries of healthy infants, 12 offspring were identified genetically with their fathers. Four women were still pregnant at the conclusion of the study. The pump was well tolerated, without special operational problems to the patients. Pulsatile treatment is therefore recommended in the treatment of well-diagnosed and carefully selected cases of incomplete IHH.

  16. Immunodetection of Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotifera: Monogononta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alvarado-Flores

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The endocrine system controls and coordinates behavioral, biochemical, and physiological processes through signal mechanisms using neuropeptides or products of neurosecretory cells. Among invertebrates, this system is poorly studied in rotifers, in which estrogens and androgens significantly affect sexual reproduction. This is the first report of the presence of the Luteinizing Hormone (LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and Prolactin (PRL in rotifers. Analyses included the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method with primary antibodies LH (Anti-Rat LH serum for RIA, PRL (Anti-Rat PRL serum for RIA, FSH (Anti-Rat FSH serum for RIA and TSH (Anti-Rat TSH serum for RIA. These hormones were found in females, males and parthenogenetic and sexual eggs of the freshwater Brachionus calyciflorus. The immunoreactivity of FSH, LH, TSH and PRL in females was observed in: ovaries, cerebrum, mastax, stomach, lorica, and the stomach gland. However, in males LH was observed only at the trochal disk and cerebrum. The hormones FSH, TSH and PRL, were observed in testicles, contractil vesicles, and cementary gland of males. Regarding amictic or parthenogenetic eggs, the hormones LH, FSH, TSH, and PRL were located mainly in the micromeres, and the staining in the macromeres was weak. On the other hand, in the mictic or sexual eggs the inner shell is stained for the hormones PRL and LH, opposite to the staining of FSH and TSH, located mainly in the embryo. In general, immuno-reactivity was observed in areas important for the reproductive, excretory, digestive and developmental processes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1049-1058. Epub 2009 December 01.Se logró detectar la presencia de las hormonas: Hormona Luteinizante (LH, Hormona Folículo Estimulante (FSH, Hormona Estimulante de la Tiroides (TSH y Prolactina (PRL en Brachionus calyciflorus siendo el primer reporte de la presencia de dichas hormonas en rotíferos. Estas hormonas fueron

  17. Novel homozygous nonsense mutations in the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) gene associated with 46,XY primary amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hadj Hmida, Imen; Mougou-Zerelli, Soumaya; Hadded, Anis; Dimassi, Sarra; Kammoun, Molka; Bignon-Topalovic, Joelle; Bibi, Mohamed; Saad, Ali; Bashamboo, Anu; McElreavey, Ken

    2016-07-01

    To determine the genetic cause of 46,XY primary amenorrhea in three 46,XY girls. Whole exome sequencing. University cytogenetics center. Three patients with unexplained 46,XY primary amenorrhea were included in the study. Potentially pathogenic variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing, and familial segregation was determined where parents' DNA was available. Exome sequencing was performed in the three patients, and the data were analyzed for potentially pathogenic mutations. The functional consequences of mutations were predicted. Three novel homozygous nonsense mutations in the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) gene were identified:c.1573 C→T, p.Gln525Ter, c.1435 C→T p.Arg479Ter, and c.508 C→T, p.Gln170Ter. Inactivating mutations of the LHCGR gene may be a more common cause of 46,XY primary amenorrhea than previously considered. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Role of estrogen-sensitive neurons in the arcuate region of the hypothalamus in the mechanism of luteinizing hormone release].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, V N; Ignatkov, V Ia

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on rats; estradiol brought to the arcuate region of the hypothalamus by means of microionophoresis led to the increase of the region of the hypothalamus by means of microionophoresis led to the increase of the blood luteinizing hormone (LH) level during the following stages of the estral cycle-diestrus 1, diestrus 2, and the first half day of the proestrus; as to the second half of the proestrus day--estradiol decreased its level. Changes in the LH level in the hypophysis under the influence of the microionophoretic introduction of estradiol into the arcuate region occurred during the second half of the day of diestrus 2 (reduction), and during the estrus (elevation). In the majority of cases a rise of the blood level was combined with the neuron activation in the arcuate region under the influence of estradiol.

  19. Circadian rhythm disruption by a novel running wheel: Roles of exercise and arousal in blockade of the luteinizing hormone surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Marilyn J.; Franklin, Kathleen M.; Peng, Xiaoli; Yun, Christopher; Legan, Sandra J.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of proestrous Syrian hamsters to a new room, cage, and novel running wheel blocks the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge until the next day in ~75% of hamsters (Legan et al, 2010) [1]. The studies described here tested the hypotheses that 1) exercise and/or 2) orexinergic neurotransmission mediate novel wheel blockade of the LH surge and circadian phase advances. Female hamsters were exposed to a 14L:10D photoperiod and activity rhythms were monitored with infra-red detectors. In Expt. 1, to test the effect of exercise, hamsters received jugular cannulae and on the next day, proestrus (Day 1), shortly before zeitgeber time 5 (ZT 5, 7 hours before lights-off) the hamsters were transported to the laboratory. After obtaining a blood sample at ZT 5, the hamsters were transferred to a new cage with a novel wheel that was either freely rotating (unlocked), or locked until ZT 9, and exposed to constant darkness (DD). Blood samples were collected hourly for 2 days from ZT 5–11 under red light for determination of plasma LH levels by radioimmunoassay. Running rhythms were monitored continuously for the next 10–14 days. The locked wheels were as effective as unlocked wheels in blocking LH surges (no Day 1 LH surge in 6/9 versus 8/8 hamsters, P>0.05) and phase advances in the activity rhythms did not differ between the groups (P= 0.28), suggesting that intense exercise is not essential for novel wheel blockade and phase advance of the proestrous LH surge. Expt. 2 tested whether orexin neurotransmission is essential for these effects. Hamsters were treated the same as in Expt. 1 except they were injected (i.p.) at ZT 4.5 and 5 with either the orexin 1 receptor antagonist SB334867 (15 mg/kg per injection) or vehicle (25% DMSO in 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HCD). SB-334867 inhibited novel wheel blockade of the LH surge (surges blocked in 2/6 SB334867-injected animals versus 16/18 vehicle-injected animals, Pwheel running and circadian phase shifts, indicating that

  20. Radioimmunoassay for 6-D-tryptophan analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: measurement of serum levels after administration of long-acting microcapsule formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason-Garcia, M.; Vigh, S.; Comaru-Schally, A.M.; Redding, T.W.; Somogyvari-Vigh, A.; Horvath, J.; Schally, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for [6-D-tryptophan]luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ([D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH) was developed and used for following the rate of liberation of [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH from a long-acting delivery systems based on a microcapsule formulation. Rabbit antibodies were generated against [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH conjugated to bovine serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. Crossreactivity with LH-RH was less than 1%; there was no significant cross-reactivity with other peptides. The minimal detectable dose of [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH was 2 pg per tube. In tra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 8% and 10%, respectively. The radioimmunoassay was suitable for direct determination of [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH in serum, permitting the study of blood levels of the analog after single injections into normal men and after one-a-month administration of microcapsules to rats. In men, 90 min after subcutaneous injection of 250 μg of the peptide, serum [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH rose to 6-12 ng/ml. Luteinizing hormone was increased 90 min and 24 hr after the administration of the analog. Several batches of microcapsules were tested in rats and the rate of release of [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH was followed. The improved batch of microcapsules of [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH increased serum concentrations of the analog for 30 days or longer after intramuscular injection

  1. Radioimmunological determination of plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone, folliculostimulating hormone and prolactin levels in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkov, V.; Maleeva, A.; Tsvetkov, M.; Visheva, N.

    1986-01-01

    The hormone levels were measured before and after hormonal therapy. Statistically significant changes in the levels of the hormones in this study were recognized (p<0,001) as a result of treatment with estrogen preparations. Plasma prolactin was raised before estrogen therapy (statistically significant rise, p<0,001), as compared to the levels in a control group of normal subjects. A mild tendency was observed toward its increase, depending on the duration of treatment. The results of this study show that control of the hormonal status of patients with prostate cancer may serve as reliable criterion in evaluating the effectiveness of hormonal therapy. The changes in prolactin levels are evidence of hormonal disbalance, which may be observed in these patients

  2. Adrenocortical Production Is Associated with Higher Levels of Luteinizing Hormone in Nonobese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Luciana Tock

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Insulin resistance (IR and ovarian and adrenal hyperandrogenism are a common finding in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The aim of the present study was to access possible differences in insulin resistance, gonadotropins, and androgens production in obese and nonobese PCOS women. Study Design. We studied 37 PCOS women (16 nonobese and 21 obese and 18 nonobese controls. Fasting glucose, insulin, androgens, and gonadotropins levels were determined. Salivary cortisol was measured basal and in the morning after dexamethasone (DEX 0.25 mg. Results. Nonobese PCOS women showed higher basal salivary cortisol and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and luteinizing hormone (LH levels than controls and obese PCOS. These hormones levels did not differ between the obese and control groups. After DEX administration no differences were found between the three groups. In PCOS women, salivary cortisol levels showed negative correlation with BMI (r=-0.52; P=0.001 and insulin (r=-0.47; P=0.003 and positive correlation with LH (r=0.40; P=0.016. Conclusion. Our results show an increased adrenocortical production in nonobese PCOS women, not related to IR and associated with a normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal suppression. Higher LH levels might be involved in this event.

  3. Effects of luteinizing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin on corpus luteum cells in a spheroid cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, A; Keck, C; Weber, H; Kissel, C; Pietrowski, D

    2005-09-01

    The human corpus luteum (CL) is a highly vascularized, temporarily active endocrine gland and consists mainly of granulosa cells (GCs), theca cells (TCs), and endothelial cells (ECs). Its cyclic growth and development takes place under the influence of gonadotropic hormones. If pregnancy does occur, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) takes over the function of luteinizing hormone (LH) and, in contrast to LH, extends the functional life span of the CL. In this study, we investigated the effects of hCG and LH in a spheroidal cell culture model of CL development. Our data indicate that GCs secrete factors under the control of hCG that increase sprout formation of EC-spheroids. We demonstrate that the most prominent of these factors is VEGF-A. Furthermore, we found that both LH and hCG decrease sprout formation of GC-spheroids. After forming EC-GC coculture spheroids and consequently bringing GCs and ECs in close contact, sprouting increased under the influence of hCG, however not under LH. These experiments provide evidence for an hCG dependent functional switch in the GCs after coming in contact with ECs. Moreover, it demonstrates the considerably different effects of hCG and LH on GCs although their signaling is transmitted via the same receptor.

  4. Commercial radioimmunoassay for beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin: falsely positive determinations due to elevated serum luteinizing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.E. Jr.; Platoff, G.E.; Kubrock, C.A.; Stuzman, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Among 17 men who had received seemingly curative treatment for unilateral non-seminomatous germ cell tumors for the testis and who had consistently normal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) levels at a reference laboratory, 7 (41%) had at least one falsely positive commercial serum HCG determination. To investigate the cause of these falsely positive determinations the authors measured the cross reactivity of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) standards in the commercial HCG assay, and studied the relationships between commercial HCG levels and serum LH levels, serum FSH levels and gonadal status in men with and without normal gonadal function. The falsely positive HCG determinations appeared to be due to elevated serum LH levels and cross reactivity of LH in the commercial HCG assay because: 1) there was substantial cross reactivity of the LH standards in the commercial assay, 2) the serum LH was elevated in four of six men with solitary testes, 3) there was a striking correlation between elevated serum LH levels and falsely elevated commercial HCG levels in ten men with solitary or absent testes, and 4) there were no falsely positive HCG determinations in 13 normal men but there were falsely positive HCG determinations in seven of ten anorchid men

  5. Associations of urinary cadmium with circulating sex hormone levels in pre- and postmenopausal Japanese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Chisato; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko; Hayashi, Makoto; Takeda, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the associations between urinary cadmium levels and circulating sex hormone levels that are linked to breast cancer risk in healthy women. Methods: The study subjects were 396 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long and 207 postmenopausal Japanese women. Urinary cadmium was measured using spot urine samples. Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured. Additionally, the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured for premenopausal women. Results: In premenopausal women, the urinary cadmium level either expressed in μg per liter or per g of urine creatinine was significantly inversely associated with total and free testosterone levels after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Total and free testosterone levels were 14.6% and 15.0% lower, respectively, in women in the highest quartile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine in those in the lowest quartile. In postmenopausal women, the urinary cadmium in μg per liter as well as per g creatinine was significantly inversely associated with the estradiol level after controlling for covariates. The estradiol level was 25.8% lower in women in the highest tertile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine than in those in the lowest tertile. Conclusions: The data suggest inverse associations between urinary cadmium and the plasma estradiol or testosterone level in Japanese women. - Highlights: • Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. • Urinary cadmium and plasma sex-hormone levels were measured in Japanese women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with testosterone in premenopausal women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with estradiol in postmenopausal

  6. Associations of urinary cadmium with circulating sex hormone levels in pre- and postmenopausal Japanese women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Chisato, E-mail: chisato@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko [Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Hayashi, Makoto [Department of Internal Medicine, Matsunami General Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Takeda, Noriyuki [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Murakami Memorial Hospital, Asahi University, Gifu (Japan); Yasuda, Keigo [Department of Internal Medicine, Matsunami General Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Background: Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the associations between urinary cadmium levels and circulating sex hormone levels that are linked to breast cancer risk in healthy women. Methods: The study subjects were 396 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long and 207 postmenopausal Japanese women. Urinary cadmium was measured using spot urine samples. Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured. Additionally, the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured for premenopausal women. Results: In premenopausal women, the urinary cadmium level either expressed in μg per liter or per g of urine creatinine was significantly inversely associated with total and free testosterone levels after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Total and free testosterone levels were 14.6% and 15.0% lower, respectively, in women in the highest quartile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine in those in the lowest quartile. In postmenopausal women, the urinary cadmium in μg per liter as well as per g creatinine was significantly inversely associated with the estradiol level after controlling for covariates. The estradiol level was 25.8% lower in women in the highest tertile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine than in those in the lowest tertile. Conclusions: The data suggest inverse associations between urinary cadmium and the plasma estradiol or testosterone level in Japanese women. - Highlights: • Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. • Urinary cadmium and plasma sex-hormone levels were measured in Japanese women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with testosterone in premenopausal women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with estradiol in postmenopausal

  7. Circannual changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes, luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized estradiol-implanted ewes, and prolactin secretion in three sheep breeds anticipated to differ in seasonality of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Katherine J; Knight, James W; Pelzer, Kevin D; Akers, R Michael; Notter, David R

    2013-05-01

    Changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes (7 or 9 per breed) and luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized, estradiol-implanted ewes (9 or 10 per breed) were monitored for 12 mo in Suffolk, tropically adapted St. Croix, and OOS ewes. The OOS line is a composite population of 50% Dorset, 25% Rambouillet, and 25% Finnish Landrace breeding that was selected for 10 yr for ability to lamb in October and early November. Ewes were isolated from rams, and blood samples were collected twice weekly. Circulating prolactin concentrations were also determined from blood samples collected near the summer and winter solstice and vernal and autumnal equinox. Intact OOS ewes entered anestrus later, began the subsequent breeding season sooner, and had a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk and St. Croix ewes (P ≤ 0.005). St. Croix ewes did not differ from Suffolk ewes in date of onset or cessation of breeding or duration of anestrus (P ≥ 0.06). Breed differences in duration of luteinizing hormone inhibition in ovariectomized ewes were essentially identical to those observed for duration of anestrous. Prolactin concentrations varied during the year: annual changes were larger in relatively seasonal Suffolk ewes than in tropically-derived St. Croix ewes (Psheep did not have a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk sheep under temperate conditions and ram isolation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Interleukin 1α inhibits prostaglandin E2 release to suppress pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone but not follicle-stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettori, V.; McCann, S.M.; Gimeno, M.F.; Karara, A.; Gonzalez, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin 1α (IL-1α), a powerful endogenous pyrogen released from monocytes and macrophages by bacterial endotoxin, stimulates corticotropin, prolactin, and somatotropin release and inhibits thyrotropin release by hypothalamic action. The authors injected recombinant human IL-1α into the third cerebral ventricle, to study its effect on the pulsatile release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in conscious, freely moving, ovariectomized rats. Intraventricular injection of 0.25 pmol of IL-1α caused an almost immediate reduction of plasma LH concentration. To determine the mechanism of the suppression of LH release, mediobasal hypothalamic fragments were incubated in vitro with IL-1α (10 pM) and the release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) and prostaglandin E 2 into the medium was measured by RIA in the presence or absence of nonrepinephrine. 1α reduced basal LHRH release and blocked LHRH release induced by nonrepinephrine. In conclusion, IL-1α suppresses LH but not FSH release by an almost complete cessation of pulsatile release of LH in the castrated rat. The mechanism of this effect appears to be by inhibition of prostaglandin E 2 -mediated release of LHRH

  9. Luteinizing hormone-stimulated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide system and its role in progesterone production in human luteinized granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Jeong; Choi, Bum-Chae; Song, Sang-Jin; Lee, Dong-Sik; Roh, Jaesook; Chun, Sang-Young

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the gonadotropin regulation of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and PACAP type I receptor (PAC(1)-R) expression, and its role in progesterone production in the human luteinized granulosa cells. The stimulation of both PACAP and PAC(1)-R mRNA levels by LH was detected using a competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PACAP transcript was stimulated by LH reaching maximum levels at 12 hours in a dose dependent manner. LH treatment also stimulated PAC(1)-R mRNA levels within 24 hours. Addition of PACAP-38 (10(-7) M) as well as LH significantly stimulated progesterone production during 48 hours culture. Furthermore, co-treatment with PACAP antagonist partially inhibited LH-stimulated progesterone production. Treatment with vasoactive intestinal peptide, however, did not affect progesterone production. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that LH causes a transient stimulation of PACAP and PAC(1)-R expression and that PACAP stimulates progesterone production in the human luteinized granulosa cells, suggesting a possible role of PACAP as a local ovarian regulator in luteinization.

  10. GnRH Neuron Activity and Pituitary Response in Estradiol-Induced vs Proestrous Luteinizing Hormone Surges in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marina A; Burger, Laura L; DeFazio, R Anthony; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2017-02-01

    During the female reproductive cycle, estradiol exerts negative and positive feedback at both the central level to alter gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and at the pituitary to affect response to GnRH. Many studies of the neurobiologic mechanisms underlying estradiol feedback have been done on ovariectomized, estradiol-replaced (OVX+E) mice. In this model, GnRH neuron activity depends on estradiol and time of day, increasing in estradiol-treated mice in the late afternoon, coincident with a daily luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Amplitude of this surge appears lower than in proestrous mice, perhaps because other ovarian factors are not replaced. We hypothesized GnRH neuron activity is greater during the proestrous-preovulatory surge than the estradiol-induced surge. GnRH neuron activity was monitored by extracellular recordings from fluorescently tagged GnRH neurons in brain slices in the late afternoon from diestrous, proestrous, and OVX+E mice. Mean GnRH neuron firing rate was low on diestrus; firing rate was similarly increased in proestrous and OVX+E mice. Bursts of action potentials have been associated with hormone release in neuroendocrine systems. Examination of the patterning of action potentials revealed a shift toward longer burst duration in proestrous mice, whereas intervals between spikes were shorter in OVX+E mice. LH response to an early afternoon injection of GnRH was greater in proestrous than diestrous or OVX+E mice. These observations suggest the lower LH surge amplitude observed in the OVX+E model is likely not attributable to altered mean GnRH neuron activity, but because of reduced pituitary sensitivity, subtle shifts in action potential pattern, and/or excitation-secretion coupling in GnRH neurons. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  11. Age-related mercury contamination and relationship with luteinizing hormone in a long-lived Antarctic bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Tartu

    Full Text Available Seabirds, as long-lived top predators, accumulate contaminants such as mercury (Hg, an established endocrine disruptor. In long lived species hormonal secretion varies with age; therefore, Hg-induced endocrine disruption may be exacerbated in some age classes. Here we investigated relationships between blood total Hg and luteinizing hormone (LH, a key pituitary hormone for the onset of breeding, in pre-laying known-age (11-45 years old snow petrels (Pagodroma nivea from Adélie Land, Antarctica. We predicted that 1 blood Hg would increase with advancing age as a consequence of bio-accumulation; and that 2 increasing blood Hg would be related to decreased concentrations of LH in the most Hg-contaminated individuals. Hg concentrations were higher in females than in males (p<0.001, and contrary to our prediction, decreased with advancing age in males (p = 0.009 and tended to do so in females (p = 0.06. The analysis of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N suggested that this unexpected pattern could originate from age and sex-related variations in trophic niche, and hence Hg exposure. Regarding LH, our prediction was only supported in young birds (≤23 years where baseline LH was inversely correlated with Hg concentrations (p = 0.04. Hg burden did not predict baseline LH or GnRH-induced LH in birds that were more than 23 years old. These results show that age and contaminants may interfere with major endocrine mechanisms and, together with other recent studies, support the view that Hg could be connected to LH secretion and could then impair the fitness of long-lived birds.

  12. Intracerebroventricular Infusion of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP Rescues the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in Middle-Aged Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eSun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive aging is characterized by delayed and attenuated luteinizing hormone (LH surges apparent in middle-aged rats. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN contains the circadian clock that is responsible for the timing of diverse neuroendocrine rhythms. Electrophysiological studies suggest vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP originating from the SCN excites gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons and affects daily patterns of GnRH-LH release. Age-related LH surge dysfunction correlates with reduced VIP mRNA expression in the SCN and fewer GnRH neurons with VIP contacts expressing c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, on the day of the LH surge. To determine if age-related LH surge dysfunction reflects reduced VIP availability or altered VIP responsiveness under estradiol positive feedback conditions, we assessed the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv VIP infusion on c-fos expression in GnRH neurons and on LH release in ovariohysterectomized, hormone-primed young and middle-aged rats. Icv infusion of VIP between 1300 and 1600 h significantly advanced the time of peak LH release, increased total and peak LH release, and increased the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos on the day of the LH surge in middle-aged rats. Surprisingly, icv infusion of VIP in young females significantly reduced the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos and delayed and reduced the LH surge. These observations suggest that a critical balance of VIP signaling is required to activate GnRH neurons for an appropriately timed and robust LH surge in young and middle-aged females. Age-related LH surge changes may, in part, result from decreased availability and reduced VIP-mediated neurotransmission under estradiol positive feedback conditions.

  13. Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women : reanalysis of 13 studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Key, T. J.; Appleby, P. N.; Reeves, G. K.; Roddam, A. W.; Helzlsouer, K. J.; Alberg, A. J.; Rollison, D. E.; Dorgan, J. F.; Brinton, L. A.; Overvad, K.; Kaaks, R.; Trichopoulou, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Panico, S.; Duell, E. J.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Rinaldi, S.; Riboli, E.; Fentiman, I. S.; Dowsett, M.; Manjer, J.; Lenner, P.; Hallmans, G.; Baglietto, L.; English, D. R.; Giles, G. G.; Hopper, J. L.; Severi, G.; Morris, H. A.; Koenig, K.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Arslan, A. A.; Toniolo, P.; Shore, R. E.; Krogh, V.; Micheli, A.; Berrino, F.; Muti, P.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Laughlin, G. A.; Kabuto, M.; Akiba, S.; Stevens, R. G.; Neriishi, K.; Land, C. E.; Cauley, J. A.; Lui, Li Yung; Cummings, Steven R.; Gunter, M. J.; Rohan, T. E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone

  14. The effect of the intracervical application of follicle-stimulating hormone or luteinizing hormone on the pattern of expression of gonadotrophin receptors in the cervix of non-pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leethongdee, S; Khalid, M; Scaramuzzi, R J

    2014-08-01

    During the periovulatory period, the cervix relaxes in response to changes in circulating concentrations of reproductive hormones. The present study investigated the role of gonadotrophins in cervical function by examining the expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and their mRNAs following intracervical treatment with either FSH or LH. Eighteen ewes were assigned to four groups, and they were then treated with progestagen sponges and PMSG to synchronize their oestrous cycles. Intracervical treatments were given 24 h after sponge removal as follows: Group 1: FSH 2 mg; Group 2: LH 2 mg; Group 3: Vehicle and Group 4: Control. Cervices were collected 54 h after sponge removal and then divided into three regions. The expression of FSHR and LHR was determined by immunohistochemistry and FSHR mRNA and LH mRNA by in situ hybridization. The expression of LHR, FSHR and their respective mRNAs was compared in six tissue layers (luminal epithelium, subepithelial stroma, circular, longitudinal and transverse muscle and serosa) and in three cervical regions (vaginal, mid and uterine). The results showed that FSH increased transcription of the FSHR gene and the levels of its receptor, but only in subepithelial stroma of the cervix. FSH also increased the levels of LHR in the cervix, but only in the muscle layers. LH had no effect on the levels of FSHR despite the fact that it did increase the level of transcription of the FSHR gene and LH also increased the levels of its own receptor in the cervix, but only in the muscle layers, and this action was independent of increased levels of transcription of the LHR gene. These findings suggest multiple levels of regulation of cervical LH and FSH receptors and that the gonadotrophins may have a role in relaxation of the cervix during oestrus by regulating their own receptors. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. A Nested Case-Control Study of Luteinizing Hormone Variants and Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    study has addressed the relationship of the presence of the variant LH to clinical and hormonal parameters among women with polycystic ovaries as...compared to healthy subjects (6). In this study, the variant was appreciably more frequent in obese women with polycystic ovaries than in normal women...immunological LH- 13-subunit variant in a UK population of healthy women and women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Endocrinol. 1995; 43:297-303

  16. Enhanced Anti-Tumoral Activity of Methotrexate-Human Serum Albumin Conjugated Nanoparticles by Targeting with Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Azade; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Ahadi, Fatemeh; Nouri, Farank Salman; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Borougeni, Atefeh Taheri; Mansoori, Pooria

    2011-01-01

    Active targeting could increase the efficacy of anticancer drugs. Methotrexate-human serum albumin (MTX-HSA) conjugates, functionalized by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) as targeting moieties, with the aim of specifically targeting the cancer cells, were prepared. Owing to the high expression of LHRH receptors in many cancer cells as compared to normal cells, LHRH was used as the targeting ligand in this study. LHRH was conjugated to MTX-HSA nanoparticles via a cross-linker. Three types of LHRH targeted nanoparticles with a mean particle size between 120–138 nm were prepared. The cytotoxicity of LHRH targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles were determined on the LHRH positive and negative cell lines. The internalization of the targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles in LHRH receptor positive and negative cells was investigated using flow cytometry analysis and fluorescence microscopy. The cytotoxicity of the LHRH targeted nanoparticles on the LHRH receptor positive cells were significantly more than non-targeted nanoparticles. LHRH targeted nanoparticles were also internalized by LHRH receptor positive cells significantly more than non-targeted nanoparticles. There were no significant differences between the uptake of targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles to the LHRH receptor negative cells. The active targeting procedure using LHRH targeted MTX-HSA nanoparticles could increase the anti-tumoral activity of MTX. PMID:21845098

  17. Protective role of ginger on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels of male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, F.; Ayub, M.; Shaukat, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead is one of the most serious environmental threats to human health especially in developing countries. It damages multiple body systems including the reproductive system. Ginger's antioxidant and androgenic activity is reported in multiple animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of male rats. Methods: Sixty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study in four groups. Group A served as normal control, Group B received 0.3% lead acetate in drinking water, Group C and group D received supplementary 0.5 and 1 gm/Kg bodyweight of ginger respectively along with lead acetate in drinking water. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Serum testosterone and LH levels were analysed using ELISA technique. Results: After co administration with different doses of ginger, serum testosterone level which was significantly decreased in lead treated group, showed a significant rise as compared to lead treated group. LH levels which had exhibited no significant change by lead treatment, after co administration with different doses of ginger, again showed no significant change. Conclusion: Oral administration of ginger ameliorated lead induced testicular toxicity in male rats by increasing serum testosterone level at all durations which might be a product of both its androgenic and antioxidant properties. (author)

  18. Thyrotropin-luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor extracellular domain chimeras as probes for thyrotropin receptor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Yuji; Wadsworth, H.L.; Chazenbalk, G.D.; Russo, D.; Seto, Pui; Rapoport, B.

    1991-01-01

    To define the sites in the extracellular domain of the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor that are involved in TSH binding and signal transduction the authors constructed chimeric thyrotropin-luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (TSH-LH/CG) receptors. The extracellular domain of the human TSH receptor was divided into five regions that were replaced, either singly or in various combinations, with homologous regions of the rat LH/CG receptor. The chimeric receptors were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The data obtained suggest that the carboxyl region of the extracellular domain (amino acid residues 261-418) and particularly the middle region (residues 171-260) play a role in signal transduction. The possibility is also raised of an interaction between the amino and carboxyl regions of the extracellular domain in the process of signal transduction. In summary, these studies suggest that the middle region and carboxyl half of the extracellular domain of the TSH receptor are involved in signal transduction and that the TSH-binding region is likely to span the entire extracellular domain, with multiple discontinuous contact sites

  19. Oxytocin, vasopressin, prostaglandin F(2alpha), luteinizing hormone, testosterone, estrone sulfate, and cortisol plasma concentrations after sexual stimulation in stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Tosi, U; Villani, M; Govoni, N; Faustini, M; Kindahl, H; Madej, A; Carluccio, A

    2010-03-01

    This experiment was designed to determine the effects of sexual stimulation on plasma concentrations of oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (VP), 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) (PG-metabolite), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), estrone sulfate (ES), and cortisol (C) in stallions. Semen samples were collected from 14 light horse stallions (Equus caballus) of proven fertility using a Missouri model artificial vagina. Blood samples were collected at 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3 min before estrous mare exposure, at erection, at ejaculation, and at 3, 6, and 9 min after ejaculation. Afterwards, blood sampling was performed every 10 min for the following 60 min. Sexual activity determined an increase in plasma concentrations of OT, VP, C, PG-metabolite, and ES and caused no changes in LH and T concentrations. The finding of a negative correlation between C and VP at erection, and between C and T before erection and at the time of erection, could be explained by a possible inhibitory role exerted by C in the mechanism of sexual arousal described for men. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Induction of ovulation by a potent, orally active, low molecular weight agonist (Org 43553) of the luteinizing hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Lagemaat, R; Timmers, C M; Kelder, J; van Koppen, C; Mosselman, S; Hanssen, R G J M

    2009-03-01

    In assisted reproductive technology, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is administered subcutaneously for the induction of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Our efforts to develop orally bioavailable luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor agonists have led to the discovery of Org 43553, a low molecular weight (LMW) LH receptor (LH-R) agonist. Org 43553 was tested in vitro and in vivo in pre-clinical pharmacological models to demonstrate efficacy and oral availability. Org 43553 is a potent stimulator of the human LH-R in vitro (EC(50) 3.7 nM). In primary mouse Leydig cells, Org 43553 stimulated testosterone production. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed high oral bioavailability in rats (79%) and dogs (44%) with a shorter half-life compared with hCG (3.4 versus 5.6 h in the rat). Ovulation induction by Org 43553 was demonstrated in immature mice as well as in cyclic rats after single-dose oral administration (50 mg/kg). The ovulated oocytes were of good quality as demonstrated by successful fertilization and implantation of normal embryos. In male rats, testosterone production was substantially induced after oral administration. Org 43553 is the first LMW LH-R mimetic with demonstrated in vivo efficacy upon oral administration and could therefore replace subcutaneously administered hCG. The elimination half-life of Org 43553 is substantially shorter than hCG, which could potentially represent a clinical benefit in reducing the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS).

  1. Luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor overexpressed in granulosa cells from polycystic ovary syndrome ovaries is functionally active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Gordon, Uma D; López Bernal, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with anovulatory infertility. Luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor (LHCGR), which is critical for ovulation, has been suggested to be expressed prematurely in the ovarian follicles of women with PCOS. This study aimed to analyse the expression and activity of LHCGR in ovarian granulosa cells from PCOS patients and the involvement of ARF6 small GTPase in LHCGR internalization. Granulosa cells (GC) isolated from follicular fluid collected during oocyte retrieval from normal women (n = 19) and women with PCOS (n = 17) were used to study differences in LHCGR protein expression and activity between normal and PCOS patients. LHCGR expression is up-regulated in GC from PCOS women. LHCGR in PCOS GC is functionally active, as shown by increased cAMP production upon human gonadotrophin (HCG)-stimulation. Moreover, ARF6 is highly expressed in GC from PCOS patients and HCG-stimulation increases the concentrations of active ARF6. The inhibition of ARF6 activation attenuates HCG-induced LHCGR internalization in both normal and PCOS GC, indicating that there are no alterations in LHCGR internalisation in GC from PCOS. In conclusion, the expression and activation of LHCGR and ARF6 are up-regulated in GC from PCOS women but the mechanism of agonist-induced LHCGR internalization is unaltered. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Kisspeptin Signaling Is Required for the Luteinizing Hormone Response in Anestrous Ewes following the Introduction of Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bond, Julie-Ann P.; Li, Qun; Millar, Robert P.; Clarke, Iain J.; Smith, Jeremy T.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of a novel male stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of female sheep during seasonal anestrus, leading to the resumption of follicle maturation and ovulation. How this pheromone cue activates pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) is unknown. We hypothesised that pheromones activate kisspeptin neurons, the product of which is critical for the stimulation of GnRH neurons and fertility. During the non-breeding season, female sheep were exposed to novel males and blood samples collected for analysis of plasma LH profiles. Females without exposure to males served as controls. In addition, one hour before male exposure, a kisspeptin antagonist (P-271) or vehicle was infused into the lateral ventricle and continued for the entire period of male exposure. Introduction of a male led to elevated mean LH levels, due to increased LH pulse amplitude and pulse frequency in females, when compared to females not exposed to a male. Infusion of P-271 abolished this effect of male exposure. Brains were collected after the male effect stimulus and we observed an increase in the percentage of kisspeptin neurons co-expressing Fos, by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the per-cell expression of Kiss1 mRNA was increased in the rostral and mid (but not the caudal) arcuate nucleus (ARC) after male exposure in both aCSF and P-271 treated ewes, but the per-cell content of neurokinin B mRNA was decreased. There was also a generalized increase in Fos positive cells in the rostral and mid ARC as well as the ventromedial hypothalamus of females exposed to males. We conclude that introduction of male sheep to seasonally anestrous female sheep activates kisspeptin neurons and other cells in the hypothalamus, leading to increased GnRH/LH secretion. PMID:23469121

  3. Non-invasive treatments of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone for inducing spermiation in American (Bufo americanus) and Gulf Coast (Bufo valliceps) toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Angela D.; Obringer, Amy R.; Roth, Terri L.

    2001-01-01

    As many as 20% of all assessed amphibian species are threatened with extinction, and captive breeding programs are becoming important components of conservation strategies for this taxon. For some species, exogenous hormone administration has been integrated into breeding protocols to improve propagation. However, most treatments are administered by an intraperitoneal injection that can be associated with some risks. The general goal of this study was to identify a non-invasive method of applying luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), which reliably induces sperm release in toads. Specific objectives were to 1) test the spermiation response after topical application of different LHRH doses to the abdominal seat region, 2) evaluate the effects of adding the absorption enhancers dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetone, and glyceryl monocaprylate (GMC) to the LHRH, 3) assess the spermiation response after oral delivery of LHRH in a mealworm vehicle, and 4) compare sperm characteristics and spermiation responses to treatments in two different toad species. Male American (n = 9) and Gulf Coast (n = 7) toads were rotated systematically through a series of treatments. Urine was collected and evaluated for the presence of sperm at 0, 3, 7, 12, and 24 hours post-treatment. There were no statistical differences in spermiation induction or sperm characteristics between American and Gulf Coast toads after the treatments. Oral administration of 100 &mgr;g LHRH was occasionally successful in inducing spermiation, but results appeared largely unreliable. Ventral dermal application of 100 or 10 &mgr;g LHRH in 40% DMSO were more effective (P Zoo Biol 20:63-74, 2001. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Total Androgen Blockade Versus a Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonist Alone in Men With High-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Akash; Chen, M.-H.; Moran, Brian J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Dosoretz, Daniel; Salenius, Sharon; Katin, Michael; Ross, Rudi; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether short-course total androgen blockade vs. a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist alone affects the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) in men with localized but high-risk disease treated with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 628 men with T1-T4, N0, M0 prostate cancer with high-risk disease (prostate-specific antigen level >20 ng/mL, Gleason score ≥8, or clinical category ≥T3) treated with 45 Gy of external beam radiotherapy followed by a brachytherapy boost in addition to receiving a median of 4.3 (interquartile range [IQR], 3.6-6.4) months of hormonal blockade with an LHRH agonist plus an antiandrogen or monotherapy with an LHRH agonist. Fine and Gray's multivariable regression analysis was used to determine whether combination androgen suppression therapy (AST) vs. monotherapy affected the risk of PCSM, adjusting for treatment year, duration of AST, age, and known prognostic factors. Results: After a median follow-up of 4.9 (IQR, 3.5-6.5) years, men receiving combination AST had a lower risk of PCSM than those treated with monotherapy (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-0.90; p = 0.04). An increasing prostate-specific antigen level (AHR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.64-4.45; p < 0.001) and clinical category T3/4 disease (AHR, 29.6; 95% CI, 2.88-303.5; p = 0.004) were also associated with an increased risk of PCSM. Conclusions: In men with localized but high-risk prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy, short-course AST with an LHRH agonist plus an antiandrogen is associated with a decreased risk of PCSM when compared with monotherapy with an LHRH agonist.

  5. Estradiol and luteinizing hormone concentrations in the follicular aspirate during ovum pickup as predictors of in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaa Sarhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A relationship between ‘oocyte quality’ and follicular fluid hormones is expected, since its formation coincides with the ‘oocyte maturation’ phase. The aim of this study was to find a possible relation between oocyte quality with follicular luteinizing hormone (LH and estradiol (E2 as hormonal parameters of oocyte quality during ovum pickup for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Methods: Concentrations of LH and E2 in individual follicular fluid samples obtained during assisted reproduction treatment were related to oocyte nuclear maturation, fertilization and embryo grading. E2 and LH differences between individual groups of oocytes and embryos were calculated using the paired Student’s t test and ANOVA test. Results: Follicular E2 levels showed a significant positive correlation with oocyte nuclear maturation, fertilization and embryo grading being higher in follicles whose oocytes had matured nucleus (475 ± 142.9 ng/ml vs. 332 ± 76.4 ng/ml, P value <0.001, normally fertilized (502.5 ± 131.3 ng/ml vs. 339.8 ± 78.3 ng/ml, P value <0.001 and developed into good quality embryos (596.9 ± 72.4 ng/ml grade A vs. 511.7 ± 73 ng/ml grade B vs. 310.9 ± 57 ng/ml grade C, P value <0.001. However Follicular LH was only positively correlated with oocyte nuclear maturation. Conclusions: The local follicular environment may play a key role in the observed differences in oocyte quality. Our results suggest that the use follicular E2 may be of value in the assessment of oocyte quality. If there is a marker for oocyte quality, it would be possible to select oocytes rather than embryos, which may improve selection criteria of the best embryo to transfer, therefore increases success rate of ICSI.

  6. Direct exposure of guinea pig CNS to human luteinizing hormone increases cerebrospinal fluid and cerebral beta amyloid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahjoepramono, Eka J; Wijaya, Linda K; Taddei, Kevin; Bates, Kristyn A; Howard, Matthew; Martins, Georgia; deRuyck, Karl; Matthews, Paul M; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N

    2011-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) has been shown to alter the metabolism of beta amyloid (Aβ), a key protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. While LH and components required for LH receptor signalling are present in the brain, their role in the CNS remains unclear. In vitro, LH has been shown to facilitate neurosteroid production and alter Aβ metabolism. However, whether LH can directly modulate cerebral Aβ levels in vivo has not previously been studied. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic administration of LH to the guinea pig CNS on cerebral Aβ levels. Gonadectomised male animals were administered, via cortical placement, either placebo or LH slow-release pellets. At 14 and 28 days after treatment, animals were sacrificed. Brain, plasma and CSF were collected and Aβ levels measured via ELISA. Levels of the Aβ precursor protein (APP) and the neurosteroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) were also assayed. An increase in CSF Aβ40 levels was observed 28 days following treatment. These CSF data also reflected changes in Aβ40 levels observed in brain homogenates. No change was observed in plasma Aβ40 levels but APP and its C-terminal fragments (APP-CTF) were significantly increased in response to LH exposure. Protein expression of P450scc was increased after 28 days of LH exposure, suggesting activation of the LH receptor. These data indicate that direct exposure of guinea pig CNS to LH results in altered brain Aβ levels, perhaps due to altered APP expression/metabolism. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone inactivation by purified pituitary plasma membranes: effects of receptor-binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R N; Shakespear, R A; Duncan, J A; Marshall, J C

    1979-05-01

    Inactivation of LHRH by purified bovine pituitary plasma membranes was studied in vitro. After incubation of [125I]iodo-LHRH with plasma membranes, the amount of tracer bound to the pellet was measured, and the integrity of the unbound tracer in the supernatant was assessed. Reduction in ability to bind to anti-LHRH serum and to rebind to plasma membranes together with altered electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gels showed that the unbound [125I]iodo-LHRH was inactivated. LHRH inactivation occurred rapidly and was dependent upon membrane concentration and incubation temperature. These results indicate that hormone inactivation must be taken into account in the interpretation of LHRH-receptor interactions. During 37 C incubations, the apparent absence of specific LHRH binding can be explained by inactivation of tracer hormone. Significant LHRH inactivation also occurred at 0 C, which in part explains the insensitivity of LHRH receptor assays. Assessment of LHRH inactivation by different particulate subcellular fractions of pituitary tissue showed that the inactivating enzyme was associated with the plasma membranes; other organelles did not alter LHRH. The enzyme appeared to be an integral part of the plasma membrane structure, since enzymic activity could not be removed by washing without reducing specific LHRH binding. Additionally, reduction of LHRH inactivation by the inhibitors Bacitracin and Trasylol and by magnesium was also accompanied by reduced LHRH binding. Previous studies have shown that the majority of LHRH binding to pituitary plasma membranes is to the low affinity site (approximately 10(-6) M), but the significance of this binding has been uncertain. Our findings indicate that low affinity binding probably represents binding of LHRH to the inactivating enzyme. The LHRH analog, D-Ser6(TBu), des Gly10, ethylamide, has greater biological activity than LHRH and is not inactivated to a significant extent by pituitary plasma membranes. The

  8. A radioreceptor assay of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone receptor and characterization of LHRH binding to pituitary receptors in Shao duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Peixin; Wu Meiwen; Chen Ziyuan

    2000-01-01

    The properties of Shao duck pituitary luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptors were analyzed in pituitary membrane preparation and isolated pituitary cells prepared by enzymatic dispersion with collagenase and trypsin, by using a super-agonist analog of (D-Lys 6 ) LHRH. High binding of 125 I-(D-Lys 6 ) LHRH to 10 6 cultured cells of Shao duck was observed after a 90 minute incubation at 4 degree C, while binding was significantly reduced after a 24h incubation. Binding of the radioligand was a function of tissue concentration of Shao duck pituitary membrane preparation, with a positive correlation over the range of 1-2 pituitary per-tube. Specific binding for 125 I-(D-Lys 6 ) LHRH increased with the increase in the amount of 125 I-(D-Lys 6 ) LHRH. The Scatchard analysis of data revealed a linear relationship between the amount of specific binding and the ratio of specific binding to free 1 '2 5 I(D-Lys 6 )LHRH, indicating a single class of high affinity sites. Equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) was 0.34 nM in pituitary membrane preparation and 0.43 nM in isolated pituitary cells. Both Kd values were near and the maximum binding capacity (B max ) was great in isolated cells, suggesting no significant loss of the LHRH receptor population caused by the enzymatic procedure employed for cell dispersion in the present study. Addition of 9D-Lys 6 ) LHRH displaced bound 125 I-(D-Lys 6 ) LHRH. These results demonstrated the presence and provided characterization of LHRH receptors in Shao duck pituitary

  9. In Vitro Fertilization Using Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Injections Resulted in Healthy Triplets without Increased Attack Rates in a Hereditary Angioedema Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tunakan Dalgıç

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder. The management of pregnant patients with C1-INH-HAE is a challenge for the physician. Intravenous plasma-derived nanofiltered C1-INH (pdC1INH is the only recommended option throughout pregnancy, postpartum, and breastfeeding period. In order to increase pregnancy rates, physicians use fertilization therapies increasing endogen levels of estrogens. Therefore, these techniques can provoke an increase in the number and severity of edema attacks in C1-INH-HAE. Our patient is a 32-year-old female, diagnosed with C1-INH-HAE type 1 since 2004. She had been taking danazol 50–200 mg/day for 9 years. Due to her pregnancy plans in 2013, danazol was discontinued. PdC1INH was prescribed regularly for prophylactic purpose. Triplet pregnancy occurred by in vitro fertilization using luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH injections. In our patient, LHRH injections were done four times without causing any severe attack during in vitro fertilization. Angioedema did not worsen during pregnancy and delivery due to the prophylactic use of intravenous pdC1INH in our patient. According to the attack frequency and severity, there was no difference between the three pregnancy trimesters. To our knowledge, this is the first published case of C1-INH-HAE receiving in vitro fertilization therapies without any angioedema attacks during pregnancy and delivery and eventually having healthy triplets with the prophylactic use of intravenous pdC1INH.

  10. Immunocytochemical localization of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in the nervus terminalis and brain of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelschläger, H A; Northcutt, R G

    1992-01-15

    Little is known about the immunohistochemistry of the nervous system in bats. This is particularly true of the nervus terminalis, which exerts strong influence on the reproductive system during ontogeny and in the adult. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) was visualized immunocytochemically in the nervus terminalis and brain of juvenile and adult big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). The peripheral LHRH-immunoreactive (ir) cells and fibers (nervus terminalis) are dispersed along the basal surface of the forebrain from the olfactory bulbs to the prepiriform cortex and the interpeduncular fossa. A concentration of peripheral LHRH-ir perikarya and fibers was found at the caudalmost part of the olfactory bulbs, near the medioventral forebrain sulcus; obviously these cells mediate between the bulbs and the remaining forebrain. Within the central nervous system (CNS), LHRH-ir perikarya and fibers were distributed throughout the olfactory tubercle, diagonal band, preoptic area, suprachiasmatic and supraoptic nuclei, the bed nuclei of stria terminalis and stria medullaris, the anterior lateral and posterior hypothalamus, and the tuber cinereum. The highest concentration of cells was found within the arcuate nucleus. Fibers were most concentrated within the median eminence, infundibular stalk, and the medial habenula. The data obtained suggest that this distribution of LHRH immunoreactivity may be characteristic for microchiropteran (insectivorous) bats. The strong projections of LHRH-containing nuclei in the basal forebrain (including the arcuate nucleus) to the habenula, may indicate close functional contact between these brain areas via feedback loops, which could be important for the processing of thermal and other environmental stimuli correlated with hibernation.

  11. Accuracy of serum luteinizing hormone and serum testosterone measurements to assess the efficacy of medical castration in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Juan; Comas, Imma; Ferrer, Roser; Planas, Jacques; Celma, Anna; Regis, Lucas

    2017-10-22

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists are the standard for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Current guidelines recommend serum testosterone measurement to assess the efficacy of ADT and to define castration resistance. However, serum testosterone does not reflect the exclusive effect of castration due to its extratesticular production. The aim of this study is to analyze if serum LH reflects better than serum testosterone the activity of LH-RH agonists. Serum LH and serum testosterone were measured with chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) in a cohort study of 1091 participants: 488 PCa patients "on LH-RH agonists", 303 "off LH-RH agonist" in whom LH-RH agonists were withdrawn, and 350 men with PCa suspicion "no LH-RH agonist" who never received LH-RH agonists. In a validation cohort of 147 PCa patients, 124 on "LH-RH agonists" and 19 "off LH-RH agonists", serum testosterone was also measured with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC MSMS). The area under the curve (AUC) to distinguish patients "on versus off LH-RH agonists" was 0.997 for serum LH and 0.740 for serum testosterone, P < 0.001. The 97.5 percentile of serum LH in patients "on LH-RH agonists" was 0.97 U/L, been the most efficient threshold 1.1 U/L. The AUCs for serum LH, testosterone measured with CLIA and with LC MSMS, in the validation cohort, were respectively 1.000, 0.646 and 0.814, P < 0.001. The efficacy to distinguish patients "on versus off LH-RH agonists" was 98.6%, 78.3%, and 89.5% respectively, using 1.1 U/L as threshold for serum LH and 50 ng/dL for serum testosterone regardless the method. Serum LH is more accurate than serum testosterone regardless the method, to distinguish patients "on versus off LH-RH agonists". The castrate level of serum LH is 1.1 U/l. These findings suggest that assessment of LH-RH agonist efficacy and castration resistance definition should be reviewed.

  12. Bioassay of circulating luteinizing hormone in the rhesus monkey: comparison with radioimmunoassay during physiological changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufau, M.L.; Hodgen, G.D.; Goodman, A.L.; Catt, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    The concentration of biologically active LH in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) serum was measured by a highly sensitive bioassay based upon testosterone production by dispersed rat interstitial cells. The sensitivity of the in vitro bioassay was equal to or higher than that of radioimmunoassay, with detection limits of 0.1 mIU of human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) or 10 ng of a Rhesus pituitary gonadotropin preparation (LER-1909-2). Parallel dose-response curves were obtained for hMG and Rhesus monkey pituitary gonadotropin. The method permits bioassay of LH in 20--100 μl of serum from adult male monkeys, and from female monkeys during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Bioactive LH concentrations could be assayed in 0.25 to 5 μl of serum from mid-cycle, postmenopausal, and castrated female monkeys. Serum LH was undetectable in two hypophysectomized adult female monkeys and six intact immature animals, and was 13 +- 6 (SD) mIU/ml in adult male monkeys. In adult females, follicular phase LH levels ranged from 17 to 169 mIU/ml, with a mean of 76 +- 52 mIU/ml. The midcycle LH peak was 1738 +- 742 mIU/ml and the luteal phase values ranged from 6-47 mIU/ml, with a mean of 35 +- 5 mIU/ml. Serum LH concentrations ranged from 100 to 900 mIU/ml in two menopausal females, and from 590--1480 mIU/ml in castrated females. Treatment of castrated female monkeys with estrogen plus progesterone produced an initial two-fold rise in sepum LH within 3 days, followed by a gradual decline to one-fourth to one-tenth of the initial levels after 10 days of treatment. Serum LH was suppressed to undetectable levels during the third week, and remained so for the duration of the 60-day treatment period

  13. Inhibition of growth of experimental prostate cancer with sustained delivery systems (microcapsules and microgranules) of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist SB-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, E; Bokser, L; Comaru-Schally, A M; Groot, K; Schally, A V

    1991-02-01

    Inhibitory effects of the sustained delivery systems (microcapsules and microgranules) of a potent antagonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone N-Ac-[3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine1, 4-chloro-D-phenylalanine2, 3-(3-pyridyl)-D-alanine3, D-citrulline6, D-alanine10]LH-RH (SB-75) on the growth of experimental prostate cancers were investigated. In the first experiment, three doses of a microcapsule preparation releasing 23.8, 47.6, and 71.4 micrograms of antagonist SB-75 per day were compared with microcapsules of agonist [D-Trp6]LH-RH liberating 25 micrograms/day in rats bearing Dunning R3327H transplantable prostate carcinoma. During 8 weeks of treatment, tumor growth was decreased by [D-Trp6]LH-RH and all three doses of SB-75 as compared to untreated controls. The highest dose of SB-75 (71.4 micrograms/day) caused a greater inhibition of prostate cancer growth than [D-Trp6]LH-RH as based on measurement of tumor volume and percentage change in tumor volume. Doses of 23.8 and 47.6 micrograms of SB-75 per day induced a partial and submaximal decrease, respectively, in tumor weight and volume. Tumor doubling time was the longest (50 days) with the high dose of SB-75 vs. 15 days for controls. The body weights were unchanged. The weights of testes, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate were greatly reduced in all three groups that received SB-75, and testosterone levels were decreased to nondetectable values in the case of the two higher doses of SB-75. LH levels were also diminished. Similar results were obtained in the second experiment, in which the animals were treated for a period of 8 weeks with microgranules of SB-75. Therapy with microgranules of SB-75 significantly decreased tumor growth as measured by the final tumor volume, the percentage change from the initial tumor volume, and the reduction in tumor weight. The results indicate that antagonist SB-75, released from sustained delivery systems, can produce a state of chemical castration and effectively

  14. Effect of priming injections of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone on spermiation and ovulation in Gϋnther's Toadlet, Pseudophryne guentheri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silla Aimee J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the majority of vertebrates, gametogenesis and gamete-release depend on the pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH from the hypothalamus. Studies attempting to artificially stimulate ovulation and spermiation may benefit from mimicking the naturally episodic secretion of LHRH by administering priming injections of a synthetic analogue (LHRHa. This study investigated the impact of low-dose priming injections of LHRHa on gamete-release in the Australian toadlet Pseudophryne guentheri. Methods Toadlets were administered a single dose of two micrograms per. gram LHRHa without a priming injection (no priming, or preceded by one (one priming or two (two priming injections of 0.4 micrograms per. gram LHRHa. Spermiation responses were evaluated at 3, 7 and 12 hrs post hormone administration (PA, and sperm number and viability were quantified using fluorescent microscopy. Oocyte yields were evaluated by stripping females at 10-11 hrs PA. A sub-sample of twenty eggs per female was then fertilised (with sperm obtained from testis macerates and fertilisation success determined. Results No priming induced the release of the highest number of spermatozoa, with a step-wise decrease in the number of spermatozoa released in the one and two priming treatments respectively. Peak sperm-release occurred at 12 hrs PA for all priming treatments and there was no significant difference in sperm viability. Females in the control treatment failed to release oocytes, while those administered an ovulatory dose without priming exhibited a poor ovulatory response. The remaining two priming treatments (one and two priming successfully induced 100% of females to expel an entire clutch. Oocytes obtained from the no, or two priming treatments all failed to fertilise, however oocytes obtained from the one priming treatment displayed an average fertilisation success of 97%. Conclusion Spermiation was most effectively induced in

  15. Melanin-concentrating hormone in peripheral circulation in the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naufahu, J; Alzaid, F; Fiuza Brito, M; Doslikova, B; Valencia, T; Cunliffe, A; Murray, J F

    2017-03-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide with a well-characterised role in energy homeostasis and emergent roles in diverse physiologic functions such as arousal, mood and reproduction. Work to date has predominantly focused on its hypothalamic functions using animal models; however, little attention has been paid to its role in circulation in humans. The aims of this study were to (a) develop a radioimmunoassay for the detection of MCH in human plasma; (b) establish reference ranges for circulating MCH and (c) characterise the pattern of expression of circulating MCH in humans. A sensitive and specific RIA was developed and cross-validated by RP-HPLC and MS. The effective range was 19.5-1248 pg MCH/mL. Blood samples from 231 subjects were taken to establish a reference range of 19.5-55.4 pg/mL for fasting MCH concentrations. There were no significant differences between male and female fasting MCH concentrations; however, there were correlations between MCH concentrations and BMI in males and females with excess fat (P < 0.001 and P = 0.020) and between MCH concentrations and fat mass in females with excess fat (P = 0.038). Plasma MCH concentrations rose significantly after feeding in a group of older individuals (n = 50, males P = 0.006, females P = 0.023). There were no robust significant correlations between fasting or post-prandial MCH and resting metabolic rate, plasma glucose, insulin or leptin concentrations although there were correlations between circulating MCH and leptin concentrations in older individuals (P = 0.029). These results indicate that the role of circulating MCH may not be reflective of its regulatory hypothalamic role. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org . Laurence M. Demers, PhD. Distinguished Professor of Pathology and Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University College of ... 2010. Brzyski, R. and Jensen, J. (Revised 2007 March) Female Reproductive Endocrinology, Introduction. Merck Manual for Healthcare ...

  17. The polymorphic insertion of the luteinizing hormone receptor "insLQ" show a negative association to LHR gene expression and to the follicular fluid hormonal profile in human small antral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbo, T; Chrudimska, J; Macek, M

    2018-01-01

    (AMHR2) and LHCGR, respectively, were observed for insLQ/insLQ compared to -/insLQ and the -/- genotypes. Moreover, LHCGR and CYP19a1 together with oestradiol and inhibin-B were significantly increased in -/insLQ compared to the -/- genotype. The homozygous insLQ genotype showed strong significant......The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) has a little studied polymorphic 6 bp insertion (rs4539842/insLQ). This study has evaluated the insLQ polymorphism in relation to potential associations with hormonal characteristics of human small antral follicles (hSAFs). In total, 310 hSAFs were collected...... from 86 women undergoing fertility preservation. Analysis included hormonal profile of 297 follicular fluid (FF) samples and 148 corresponding granulosa cells samples were evaluated by qPCR for selected genes. Significantly reduced and non-detectable mRNA levels of anti-Müllerian hormone receptor II...

  18. Application of ovine luteinizing hormone (LH) radioimmunoassay in the quantitation of LH in different mammalian species. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, R.P.; Aehnelt, C.

    1977-09-01

    A sensitive double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed for measuring luteinizing hormone (LH) in various African mammalian species, using rabbit anti-ovine LH serum (GDN 15) and radioiodinated rat LH or ovine LH. Serum and pituitary homogenates from some African mammals (hyrax, reedbuck, sable, impala, tsessebe, thar, spring-hare, ground squirrel and cheetah, as well as the domestic sheep, cow and horse and laboratory rat and hamster) produced displacement curves parallel to that of the ovine LH standards. The specificity of the assay was examined in detail for one species, the rock hyrax. Radioimmunoassay and bioassay estimates of LH in hyrax pituitaries containing widely differing quantities of pituitary hormones were similar. In sexually active male hyrax mean plasma LH was 12.1 ng/ml and pituitary LH 194 ..mu..g/gland, but in sexually quiescent hyrax mean plasma LH was 2.4 ng/ml and mean pituitary LH 76 ..mu..g/gland. Intravenous injection of 10 ..mu..g of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone increased mean LH levels in hyrax from 0.9 ng/ml to 23.2 ng/ml by 30 min. Conversely, im injection of 250 ..mu..g testosterone induced a fall in LH levels in male hyrax from 1.7 ng/ml to 0.7 ng/ml 6 h after administration. Although the specificity of the assay for quantitating plasma LH in other species was not categorically established, there was a good correlation between plasma LH concentration and reproductive state in the bontebok, impala, spring-hare, thar, cheetah, domestic horse and laboratory rat, suggesting the potential use of the antiserum in quantitating LH in a variety of mammalian species.

  19. Characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone in primiparous, postpartum, anovular, suckled, beef cows exposed acutely to bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauck Shaun A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological mechanism by which bulls stimulate resumption of ovarian cycling activity in postpartum, anovular, suckled cows after calving may involve the concurrent activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian (HPO axis and hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal (HPA axis. Thus, the objectives of this experiment were to determine if characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH in postpartum, anovular, beef cows are influenced by acute exposure to bulls. The null hypotheses were that daily, temporal characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns do not differ between cows exposed acutely to bulls or steers. Methods Sixteen cows were assigned randomly 67 +/- 4 (+/- SE after calving to be exposed to bulls (EB, n = 8 or steers (ES, n = 8 5 h daily for 9 d (D 0 to 8. Blood samples were collected daily from each cow via jugular catheters at 15-min intervals for 6 h from 1000 to 1600 h each day. The 5-h exposure period began 1 h after the start of the intensive bleeding period. Characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns (mean, baseline, pulse frequency, pulse amplitude, and pulse duration were identified by PULSAR analyses. Results Mean cortisol concentrations decreased (P 0.10 between EB and ES cows. The decrease in mean cortisol concentrations in EB and ES cows from D 0 to D 2 was attributed to cows acclimatizing to intensive blood sampling and handling procedures. Consequently, analyses for characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns included D 2 through 8 only. Cortisol mean and baseline concentrations, and pulse amplitude did not differ (P > 0.10 between EB and ES cows. However, cortisol pulse duration tended to be longer (P = 0.09 and pulse frequency was lower (P = 0.05 in EB than ES cows. LH pulse frequency was greater (P = 0.06 in EB than ES cows. All other characteristics of LH concentration patterns did not differ (P > 0.10 between EB and ES cows

  20. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    in lipodystrophic patients compared to nonlipodystrophic patients, whereas luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin were similar and normal in both study groups. Ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, limb fat, and insulin sensitivity, which were all decreased in lipodystrophic...... patients, correlated positively with both plasma oestradiol and testosterone (n = 31). Glycerol concentration during clamp (a marker of lipolysis) correlated inversely with expression of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor, ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, and limb fat, respectively. Expression......OBJECTIVE: Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose...

  1. Passive immunization of fetal rats with antiserum to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) or transection of the central roots of the nervus terminalis does not affect rat pups' preference for home nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzel-Fukuda, M; Pfaff, D W

    1987-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is found immunocytochemically in cell bodies and fibers of the nervus terminalis, a cranial nerve which courses from the nasal septum through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone (medial to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerves) and enters the forebrain, caudal to the olfactory bulbs. Immunoreactive LHRH is first detected in the nervus terminalis of the fetal rat at 15 days of gestation, preceding its detection by immunocytochemistry in any other area of the brain, including the median eminence, and preceding detection of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH) in the anterior pituitary. During development of the rat fetus, the nervus terminalis is the principal source of LHRH in the nervous system from days 15 through 19 of a 21 day gestation period. We tested the notion that the LHRH system of the nervus terminalis is important for olfactory performance by examining the effects of administration of antisera to LHRH during fetal development (versus saline controls), or medial olfactory peduncle transections, in the neonatal rat, which would sever the central projections of the nervus terminalis (versus lateral peduncle transection, complete transection of the olfactory peduncles and the central nervus terminalis or controls) on preferences of rat pups for home nest. The hypothesis that LHRH is important for this chemosensory response was not confirmed. Neither antisera to LHRH nor medical olfactory peduncle transection disrupted preference for home shavings. Only complete olfactory peduncle transection had a significant effect compared to unoperated and sham-operated controls.

  2. Radioimmunological determination of the level of luteinizing hormone in the serum in the case of various gonadal disturbances and other endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiebe, C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine radioimmunologically the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the serum in the case of various gonadal disturbances and other endocrine diseases with the aid of the double antibody method, and to compare the results within different diagnosis groups to each other and to compare these results with those found in the published literature. It was tested whether and with which accuracy the radioimmunological determination of LH in the serum can contribute to the diagnosis of pituitary gonad diseases and whether in the case of endocrine diseases the accompanying disturbances of the gonadotropin secretion which primarily do not affect the hypothalamo - hypophyso - gonadal circuit are demonstrable. The study results for the diagnosis groups primary and secondary hypogonadism of various genesis, gynacomastia, impotentia coeundi, primary and secondary ovarial insufficiency, hirsutism and adiposity were presented and discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. Carotenoids, birdsong and oxidative status: administration of dietary lutein is associated with an increase in song rate and circulating antioxidants (albumin and cholesterol and a decrease in oxidative damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Casagrande

    Full Text Available Despite the appealing hypothesis that carotenoid-based colouration signals oxidative status, evidence supporting the antioxidant function of these pigments is scarce. Recent studies have shown that lutein, the most common carotenoid used by birds, can enhance the expression of non-visual traits, such as birdsong. Nevertheless, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we hypothesized that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris fed extra lutein increase their song rate as a consequence of an improved oxidative status. Although birdsong may be especially sensitive to the redox status, this has, to the best of our knowledge, never been tested. Together with the determination of circulating oxidative damage (ROMs, reactive oxygen metabolites, we quantified uric acid, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol, and testosterone, which are physiological parameters potentially sensitive to oxidation and/or related to both carotenoid functions and birdsong expression. We found that the birds fed extra lutein sang more frequently than control birds and showed an increase of albumin and cholesterol together with a decrease of oxidative damage. Moreover, we could show that song rate was associated with high levels of albumin and cholesterol and low levels of oxidative damage, independently from testosterone levels. Our study shows for the first time that song rate honestly signals the oxidative status of males and that dietary lutein is associated with the circulation of albumin and cholesterol in birds, providing a novel insight to the theoretical framework related to the honest signalling of carotenoid-based traits.

  4. Insulin hypersecretion together with high luteinizing hormone concentration augments androgen secretion in oral glucose tolerance test in women with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, L; Koskinen, P; Jaatinen, T A; Erkkola, R; Irjala, K; Ruutiainen, K

    1993-08-01

    Female hyperandrogenism is often associated with hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. We evaluated the hormone responses in an oral glucose tolerance test to investigate the interactions of gonadotrophins, insulin, C-peptide and androgens in women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). In 28 patients with ultrasonographically diagnosed PCOD, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance were mainly associated with obesity. Both basal and cumulative sum of insulin to C-peptide ratios were high in obese subjects, suggesting decreasing hepatic removal of insulin caused by obesity. Nevertheless, in some lean PCOD women, despite normal fasting insulin concentrations, insulin hypersecretion existed. The mean concentration of testosterone decreased significantly during the oral glucose tolerance test both in PCOD and control women, and of androstenedione in the PCOD patients only. However, an increase in androgen responses was found in a subgroup of PCOD patients, who had both elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and hyperinsulinaemic response to oral glucose. In the remaining PCOD patients an inverse correlation between LH and insulin was found. The patients with hyperinsulinaemia together with LH hypersecretion may represent a subgroup of PCOD with deranged regulation of androgen secretion.

  5. In vitro effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol to stimulate somatostatin release and block that of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone by suppression of the release of prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettori, V.; Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M.; Gimeno, M.F.; Franchi, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Previous in vivo studies have shown that Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal active ingredient in marijuana, can suppress both luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) secretion after its injection into the third ventricle of conscious male rats. The present studies were deigned to determine the mechanism of these effects. Various doses of THC were incubated with either stalk median eminence fragments (MEs) or mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) fragments in vitro. Although THC (10 nM) did not alter basal release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) from MEs in vitro, it completely blocked the stimulatory action of dopamine or nonrepinephrine on LHRH release. The effective doses to block LHRH release were associated with a blockade of synthesis and release of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) from MBH in vitro. In contrast to the suppressive effect of THC on LHRH release, somatostatin release from MEs was enhanced in a dose-related manner with a minimal effective dose of 1 nM. Since PGE 2 suppresses somatostatin release, this enhancement may also be related to the suppressive effect of THC on PGE 2 synthesis and release. The authors speculate that these actions are mediated by the recently discovered THC receptors in the tissue. The results indicate that the suppressive effect of THC on LH release is mediated by a blockade of LHRH release, whereas the suppressive effect of the compound on growth hormone release is mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of somatostatin release

  6. EFFECT OF POST-MATING GNRH TREATMET ON SERUM PROGESTERONE, LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS, DURATION OF ESTROUS CYCLE AND PREGNANCY RATES IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. YILDIZ, E. KAYGUSUZOĞLU, M. KAYA1 AND M. ÇENESIZ1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy rate, estrous cycle lenght, serum progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH concentrations were determined in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 10.5 μg synthetic gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist, receptal administered cows on day 12 post-mating (n=9 compared to control cows (n=8. Their oestrous cycles were synchronised by intramuscular administration of prostaglandin F2 alpha (its analog, cloprostenol twice at 11 days interval. Estrous exhibited cows were mated naturally. Blood samples were collected every two days from all animals. Serum progesterone and LH concentrations were measured by ELISA method. GnRH administration significantly increased serum LH concentration which reached peak levels 2-3 h after treatment. However, serum progesterone concentration was not affected. There were no differences in mean progesterone concentrations on days 12 to 24 post-mating between GnRH administrated and control pregnant cows. However, in non pregnant animals, progesterone concentrations on days 16 in the treated group were lower than control group (P<0.01. Pregnancy diagnosis in animals made by B-mode ultrasonography between the 30th and 35th day showed that 77.7% of treated cows were pregnant compared to 50% in control group. Duration of the estrous cycle in the non-pregnant animals was not affected by the treatment (control, 21.3 ± 0.8 days; treated, 22.5 ± 0.5 days. In conclusion, this study supports the use of GnRH on day 12 post-mating as a method for enhancing pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cattle.

  7. Alcohol and dietary fibre intakes affect circulating sex hormones among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Takata, Yumie; Murphy, Suzanne P; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2006-10-01

    The association of alcohol and fibre intake with breast cancer may be mediated by circulating sex hormone levels, which are predictors of breast cancer risk. To evaluate the relationship of alcohol and dietary fibre intake with circulating sex hormone levels among premenopausal women. A total of 205 premenopausal women completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and after 2 years; blood samples taken at the same time were analysed for circulating sex hormone concentrations, including oestrone (E1), oestradiol (E2), free E2, progesterone, androstenedione and sex hormone-binding globulin, by radioimmunoassay. We used mixed models to estimate least-square means of sex hormone concentrations for alcohol intake categories and quartiles of dietary intake. After adjustment for covariates, alcohol consumption was moderately associated with higher circulating oestrogen levels; those who consumed more than one drink per day had 20% higher E2 (Ptrend=0.07) levels than non-drinkers. In contrast, higher dietary fibre intake was associated with lower serum levels of androstenedione (-8% between the lowest and highest quartiles of intake, Ptrend=0.06), but not oestrogens. Similarly, consumption of fruits (-12%, Ptrend=0.03), vegetables (-9%, Ptrend=0.15) and whole grains (-7%, Ptrend=0.07) showed inverse associations with androstenedione levels. The consistency of the observed differences in sex hormone levels associated with alcohol and fibre-rich foods indicates that these nutritional factors may affect sex hormone concentrations and play a role in breast cancer aetiology and prevention.

  8. Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of 13 studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J; Appleby, P N; Reeves, G K; Roddam, A W; Helzlsouer, K J; Alberg, A J; Rollison, D E; Dorgan, J F; Brinton, L A; Overvad, K; Kaaks, R; Trichopoulou, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Panico, S; Duell, E J; Peeters, P H M; Rinaldi, S; Fentiman, I S; Dowsett, M; Manjer, J; Lenner, P; Hallmans, G; Baglietto, L; English, D R; Giles, G G; Hopper, J L; Severi, G; Morris, H A; Hankinson, S E; Tworoger, S S; Koenig, K; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Arslan, A A; Toniolo, P; Shore, R E; Krogh, V; Micheli, A; Berrino, F; Barrett-Connor, E; Laughlin, G A; Kabuto, M; Akiba, S; Stevens, R G; Neriishi, K; Land, C E; Cauley, J A; Lui, Li Yung; Cummings, Steven R; Gunter, M J; Rohan, T E; Strickler, H D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone concentrations in more than 6000 postmenopausal women controls in 13 prospective studies. Results: Concentrations of all hormones were lower in older than younger women, with the largest difference for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was higher in the older women. Androgens were lower in women with bilateral ovariectomy than in naturally postmenopausal women, with the largest difference for free testosterone. All hormones were higher in obese than lean women, with the largest difference for free oestradiol, whereas SHBG was lower in obese women. Smokers of 15+ cigarettes per day had higher levels of all hormones than non-smokers, with the largest difference for testosterone. Drinkers of 20+ g alcohol per day had higher levels of all hormones, but lower SHBG, than non-drinkers, with the largest difference for DHEAS. Hormone concentrations were not strongly related to age at menarche, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy or family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: Sex hormone concentrations were strongly associated with several established or suspected risk factors for breast cancer, and may mediate the effects of these factors on breast cancer risk. PMID:21772329

  9. Morphometric analysis of the folliculostellate cells and luteinizing hormone gonadotropic cells of the anterior pituitary of the men during the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čukuranović Kokoris, Jovana; Jovanović, Ivan; Pantović, Vukica; Krstić, Miljan; Stanojković, Milica; Milošević, Verica; Ugrenović, Slađana; Stojanović, Vesna

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify the changes in the morphology and density of the anterior pituitary folliculostellate (FS) and luteinizing hormone (LH) cells. Material was tissue of the pituitary gland of the 14 male cadavers. Tissue slices were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal anti-LH antibody and polyclonal anti-S100 antibody for the detection of LH and FS cells, respectively. Digital images of the stained slices were afterwards morphometrically analyzed by ImageJ. Results of the morphometric analysis showed significant increase of the FS cells volume density in cases older than 70 years. Volume density of the LH cells did not significantly change, whereas their area significantly increased with age. Nucleocytoplasmic ratio of the LH cells gradually decreased and became significant after the age of 70. Finally, volume density of the FS cell significantly correlated with LH cells area and nucleocytoplasmic ratio. From all above cited, we concluded that in men, density and size of the FS cells increase with age. Long-term hypertrophy of the LH cells results in their functional decline after the age of 70. Strong correlation between FS cells and LH cells morphometric parameters might point to age-related interaction between these two cell groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 125I-luteinizing hormone (LH) binding to soluble receptors from the primate (Macaca mulatta) corpus luteum: effects of ethanol exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danforth, D.R.; Stouffer, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the current study, we compared the effects of ethanol on gonadotropin receptors solubilized from macaque luteal membranes to those on receptors associated with the lipid bilayer. Treatment with 1% Triton X-100 for 30 min at 4C, followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol, resulted in recovery of 50% more binding sites for 125 I-human luteinizing hormone (hLH) than were available in particulate preparations. However, the soluble receptors displayed a 3-fold lower affinity for 125 I-hLH. Conditions which enhanced LH binding to particulates, i.e., 1-8% ethanol at 25C, decreased specific 125 I-hLH binding to soluble receptors. Steady-state LH binding to soluble receptors during incubation at 4C was half of that observed at 25C. The presence of 8% ethanol at 4C restored LH binding to levels observed in the absence of ethanol at 25C. Thus, LH binding sites in the primate corpus luteum can be effectively solubilized with Triton X-100. The different binding characteristics of particulate and soluble receptors, including the response to ethanol exposure, suggest that the lipid environment in the luteal membrane modulates the availability and affinity of gonadotropin receptors

  11. Differential Effects of Continuous Exposure to the Investigational Metastin/Kisspeptin Analog TAK-683 on Pulsatile and Surge Mode Secretion of Luteinizing Hormone in Ovariectomized Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANAKA, Tomomi; OHKURA, Satoshi; WAKABAYASHI, Yoshihiro; KUROIWA, Takenobu; NAGAI, Kiyosuke; ENDO, Natsumi; TANAKA, Akira; MATSUI, Hisanori; KUSAKA, Masami; OKAMURA, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to determine if the estradiol-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is influenced by the constant exposure to TAK-683, an investigational metastin/kisspeptin analog, that had been established to depress the pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and LH secretion in goats. Ovariectomized goats subcutaneously received TAK-683 (TAK-683 group, n=6) or vehicle (control group, n=6) constantly via subcutaneous implantation of an osmotic pump. Five days after the start of the treatment, estradiol was infused intravenously in both groups to evaluate the effects on the LH surge. Blood samples were collected at 6-min intervals for 4 h prior to the initiation of either the TAK-683 treatment or the estradiol infusion, to determine the profiles of pulsatile LH secretion. They were also collected at 2-h intervals from –4 h to 32 h after the start of estradiol infusion for analysis of LH surges. The frequency and mean concentrations of LH pulses in the TAK-683 group were remarkably suppressed 5 days after the start of TAK-683 treatment compared with those of the control group (P<0.05). On the other hand, a clear LH surge was observed in all animals of both groups. There were no significant differences in the LH concentrations for surge peak and the peak time of the LH surge between the TAK-683 and control groups. These findings suggest that the effects of continuous exposure to kisspeptin or its analog on the mechanism(s) that regulates the pulsatile and surge mode secretion of GnRH/LH are different in goats. PMID:24047956

  12. Phenobarbital blockade of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge: association with phase-advanced circadian clock and altered suprachiasmatic nucleus Period1 gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legan, Sandra J.; Donoghue, Kathleen M.; Franklin, Kathleen M.; Duncan, Marilyn J.

    2009-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls the timing of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in laboratory rodents. Barbiturate administration during a critical period on proestrus delays the surge and prolongs the estrous cycle 1 day. Because a nonphotic timing signal (zeitgeber) during the critical period that phase advances activity rhythms can also induce the latter effect, we hypothesized that barbiturates delay the LH surge by phase-advancing its circadian timing signal beyond the critical period. In experiment 1, locomotor rhythms and estrous cycles were monitored in hamsters for 2–3 wk preinjection and postinjection of vehicle or phenobarbital and after transfer to darkness at zeitgeber time (ZT) 6 on proestrus. Phenobarbital delayed estrous cycles in five of seven hamsters, which exhibited phase shifts that averaged twofold greater than those exhibited by vehicle controls or phenobarbital-injected hamsters with normal cycles. Experiment 2 used a similar protocol, but injections were at ZT 5, and blood samples for LH determination were collected from 1200 to 1800 on proestrus and the next day via jugular cannulae inserted the day before proestrus. Phenobarbital delayed the LH surge 1 day in all six hamsters, but it occurred at an earlier circadian time, supporting the above hypothesis. Experiment 3 investigated whether phenobarbital, like other nonphotic zeitgebers, suppresses SCN Period1 and Period2 transcription. Two hours postinjection, phenobarbital decreased SCN expression of only Period1 mRNA, as determined by in situ hybridization. These results suggest that phenobarbital advances the SCN pacemaker, governing activity rhythms and hormone release in part by decreasing its Period1 gene expression. PMID:19297538

  13. Lutropin alpha, recombinant human luteinizing hormone, for the stimulation of follicular development in profoundly LH-deficient hypogonadotropic hypogonadal women: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Th Krause

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bernd Th Krause1, Ralf Ohlinger2, Annette Haase31Center for Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, MVZ Uhlandstr, Berlin, Germany; 2Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Greifswald, Germany; 3Uhlandstr. 162, 10719 BerlinAbstract: Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is defined as a medical condition with low or undetectable gonadotropin secretion, associated with a complete arrest of follicular growth and very low estradiol. The main cause can be traced back to an irregular or absent hypothalamic GnRH secretion, whereas only a minority suffers from a pituitary disorder. The choice of treatment to reverse this situation is a pulsatile GnRH application or a direct ovarian stimulation using gonadotropin injections. The goal is to achieve a proper ovarian function in these cases for a short time to allow ovulation and chance of pregnancy. Since the pulsatile GnRH treatment lost its former importance, several gonadotropins are in use to stimulate follicular growth, such as urine-derived human menopausal gonadotropin, highly purified follicle stimulating hormone (FSH or recombinant FSH, all with different success. The introduction of recombinant luteinizing hormone (LH and FSH provided an opportunity to investigate the distinct influences of LH and FSH alone and in combination on follicular growth in monofollicular ovulation induction cycles, and additionally on oocyte maturation, fertilization competence of the oocyte and embryo quality in downregulated IVF patients. Whereas FSH was known to be indispensable for normal follicular growth, the role of LH remained questionable. Downregulated IVF patients with this short-term gonadotropin depletion displayed no advance in stimulation success with the use of recombinant LH. Patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism undergoing monofollicular stimulation for ovulation induction showed clearly a specific role and need for both hormones in normal follicular growth. Therefore, a

  14. Circulating thyroid hormone levels and adequacy of dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savdie, E; Stewart, J H; Mahony, J F; Hayes, J M; Lazarus, L; Simons, L A

    1978-02-01

    In vitro thyroid function tests were performed in three groups of patients with chronic renal failure who were receiving, on average, 15, 18 and 27 hours of maintenance hemodialysis per week. Total thyroxine levels were low and total triiodothyronine levels low to normal in those receiving the least dialysis (15 hours), and were significantly higher in those receiving longer dialysis. Free thyroxine levels, as measured by the effective thyroxine ratio, were normal and similar in all three groups, as were serum thyrotrophin levels. All patients were clinically euthyroid. As total hormone levels showed a significant inverse relationship to both urea and creatinine, this study suggests that there is a dialyzable metabolite retained in uremia which competes with thyroid hormones for protein-binding sites.

  15. Primary and secondary structural determinants in the receptor binding sequence β-(38-57) from human luteinizing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keutmann, H.T.; Charlesworth, M.C.; Kitzmann, K.; Mason, K.A.; Johnson, L.; Ryan, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The intercysteine loop sequence 38-57 in the β subunit has been shown to be a determinant for expression of biological activity in human lutropin (hLH) and choriogonadotropin (hCG). Together with other sequences, the 38-57 region may contribute to a multicomponent receptor binding domain in hLH/hCG. Because the structural features influencing activity in this important region are not easy to evaluate in the full-length subunit, the authors have used analogues of hLHβ-(38-57) prepared by solid-phase synthesis. The peptides were tested for inhibition of 125 I-labeled hCG binding to rat ovarian membrane receptors. Secondary structure was analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) and by reactivity with antibodies to the native 38-57 peptide. An analogue lacking the 38-57 disulfide linkage retained 20% receptor binding and full immunoreactivity. Far-ultraviolet CD profiles were essentially identical with those of the disulfide-intact peptide; a transition from 10% to 30% α-helix in 90% trifluoroethanol was characteristic of both. The peptide thus appears not to require the disulfide bridge to retain a looped conformation with amphipathic secondary structure. An essential positive charge at position 43 was shown by complete loss of activity upon substitution of Asp or Ala for the Arg found in all known species of LH. These results indicate that the 38-57 sequence is a relatively rigid and structurally autonomous region, not merely a series of residues constrained passively into a loop by a disulfide linkage. It includes segments of ordered structure, probably including both amphipathic helical and turn sequences. Evidence from studies of other hormones suggests that this region may be important to binding and specificity in the glycoprotein hormones as a group

  16. In vitro effect of. Delta. sup 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol to stimulate somatostatin release and block that of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone by suppression of the release of prostaglandin E sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettori, V.; Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (United States)); Gimeno, M.F.; Franchi, A.M. (Centro de Estudios Farmacologicos y de Principios Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1990-12-01

    Previous in vivo studies have shown that {Delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal active ingredient in marijuana, can suppress both luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) secretion after its injection into the third ventricle of conscious male rats. The present studies were deigned to determine the mechanism of these effects. Various doses of THC were incubated with either stalk median eminence fragments (MEs) or mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) fragments in vitro. Although THC (10 nM) did not alter basal release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) from MEs in vitro, it completely blocked the stimulatory action of dopamine or nonrepinephrine on LHRH release. The effective doses to block LHRH release were associated with a blockade of synthesis and release of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) from MBH in vitro. In contrast to the suppressive effect of THC on LHRH release, somatostatin release from MEs was enhanced in a dose-related manner with a minimal effective dose of 1 nM. Since PGE{sub 2} suppresses somatostatin release, this enhancement may also be related to the suppressive effect of THC on PGE{sub 2} synthesis and release. The authors speculate that these actions are mediated by the recently discovered THC receptors in the tissue. The results indicate that the suppressive effect of THC on LH release is mediated by a blockade of LHRH release, whereas the suppressive effect of the compound on growth hormone release is mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of somatostatin release.

  17. Relationships between the luteinizing hormone surge and other characteristics of the menstrual cycle in normally ovulating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Ana; Bailly, Sébastien; Mariani, Aude; Ecochard, René

    2013-01-01

    To describe the LH surge variants in ovulating women and analyze their relationship with the day of ovulation and other hormone levels. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort observational study. Eight natural family planning clinics. Normally fertile women (n = 107) over 283 cycles. Women collected daily first morning urine, charted basal body temperature and cervical mucus discharge, and underwent serial ovarian ultrasound. Urinary LH, FSH, estrone-3-glucuronide (E3G), pregnanediol-3α-glucuronide (PDG), and day of ovulation by ultrasound (US-DO). Individual LH surges were extremely variable in configuration, amplitude, and duration. The study also showed that LH surges marked by several peaks were associated with statistically significant smaller follicle sizes before rupture and lower LH level on the day of ovulation. LH surges lasting >3 days after ovulation were associated with a lower E3G before ovulation, a smaller corpus luteum 2 days after ovulation, and a lower PDG value during the first 4 days after ovulation. In clinical practice, LH profiles should be compared with the range of profiles observed in normally fertile cycles, not with the mean profile. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth differentiation factor 3 is induced by bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) and BMP-7 and increases luteinizing hormone receptor messenger RNA expression in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia; Yoshino, Osamu; Osuga, Yutaka; Akiyama, Ikumi; Harada, Miyuki; Koga, Kaori; Fujimoto, Akihisa; Yano, Tetsu; Taketani, Yuji

    2012-04-01

    To examine the relevance of growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF-3) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cytokines in human ovary. Molecular studies. Research laboratory. Eight women undergoing salpingo-oophorectomy and 30 women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. Localizing GDF-3 protein in human ovaries; granulosa cells (GC) cultured with GDF-3, BMP-6, or BMP-7 followed by RNA extraction. The localization of GDF-3 protein in normal human ovaries via immunohistochemical analysis, GDF-3 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression evaluation via quantitative real-time reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and evaluation of the effect of GDF-3 on leuteinizing hormone (LH) receptor mRNA expression via quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In the ovary, BMP cytokines, of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, are known as a luteinization inhibitor by suppressing LH receptor expression in GC. Growth differentiation factor 3, a TGF-β superfamily cytokine, is recognized as an inhibitor of BMP cytokines in other cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that GDF-3 was strongly detected in the GC of antral follicles. An in vitro assay revealed that BMP-6 or BMP-7 induced GDF-3 mRNA in GC. Also, GDF-3 increased LH receptor mRNA expression and inhibited the effect of BMP-7, which suppressed the LH receptor mRNA expression in GC. GDF-3, induced with BMP-6 and BMP-7, might play a role in folliculogenesis by inhibiting the effect of BMP cytokines. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence for gating roles of protein kinase A and protein kinase C in estradiol-induced luteinizing hormone receptor (lhcgr) expression in zebrafish ovarian follicle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ka-Cheuk; Ge, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) stimulates luteinizing hormone receptor (lhcgr) expression in zebrafish follicle cells via nuclear estrogen receptors (nERs) that are likely expressed on the membrane, and lhcgr responds to E2 in a biphasic manner during 24-h treatment. These observations raise an interesting question on the signaling mechanism underlying E2 regulation, in particular the biphasic response of lhcgr expression. In the present study, we demonstrated that E2 regulation of lhcgr was significantly influenced by the activity of cAMP-PKA pathway. Activation of cAMP-PKA pathway by forskolin or db-cAMP suppressed E2-stimulated lhcgr expression in short-term (3 h) but enhanced its effect in long-term (24 h), suggesting differential roles of PKA at these two phases of lhcgr response. PKA inhibitor H89 showed reversed effects. In contrast, PKC pathway had consistent permissive effect on E2-induced lhcgr expression as evidenced by strong inhibition of E2 effect by PKC inhibitors GF109203X and Ro-31-8220 at both 3 and 24 h. One of the mechanisms by which PKA and PKC gated E2 effect might be through regulating nERs, particularly esr2a. Despite the strong influence of PKA and PKC, our data did not suggest direct mediating roles for these two pathways in E2 stimulation of lhcgr expression; yet they likely play critical gating roles in E2 signal transduction. As a follow-up study to our previous report on E2 regulation of gonadotropin receptors in the zebrafish ovary, the present study provides further evidence for the involvement of classical intracellular signal transduction pathways in E2 stimulation of lhcgr expression in the follicle cells.

  20. Advanced seasonal reproductive development in a male urban bird is reflected in earlier plasma luteinizing hormone rise but not energetic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Scott; Behbahaninia, Hirbod; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Meddle, Simone L; Waites, Kyle; Deviche, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Urban animals inhabit an environment considerably different than do their non-urban conspecifics, and to persist urban animals must adjust to these novel environments. The timing of seasonal reproductive development (i.e., growth of gonads and secondary sex organs) is a fundamental determinant of the breeding period and is frequently advanced in urban bird populations. However, the underlying mechanism(s) by which birds adjust the timing of reproductive development to urban areas remain(s) largely unknown. Here, we compared the timing of vernal reproductive development in free-ranging urban and non-urban male Abert's Towhees, Melozone aberti, in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, and tested the non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that earlier reproductive development is due to improved energetic status and/or earlier increase in endocrine activity of the reproductive system. We found that urban birds initiated testicular development earlier than non-urban birds, but this disparity was not associated with differences in body condition, fat stores, or innate immune performance. These results provide no support for the hypothesis that energetic constraints are responsible for delayed reproductive development of non-urban relative to urban male Abert's Towhees. Urban birds did, however, increase their plasma luteinizing hormone, but not plasma testosterone, earlier than non-urban birds. These findings suggest that adjustment to urban areas by Abert's Towhees involves increases in the endocrine activity of the anterior pituitary gland and/or hypothalamus earlier than non-urban towhees. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Decreased levels of circulating sex hormones as a biomarker of lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An early differentiation of malignant from benign solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) is essential for management and prognosis of lung cancer. Objectives: Here we investigated whether measurement of circulating sex hormones could be useful for an early detection of malignancy among patients with SPNs.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone β-subunit cDNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Sevilhano

    Full Text Available The common gonadotrophic hormone α-subunit (GTHα has been previously isolated by our research group from A. gigas pituitaries; in the present work the cDNA sequences encoding FSHβ and LHβ subunits have also been isolated from the same species of fish. The FSH β-subunit consists of 126 amino acids with a putative 18 amino acid signal peptide and a 108 amino acid mature peptide, while the LH β-subunit consists of 141 amino acids with a putative 24 amino acid amino acid signal peptide and a 117 amino acid mature peptide. The highest identity, based on the amino acid sequences, was found with the order of Anguilliformes (61% for FSHβ and of Cypriniformes (76% for LHβ, followed by Siluriformes, 53% for FSHβ and 75% for LHβ. Interestingly, the identity with the corresponding human amino acid sequences was still remarkable: 45.1% for FSHβ and 51.4% for LHβ. Three dimensional models of ag-FSH and ag-LH, generated by using the crystal structures of h-FSH and h-LH as the respective templates and carried out via comparative modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, suggested the presence of the so-called "seat-belt", favored by a disulfide bond formed between the 3rd and 12th cysteine in both β-subunits. The sequences found will be used for the biotechnological synthesis of A. gigas gonadotrophic hormones (ag-FSH and ag-LH. In a first approach, to ascertain that the cloned transcripts allow the expression of the heterodimeric hormones, ag-FSH has been synthesized in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells, preliminarily purified and characterized.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone β-subunit cDNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilhano, Thais; Carvalho, Roberto Feitosa de; Oliveira, Nélio Alessandro de Jesus; Oliveira, João Ezequiel; Maltarollo, Vinicius Gonçalves; Trossini, Gustavo; Garcez, Riviane; Bartolini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The common gonadotrophic hormone α-subunit (GTHα) has been previously isolated by our research group from A. gigas pituitaries; in the present work the cDNA sequences encoding FSHβ and LHβ subunits have also been isolated from the same species of fish. The FSH β-subunit consists of 126 amino acids with a putative 18 amino acid signal peptide and a 108 amino acid mature peptide, while the LH β-subunit consists of 141 amino acids with a putative 24 amino acid amino acid signal peptide and a 117 amino acid mature peptide. The highest identity, based on the amino acid sequences, was found with the order of Anguilliformes (61%) for FSHβ and of Cypriniformes (76%) for LHβ, followed by Siluriformes, 53% for FSHβ and 75% for LHβ. Interestingly, the identity with the corresponding human amino acid sequences was still remarkable: 45.1% for FSHβ and 51.4% for LHβ. Three dimensional models of ag-FSH and ag-LH, generated by using the crystal structures of h-FSH and h-LH as the respective templates and carried out via comparative modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, suggested the presence of the so-called "seat-belt", favored by a disulfide bond formed between the 3rd and 12th cysteine in both β-subunits. The sequences found will be used for the biotechnological synthesis of A. gigas gonadotrophic hormones (ag-FSH and ag-LH). In a first approach, to ascertain that the cloned transcripts allow the expression of the heterodimeric hormones, ag-FSH has been synthesized in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, preliminarily purified and characterized.

  4. The rat cochlea in the absence of circulating adrenal hormones: an electrophysiological and morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohuis, P J; Börjesson, P K; Klis, S F; Smoorenburg, G F

    2000-05-01

    Circulating adrenal hormones affect strial function. Removal of endogenous levels of adrenal steroids by bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) in rats causes a decrease of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the cochlear lateral wall [Rarey et al., 1989. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 115, 817-821] and a decrease of the volume of the marginal cells in the stria vascularis [Lohuis et al., 1990. Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.) 110, 348-356]. To study further the effect of absence of circulating adrenocorticosteroids on cochlear function, 18 male Long Evans rats underwent either an ADX or a SHAM operation. Electrocochleography was performed 1 week after surgery for tone bursts in a frequency range of 1-16 kHz. Thereafter, the cochleas were harvested and examined histologically. No significant changes in the amplitude growth curves of the summating potential (SP), the compound action potential (CAP) and the cochlear microphonics (CM) were detected after ADX. However, visually, there appeared to be a decrease of endolymphatic volume (tentatively called imdrops). Reissner's membrane (RM) extended less into scala vestibuli in ADX animals than in SHAM-operated animals. The ratio between the length of RM and the straight distance between the medial and lateral attachment points of RM were used as an objective measure to quantify this effect in each sub-apical half turn of the cochlea. The decrease in length of RM was statistically significant. Thus, circulating adrenal hormones appear to be necessary for normal cochlear fluid homeostasis. Absence of one or more of these hormones leads to shrinkage of the scala media (imdrops). However, the absence of adrenal hormones does not affect the gross cochlear potentials. Apparently, the cochlea is capable of compensating for the absence of circulating adrenal hormones to sustain the conditions necessary for proper cochlear transduction.

  5. Utrogestan as an effective oral alternative for preventing premature luteinizing hormone surges in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuxian; Zhang, Xiaole; Fu, Yonglun

    2015-05-01

    A major cause of cycle cancellation during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) is the occurrence of premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surges. Steroidal preparations can modulate the secretion of gonadotropins (Gn); however, few studies using progesterone to inhibit the premature LH surges in COH have been published. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the oral delivery of progesterone soft capsules (Utrogestan) to prevent LH surges from the follicular phase and to compare cycle characteristics as well as to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in subsequent frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles. A total of 374 patients were enrolled in this retrospective study, among which 187 patients were simultaneously administered Utrogestan and human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG) from cycle day 3 until the trigger day. A short protocol including 187 controls with comparable age, body mass index (BMI), infertility duration, and antral follicle count was also used. GnRH agonist (0.1 mg) or hCG (3000 IU) was used for a trigger when the dominant follicles matured. Viable embryos were cryopreserved for later transfer in both groups. The primary outcome was the number of oocytes retrieved. The secondary outcomes included the number of mature oocytes, incidence of premature LH surge, and clinical pregnancy outcomes from FET cycles. Consistent LH suppression was achieved during COH, with a range of 0.07 to 8.9 IU/L, and no premature LH surge was detected. The number of oocytes retrieved in the Utrogestan and hMG protocol was comparable with that in the short protocol (10.92 ± 5.74 vs 10.6 ± 6.22, P > 0.05), and the dose of hMG was higher than that used in the short protocol (1884.22 ± 439.47 IU vs 1446.26 ± 550.48 IU, P effective oral alternative for preventing premature LH surges in women undergoing COH, which will help to establish a convenient user regimen in combination with FET.

  6. Longitudinal Development of Hormone Levels and Grey Matter Density in 9 and 12-Year-Old Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Rachel M.; Koenis, M. M G; Schnack, Hugo G.; van Baal, G. Caroline; van Soelen, Inge L C; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.

    2015-01-01

    Puberty is characterized by major changes in hormone levels and structural changes in the brain. To what extent these changes are associated and to what extent genes or environmental influences drive such an association is not clear. We acquired circulating levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle

  7. Serum bioactive and immunoreactive luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels in women with cycle abnormalities, with or without polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, B C; Pache, T D; Lamberts, S W; Hop, W C; de Jong, F H; Dahl, K D

    1991-10-01

    Serum steroid, gonadotropin, and alpha-subunit levels were assessed in 35 women with cycle abnormalities [11 with and 24 without polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) according to strict clinical and biochemical criteria] and 8 regularly cycling women in the early (cycle day 3 or 4) and mid (cycle day 7 or 8) follicular phase. LH and FSH levels were estimated using two immunological techniques [RIA and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)] and in vitro bioassays (BIO), using mouse Leydig cells and rat granulosa cells, respectively. In PCOD patients mean alpha-subunit, free androgen index [FAI; testosterone x 100/sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)], androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol (E2) were significantly elevated compared to levels in the early follicular phase of control cycles and non-PCOD patients. In addition, in PCOD patients mean IRMA-LH and RIA-LH levels were distinctly increased (2.8- to 3.6 fold, respectively; both comparisons, P less than 0.001) compared to control values, but in the same order of magnitude (1.3- to 1.4-fold increments) as that in non-PCOD patients. However, the median BIO-LH level in PCOD patients was 5.9-fold higher than that in non-PCOD patients and 4.0-fold higher than the BIO-LH in the early follicular phase of control women. Consequently, the median BIO/IRMA-LH ratio was 4.8-fold higher in PCOD patients compared to non-PCOD patients. In women with cycle abnormalities, individual BIO/IRMA-LH ratios correlated with BIO-LH (rs = 0.48), FAI (rs = 0.39), free estrogens (E2/SHBG ratios; rs = 0 0.47), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (rs = 0.60) concentrations. Mean IRMA-, RIA-, and BIO-FSH levels and BIO/IRMA-FSH ratios were not significantly different when various groups were compared. Although RIA- and IRMA-LH levels showed good correlation (rs = 0.88), RIA-LH levels were consistently higher, resulting in distinctly higher RIA-LH/FSH ratios (mean, 4.5) compared to IRMA-LH/FSH ratios (median, 1.8) in PCOD patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT

  8. Development of a radioimmunoassay for circulating levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moodbidri, S.B.; Joshi, L.R.; Sheth, A.R.; Rao, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    A specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay system has been developed for measuring gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in unextracted human serum. Circulating levels of GnRH, LH and FSH were determined in 37 serum samples obtained from twenty normal healthy women on different days of the menstrual cycle. GnRH and LH but not FSH exhibited similar patterns during the menstrual cycle. 125 I-labelled GnRH was used in the RIA system. (author)

  9. Recovery of pituitary-gonadal function in male and female rats after prolonged administration of a potent antagonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (SB-75).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokser, L; Srkalovic, G; Szepeshazi, K; Schally, A V

    1991-08-01

    estradiol (p less than 0.01) levels than controls. The histology of the ovaries from the SB-75-treated group showed that the ratio of small to large maturing follicles increased significantly (p less than 0.01) and corpora lutea were absent. Two months after the cessation of treatment, a complete recovery in the organ weights and in hormonal levels was observed and no histological differences were found between the ovaries in treated and untreated rats. These collective results indicate that the suppression of gonadal function induced by the treatment with LH-RH antagonist SB-75 is completely reversible both in male and female animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  10. Stressed lungs: unveiling the role of circulating stress hormones in ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent work demonstrated that circulating stress hormones, epinephrine and corticosterone/cortisol, are involved in mediating ozone pulmonary effects through the activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Adrenalectomy in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats diminished circu...

  11. Fast renal trapping of porcine Luteinizing Hormone (pLH shown by 123I-scintigraphic imaging in rats explains its short circulatory half-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locatelli Alain

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar moieties of gonadotropins play no primary role in receptor binding but they strongly affect their circulatory half-life and consequently their in vivo biopotencies. In order to relate more precisely hepatic trapping of these glycoproteic hormones with their circulatory half-life, we undertook a comparative study of the distribution and elimination of porcine LH (pLH and equine CG (eCG which exhibit respectively a short and a long half-life. This was done first by following half-lives of pLH in piglets with hepatic portal circulation shunted or not. It was expected that such a shunt would enhance the short half-life of pLH. Subsequently, scintigraphic imaging of both 123I-pLH and 123I-eCG was performed in intact rats to compare their routes and rates of distribution and elimination. Methods Native pLH or eCG was injected to normal piglets and pLH was tested in liver-shunted anæsthetized piglet. Blood samples were recovered sequentially over one hour time and the hormone concentrations were determined by a specific ELISA method. Scintigraphic imaging of 123I-pLH and 123I-eCG was performed in rats using a OPTI-CGR gamma camera. Results In liver-shunted piglets, the half-life of pLH was found to be as short as in intact piglets (5 min. In the rat, the half-life of pLH was also found to be very short (3–6 min and 123I-pLH was found to accumulate in high quantity in less than 10 min post injection at the level of kidneys but not in the liver. 123I-eCG didn't accumulate in any organ in the rats during the first hour, plasma concentrations of this gonadotropin being still elevated (80% at this time. Conclusion In both the porcine and rat species, the liver is not responsible for the rapid elimination of pLH from the circulation compared to eCG. Our scintigraphic experiments suggest that the very short circulatory half-life of LH is due to rapid renal trapping.

  12. Luteinizing hormone signaling phosphorylates and activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase PDE5 in mouse ovarian follicles, contributing an additional component to the hormonally induced decrease in cyclic GMP that reinitiates meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Jeremy R; Yee, Siu-Pok; Jaffe, Laurinda A

    2018-03-01

    Prior to birth, oocytes within mammalian ovarian follicles initiate meiosis, but then arrest in prophase until puberty, when with each reproductive cycle, one or more follicles are stimulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) to resume meiosis in preparation for fertilization. Within preovulatory follicles, granulosa cells produce high levels of cGMP, which diffuses into the oocyte to maintain meiotic arrest. LH signaling restarts meiosis by rapidly lowering the levels of cGMP in the follicle and oocyte. Part of this decrease is mediated by the dephosphorylation and inactivation the NPR2 guanylyl cyclase in response to LH, but the mechanism for the remainder of the cGMP decrease is unknown. At least one cGMP phosphodiesterase, PDE5, is activated by LH signaling, which would contribute to lowering cGMP. PDE5 exhibits increased cGMP-hydrolytic activity when phosphorylated on serine 92, and we recently demonstrated that LH signaling phosphorylates PDE5 on this serine and increases its activity in rat follicles. To test the extent to which this mechanism contributes to the cGMP decrease that restarts meiosis, we generated a mouse line in which serine 92 was mutated to alanine (Pde5-S92A), such that it cannot be phosphorylated. Here we show that PDE5 phosphorylation is required for the LH-induced increase in cGMP-hydrolytic activity, but that this increase has only a modest effect on the LH-induced cGMP decrease in mouse follicles, and does not affect the timing of meiotic resumption. Though we show that the activation of PDE5 is among the mechanisms contributing to the cGMP decrease, these results suggest that another cGMP phosphodiesterase is also activated by LH signaling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lutein and Brain Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Erdman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is one of the most prevalent carotenoids in nature and in the human diet. Together with zeaxanthin, it is highly concentrated as macular pigment in the foveal retina of primates, attenuating blue light exposure, providing protection from photo-oxidation and enhancing visual performance. Recently, interest in lutein has expanded beyond the retina to its possible contributions to brain development and function. Only primates accumulate lutein within the brain, but little is known about its distribution or physiological role. Our team has begun to utilize the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta model to study the uptake and bio-localization of lutein in the brain. Our overall goal has been to assess the association of lutein localization with brain function. In this review, we will first cover the evolution of the non-human primate model for lutein and brain studies, discuss prior association studies of lutein with retina and brain function, and review approaches that can be used to localize brain lutein. We also describe our approach to the biosynthesis of 13C-lutein, which will allow investigation of lutein flux, localization, metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Lastly, we describe potential future research opportunities.

  14. Rat enterohepatic circulation and intestinal distribution of enterally infused thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.J. III; Sternlicht, M.; Harris, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    The enterohepatic circulation (recycling), intestinal (gut) distribution, metabolism, and excretion of enterally infused thyroid hormones were studied in the intact rat under approximately normal physiological steady state conditions. Rats with 7-day osmotic minipumps implanted ip received constant intraduodenal infusions to steady state of very small trace doses of either 125I-labeled T3 (T3*) or T4 (T4*). Enterohepatic and other pathways remained open to normal function, and in particular, there was no biliary diversion or ligation. Complete feces and urine were collected daily, to assess daily distributions of radioactivity and establishment of the steady state, which occurred by day 3. On day 7, rats were anesthetized, blood was sampled, whole intestine and minipumps were removed, and the gut was separated into six segments. Fecal samples and the contents of each gut section were homogenized, ethanol extracted, evaporated, and reconstituted in NaOH for quantitative aqueous chromatography along with infusate, urine, and plasma samples, on Sephadex G-25 columns. No T3* or T4* was found in urine, but feces contained 39% of the T3* infused and 36% of the T4* infused in steady state. Statistically significant amounts of both T3* and T4* in systemic plasma on day 7 clearly indicated absorption of the hormones from the intestine, distinctly demonstrating an enterohepatic circulation of T3 and T4 under experimental conditions closely approximating the physiological steady state. This also establishes the intestine (with its contents) as an exchangeable hormone pool, physiologically internal to the system regulating thyroid hormones and their distribution. Gut contents contained 52 times more T3* and 4.34 times more T4* than corresponding plasma pools in steady state

  15. Associations of Circulating Gut Hormone and Adipocytokine Levels with the Spectrum of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Huei Tseng

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is complex and poorly understood. We aim to investigate the association of various circulating peptide hormones with heterogenous manifestations of GERD.One hundred and four patients that had experienced typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation for at least 3 episodes per week in the past 3 months were enrolled. All patients received a baseline assessment of symptom severity and frequency with the Reflux Disease Questionnaire and an upper endoscopy to classify GERD into erosive esophagitis (EE, n = 67, non-erosive esophagitis (NE, n = 37, and Barrett's esophagus (BE, n = 8. Fifty asymptomatic subjects with an endoscopically normal esophagus were recruited as the control group. Complete anthropometric measures and blood biochemistry were obtained and fasting serum levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin and gut hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all subjects.All circulating peptide hormone levels were not statistically different between the GERD and control groups. However, GERD patients appeared to have lower PYY levels [median (25th-75th percentile, 80.1 (49.8-108.3 vs. 99.4 (65.8-131.9 pg/ml, p = 0.057] compared with control subjects. Among the GERD patients, ghrelin levels were inversely associated with the frequency and severity of acid regurgitation. In male GERD patients, EE was associated with significantly higher PYY levels [107.0 (55.0-120.8 vs. 32.8 (28.7-84.5 pg/ml, p = 0.026] but lower adiponectin levels [6.7 (5.6-9.3 vs. 9.9 (9.6-10.6 μg/ml, p = 0.034] than NE. Patients with BE had significantly lower adiponectin levels [6.0 (5.1-9.2 vs. 9.2 (7.1-11.2 μg/ml, p = 0.026] than those without BE.Humoral derangement of circulating peptide hormones might participate in inflammation and symptom perception in patients suffering from GERD. Further studies to clarify the exact role of these hormones

  16. Increased circulating interleukin-8 in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone receptor α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H van der Spek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune cells have recently been identified as novel thyroid hormone (TH target cells in which intracellular TH levels appear to play an important functional role. The possible involvement of TH receptor alpha (TRα, which is the predominant TR in these cells, has not been studied to date. Studies in TRα0/0 mice suggest a role for this receptor in innate immune function. The aim of this study was to determine whether TRα affects the human innate immune response. We assessed circulating interleukin-8 concentrations in a cohort of 8 patients with resistance to TH due to a mutation of TRα (RTHα and compared these results to healthy controls. In addition, we measured neutrophil and macrophage function in one of these RTHα patients (mutation D211G. Circulating interleukin-8 levels were elevated in 7 out of 8 RTHα patients compared to controls. These patients harbor different mutations, suggesting that this is a general feature of the syndrome of RTHα. Neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis, bacterial killing, NAPDH oxidase activity and chemotaxis were unaltered in cells derived from the RTHαD211G patient. RTHα macrophage phagocytosis and cytokine induction after LPS treatment were similar to results from control cells. The D211G mutation did not result in clinically relevant impairment of neutrophil or pro-inflammatory macrophage function. As elevated circulating IL-8 is also observed in hyperthyroidism, this observation could be due to the high-normal to high levels of circulating T3 found in patients with RTHα.

  17. Genetic variations altering FSH action affect circulating hormone levels as well as follicle growth in healthy peripubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Almstrup, Kristian; Main, Katharina M; Juul, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Do variants of the genes encoding follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) beta subunit (B) and FSH receptor (R) impact circulating reproductive hormone levels and ovarian follicle maturation in healthy peripubertal girls? FSHB and FSHR genetic variants exert, alone or their combination, distinct effects on reproductive hormone levels as well as ovarian follicle maturation in healthy peripubertal girls. FSHB and FSHR genetic variants impact reproductive hormone levels as well as associated pathologies in women. While FSHR c. 2039A>G is known to alter gonadotrophin levels in women, FSHR c.-29G>A has not yet been shown to exert effect and there are conflicting results concerning FSHB c.-211G>T. This population-based study included 633 girls recruited as part of two cohorts, the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study (2006-2014, a cross-sectional and ongoing longitudinal study) and the Copenhagen Mother-Child Cohort (1997-2002, including transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) of the ovaries in a subset of 91 peripubertal girls). Clinical examinations, including pubertal breast stage (Tanner's classification B1-B5) were performed. Circulating levels of FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin-B were assessed by immunoassays. In a subset of the girls (n = 91), ovarian volume and the number/size of antral follicles were assessed by TAUS. Genotypes were determined by competitive PCR. FSHR c.2039A>G minor alleles were positively associated with serum FSH (β = 0.08, P = 0.004), LH (β = 0.06, P = 0.012) and estradiol (β = 0.06, P = 0.017) (adjusted for Tanner stages). In a combined model, FSHR c.-29G>A and FSHR c.2039A>G alleles were positively associated with FSH levels in early-pubertal girls (B2 + B3, n = 327, r = 0.1, P = 0.02) and in young adolescents (B4 + B5, n = 149, r = 0.2, P = 0.01). Serum AMH and inhibin B levels were not significantly influenced by the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Single SNPs were not associated with follicles

  18. Progestogen treatments for cycle management in a sheep model of assisted conception affect the growth patterns, the expression of luteinizing hormone receptors, and the progesterone secretion of induced corpora lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letelier, Claudia; García-Fernández, Rosa Ana; Contreras-Solis, Ignacio; Sanchez, María Angeles; Garcia-Palencia, Pilar; Sanchez, Belen; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Flores, Juana María

    2010-03-01

    To determine, in a sheep model, the effect of a short-term progestative treatment on growth dynamics and functionality of induced corpora lutea. Observational, model study. Public university. Sixty adult female sheep. Synchronization and induction of ovulation with progestogens and prostaglandin analogues; ovarian ultrasonography, blood sampling, and ovariectomy. Determination of pituitary function and morphologic characteristics, expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors, and progesterone secretion of corpora lutea. The use of progestative pretreatments for assisted conception affect the growth patterns, the expression of LH receptors, and the progesterone secretion of induced corpora lutea. The current study indicates, in a sheep model, the existence of deleterious effects from progestogens on functionality of induced corpora lutea. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevated levels of circulating thyroid hormone do not cause the medical sequelae of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Tammas; Denmark, Lawrence; Lieberman, Daniel Z

    2016-11-03

    Clinicians have been reluctant to use high dose thyroid (HDT) to treat affective disorders because high circulating levels of thyroid hormone have traditionally been equated with hyperthyroidism, and understood as the cause of the medical sequelae of hyperthyroidism, such as osteoporosis and cardiac abnormalities. This conclusion is not supported by (HDT) research. A literature review of research related to the morbidity and mortality of HDT treatment was performed. There exists a large body of research involving the use of HDT treatment to prevent the recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer and to treat affective disorders. A review of this literature finds a lack of support for HDT as a cause of osteoporosis, nor is there support for an increase in morbidity or mortality associated with HDT. This finding contrasts with the well-established morbidity and mortality associated with Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and other endogenous forms of hyperthyroidism. The lack of evidence that exogenous HDT causes osteoporosis, cardiac abnormalities or increases mortality compared with the significant morbidity and mortality of hyperthyroidism requires an alternative cause for the medical sequelae of hyperthyroidism. One possibility is an autoimmune mechanism. High circulating levels of thyroid hormone is not the cause of the sequela of hyperthyroidism. The reluctance to using high dose thyroid is unwarranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Variation in levels of serum inhibin B, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in monthly samples from healthy men during a 17-month period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2003-01-01

    To obtain information on the scale of the intraindividual variation in testicular hormone, blood samples for inhibin B determination were collected monthly in 27 healthy male volunteers during a 17-month period. In addition, the traditional reproductive hormones FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol....... A seasonal variation was observed in LH and testosterone levels, but not in the levels of the other hormones. The seasonal variation in testosterone levels could be explained by the variation in LH levels. The seasonal variation in LH levels seemed to be related to the mean air temperature during the month...... levels in men. The peak levels of both LH and testosterone were observed during June-July, with minimum levels present during winter-early spring. Air temperature, rather than light exposure, seems to be a possible climatic variable explaining the seasonal variation in LH levels....

  1. Circulating sex hormones and terminal duct lobular unit involution of the normal breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodr, Zeina G; Sherman, Mark E; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Gierach, Gretchen L; Brinton, Louise A; Falk, Roni T; Patel, Deesha A; Linville, Laura M; Papathomas, Daphne; Clare, Susan E; Visscher, Daniel W; Mies, Carolyn; Hewitt, Stephen M; Storniolo, Anna Maria V; Rosebrock, Adrian; Caban, Jesus J; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2014-12-01

    Terminal duct lobular units (TDLU) are the predominant source of breast cancers. Lesser degrees of age-related TDLU involution have been associated with increased breast cancer risk, but factors that influence involution are largely unknown. We assessed whether circulating hormones, implicated in breast cancer risk, are associated with levels of TDLU involution using data from the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank (KTB) at the Indiana University Simon Cancer Center (2009-2011). We evaluated three highly reproducible measures of TDLU involution, using normal breast tissue samples from the KTB (n = 390): TDLU counts, median TDLU span, and median acini counts per TDLU. RRs (for continuous measures), ORs (for categorical measures), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), and Ptrends were calculated to assess the association between tertiles of estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), progesterone, and prolactin with TDLU measures. All models were stratified by menopausal status and adjusted for confounders. Among premenopausal women, higher prolactin levels were associated with higher TDLU counts (RRT3vsT1:1.18; 95% CI: 1.07-1.31; Ptrend = 0.0005), but higher progesterone was associated with lower TDLU counts (RRT3vsT1: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.72-0.89; Ptrend < 0.0001). Among postmenopausal women, higher levels of estradiol (RRT3vsT1:1.61; 95% CI: 1.32-1.97; Ptrend < 0.0001) and testosterone (RRT3vsT1: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.09-1.59; Ptrend = 0.0043) were associated with higher TDLU counts. These data suggest that select hormones may influence breast cancer risk potentially through delaying TDLU involution. Increased understanding of the relationship between circulating markers and TDLU involution may offer new insights into breast carcinogenesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(12); 2765-73. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. The role of the habenula-interpeduncular pathway in modulating levels of circulating adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M; Murphy, C A; Ross, L L; Haun, F

    1994-01-01

    The fasciculus retroflexus (FR) is the major pathway by which the medial and lateral habenular nuclei project to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) and ventral tegmentum. Recent work has suggested that the habenula-interpeduncular system may be involved in the regulation of states of arousal. Bilateral FR lesions have been shown to disrupt chronically, and habenula transplants have been shown to restore normal sleep patterns in rats [J. NeuroscL, 12 (1992) 3282-3290]. In this study, we examined whether FR lesions and habenula cell transplants would also modify chronically the circulating plasma levels of the stress-related hormones, norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EPI) and corticosterone. When plasma samples were obtained via retro-orbital eye-bleed during anesthesia, animals with FR lesions had significantly increased levels of plasma NE, EPI and corticosterone 2-3 months postoperatively compared to unoperated controls. Transplants of embryonic habenula cells placed near the denervated IPN in FR-lesioned animals restored levels of NE and EPI to normal, but did not attenuate elevated corticosterone levels. When plasma samples were obtained in conscious animals via indwelling arterial cannulae, FR-lesioned rats likewise exhibited increased basal levels of corticosterone but plasma levels of catecholamines were similar to those of unoperated controls. Differences in our results obtained using the two methods of blood sampling may be explained by the effects of anesthesia and stress associated with the eye-bleed method. Thus, the effect of FR lesions in increasing plasma levels of catecholamines may not reflect a difference in basal hormone levels, but a heightened sympathetic adrenomedullary response to stress. While these results indicate that the integrity of the habenular efferent pathway is important in modulating circulating levels of hormones associated with the stress response, two separate mechanisms appear to control its interactions with sympathetic

  3. [Clinical relevance of ESR1 circulating mutations detection in hormone receptor positive metastatic breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatot, Florian; Perdrix, Anne; Sefrioui, David; Sarafan-Vasseur, Nasrin; Di Fiore, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    If hormone therapy is a key treatment for hormone receptor positive advanced breast cancers, secondary resistance occurs as a rule. Recently, acquired alterations of the ESR1 gene have been identified as a mechanism of resistance on aromatase inhibitor (AI) treatment. The selective pressure by AI exposure during the metastatic setting triggers the emergence of ESR1 activating mutations. In that context, the "liquid biopsy" concept has been used to detect this molecular resistance before progression. Thus, the ESR1 circulating mutation detection will soon be used in daily practice to help monitoring patients on AI treatment and provide an early change for specific therapies that still have to be determined in prospective clinical trials. This review will present the acquired ESR1 mutations, as well as the methods used for their detection in blood and the potential clinical impact of this approach for hormone receptor positive breast cancer management. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Características testiculares de touros imunizados com vacina anti-hormônio liberador do hormônio luteinizante Testicular characteristics of bulls immunosterilized with anti-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zanella

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ação imunoesterilizadora de uma vacina anti-hormônio liberador de hormônio luteinizante (LHRH, composta por ovalbumina-LHRH-7 e tiorredoxina-LHRH-7, em touros mestiços Nelore. Vinte e seis touros, com dois anos de idade, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de 13 animais. No grupo I, os animais receberam uma dose e dois reforços da vacina nos dias 0, 141, e 287 do experimento. No grupo II, os animais não receberam nenhum tratamento (controle. Para avaliar o efeito da vacina nos touros, foi realizada a mensuração da circunferência escrotal no início do experimento e no dia do abate, 741 dias depois. Por ocasião do abate, também foi coletada uma amostra dos testículos para avaliação histológica. O grupo imunizado apresentou circunferência escrotal ao abate de 22±5,98 cm, menor do que a do grupo controle que foi de 35,6±2,4 cm. Na análise histológica dos animais do grupo imunizado, foi observada degeneração testicular com ausência de espermatozoides em 85% dos animais avaliados, os outros 15% apresentaram redução no número de espermatozoides, em comparação aos animais do grupo controle. A vacina anti-LHRH, com fusão de proteínas, é efetiva na castração imunológica de touros e deve ser considerada como alternativa para utilização na produção bovina extensiva no Brasil.The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunosterilization action of the anti-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH vaccine, composed with ovalbumin-LHRH-7 and thioredoxin-LHRH-7, in Nelore-cross bulls. Twenty-six 2-year old bulls were randomly assigned in two groups of 13 animals each. The animals of group I received a primary and two booster injections of the vaccine on days 0, 141, and 287 of the experiment. In group II, the control group, the bulls did not receive any type of treatment. Scrotal circumference was measured in the beginning of the experiment and at slaughter

  5. Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41–78 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OHD, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OHD levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s, and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels.

  6. Central hypogonadism due to a giant, "silent" FSH-secreting, atypical pituitary adenoma: effects of adenoma dissection and short-term Leydig cell stimulation by luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Daniele; Spaggiari, Giorgia; Casarini, Livio; Fanelli, Flaminia; Mezzullo, Marco; Pagotto, Uberto; Granata, Antonio R M; Carani, Cesare; Simoni, Manuela

    2017-06-01

    We present a case report of an atypical giant pituitary adenoma secreting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). A 55-year-old patient presented for erectile dysfunction, loss of libido and fatigue. The biochemical evaluation showed very high FSH serum levels in the presence of central hypogonadism. Neither testicular enlargement nor increased sperm count was observed, thus a secretion of FSH with reduced biological activity was supposed. The histological examination after neuro-surgery showed an atypical pituitary adenoma with FSH-positive cells. Hypogonadism persisted and semen analyses impaired until azoospermia in conjunction with the reduction in FSH levels suggesting that, at least in part, this gonadotropin should be biologically active. Thus, we hypothesized a concomitant primary testicular insufficiency. The patient underwent short-term treatment trials with low doses of either recombinant luteinizing hormone (LH) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in three consecutive treatment schemes, showing an equal efficacy in stimulating testosterone (T) increase. This is the first case of atypical, giant FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma with high FSH serum levels without signs of testicular hyperstimulation, in presence of hypogonadism with plausible combined primary and secondary etiology. Hypophysectomized patients may represent a good model to assess both pharmacodynamics and effective dose of LH and hCG in the male.

  7. A liver metalloendopeptidase which degrades the circulating hypotensive peptide hormones bradykinin and atrial natriuretic peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A new metalloendopeptidase was purified to apparent homogeneity from a homogenate of normal human liver using successive steps of chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite and Sephacryl S-200. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed the Pro7-Phe8 bond of bradykinin and the Ser25-Tyr26 bond of atrial natriuretic peptide. No cleavage was produced in other peptide hormones such as vasopressin, oxytocin or Met- and Leu-enkephalin. This enzyme activity was inhibited by 1 mM divalent cation chelators such as EDTA, EGTA and o-phenanthroline and was insensitive to 1 µM phosphoramidon and captopril, specific inhibitors of neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11 and angiotensin-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1, respectively. With Mr 85 kDa, the enzyme exhibits optimal activity at pH 7.5. The high affinity of this endopeptidase for bradykinin (Km = 10 µM and for atrial natriuretic peptide (Km = 5 µM suggests that it may play a physiological role in the inactivation of these circulating hypotensive peptide hormones.

  8. Adrenal hormones and circulating leukocyte subtypes in stroke patients treated with reperfusion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Mur, Francesc; Laredo, Carlos; Renú, Arturo; Rudilosso, Salvatore; Zhao, Yashu; Amaro, Sergio; Llull, Laura; Urra, Xabier; Planas, Anna M; Chamorro, Ángel

    2018-03-13

    Ischemic stroke sets in motion a dialogue between the central nervous and the immune systems that includes the sympathetic/adrenal system. We investigated the course of immune cells and adrenocortical and adrenomedullary effectors in a cohort of 51 patients with acute stroke receiving reperfusion therapy (intravenous alteplase or mechanical thrombectomy) and its correlation with stroke outcomes and infarct growth. Cortisol increased rapidly and fleetingly after stroke, but 39% of patients who had larger infarctions on admission showed a positive delta cortisol at day 1. It was associated with enhanced infarct growth (p = 0.002) and poor outcome [OR (95% CI) 5.30 (1.30-21.69)], and correlated with less lymphocytes and T cells at follow up. Likewise, fewer circulating lymphocytes, T cells, and Tregs were associated with infarct growth. By contrast, metanephrines did not increase at clinical onset, and decreased over time. Higher levels of NMN correlated with more Treg and B cells. Eventually, complete reperfusion at the end of therapy headed the identification of more circulating Tregs at day 1. Then activation of cortical or medullar compartments of the adrenal gland result in specific signatures on leukocyte subpopulations. Manipulation of the adrenal gland hormone levels warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Circulating sex hormones in relation to anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors in an international dataset of 12,300 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Eleanor L; Appleby, Paul N; Albanes, Demetrius; Black, Amanda; Chan, June M; Chen, Chu; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Cook, Michael B; Donovan, Jenny L; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garland, Cedric F; Giles, Graham G; Goodman, Phyllis J; Habel, Laurel A; Haiman, Christopher A; Holly, Jeff M P; Hoover, Robert N; Kaaks, Rudolf; Knekt, Paul; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Le Marchand, Loïc; Luostarinen, Tapio; MacInnis, Robert J; Mäenpää, Hanna O; Männistö, Satu; Metter, E Jeffrey; Milne, Roger L; Nomura, Abraham M Y; Oliver, Steven E; Parsons, J Kellogg; Peeters, Petra H; Platz, Elizabeth A; Riboli, Elio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rinaldi, Sabina; Rissanen, Harri; Sawada, Norie; Schaefer, Catherine A; Schenk, Jeannette M; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Stampfer, Meir; Stattin, Pär; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Thompson, Ian M; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Vatten, Lars; Whittemore, Alice S; Ziegler, Regina G; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C

    2017-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with a range of circulating sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin. Statistical analyses of individual participant data from 12,330 male controls aged 25-85 years from 25 studies involved in the Endogenous Hormones Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Analysis of variance was used to estimate geometric means adjusted for study and relevant covariates. Older age was associated with higher concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin and dihydrotestosterone and lower concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide and free estradiol. Higher body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of free estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol and estrone and lower concentrations of dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Taller height was associated with lower concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin and higher concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide. Current smoking was associated with higher concentrations of androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and androstanediol glucuronide. East Asians had lower concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide and African Americans had higher concentrations of estrogens. Education and marital status were modestly associated with a small number of hormones. Circulating sex hormones in men are strongly associated with age and body mass index, and to a

  10. Circulating sex hormones in relation to anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors in an international dataset of 12,300 men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor L Watts

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with a range of circulating sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin.Statistical analyses of individual participant data from 12,330 male controls aged 25-85 years from 25 studies involved in the Endogenous Hormones Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Analysis of variance was used to estimate geometric means adjusted for study and relevant covariates.Older age was associated with higher concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin and dihydrotestosterone and lower concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide and free estradiol. Higher body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of free estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol and estrone and lower concentrations of dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Taller height was associated with lower concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin and higher concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide. Current smoking was associated with higher concentrations of androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and androstanediol glucuronide. East Asians had lower concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide and African Americans had higher concentrations of estrogens. Education and marital status were modestly associated with a small number of hormones.Circulating sex hormones in men are strongly associated with age and body mass

  11. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D and concentrations of circulating sex hormones in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Howard A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D is used as a marker of prenatal sex hormone exposure. The objective of this study was to examine whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones and SHBG measured in adulthood was associated with 2D:4D. Methods This analysis was based on a random sample from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. The sample consisted of of 1036 men and 620 post-menopausal women aged between 39 and 70 at the time of blood draw. Concentrations of circulating sex hormones were measured from plasma collected at baseline (1990-1994, while digit length was measured from hand photocopies taken during a recent follow-up (2003-2009. The outcome measures were circulating concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenediol glucoronide for men only and oestrone sulphate for women only. Free testosterone and oestradiol were estimated using standard formulae derived empirically. Predicted geometric mean hormone concentrations (for tertiles of 2D:4D and conditional correlation coefficients (for continuous 2D:4D were obtained using mixed effects linear regression models. Results No strong associations were observed between 2D:4D measures and circulating concentrations of hormones for men or women. For males, right 2D:4D was weakly inversely associated with circulating testosterone (predicted geometric mean testosterone was 15.9 and 15.0 nmol/L for the lowest and highest tertiles of male right 2D:4D respectively (P-trend = 0.04. There was a similar weak association between male right 2D:4D and the ratio of testosterone to oestradiol. These associations were not evident in analyses of continuous 2D:4D. Conclusions There were no strong associations between any adult circulating concentration of sex hormone or SHGB and 2D:4D. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence indicating that 2D:4D is unrelated to adult sex

  12. Comparative effects of sub-stimulating concentrations of non-human versus human Luteinizing Hormones (LH) or chorionic gonadotropins (CG) on adenylate cyclase activation by forskolin in MLTC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi-Mong Diep; Filliatreau, Laura; Klett, Danièle; Combarnous, Yves

    2018-05-15

    We have compared various Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Chorionic Gonadotropin (CG) preparations from non-human and human species in their ability to synergize with 10 µM forskolin (FSK) for cyclic AMP intracellular accumulation, in MLTC cells. LH from rat pituitary as well as various isoforms of pituitary ovine, bovine, porcine, equine and human LHs and equine and human CG were studied. In addition, recombinant human LH and CG were also compared with the natural human and non-human hormones. Sub-stimulating concentrations of all LHs and CGs (2-100 pM) were found to stimulate cyclic AMP accumulation in MLTC cells in the presence of an also non-stimulating FSK concentration (10 µM). Like rat LH, the most homologous available hormone for mouse MLTC cells, all non-human LHs and CG exhibit a strong potentiating effect on FSK response. The human, natural and recombinant hLH and hCG also do so but in addition, they were found to elicit a permissive effect on FSK stimulation. Indeed, when incubated alone with MLTC cells at non-stimulating concentrations (2-70 pM) hLH and hCG permit, after being removed, a dose-dependent cyclic AMP accumulation with 10 µM FSK. Our data show a clearcut difference between human LH and CG compared to their non-human counterparts on MLTC cells adenylate cyclase activity control. This points out the risk of using hCG as a reference ligand for LHR in studies using non-human cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between the C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene and serum levels of luteinizing hormone in males with erectile dysfunction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerý, Omar; Šrámková, T.; Klempová, J.; Šťastný, F.; Lochman, J.; Khan, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 5 (2012), s. 101-106 ISSN 0172-780X Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP309/09/P361 Program:GP Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : MTHFR * C677T polymorphism * follicle-stimulating hormone Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 0.932, year: 2012

  14. MODERATING INFLUENCE OF THE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT DIBROMOACETIC ACID ON A DITHIOCARBAMATE-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF THE LUTEINIZING HORMONE SURGE IN FEMALE RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disinfection by-product dibromoacetic acid (DBA) has been found in female rats to increase circulating concentrations of both estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1). This effect is apparently due, at least in part, to a suppression in hepatic catabolism. The present study investigat...

  15. Chorionic gonadotropin regulates the transcript level of VHL, p53, and HIF-2alpha in human granulosa lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, D; Keck, C; Tempfer, C; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2004-12-01

    The ovarian corpus luteum plays a critical role in reproduction being the primary source of circulating progesterone. After ovulation the corpus luteum is build by avascular granulosa lutein cells through rapid vascularization regulated by gonadotropic hormones. The present study was performed to investigate whether this process might be influenced by the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-dependent expression of different tumor suppressor genes and hypoxia dependent transcription factors. RNA was isolated from cultured granulosa lutein cells, transcribed into cDNA, and the transcript level of following genes were determined: RB-1, VHL, NF-1, NF-2, Wt-1, p53, APC, and hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), -2, and -3alpha. Additionally, the influence of hCG on the expression of VHL, p53, and HIf2alpha were investigated. We demonstrate that in human granulosa lutein cells the tumor suppressor genes RB-1, VHL, NF-1, NF-2, Wt-1, p53, and APC and the hypoxia dependent transcription factors HIF-1alpha, -2alpha, and -3alpha are expressed. In addition, we showed that hCG regulates the expression of p53, VHL, and HIF-2alpha. Our results indicate that hCG may determine the growth and development of the corpus luteum by mediating hypoxic and apoptotic pathways in human granulosa lutein cells. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Critical evaluation of the radioiodination of follicle-stimulating-and luteinizing hormones by lactoperoxidase and its comparison with chloramine-T classical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, H.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for the enzymatic radioiodination of human gonadotropins by a system consisting of lactoperoxidase, hydrogen peroxide and Na 125 I. A comparison witth the clhloramine-T modified technique was done a satisfactory specific activity (100 μCi/μg) of the labeled hormone was obtained with the enzymatic iodination, with much greater immunoreactivity and stability than after chloramine-T. As aqueous polyethylene glycol causes precipitation of antibody-bound peptide hormones with radioactive iodine with little or no precipitation of free hormones, a method of separation was developed and applied to radioimmunoassay of gonadotropins, providing several advantages over te double-antibody precipitation method. It was demonstrated that, in humans, the intravenous administration of synthetic LH-FSH/RH, stimulates the pituitary release of both LH and FSH. Results are reported now for normal women, infused with an acute load of 25μg of synthetic LH/FSH-RH and 8 hours infusion of 100μg, during the mid-follicular and luteal phases. The greatest gonadotropin responsiveness to LH/FSH-RH are found in the luteal phase during acute testing. No differences were noticed during chronic infusion as well as acute post-chronic, performed in both phases of the menstrual cycle. The possible modulating effects of steroidal secretion by the ovaries are discussed. (Author) [pt

  17. Ultrasensitive immunoradiometric assay for chorionic gonadotropin which does not cross-react with luteinizing hormone nor free β chain of hCG and which detects hCG in blood of non-pregnant humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.; Odell, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive, non-competitive, two-monoclonal antibody, sandwich-type or immunoradiometric assay has been developed for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) which shows no cross-reaction with the free β chain of hCG nor with human luteinizing hormone (LH). In the assay procedure, two, highly selected monoclonal antibodies reacted in solution with hCG to be quantified. One antibody was covalently conjugated to biotin. This antibody was specific for the β subunit of hCG, and showed no reaction with LH nor the α subunit. The second antibody was labelled with 125 I and was specific for intact hCG and LH, showing no cross-reaction with βhCG nor the α subunit. The separation system was a polystyrene ball conjugated with biotin. This ball bound via an avidin bridge the monoclonal 'sandwich' containing hCG. Counts per minute bound to the ball were directly proportional to the amount of hCG present. The assay was specific for whole hCG and showed no reaction with βhCG, βLH, intact LH nor the free α subunit. Sensitivity was adequate to detect 'hCG-like' material in all post menopausal women and, when single samples were obtained, in over 2/3 of normal men. When multiple samples were obtained, 'hCG-like' material was detectable in all eugonadal adults studied. 27 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 table

  18. Scientific and regulatory policy committee (SRPC) paper: Assessment of Circulating Hormones in Nonclinical Toxicity Studies. III Female Reproductive Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormonally mediated effects on the female reproductive system may manifest in pathologic changes of endocrine-responsive organs and altered reproductive function. Identification of these effects requires proper assessment, which may include investigative studies of female reprod...

  19. Stability of lutein in wholegrain bakery products naturally high in lutein or fortified with free lutein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Young, J Christopher; Akhtar, Humayoun; Rabalski, Iwona

    2010-09-22

    Lutein is a yellow pigment found in common foods that promotes the health of eyes and skin and is associated with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration and cataracts. In the present study, selected high-lutein wheat and corn were milled into wholegrain flours by two mills to improve flour uniformity. The high-lutein and lutein-fortified wholegrain flours were processed into breads, cookies, and muffins to study lutein stability during baking and subsequent storage. Lutein and its isomers were separated, identified, and quantified by LC-UV/vis and LC-MS following extraction with water-saturated 1-butanol. Baking resulted in a significant reduction in all-trans-lutein and the formation of cis-lutein and cis-zeaxanthin isomers. Subsequent storage at ambient temperature had a slight impact on the content of all-trans-lutein. Effects of processing were more pronounced in lutein-fortified products, and the degradation rate of lutein was influenced by concentration and baking recipe. Fortified cookies and muffins showed greater lutein reduction compared with bread. Despite the significant reduction in lutein, the fortified bakery products still possessed reasonable amounts per serving that would enhance daily intake and consumption of wholegrain foods.

  20. Effects of acute feed restriction combined with targeted use of increasing luteinizing hormone content of follicle-stimulating hormone preparations on ovarian superstimulation, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, R. W.; Hackbart, K. S.; Dresch, A. R.; Carvalho, P. D.; Vieira, L. M.; Crump, P. M.; Guenther, J. N.; Fricke, P. M.; Shaver, R. D.; Combs, D. K.; Wiltbank, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    Multiple metabolic and hormonal factors can affect the success of protocols for ovarian superstimulation. In this study, the effect of acute feed restriction and increased LH content in the superstimulatory FSH preparation on numbers of ovulations, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Two experiments were performed using a Latin square design with treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial: feed restriction (FR; 25% reduction in dry matter intake) compared with ad libitum (AL) feeding, combined with high (H) versus low (L) LH in the last 4 injections of the superstimulatory protocol. As expected, FR decreased circulating insulin concentrations (26.7 vs. 46.0 μU/mL). Two analyses were performed: one that evaluated the complete Latin square in experiment 2 and a second that evaluated only the first periods of experiments 1 and 2. For both analyses, follicle numbers, ovulation rates, and corpora lutea on d 7 were not different. In the first period analysis of experiments 1 and 2, we observed an interaction between feed allowance and amount of LH on fertilization rates, percentage of embryos or oocytes that were quality 1 and 2 embryos, and number of embryos or oocytes that were degenerate. Fertilization rates were greater for the AL-L (89.4%) and FR-H (80.1%) treatments compared with the AL-H (47.9%) and FR-L (59.9%) treatments. Similarly, the proportion of total embryos or oocytes designated as quality 1 and 2 embryos was greater for AL-L (76.7%) and FR-H (73.4%) treatments compared with AL-H (35.6%) and FR-L (47.3%) treatments. In addition, the number of degenerate embryos was decreased for AL-L (1.3) and FR-H (0.4) treatments compared with the AL-H (2.6) and FR-L (2.3) treatments. Thus, cows with either too low (FR-L) or too high (AL-H) insulin and LH stimulation had lesser embryo production after superstimulation because of reduced fertilization rate and increased percentage of degenerate embryos. Therefore, interaction of the

  1. Circadian Clock genes Per2 and clock regulate steroid production, cell proliferation, and luteinizing hormone receptor transcription in ovarian granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Hirai, Yuko; Murayama, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Akio; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Koyomi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression. →Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom. → Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. →Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. → The expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. -- Abstract: Circadian Clock genes are associated with the estrous cycle in female animals. Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression in follicle-stimulating hormone FSH-treated granulosa cells. Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom, whereas Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. Similarly, expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. Our data provide a new insight that Per2 and Clock have different action on ovarian granulosa cell functions.

  2. Production of specific antisera for radioimmunoassay of human luteinizing hormone (LH) in the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorell, J.I.; Jeppsson, S.; Holmstrom, B.

    1976-01-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay for LH, which measures plasma LH in the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is described. Rabbits were immunized with highly purified native LH. One of the antisera with a difference in its reactivity against LH and hCG was further purified by affinity chromatography on a column with hCG coupled to Sepharose 4B. The adsorbed antiserum and 125 I-LH was used in a double antibody assay. The LH standard (MRC/68/40) efficiently inhibited the binding of 125 I-LH, and the standard curve showed a sensitivity of 0.5 ng/ml in the sample. hCG up to 10,000 ng/ml did not inhibit the binding of 125 I-LH. The plasma level of LH in pregnant women in the first trimester was low (1.3 +- 0.1 ng/ml). When LH was measured in fertile or menopausal women with or without stimulation with LH/FSH releasing hormone (LH-RH)/sup x/ the results agreed to those found with our conventional LH-assay based on antiserum against hCG

  3. Circadian Clock genes Per2 and clock regulate steroid production, cell proliferation, and luteinizing hormone receptor transcription in ovarian granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takashi, E-mail: shimizut@obihiro.ac.jp [Graduate School of Animal and Food Hygiene, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan); Hirai, Yuko; Murayama, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Akio [Graduate School of Animal and Food Hygiene, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan); Miyazaki, Hitoshi [Gene Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Miyazaki, Koyomi [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Central 6, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression. {yields}Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom. {yields} Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. {yields}Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. {yields} The expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. -- Abstract: Circadian Clock genes are associated with the estrous cycle in female animals. Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression in follicle-stimulating hormone FSH-treated granulosa cells. Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom, whereas Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. Similarly, expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. Our data provide a new insight that Per2 and Clock have different action on ovarian granulosa cell functions.

  4. The effect of Mono- and Diglycerides on the Digestion and Absorption of Lutein in Lymph Fistula Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Patrick; Vurma, Mustafa; Ko, Chih-Wei; Lee, Dana M; DeMichele, Stephen

    2018-02-22

    Breastmilk lutein is better absorbed by infants than lutein delivered in infant formula. Therefore, we wish to better understand the possible absorption differences of lutein in breast milk versus infant formula by determining its bioavailability after gastric administration and whether the intestinal absorption of lutein can be improved by using new delivery vehicles. STUDY ONE compared the intestinal uptake, and the lymphatic and portal transport of lutein in conscious lymph fistula rats. Four groups of lymph and portal vein cannulated rats (n = 8-10/group) were randomized to receive via the gastric tube increasing doses (10,20,40,or 80mg/kg) of 20% lutein in safflower oil (SO) suspension to assess whether there was a saturable level of lutein that can be absorbed and transported in lymph. Aliquots of hourly portal blood and lymph were taken for lutein analysis. The dose response study showed that 20 mg/kg lutein was the saturable level of lymphatic lutein absorption with no lutein detected in portal circulation at any dosage level tested. STUDY TWO randomized five groups of lymph fistula rats (n = 4-9/group) to receive 20 mg/kg lutein from either lutein in SO or from lutein in four different mono- and diglyceride oil mixtures (MDG). Gastric infusion of lutein suspended in MDG (20 mg/kg) significantly improved (71% - 211%; plutein output 2-6 hours after lipid feeding versus lutein in SO. We conclude that a mixture of MDG helps solubilize lutein and facilitate gastrointestinal micelle formation thus improving lymphatic lutein absorption compared to triglyceride oils.

  5. Relationship among circulating anti-Müllerian hormone, insulin like growth factor 1, cadmium and superovulatory response in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aziz, R L; Khalil, A A Y; Abdel-Wahab, A; Hassan, N Y; Abdel-Hamied, E; Kasimanickam, R K

    2017-09-15

    The objectives of this study were 1. to determine the associations among circulating anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations of lactating Holstein cows at the time of superovulation and 2. to determine the effect of circulating AMH, IGF1 and Cd concentrations on the superovulatory response in Holstein dairy cows. Holstein cows (n = 30) were milked thrice daily and housed and fed in free stall barn as a separate group. All animals were synchronized for superovulation and flushed. Three blood samples for AMH, IGF1 and Cd analysis were collected prior to superovulation, at estrus and at the time of embryo collection. The concentrations of blood makers prior to superovulation were highly correlated to superovulatory response. Circulating concentrations of AMH, IGF1 prior to superovulation were negatively correlated to Cd concentrations (P cows were classified into quartiles (Q) of circulating AMH concentration, number of corpus luteum, and total embryos, total transferable embryos and total grade 1 embryos yield was significantly different for AMH quartiles. The superovulatory response parameters evaluated were increased with increased AMH concentrations; particularly we observed a >2-fold difference between first and fourth AMH quartiles in total transferable embryo yield and total grade 1 embryo yield. In conclusion, circulating AMH concentration was strongly associated with superovulatory response. Measuring AMH before enrolling cows in superovulation programs will likely allow practitioners to improve numbers of embryos produced and, thereby, reduce costs per embryo produced. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  7. Ozone Exposure Increases Circulating Stress Hormones and Lipid Metabolites in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Air pollution has been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We have shown that acute ozone exposure in rats induces release of stress hormones, hyperglycemia, leptinemia, and gluoose intolerance that are assoc...

  8. Serum insulin, glucose and non esterified fatty acids after administration of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones in bitches Modificaciones de la glucemia, insulina y ácidos grasos no esterificados durante la sobrecarga de glucosa o insulina en perras tratadas con hormona folículo-estimulante y luteinizante

    OpenAIRE

    A. Renauld; N. V. Gomez; J. D. Scaramal; D. Garrido; M. M Wanke

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of the simultaneous administration of follicle-stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing hormones (LH) on serum glucose, insulin and nonesterified fatty acid responses after glucose or insulin challenge. The animals were originally at anestrous. FSH (dose 2.5 U/kg body wt.) and LH (0.27 U/kg body wt.) were sc injected on days 1, 4, 8 and 11. Vaginal smears were obtained daily. Six untreated controls at anestrous and six treated bitches reaching proestrous were used. Gluc...

  9. The relationship of luteinizing hormone secretion to sleep in women during the early follicular phase: effects of sleep reversal and a prolonged three-hour sleep-wake schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapen, S; Boyar, R; Hellman, L; Weitzman, E D

    1976-06-01

    The relationship of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion to sleep in adult women was investigated in two ways: an acute 180 degrees sleep-wake cycle reversal in a group of six women and a schedule in which a young woman engaged in a three hour sleep-wake cycle (two hours awake, one hour allowed for sleep continuously for ten days--the study was carried out on the eighth day). Each subject in the reversal study had a baseline period during which plasma samples were collected every twenty minutes for twenty-four hours and nocturnal sleep was monitored electrophysiologically during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. During a succeeding cycle, the study was repeated after sleep-wake reversal. LH secretory patterns were analyzed by comparing the 24-hour mean plasma LH concentration with the hourly averages in percentage terms, using Stage 2 sleep onset as the zero point. LH secretion was depressed to approximately the same degree in both the baseline and reversal studies. The average hourly percentage difference from the 24-hour mean for the four-hour period following sleep onset was -13.4% and -13.1% for the baseline and reversal, respectively. These percentage deviations represented practically the entire negative deviation for the 24-hour period in both studies. The difference between the first four-hour period after sleep onset and the second was significant. The subject on a three-hour cycle had a baseline in which a large decrease in LH secretion occurred after sleep onset (-52.2% during the third hour). Her LH secretory pattern during the three-hour sleep-wake schedule was characterized by a fall during sleep periods, particularly when slow wave sleep (SWS) predominated. However, no correlation was found between specific sleep stages and LH secretion in the six women of the reversal study. These results confirm a relationship of LH secretion to sleep in adult women, one which is different from that described during puberty.

  10. Organohalogen contamination in breeding glaucous gulls from the Norwegian Arctic: Associations with basal metabolism and circulating thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verreault, Jonathan; Bech, Claus; Letcher, Robert J.; Ropstad, Erik; Dahl, Ellen; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to organohalogens in endotherms has been suggested to impose chemically induced stress by affecting functions related to maintenance energy requirements. Effects on basal metabolic rate (BMR) have been suggested to be, in part, mediated through interactions with the thyroid hormones (THs). We investigated the relationships between plasma concentrations of major organochlorines, PBDEs, hydroxylated (OH)- and methoxylated (MeO)-PBDEs and OH-PCBs, circulating TH levels and BMR in breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic. Negative associations were found between BMR and concentrations of ΣPCB, ΣDDT and particularly Σchlordane, which combined made up 91% of the total contaminant burden. Levels of THs (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) were not associated significantly with variation of BMR or concentrations of any of the compounds determined. The present study suggests that BMR may be altered in glaucous gulls exposed to high loadings of persistent contaminants in the Norwegian Arctic environment. - Basal metabolic rate in glaucous gulls was negatively associated with plasma organochlorine concentrations, but not with circulating thyroid hormone levels

  11. Organohalogen contamination in breeding glaucous gulls from the Norwegian Arctic: Associations with basal metabolism and circulating thyroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreault, Jonathan [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway) and Department of Aquatic BioSciences, University of Tromso, NO-9037 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: jonathan@npolar.no; Bech, Claus [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Letcher, Robert J. [Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Ropstad, Erik [Department of Reproduction and Forensic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., NO-0033 Oslo (Norway); Dahl, Ellen [Department of Reproduction and Forensic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., NO-0033 Oslo (Norway); Gabrielsen, Geir W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway)

    2007-01-15

    Exposure to organohalogens in endotherms has been suggested to impose chemically induced stress by affecting functions related to maintenance energy requirements. Effects on basal metabolic rate (BMR) have been suggested to be, in part, mediated through interactions with the thyroid hormones (THs). We investigated the relationships between plasma concentrations of major organochlorines, PBDEs, hydroxylated (OH)- and methoxylated (MeO)-PBDEs and OH-PCBs, circulating TH levels and BMR in breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic. Negative associations were found between BMR and concentrations of {sigma}PCB, {sigma}DDT and particularly {sigma}chlordane, which combined made up 91% of the total contaminant burden. Levels of THs (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) were not associated significantly with variation of BMR or concentrations of any of the compounds determined. The present study suggests that BMR may be altered in glaucous gulls exposed to high loadings of persistent contaminants in the Norwegian Arctic environment. - Basal metabolic rate in glaucous gulls was negatively associated with plasma organochlorine concentrations, but not with circulating thyroid hormone levels.

  12. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lidfeldt, Jonas [Department of Community Health, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Samsioe, Göran [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Halldin, Krister [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Åkesson, Agneta, E-mail: agneta.akesson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  13. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  14. Circulating and intraprostatic sex steroid hormonal profiles in relation to male pattern baldness and chest hair density among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Hafi, Muhannad; Veneroso, Carmela C; Lynch, Barlow; Falk, Roni T; Niwa, Shelley; Emanuel, Eric; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hemstreet, George P; Zolfghari, Ladan; Carroll, Peter R; Manyak, Michael J; Sesterhenn, Isabell A; Levine, Paul H; Hsing, Ann W; Cook, Michael B

    2017-12-01

    Prospective cohort studies of circulating sex steroid hormones and prostate cancer risk have not provided a consistent association, despite evidence from animal and clinical studies. However, studies using male pattern baldness as a proxy of early-life or cumulative androgen exposure have reported significant associations with aggressive and fatal prostate cancer risk. Given that androgens underlie the development of patterned hair loss and chest hair, we assessed whether these two dermatological characteristics were associated with circulating and intraprostatic concentrations of sex steroid hormones among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. We included 248 prostate cancer patients from the NCI Prostate Tissue Study, who answered surveys and provided a pre-treatment blood sample as well as fresh frozen adjacent normal prostate tissue. Male pattern baldness and chest hair density were assessed by trained nurses before surgery. General linear models estimated geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of each hormone variable by dermatological phenotype with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were performed by Gleason score (balding status with serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and a weak association with elevated intraprostatic testosterone. Conversely, neither circulating nor intraprostatic sex hormones were statistically significantly associated with chest hair density. Age-adjusted correlation between binary balding status and three-level chest hair density was weak (r = 0.05). There was little evidence to suggest that Gleason score or race modified these associations. This study provides evidence that balding status assessed at a mean age of 60 years may serve as a clinical marker for circulating sex hormone concentrations. The weak-to-null associations between balding status and intraprostatic sex hormones reaffirm differences in organ

  15. Circulating levels of pegvisomant and endogenous growth hormone during prolonged pegvisomant therapy in patients with acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Fisker, Sanne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pegvisomant treatment in acromegaly induces gradual elevations in endogenous serum growth hormone (GH) levels and whether serum pegvisomant levels predict the therapeutic outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients (6 women), mean age 46·3 years (range: 23...... correlated with baseline growth hormone levels, whereas no associations between serum pegvisomant and either dose, gender, age or body weight were found. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Serum GH levels increased initially, but remained stable during prolonged pegvisomant treatment in patients with acromegaly, (2) serum...

  16. Increased circulating interleukin-8 in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone receptor alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Anne H.; Surovtseva, Olga V.; Aan, Saskia; Tool, Anton T. J.; van de Geer, Annemarie; Demir, Korcan; van Gucht, Anja L. M.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; van den Berg, Timo K.; Fliers, Eric; Boelen, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Innate immune cells have recently been identified as novel thyroid hormone (TH) target cells in which intracellular TH levels appear to play an important functional role. The possible involvement of TH receptor alpha (TR alpha), which is the predominant TR in these cells, has not been studied to

  17. Persistent organochlorine pollutants with endocrine activity and blood steroid hormone levels in middle-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Emeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether

  18. Genome-wide association study of circulating estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prescott

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified common genetic variants that contribute to breast cancer risk. Discovering additional variants has become difficult, as power to detect variants of weaker effect with present sample sizes is limited. An alternative approach is to look for variants associated with quantitative traits that in turn affect disease risk. As exposure to high circulating estradiol and testosterone, and low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG levels is implicated in breast cancer etiology, we conducted GWAS analyses of plasma estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG to identify new susceptibility alleles. Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Sisters in Breast Cancer Screening data were used to carry out primary meta-analyses among ~1600 postmenopausal women who were not taking postmenopausal hormones at blood draw. We observed a genome-wide significant association between SHBG levels and rs727428 (joint β = -0.126; joint P = 2.09 × 10(-16, downstream of the SHBG gene. No genome-wide significant associations were observed with estradiol or testosterone levels. Among variants that were suggestively associated with estradiol (P<10(-5, several were located at the CYP19A1 gene locus. Overall results were similar in secondary meta-analyses that included ~900 NHS current postmenopausal hormone users. No variant associated with estradiol, testosterone, or SHBG at P<10(-5 was associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk among CGEMS participants. Our results suggest that the small magnitude of difference in hormone levels associated with common genetic variants is likely insufficient to detectably contribute to breast cancer risk.

  19. Bioavailability and biodistribution of nanodelivered lutein

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) to enhance lutein bioavailability. The bioavailability of free lutein and PLGA-NP lutein in rats was assessed by determining plasma pharmacokinetics and deposition in selected tissues. Lutein ...

  20. Disruption of Zebrafish Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (fshr) But Not Luteinizing Hormone Receptor (lhcgr) Gene by TALEN Leads to Failed Follicle Activation in Females Followed by Sexual Reversal to Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Lau, Shuk-Wa; Zhang, Lingling; Ge, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Gonadotropins are primary hormones that control vertebrate reproduction. In a recent study, we analyzed the impacts of FSH and LH on zebrafish reproduction by disrupting FSH and LH-β genes (fshb and lhb) using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technology. Using the same approach, we successfully deleted FSH and LH receptor genes (fshr and lhcgr) in the present study. In contrast to the deficiency of its cognate ligand FSH, the fshr-deficient females showed a complete failure of follicle activation with all ovarian follicles arrested at the primary growth-previtellogenic transition, which is the marker for puberty onset in females. Interestingly, after blockade at the primary growth stage for varying times, all females reversed to males, and all these males were fertile. In fshr-deficient males, spermatogenesis was normal in adults, but the initiation of spermatogenesis in juveniles was retarded. In contrast to fshr, the deletion of the lhcgr gene alone caused no obvious phenotypes in both males and females; however, double mutation of fshr and lhcgr resulted in infertile males. In summary, our results in the present study showed that Fshr was indispensable to folliculogenesis and the disruption of the fshr gene resulted in a complete failure of follicle activation followed by masculinization into males. In contrast, lhcgr does not seem to be essential to zebrafish reproduction in both males and females. Neither Fshr nor Lhcgr deficiency could phenocopy the deficiency of their cognate ligands FSH and LH, which is likely due to the fact that Fshr can be activated by both FSH and LH in the zebrafish.

  1. Low concentration of circulating antimüllerian hormone is not predictive of reduced fecundability in young healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper; Vestergaard, Sonja; Juul, Anders

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: General community. PATIENT(S): A total of 186 couples who intended to discontinue contraception to become pregnant were followed...... compared with women with low or medium AMH levels, and they had higher levels of LH (geometric mean: 8.4 vs. 5.3 IU/L) and LH:FSH ratio (2.4 vs. 1.8). After exclusion of women with irregular cycles, women with high AMH still had reduced fecundability (FR 0.48; 95% CI 0.27-0.85) and elevated LH:FSH ratio (2...

  2. Circulating Anti-Müllerian Hormone Levels in Daughters of Women with and without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Zachurzok, Agnieszka; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Bożętowicz-Wikarek, Maria; Owczarek, Aleksander; Gawlik, Aneta; Chudek, Jerzy; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in daughters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOSd) correspond with clinical and biochemical features of hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary morphology and menstrual cycle disturbances. Menstrual cycle disturbances, hirsutism, acne and ultrasonographic ovarian morphology were assessed in 75 girls aged 13-18 years (35 PCOSd and 40 daughters of healthy women). Serum gonadotropins, androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin and plasma AMH were measured in a fasting state, and the free androgen index was calculated. A significant correlation between the AMH level and mean ovary volume was found (r = 0.36; p polycystic ovary morphology. Significantly higher AMH levels were found only in PCOSd with irregular menstruation or secondary amenorrhea. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that in that group for each 1-ng/ml increase in the AMH level, the odds ratio of the PCOS occurrence in the future was increased 1.27 times (95% CI: 1.09-1.47; p < 0.01). A higher AMH level in PCOSd is associated with menstrual cycle disturbances and larger ovarian volume but not with clinical and biochemical features of hyperandrogenism. Thus, the risk for PCOS development among genetically predisposed girls may be related to increased AMH levels. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Adipocyte Versus Pituitary Leptin in the Regulation of Pituitary Hormones: Somatotropes Develop Normally in the Absence of Circulating Leptin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, Angela K.; Haney, Anessa; Allensworth-James, Melody; Akhter, Noor

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is a cytokine produced by white fat cells, skeletal muscle, the placenta, and the pituitary gland among other tissues. Best known for its role in regulating appetite and energy expenditure, leptin is produced largely by and in proportion to white fat cells. Leptin is also important to the maintenance and function of the GH cells of the pituitary. This was shown when the deletion of leptin receptors on somatotropes caused decreased numbers of GH cells, decreased circulating GH, and adult-onset obesity. To determine the source of leptin most vital to GH cells and other pituitary cell types, we compared two different leptin knockout models with Cre-lox technology. The global Lep-null model is like the ob/ob mouse, whereby only the entire exon 3 is deleted. The selective adipocyte-Lep-null model lacks adipocyte leptin but retains pituitary leptin, allowing us to investigate the pituitary as a potential source of circulating leptin. Male and female mice lacking adipocyte leptin (Adipocyte-lep-null) did not produce any detectable circulating leptin and were infertile, suggesting that the pituitary does not contribute to serum levels. In the presence of only pituitary leptin, however, these same mutants were able to maintain somatotrope numbers and GH mRNA levels. Serum GH trended low, but values were not significant. However, hypothalamic GHRH mRNA was significantly reduced in these animals. Other serum hormone and pituitary mRNA differences were observed, some of which varied from previous results reported in ob/ob animals. Whereas pituitary leptin is capable of maintaining somatotrope numbers and GH mRNA production, the decreased hypothalamic GHRH mRNA and low (but not significant) serum GH levels indicate an important role for adipocyte leptin in the regulation of GH secretion in the mouse. Thus, normal GH secretion may require the coordinated actions of both adipocyte and pituitary leptin. PMID:25116704

  4. Circulating growth hormone (GH)-binding protein complex: a major constituent of plasma GH in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, G.; Amburn, K.; Shaw, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The recent discovery of a specific binding protein for human GH (hGH) in human plasma suggests that hGH circulates in part as a complex in association with the binding protein(s). However, the magnitude of the complexed fraction prevailing under physiological conditions is unknown because of 1) dissociation of the complex during analysis and 2) potential differences in the binding characteristics of radiolabeled and native hGH. We conducted experiments designed to minimize dissociation during analysis (gel filtration in prelabeled columns, frontal analysis, and batch molecular sieving) with both native and radioiodinated hGH. All three methods yielded similar estimates for the complexed fraction. In normal plasma the bound fraction for 22 K hGH averaged 50.1% (range, 39-59%), that for 20 K hGH averaged 28.5% (range, 26-31%). Above a hGH level of about 20 ng/ml the bound fraction declines in concentration-dependent manner due to saturation of the binding protein. We conclude that a substantial part of circulating hGH is complexed with carrier proteins. This concept has important implications for the metabolism, distribution, and biological activity of hGH

  5. Distinct responses of human granulosa lutein cells after hCG or LH stimulation in a spheroidal cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Julia; Walz, Andrea; Daube, Stefanie; Keck, Christoph; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2007-10-01

    The growth and development of the corpus luteum (CL) is regulated by gonadotropic hormones. It is formed by granulosa cells (GCs), theca cells, and endothelial cells, and is the primary source of circulating progesterone. During early pregnancy only human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) but not luteinizing hormone (LH) extends the life span of the CL, although hCG and LH interact with the same receptor and have similar actions on the CL. In this study a recently by our group established spheroidal GC culture assay served as a model of CL development on which we compared the actions of the gonadotropic hormones LH and hCG. To find out which signal pathways take part in the hormonal regulation of GC we stimulated GC-spheroids with modulators of protein kinases A and C dependent signaling cascades and determined their impact on sprout forming activity in GC. Our results indicate that PKA-dependent signaling pathways play a major role in mediating the hormonal-induced signaling cascades leading to sprouting in GC. Furthermore, this study strongly indicates that the different effects of hCG and LH in the maintenance of the CL may be reasoned in different signal transduction pathways triggered by hCG or LH. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Circulating anti-Mullerian hormone levels in adult men are under a strong genetic influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Kaprio, Jaakko; Vaaralahti, Kirsi; Rissanen, Aila; Raivio, Taneli

    2012-01-01

    The determinants of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in adult men remain unclear. The objective of the study was to investigate the genetic and environmental components in determining postpubertal AMH levels in healthy men. Serum AMH levels, body mass index (BMI), and fat mass (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured in 64 healthy male (23 monozygotic and 41 dizygotic) twin pairs. Postpubertal AMH levels were highly genetically determined (broad sense heritability 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.83-0.96). AMH correlated negatively with BMI (r = -0.26, P = 0.030) and fat mass (r = -0.23, P = 0.048). As AMH, BMI had a high heritability (0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.83), but no genetic correlation was observed between them. AMH levels in men after puberty are under a strong genetic influence. Twin modeling suggests that AMH and BMI are influenced by different sets of genes.

  7. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D Coviello

    Full Text Available Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8 × 10(-106, PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4 × 10(-11, GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2 × 10(-16, ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4 × 10(-09, JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1 × 10(-35, SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9 × 10(-08, NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3 × 10(-12, ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5 × 10(-14, TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1 × 10(-14, LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3 × 10(-07, BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7 × 10(-08, and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5 × 10(-06. These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5 × 10(-08, women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003. Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion

  8. Enhanced haemolymph circulation by insect ventral nerve cord: hormonal control by Pseudaletia unipuncta allatotropin and serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koladich, P M; Tobe, S S; McNeil, J N

    2002-10-01

    The ventral diaphragm (VD) in many insects is a muscular membrane that essentially partitions a perineural sinus from the rest of the abdomen. In the true armyworm moth Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) we describe how the VD is characterized by a series of aliform muscles inserted into a tissue matrix that is fused to the dorsal surface of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) itself. Because of this arrangement, the abdominal VNC can attain high rates of lateral oscillation, and is capable of directing haemolymph flow. We have previously demonstrated Manduca sexta allatotropin (Manse-AT)-like immunoreactivity throughout the central nervous system (CNS) in P. unipuncta, and that both Manse-AT and serotonin (5-HT) are dose-dependent stimulators of the dorsal vessel. Here we describe both Manse-AT- and 5-HT-like immunoreactivity associated with the VD. Furthermore, both Manse-AT and 5-HT are dose-dependent stimulators of the rates of VNC oscillation, and together are capable of maintaining highly elevated rates of VNC oscillation for extended periods of time. These data indicate that both the dorsal vessel and the VD/VNC are similarly modulated by both Manse-AT and 5-HT, and that VNC oscillations play a more active role in overall haemolymph circulation than previously recognized.

  9. Circulating adrenal hormones are not necessary for the development of sensitization to the psychomotor activating effects of amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, A; Morano, M I; Akil, H; Robinson, T E

    1995-02-27

    We reported previously that when amphetamine is given in NOVEL test cages both its acute psychomotor activating effects (rotational behaviour and locomotor activity) and the degree of sensitization are greater than when amphetamine is given in HOME cages that are physically identical to the NOVEL test cages. Since exposure to the NOVEL environment increases plasma corticosterone levels (Experiment 1) it is possible that the enhancement in the effects of amphetamine in the NOVEL condition is mediated by corticosterone. If this hypothesis is correct adrenalectomy (ADX) should abolish the difference between the HOME and NOVEL groups. This was tested in three independent experiments, in which the response (rotational behavior in Experiments 2 and 3; locomotor activity and rearing behavior in Experiment 4) to repeated injections of amphetamine was assessed in rats that underwent adrenalectomy (ADX) or a sham operation (SHAM). ADX animals received either no corticosterone replacement or one of two corticosterone replacement treatments. Adrenalectomy, with or without corticosterone replacement treatment, had no significant effect on the development of amphetamine sensitization, either in the HOME or the NOVEL environment. By contrast, the effects of adrenalectomy on the acute response to amphetamine varied depending on the behavioral measure and possibly on the dose of amphetamine (2.0 mg/kg, 3.0 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg IP, in Experiments 2, 3 and 4, respectively). We conclude that: (i) a stress-induced secretion of adrenal hormones is not responsible for the enhancement in sensitization to amphetamine seen in animals tested in a NOVEL environment; (ii) circulating adrenal hormones are not necessary for development of sensitization to the psychomotor activating effects of amphetamine.

  10. Lutein bioavailability is higher from lutein-enriched eggs than from supplements and spinach in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hae-Yun; Rasmussen, Helen M; Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2004-08-01

    Lutein may be protective against diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). At present, data regarding bioavailability of lutein from various sources are insufficient. Healthy men (n = 10) participated in an intervention study with a crossover design. After a 2-wk washout period during which they consumed a low-carotenoid diet, the men were administered 1 of 4 lutein doses (lutein supplement, lutein ester supplement, spinach, and lutein-enriched egg) for 9 d. All lutein doses provided 6 mg lutein except for the lutein ester dose, which provided 5.5 mg lutein equivalents. Serum samples were collected from fasting subjects on d -14, 1 (baseline), 2, 3, and 10 and analyzed for changes in lutein concentration. Triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (TRL) were separated from postprandial blood samples (0-24 h) after the first lutein dose and analyzed for lutein concentration. Subjects completed all 4 treatments of the study in random order. Results from repeated-measures 1-way ANOVA showed that the baseline and dose-adjusted lutein response in serum was significantly higher after egg consumption than after lutein, lutein ester, and spinach consumption on d 10. There was no significant difference in TRL response. In conclusion, the lutein bioavailability from egg is higher than that from other sources such as lutein, lutein ester supplements, and spinach. The lutein bioavailability from lutein, lutein ester supplements, and spinach did not differ. This finding may have implications for dietary recommendations that may decrease the risk of certain diseases, e.g., ARMD.

  11. Serum lutein response is greater from free lutein than from esterified lutein during 4 weeks of supplementation in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkus, Edward P; Norkus, Katherine L; Dharmarajan, T S; Schierle, Joseph; Schalch, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    Current data suggest great variability in serum response following lutein ingestion from various sources. To compare the relative serum response during supplementation with free lutein (fL) and lutein esters (Le). 72 volunteers (23-52 years; body mass index [BMI] >20 and lutein lutein or 27 mg of lutein ester (equivalent to 13.5 mg free lutein), respectively. Fasting blood was obtained at baseline and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of supplementation. Supplements were consumed with standard portions of dry, ready-to-eat cereal and 2% cow's milk. Absolute changes in serum lutein, per mg daily dose, were significantly greater in fL vs. Le after 21 days (p  =  0.0012) and remained so after 28 days (p  =  0.0011) of supplementation. Serum lutein Area Under the Curve [AUC((day 0-28))] response was 17% greater for fL vs. Le (p  =  0.0187). Regression models were used and determined that (1) baseline serum lutein levels and (2) the form of lutein ingested (fL > Le) influence the serum lutein response during supplementation, while subject age, gender, BMI, and serum lipids do not affect serum response. These results suggest that the relative serum lutein response will be significantly greater from supplements containing free lutein than from supplements containing lutein esters. These findings should be useful for future clinical trials exploring the effectiveness of lutein supplementation in the prevention of or protection against age-related macular degeneration and/or cataracts.

  12. Human anti-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antibodies in patients treated with synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meakin, J.L.; Keogh, E.J.; Martin, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    One hundred sixty-three patients who were given synthetic LH-RH therapeutically underwent monitoring of serum IgG anti-LH-RH antibodies. Five of the patients showed specific binding to antibodies. Development of anti-LH-RH antibodies was not limited to those patients with a congenital deficiency of LH-RH. Urticarial responses occurred in four patients, only one of whom had IgG antibodies. Patients who had IgG antibodies or an urticarial response underwent monitoring of their serum IgE anti-LH-RH antibodies, but none had a positive binding response. The refractory state which has been reported in patients in whom similar antibodies to LH-RH develop was not invariably observed among these patients

  13. Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein

    OpenAIRE

    Bettler, Jodi; Zimmer, J. Paul; Neuringer, Martha; DeRusso, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Aim of the study To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein. Methods A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infant...

  14. Gene expression markers in circulating tumor cells may predict bone metastasis and response to hormonal treatment in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Molina, Julian; Jiang, John; Ferber, Matthew; Pruthi, Sandhya; Jatkoe, Timothy; Derecho, Carlo; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Yixin

    2013-11-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have recently attracted attention due to their potential as prognostic and predictive markers for the clinical management of metastatic breast cancer patients. The isolation of CTCs from patients may enable the molecular characterization of these cells, which may help establish a minimally invasive assay for the prediction of metastasis and further optimization of treatment. Molecular markers of proven clinical value may therefore be useful in predicting disease aggressiveness and response to treatment. In our earlier study, we identified a gene signature in breast cancer that appears to be significantly associated with bone metastasis. Among the genes that constitute this signature, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) was identified as the most differentially expressed gene associated with bone metastasis. In this study, we investigated 25 candidate gene markers in the CTCs of metastatic breast cancer patients with different metastatic sites. The panel of the 25 markers was investigated in 80 baseline samples (first blood draw of CTCs) and 30 follow-up samples. In addition, 40 healthy blood donors (HBDs) were analyzed as controls. The assay was performed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with RNA extracted from CTCs captured by the CellSearch system. Our study indicated that 12 of the genes were uniquely expressed in CTCs and 10 were highly expressed in the CTCs obtained from patients compared to those obtained from HBDs. Among these genes, the expression of keratin 19 was highly correlated with the CTC count. The TFF1 expression in CTCs was a strong predictor of bone metastasis and the patients with a high expression of estrogen receptor β in CTCs exhibited a better response to hormonal treatment. Molecular characterization of these genes in CTCs may provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis and identify gene markers in CTCs for predicting disease progression and

  15. Characterization of milk proteins-lutein complexes and the impact on lutein chemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jiang; Fan, Yuting; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Liqing

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the interaction of WPI (whey protein isolate) and SC (sodium caseinate) with hydrophobic lutein was investigated through UV-vis spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) as well as fluorescence. The effects on lutein's chemical stability were also examined. The decrease of turbidity of lutein suggested that lutein's aqueous solubility was improved after binding with milk proteins. CD analysis indicated lutein had little impact on the secondary structures of both proteins. Different preparation methods have significant impacts on the binding constant. Fluorescence results indicated that WPI and SC interact with lutein by hydrophobic contacts. Milk proteins have protective effects on lutein against oxidation and decomposition, and SC showed better capability in protecting lutein from oxidation than WPI during 16 days storage. The lutein's chemical stability was increased with increasing of proteins concentration. The results indicated that milk proteins may act as effective carriers for lipophilic nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Crichton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA. We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS, conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972, and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX (n = 1331 were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  17. Evidence of chemical stimulation of hepatic metabolism by an experimental acetanilide (FOE 5043) indirectly mediating reductions in circulating thyroid hormone levels in the male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, W R; Becker, B D; Wahle, B S; Moore, K D; Dass, P D; Lake, S G; Van Goethem, D L; Stuart, B P; Sangha, G K; Thyssen, J H

    1996-02-01

    N-(4-Fluorophenyl)-N-(1-methylethyl)-2-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3, 4-thiadiazol-2-yl]oxy]acetamide (FOE 5043) is a new acetanilide-type herbicide undergoing regulatory testing. Previous work in this laboratory suggested that FOE 5043-induced reductions in serum thyroxine (T4) levels were mediated via an extrathyroidal site of action. The possibility that the alterations in circulating T4 levels were due to chemical induction of hepatic thyroid hormone metabolism was investigated. Treatment with FOE 5043 at a rate of 1000 ppm as a dietary admixture was found to significantly increase the clearance of [125I]T4 from the serum, suggesting an enhanced excretion of the hormone. In the liver, the activity of hepatic uridine glucuronosyl transferase, a major pathway of thyroid hormone biotransformation in the rat, increased in a statistically significant and dose-dependent manner; conversely, hepatic 5'-monodeiodinase activity trended downward with dose. Bile flow as well as the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of [125I]T4 were increased following exposure to FOE 5043. Thyroidal function, as measured by the discharge of iodide ion in response to perchlorate, and pituitary function, as measured by the capacity of the pituitary to secrete thyrotropin in response to an exogenous challenge by hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone, were both unchanged from the controlled response. These data suggest that the functional status of the thyroid and pituitary glands has not been altered by treatment with FOE 5043 and that reductions in circulating levels of T4 are being mediated indirectly through an increase in the biotransformation and excretion of thyroid hormone in the liver.

  18. PSA-alpha-2-macroglobulin complex is enzymatically active in the serum of patients with advanced prostate cancer and can degrade circulating peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Maya B; Brennen, William Nathaniel; Lopez, David; Anthony, Lizamma; Wang, Hao; Platz, Elizabeth; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2018-08-01

    Prostate cancer cells produce high levels of the serine protease Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA). PSA is enzymatically active in the tumor microenvironment but is presumed to be enzymatically inactive in the blood due to complex formation with serum protease inhibitors α-1-antichymotrypsin and α-2-macroglobulin (A2M). PSA-A2M complexes cannot be measured by standard ELISA assays and are also rapidly cleared from the circulation. Thus the exact magnitude of PSA production by prostate cancer cells is not easily measured. The PSA complexed to A2M is unable to cleave proteins but maintains the ability to cleave small peptide substrates. Thus, in advanced prostate cancer, sufficient PSA-A2M may be in circulation to effect total A2M levels, levels of cytokines bound to A2M and hydrolyze small circulating peptide hormones. Total A2M levels in men with advanced prostate cancer and PSA levels above 1000 ng/mL were measured by ELISA and compared to controls. Additional ELISA assays were used to measure levels of IL-6 and TGF-beta which can bind to A2M. The ability of PSA-A2M complexes to hydrolyze protein and peptide substrates was analyzed ± PSA inhibitor. Enzymatic activity of PSA-A2M in serum of men with high PSA levels was also assayed. Serum A2M levels are inversely correlated with PSA levels in men with advanced prostate cancer. Il-6 Levels are significantly elevated in men with PSA >1000 ng/mL compared to controls with PSA PSA-A2M complex in serum of men with PSA levels >1000 ng/mL can hydrolyze small fluorescently labeled peptide substrates but not large proteins that are PSA substrates. PSA can hydrolyze small peptide hormones like PTHrP and osteocalcin. PSA complexed to A2M retains the ability to degrade PTHrP. In advanced prostate cancer with PSA levels >1000 ng/mL, sufficient PSA-A2M is present in circulation to produce enzymatic activity against circulating small peptide hormones. Sufficient PSA is produced in advanced prostate cancer to alter

  19. Luteinizing hormone (LH)-responsive Cushing's syndrome: the demonstration of LH receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in hyperplastic adrenal cells, which respond to chorionic gonadotropin and serotonin agonists in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Feelders (Richard); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); L.J. Hofland (Leo); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); F.H. de Jong (Frank); H.J. Bonjer (Jaap); A.J. Clark (Adrian); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn a substantial part of adrenal adenomas and hyperplasias from patients with Cushing's syndrome, cortisol production is controlled by the expression of aberrant hormone receptors on adrenocortical cells. We present in vivo and in vitro data of two patients with a

  20. Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettler, Jodi; Zimmer, J Paul; Neuringer, Martha; DeRusso, Patricia A

    2010-02-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants. To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein. A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infants (n = 26) randomized between 9 and 16 days of age to study formulas containing 20 (unfortified), 45, 120, and 225 mcg/l of lutein. A breastfed reference group was studied (n = 14) and milk samples were collected from their mothers. Primary outcome was serum lutein concentration at week 12. Geometric mean lutein concentration of human milk was 21.1 mcg/l (95% CI 14.9-30.0). At week 12, the human milk group had a sixfold higher geometric mean serum lutein (69.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 40.3-119) than the unfortified formula group (11.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 8.1-15.8). Mean serum lutein increased from baseline in each formula group except the unfortified group. Linear regression equation indicated breastfed infants had a greater increase in serum lutein (slope 3.7; P milk lutein than formula-fed infants (slope 0.9; P lutein concentrations than infants who consume formula unfortified with lutein. These data suggest approximately 4 times more lutein is needed in infant formula than in human milk to achieve similar serum lutein concentrations among breastfed and formula fed infants.

  1. Participation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase in Luteinizing Hormone-induced Differential Regulation of Steroidogenesis and Steroidogenic Gene Expression in Mural and Cumulus Granulosa Cells of Mouse Preovulatory Follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, You-Qiang; Nyegaard, Mette; Overgaard, Michael Toft

    2006-01-01

    changes of circulating estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels after administration of hCG. In vitro, when MGCs and COCs were treated with U0126, a specific inhibitor of MAPK3/1 activation, gonadotropin- or 8-Br-cAMP-induced P4 production, as well as expression of Star and Cyp11a1 mRNA, were...

  2. Influence of promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis combined with laparoscopy on serum MCP-1, RANTES, oxidative stress and hormones in infertile patients with endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Sha Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the influence of promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis combined with laparoscopy on serum MCP-1, RANTES, oxidative stress and hormones in infertile patients with endometriosis. Methods: A total of 60 infertile patients with endometriosis were randomly divided into observation group (30 cases and control group (30 cases. Observation group: promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis combined with laparoscopy; control group: patients were treated only by laparoscopy. Recording and comparing the levels of MCP-1, RANTES, oxidative stress and hormones before and after treatment. Results: (1 Before treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in the serum MCP-1, RANTES, AOPP, MDA, SOD, levels between the two groups. After treatment, compared with the same group before treatment, the serum RANTES, AOPP, MDA levels of the two groups were significantly lower, the serum SOD level of the two groups were significantly higher, and those levels of observation group were significantly better than the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups. (2 Before treatment, there was no statistically significant difference in the serum FSH, LH, E2, P, PRL levels between the two groups. After treatment, compared with the same group before treatment, the serum FSH, LH, P, PRL levels of the two groups were significantly higher, the serum E2 level of the two groups were significantly lower, and those levels of observation group were significantly better than the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis combined with laparoscopy for infertile patients with endometriosis can reduce the levels of serum MCP-1, RANTES, oxidative stress, hormones and be beneficial to protect their uterine function.

  3. Lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Hellas; Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Pietri, Amedeo; Roggi, Carla; Turconi, Giovanna

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake measured through the administration of a short FFQ. A cross-sectional study in which an FFQ was administered twice: on day 3 (T0) and day 30 (T1) postpartum; meanwhile two breast milk samples were collected. Maternal plasma samples were obtained at T0. The comparison of dietary lutein intakes and likewise lutein concentrations in breast milk at T0 and T1 were analysed with Student's t test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between dietary lutein intake and lutein concentration in milk and plasma, respectively, as well as the correlation between breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations at T0. Pavia, northern Italy. Twenty-one pregnant women, age range 24-42 years, were recruited during their last trimester on a voluntary basis. Both breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations were significantly correlated with dietary lutein intake (r = 0.86, P = 0.0001 and r = 0.94, P = 0.0001, respectively). There was a clear significant correlation between milk and plasma lutein concentrations (r = 0.87, P = 0.0001). Mature milk lutein concentration, although significantly reduced at T1 (P lutein intake (r = 0.82, P = 0.0001). Even though milk lutein concentration decreased during early lactation, it remained significantly correlated with daily lutein intake. Therefore, while awaiting further research, dietary recommendations advising intake of fresh fruit and vegetables rich in lutein, throughout the whole duration of pregnancy and lactation, are extremely useful.

  4. Lutein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder in premature infants that can lead to blindness (retinopathy of prematurity). Research shows that giving preterm ... mg of zeaxanthin does not improve speaking or memory in older people. However, other early research suggests ...

  5. Development of homologous radioimmunoassays for equine growth hormone and equine prolactin and their application to the detection of circulating levels of hormone in horse plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, C.M.; Hayden, T.J. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland); Ven der Kolk, H. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands); Goode, J.A. [Agricultural Research Council, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Inst. of Animal Physiology

    1994-12-31

    Highly purified and well-characterized preparations of equine prolactin and growth hormone from equine pituitary glands were employed to set up highly sensitive and specific homologous radioimmunoassays (RIA) for the measurement of hormone in horse plasma. The limit of sensitivity of the GH RIA was 1.2 ng/ml with mean intra -and inter- assay coefficients of variation (CV) of 6.6 and 10%, respectively. The sensitivity of the equine prolactin (ePRL) RIA was 0.5 ng/ml with mean intra and inter-assay CV of 9.1 and 15.6%, respectively. Dose-response curves of a crude pituitary gland extract and plasma samples collected from a mare and foal were parallel to the standards and the PRL RIA was clinically validated by administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Plasma samples taken at 15 min intervals over 24 h from lactating mares gave 24 h mean GH values in the range 5.5 to 7.95 ng/ml. Large intermittent elevations of GH activity were detected. The mean 24 h PRL concentrations were between 3.2-10.4 ng/ml in the lactating animals, with higher concentrations earlier in lactation. Long episodic bursts of PRL were detected. (authors). 48 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Development of homologous radioimmunoassays for equine growth hormone and equine prolactin and their application to the detection of circulating levels of hormone in horse plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, C.M.; Hayden, T.J.; Ven der Kolk, H.; Goode, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Highly purified and well-characterized preparations of equine prolactin and growth hormone from equine pituitary glands were employed to set up highly sensitive and specific homologous radioimmunoassays (RIA) for the measurement of hormone in horse plasma. The limit of sensitivity of the GH RIA was 1.2 ng/ml with mean intra -and inter- assay coefficients of variation (CV) of 6.6 and 10%, respectively. The sensitivity of the equine prolactin (ePRL) RIA was 0.5 ng/ml with mean intra and inter-assay CV of 9.1 and 15.6%, respectively. Dose-response curves of a crude pituitary gland extract and plasma samples collected from a mare and foal were parallel to the standards and the PRL RIA was clinically validated by administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Plasma samples taken at 15 min intervals over 24 h from lactating mares gave 24 h mean GH values in the range 5.5 to 7.95 ng/ml. Large intermittent elevations of GH activity were detected. The mean 24 h PRL concentrations were between 3.2-10.4 ng/ml in the lactating animals, with higher concentrations earlier in lactation. Long episodic bursts of PRL were detected. (authors). 48 refs., 9 figs

  7. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egloff, Caroline [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Porter, Emily; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  8. Circulating sex hormones in relation to anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors in an international dataset of 12,300 men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watts, Eleanor L; Appleby, Paul N.; Albanes, Demetrius; Black, Amanda; Chan, June M; Chen, Chu; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Cook, Michael B; Donovan, Jenny L.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garland, Cedric F; Giles, Graham G.; Goodman, Phyllis J; Habel, Laurel A; Haiman, Christopher A.; Holly, Jeff M P; Hoover, Robert N.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Knekt, Paul; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Le Marchand, Loïc; Luostarinen, Tapio; MacInnis, Robert J; Mäenpää, Hanna O; Männistö, Satu; Metter, E Jeffrey; Milne, Roger L.; Nomura, Abraham M Y; Oliver, Steven E; Parsons, J Kellogg; Peeters, Petra H; Platz, Elizabeth A; Riboli, Elio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rinaldi, Sabina; Rissanen, Harri; Sawada, Norie; Schaefer, Catherine A; Schenk, Jeannette M; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Stampfer, Meir; Stattin, Pär; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Thompson, Ian M; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Vatten, Lars; Whittemore, Alice S.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Allen, Naomi E.; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with

  9. Induction of Ski Protein Expression upon Luteinization in Rat Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ski protein is implicated in proliferation/differentiation in a variety of cells. We had previously reported that Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. The alternative fate of granulosa cells other than apoptosis is to differentiate to luteal cells; however, it is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to locate Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinizationto predict the possible role of Ski. In order to examine the expression pattern of Ski protein along with the progress of luteinization, follicular growth was induced by administration of equine chorionic gonadtropin to immature female rats, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadtropin treatment to mimic luteinizing hormone (LH surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to LH surge, and was maintained after the formation of the corpus luteum (CL. Though Ski protein is absent in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-Ski was expressed and the level was unchanged even after LH surge. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggests that its expression is regulated post-transcriptionally.

  10. HPG-axis hormones during puberty : A study on the association with hypothalamic and pituitary volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, Jiska S.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Schnack, Hugo G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kahn, Rene S.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff

    Objective: During puberty, the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is activated, leading to increases in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol) levels. We aimed to study the association between hypothalamic and pituitary

  11. Effects of zinc on male sex hormones and semen quality in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    collected and assayed for Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Prolactin (PL), testosterone (T), progesterone .... a role in the production, storage and secretion of .... This study was done to assess the effects of oral zinc.

  12. Non-targeted profiling of circulating microRNAs in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): effects of obesity and sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murri, Mora; Insenser, María; Fernández-Durán, Elena; San-Millán, José L; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2018-02-02

    Circulating micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that influence gene transcription. We conducted the present profiling study to characterize the expression of circulating miRNAs in lean and obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine and metabolic disorder in premenopausal women. We selected 11 control women, 12 patients with PCOS and 12 men so that they were similar in terms of body mass index. Five control women, 6 men and 6 patients with PCOS had normal weight whereas 6 subjects per group were obese. We used miRCURY LNA™ Universal RT microRNA PCR for miRNA profiling. The expression of 38 miRNAs and was different between subjects with PCOS and male and female controls. The differences in 15 miRNAs followed a pattern suggestive of androgenization characterized by expression levels that were similar in patients with PCOS and men but were different compared with those of control women. The expression of 13 miRNAs in women with PCOS was similar to that of control women and different compared with the expression observed in men, suggesting sexual dimorphism and, lastly, we observed 5 miRNAs that were expressed differently in women with PCOS compared with both men and control women, suggesting a specific abnormality in expression associated with the syndrome. Obesity interacted with the differences in several of these miRNAs, and the expression levels of many of them correlated with the hirsutism score, sex hormones and/or indexes of obesity, adiposity and metabolic dysfunction. The present results suggest that several serum miRNAs are influenced by PCOS, sex hormones and obesity. Our findings may guide the targeted search of miRNAs as clinically relevant markers for PCOS and its association with obesity and metabolic dysfunction in future studies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The role of circulating sex hormones in menstrual cycle dependent modulation of pain-related brain activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S.; Keaser, Michael L.; Traub, Deborah S.; Zhuo, Jiachen; Gullapalli, Rao P.; Greenspan, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in pain sensitivity have been consistently found but the basis for these differences is incompletely understood. The present study assessed how pain-related neural processing varies across the menstrual cycle in normally cycling, healthy females, and whether menstrual cycle effects are based on fluctuating sex hormone levels. Fifteen subjects participated in four test sessions during their menstrual, mid-follicular, ovulatory, and midluteal phases. Brain activity was measured while nonpainful and painful stimuli were applied with a pressure algometer. Serum hormone levels confirmed that scans were performed at appropriate cycle phases in 14 subjects. No significant cycle phase differences were found for pain intensity or unpleasantness ratings of stimuli applied during fMRI scans. However, lower pressure pain thresholds were found for follicular compared to other phases. Pain-specific brain activation was found in several regions traditionally associated with pain processing, including the medial thalamus, anterior and mid-insula, mid-cingulate, primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, cerebellum, and frontal regions. The inferior parietal lobule, occipital gyrus, cerebellum and several frontal regions demonstrated interaction effects between stimulus level and cycle phase, indicating differential processing of pain-related responses across menstrual cycle phases. Correlational analyses indicated that cycle-related changes in pain sensitivity measures and brain activation were only partly explained by varying sex hormone levels. These results show that pain-related cerebral activation varies significantly across the menstrual cycle, even when perceived pain intensity and unpleasantness remain constant. The involved brain regions suggest that cognitive pain or more general bodily awareness systems are most susceptible to menstrual cycle effects. PMID:23528204

  14. Effect of Lipopolysaccharide on Progesterone Production during Luteinization of Granulosa and Theca cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Echizenya, Riku; Miyamoto, Akio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on progesterone production during luteinization of granulosa and theca cells isolated from bovine large follicles. Granulosa and theca cells isolated from large follicles of bovine ovaries were exposed to LPS under appropriate hormone conditions in vitro. Progesterone (P4) production in theca cells, but not granulosa cells, was decreased by long-term exposure of LPS. Long-term exposure of LPS suppressed the gene expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in theca cells. Although long-term exposure of LPS did not affect the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) genes, it did inhibit the protein expression of StAR and 3β-HSD in theca cells. These findings suggest that theca cells, rather than granulosa cells, are susceptible to LPS during luteinization and that LPS inhibits P4 production by decreasing protein levels of StAR during luteinization of theca cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol levels of stallions before and after short road transport: stress effect of different distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasso Loredana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since transport evokes physiological adjustments that include endocrine responses, the objective of this study was to examine the responses of circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels to transport stress in stallions. Methods Forty-two healthy Thoroughbred and crossbred stallions were studied before and after road transport over distances of 100, 200 and 300 km. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein: first in a single box immediately before loading (pre-samples, then immediately after transport and unloading on arrival at the breeding stations (post-samples. Results An increase in circulating β-endorphin levels after transport of 100 km (P P P P P > 0.05 between horses of different ages and different breeds were observed for β-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol levels. Conclusion The results obtained for short term transportation of stallions showed a very strong reaction of the adrenocortical system. The lack of response of β-endorphin after transport of 200–300 km and of ACTH after transport of 300 km seems to suggest a soothing effect of negative feedback of ACTH and cortisol levels.

  16. Lutein bioavailability from lutein ester-fortified fermented milk: in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Herrero-Barbudo, Carmer; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Blanco-Navarro, Inmaculada; Pérez-Sacristán, Belén

    2010-02-01

    We assessed the bioavailability of lutein from lutein-fortified fermented milk using in vivo and in vitro approaches. Twenty-four volunteers were randomized to take lutein-fortified fermented milk at two levels of fortification. Single-dose bioavailability study (2x100 ml, ca. 8 or 16 mg of lutein) was performed using a three-point approach (baseline, 3.5 and 6.5 h). Multiple-dose study consisted of consuming one serving/day (ca. 4 or 8 mg/100 ml) for 14 days. Blood samples for biochemical, hematological and lutein analysis were drawn at baseline, Day 7 and Day 14. In vitro bioaccessibility was assessed by a static gastrointestinal digestion model. Lutein content, in vitro ester hydrolysis and micellarization, and lutein concentrations achieved in serum were analyzed by HPLC. In vivo, post-prandial response was higher using the high content fermented milk, but the percentage of absorption was not different according to the dose consumed. Net increments at Day 7 and Day 14 were significantly higher on consuming the high-dose milk as well. In vitro, lutein ester hydrolysis was incomplete regardless of the amount initially present. Free lutein released was higher using the high-dose fermented milk, but the percentage of hydrolysis was similar at both levels of fortification. In the micellar phase, the percentage of free and total lutein was not different according to the dose. Our results support the suitability of the fermented milk as a carrier of lutein esters and an in vivo dose-dependent effect upon regular consumption and suggest the usefulness of in vitro models to provide relevant information to predict in vivo responses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress: Effects of biological sex and circulating sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the

  18. Macular lutein and zeaxanthin are related to brain lutein and zeaxanthin in primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The xanthophyll pigments lutein and zeaxanthin cross the blood-retina barrier to preferentially accumulate in the macular region of the neural retina. There they form macular pigment, protecting the retina from blue light damage and oxidative stress. Lutein and zeaxanthin also accumulate in brain t...

  19. Mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary with stromal luteinization and hilar cell hyperplasia during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, R R; Grecco, L A

    1988-02-01

    A 32-year-old woman was delivered of a healthy, full-term infant by cesarean section, at which time a large ovarian cyst was removed. The cyst proved to be a mucinous cystadenoma with prominent luteinization of the stroma subtending the epithelium and with numerous foci of hyperplastic Leydig cells in the cyst wall and ovarian hilum. These hormonally induced changes must be recognized in order to avoid mistaking them for invasive epithelial components.

  20. GATA4 and GATA6 Knockdown During Luteinization Inhibits Progesterone Production and Gonadotropin Responsiveness in the Corpus Luteum of Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convissar, Scott M; Bennett, Jill; Baumgarten, Sarah C; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco J; Stocco, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The surge of luteinizing hormone triggers the genomic reprogramming, cell differentiation, and tissue remodeling of the ovulated follicle, leading to the formation of the corpus luteum. During this process, called luteinization, follicular granulosa cells begin expressing a new set of genes that allow the resulting luteal cells to survive in a vastly different hormonal environment and to produce the extremely high amounts of progesterone (P4) needed to sustain pregnancy. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of luteal P4 production in vivo, the transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6 were knocked down in the corpus luteum by crossing mice carrying Gata4 and Gata6 floxed genes with mice carrying Cre recombinase fused to the progesterone receptor. This receptor is expressed exclusively in granulosa cells after the luteinizing hormone surge, leading to recombination of floxed genes during follicle luteinization. The findings demonstrated that GATA4 and GATA6 are essential for female fertility, whereas targeting either factor alone causes subfertility. When compared to control mice, serum P4 levels and luteal expression of key steroidogenic genes were significantly lower in conditional knockdown mice. The results also showed that GATA4 and GATA6 are required for the expression of the receptors for prolactin and luteinizing hormone, the main luteotropic hormones in mice. The findings demonstrate that GATA4 and GATA6 are crucial regulators of luteal steroidogenesis and are required for the normal response of luteal cells to luteotropins. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  1. Prevalence of Circulating Tumor Cells After Adjuvant Chemotherapy With or Without Anthracyclines in Patients With HER2-negative, Hormone Receptor-positive Early Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Amelie; Schochter, Fabienne; Friedl, Thomas W P; de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Andergassen, Ulrich; Alunni-Fabbroni, Marianna; Trapp, Elisabeth; Jaeger, Bernadette; Heinrich, Georg; Camara, Oumar; Decker, Thomas; Ober, Angelika; Mahner, Sven; Fehm, Tanja N; Pantel, Klaus; Fasching, Peter A; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Janni, Wolfgang; Rack, Brigitte K

    2017-07-01

    Use of anthracycline-based chemotherapy in patients with early breast cancer (EBC) has been well-established but is often associated with cardiotoxicity. Based on data suggesting a limited benefit of anthracyclines in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative patients, the Simultaneous Study of Docetaxel Based Anthracycline Free Adjuvant Treatment Evaluation, as well as Life Style Intervention Strategies (SUCCESS) C study randomized patients to either anthracycline-containing or anthracycline-free chemotherapy. Given the proven prognostic value of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in EBC, we compared the prevalence of CTCs after chemotherapy between both treatment arms for a preliminary efficacy assessment. The SUCCESS C trial (NCT00847444) is an open-label, phase III study randomizing 3547 patients with HER2-negative EBC to either 3 cycles of epirubicin, 5-fluorouracil, and cyclophosphamide followed by 3 cycles of docetaxel (FEC-DOC) or 6 cycles of docetaxel and cyclophosphamide (DOC-C). CTC status was prospectively evaluated in hormone receptor-positive patients at the time of last chemotherapy cycle using the US Food and Drug Administration-approved CellSearch System (Janssen Diagnostics). Data on CTC status were available for 1766 patients. Overall, CTCs were found in 221 (12.5%) patients. Univariate analyses revealed that presence of CTCs at time of last chemotherapy cycle was not significantly associated with tumor or patient characteristics (all P > .1). There was no significant difference with respect to presence of CTCs between patients randomized to FEC-DOC or DOC-C (11.5% vs. 13.6%; P = .18). The comparable prevalence of CTCs at the time of last chemotherapy cycle may indicate that anthracycline-free chemotherapy is equally effective to anthracycline-containing chemotherapy in HER2-negative, hormone receptor-positive EBC. However, efficacy data from the final survival analysis of SUCCESS C have to be awaited to confirm these preliminary

  2. Evaluation of some reproductive hormonal profile following the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study is aimed at determining the effect of nicotine on male fertility by evaluating some reproductive hormone parameters of male Wistar rat such as serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Methodology: A total of 20 adult male rats were randomly ...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1820 - Pituitary luteinizing hormone for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....1820 Section 522.1820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... hypofunction in cattle, horses, swine, sheep, and dogs. (2) Preferably given by intravenous injection, it may....5 mg, and dogs, 1.0 mg. Treatment may be repeated in 1 to 4 weeks, or as indicated. (3) Federal law...

  4. Neuromedin s as novel putative regulator of luteinizing hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, E; Roa, J; López, M; Castellano, J M; Fernandez-Fernandez, R; Navarro, V M; Pineda, R; Aguilar, E; Diéguez, C; Pinilla, L; Tena-Sempere, M

    2007-02-01

    Neuromedin S (NMS), a 36 amino acid peptide structurally related to neuromedin U, was recently identified in rat brain as ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor FM4/TGR-1, also termed neuromedin U receptor type-2 (NMU2R). Central expression of NMS appears restricted to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and NMS has been involved in the regulation of dark-light rhythms and suppression of food intake. Reproduction is known to be tightly regulated by metabolic and photoperiodic cues. Yet the potential contribution of NMS to the control of reproductive axis remains unexplored. We report herein analyses of hypothalamic expression of NMS and NMU2R genes, as well as LH responses to NMS, in different developmental and functional states of the female rat. Expression of NMS and NMU2R genes was detected at the hypothalamus along postnatal development, with significant fluctuations of their relative levels (maximum at prepubertal stage and adulthood). In adult females, hypothalamic expression of NMS (which was confined to suprachiasmatic nucleus) and NMU2R significantly varied during the estrous cycle (maximum at proestrus) and was lowered after ovariectomy and enhanced after progesterone supplementation. Central administration of NMS evoked modest LH secretory responses in pubertal and cyclic females at diestrus, whereas exaggerated LH secretory bursts were elicited by NMS at estrus and after short-term fasting. Conversely, NMS significantly decreased elevated LH concentrations of ovariectomized rats. In summary, we provide herein novel evidence for the ability of NMS to modulate LH secretion in the female rat. Moreover, hypothalamic expression of NMS and NMU2R genes appeared dependent on the functional state of the female reproductive axis. Our data are the first to disclose the potential implication of NMS in the regulation of gonadotropic axis, a function that may contribute to the integration of circadian rhythms, energy balance, and reproduction.

  5. The influence of season on tonic luteinizing hormone (LFD and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and they were sub- jected to a plane of nutrition designed to maintain body mass ... concluded that conception rates were higher during autumn and spring than ... in cattle may be due to differences in climatic conditions dur- ing studies, and ...

  6. Serum insulin, glucose and non esterified fatty acids after administration of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones in bitches Modificaciones de la glucemia, insulina y ácidos grasos no esterificados durante la sobrecarga de glucosa o insulina en perras tratadas con hormona folículo-estimulante y luteinizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Renauld

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effect of the simultaneous administration of follicle-stimulating (FSH and luteinizing hormones (LH on serum glucose, insulin and nonesterified fatty acid responses after glucose or insulin challenge. The animals were originally at anestrous. FSH (dose 2.5 U/kg body wt. and LH (0.27 U/kg body wt. were sc injected on days 1, 4, 8 and 11. Vaginal smears were obtained daily. Six untreated controls at anestrous and six treated bitches reaching proestrous were used. Glucose tolerance tests were done with a dose of 1 g of glucose per kg of body weight. Bovine insulin was administered at the dose of 0.25 U/kg body wt. During these tests, neither serum glucose and nonesterified fatty acids nor glucose distribution space and glucose clearance were affected by the treatment. The serum insulin response to hyperglycemia was greatly increased. The distribution space and clearance rate of this hormone were not affected by FSH + LH treatment. We conclude that, in the bitch, FSH + LH treatment, at doses that trigger «sex seasons», increases the serum insulin response to glucose load and produces a moderate resistance to the hypoglycemic, lipogenic and antilipolytic insulin actions. These phenomena are evident during hyperglycemia.Este trabajo describe el efecto de la administración simultánea de FSH y LH sobre los niveles de glucemia e insulina y ácidos grasos no esterificados séricos luego de una sobrecarga de glucosa o insulina. Los animales se encontraban originalmente en anestro, controlado por extendidos vaginales diarios. FSH (2.5 U/kg peso corp./día y LH (0.27 U/kg peso corp./día se inyectaron por vía subcutánea en los días 1, 4, 8 y 11 del tratamiento. Cada grupo experimental estaba formado por seis perros en anestro y seis en proestro. Las sobrecargas de glucosa (1g/kg peso corp. fueron administradas por vía endovenosa rápida. Las concentraciones de glucosa en sangre o ácidos grasos no esterificados séricos durante

  7. Novel protocol for lutein extraction from microalga Chlorella vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina; De Francisci, Davide; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    Lutein is a pigment generally extracted from marigold flowers. However, lutein is also found in considerable amounts in microalgae. In this study a novel method was developed to improve the extraction efficiency of lutein from microalga C. vulgaris. Differently from conventional methods, ethanol...

  8. Association between lutein intake and lutein concentrations in human milk samples from lactating mothers in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyesook; Yi, Hyunju; Jung, Ji A; Chang, Namsoo

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the lutein content of breast milk and its association with maternal lutein intake among lactating mothers in South Korea. Milk samples were obtained from 98 healthy lactating women (mean age; 32.5 ± 3.5 years). Dietary intake data were collected by a food record method for three consecutive days. Maternal lutein intake was estimated by using the lutein database. Lutein concentrations in human milk were analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection method. The mean values of the daily lutein intakes and breast milk lutein concentrations in lactating mothers were 4.70 ± 3.11 mg/day (median 3.87) and 3.50 ± 3.71 µg/dl (median 2.45), respectively. Breast milk lutein concentrations were positively associated with the dietary lutein intake of lactating mothers after adjustment for lactating women's age, BMI, dietary energy intake, type of breastfeeding, and infants' age (β = 0.3629, P = 0.0056). Considering that lutein in milk can be associated with dietary lutein intake, knowledge about infant requirement is needed to define the adequate lutein levels in human milk.

  9. Bioavailability of lutein from a lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage and its dried re-suspended versions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunger, M.; Quataert, M.C.J.; Kamps, L.M.; Versloot, P.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Togtema, K.A.; Amerongen, van A.; Mensink, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Drying a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage would extend its shelf life, however, functional properties should not be affected. It was investigated whether consumption of a dried beverage containing lutein-enriched egg-yolk significantly increases serum lutein. One-hundred healthy young

  10. Longitudinal development of hormone levels and grey matter density in 9 and 12-year-old twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Koenis, M M G; Schnack, Hugo G; van Baal, G Caroline; van Soelen, Inge L C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-05-01

    Puberty is characterized by major changes in hormone levels and structural changes in the brain. To what extent these changes are associated and to what extent genes or environmental influences drive such an association is not clear. We acquired circulating levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol and testosterone and magnetic resonance images of the brain from 190 twins at age 9 [9.2 (0.11) years; 99 females/91 males]. This protocol was repeated at age 12 [12.1 (0.26) years] in 125 of these children (59 females/66 males). Using voxel-based morphometry, we tested whether circulating hormone levels are associated with grey matter density in boys and girls in a longitudinal, genetically informative design. In girls, changes in FSH level between the age of 9 and 12 positively associated with changes in grey matter density in areas covering the left hippocampus, left (pre)frontal areas, right cerebellum, and left anterior cingulate and precuneus. This association was mainly driven by environmental factors unique to the individual (i.e. the non-shared environment). In 12-year-old girls, a higher level of circulating estradiol levels was associated with lower grey matter density in frontal and parietal areas. This association was driven by environmental factors shared among the members of a twin pair. These findings show a pattern of physical and brain development going hand in hand.

  11. Circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D correlates with serum level of anti-Müllerian hormone in male patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Hamid, F F; Soliman, A F; Lashin, F E S

    2018-02-14

    This study was designed to assess the relationship between serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D in chronic kidney disease male patients. For that, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and anti-Müllerian hormone along with follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, prolactin, total testosterone and estradiol were assayed in 59 patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease and 21 healthy participants. Compared to controls, serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D were significantly decreased in patients with chronic kidney disease. The decreased anti-Müllerian hormone level correlated positively with estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum levels of testosterone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Meanwhile, it was negatively correlated with age and serum levels of urea, creatinine, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone and prolactin. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D and luteinising hormone explained the 65.9% variability of anti-Müllerian hormone in a multiple linear regression model. However, anti-Müllerian hormone in crude correlation was more strongly associated with serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D than luteinising hormone. In conclusion, serum level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D might be a determinant factor of anti-Müllerian hormone level, and their relationship might explain in part the dysfunction of Sertoli cells and the impaired testicular functions in chronic kidney disease male patients. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Assessment of hormonal activity in patients with premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfi Canat

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose Premature ejaculation is considered the most common type of male sexual dysfunction. Hormonal controls of ejaculation have not been exactly elucidated. The aim of our study is to investigate the role of hormonal factors in patients with premature ejaculation. Materials and Methods Sixty-three participants who consulted our outpatient clinics with complaints of premature ejaculation and 39 healthy men as a control group selected from volunteers were included in the study. A total of 102 sexual active men aged between 21 and 76 years were included. Premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires were used to assessment of premature ejaculation. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, total and free testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine and thyroxine were measured. Results Thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels were significantly lower in men with premature ejaculation according to premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (p=0.017, 0.007 and 0.007, respectively. Luteinizing hormone level (OR, 1.293; p=0.014 was found to be an independent risk factor for premature ejaculation. Conclusions Luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are associated with premature ejaculation which was diagnosed by premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires. The relationship between these findings have to be determined by more extensive studies.

  13. Lutein and zeaxanthin: Role as macular pigment and factors that control bioavailability from egg yolks and nanoemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini

    ) raising serum HDL-C without an adverse affect on serum LDL-C and TC:HDL-C ratio. Increased cholesterol, lutein and zeaxanthin intake from the 2 and 4 egg yolk interventions did not decrease the absorption of other carotenoids, such as alpha-cryptoxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, tocopherols and retinol from the diet. An unexpected increase was observed in serum alpha-cryptoxanthin and gamma-tocopherol concentrations during the 4 egg yolk phase, these carotenoids are normally present in low concentrations in serum. Lipoprotein distribution of carotenoids and tocopherols was also not affected by the increased egg consumption. In the pursuit of designing a highly bioavailable matrix for lutein/zeaxanthin, similar to the egg yolk micellar matrix, nanoemulsion formulations of lutein were developed using the MicrofluidizerRTM Processor technology. Lutein nanoemulsions are O/W emulsions of lutein which have particle sizes in the nanometer range (≤ 200 nm). Lutein consumed orally as a nanoemulsion was shown to have significantly greater bioavailability than lutein supplement-pills in pilot-scale clinical studies described here. However, lutein nanoemulsions did not raise plasma lutein concentrations to the same extent as egg yolks in a study performed on BALB/c mice. Formation of mixed micelles in the intestinal lumen during digestion and uptake of these micelles by enterocytes are crucial steps that dictate bioavailability i.e. the proportion of ingested lutein/carotenoid that enters the blood circulation and accumulates in the peripheral tissues such as the macula. In-vitro stomach and intestinal digestion experiments showed lutein nanoemulsions have significantly greater micellarization efficiency compared to egg yolks. Nanoemulsions with a phospholipid (PL) emulsifier containing 80% phosphatidyl choline (PC) or Polysorbate 80 as the emulsifier had better ability to form micelles during the intestinal digestion phase compared to a PL

  14. Effect of cortisol on gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Jae; Habibi, Hamid R; Kil, Gyung-Suk; Jung, Min-Min; Choi, Cheol Young

    2017-04-01

    Hypothalamic peptides, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), play pivotal roles in the control of reproduction and gonadal maturation in fish. In the present study we tested the possibility that stress-mediated reproductive dysfunction in teleost may involve changes in GnRH and GnIH activity. We studied expression of brain GnIH, GnIH-R, seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), as well as circulating levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus. Treatment with cortisol increased GnIH mRNA level, but reduced sbGnRH mRNA and circulating levels of LH and FSH in cinnamon clownfish. Using double immunofluorescence staining, we found expression of both GnIH and GnRH in the diencephalon region of cinnamon clownfish brain. These findings support the hypothesis that cortisol, an indicator of stress, affects reproduction, in part, by increasing GnIH in cinnamon clownfish which contributes to hypothalamic suppression of reproductive function in A. melanopus, a protandrous hermaphroditic fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Macular lutein and zeaxanthin are related to brain lutein and zeaxanthin in primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini; Neuringer, Martha; Snodderly, D. Max; Schalch, Wolfgang; Johnson, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Xanthophyll pigments lutein and zeaxanthin cross the blood-retina barrier to preferentially accumulate in the macular region of the neural retina. There they form macular pigment, protecting the retina from blue light damage and oxidative stress. Lutein and zeaxanthin also accumulate in brain tissue. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between retinal and brain levels of these xanthophylls in non-human primates. Methods Study animals included rhesus monkeys reared on diets devoid of xanthophylls that were subsequently fed pure lutein or pure zeaxanthin (both at 3.9 μmol/kg*d, n=6/group) and normal rhesus monkeys fed a stock diet (0.26 μmol/kg*d lutein and 0.24 μmol/kg*d zeaxanthin, n=5). Retina (4 mm macular punch, 4-8 mm annulus and periphery) and brain tissue (cerebellum, frontal cortex, occipital cortex and pons) from the same animals were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. Results Lutein in the macula and annulus were significantly related to lutein levels in the cerebellum, occipital cortex and pons, both in bivariate analysis and after adjusting for age, sex and n–3 fatty acid status. In the frontal cortex the relationship was marginally significant. Macular zeaxanthin was significantly related to zeaxanthin in the cerebellum and frontal cortex, while the relationship was marginally significant in the occipital cortex and pons in a bivariate model. Discussion An integrated measure of total macular pigment optical density, which can be measured noninvasively, has the potential to be used as a biomarker to assess brain lutein and zeaxanthin status. PMID:22780947

  16. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in t...

  17. Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Seo, Jeong Jin; Nam, Jong Hee

    2002-01-01

    To our knowledge, there is no description of the fat-containing Krukenberg tumor. We report on a case of Krukenberg tumor associated with luteinized fat, which showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR image. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed. Hyperintense portion of the Krukenberg tumor on T1-weighted image showed diminished signal intensity on fat-saturated, T1-weighted images. Krukenberg tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses when fat signal is seen. (orig.)

  18. Does breastfeeding influence future sperm quality and reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, J M; Jensen, M S; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2011-01-01

    was not statistically significantly associated with sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility or morphology, oligozoospermia, follicle-stimulating hormone, inhibin B, luteinizing hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), the calculated level of free testosterone, free oestradiol, the free testosterone...... testosterone nor free oestradiol was different between the two groups. This study shows no association between breastfeeding and sperm quality or reproductive hormones and a strong association is unlikely. A larger study would be needed to detect more subtle effects....

  19. Lutein and atherosclerosis: Belfast versus Toulouse revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A N; Thurnham, D I

    2017-01-01

    In 1995 we reported that mean plasma lutein concentrations in salaried men and women from Toulouse in Southern France were double those in subjects recruited from general practitioner lists in Belfast, Northern Ireland. At the time incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Southern France was among the lowest in Europe and was much higher in Northern Ireland. Plasma lutein is a biomarker of vegetable and fruit intake and evidence suggests that high concentrations are generally associated with better cardiometabolic health. At the time we speculated like others that role of the carotenoids may well have been to prevent oxidation of lipid in the lipoproteins and so reduce the uptake of oxidised lipid by macrophages and its deposition within the intimal layers of the major arteries as plaque. It is now widely accepted that CHD is an inflammatory disease and that macrophages within plaque together with tissue damage contribute to this inflammation. Stimulated macrophages release cytokines to activate the immune system both locally and systemically. Precursor complement proteins in the blood are activated to assist immune cells in phagocytosis and cell repair. Individuals with a history of arteriosclerosis display significantly higher concentrations of complement factors C3 and C3a than subjects without such a history. Metabolism of C3 via the alternate complement pathway can give rise to the membrane attack complex (MAC) which creates a hole or pore in pathogens or host cells, killing the cell. Recent studies in patients with early age related macular disease (AMD) who also exhibit similar elevated concentrations of complement proteins in their blood, showed supplementation with lutein progressively decreased the amount of the MAC and other complement factors in the blood. Lutein was used in the supplementation experiments because it is an important constituent of macular pigment. Thus the healthier cardiometabolic features displayed by the people in Toulouse may

  20. ( Cola Nitida Rubra ) on Reproductive Hormones in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our previous study suggests that aqueous extract of kola nut had effect on reproductive hormones in male rats. This study evaluates the effects of kola nut extract on plasma level of testosterone and luteinizing hormones in male rats. 30 adult male rats were used. These were divided into three groups: group A served as ...

  1. Analytical validation of an ultraviolet-visible procedure for determining lutein concentration and application to lutein-loaded nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jéssica Thaís do Prado; Silva, Anderson Clayton da; Geiss, Julia Maria Tonin; de Araújo, Pedro Henrique Hermes; Becker, Daniela; Bracht, Lívia; Leimann, Fernanda Vitória; Bona, Evandro; Guerra, Gustavo Petri; Gonçalves, Odinei Hess

    2017-09-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid presenting known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Lutein-rich diets have been associated with neurological improvement as well as reduction of the risk of vision loss due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Micro and nanoencapsulation have demonstrated to be effective techniques in protecting lutein against degradation and also in improving its bioavailability. However, actual lutein concentration inside the capsules and encapsulation efficiency are key parameters that must be precisely known when designing in vitro and in vivo tests. In this work an analytical procedure was validated for the determination of the actual lutein content in zein nanoparticles using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Method validation followed the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines which evaluate linearity, detection limit, quantification limit, accuracy and precision. The validated methodology was applied to characterize lutein-loaded nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. hCG-dependent regulation of angiogenic factors in human granulosa lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, B; Rakenius, A; Pietrowski, D; Bettendorf, H; Keck, C; Herr, D

    2006-07-01

    As prerequisite for development and maintenance of many diseases angiogenesis is of particular interest in medicine. Pathologic angiogenesis takes place in chronic arthritis, collagen diseases, arteriosclerosis, retinopathy associated with diabetes, and particularly in cancers. However, angiogenesis as a physiological process regularly occurs in the ovary. After ovulation the corpus luteum is formed by rapid vascularization of initially avascular granulosa lutein cell tissue. This process is regulated by gonadotropic hormones. In order to gain further insights in the regulatory mechanisms of angiogenesis in the ovary, we investigated these mechanisms in cell culture of human granulosa lutein cells. In particular, we determined the expression and production of several angiogenic factors including tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), Leptin, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), meningioma-associated complimentary DNA (Mac25), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and Midkine. In addition, we showed that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has distinct effects on their expression and production. hCG enhances the expression and production of TIMP-1, whereas it downregulates the expression of CTGF and Mac25. Furthermore it decreases the expression of Leptin. Our results provide evidence that hCG determines growth and development of the corpus luteum by mediating angiogenic pathways in human granulosa lutein cells. Hence we describe a further approach to understand the regulation of angiogenesis in the ovary.

  3. Oxidative stability of yogurt with added lutein dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, L D; Xavier, A A O; Mercadante, A Z; Petenate, A J; Jorge, R A; Viotto, W H

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of adding lutein dye on the oxidative stability of yogurt during 35 d of refrigerated storage, in the presence and absence of light. Yogurts manufactured without and with the equivalent of 1.5mg of lutein in 120 g of the final product were characterized for their total carotenoid and riboflavin contents, and the behaviors of both riboflavin and lutein were monitored during storage. A decrease in riboflavin content occurred, with concurrent appearance of its derived-oxidation products in the yogurts without added lutein and exposed to light during storage. The yogurts with added lutein dye showed constant lutein and riboflavin contents throughout storage both for the samples stored under light and for those stored in the dark. Yogurts (120 g) with the addition of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5mg of lutein dye were evaluated for their sensory acceptance, and the statistical analysis showed no differences between the samples for the attributes of aroma and flavor. These results indicate that the added lutein remained stable throughout the storage period and conferred protection for the riboflavin against photooxidation, preserving the quality of the yogurts. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lutein and preterm infants with decreased concentrations of brain carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini; Kuchan, Matthew J; Sen, Sarbattama; Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2014-11-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids that may influence visual and cognitive development. The objective of this study was to provide the first data on distribution of carotenoids in the infant brain and compare concentrations in preterm and term infants. Voluntarily donated brain tissues from 30 infants who died during the first 1.5 years of life were obtained from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Brain and Tissue Bank. Tissues (hippocampus and prefrontal, frontal, auditory, and occipital cortices) were extracted using standard lipid extraction procedures and analyzed using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene were the major carotenoids found in the infant brain tissues. Lutein was the predominant carotenoid accounting for 59% of total carotenoids. Preterm infants (n = 8) had significantly lower concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin in their brain compared with term infants (n = 22) despite similarity in postmenstrual age. Among formula-fed infants, preterm infants (n = 3) had lower concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin compared with term infants (n = 5). Brain lutein concentrations were not different between breast milk-fed (n = 3) and formula-fed (n = 5) term decedents. In contrast, term decedents with measurable brain cryptoxanthin, a carotenoid that is inherently low in formula, had higher brain lutein, suggesting that the type of feeding is an important determinant of brain lutein concentrations. These data reveal preferential accumulation and maintenance of lutein in the infant brain despite underrepresentation in the typical infant diet. Further investigation on the impact of lutein on neural development in preterm infants is warranted.

  5. Is Lutein a Physiologically Important Ligand for Transthyretin in Humans?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids accumulated in the macula of the human retina and are known as the macular pigments (MP). These pigments account for the yellow color of the macula and appear to play an important role in protecting against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The uptake of lutein and zeaxanthin in human eyes is remarkably specific. It is likely that specific transport or binding proteins are involved. The objective is to determine whether transthyretin (TTR) is a transport protein in human plasma and could thus deliver lutein from the blood to the retina. In this study, they used a biosynthetic 13C-lutein tracer and gas chromatography-combustion interfaced-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS) to gain the requisite sensitivity to detect the minute amounts of lutein expected as a physiological ligand for human transthyretin. The biosynthetic 13C-labeled lutein tracer was purified from algae. Healthy women (n = 4) each ingested 1 mg of 13C-labeled lutein daily for 3 days and a blood sample was collected 24 hours after the final dose. Plasma TTR was isolated by retinol-binding protein (RBP)-sepharose affinity chromatography and extracted with chloroform. The 13C/12C ratio in the TTR extract was measured by GCC-IRMS. There was no 13C-lutein enrichment in the pure TTR extract. This result indicated that lutein is not associated with TTR in human plasma after ingestion in physiological amounts. Some hydrophobic compounds with yellow color may bind to human TTR in the plasma. However, this association needs to be further proved by showing specificity. The study provides a new approach for carotenoid-binding protein studies using a stable isotope tracer method combined with the high precision of GCC-IRMS. The mechanism of selective transport, uptake, and accumulation of lutein in human macula remain to be determined.

  6. Alteration of sperm quality and hormone levels by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on airborne particulate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Yu, Liang

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affect male reproductive functions in vivo. Male reproductive parameters included testis weight, sperm counts and motility, circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone. The average body weight, testis weight, and epididymis weight in the exposed group were not significantly lower than that in the control group (p sperm in the PAH-exposed groups were significantly lower than those in the control group. The motility of sperm in the PAH-exposed groups was significantly less than those in the control group. Plasma LH concentrations increased at the end of the exposure period and continued to increase after post-cessation of exposure to PAHs. Testosterone decreased at the end of the exposure period and increased after post-cessation of exposure. However, the follicle-stimulation hormone level remained relatively stable during the study period. The present study showed that PAHs can compromise sperm functions and alter endocrine hormone levels.

  7. Compared with Powdered Lutein, a Lutein Nanoemulsion Increases Plasma and Liver Lutein, Protects against Hepatic Steatosis, and Affects Lipoprotein Metabolism in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Aguilar, David; Norris, Gregory H; DiMarco, Diana M; Missimer, Amanda; Hu, Siqi; Smyth, Joan A; Gannon, Sarah; Blesso, Christopher N; Luo, Yangchao; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2016-10-01

    It is not clear how oil-in-water nanoemulsions of lutein may affect bioavailability and consequently alter lipoprotein metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The bioavailability as well as effects of a powdered lutein (PL) and an oil-in-water lutein nanoemulsion (NANO; particle size: 254.2 nm; polydispersity index: 0.29; and ζ-potential: -65 mV) on metabolic variables in liver, plasma, and adipose tissue in a guinea pig model of hepatic steatosis were evaluated. Twenty-four 2-mo-old male Hartley guinea pigs, weighing 200-300 g (n = 8/group), were fed diets containing 0.25 g cholesterol/100 g to induce liver injury for the duration of the study. They were allocated to control (0 mg lutein), PL (3.5 mg/d), or NANO (3.5 mg/d) groups. After 6 wk, plasma, liver, and adipose tissue were collected for determination of lutein, plasma lipids, tissue cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines. The NANO group had 2-fold higher concentrations of lutein in plasma (P guinea pigs. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Carriers of a VEGFA enhancer polymorphism selectively binding CHOP/DDIT3 are predisposed to increased circulating levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Troelsen, Jesper Thorvald; Balslev-Harder, Marie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) indicate thyroid function, because thyroid hormone negatively controls TSH release. Genetic variants in the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) gene are associated with TSH levels. The aim of this study was to characterise...... levels (p=0.0014). The SNP rs881858 is located in a binding site for CHOP (C/EBP homology protein) and c/EBPβ (ccaat enhancer binding protein β). Reporter-gene analysis showed increased basal enhancer activity of the rs881858 A-allele versus the G-allele (34.5±9.9% (average±SEM), p=0.0012), while co...

  9. Opposite Effects of the Spinach Food Matrix on Lutein Bioaccessibility and Intestinal Uptake Lead to Unchanged Bioavailability Compared to Pure Lutein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margier, Marielle; Buffière, Caroline; Goupy, Pascale; Remond, Didier; Halimi, Charlotte; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Borel, Patrick; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2018-06-01

    Food matrix is generally believed to alter carotenoid bioavailability, but its effect on xanthophylls is usually limited. This study thus aims to decipher the digestion-absorption process of lutein in the presence or not of a food matrix. Lutein transfer to gastric-like lipid droplets or artificial mixed micelles was assessed when lutein was added to test meals either as a pure molecule ((all-E)-lutein) or in canned spinach ((Z) + (all-E)-lutein). The obtained mixed micelles were delivered to Caco-2 cells to evaluate lutein uptake. Finally postprandial plasma lutein responses were compared in minipigs after the two test meals. Lutein transfer to gastric-like lipid droplets and to mixed micelles was higher when lutein was added in spinach than when it was added as pure lutein (+614% and +147%, respectively, p < 0.05). Conversely, lutein uptake was less effective when micellar lutein was from a meal containing spinach than from a meal containing its pure form (-55%, p < 0.05). In minipigs, postprandial lutein response was delayed with spinach but not significantly different after the two test meals. Opposite effects at the micellarization and intestinal cell uptake steps explain the lack of effect of spinach matrix on lutein bioavailability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effects of a 7-day continuous infusion of octreotide on circulating levels of growth factors and binding proteins in growth hormone (GH)-treated GH-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Møller, Jens; Fisker, Sanne

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In patients with acromegaly, clinical improvement has been reported after octreotide (OCT) treatment, even in cases of only a moderate suppression of growth hormone (GH) levels. In rats, OCT suppresses IGF-I mRNA expression and generation of serum and tissue IGF-I levels. A direct effect...

  11. Role of calcium in gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from the bovine pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kile, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that GnRH acts to release LH by increasing calcium uptake by gonadotroph which in turn stimulates calcium-calmodulin activity and results in LH release from bovine pituitary cells as it does in the rat. Pituitary glands of calves (4-10 months of age) were enzymatically dispersed (0.2% collagenase) and grown for 5 days to confluency in multiwell plates (3 x 10 5 /well). Cells treated with GnRH Ca ++ ionophore A23187, and ouabain all produced significant releases of LH release in a pronounced all or none fashion, while thorough washing of the cells with 0.5 mM EGTA in Ca ++ -free media prevented the action of GnRH. GnRH caused a rapid efflux of 45 Ca ++ . Both GnRH-stimulated 45 Ca efflux and LH release could be partially blocked by verapamil GnRH-induced LH release could also be blocked by nifedipine and tetrodotoxin, although these agents did not affect 45 Ca efflux. The calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium and W7 were found to block GnRH induced LH release, as well as LH release induced by theophylline, KC PGE 2 and estradiol. These data indicated that: (1) calcium is required for GnRH action, but extracellular Ca ++ does not regulate LH release; (2) GnRH elevates intracellular Ca ++ by opening both voltage sensitive and receptor mediated Ca ++ channels; (3) activation of calmodulin is one mechanism involved in GnRH-induced LH release

  12. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and its analogs for contraception in women: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thau, R B

    1984-02-01

    In animals, LHRH agonists have multiple sites of action including the pituitary, the gonads, and the reproductive tract. In humans, the major antifertility action of this class of peptides is believed to be mediated via the pituitary. Studies in women have indicated that potent LHRH agonists can block ovulation when administered once daily. In the volunteers who have used these agents no serious side effects were observed, although some women experienced irregular bleeding or amenorrhea. It is anticipated that formal clinical trials could be conducted in the near future to determine the efficacy of continuous LHRH agonist administration. Early attempts to use an LHRH agonist to produce luteal insufficiency, luteolysis, or interruption of pregnancy have either been unsuccessful or the results are still too preliminary to ascertain whether these approaches warrant further trials. LHRH antagonists are believed to act by inhibiting the action of LHRH on the pituitary. Although some of these peptides are known to be active in women, very large doses have been required. Recently several investigators have produced LHRH antagonists with increased potency. In the near future, it should be possible to determine whether these peptides should be considered as potential contraceptives in men or in women.

  13. Role of lutein and zeaxanthin in visual and cognitive function throughout the lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between lutein and zeaxanthin and visual and cognitive health throughout the lifespan is compelling. There is a variety of evidence to support a role for lutein and zeaxanthin in vision. Lutein's role in cognition has only recently been considered. Lutein and its isomer, zeaxanthin,...

  14. plasma luteinizing horiione leveis in ewes failing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean plasrm LH bvels duing livc consecutive. &yr, in the various .... ewes in continuous contact with rams (least square ana- ... (Nankin & Troen, 1972; Root, De-Cherney, Russ, Duckett, ... Such fluctuations in hormone levels can have an.

  15. High-performance liquid chromatography of human glycoprotein hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlenov, M A; Kandyba, E I; Nagornaya, L V; Orlova, I L; Volgin, Y V

    1993-02-12

    The chromatographic behavior of the glycoprotein hormones from human pituitary glands and of placental origin [thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin (CG)] was studied. It was shown that hydrophobic interaction chromatography on a microparticulate packing and anion-exchange HPLC can be applied for the purification of these hormones. Reversed-phase HPLC on wide-pore C4-bonded silica at neutral pH can be applied for the determination of the above hormones and for the isolation of pure CG and its subunits.

  16. Why lutein is important for the eye and the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that accumulate in the macula. The macula is a yellow spot near the center of the retina that is responsible of high resolution vision. Macular pigment acts as a natural blue light filter and protects the eye from damage. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) increases with lutein administration and is related to visual function and to the prevention of age-related macular degeneration. MOPD can be measured non-invasively and has been related to better c...

  17. Lutein as protective agent against neonatal oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Buonocore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals (FR are important for a correct development of neonatal organs and tissues. However, newborn and fetus have profoundly impaired antioxidant system. In these subjects, oxidative stress (OS may be detrimental by activating deleterious cellular processes. Decreasing FR and restoring oxidative imbalance certainly appear to be beneficial in perinatal period. Among the therapeutic antioxidant approaches in newborns, lutein, a compound belonging to the xanthophyll family of carotenoids, is one of the emerging strategies. Humans cannot synthesize lutein, hence the intake primarily depends on diet. In the neonatal period, fresh, non-processed human milk is the main dietary source of lutein, while infant formula is lacking it. Lutein has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Lutein supplementation in human newborns during the first days of life has been demonstrated to decrease plasma biomarkers of OS and increase antioxidant capacities. Numerous experimental study have demonstrated that lutein effectively neutralizes oxidants and modulates inflammatory processes, showing particular protective effects on macula and photoreceptors against phototoxicity and oxidative injury. Only few clinical studies evaluated the effectiveness of lutein in reducing preterm and term infant morbidity, reporting no definitive results. The challenge for the future is to better clarify the timing, the optimal dose and the duration of lutein intervention in perinatal period and to verify its impact on infants’ health. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  18. Why lutein is important for the eye and the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramirez Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that accumulate in the macula. The macula is a yellow spot near the center of the retina that is responsible of high resolution vision. Macular pigment acts as a natural blue light filter and protects the eye from damage. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD increases with lutein administration and is related to visual function and to the prevention of age-related macular degeneration. MOPD can be measured non-invasively and has been related to better cognitive performance. Moreover, compositional analyses of centenarian brains have shown that lutein is the main carotenoid in the brain although not in plasma, indicating a preferential accumulation in neural tissues, and that carotenoids status is correlated with some functional outcomes. Carotenoids are present in human milk with higher concentration in colostrum than in transitional and mature milk. Formula fed-infants have less plasma lutein concentration than breast fed infants. Analyses of brain from infants who died during the first year of life showed that lutein is also the predominant carotenoid of brain. Studies in non-human primates revealed that carotenoids are determinant in the formation of the retinal epithelia. In vitro studies showed that lutein stimulates the differentiation of human stem cells to neural progenitor cells. All this findings together, mostly the presence of lutein in breast milk, plasma concentration in breast-fed infants vs. formula fed infants, preferential accumulation in the brain and evidences of influence on the retina and the functionality of the brain signal the importance of the role of lutein and zeaxanthin on visual maturation and brain development.

  19. Acute regulation of circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) molecular forms by calcium: utility of PTH fragments/PTH(1-84) ratios derived from three generations of PTH assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Pierre; Räkel, Agnès; Brossard, Jean-Hugues; Rousseau, Louise; Albert, Caroline; Cantor, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of circulating PTH peaks revealed by PTH assays after HPLC separation constitutes the best way to study the behavior of PTH molecular forms, but it is also impractical. The objective of the study was to investigate the regulation of circulating PTH molecular forms by calcium through the use of PTH fragments/PTH (1-84) ratios derived from PTH assays with different specificities before and after HPLC separation of circulating PTH. CaCl2 and Na citrate were infused in eight volunteers. PTH was measured in serum and HPLC fractions at different calcium concentrations in PTH assays reacting with regions 1-2 (CA), 12-18 (T), and 65-69 (C) of the PTH structure. From hypo- to hypercalcemia, the C/CA ratio had the highest range (1.92 to 9.75; P < 0.001), and the C/T ratio had a higher range (1.69 to 6.11; P < 0.01) than the T/CA ratio (1.15 to 1.86). Human (h) PTH (1-84) represented 32.7 and 4.3% of circulating PTH in hypo- and hypercalcemic HPLC profiles, respectively. These numbers were 5 and 0.9% for amino-terminal (N)-PTH, an amino-terminal form of PTH distinct from hPTH (1-84), 7.3 and 6.8% for non-(1-84) PTH or large C-PTH fragments with a partially preserved N structure, and 54.9 and 88.1% for C-PTH fragments missing a N structure. The HPLC C-PTH fragments to hPTH (1-84) ratio had the most extensive range (1.67 to 20.58). Despite their quantitative differences, all ratios identified identical behavior of PTH fragments relative to PTH (1-84). PTH assay ratios are an adequate tool to investigate the modulation of PTH molecular forms, even if all PTH assays show some undesirable cross-reactivity with certain circulating forms of PTH.

  20. Lutein Inhibits the Migration of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells via Cytosolic and Mitochondrial Akt Pathways (Lutein Inhibits RPE Cells Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chieh Su

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During the course of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells will de-differentiate, proliferate, and migrate onto the surfaces of the sensory retina. Several studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF can induce migration of RPE cells via an Akt-related pathway. In this study, the effect of lutein on PDGF-BB-induced RPE cells migration was examined using transwell migration assays and Western blot analyses. We found that both phosphorylation of Akt and mitochondrial translocation of Akt in RPE cells induced by PDGF-BB stimulation were suppressed by lutein. Furthermore, the increased migration observed in RPE cells with overexpressed mitochondrial Akt could also be suppressed by lutein. Our results demonstrate that lutein can inhibit PDGF-BB induced RPE cells migration through the inhibition of both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Akt activation.

  1. Associations between urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and reproductive hormones in fertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, J; Jørgensen, N; Andersson, A-M

    2010-01-01

    metabolites were measured in urine and serum samples were analysed for reproductive hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, inhibin B and oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Pearson correlations and parametric tests were used for unadjusted analyses...... inversely correlated with the urinary concentrations of four DEHP metabolites. After adjustment by appropriate covariates, there was no longer an association between urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations and total testosterone levels; however, FAI was significantly associated with the urinary...

  2. Associations between urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and reproductive hormones in fertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, J; Jørgensen, N; Andersson, A-M

    2011-01-01

    metabolites were measured in urine and serum samples were analysed for reproductive hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, inhibin B and oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Pearson correlations and parametric tests were used for unadjusted analyses...... inversely correlated with the urinary concentrations of four DEHP metabolites. After adjustment by appropriate covariates, there was no longer an association between urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations and total testosterone levels; however, FAI was significantly associated with the urinary...

  3. Circulating basal anti-Müllerian hormone levels as predictor of ovarian response in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Luciano G; Gelbaya, Tarek A; Wilkinson, Hannah; Roberts, Stephen A; Yates, Allen; Pemberton, Phil; Laing, Ian

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of basal anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measurements compared with other available determinants, apart from chronologic age, in the prediction of ovarian response to gonadotrophin stimulation. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary referral center for reproductive medicine and an IVF unit. Women undergoing their first cycle of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Basal levels of FSH and AMH as well as antral follicle count (AFC) were measured in 165 subjects. All patients were followed prospectively and their cycle outcomes recorded. Predictive value of FSH, AMH, and AFC for extremes of ovarian response to stimulation. Out of the 165 women, 134 were defined as normal responders, 15 as poor responders, and 16 as high responders. Subjects in the poor response group were significantly older then those in the other two groups. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels and AFC were markedly raised in the high responders and decreased in the poor responders. Compared with FSH and AFC, AMH performed better in the prediction of excessive response to ovarian stimulation-AMH area under receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC(AUC)) 0.81, FSH ROC(AUC) 0.66, AFC ROC(AUC) 0.69. For poor response, AMH (ROC(AUC) 0.88) was a significantly better predictor than FSH (ROC(AUC) 0.63) but not AFC (ROC(AUC) 0.81). AMH prediction of ovarian response was independent of age and PCOS. Anti-Müllerian hormone cutoffs of >3.75 ng/mL and stimulation with exogenous gonadotrophins. Overall, this biomarker is superior to basal FSH and AFC, and has the potential to be incorporated in to work-up protocols to predict patient's ovarian response to treatment and to individualize strategies aiming at reducing the cancellation rate and the iatrogenic complications of COH.

  4. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor correlated positively with expression of oestrogen-receptor-alpha. CONCLUSIONS: The results fit the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in altered fat distribution and insulin sensitivity of male patients with HIV-lipodystrophy. The effect of oestradiol...... patients, correlated positively with both plasma oestradiol and testosterone (n = 31). Glycerol concentration during clamp (a marker of lipolysis) correlated inversely with expression of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor, ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, and limb fat, respectively. Expression...

  5. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón; Jorge E Chavarro; Jaime Mendiola; Manuela Roca; Cigdem Tanrikut; Jesús Vioque; Niels Jørgensen; Alberto M Torres-Cantero

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may inlfuence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this ifeld has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross‑sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega‑6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (Ptrend=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The intake of omega‑3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega‑6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may inlfuence testicular function.

  6. Neurokinin B and serum albumin limit copper binding to mammalian gonadotropin releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Ahmad Samir; Tran, Kevin K; Jones, Christopher E

    2018-02-26

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) triggers secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland. GnRH is able to bind copper, and both in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that the copper-GnRH complex is more potent at triggering gonadotropin release than GnRH alone. However, it remains unclear whether copper-GnRH is the active species in vivo. To explore this we have estimated the GnRH-copper affinity and have examined whether GnRH remains copper-bound in the presence of serum albumin and the neuropeptide neurokinin B, both copper-binding proteins that GnRH will encounter in vivo. We show that GnRH has a copper dissociation constant of ∼0.9 × 10 -9  M, however serum albumin and neurokinin B can extract metal from the copper-GnRH complex. It is therefore unlikely that a copper-GnRH complex will survive transit through the pituitary portal circulation and that any effect of copper must occur outside the bloodstream in the absence of neurokinin B. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function.

  8. Relationship Between Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Free Thyroxine, and Free Triiodothyronine Concentrations and 9-Year Mortality in Euthyroid Elderly Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresini, Graziano; Marina, Michela; Lauretani, Fulvio; Maggio, Marcello; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ceda, Gian P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    To determine the association between plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) levels and all-cause mortality in older adults who had levels of all three hormones in the normal range. Longitudinal. Community-based. Euthyroid Invecchiare in Chianti study participants aged 65 and older (N = 815). Plasma TSH, FT3, and FT4 levels were predictors, and 9-year all-cause mortality was the outcome. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders were used to examine the relationship between TSH, FT3, and FT4 quartiles and all-cause mortality over 9 years of follow-up. During follow-up (mean person-years 8,643.7, range 35.4-16,985.0), 181 deaths occurred (22.2%). Participants with TSH in the lowest quartile had higher mortality than the rest of the population. After adjusting for multiple confounders, participants with TSH in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio = 2.22, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-4.22) had significantly higher all-cause mortality than those with TSH in the highest quartile. Neither FT3 nor FT4 was associated with mortality. In elderly euthyroid subjects, normal-low TSH is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. A FEEDBACK MODEL FOR TESTICULAR-PITUITARY AXIS HORMONE KINETICS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE REGULATION OF THE PROSTATE IN ADULT MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The testicular-hypothalamic-pituitary axis regulates male reproductive system functions. A model describing the kinetics and dynamics of testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and luteinizing hormone (LH) was developed based on a model by Barton and Anderson (1997). The mode...

  10. FGF21, a liver hormone that inhibits alcohol intake in mice, increases in human circulation after acute alcohol ingestion and sustained binge drinking at Oktoberfest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Susanna; Andersen, Emilie S; Dalgaard, Niels B

    2018-01-01

    . KLB encodes β-klotho, co-receptor for the liver-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). In mice, FGF21 reduces alcohol intake, and human Fgf21 variants are enriched among heavy drinkers. Thus, the liver may limit alcohol consumption by secreting FGF21. However, whether full-length, active...... plasma FGF21 (FGF21 (1-181)) levels in humans increase acutely or sub-chronically in response to alcohol ingestion is uncertain. METHODS: We recruited 10 healthy, fasted male subjects to receive an oral water or alcohol bolus with concurrent blood sampling for FGF21 (1-181) measurement in plasma...... correlated fasting FGF21 (1-181) levels in 49 healthy, non-alcoholic subjects of mixed sex with self-reports of alcohol-related behaviors, emotional responses, and problems. Finally, we characterized the effect of recombinant human FGF21 injection on ad libitum alcohol intake in mice. RESULTS: We show...

  11. IL-1β Upregulates StAR and Progesterone Production Through the ERK1/2- and p38-Mediated CREB Signaling Pathways in Human Granulosa-Lutein Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xuan; Zhu, Qinling; He, Yaqiong; Wang, Yuan; Lu, Yao; Li, Xiaoxue; Qi, Jia; Wu, Hasiximuke; Sun, Yun

    2017-10-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) may be involved in several ovulation-associated events, such as protease synthesis, prostaglandin production, and steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. However, the exact effect of IL-1β on progesterone synthesis in granulosa cells and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. By using cultured granulosa-lutein cells collected from women undergoing in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, we found that IL-1β upregulated steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone synthesis in granulosa-lutein cells, which was comparable with luteinizing hormone effect and could be abolished by an IL-1 receptor antagonist. Moreover, IL-1β activated the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB), and knockdown of CREB attenuated the induction of StAR expression and progesterone synthesis by IL-1β in granulosa-lutein cells. Furthermore, IL-1β activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 pathways and inhibition of the ERK1/2 and p38 pathways attenuated the IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of CREB, StAR expression, and progesterone synthesis in granulosa-lutein cells. In conclusion, IL-1β could upregulate StAR expression and stimulate progesterone biosynthesis through increase in CREB phosphorylation via activating the ERK1/2 and p38 pathways in human granulosa-lutein cells. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  12. Effect of lutein intervention on visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of lutein intervention on visual function of patients with early age-related macular degeneration(AMD. METHODS: Totally 200 early AMD patients were divided into lutein intervention group(20mg/dand placebo group by a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trail. Questionnaire investigation, serum lutein concentration and visual function were conducted at baseline, 12, 24, 36 and 48wk respectively. RESULTS: The serum lutein concentration in lutein intervention group was higher than the baseline(PPPPP>0.05. CONCLUSION: Lutein intervention can improve the visual function of patients with early AMD.

  13. Effects of interleukin-8 on estradiol and progesterone production by bovine granulosa cells from large follicles and progesterone production by luteinizing granulosa cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Kaji, Ayami; Murayama, Chiaki; Magata, Fumie; Shirasuna, Koumei; Wakamiya, Kaori; Okuda, Kiyoshi; Miyamoto, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a chemoattractant involved in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils and is associated with the ovulate process. We examined the possible role of IL-8 in steroid production by bovine granulosa cells before and after ovulation. The concentration of IL-8 in the follicular fluid of estrogen-active dominant (EAD) and pre-ovulatory follicles (POF) was higher than that of small follicles (SF). CXCR1 mRNA expression was higher in the granulosa cells of EAD and POF than that of SF. In contrast, CXCR2 mRNA expression was lower in granulosa cells of EAD and POF than in SF. IL-8 inhibited estradiol (E2) production in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-treated granulosa cells at 48 h of culture. IL-8 also suppressed CYP19A1 mRNA expression in FSH-treated granulosa cells. IL-8 stimulated progesterone (P4) production in luteinizing hormone (LH)-treated granulosa cells at 48 h of culture. Although IL-8 did not alter the expression of genes associated with P4 production, it induced StAR protein expression in LH-treated granulosa cells. The expression of CXCR1 mRNA in corpus luteum (CL) did not change during the luteal phase. In contrast, the expression of CXCR2 mRNA in middle CL was significantly higher than in early and regression CL during the luteal phase. In luteinizing granulosa cells, an in vitro model of granulosa cell luteinization, CXCR2 mRNA expression was downregulated, whereas CXCR1 mRNA expression was unchanged. IL-8 also stimulated P4 production in luteinizing granulosa cells. These data provide evidence that IL-8 functions not only as a chemokine, but also act as a regulator of steroid synthesis in granulosa cells to promote luteinization after ovulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Complexes of lutein with bovine and caprine caseins and their impact on lutein chemical stability in emulsion systems: Effect of arabinogalactan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Gutierrez, A; Attaie, R; Núñez de González, M T; Jung, Y; Woldesenbet, S; Marquez, S A

    2018-01-01

    Lutein is an important xanthophyll carotenoid with many benefits to human health. Factors affecting the application of lutein as a functional ingredient in low-fat dairy-like beverages (pH 6.0-7.0) are not well understood. The interactions of bovine and caprine caseins with hydrophobic lutein were studied using UV/visible spectroscopy as well as fluorescence. Our studies confirmed that the aqueous solubility of lutein is improved after binding with bovine and caprine caseins. The rates of lutein solubilization by the binding to bovine and caprine caseins were as follows: caprine α S1 -II-casein 34%, caprine α S1 -I-casein 10%, and bovine casein 7% at 100 μM lutein. Fluorescence of the protein was quenched on binding supporting complex formation. The fluorescence experiments showed that the binding involves tryptophan residues and some nonspecific interactions. Scatchard plots of lutein binding to the caseins demonstrated competitive binding between the caseins and their sites of interaction with lutein. Competition experiments suggest that caprine α S1 -II casein will bind a larger number of lutein molecules with higher affinity than other caseins. The chemical stability of lutein was largely dependent on casein type and significant increases occurred in the chemical stability of lutein with the following pattern: caprine α S1 -II-casein > caprine α S1 -I-casein > bovine casein. Addition of arabinogalactan to lutein-enriched emulsions increases the chemical stability of lutein-casein complexes during storage under accelerated photo-oxidation conditions at 25°C. Therefore, caprine α S1 -II-casein alone and in combination with arabinogalactan can have important applications in the beverage industry as carrier of this xanthophyll carotenoid (lutein). Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  16. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Use of hormone receptors in scintigraphy of the ovaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairento, A.L.; Karonen, S.L.; Adlercreutz, H.

    1981-01-01

    Based on the mechanism of hormone receptors, luteinizing hormone (LH) labelled with 123-iodine was used as tracer in scintigraphy of rabbit ovaries. The ovaries were visualized in static pictures 6-15 min after injection except in the case where the rabbit was pre-injected with 10 μg of cold LH. 3.1% of the injected activity was found in the ovaries 14 h after injection. (orig.) [de

  18. Lutein and Zeaxanthin Isomers in Eye Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Julie

    2016-07-17

    Current evidence suggests lutein and its isomers play important roles in ocular development in utero and throughout the life span, in vision performance in young and later adulthood, and in lowering risk for the development of common age-related eye diseases in older age. These xanthophyll (oxygen-containing) carotenoids are found in a wide variety of vegetables and fruits, and they are present in especially high concentrations in leafy green vegetables. Additionally, egg yolks and human milk appear to be bioavailable sources. The prevalence of lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin in supplements is increasing. Setting optimal and safe ranges of intake requires additional research, particularly in pregnant and lactating women. Accumulating evidence about variable interindividual response to dietary intake of these carotenoids, based on genetic or metabolic influences, suggests that there may be subgroups that benefit from higher levels of intake and/or alternate strategies to improve lutein and zeaxanthin status.

  19. Beverages formulated with whey protein and added lutein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Cássia Gomes Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop and characterize beverages formulated with whey protein and added lutein. Beverages formulated with 0.5 (F1, 2.0 (F2, 4.0 (F3 and 6.0% w/v (F4 whey protein were physicochemically and microbiologically characterized, and sensory evaluated. The physicochemical analyses indicated that the protein content significantly changed (P0.05 with increased protein content. The F2 formulation showed the highest sensory acceptance. Beverages offer a promising alternative to whey use and enhance the value of the product by the addition of lutein.

  20. Abnormal sex chromosome constitution and longitudinal growth: serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone in 109 males with 47,XXY, 47,XYY, or sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY)-positive 46,XX karyotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Juul, A.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abnormal chromosome constitution...... and elevated LH levels after puberty, whereas the sex hormone secretion of the 47,XYY boys remained normal. CONCLUSION: We found accelerated growth in early childhood in boys with 47,XXY and 47,XYY karyotypes, whereas 46,XX-males were shorter than controls. These abnormal growth patterns were not reflected...

  1. Abnormal sex chromosome constitution and longitudinal growth: serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone in 109 males with 47,XXY, 47,XYY, or sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY)-positive 46,XX karyotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Juul, A.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abnormal chromosome constitution for longitu......CONTEXT: Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abnormal chromosome constitution...... and sitting height, serum levels of reproductive hormones, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 were measured. RESULTS: In boys with 47,XXY and 47,XYY karyotypes, growth was accelerated already in childhood, compared with healthy boys. 46,XX-males were significantly shorter than healthy boys but matched the stature of healthy...... and elevated LH levels after puberty, whereas the sex hormone secretion of the 47,XYY boys remained normal. CONCLUSION: We found accelerated growth in early childhood in boys with 47,XXY and 47,XYY karyotypes, whereas 46,XX-males were shorter than controls. These abnormal growth patterns were not reflected...

  2. Improved oral bioavailability for lutein by nanocrystal technology: formulation development, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Daoxiao; Ma, Yanni; Cao, Guoyu; Wang, Jianhuan; Zhang, Xia; Feng, Jun; Wang, Wenping

    2018-08-01

    Lutein is a kind of natural carotenoids possessing many pharmacological effects. The application of lutein was limited mainly due to its low oral bioavailability caused by poor aqueous solubility. Nanocrystal formulation of lutein was developed to improve the oral bioavailability in this study. The nanosuspension was prepared by the anti-solvent precipitation-ultrasonication method and optimized by Box-Behnken design, followed by freeze-drying to obtain lutein nanocrystals. The nanocrystals were characterized on their physical properties, in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption performance. Lutein nanocrystals showed as tiny spheres with an average particle size of 110.7 nm. The result of diffractograms indicated that the percent crystallinity of lutein was 89.4% in coarse powder and then declined in nanocrystal formulation. The saturated solubility of lutein in water increased from 7.3 μg/ml for coarse powder up to 215.7 μg/ml for lutein nanocrystals. The dissolution rate of lutein nanocrystals was significantly higher than that of coarse powder or the physical mixture. The C max and AUC 0-24 h of lutein nanocrystals after oral administration in rats was 3.24 and 2.28 times higher than those of lutein suspension, respectively. These results indicated that the nanocrystal formulation could significantly enhance the dissolution and absorption of lutein and might be a promising approach for improving its oral bioavailability.

  3. Comparison of the diagnostic values of circulating steroid hormones, VEGF-A, PIGF, and ADAM12 in women with ectopic pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Shien

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several peripheral proteins that might be useful for detecting the presence of ectopic pregnancy (EP have been evaluated, but none have been proven entirely useful in the clinic. We investigated the presence and the possible changes in circulating molecules that distinguish between normal intrauterine pregnancy (IUP and tubal ectopic pregnancy. Methods Non-pregnant women during the menstrual cycle, women with IUP, and women with tubal EP after informed consent. Serum levels of 17β-estradiol (E2, progesterone (P4, testosterone (T, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A, placental growth factor (PIGF, and a distintegrin and metalloprotease protein 12 (ADAM12 were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic discrimination of EP and gestational age-matched IUP. Results E2, P4, PIGF, and ADAM12 levels increased and β-hCG decreased throughout IUP. E2 and VEGF-A levels were significantly different between women with tubal EP and IUP. However, using a serum β-hCG cut-off of less than 1000 mIU/mL, P4 was significantly lower in women with tubal EP compared to IUP. Although E2 was inversely correlated with VEGF-A in women in the early stages of IUP, E2 was not correlated with VEGF-A in women with EP prior to tubal surgery. There were no significant differences in either PIGF or ADAM12 alone between women with tubal EP or IUP. Although no significant correlations were seen between E2 and PIGF or P4 and ADAM12 in women in the early stages of IUP, E2 was positively correlated with PIGF and P4 was positively correlated with ADAM12 in women with EP prior to tubal surgery. Our studies defined associations but not causality. Conclusions Individual measurements of serum E2 or VEGF-A levels are strongly related to early pregnancy outcomes for women with IUP and EP, and pregnancy-associated E2 and VEGF-A levels provide diagnostic accuracy for the

  4. Influence of a chinese traditional medicine recipes for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation on levels of serum with interleukin-6 and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism in female rats after ovariectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhixi; Liu Qingsi; Wei Hewei; Zhuang Hong; Chen Jinyan; Li Zhiqiang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of a Chinese traditional medicine recipe for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation (CRRK) in female rats on serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism after ovariectomy. Methods: Ninety female SD rats were divided into 6 groups: control, model (ovariectomy only) treated with nyl-estriol, treated with CRRK (high, moderate and low doses). CRRK (Gu Kang) was administered at the three dose levels for 90 days. Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the serum levels of estradiol (E 2 ), IL-6, calcitonin (CT) and BGP. The weight and histo-morphology of the uterus of the rats sacrificed after 90 days of treatment was also studied. Results: Compared with the control group, the levels of IL-6 in the model group were significantly higher (P 2 and CT, BGP were significantly lower (P 2 and BGP were significantly higher (P < 0.05-0.001). The weight of uterus was also increased (P < 0.05). The composite recipe proved to have definite effects on normalizing the uterine histomorphology. Conclusion: The results had showed that the composite recipe had good effects on prevention and therapy of osteoporosis after ovariectomy in rats

  5. Leptin administration to overweight and obese subjects for 6 months increases free leptin concentrations but does not alter circulating hormones of the thyroid and IGF axes during weight loss induced by a mild hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Greeshma K; Matarese, Giuseppe; Magkos, Faidon; Moon, Hyun-Seuk; Liu, Xiaowen; Brennan, Aoife M; Mylvaganam, Geetha; Sykoutri, Despina; Depaoli, Alex M; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-08-01

    Short-term energy deprivation reduces leptin concentrations and alters the levels of circulating hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral axis in lean subjects. Whether the reduction in leptin concentration during long-term weight loss in obese individuals is linked to the same neuroendocrine changes seen in lean, leptin-sensitive subjects remains to be fully clarified. In this study, 24 overweight and obese adults (16 women and eight men; body mass index (BMI): 27.5-38.0 kg/m(2)) were prescribed a hypocaloric diet (-500 kcal/day) and were randomized to receive recombinant methionyl leptin (n=18, metreleptin, 10 mg/day self-injected s.c.) or placebo (n=6, same volume and time as metreleptin) for 6 months. Metreleptin administration did not affect weight loss beyond that induced by hypocaloric diet alone (P for interaction=0.341) but increased the serum concentrations of total leptin by six- to eight-fold (Phypocaloric diet in overweight and obese subjects.

  6. Assessment of the hormonal state of medical personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakov, V.; Maleeva, A.; Mikhaylov, M.

    1982-01-01

    Testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations are assayed in 14 men against the background of occupational exposure of medical personnel to small - dose radiations. Low testosterone values, and elevated LH and FSH levels are established. A preliminary conclusion is made according to which in occupationally exposed men in the field of medicine there is a disturbance of hormonal secretion along the hypophysis - target gland axis. Twenty normal men of comparable age are studied for control purpose. (author)

  7. Thyrotropic Activity of Various Adenohypophyseal Hormones of the Bullfrog(Endocrinology)

    OpenAIRE

    MAKOTO, SAKAI; YOICHI, HANAOKA; SHIGEYASU, TANAKA; HIROAKI, HAYASHI; SAKAE, KIKUYAMA; Department of Biology, School of Education, Waseda University; Institute of Endocrinology, Gunma University; Institute of Endocrinology, Gunma University; Institute of Endocrinology, Gunma University; Department of Biology, School of Education, Waseda University

    1991-01-01

    The effects of adenohypophyseal hormones of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) origin on the in vitro release of thyroxine (T_4) from the thyroid of prometamorphic larvae were studied. The bullfrog thyrotropin (TSH) preparation was 4 times as potent as bovine TSH in this model. Bullfrog luteinizing hormones (LHS) (I-IV) and follicle-stimulating hormones (FSHS) (I-IV), which were classified according to their isoelectric points, were tested for their thyrotropic activity and demons-trated about 1...

  8. Biocompatible lutein-polymer-lipid nanocapsules: Acute and subacute toxicity and bioavailability in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Hindupur, Ravi; Vallikannan, Baskaran, E-mail: baskaranv@cftri.res.in

    2016-12-01

    Lutein-poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-phospholipid (PL) nanocapsules were prepared (henceforth referred as lutein nanocapsules) and studied for acute, subacute oral toxicity and bioavailability of lutein in mice. Prior to examining the safety of lutein nanocapsules, particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology and interaction between lutein, PLGA and PL were studied. In acute study, mice were gavaged with a single dose of lutein nanocapsules at 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight (BW) and examined for 2 weeks, while in subacute study, daily mice were gavaged with a dose of 1 and 10 mg/kg BW for 4 weeks. Results revealed that mean size and zeta value of lutein nanocapsules were 140 nm and − 44 mV, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity studies did not show any mortality or treatment related adverse effect in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body and organ weights. No toxicity related findings were observed in hematology, histopathology and other blood and tissue clinical chemistry parameters. In subacute study, no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of lutein nanocapsules was found to be at a dose of 10 mg/kg BW. Feeding lutein nanocapsules resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) increase in lutein level in plasma and tissue compared to the control group. Lutein nanocapsules did not cause toxicity in mice. However, human trials are warranted. - Highlights: • Acute and subacute toxicity studies of lutein-PLGA-PL showed no toxicity. • PLGA-PL nanocapsules were safe carriers for oral delivery of lutein. • Oral gavage of lutein-PLGA-PL nanocapsule improves plasma lutein levels.

  9. Occurrence of postmenopausal-like acidic follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) isoforms precedes the rise of FSH before menopause.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, C.M.G.; Span, P.N.; Smeenk, J.M.J.; Hanssen, R.G.; Braat, D.D.M.; Sweep, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the glycoform distribution patterns of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) during the menstrual cycle at different ages and FSH levels, after menopause, and with premature ovarian failure (POF). DESIGN: Controlled clinical study. SETTING: Healthy

  10. Increased Progesterone/Estradiol Ratio on the Day of hCG Administration Adversely Affects Success of In Vitro Fertilization–Embryo Transfer in Patients Stimulated with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist and Recombinant Follicle-stimulating Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Che Ou

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: Premature luteinization, defined as late follicular P/E2 ratio of > 1 in long GnRHa cycles with rFSH stimulation, adversely affected ovarian responses and clinical outcomes. It seems unrelated to preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH elevation and LH/hCG content of gonadotropins and could be associated with poor ovarian response and the presence of dysmature follicles. [Taiwan J Obstet Cynecol 2008;47(2:1 68-1 74

  11. Dietary Components Affect the Plasma and Tissue Levels of Lutein in Aged Rats with Lutein Deficiency--A Repeated Gavage and Dietary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshappa, Mamatha Bangera; Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Bhatiwada, Nidhi; Talahalli, Ramprasad Ravichandra; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the influence of selected dietary components on plasma and tissue response of repeated micellar and dietary lutein in aged rats with lutein deficiency. In repeated (16 d) gavage study, micellar lutein was co-ingested with either phosphatidylcholine (PC), lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), β-carotene, dietary fiber or vegetable fat (3% soybean oil). In dietary study, rats were fed (4 wk) semi-synthetic diet either with lutein + PC, lutein + dietary fiber or B. alba (lutein source) + PC. The post-prandial plasma and tissue response of lutein was measured by HPLC. Results showed that micellar fat, PC and lysoPC significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the lutein levels in plasma (31.1%, 26.8%, and 34.9%), liver (27.4%, 29.5%, and 8.6%), and eyes (63.5%, 90.2%, and 86%) compared to the control group (group gavaged micelles with no dietary components studied). Similarly, dietary study showed an enhanced plasma, liver, and eye lutein levels by 44.8%, 24.1%, and 42.0% (lutein + PC group) and 51.7%, 39.8%, and 31.7% (B.alba + PC group), respectively compared to control. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver of both the studies were also affected compared to control. Result reveals, that PC enhance the intestinal absorption of both micellar and dietary lutein which is either in free or bound form with food matrices in aged rats with lutein deficiency. Hence, PC at a concentration used in this study can be considered to improve the lutein bioavailability in lutein deficiency. Lutein and zeaxanthin are macular pigments acquired mostly from greens, that play an significant role in protecting vision from Age related macular degeneration (AMD). However, their biological availability is poor and affected by dietary components. This study demonstrates the positive influence of dietary PC and lyso PC in improving intestinal uptake of lutein. Our previous and present finding shows there is a possibility of developing functional

  12. Effect of ultrasonic waves on the stability of all-trans lutein and its degradation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiang-Feng; Li, Da-Jing; Pang, Hui-Li; Liu, Chun-Quan

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound treatment has been widely applied in the extraction of biologically active compounds including carotenoids. However, there are few reports on their effects on the stability of these compounds. In the present study, the stability of all-trans lutein, one of the carotenoids, was investigated under the action of ultrasound. Results showed that ultrasound induced the isomerization of all-trans lutein to its isomers, namely to 13-cis lutein, 13'-cis lutein, 9-cis lutein and 9'-cis lutein as analyzed by HPLC coupled with DAD and LC-MS; and the percentage of the isomerization increased with increasing both ultrasonic frequency and power. The stability of all-trans lutein in dichloromethane was worst among multiple kinds of solvents. Interestingly, the retention rate of all-trans lutein improved as the temperature increased, which runs counter to the Arrhenius law. Under ultrasound irradiation, the degradation mechanism might be different with various temperatures, the degradation of all-trans lutein followed first-order kinetics at 20°C, while second-order kinetics was followed at 30-50°C. As the ultrasonic reaction time prolonged, lutein epoxidation nearly occurred. Those results presented here emphasized that UAE techniques should be carefully used in the extraction of all-trans lutein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lutein-fortified infant formula fed to healthy term infants: evaluation of growth effects and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeding, Rosario; Gepanayao, Connie P; Calimon, Nerrisa; Lebumfacil, Jowena; Davis, Anne M; Stouffer, Nicole; Harris, Bruce J

    2010-05-21

    Breast milk contains lutein derived from the mother's diet. This carotenoid is currently not added to infant formula, which has a small and variable lutein content from innate ingredients. This study was conducted to compare the growth of infants fed lutein-fortified infant formula with that of infants fed infant formula without lutein fortification. This 16-week study was prospective, randomized, controlled, and double-blind with parallel groups of healthy term infants fed either control formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold, designated as Gold) or experimental formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold fortified with lutein at 200 mcg/l, designated as Gold+Lutein). Two hundred thirty-two (232) infantslutein-fortified S-26 Gold demonstrated growth equivalent to that of infants fed unfortified lutein formula.

  14. Biochemical System Analysis of Lutein Production by Heterotrophic Chlorella pyrenoidosa in a Fermentor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yun Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella is a promising alternative source of lutein, as it can be cultivated heterotrophically with high efficiency. In this study, the carotenoids in Chlorella pyrenoidosa heterotrophically cultivated in a 19-litre fermentor have been analyzed and determined by using HPLC and HPLC-MS. A biochemical system theory (BST model was developed for understanding the regulatory features of carotenoid metabolism during the batch cultivation. Factors that influence lutein production by C. pyrenoidosa were discussed based on the model. It shows that low flux for lycopene formation is the major bottleneck for lutein production, while by-product syntheses and inhibitions affect the cellular lutein content much less. However, with further increase of the cellular lutein content, the inhibition on lycopene formation by lutein may become a limiting factor. Although speculative, these results may provide useful information for further elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid biosynthesis in Chlorella and modifying its metabolic network to enhance lutein production.

  15. Isolation and purification of lutein from the microalga Chlorella vulgaris by extraction after saponification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua-Bin; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng

    2002-02-27

    A simple and efficient method for the isolation and purification of lutein from the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was developed. Crude lutein was obtained by extraction with dichloromethane from the microalga after saponification. Partition values of lutein in the two-phase system of ethanol-water-dichloromethane at different ratios were measured by HPLC so as to assist the determination of an appropriate condition for washing water-soluble impurities in the crude lutein. Partition values of lutein in another two-phase system of ethanol-water-hexane at different ratios were also measured by HPLC for determining the condition for removing fat-soluble impurities. The water-soluble impurities in the crude lutein were removed by washing with 30% aqueous ethanol, and the fat-soluble impurities were removed by extraction with hexane. The final purity of lutein obtained was 90-98%, and the yield was 85-91%.

  16. The Hypercoagulable state in Hyperthyroidism is mediated via the Thyroid Hormone β Receptor pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Laura P. B.; Moran, Carla; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; van Zaane, Bregje; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Endert, Erik; Lyons, Greta; Chatterjee, V. Krishna; Bisschop, Peter H.; Fliers, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with a hypercoagulable state, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Patients with resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) due to defective thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) exhibit elevated circulating thyroid hormones (TH) with refractoriness to TH action in

  17. Effects of phenobarbital on thyroid hormone contabolism in rat hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic enzyme inducers such as phenobarbital (PB) decrease circulating thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in rodents. PB induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes increases thyroid hormones catabolism and biliary elimination. This study examines the catabolism and cl...

  18. Some theoretical aspects of hormone receptor determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluiter, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Suitable antisera for determination of hormone receptors are not available for the majority of hormone receptors. Therefore, the determination of hormone receptors is mostly performed in terms of binding capacity for the appropriate hormone, using radioactive hormone labels. Some theoretical aspects of such a receptor determination are discussed including the length of incubation (total or unoccupied receptor concentration), single point or multiple point (Scatchard) analysis (regarding the influence of other specific binders), the correction procedure for non-specific binding and the influence of the circulating hormone level. (Auth.)

  19. Semen quality and reproductive hormones before orchiectomy in men with testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Skakkebaek, N E; Vistisen, K

    1999-01-01

    cancer (TGCC) investigated before orchiectomy, semen analysis was carried out in 63 patients and hormonal investigations, including measurement of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), inhibin B, and human chorionic...... (group 2). Group 3 comprised 141 men employed in a Danish company who served as controls in the comparison of semen parameters. As a control group in hormone investigations, 193 men were selected randomly from the Danish National Personal Register to make up group 4. RESULTS: We found significantly lower...

  20. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  1. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  2. Relation among serum and tissue concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin and macular pigment density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E J; Hammond, B R; Yeum, K J; Qin, J; Wang, X D; Castaneda, C; Snodderly, D M; Russell, R M

    2000-06-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids in the macular region of the retina (referred to as macular pigment [MP]). Foods that are rich in lutein and zeaxanthin can increase MP density. Response to dietary lutein and zeaxanthin in other tissues has not been studied. The objective of this study was to examine tissue responses to dietary lutein and zeaxanthin and relations among tissues in lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations. Seven subjects consumed spinach and corn, which contain lutein and zeaxanthin, with their daily diets for 15 wk. At 0, 4, 8, and 15 wk and 2 mo after the study, serum, buccal mucosa cells, and adipose tissue were analyzed for carotenoids, and MP density was measured. Serum and buccal cell concentrations of lutein increased significantly from baseline during dietary modification. Serum zeaxanthin concentrations were greater than at baseline only at 4 wk, whereas buccal cell and adipose tissue concentrations of zeaxanthin did not change. Adipose tissue lutein concentrations peaked at 8 wk. Changes in adipose tissue lutein concentration were inversely related to the changes in MP density, suggesting an interaction between adipose tissue and retina in lutein metabolism. To investigate the possibility of tissue interactions, we examined cross-sectional relations among serum, tissue, and dietary lutein concentrations, anthropometric measures, and MP density in healthy adults. Significant negative correlations were found between adipose tissue lutein concentrations and MP for women, but a significant positive relation was found for men. Sex differences in lutein metabolism may be an important factor in tissue interactions and in determining MP density.

  3. Differential regulation of ANG2 and VEGF-A in human granulosa lutein cells by choriogonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowski, D; Keck, C

    2004-04-01

    The growth and development of the corpus luteum after rupture of the follicle is a highly regulated process characterised by a rapid vascularization of the follicle surrounding granulosa cells. Vascularization is regulated by a large number of growth factors and cytokines whereas members of the angiopoietin family and VEGF-A are reported to play a principal role. The gonadotropic hormones luteinizing hormone and choriogonadotropin are reported to be essential for corpus luteum formation. In this study we investigated by RT PCR if the growth factors PGF, PDGF-A, PDGF-B, VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, ANG1, ANG2, ANG3 and ANG4 are expressed in granulosa cells. We show the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-B, PDGF-A, ANG1 and ANG2 in granulosa cells. Using RT-PCR and Real-Time PCR we demonstrate that angiopoietin 2 is downregulated in human granulosa cells in vitro after choriogonadotropin treatment whereas the expression of angiopoietin 1 is not significantly altered. The expression of VEGF on the RNA- and on the protein level was determined. It was shown that in granulosa cells VEGF is upregulated after choriogonadotropin treatment on the RNA level and that increasing concentrations of choriogonadotropin from 0 to 10 U/ml leads to an increasing amount of VEGF in the cell culture supernatants. The amount of VEGF in the supernatants reaches a plateau at 0.5 U/ml and is increased only slightly and not significantly after treatment of the cells with 10 U/ml choriogonadotropin compared to 0.5 U/ml. In total these findings suggests that in granulosa cells the mRNA of various growth factors is detectable by RT-PCR and that VEGF-A and ANG2 is regulated by the gonadotropic hormone choriogonadotropin. These findings may add impact on the hypothesis of choriogonadotropin as a novel angiogenic factor.

  4. Estradiol potentiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone responsiveness in the anterior pituitary is mediated by an increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.; Peegel, H.; Katta, V.

    1985-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism by which 17 beta-estradiol potentiates the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the anterior pituitary in vitro, cultured pituitary cells from immature female rats were used as the model system. Cultures exposed to estradiol at concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L exhibited a significant augmentation of luteinizing hormone release in response to a 4-hour gonadotropin-releasing hormone (10 mumol/L) challenge at a dose of 10(-9) mol/L compared to that of control cultures. The estradiol augmentation of luteinizing hormone release was also dependent on the duration of estradiol exposure. When these cultures were incubated with tritium-labeled L-leucine, an increase in incorporation of radiolabeled amino acid into total proteins greater than that in controls was observed. A parallel stimulatory effect of estradiol on iodine 125-labeled D-Ala6 gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding was observed. Cultures incubated with estradiol at different concentrations and various lengths of time showed a significant increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding capacity and this increase was abrogated by cycloheximide. Analysis of the binding data showed that the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding activity was due to a change in the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites rather than a change in the affinity. These results suggest that (1) estradiol treatment increases the number of pituitary receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, (2) the augmentary effect of estradiol on luteinizing hormone release at the pituitary level might be mediated, at least in part, by the increase in the number of binding sites of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and (3) new protein synthesis may be involved in estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor induction

  5. Correlation of Serum Androgens and Pituitary Hormone Levels with Serum PSA Less Than 2.5 NG/ML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sofikerim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this clinical study was to determine whether there is a relationship between total serum testosterone, free testosterone, FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, LH (Luteinizing Hormone and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA levels. We postulated that such a correlation existed then the use of hormone specific reference ranges might enhance the usefullness of PSA concentrations <2.5 ng/mL as a marker for prostate cancer.

  6. Seasonal Relationship between Gonadotropin, Growth Hormone, and Estrogen Receptor mRNA Expression in the Pituitary Gland of Largemouth Bass

    OpenAIRE

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J.; Porak, Wesley F.; Steward, Cheree; Grier, Harry J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal changes in pituitary gonadotropins, growth hormone (GH), and estrogen receptor (ER) isoform mRNA in wild female and male largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides) from an unpolluted habitat to better understand reproductive physiology in this ecologically important species. Female pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) β subunit and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β subunit mRNA showed significant seasonal variation with levels ...

  7. The Multiple Facets of Lutein: A Call for Further Investigation in the Perinatal Period

    OpenAIRE

    Perrone, Serafina; Tei, Monica; Longini, Mariangela; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Lutein may have important antioxidant actions in free-radical-mediated diseases, in addition to its well-known antioxidant and cytoprotective effects on macula and photoreceptors. The peculiar perinatal susceptibility to oxidative stress indicates that prophylactic use of antioxidants as lutein could help to prevent or at least to reduce oxidative stress related diseases in newborns. Since lutein is not synthesized by humans, the intake primarily depends on diet or supplementation. Newborns r...

  8. Bioconversion of lutein by Enterobacter hormaechei to form a new compound, 8-methyl-α-ionone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guifang; Wang, Fangfang; Sun, Jianhong; Ye, Jianbin; Mao, Duobin; Ma, Ke; Yang, Xuepeng

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the final product of the bioconversion of lutein by a novel lutein-degrading bacterium, Enterobacter hormaechei A20, and the kinetics of the process. A new product, 8-methyl-α-ionone, was resolved by GC-MS. The compound was further identified by NMR. A conversion yield of 90% was achieved by E. hormaechei in 36 h with 10 g lutein l -1 . This is the first report of the bioconversion of lutein to form 8-methyl-α-ionone. A degradation pathway is proposed.

  9. Transference of lutein during cheese making, color stability, and sensory acceptance of prato cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Tiaki Kaneiwa Kubo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of lutein is associated with the prevention and reduction of age-related macular degeneration. Its incorporation into Prato cheese as a yellowish food coloring is a valid alternative to increase the daily intake of this compound. However, part of the lutein added may be lost in the whey during the cheese making, or it can be degraded by light during storage, resulting in color changes reducing the sensory acceptance of the cheese. The objectives of this study were to determine the transference of the lutein (dye, added to the milk, in the whey, and cheese, to evaluate the effect of the lutein addition, light exposure, and storage time on the cheese color, and to verify the sensory acceptance of Prato cheese with addition of lutein. The lutein recovery of cheese was 95.25%. Color saturation (chrome increased during storage time resulting in a cheese with more intense color, but there were no changes in the hue of the cheese. Adjusting the amount of lutein added to Prato cheese may lead to greater acceptance. The high recovery of lutein in the cheese and the fact that the hue remained unchanged during storage under light showed that the incorporation of lutein into Prato cheese is feasible from a technical point of view.

  10. Dietary effects of lutein-fortified chlorella on milk components of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30 g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3 weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentrations of milk protein and solids non-fat in groups fed diets containing both conventional and lutein-fortified chlorella were significantly higher than those of the control group (P milk fat among groups. The levels of plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Lutein content in milk was significantly increased in groups fed lutein-fortified chlorella as compared with those of conventional chlorella and control, respectively (P lutein-fortified chlorella has positive effects on milk components and the use of lutein-fortified chlorella in a dairy diet is effective in the production of milk enriched with lutein.

  11. Phase II enzyme induction by a carotenoid, lutein, in a PC12D neuronal cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Seiji; Kobayashi, Saori; Tsubota, Kazuo; Ozawa, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lutein reduced ROS levels in a PC12D neuronal cell line. • Lutein induced mRNAs of phase II antioxidative enzymes in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein increased protein levels of HO-1, SOD2, and NQO-1 in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein had no effect on intranuclear Nrf2 levels in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein did not activate potential upstream Nrf2 nuclear translocation pathways. - Abstract: The mechanism by which lutein, a carotenoid, acts as an antioxidant in retinal cells is still not fully understood. Here, lutein treatment of a neuronal cell line (PC12D) immediately resulted in reduced intracellular ROS levels, implying that it has a direct role in ROS scavenging. Significantly, lutein treatment also induced phase II antioxidative enzyme expression, probably via a nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) independent pathway. This latter mechanism could explain why lutein acts diversely to protect against oxidative/cytotoxic stress, and why it is physiologically involved in the human neural tissue, such as the retina

  12. Phase II enzyme induction by a carotenoid, lutein, in a PC12D neuronal cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Seiji [Laboratory of Retinal Cell Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Wakasa Seikatsu Co., Ltd., 134 Chudoujiminami-cho, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto 600-8813 (Japan); Kobayashi, Saori [Wakasa Seikatsu Co., Ltd., 134 Chudoujiminami-cho, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto 600-8813 (Japan); Tsubota, Kazuo [Laboratory of Retinal Cell Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Ozawa, Yoko, E-mail: ozawa@a5.keio.jp [Laboratory of Retinal Cell Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Lutein reduced ROS levels in a PC12D neuronal cell line. • Lutein induced mRNAs of phase II antioxidative enzymes in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein increased protein levels of HO-1, SOD2, and NQO-1 in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein had no effect on intranuclear Nrf2 levels in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein did not activate potential upstream Nrf2 nuclear translocation pathways. - Abstract: The mechanism by which lutein, a carotenoid, acts as an antioxidant in retinal cells is still not fully understood. Here, lutein treatment of a neuronal cell line (PC12D) immediately resulted in reduced intracellular ROS levels, implying that it has a direct role in ROS scavenging. Significantly, lutein treatment also induced phase II antioxidative enzyme expression, probably via a nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) independent pathway. This latter mechanism could explain why lutein acts diversely to protect against oxidative/cytotoxic stress, and why it is physiologically involved in the human neural tissue, such as the retina.

  13. Differentiation between lutein monoester regioisomers and detection of lutein diesters from marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta L.) and several fruits by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Dietmar E; Wirt, Ursula; Bamedi, Ameneh

    2002-01-02

    Liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-APCIMS) was employed for the identification of eight lutein monoesters, formed by incomplete enzymatic saponification of lutein diesters of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) by Candida rugosa lipase. Additionally, the main lutein diesters naturally occurring in marigold oleoresin were chromatographically separated and identified. The LC-MS method allows for characterization of lutein diesters occurring as minor components in several fruits; this was demonstrated by analysis of extracts of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), kiwano (Cucumis metuliferus E. Mey. ex Naud.), and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). The assignment of the regioisomers of lutein monoesters is based on the characteristic fragmentation pattern: the most intense daughter ion generally results from the loss of the substituent (fatty acid or hydroxyl group) bound to the epsilon-ionone ring, yielding an allylic cation. The limit of detection was estimated at 0.5 microg/mL with lutein dimyristate as reference compound. This method provides a useful tool to obtain further insight into the biochemical reactions leading to lutein ester formation in plants.

  14. Structure of the lutein-binding domain of human StARD3 at 1.74 Å resolution and model of a complex with lutein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, Martin P., E-mail: martin.horvath@utah.edu; George, Evan W.; Tran, Quang T.; Baumgardner, Kody; Zharov, Gabe; Lee, Sarah [University of Utah, 257 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sharifzadeh, Hassan; Shihab, Saeed; Mattinson, Ty; Li, Binxing; Bernstein, Paul S., E-mail: martin.horvath@utah.edu [Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    The structure of a START-domain protein known to bind lutein in the human retina is reported to an improved resolution limit. Rigid-body docking demonstrates that at least a portion of lutein must protrude from the large tunnel-like cavity characteristic of this helix-grip protein and suggests a mechanism for lutein binding specificity. A crystal structure of the lutein-binding domain of human StARD3 (StAR-related lipid-transfer protein 3; also known as MLN64) has been refined to 1.74 Å resolution. A previous structure of the same protein determined to 2.2 Å resolution highlighted homology with StARD1 and shared cholesterol-binding character. StARD3 has since been recognized as a carotenoid-binding protein in the primate retina, where its biochemical function of binding lutein with specificity appears to be well suited to recruit this photoprotective molecule. The current and previous structures correspond closely to each other (r.m.s.d. of 0.25 Å), especially in terms of the helix-grip fold constructed around a solvent-filled cavity. Regions of interest were defined with alternate conformations in the current higher-resolution structure, including Arg351 found within the cavity and Ω1, a loop of four residues found just outside the cavity entrance. Models of the complex with lutein generated by rigid-body docking indicate that one of the ionone rings must protrude outside the cavity, and this insight has implications for molecular interactions with transport proteins and enzymes that act on lutein. Interestingly, models with the ∊-ionone ring characteristic of lutein pointing towards the bottom of the cavity were associated with fewer steric clashes, suggesting that steric complementarity and ligand asymmetry may play a role in discriminating lutein from the other ocular carotenoids zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin, which only have β-ionone rings.

  15. Conservative Management of Theca Lutein Cyst Accident: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Bai Prabhu T

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Theca lutein cysts can occur in 20-25% of molar pregnancies. These cysts can undergo complications such as torsion, rupture, and haemorrhage. As these are functional cysts, when there are complications such as torsion they can be managed conservatively by aspirating the cysts under ultrasound guidance or by detorsion at the time of laparoscopy. By simple detorsion, ovaries can be preserved in 80-90% of cases. In order to prevent recurrence adnexal fixation can be undertaken by plicating the ovarian ligament.

  16. No effects of MRI scan on male reproduction hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møllerløkken, Ole J; Moen, Bente E; Baste, Valborg; Magerøy, Nils; Oftedal, Gunnhild; Neto, Emanuel; Ersland, Lars; Bjørge, Line; Torjesen, Peter A; Mild, Kjell Hansson

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasing around the world and the possible adverse effects on reproductive health of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in MRI are not previously studied. A prospective randomized balanced cross-over study using a head scan in real MRI with whole-body transmitting coil and sham MRI among 24 healthy male volunteers was conducted. Serum-blood samples of inhibin B, testosterone, prolactine, thyreotropine, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, sex-hormone binding globuline and estradiol were taken before and after the different scans. Neither immediately after, nor after 11 days were there seen any differences in the hormone levels comparing real and sham MRI. The lack of effects of EMF on male reproductive hormones should be reassuring to the public and especially for men examined in MRI. Adverse effects on other endpoints than male reproduction or possible chronic effect of multiple MRI scans have not been investigated in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  18. Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Ovarian Morphology in Women With Isolated Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism/Kallmann Syndrome: Effects of Recombinant Human FSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bry-Gauillard, Hélène; Larrat-Ledoux, Florence; Levaillant, Jean-Marc; Massin, Nathalie; Maione, Luigi; Beau, Isabelle; Binart, Nadine; Chanson, Philippe; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Hall, Janet E; Young, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), characterized by gonadotropin deficiency and absent puberty, is very rare in women. IHH prevents pubertal ovarian stimulation, but anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) have not been studied. (1) To compare, in IHH vs controls, AMH, ovarian volume (OV), and AFC. (2) To compare, in IHH, ovarian responses to recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (rhFSH) and rhFSH plus recombinant human luteinizing hormone (rhLH). Sixty-eight IHH women; 51 matched healthy women. Serum LH, FSH, sex steroids, inhibin B (InhB), AMH, and OV and AFC (sonography) were compared. Ovarian response during rhFSH administration was assessed in 12 IHH women with low AMH levels and low AFC and compared with hormonal changes observed in six additional IHH women receiving rhFSH plus rhLH. InhB was lower in IHH than in controls. AMH levels were also significantly lower in the patients, but two-thirds had normal values. Mean OV and total, larger, and smaller AFCs were lower in IHH than in controls. Ovarian stimulation by rhFSH led to a significant increase in serum estradiol and InhB levels and in the number of larger antral follicles. AMH and smaller AFC increased early during rhFSH stimulation but then declined despite continued stimulation. rhFSH plus rhLH stimulation led to a significantly higher increase in estradiol levels but to similar changes in circulating InhB and AMH than with rhFSH alone. IHH women have both low AMH levels and low AFC. However, their decrease can be reversed by follicle-stimulating hormone. Serum AMH and AFC should not serve as prognostic markers of fertility in this population. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  19. The forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is necessary for pituitary luteinizing hormone expression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H Gumbel

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland regulates numerous physiological functions including growth, reproduction, temperature and metabolic homeostasis, lactation, and response to stress. Pituitary organogenesis is dependent on signaling factors that are produced in and around the developing pituitary. The studies described in this report reveal that the forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is not expressed in the developing mouse pituitary gland, but rather in the mesenchyme surrounding the pituitary gland, which is an essential source of signaling factors that regulate pituitary organogenesis. Loss of Foxd1 causes a morphological defect in which the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland protrudes through the cartilage plate that is developing ventral to the pituitary at embryonic days (e14.5, e16.5, and e18.5. The number of proliferating pituitary cells is increased at e14.5 and e16.5. Loss of Foxd1 also results in significantly decreased levels of Lhb expression at e18.5. This decrease in Lhb expression does not appear to be due to a change in the number of gonadotrope cells in the pituitary gland. Previous studies have shown that loss of the LIM homeodomain factor, Lhx3, which is activated by the FGF signaling pathway, results in loss of LH production. Although there is a difference in Lhb expression in Foxd1 null mice, the expression pattern of LHX3 is not altered in Foxd1 null mice. These studies suggest that Foxd1 is indirectly required for normal Lhb expression and cartilage formation.

  20. The Forkhead Transcription Factor, Foxd1, Is Necessary for Pituitary Luteinizing Hormone Expression in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbel, Jason H.; Patterson, Elizabeth M.; Owusu, Sarah A.; Kabat, Brock E.; Jung, Deborah O.; Simmons, Jasmine; Hopkins, Torin; Ellsworth, Buffy S.

    2012-01-01

    The pituitary gland regulates numerous physiological functions including growth, reproduction, temperature and metabolic homeostasis, lactation, and response to stress. Pituitary organogenesis is dependent on signaling factors that are produced in and around the developing pituitary. The studies described in this report reveal that the forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is not expressed in the developing mouse pituitary gland, but rather in the mesenchyme surrounding the pituitary gland, which is an essential source of signaling factors that regulate pituitary organogenesis. Loss of Foxd1 causes a morphological defect in which the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland protrudes through the cartilage plate that is developing ventral to the pituitary at embryonic days (e)14.5, e16.5, and e18.5. The number of proliferating pituitary cells is increased at e14.5 and e16.5. Loss of Foxd1 also results in significantly decreased levels of Lhb expression at e18.5. This decrease in Lhb expression does not appear to be due to a change in the number of gonadotrope cells in the pituitary gland. Previous studies have shown that loss of the LIM homeodomain factor, Lhx3, which is activated by the FGF signaling pathway, results in loss of LH production. Although there is a difference in Lhb expression in Foxd1 null mice, the expression pattern of LHX3 is not altered in Foxd1 null mice. These studies suggest that Foxd1 is indirectly required for normal Lhb expression and cartilage formation. PMID:23284914

  1. Characterization and application of a radioimmunoassay for reduced, carboxymethylated human luteinizing hormone α-subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keutmann, H.T.; Beitins, I.Z.; Johnson, L.; McArthur, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    We have established a double antibody RIA using a rabbit antiserum prepared against reduced, carboxymethylated (RCXM) human LH α-subunit, with RCXM-α as tracer and standard. This antiserum did not cross-react with any native gonadotropins or subunit, and reacted only weakly with RCXM-α. A tryptic digest of RCXM α-subunit was completely reactive, while chymotryptic digestion abolished all immunoreactivity. By testing with separate tryptic fragments, the recognition site could be localized to a segment close to the amino-terminus of the peptide chain. When applied to measurement of serum and urine, an immunoreactive species, parallel to RCXM α-subunit by serial dilution, was found in concentrations of 1-2 ng/ml in serum and 3-4 ng/ml in urine. Similar levels of the immunoreactive component were found in conditions of elevated gonadotropins (e.g. pregnancy) as well as gonadotropin deficiency (panhypopituitarism and Kallmann's syndrome). After stimulation with LHRH, no rise was noted at times up to 6 h despite the fact that both LH and LH-α were elevated. The data indicate that the sequence-specific antiserum may be detecting an immunoreactive form of α-subunit of LH whose kinetics of appearance and disappearance differs from those of the native subunit

  2. Effect of medium type and luteinizing hormone (LH) on in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maturation rate was assessed by evaluation of degree of cumulus cells expansion and meiotic development. Results indicate that recovery rate ranged between 2.4 to 2.8. Moreover, results revealed that maturation rate, telophase and metaphase II stages were higher for oocytes matured in TCM-199 + LH than oocytes ...

  3. [Exogenous luteinizing hormone for assisted reproduction techniques in poor response patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spremović-Radjenović, Svetlana; Gudović, Aleksandra; Lazović, Gordana

    2010-07-01

    Two gonadotrophins, two cell theory refers to necessity of both gonadotrophin activities for theca and granulose cells steroidogenesis of dominant follicle. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of recombinant LH in women qualified as poor responders in the first assisted reproduction procedure (IVF), on fertility results, expressed as percentage of clinical pregnancies. The study included 12 women, 35 years and older who were their own controls. The next trial of IVF was with the same dose of recombinant FSH and GnRH agonist, and with the same, long protocol. Recombinant LH was added in the dose of 75 IU from the 2nd to 7th day of the cycle, and 150 IU from the 8th day of the cycle to the aspiration of oocytes. Within the two different protocols: there was no significant difference between LH concentration in 8th and 12th day of cycle; there was no significant difference between E2 concentration on day 2nd and day 8th; there was a significant difference between E2 concentrations on day 12th; endometrial thickness was not significantly different on the day of aspiration, neither was the number of follicles and embryos. In the two patients, clinical pregnancy was detected (pregnancy rate 17%), and they delivered in term. So, a statistically significant difference between the two protocols was in the rate of clinical pregnancies. The patients with low response to a long protocol in IVF procedures had significantly better results according to the clinical pregnancy rate when the recombinant LH was added to recombinant FSH in the stimulation protocol.

  4. Pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in patients with Addison's disease. Impact of glucocorticoid substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hangaard, J; Andersen, M; Grodum, E

    1998-01-01

    The physiological and pathophysiological role of cortisol in pulsatile LH release was investigated in 14 patients (5 men, 6 premenopausal women, and 3 postmenopausal women) with Addison's disease. The explicit effect of cortisol in relation to the effect of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF......), ACTH, and opioids was ensured by hypo-, normo-, and hypercortisolism. Hypocortisolism was obtained by 24-h discontinuation of hydrocortisone (HC) followed by 23-h saline infusion. Eucortisolism was secured by infusion of HC (0.5 mg/kg) over 23 h. Stress-appropriate hypercortisolism was obtained...

  5. Increase in first morning voided urinary luteinizing hormone levels precedes the physical onset of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demir, Ahmet; Voutilainen, R; Juul, A

    1996-01-01

    Determinations of serum gonadotropin concentrations by ultra-sensitive methods have improved the diagnosis of pubertal disorders. The onset of puberty can be estimated by measuring serum gonadotropin pulsation, but as this requires serial nocturnal blood sampling, it is not a routine investigation...... before clinical signs of puberty can be detected. The correlation between FMV urine and S-LH values was good (r = 0.64; P ... for S-LH. A significant increase in FMV U-LH concentration occurs before the first clinical signs of puberty in a sex-independent fashion. Our data indicate that FMV U-LH measurement is a clinically relevant, noninvasive method for the evaluation of pubertal development, and it may be helpful...

  6. Studies on luteinizing hormone receptors of human corpora lutea during menstrual cycle and pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Yasushi (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-10-01

    With the purpose of explicating the lifespan of human corpora lutea, using human corpora lutea of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, binding of /sup 125/I-LH to the 20,000g cell membrane fraction was examined. 1) Specific bindings of /sup 125/I-LH, /sup 125/I-HCG were demonstrated in the 20,000g cell membrane fraction. Although LH and HCG were parallel in inhibiting /sup 125/I-LH binding, HCG was found to be more effective. FSH did not inhibit binding. 2) Binding of /sup 125/I-LH was dependent on time, temperature, /sup 125/I-LH concentration, amount of the cell membrane fraction protein and pH. The highest binding was seen at pH 6.0 while incubating for 60 min at 37/sup 0/C. 3) The number of LH receptors in human corpora lutea of the menstrual cycle increased towards midluteal phase, especially on 5th day from ovulation, and decreased towards late luteal phase. LH receptor was not found in corpus albicans. The apparent dissociation constant of each corpus luteum did not change throughout the menstrual cycle. 4) Corpora lutea of pregnancy contained a few or no receptors which bound /sup 125/I-LH specifically. These data suggest that LH receptor is an important factor regulating the lifespan of corpus luteum and exogenous HCG has effect on luteal insufficiency, but the effect of HCG on threatened abortion is uncertain.

  7. Studies on luteinizing hormone receptors of human corpora lutea during menstrual cycle and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Yasushi

    1982-01-01

    With the purpose of explicating the lifespan of human corpora lutea, using human corpora lutea of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, binding of 125 I-LH to the 20,000g cell membrane fraction was examined. 1) Specific bindings of 125 I-LH, 125 I-HCG were demonstrated in the 20,000g cell membrane fraction. Although LH and HCG were parallel in inhibiting 125 I-LH binding, HCG was found to be more effective. FSH did not inhibit binding. 2) Binding of 125 I-LH was dependent on time, temperature, 125 I-LH concentration, amount of the cell membrane fraction protein and pH. The highest binding was seen at pH 6.0 while incubating for 60 min at 37 0 C. 3) The number of LH receptors in human corpora lutea of the menstrual cycle increased towards midluteal phase, especiallt on 5th day from ovulation, and decreased towards late luteal phase. LH receptor was not found in corpus albicans. The apparent dissociation constant of each corpus luteum did not change throughout the menstrual cycle. 4) Corpora lutea of pregnancy contained a few or no receptors which bound 125 I-LH specifically. These data suggest that LH receptor is an important factor regulating the lifespan of corpus luteum and exogenous HCG has effect on luteal insufficiency, but the effect of HCG on threatened abortion is uncertain. (author)

  8. Primary testicular failure in Klinefelter's syndrome: the use of bivariate luteinizing hormone-testosterone reference charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of androgen deficiency is based on clinical features and confirmatory low serum testosterone levels. In early primary testicular failure, a rise in serum LH levels suggests inadequate androgen action for the individual's physiological requirements despite a serum testosterone level ...

  9. Effect of pioglitazone on glucose metabolism and luteinizing hormone secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Andersen, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To thoroughly examine the mechanisms for insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to evaluate the effects of pioglitazone treatment on insulin resistance, beta-cell function, LH secretion, and glucose metabolism. DESIGN: Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study. ......, impaired insulin-stimulated oxidative and nonoxidative glucose metabolism, which was partly reversed by pioglitazone treatment....

  10. Binding of radiolabelled luteinizing hormone to intact and ovariectomised rat uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Bhattacharya, S.

    1992-01-01

    Binding of ovine LH to uterine tissue preparation from intact and ovariectomised rat clearly indicates that uterus possesses specific binding sites for LH. Binding characteristics of LH to uterine tissue preparation from intact rat showed saturability with high affinity and low capacity. Scatchard plot analysis showed dissociation constant of the specific binding site to be 0.12 x 10 -9 mol/l and the number of binding sites was 2.31±0.05 fmol/mg protein. Ovariectomy did not change the binding affinity but effected a decrease in the number of binding sites (1.7 ± 0.08 f mol/mg protein). LH treatment of ovariectomized (ovx) rat had no effect on binding affinity but significantly increased the number of binding sites (3.23 ± 0.1 f mol/mg protein). Reduction of uterine weight due to ovariectomy and marked increase of ovx rat uterine weight by LH administration indicate a source of estrogen in ovx rat. An in vitro uterine tissue slice (from intact and ovx rat) incubation showed depletion of 17 β-estradiol (E 2 ) content in ovx rat which significantly elevated on LH addition. Data suggest the LH binding to rat uterine tissue has biological relevance. (author). 16 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab

  11. Antioxidant properties of lutein contribute to the protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xin-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lutein is an important eye-protective nutrient. This study investigates the protective effects and mechanisms of lutein on lipopolysaccharides (LPS-induced uveitis in mice. Methods Lutein, suspended in drinking water at a final concentration of 12.5 and 25 mg/mL, was administered to mice at 0.1 mL/10 g body weight for five consecutive days. Control and model group received drinking water only. Uveitis was induced by injecting LPS (100 mg per mouse into the footpad in the model and lutein groups on day 5 after the last drug administration. Eyes of the mice were collected 24 hours after the LPS injection for the detection of indicators using commercial kits and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results LPS-induced uveitis was confirmed by significant pathological damage and increased the nitric oxide level in eye tissue of BALB/C mice 24 hours after the footpad injection. The elevated nitric oxide level was significantly reduced by oral administration of lutein (125 and 500 mg/kg/d for five days before LPS injection. Moreover, lutein decreased the malondialdehyde content, increased the oxygen radical absorbance capacity level, glutathione, the vitamin C contents and total superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Lutein further increased expressions of copper-zinc SOD, manganese SOD and GPx mRNA. Conclusion The antioxidant properties of lutein contribute to the protection against LPS-induced uveitis, partially through the intervention of inflammation process.

  12. A possible role for lutein and zeaxanthin in cognitive function in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies suggest that dietary lutein and zeaxanthin may be of benefit in maintaining cognitive health. Among the carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, are the only two that cross the blood-retina barrier to form macular pigment (MP) in the eye. They also preferentially accumulate in hum...

  13. Long-term oral feeding of lutein-fortified milk increases voluntary running distance in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered compared with control rats (vehicle administered. This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1, total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK, and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running.

  14. Long-term oral feeding of lutein-fortified milk increases voluntary running distance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared with control rats (vehicle administered). This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK), and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running.

  15. The Multiple Facets of Lutein: A Call for Further Investigation in the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Serafina; Tei, Monica; Longini, Mariangela; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    Lutein may have important antioxidant actions in free-radical-mediated diseases, in addition to its well-known antioxidant and cytoprotective effects on macula and photoreceptors. The peculiar perinatal susceptibility to oxidative stress indicates that prophylactic use of antioxidants as lutein could help to prevent or at least to reduce oxidative stress related diseases in newborns. Since lutein is not synthesized by humans, the intake primarily depends on diet or supplementation. Newborns receive lutein exclusively from breast milk. Lutein supplementation in term newborns has been reported to reduce oxidative stress and increase antioxidant capacities in the first days of life. Innovative frontiers concerning lutein supplementation are orientated toward cardiometabolic health improvement and cognitive benefits. The safety of lutein as an antioxidant agent has been confirmed in experimental and clinical studies, but its routine use is not recommended in perinatal period. This review summarizes what is known about the role of lutein as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in animal model and humans.

  16. The Multiple Facets of Lutein: A Call for Further Investigation in the Perinatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafina Perrone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutein may have important antioxidant actions in free-radical-mediated diseases, in addition to its well-known antioxidant and cytoprotective effects on macula and photoreceptors. The peculiar perinatal susceptibility to oxidative stress indicates that prophylactic use of antioxidants as lutein could help to prevent or at least to reduce oxidative stress related diseases in newborns. Since lutein is not synthesized by humans, the intake primarily depends on diet or supplementation. Newborns receive lutein exclusively from breast milk. Lutein supplementation in term newborns has been reported to reduce oxidative stress and increase antioxidant capacities in the first days of life. Innovative frontiers concerning lutein supplementation are orientated toward cardiometabolic health improvement and cognitive benefits. The safety of lutein as an antioxidant agent has been confirmed in experimental and clinical studies, but its routine use is not recommended in perinatal period. This review summarizes what is known about the role of lutein as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in animal model and humans.

  17. Enhancing lutein productivity of an indigenous microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3 using light-related strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chan, Ming-Chang; Liu, Chen-Chun; Chen, Chun-Yen; Lee, Wen-Lung; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Lutein, one of the main photosynthetic pigments, is a promising natural product with both nutritional and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, light-related strategies were applied to enhance the cell growth and lutein production of a lutein-rich microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3. The results demonstrate that using white LED resulted in better lutein production efficiency when compared to the other three monochromatic LEDs (red, blue, and green). The lutein productivity of S. obliquus FSP-3 was further improved by adjusting the type of light source and light intensity. The optimal lutein productivity of 4.08 mg/L/d was obtained when using a TL5 fluorescent lamp at a light intensity of 300 μmol/m(2)/s, and this performance is better than that reported in most related studies. Moreover, the time-course profile of lutein accumulation in the microalga shows that the maximal lutein content and productivity were obtained at the onset of nitrogen depletion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lutein facilitates physiological revascularization in a mouse model of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhongjie; Meng, Steven S; Burnim, Samuel B; Smith, Lois Eh; Lo, Amy Cy

    2017-07-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is one of the leading causes of childhood blindness worldwide, with vessel growth cessation and vessel loss in phase I followed by neovascularization in phase II. Ischaemia contributes to its pathogenesis, and lutein protects against ischaemia-induced retinal damages. We aimed to investigate the effects of lutein on a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Mouse pups were exposed to 75% oxygen for 5 days and returned to room air for another 5 days. Vascular obliteration, neovascularization and blood vessel leakage were examined. Immunohistochemistry for glial cells and microglia were performed. Compared with vehicle controls, mouse pups receiving lutein treatment displayed smaller central vaso-obliterated area and reduced blood vessel leakage. No significant difference in neovascular area was found between lutein and vehicle controls. Lutein promoted endothelial tip cell formation and maintained the astrocytic template in the avascular area in oxygen-induced retinopathy. No significant changes in Müller cell gliosis and microglial activation in the central avascular area were found in lutein-treated pups. Our observations indicated that lutein significantly promoted normal retinal vascular regrowth in the central avascular area, possibly through promoting endothelial tip cell formation and preserving astrocytic template. Our results indicated that lutein might be considered as a supplement for the treatment of proliferative retinopathy of prematurity because of its role in facilitating the revascularization of normal vasculature. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  19. Would male hormonal contraceptives affect cardiovascular risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zitzmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of hormonal male contraception is to prevent unintended pregnancies by suppressing spermatogenesis. Hormonal male contraception is based on the principle that exogenous administration of androgens and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropin concentrations, decreasing testicular Leydig cell and Sertoli cell activity and spermatogenesis. In order to achieve more complete suppression of circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis, a progestin has been added testosterone to the most recent efficacy trials of hormonal male contraceptives. This review focusses on the potential effects of male hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and body composition, mainly in the target group of younger to middle-aged men. Present data suggest that hormonal male contraception can be reasonably regarded as safe in terms of cardiovascular risk. However, as all trials have been relatively short (< 3 years, a final statement regarding the cardiovascular safety of hormonal male contraception, especially in long-term use, cannot be made. Older men with at high risk of cardiovascular event might not be good candidates for hormonal male contraception. The potential adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk appear to depend greatly on the choice of the progestin in regimens for hormonal male contraceptives. In the development of prospective hormonal male contraception, data on longer-term cardiovascular safety will be essential.

  20. The development of a general solid-phase radioimmunoassay method. Application to follicle stimulating hormone and to luteinizing hormone radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, B.

    1981-10-01

    A solid phase method of radioimmunoassay utilizing a second antibody adsorbed onto tubes was developed. Polyethylene tubes were selected for their adsorption capacity. The following topics were emphasized: the rate of labelled antigen uptake on the second antibody adsorbed on the tubes through the medium of the first antibody; the influence of the second antibody on the antigen-first antibody reaction and comparison with the immunoprecipiting technique; the various factors able to influence the calibration curve and applications to assay optimization; the performances of hFSH AND hLH assays [fr

  1. The nervus terminalis of the guinea pig: a new luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neuronal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzel-Fukuda, M; Silverman, A J

    1980-05-15

    Immunoreactive LHRH-like material has been found in the cells and fibers of the nervus terminalis in fetal and adult guinea pig brains. LHRH-containing neurons and axons are seen in the nasal mucosa intermingled with fibers of the olfactory nerves, in ganglia along the ventromedial surfaces of the olfactory bulbs and forebrain, and in clusters surrounding perforating branches of the anterior cerebral artery in the regions of the septal nuclei and olfactory tubercle. Nonreactive neurons are found adjacent to the LHRH-positive cells in all of the ganglia. LHRH-immunoreactive cells and axons of the nervus terminalis are in intimate contact with cerebral blood vessels and the cerebrospinal fluid along the intracranial course of this nerve, deep to the meninges. The possible involvement of these structures in the neural mechanisms of sexual behavior and the neurohormonal regulation of reproductive function are discussed.

  2. Effect of gonadotropin secretion rate on the radiosensitivity of the rat luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neuron and gonadotroph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterer, J.; Barnes, K.M.; Lichter, A.S.; Deluca, A.M.; Loriaux, D.L.; Cutler, G.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the functional state of hypothalamic LHRH neurons and pituitary gonadotrophs might alter their radiosensitivity, we determined the experimental conditions under which the gonadotropin response to castration could be impaired by a single dose of cranial irradiation. Single doses of cranial irradiation greater than 2000 rads were lethal to unshielded rats. Shielding of the oropharynx and esophagus allowed the animals to survive doses up to 5000 rads. Doses between 2000 and 5000 rads had no effect on basal gonadotropin levels for as long as 3 months after irradiation. Irradiation caused a dose- and time-dependent impairment, however, in the gonadotropin response to castration. Impairment of the gonadotropin levels of castrate animals occurred in animals that were irradiated either before or after castration. However, rats irradiated in the castrate state showed a decreased susceptibility to irradiation damage. Additionally, stimulation of the pituitary by LHRH agonist (LHRHa) 3 h before irradiation significantly reduced the impairment of gonadotropin secretion 12-20 weeks after irradiation (P less than 0.05). Thus, increased functional activity of the rat hypothalamus or pituitary at the time of irradiation, induced by either castration or acute LHRHa administration, was associated with some protection against the gonadotropin-lowering effect of irradiation. Based upon these data, we hypothesize that stimulation of gonadotropin secretion at the time of therapeutic cranial irradiation in humans might protect against subsequent impairment of gonadotropin secretion

  3. An incidental ovarian mass: A case of ovarian hemangioma with prominent stromal luteinization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Shirazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of female genital tract. Stromal luteinization in ovarian hemangioma is an uncommon process and the pathogenesis is controversial. In this regard, two hypotheses have been suggested whether luteinization is a reactive process or it is the stimulator for development of ovarian hemangioma. Here, we report a case of a 55-year-old woman who referred to our center due to incidental finding of left ovarian mass in pelvic sonography. Microscopically, the mass showed a mixed cavernous and capillary hemangioma and the peripheral stroma contained several small and large clusters of stromal cells, which were luteinized. It should be noted that an ovarian hemangioma could be associated with stromal luteinization although its pathogenesis is not clearly known. Yet, we believe the stromal luteinization around ovarian hemangioma could be a reactive phenomenon.

  4. Lutein Is Differentially Deposited across Brain Regions following Formula or Breast Feeding of Infant Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sookyoung; Ranard, Katherine M; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Emily E; Renner, Lauren; Kuchan, Matthew J; Pereira, Suzette L; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Erdman, John W

    2018-01-01

    Lutein, a yellow xanthophyll, selectively accumulates in primate retina and brain. Lutein may play a critical role in neural and retinal development, but few studies have investigated the impact of dietary source on its bioaccumulation in infants. We explored the bioaccumulation of lutein in infant rhesus macaques following breastfeeding or formula-feeding. From birth to 6 mo of age, male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were either breastfed (BF) (n = 8), fed a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and lycopene (237, 19.0, 74.2, and 338 nmol/kg, supplemented formula-fed; SF) (n = 8), or fed a formula with low amounts of these carotenoids (38.6, 2.3, 21.5, and 0 nmol/kg, unsupplemented formula-fed; UF) (n = 7). The concentrations of carotenoids in serum and tissues were analyzed by HPLC. At 6 mo of age, the BF group exhibited significantly higher lutein concentrations in serum, all brain regions, macular and peripheral retina, adipose tissue, liver, and other tissues compared to both formula-fed groups (P Lutein concentrations were higher in the SF group than in the UF group in serum and all tissues, with the exception of macular retina. Lutein was differentially distributed across brain areas, with the highest concentrations in the occipital cortex, regardless of the diet. Zeaxanthin was present in all brain regions but only in the BF infants; it was present in both retinal regions in all groups but was significantly enhanced in BF infants compared to either formula group (P lutein concentrations compared to unsupplemented formula, concentrations were still well below those in BF infants. Regardless of diet, occipital cortex showed selectively higher lutein deposition than other brain regions, suggesting lutein's role in visual processing in early life. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploratory metabolomic analyses reveal compounds correlated with lutein concentration in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex of human infant brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with...

  6. Changes in skin blood flow during the menstrual cycle: the influence of the menstrual cycle on the peripheral circulation in healthy female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelink, M L; Wollersheim, H; Theeuwes, A; van Duren, D; Thien, T

    1990-05-01

    1. It is known that females have a lower skin perfusion than males. In women there are also differences in blood flow at different reproductive stages of their lives. As an initial investigation of the possible contribution of sex hormones to these differences, we studied skin and forearm blood flow during the natural changes in hormone levels which occur during the menstrual cycle. 2. Thirty-one healthy female volunteers were studied. The effect of a standardized finger cooling test (immersion of a gloved hand in a 16 degrees C water bath) on finger skin temperature and on laser Doppler flux in the finger, and forearm blood flow (strain gauge venous occlusion plethysmography) was assessed at four different times during one cycle: during menstruation, 1 day before ovulation, 2 days after ovulation and at the mid-luteal phase. Test days were determined by daily measurements of basal body temperature and were confirmed afterwards by determinations of serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, 17 beta-oestradiol and progesterone. 3. Peripheral skin circulation varied significantly within one menstrual cycle. The extremes were a mean finger skin temperature of 25.9 +/- 3.0 degrees C in the luteal phase compared with 28.4 +/- 3.7 degrees C in the pre-ovulatory phase (P = 0.002). The respective values for the mean laser Doppler flux were 18.4 +/- 10.9 compared with 29.2 +/- 16.4 arbitrary units (P = 0.003). 4. Baseline forearm muscle blood flow also varied significantly (P = 0.04) within one menstrual cycle, with low values in the menstrual phase compared with the other phases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Differential action of glycoprotein hormones: significance in cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Arya, Swathy V; Rao, A J

    2014-02-01

    Growth of multicellular organisms depends on maintenance of proper balance between proliferation and differentiation. Any disturbance in this balance in animal cells can lead to cancer. Experimental evidence is provided to conclude with special reference to the action of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on Sertoli cells, and luteinizing hormone (LH) on Leydig cells that these hormones exert a differential action on their target cells, i.e., stimulate proliferation when the cells are in an undifferentiated state which is the situation with cancer cells and promote only functional parameters when the cell are fully differentiated. Hormones and growth factors play a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. There is a growing body of evidence that various tumors express some hormones at high levels as well as their cognate receptors indicating the possibility of a role in progression of cancer. Hormones such as LH, FSH, and thyroid-stimulating hormone have been reported to stimulate cell proliferation and act as tumor promoter in a variety of hormone-dependent cancers including gonads, lung, thyroid, uterus, breast, prostate, etc. This review summarizes evidence to conclude that these hormones are produced by some cancer tissues to promote their own growth. Also an attempt is made to explain the significance of the differential action of hormones in progression of cancer with special reference to prostate cancer.

  8. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaumer, L.; O'Malley, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action

  9. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  10. Urinary concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites and serum reproductive hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, Jaime; Meeker, John D; Jørgensen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Urinary concentrations of metabolites of the anti-androgenic xenobiotic di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were previously shown to be weakly associated with serum levels of several hormones in 2 disparate US populations: partners of pregnant women participating in the Study for Future Families...... and partners in infertile couples from Massachusetts General Hospital infertility clinic. The observed associations between phthalate metabolites and reproductive hormones were robust and insensitive to the characteristics of the subpopulation or the laboratory in which the hormones were measured, despite...... the fact that these 2 populations span a range of fertility, urinary phthalate metabolites, and reproductive hormone levels. We therefore examined associations between urinary metabolites of DEHP and reproductive hormones-follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone (T), inhibin B...

  11. [Cornelia de Lange Syndrome and multiple hormonal deficiency, an unusual association. Clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Bautista, Víctor M; Mendoza-Rojas, Víctor; Contreras-García, Gustavo A

    2017-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial features, failure to thrive, microcephaly and several malformations associated. Its main endocrinological features are anomalies of the genitalia. We present a 13-year-old boy, who suffered from complicated aspiration pneumonia and showed Cornelia de Lange syndrome phenotype, with global developmental delay, suction-swallowing abnormalities, short stature and abnormal genitalia associated. His bone age was delayed, so he underwent full endocrinological panel. Central hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency and low luteinizing hormone-follicle-stimulating hormone levels were observed and multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies diagnosis was made. Basal cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone and prolactin levels were normal. He received thyroid hormonal substitution. Multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies are an unusual feature of De Lange syndrome. We suggest evaluating all different endocrine axes in these patients. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  12. Lutein in food supplements available on the markets of the Viszegrad countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Šivel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available RP-HPLC method with UV-VIS detection was implemented for determination of contents of lutein in food supplements available on the markets in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and Hungary. Altogether, 48 samples of food supplements in three dosage forms (22 samples of tablets, 18 samples of soft capsules, and 8 samples of hard capsules were analysed. The amounts of lutein specified by the producer complied with their real contents only in 7 samples of the food supplements. Lutein in soft capsules showed the highest stability against oxidation; lutein in tablets was more prone to oxidation and lutein in hard capsules was most susceptible to oxidation process. Out of 21 Czech products, only four fell into the category of satisfactory products, three of them were soft capsules and one was a tablet. Out of 27 products manufactured abroad, only three were evaluated as satisfactory products, all of them were soft capsules, out of 48 analysed food supplement samples just seven fell into the category of satisfactory preparations, eight were evaluated as less satisfactory preparations, five were found inadequate products and 28 samples were labelled unsatisfactory. Only one in six analyzed samples contained the amount of lutein specified by the manufacturer, almost 60% of monitored lutein containing food supplement samples fell into the unsatisfactory product category.

  13. Environmental effects on hormonal regulation of testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, J; Virtanen, H E; Skakkebaek, N E

    2006-01-01

    cause some cases of undescended testis. Similarly, androgen insensitivity or androgen deficiency can cause cryptorchidism. Estrogens have been shown to down regulate INSL3 and thereby cause maldescent. Thus, a reduced androgen-estrogen ratio may disturb testicular descent. Environmental effects changing......Regulation of testicular descent is hormonally regulated, but the reasons for maldescent remain unknown in most cases. The main regulatory hormones are Leydig cell-derived testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3). Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the secretion of these hormones...... hypothesize that an exposure to a mixture of chemicals with anti-androgenic or estrogenic properties (either their own activity or their effect on androgen-estrogen ratio) may be involved in cryptorchidism....

  14. Enhancement of Lutein Production in Chlorella sorokiniana (Chorophyta by Improvement of Culture Conditions and Random Mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella sorokiniana has been selected for lutein production, after a screening of thirteen species of microalgae, since it showed both a high content in this carotenoid and a high growth rate. The effects of several nutritional and environmental factors on cell growth and lutein accumulation have been studied. Maximal specific growth rate and lutein content were attained at 690 µmol photons m−2 s−1, 28 °C, 2 mM NaCl, 40 mM nitrate and under mixotrophic conditions. In general, optimal conditions for the growth of this strain also lead to maximal lutein productivity. High lutein yielding mutants of C. sorokiniana have been obtained by random mutagenesis, using N-methyl-N′-nitro-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG as a mutagen and selecting mutants by their resistance to the inhibitors of the carotenogenic pathway nicotine and norflurazon. Among the mutants resistant to the herbicides, those exhibiting both high content in lutein and high growth rate were chosen. Several mutants exhibited higher contents in this carotenoid than the wild type, showing, in addition, either a similar or higher growth rate than the latter strain. The mutant MR-16 exhibited a 2.0-fold higher volumetric lutein content than that of the wild type, attaining values of 42.0 mg L−1 and mutants DMR-5 and DMR-8 attained a lutein cellular content of 7.0 mg g−1 dry weight. The high lutein yield exhibited by C. sorokiniana makes this microalga an excellent candidate for the production of this commercially interesting pigment.

  15. Caco-2 accumulation of lutein is greater from human milk than from infant formula despite similar bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Banavara, Dattatreya; Shah, Bhavini; Morrow, Ardythe L; McMahon, Robert J; Jouni, Zeina E; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2014-10-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that the bioavailability of lutein is lower from infant formula than from human milk. The purpose of this study was to assess characteristics of human milk and lutein-fortified infant formula that may impact carotenoid delivery. Carotenoid bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption were modeled by in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2 human intestinal cell culture. Twelve human milk samples were assessed from 1-6 months postpartum, and 10 lutein-fortified infant formula samples from three lutein sources in both ready-to-use and reconstituted powder forms. The relative bioaccessibility of lutein was not different (p > 0.05) between human milk (29 ± 2%) and infant formula (36 ± 4%). However, lutein delivery was 4.5 times greater from human milk than infant formula when including Caco-2 accumulation efficiency. Caco-2 accumulation of lutein was increasingly efficient with decreasing concentration of lutein from milk. Carotenoid bioaccessibility and Caco-2 accumulation were not affected by lactation stage, total lipid content, lutein source, or form of infant formula (powder vs. liquid). These data suggest that the bioavailability of carotenoids is greater from human milk than infant formula primarily due to intestinal absorptive processes, and that absorption of lutein is potentiated by factors from human milk especially at low lutein concentration. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Progress and prospects in male hormonal contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Testosterone functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary. Low concentrations of these hormones deprive the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis and results in markedly decreased sperm concentrations and effective contraception in a majority of men. Male hormonal contraception is well tolerated and acceptable to most men. Unfortunately, testosterone-alone regimens fail to completely suppress spermatogenesis in all men, meaning that in some the potential for fertility remains. Recent findings Because of this, novel combinations of testosterone and progestins, which synergistically suppress gonadotropins, have been studied. Two recently published testosterone/progestin trials are particularly noteworthy. In the first, a long-acting injectable testosterone ester, testosterone decanoate, was combined with etonogestrel implants and resulted in 80–90% of subjects achieving a fewer than 1 million sperm per milliliter. In the second, a daily testosterone gel was combined with 3-monthly injections of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate producing similar results. Summary Testosterone-based hormone combinations are able to reversibly suppress human spermatogenesis; however, a uniformly effective regimen has remained elusive. Nevertheless, improvements, such as the use of injectable testosterone undecanoate, may lead to a safe, reversible and effective male contraceptive. PMID:18438174

  17. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Increases the Risk of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis by Stimulating Osteoclast Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to observe the changes in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women, to research the relationship between FSH and postmenopausal osteoporosis, and to observe the effects of FSH on osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells.We analyzed 248 postmenopausal women with normal bone metabolism. A radioimmunoassay (RIA was used to detect serum FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, and estradiol (E2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure forearm BMD. Then, we analyzed the age-related changes in serum FSH, LH and E2. Additionally, FSH serum concentrations were compared between a group of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and a control group. Osteoclasts were induced from RAW264.7 cells in vitro by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL, and these cells were treated with 0, 5, 10, and 20 ng/ml FSH. After the osteoclasts matured, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining was used to identify osteoclasts, and the mRNA expression levels of genes involved in osteoclastic phenotypes and function, such as receptor activator of NF-κB (Rank, Trap, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp-9 and Cathepsin K, were detected in different groups using real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction.1. FSH serum concentrations in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis increased notably compared with the control group. 2. RANKL induced RAW264.7 cell differentiation into mature osteoclasts in vitro. 3. FSH increased mRNA expression of genes involved in osteoclastic phenotypes and function, such as Rank, Trap, Mmp-9 and Cathepsin K, in a dose-dependent manner.The circulating concentration of FSH may play an important role in the acceleration of bone loss in postmenopausal women. FSH increases osteoclastogenesis in vitro.

  18. Long-Term Oral Feeding of Lutein-Fortified Milk Increases Voluntary Running Distance in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared wit...

  19. Dietary effects of lutein-fortified chlorella on milk components of Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3???3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30?g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3?weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentration...

  20. Clinical significance of suboptimal hormonal levels in men with prostate cancer treated with LHRH agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Jun; Morales, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    We examined the serum levels of testosterone (T) (total and bioavailable) dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in men receiving treatment with luteinizing hormone releasing-hormone (LHRH) agonists for metastatic prostate cancer. In doing this, we want to determine the efficacy of these agents in lowering T levels and whether a possible relationship exists between PSA values, as a surrogate measure of tumour activity, and hormone levels. This was a single centre prospective study of patients on LHRH agonists. Of all the 100 eligible patients, 31 did not qualify (10 were receiving their first injection, 13 were on intermittent hormonal therapy, 7 refused to enter the trial and 1 patient's blood sample was lost). Therefore in total, 69 patients were included in the final analysis. Each patient had their blood sample drawn immediately before the administration of a LHRH agonist. The new proposed criteria of values are more commonly found in patients with suboptimal levels of testosterone receiving LHRH analogs, but the clinical importance of this finding has not been established. There is no significant difference with respect to hormonal levels reached among patients on a variety of LHRH agonists. Total testosterone determinations should be considered in patients on LHRH agonist therapy, particularly when the PSA values begin to rise since it may lead to further beneficial hormonal manipulation.

  1. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  2. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  3. Immunohistochemical localization of anterior pituitary hormones in S-100 protein-positive cells in the rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yatabe, Megumi; Tando, Yukiko; Yashiro, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    In the anterior and intermediate lobes of the rat pituitary gland, non-hormone-producing cells that express S-100 protein coexist with various types of hormone-producing cells and are believed to function as phagocytes, supporting and paracrine-controlling cells of hormone-producing cells and stem cells, among other functions; however, their cytological characteristics are not yet fully understood. Using a transgenic rat that expresses green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the S100β protein gene, we immunohistochemically detected expression of the luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, growth hormone and proopiomelanocortin by S-100 protein-positive cells located between clusters of hormone-producing cells in the intermediate lobe. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that S-100 protein-positive cells are capable of differentiating into hormone-producing cells in the adult rat pituitary gland.

  4. Correlation of leptin and sex hormones with endocrine changes in healthy Saudi women of different body weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Harithy, Rowyda N.; Al-Doghaither, H.; Abualnaja, K.

    2006-01-01

    A relationship between estrogen and leptin has been described during the follicular phase described during the follicular phase of both spontaneous menstrual cycles stimulated with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which suggest that leptin has either a direct effect on or is regulated by gonadal steroids in the human ovary. To examine the changes in plasma leptin levels during the menstrual cycle, we studied the association between plasma leptin and reproductive hormones in young, healthy Saudi women. Sixty-five young women between 19 to 39 years of age, with a normal menstrual cycle, were grouped into 33 over weight and obese females of BMI>25kg/m, and 32 lean females of BMI<25 Kg/m. Anthropometrics measurements were made at the time of the collection. Samples were analyzed for leptin, progesterone, estradiol (E), FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH), cortisol, and testosterone concentrations. Overweight and obese women, compared with lean, tended to have a significantly higher plasma leptin (11.38+-4.06 vs. 6.22+-2.87ng/mL; P=0.05). In overweight and obese subjects, circulating leptin, concentrations showed a direct correlation with BMI (r=0.53; P=0.0002), hip circumference (r=0.32; P=0.005), waist-hip ratio (r=0.37; P=0.042), weight (r=0.41; P=0.021), and E, on day 3 (r=0.35; P=0.048). In all correlation analyses, leptin levels did not correlate with cortisol or testosterone. In lean subjects, a bivariate correlation analysis showed that plasma leptin concentrations were directly correlated to hip circumference (r=0.43; P=0.012). Moreover, a direct correlation was found with progesterone on day 10 (r=0.43; P=0.014) and E on day 24 (r=0.47; P=0.007). There is a link between plasma leptin and progesterone concentrations during the menstrual cycle, and the variation in circulating estrdiol concentrations may have an influence on circulating leptin in female subjects. (author)

  5. Changes in Plasma Sex Hormone Levels in Women with Severe Concomitant Injury

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    K. N Yezhova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform a complex study of the plasma levels of 11 sex hormones and their functional values in women with severe concomitant injury (SCI. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 16 women aged 18—45 years who had SCI. Admission APACHE II scores were 18.9±1.3. According to the outcome of a posttraumatic period, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: A survivors; B deceased subjects. The normal values were used to comparatively analyze the concentrations of reproductive hormones. The time course of changes in hormone concentration was studied on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7. The hormone profile was examined by BSL test kits (USA on a STAT Fax 2100 enzyme immunoanalyzer (Awareness Technology Inc., USA. The content of prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, androstendione (A, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, and estradiol (E were measured. Results. The complex study of changes in the profile of 11 plasma sex hormones was first conducted in women in the posttraumat-ic period. Moreover, the typical plasma hormonal changes were elevated prolactin levels, a decrease in the concentrations of gonadotropins, and increases in some androgens, A, T, and E. The deceased women showed lower concentrations of DHEA-S and T. Analysis revealed an inverse correlation between the plasma concentration of DHEA-S and the injury severity. This change seems to suggest that an adrenal adaptation reaction is exhausted. The changes revealed in hormonal levels are of significance in understanding the pathogenesis of SCT. This may serve as a basis for the development of new therapy modalities using reproductive hormones in the postresuscitative period. Key words: severe concomitant injury, sex hormones, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androgens, estrogens.

  6. Circulating gonadotropins and ovarian adiponectin system are modulated by acupuncture independently of sex steroid or β-adrenergic action in a female hyperandrogenic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Alvi, Asif; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Miao; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-09-05

    Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200 µg/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (2.0 µg) every fourth day, or a β-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1 mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or β-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Management of Ocular Diseases Using Lutein and Zeaxanthin: What Have We Learned from Experimental Animal Studies?

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    Chunyan Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeaxanthin and lutein are two carotenoid pigments that concentrated in the retina, especially in the macula. The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and cataract, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, and uveitis, have been studied in different experimental animal models. In these animal models, lutein and zeaxanthin have been reported to have beneficial effects in protecting ocular tissues and cells (especially the retinal neurons against damage caused by different etiological factors. The mechanisms responsible for these effects of lutein and zeaxanthin include prevention of phototoxic damage by absorption of blue light, reduction of oxidative stress through antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, and their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. The results of these experimental animal studies may provide new preventive and therapeutic procedures for clinical management of various vision-threatening diseases.

  8. Effects of a Model Inducer, Phenobarbital, on Thyroid Hormone Glucuronidation in Rat Hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vivo, hepatic enzyme inducers such as phenobarbital (PB) decrease circulating thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations. This decrease in circulating TH occurs in part through extrathyroidal mechanisms. Specifically, through the induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes...

  9. Macular Pigment and Lutein Supplementation in ABCA4-associated Retinal Degenerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Tomas S.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Windsor, Elizabeth A. M.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Swider, Malgorzata; Chico, John D.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Pantelyat, Alexander Y.; Duncan, Keith G.; Gardner, Leigh M.; Emmons, Jessica M.; Steinberg, Janet D.; Stone, Edwin M.; Jacobson, Samuel G.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine macular pigment (MP) optical density (OD) in patients with ABCA4-associated retinal degenerations (ABCA4-RD) and the response of MP and vision to supplementation with lutein. METHODS Stargardt disease or cone-rod dystrophy patients with foveal fixation and with known or suspected disease-causing mutations in the ABCA4 gene were included. MPOD profiles were measured with heterochromatic flicker photometry. Serum carotenoids, visual acuity, foveal sensitivity and retinal thickness were quantified. Changes in MPOD and central vision were determined in a subset of patients receiving oral supplementation with lutein for 6 months. RESULTS MPOD in patients ranged from normal to markedly abnormal. As a group, ABCA4-RD patients had reduced foveal MPOD and there was strong correlation with retinal thickness. Average foveal tissue concentration of MP, estimated by dividing MPOD by retinal thickness, was normal in patients whereas serum concentration of lutein and zeaxanthin was significantly lower than normal. After oral lutein supplementation for 6 months, 91% of the patients showed significant increases in serum lutein and 63% of the patient eyes showed a significant augmentation in MPOD. The retinal responders tended to be female, and have lower serum lutein and zeaxanthin, lower MPOD and greater retinal thickness at baseline. Responding eyes had significantly lower baseline MP concentration compared to non-responding eyes. Central vision was unchanged after the period of supplementation. CONCLUSIONS MP is strongly affected by the stage of ABCA4 disease leading to abnormal foveal architecture. MP could be augmented by supplemental lutein in some patients. There was no change in central vision after 6 months of lutein supplementation. Long-term influences on the natural history of this supplement on macular degenerations require further study. PMID:17325179

  10. Transference of lutein during cheese making, color stability, and sensory acceptance of Prato cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, MTK; Maus, D; Xavier, AAO; Mercadante, AZ; Viotto, WH

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of lutein is associated with the prevention and reduction of age-related macular degeneration. Its incorporation into Prato cheese as a yellowish food coloring is a valid alternative to increase the daily intake of this compound. However, part of the lutein added may be lost in the whey during the cheese making, or it can be degraded by light during storage, resulting in color changes reducing the sensory acceptance of the cheese. The objectives of this study were to determine...

  11. Why has Nature Chosen Lutein and Zeaxanthin to Protect the Retina?

    OpenAIRE

    Widomska, Justyna; Subczynski, Witold K

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with a low level of macular carotenoids in the eye retina. Only two carotenoids, namely lutein and zeaxanthin are selectively accumulated in the human eye retina from blood plasma where more than twenty other carotenoids are available. The third carotenoid which is found in the human retina, meso-zeaxanthin is formed directly in the retina from lutein. All these carotenoids, named also macular xanthophylls, play key roles in eye health and ...

  12. Lutein-fortified infant formula fed to healthy term infants: evaluation of growth effects and safety

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    Davis Anne M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Objectives Breast milk contains lutein derived from the mother's diet. This carotenoid is currently not added to infant formula, which has a small and variable lutein content from innate ingredients. This study was conducted to compare the growth of infants fed lutein-fortified infant formula with that of infants fed infant formula without lutein fortification. Subjects/Methods This 16-week study was prospective, randomized, controlled, and double-blind with parallel groups of healthy term infants fed either control formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold, designated as Gold or experimental formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold fortified with lutein at 200 mcg/l, designated as Gold + Lutein. Two hundred thirty-two (232 infants ≤ 14 days postnatal age were randomized and 220 (94.8% completed the study. Weight (g, head circumference (cm, and length (cm were measured at Weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. The primary endpoint was weight gain (g/day from baseline to Week 16. Safety was assessed through monitoring of study events (SEs throughout the study and evaluation of selected blood chemistry tests performed at Week 16. Results Infants in both treatment groups demonstrated appropriate growth. No differences between treatment groups were found in any of the measures of growth at any of the measurement time points. Both study formulas were well tolerated. The mean values of all measured blood chemistry parameters fell within the modified normal ranges for infants, and the values for both groups for any measured parameter were similar. Conclusions Infants fed lutein-fortified S-26 Gold demonstrated growth equivalent to that of infants fed unfortified lutein formula.

  13. Circulating forms of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone-related protein for identifying patients with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. A comparative study with C-terminal (109-141)- and N-terminal (1-86)-region-specific PTHrP radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Mitsuko; Murakami, Minoru; Fukuchi, Minoru

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the circulating forms of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone-related protein(PTHrP) in 115 healthy subjects and 122 patients with malignant diseases by using radioassay systems (RAS) specific for the C-terminal (109-141) fragment of PTHrP (C-RAS) and for the N-terminal(1-86) (N-RAS). PTHrP levels in healthy controls ranged from 1.5 to 38.2 (mean: 24.5) pmol/L with the C-RAS and from 0.9 to 2.5 (mean: 1.7) pmol/L with the N-RAS. The ratio of circulating N-terminal fragment (N) to C-terminal fragment (C) of PTHrP was calculated to be about 1 : 14.4 in the healthy subjects. Of the 122 patients with malignant diseases, 40 (32.8%) had circulating PTHrP levels undetectable with the N-RAS, but only 11 (9.0%) patients had levels undetectable with the C-RAS. Of the former 122 patients, 41 (33.6%) had high PTHrP as determined with the C-RAS, and 10 (8.2%) had high PTHrP as determined with the N-RAS. The former of these included only 8 (19.5%) humoral hypercalcemia malignancy(HHM) patients, while the latter included 8 (80.0%) HHM patients. The circulating N to C ratio was about 1 : 70.7 in the HHM patients. The N and C obtained with the different RASs showed a close correlation (r=0.86). The values also showed a close correlation with serum Ca; r=0.75 for C-RAS and r=0.81 for N-RAS. In addition, the correlation between the PTHrP reading obtained with the different RASs and serum Cr were: r=0.42 with C-RAS and r=0.26 with N-RAS. The circulating form of immunoreactive PTHrP fragments is therefore comprised mainly of PTHrP (109-141). In contrast, circulating concentrations of the PTHrP (1-86) fragment are very low, but detection of the PTHrP (1-86) fragment with the N-RAS is a more useful indicator of HHM with fewer false positive results and is less likely to be influenced by renal function than the detection of the PHPrP (109-141) fragment with C-RAS. (author)

  14. Occurrence of neoxanthin and lutein epoxide cycle in parasitic Cuscuta species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Jerzy; Szymańska, Renata

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, xanthophyll composition of eight parasitic Cuscuta species under different light conditions was investigated. Neoxanthin was not detected in four of the eight species examined, while in others it occurred at the level of several percent of total xanthophylls. In C. gronovii and C. lupuliformis it was additionally found that the neoxanthin content was considerably stimulated by strong light. In dark-adapted plants, lutein epoxide level amounted to 10-22% of total xanthophylls in only three species, the highest being for C. lupuliformis, while in others it was below 3%, indicating that the lutein epoxide cycle is limited to only certain Cuscuta species. The obtained data also indicate that the presence of the lutein epoxide cycle and of neoxanthin is independent and variable among the Cuscuta species. The xanthophyll cycle carotenoids violaxanthin, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin were identified in all the examined species and occurred at the level found in other higher plants. The xanthophyll and lutein epoxide cycle pigments showed typical response to high light stress. The obtained results also suggest that the ability of higher plants to synthesize lutein epoxide probably does not depend on the substrate specificity of zeaxanthin epoxidase but on the availability of lutein for the enzyme.

  15. Process analysis and modeling of a single-step lutein extraction method for wet microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Mengyue; Wang, Yuruihan; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2017-11-01

    Lutein is a commercial carotenoid with potential health benefits. Microalgae are alternative sources for the lutein production in comparison to conventional approaches using marigold flowers. In this study, a process analysis of a single-step simultaneous extraction, saponification, and primary purification process for free lutein production from wet microalgae biomass was carried out. The feasibility of binary solvent mixtures for wet biomass extraction was successfully demonstrated, and the extraction kinetics of lutein from chloroplast in microalgae were first evaluated. The effects of types of organic solvent, solvent polarity, cell disruption method, and alkali and solvent usage on lutein yields were examined. A mathematical model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was applied to model the experimental data. The mass transfer coefficients were used to estimate the extraction rates. The extraction rate was found more significantly related with alkali ratio to solvent than to biomass. The best conditions for extraction efficiency were found to be pre-treatment with ultrasonication at 0.5 s working cycle per second, react 0.5 h in 0.27 L/g solvent to biomass ratio, and 1:3 ether/ethanol (v/v) with 1.25 g KOH/L. The entire process can be controlled within 1 h and yield over 8 mg/g lutein, which is more economical for scale-up.

  16. Impact of Lutein Intervention in Mice on the Radiation Induced Clastogenic Changes

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    Vidya Vasudeva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the genetic effects of radiation is that it may lead to formation of single or double strand breaks in DNA which can be observed in differentially stained polychromatic or normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE and NCE respectively. In pursuit of finding a natural radioprotector to treat the radiation induced damages; lutein, a carotenoid pigment is one such approach. Swiss albino mice are administered with the compound (lutein/gallic acid/DMSO with respective controls for 15 consecutive days after which they are irradiated. The whole blood is drawn for comet assay and the femur of the leg is removed to flush out the content of the bone marrow in BSA for the micronucleus assay. The comet slides are observed under the fluorescent microscope and the PCE/NCE or micronucleated PCEs or NCEs are scored blindly. Lutein in the present study has effectively reduced the olive moment and the tail moment. However, % DNA in tail has been maintained to normal levels in comparison to its control indicating lesser extent of damage to the genetic material. The percent micronucleated NCE (MnNCE has been decreased in the group treated with lutein prior to radiation. The % MnPCE and the PCE/(PCE + NCE ratio has been increased in all the irradiated groups; however lutein treatment has not drastically increased the formation of micronuclei in comparison to its control. This indicates that lutein shows a protective effect against the radiation induced cytogenetic damages in Swiss albino mice.

  17. Lutein Esterification in Wheat Flour Increases the Carotenoid Retention and Is Induced by Storage Temperatures

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    Elena Mellado-Ortega

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of long-term storage on the carotenoid pigments present in whole-grain flours prepared from durum wheat and tritordeum. As expected, higher storage temperatures showed a catabolic effect, which was very marked for free carotenoid pigments. Surprisingly, for both cereal genotypes, the thermal conditions favoured the synthesis of lutein esters, leading to an enhanced stability, slower degradation, and, subsequently, a greater carotenoid retention. The putative involvement of lipase enzymes in lutein esterification in flours is discussed, particularly regarding the preferential esterification of the hydroxyl group with linoleic acid at the 3′ in the ε-ring of the lutein molecule. The negative effects of processing on carotenoid retention were less pronounced in durum wheat flours, which could be due to an increased esterifying activity (the de novo formation of diesterified xanthophylls was observed. Moreover, clear differences were observed for tritordeum depending on whether the lutein was in a free or esterified state. For instance, lutein-3′-O-monolinoleate showed a three-fold lower degradation rate than free lutein at 37 °C. In view of our results, we advise that the biofortification research aimed at increasing the carotenoid contents in cereals should be based on the selection of varieties with an enhanced content of esterified xanthophylls.

  18. Exploratory Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Compounds Correlated with Lutein Concentration in Frontal Cortex, Hippocampus, and Occipital Cortex of Human Infant Brain.

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    Jacqueline C Lieblein-Boff

    Full Text Available Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula, and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with macular and postmortem brain lutein concentrations. Furthermore, lutein was found to preferentially accumulate in the infant brain in comparison to other carotenoids that are predominant in diet. While lutein is consistently related to cognitive function, the mechanisms by which lutein may influence cognition are not clear. In an effort to identify potential mechanisms through which lutein might influence neurodevelopment, an exploratory study relating metabolite signatures and lutein was completed. Post-mortem metabolomic analyses were performed on human infant brain tissues in three regions important for learning and memory: the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex. Metabolomic profiles were compared to lutein concentration, and correlations were identified and reported here. A total of 1276 correlations were carried out across all brain regions. Of 427 metabolites analyzed, 257 were metabolites of known identity. Unidentified metabolite correlations (510 were excluded. In addition, moderate correlations with xenobiotic relationships (2 or those driven by single outliers (3 were excluded from further study. Lutein concentrations correlated with lipid pathway metabolites, energy pathway metabolites, brain osmolytes, amino acid neurotransmitters, and the antioxidant homocarnosine. These correlations were often brain region-specific. Revealing relationships between lutein and metabolic pathways may help identify potential candidates on which to complete further analyses and may shed light on important roles of lutein in the human brain during development.

  19. Clinical significance of combined measurement of serum sex hormones in secondary amenorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Boxun; Chen Yue; Gan Xilun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of levels of serum sex hormones in the diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. Methods: Serum sex hormones levels were measured with chemiluminescence in 100 patients with secondary amenorrhea and 42 controls. The serum hormones determined were: estradiol (E 2 )-, progesterone (PROG), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (TSTO). Results: Patients with secondary amenorrhea had significantly higher levels of serum FSH, LH and PRL ( P 2 (P<0.05) than those in the controls. Serum levels of PROG and TSTO were about the same in the patients and controls. Conclusion: Determination of serum hormones levels with chemiluminescence is clinically useful for diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. (authors)

  20. The relationship of exercise to anovulatory cycles in female athletes: hormonal and physical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J B; Mitchell, D; Musey, P I; Collins, D C

    1984-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity affects the menstrual cycle. Women with high, medium, and low levels of physical activity were compared for menstrual function, physical characteristics, and urinary and serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, estradiol-17 beta, and 2-hydroxyestrone. None of the physical characteristics other than age and muscle area were significantly different in the three groups. The percentage of body fat did not appear to be a factor in the amenorrhea induced by strenuous exercise, as the percent of body fat in all three groups was less than 22%. The group of athletes under strenuous exercise which correlated with oligomenorrhea had decreased serum levels of luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and estradiol-17 beta but elevated levels of 2-hydroxyestrone. These data suggest that anovulatory cycles are correlated with the amount of exercise and increased levels of catechol estrogens. Catecholamines and beta-endorphin elevated by exercise may interact to suppress luteinizing hormone release at the hypothalamic pituitary axis.

  1. Possible influences of lutein and zeaxanthin on the developing retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, J Paul; Hammond, Billy R

    2007-03-01

    The carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin (LZ) are found throughout the central nervous system but reach their highest concentration within the macular region of the primate retina where they are commonly referred to as the macular pigments. Although LZ are a major integral feature of the central fovea, no information currently exists regarding the effects of variability in the concentration of these pigments on the developing retina. In particular, the long-term effects of very low levels of macular pigment are not known and potentially meaningful. Macular pigment levels depend upon dietary intake since LZ cannot be synthesized de novo. Infants with low intake of LZ (eg, infants receiving unfortified infant formula or breast milk from mothers with low carotenoid diets) would be expected to have considerably lower macular pigment compared with infants with high LZ intake (eg, breast-fed infants with mothers on carotenoid-rich diets). In this paper we discuss possible implications of this difference and the available evidence suggesting that LZ could influence the developing visual system.

  2. The Relationship between Lutein and Zeaxanthin Status and Body Fat

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    Billy R. Hammond

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to investigate the relationships between total and regional distribution of body fat and tissue lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z status. Healthy men and women (N = 100; average age: 22.5 year, average BMI: 23.4 kg/m2 were evaluated. Total body and regional fat mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Delphi A. Serum LZ was measured using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and retinal LZ (referred to as macular pigment optical density; MPOD was measured using heterochromatic flicker photometry. Body fat percentage (total and regional was inversely related to MPOD (p < 0.01 but no significant relationship was found for serum LZ. Higher body fat percentage, even within relatively healthy limits, is associated with lower tissue LZ status. The results indicate that adiposity may affect the nutritional state of the retina. Such links may be one of the reasons that obesity promotes age-related degenerative conditions of the retina.

  3. [Male hormonal contraception: past, present, future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, Norbert; Hegyi, Borbála Eszter; Badó, Attila; Németh, Gábor

    2017-11-01

    In certain regions of the world the enormous rate of population growth raises economic and public health concerns and widely accessible contraceptive methods would be desired. In contrast, in other countries the use of effective contraception is a question of individual preferences. Today, most of the reliable contraceptive methods are applied by women, while the options for male methods are quite limited. It is well known that significant portion of pregnancies are still unplanned and several data revealed men's willingness to take part in family planning. Based on these needs, remarkable efforts have been made to develop a suitable hormonal contraceptive agent for men. With the exogenous suppression of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion, the inhibition of the testicular testosterone production and the spermatogenesis can be achieved. In the beginning, testosterone-derivatives, or testosterone-progestin combinations were administered, later synthetic androgen agents were developed. Despite of these efforts, unfortunately, there is no safe, widely feasible male hormonal contraception to date, but in the future this goal can be achieved by solving the key hurdles. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(46): 1819-1830.

  4. Metabolism of Lutein and Zeaxanthin in Rhesus Monkeys: Identification of (3R,6′R)- and (3R,6′S)-3′-Dehydro-lutein as Common Metabolites and Comparison to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Gesa I.; Hoeller, Ulrich; Schierle, Joseph; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Schalch, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are xanthophylls that can be found highly concentrated in the macula of the retina. They are thought to protect the macula through their role as blue-light filters and because of their antioxidant and singlet oxygen quenching properties. Examination of metabolites unique to lutein and zeaxanthin such as 3′-dehydro-lutein, and of their stereochemistry may provide insight to the mechanism by which they are formed and by which they exert protection. To evaluate the formation of such metabolites, eleven monkeys were raised on a xanthophyll-free diet, and supplemented with pure lutein or pure zeaxanthin (2.2 mg/kg body weight/d). The period of supplementation ranged between 12 to 92 weeks. At study start and throughout the study, serum samples were taken and analyzed for xanthophylls using different HPLC systems. Xanthophyll metabolites were identified using UV/VIS and HR-MS detection. Lutein and zeaxanthin metabolites were found in detectable amounts with 3′-dehydro-lutein being a common metabolite of both. Using chiral-phase HPLC, two diastereomers, (3R,6′R)-3′-dehydro-lutein and (3R,6′S)-3′-dehydro-lutein, were identified and shown to be present in nearly equimolar amounts. A pathway for their formation from either lutein or zeaxanthin is proposed. These finding were comparable to results obtained with human plasma. PMID:18582588

  5. Association between thyroid hormones and TRAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stella; Bossi, Fleur; Toffoli, Barbara; Giudici, Fabiola; Bramante, Alessandra; Furlanis, Giulia; Stenner, Elisabetta; Secchiero, Paola; Zauli, Giorgio; Carretta, Renzo; Fabris, Bruno

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that a circulating protein called TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) might have a role in the regulation of body weight and metabolism. Interestingly, thyroid hormones seem to increase TRAIL tissue expression. This study aimed at evaluating whether overt thyroid disorders affected circulating TRAIL levels. TRAIL circulating levels were measured in euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid patients before and after thyroid function normalization. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation between thyroid hormones and TRAIL. Then, the stimulatory effect of both triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) on TRAIL was evaluated in vitro on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Circulating levels of TRAIL significantly increased in hyperthyroid and decreased in hypothyroid patients as compared to controls. Once thyroid function was restored, TRAIL levels normalized. There was an independent association between TRAIL and both fT3 and fT4. Consistent with these findings, T3 and T4 stimulated TRAIL release in vitro. Here we show that thyroid hormones are associated with TRAIL expression in vivo and stimulate TRAIL expression in vitro. Given the overlap between the metabolic effects of thyroid hormones and TRAIL, this work sheds light on the possibility that TRAIL might be one of the molecules mediating thyroid hormones peripheral effects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mathematical modeling of gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Amitesh; Garner, Kathryn L; Voliotis, Margaritis; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; McArdle, Craig A

    2017-07-05

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) acts via G-protein coupled receptors on pituitary gonadotropes to control reproduction. These are G q -coupled receptors that mediate acute effects of GnRH on the exocytotic secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), as well as the chronic regulation of their synthesis. GnRH is secreted in short pulses and GnRH effects on its target cells are dependent upon the dynamics of these pulses. Here we overview GnRH receptors and their signaling network, placing emphasis on pulsatile signaling, and how mechanistic mathematical models and an information theoretic approach have helped further this field. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lutein accumulates in subcellular membranes of brain regions in adult rhesus macaques: Relationship to DHA oxidation products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Mohn

    Full Text Available Lutein, a carotenoid with anti-oxidant functions, preferentially accumulates in primate brain and is positively related to cognition in humans. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, is also beneficial for cognition, but is susceptible to oxidation. The present study characterized the membrane distribution of lutein in brain regions important for different domains of cognitive function and determined whether membrane lutein was associated with brain PUFA oxidation.Adult rhesus monkeys were fed a stock diet (~2 mg/day lutein or ~0.5 μmol/kg body weight/day (n = 9 or the stock diet plus a daily supplement of lutein (~4.5 mg/day or~1 μmol/kg body weight/day and zeaxanthin (~0.5 mg/day or 0.1 μmol/kg body weight/day for 6-12 months (n = 4. Nuclear, myelin, mitochondrial, and neuronal plasma membranes were isolated using a Ficoll density gradient from prefrontal cortex (PFC, cerebellum (CER, striatum (ST, and hippocampus (HC. Carotenoids, PUFAs, and PUFA oxidation products were measured using HPLC, GC, and LC-GC/MS, respectively.All-trans-lutein (ng/mg protein was detected in all regions and membranes and was highly variable among monkeys. Lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation significantly increased total concentrations of lutein in serum, PFC and CER, as well as lutein in mitochondrial membranes and total DHA concentrations in PFC only (P<0.05. In PFC and ST, mitochondrial lutein was inversely related to DHA oxidation products, but not those from arachidonic acid (P <0.05.This study provides novel data on subcellular lutein accumulation and its relationship to DHA oxidation in primate brain. These findings support the hypothesis that lutein may be associated with antioxidant functions in the brain.

  8. Fat content affects bioaccessibility and efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of lutein esters added to milk and yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Ana Augusta Odorissi; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Addition of lutein to dairy products is an alternative that widens the range of foods which could be lutein sources. However, bioaccessibility is an essential aspect to be considered during the development of products with added bioactive substances. We evaluated the in vitro bioaccessibility of lutein esters added to milk and yogurt with different fat contents, and determined the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the esters during digestion. Bioaccessibility of lutei...

  9. Differential responsiveness of luteinized human granulosa cells to gonadotropins and insulin-like growth factor I for induction of aromatase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christman, G.M.; Randolph, J.F. Jr.; Peegel, H.; Menon, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro responsiveness of cultured luteinized human granulosa cells over time to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the induction of aromatase activity. Granulosa cells were retrieved from preovulatory follicles in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. Cells were cultured for a period of 72 hours or 10 days. The ability of hCG, human FSH, and/or IGF-I to induce aromatase activity was assayed by the stereospecific release of tritium from [1B-3H]androstenedione. Short-term cultures (72 hours) demonstrated a marked rise in aromatase activity in response to human FSH and IGF-I, whereas a smaller response to hCG was observed. In contrast, 10-day cultures demonstrated responsiveness predominantly to hCG rather than human FSH for the induction of aromatase activity with no remarkable effect of IGF-I. Luteinized human granulosa cells undergo a transformation from an initial human FSH and IGF-I responsive state to an hCG responsive state in long-term cultures

  10. Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption: Prevalence, Environmental Contaminants and Neurodevelopmental Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to...

  11. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sookyoung Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group. All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions.

  12. Effects of Thyroid Dysfunction on Reproductive Hormones in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Guo, Meng; Hu, Xusong; Weng, Xuechun; Tian, Ye; Xu, Kaili; Heng, Dai; Liu, Wenbo; Ding, Yu; Yang, Yanzhou; Zhang, Cheng

    2018-05-10

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in the development of ovarian cells. Although the effects of THs on female reproduction are of great interest, the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of TH dysregulation on reproductive hormones in rats. Propylthiouracil (PTU) and L-thyroxine were administered to rats to induce hypo- and hyper-thyroidism, respectively, and the reproductive hormone profiles were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian histology was evaluated with H&E staining, and gene protein level or mRNA content was analyzed by western blotting or RT-PCR. The serum levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in both rat models were significantly decreased on day 21, although there were no significant changes at earlier time points. There were no significant differences in luteinizing hormone (LH) or progesterone levels between the treatment and the control groups. Both PTU and L-thyroxine treatments downregulated estradiol concentrations; however, the serum testosterone level was increased only in hypothyroid rats at day 21. In addition, the expression levels of FSH receptor, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein were decreased in both rat models. Moreover, the onset of puberty was significantly delayed in the hypothyroid group. These results provide evidence that TH dysregulation alters reproductive hormone profiles, and that the initiation of the estrous cycle is postponed in hypothyroidism.

  13. Effect of radiation on proteo-hormones activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulaj, L.

    1975-05-01

    Samples of pituitary hormones were irradiated by a 60 Co source. A dose rate of 1.0-1.1 Mrad/hour and the doses of 0.5, 2.5 and 12.5 Mrad were used. The hormone preparations in the dry solid state or in solution were sealed into glass ampules. After sterilization they were kept at 4 0 C until the biological activity had been tested. The biological activity of thyroid stimulating hormone TSH, subjected to a sterilizing dose of 2.5 Mrad of gamma radiation, was found to have decreased when tested 3-5 months after irradiation. TSH remained fully active for up to 1 month after sterilization. The activity of vasopressin dropped off markedly during the 3-4 week period after irradiation. Biological activity of growth hormone tested shortly after irradiation was found to be unaffected. The activities of adrenocorticotropic hormone, human menopausal gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone were not affected. The experiments can be considered promising since they show that pituitary proteohorm, one preparations in the solid state may be sterilized. The stability on storage needs, however, to be carefully checked individually for every single hormone

  14. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  15. Parahippocampal Cortex Mediates the Relationship between Lutein and Crystallized Intelligence in Healthy, Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K; Paul, Erick J; Zwilling, Chris E; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Kuchan, Matthew J; Cohen, Neal J; Barbey, Aron K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although, diet has a substantial influence on the aging brain, the relationship between dietary nutrients and aspects of brain health remains unclear. This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between a carotenoid important for brain health across the lifespan, lutein, and crystallized intelligence in cognitively intact older adults. We hypothesized that higher serum levels of lutein are associated with better performance on a task of crystallized intelligence, and that this relationship is mediated by gray matter structure of regions within the temporal cortex. This investigation aims to contribute to a growing line of evidence, which suggests that particular nutrients may slow or prevent aspects of cognitive decline by targeting specific features of brain aging. Methods: We examined 76 cognitively intact adults between the ages of 65 and 75 to investigate the relationship between serum lutein, tests of crystallized intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence), and gray matter volume of regions within the temporal cortex. A three-step mediation analysis was implemented using multivariate linear regressions to control for age, sex, education, income, depression status, and body mass index. Results: The mediation analysis revealed that gray matter thickness of one region within the temporal cortex, the right parahippocampal cortex (Brodmann's Area 34), partially mediates the relationship between serum lutein and crystallized intelligence. Conclusion: These results suggest that the parahippocampal cortex acts as a mediator of the relationship between serum lutein and crystallized intelligence in cognitively intact older adults. Prior findings substantiate the individual relationships reported within the mediation, specifically the links between (i) serum lutein and temporal cortex structure, (ii) serum lutein and crystallized intelligence, and (iii) parahippocampal cortex structure and

  16. Parahippocampal Cortex Mediates the Relationship between Lutein and Crystallized Intelligence in Healthy, Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Karolina Zamroziewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although diet has a substantial influence on the aging brain, the relationship between dietary nutrients and aspects of brain health remains unclear. This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between a carotenoid important for brain health across the lifespan, lutein, and crystallized intelligence in cognitively intact older adults. We hypothesized that higher serum levels of lutein are associated with better performance on a task of crystallized intelligence, and that this relationship is mediated by gray matter structure of regions within the temporal cortex. This investigation aims to contribute to a growing line of evidence, which suggests that particular nutrients may slow or prevent aspects of cognitive decline by targeting specific features of brain aging.Methods: We examined 75 cognitively intact adults between the ages of 65 and 75 to investigate the relationship between serum lutein, tests of crystallized intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, and gray matter volume of regions within the temporal cortex. A three-step mediation analysis was implemented using multivariate linear regressions to control for age, sex, education, income, depression status, and body mass index.Results: The mediation analysis revealed that gray matter thickness of one region within the temporal cortex, the right parahippocampal cortex (Brodmann’s Area 34, partially mediates the relationship between serum lutein and crystallized intelligence. Conclusion: These results suggest that the parahippocampal cortex acts as a mediator of the relationship between serum lutein and crystallized intelligence in cognitively intact older adults. Prior findings substantiate the individual relationships reported within the mediation, specifically the links between (i serum lutein and temporal cortex structure, (ii serum lutein and crystallized intelligence, and (iii parahippocampal cortex structure

  17. Outdoor cultivation of lutein-rich cells of Muriellopsis sp. in open ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Antonio M; Moreno, José; Del Campo, José A; Rivas, Joaquín; Guerrero, Miguel G

    2007-01-01

    The growth performance of the chlorophycean microalga Muriellopsis sp. outdoors in open tanks agitated with a paddlewheel and its ability to accumulate carotenoids have been evaluated throughout the year. The cells grown in the open system had free lutein as the main carotenoid, with violaxanthin, beta-carotene, and neoxanthin also present. Lutein content of the dry biomass ranged from 0.4 to 0.6%, depending on the growth and environmental conditions. In addition, the biomass of Muriellopsis sp. had a high content in both protein and lipids with about half of the fatty acids being of the polyunsaturated type, with alpha-linolenic acid accounting for almost 30% of the total fatty acids. The effect of determinant parameters on the performance of the cultures in open tanks was evaluated. Operating conditions that allow the maintenance of productive cultures were established under semicontinuous regime for 9 months throughout the year. Biomass and lutein yields in the open system were not far from those in closed tubular photobioreactors, and reached productivity values of 20 g dry biomass, containing around 100 mg lutein m(-2) day(-1) in summer. The outdoor culture of Muriellopsis sp. in open ponds thus represents a real alternative to established systems for the production of lutein.

  18. Dietary Sources of Lutein and Zeaxanthin Carotenoids and Their Role in Eye Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashida Ali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The eye is a major sensory organ that requires special care for a healthy and productive lifestyle. Numerous studies have identified lutein and zeaxanthin to be essential components for eye health. Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoid pigments that impart yellow or orange color to various common foods such as cantaloupe, pasta, corn, carrots, orange/yellow peppers, fish, salmon and eggs. Their role in human health, in particular the health of the eye, is well established from epidemiological, clinical and interventional studies. They constitute the main pigments found in the yellow spot of the human retina which protect the macula from damage by blue light, improve visual acuity and scavenge harmful reactive oxygen species. They have also been linked with reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD and cataracts. Research over the past decade has focused on the development of carotenoid-rich foods to boost their intake especially in the elderly population. The aim of this article is to review recent scientific evidences supporting the benefits of lutein and zexanthin in preventing the onset of two major age-related eye diseases with diets rich in these carotenoids. The review also lists major dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin and refers to newly developed foods, daily intake, bioavailability and physiological effects in relation to eye health. Examples of the newly developed high-lutein functional foods are also underlined.

  19. Study of hormonal status of surgical patients with endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musina, R.Kh.; Kiseleva, N.S.; Modnikov, O.P.

    1987-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay was conducted in the pituitary-ovary and pituitary-adrenals systems in 37 cases of endometrial carcinoma treatment and 1, 3, 5 and 14 days after extirpation of the uterus and appendages. The levels of follicle - stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing (LH) hormones of the pituitary, prolactin, ACTH, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol and aldosterone were studied. Such disturbances as decreased production of FSH, LH, progesterone and testosterone were observed before operation. Surgery was followed by a considerable rise in prolactin production and basal levels of FSH and LH, a decrease in estradiol, progesterone and testosterone concentrations and was accompanied by a sizeable release of cortisol and aldosterone

  20. Small-scale extraction and radioiodination of human hormones for the substitution of imported radioimmunoassay reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimbo, E.K.; Ribela, M.T.C.P.; Borghi, V.C.; Schwarz, I.; Morganti, L.; Araujo, E.A.; Bartolini, P.

    1988-01-01

    The methods for national production of radioimmunoassay reagents to substitute imported kits of: highly purified unlabelled hormones for radioiodination; 125 I-labelled hormones; and specific high titre antisera are presented. The extraction and purification of human growth hormone (hGH) and human luteinizing hormone (hGH) were done from human pituitaries. The 125 I-labelled hormones are obtained by stoichiometric methods. The 125 I-hGH, 125 I-hLH, I-hTSH and 125 I- h calcitonin were prepared and tested in internal and external quality control, in comparison with imported products. The parameters such as: maximum binding to specific antiserum (Bo), nonspecific binding (NSB), mean effective dose (ED 50), sensitivity and accuracy were evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Radioimmunoassay of hormonal secretion of the gonadal axis in patients with puberty metrorrhagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balova, V.; Maleeva, A.; Khristov, L.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty two girls aged 10 to 16 years, admitted to the Institute of Obstetries and Genecology, are investigated. The concentration levels of gonadal axis hormones are determined, and the obtained results are compared with the hormonal concentrations in normal girls of comparable age. It is established that the luteinizing hormone level is considerably and statistically significantly increased (P> 0.001), exceeding as much as four times average the level of the follicle-stimulating hormone (LH:FSH = 4:1), whereas in normal conditions there is a 2:1 ratio. Presumably, in cases of puberty metrorrhagia the uterine bleedings are associated with enhanced and disturbed secretion of Gonadotropic hormones, occurring as a result of the altered immunoreactivity of the organism. (author)

  2. Does last week's alcohol intake affect semen quality or reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M L; Thulstrup, A M; Bonde, J P

    2012-01-01

    The association between last 5 days of alcohol intake, semen quality and reproductive hormones was estimated in this cross-sectional study among 347 men. Conventional semen characteristics, DNA fragmentation index and reproductive hormones (testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin...... (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and inhibin B) were determined. There was a tendency towards lower semen characteristics at higher intake of alcohol past 5 days, albeit with no statistically significant dose-response association. The ratio between free estradiol...... and free testosterone was higher at higher alcohol intake during the 5 days preceding semen sampling. In conclusion, alcohol intake was associated with impairment of most semen characteristics but without a coherent dose-response pattern. The study indicates an association between recent alcohol intake...

  3. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...... properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  4. The circadian variation in Anti-Müllerian hormone in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome differs significantly from normally ovulating women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bungum, Leif Johan; Franssohn, Florencia; Bungum, Mona Berger Håkonsen

    2013-01-01

    To improve the biologic understanding of the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) condition by examining the circadian variation and relationship between Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH), gonadotropins and ovarian steroids in PCOS patients compared to normally ovulating and menstruating women....... By comparing the pattern of co-variation between AMH and Luteinizing Hormone, two compounds closely linked to hyperandrogenism and anovulation in PCOS, the involvement of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian axis in PCOS pathology could be elucidated....

  5. Characterization of hormonal profiles during the luteal phase in regularly menstruating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecochard, Rene; Bouchard, Thomas; Leiva, Rene; Abdulla, Saman; Dupuis, Olivier; Duterque, Olivia; Garmier Billard, Marie; Boehringer, Hans; Genolini, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the variability of hormonal profiles during the luteal phase in normal cycles. Observational study. Not applicable. Ninety-nine women contributing 266 menstrual cycles. The women collected first morning urine samples that were analyzed for estrone-3-glucuronide, pregnanediol-3-alpha-glucuronide (PDG), FSH, and LH. The women had serum P tests (twice per cycle) and underwent ultrasonography to identify the day of ovulation. The luteal phase was divided into three parts: the early luteal phase with increasing PDG (luteinization), the midluteal phase with PDG ≥10 μg/mg Cr (progestation), and the late luteal phase (luteolysis) when PDG fell below 10 μg/mg Cr. Long luteal phases begin with long luteinization processes. The early luteal phase is marked by low PDG and high LH levels. Long luteinization phases were correlated with low E1G and low PDG levels at day 3. The length of the early luteal phase is highly variable between cycles of the same woman. The duration and hormonal levels during the rest of the luteal phase were less correlated with other characteristics of the cycle. The study showed the presence of a prolonged pituitary activity during the luteinization process, which seems to be modulated by an interaction between P and LH. This supports a luteal phase model with three distinct processes: the first is a modulated luteinization process, whereas the second and the third are relatively less modulated processes of progestation and luteolysis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling associations between latent event processes governing time series of pulsing hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huayu; Carlson, Nichole E; Grunwald, Gary K; Polotsky, Alex J

    2017-10-31

    This work is motivated by a desire to quantify relationships between two time series of pulsing hormone concentrations. The locations of pulses are not directly observed and may be considered latent event processes. The latent event processes of pulsing hormones are often associated. It is this joint relationship we model. Current approaches to jointly modeling pulsing hormone data generally assume that a pulse in one hormone is coupled with a pulse in another hormone (one-to-one association). However, pulse coupling is often imperfect. Existing joint models are not flexible enough for imperfect systems. In this article, we develop a more flexible class of pulse association models that incorporate parameters quantifying imperfect pulse associations. We propose a novel use of the Cox process model as a model of how pulse events co-occur in time. We embed the Cox process model into a hormone concentration model. Hormone concentration is the observed data. Spatial birth and death Markov chain Monte Carlo is used for estimation. Simulations show the joint model works well for quantifying both perfect and imperfect associations and offers estimation improvements over single hormone analyses. We apply this model to luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), two reproductive hormones. Use of our joint model results in an ability to investigate novel hypotheses regarding associations between LH and FSH secretion in obese and non-obese women. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  7. Gastrointestinal Hormones Induced the Birth of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology. It is noteworthy that after the discovery of these 2 gastrointestinal hormones, many other hormones were detected outside the gut, and thereafter gut hormones faded from both the clinical and scientific spotlight. Only recently, the clinical importance of the gut as the body's largest endocrine organ producing a large variety of hormones has been realized. Gastrointestinal hormones are essential regulators of metabolism, growth, development and behavior and are therefore the focus of a modern pediatric endocrinologist. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Asprosin, a fasting-induced glucogenic protein hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic glucose release into the circulation is vital for brain function and survival during periods of fasting and is modulated by an array of hormones that precisely regulate plasma glucose levels. We have identified a fasting-induced protein hormone that modulates hepatic glucose release. It is t...

  9. Role of endogenous hormones in premenopausal females with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate hormone levels in premenopausal females with breast cancer at the time of diagnosis and to predict their role as a risk factor of breast cancer in females. Circulating hormone levels were measured in 345 previously untreated premenopausal breast cancer patients during luteal ...

  10. Comparison of the Levels of LH and FSH, TSH, Prolactin, Progesterone and Estradiol Hormones between Iranian Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Hashemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS with the prevalence of 5 to 7% among Iranian women is a leading cause of infertility and endocrine disorder. Metabolic disorders such as increased levels of LH and FSH hormones in these patients was common and influences health of women with PCOS in long-term. Treatment of female infertility and other complications in many cases need to regulate hormones and receive exogenous hormone, and then the effect of female hormones on the disease is very important. In this study, levels of Luteinizing hormone (LH and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and other female hormones among Iranian women with PCOS and infertility and healthy people were measured in this regard and values were compared. The result of this study showed that LH and progesterone hormone levels were significantly different in this syndrome than healthy women.

  11. Obesity, lutein metabolism, and age-related macular degeneration: a web of connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of visual impairment in the United States. Currently there is no effective cure for this disease. Risk factors include decreased lutein and zeaxanthin status and obesity. Obesity is also an increasing public health concern. The alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity further exacerbates the public health concern of AMD. The mechanism by which obesity increases the risk of AMD may be related to the physiologic changes that occur with this condition. These include increased oxidative stress, changes in the lipoprotein profile, and increased inflammation. These changes would also result in an increased destruction and a decreased circulatory delivery of lutein and zeaxanthin to the macula of the eye. Therefore, the mechanism by which obesity is related to AMD risk may be through indirect effects on changes in lutein and zeaxanthin status and metabolism.

  12. Effects of the Macular Carotenoid Lutein in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Gong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells are central to retinal health and homoeostasis. Oxidative stress-induced damage to the RPE occurs as part of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration and neovascular retinopathies (e.g., retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy. The xanthophyll carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, are selectively taken up by the RPE, preferentially accumulated in the human macula, and transferred to photoreceptors. These macular xanthophylls protect the macula (and the broader retina via their antioxidant and photo-protective activities. This study was designed to investigate effects of various carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein on RPE cells subjected to either hypoxia or oxidative stress, in order to determine if there is effect specificity for macular pigment carotenoids. Using human RPE-derived ARPE-19 cells as an in vitro model, we exposed RPE cells to various concentrations of the specific carotenoids, followed by either graded hypoxia or oxidative stress using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP. The results indicate that lutein and lycopene, but not β-carotene, inhibit cell growth in undifferentiated ARPE-19 cells. Moreover, cell viability was decreased under hypoxic conditions. Pre-incubation of ARPE-19 cells with lutein or lycopene protected against tBHP-induced cell loss and cell co-exposure of lutein or lycopene with tBHP essentially neutralized tBHP-dependent cell death at tBHP concentrations up to 500 μM. Our findings indicate that lutein and lycopene inhibit the growth of human RPE cells and protect the RPE against oxidative stress-induced cell loss. These findings contribute to the understanding of the protective mechanisms attributable to retinal xanthophylls in eye health and retinopathies.

  13. Delayed lactogenesis II secondary to gestational ovarian theca lutein cysts in two normal singleton pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Kathleen L; Barbalinardo, Laurie H; Platia, Maria Pia

    2002-08-01

    Hyperreactio luteinalis is an unusual condition in which, during pregnancy, both ovaries are enlarged by multiple theca lutein cysts that produce a high level of testosterone. Several weeks postpartum, the cysts resolve and testosterone level returns to normal. Two case studies are presented in which mothers with gestational ovarian theca lutein cysts experienced delayed lactogenesis II. The elevated testosterone at the time of birth suppressed milk production. Once the testosterone level dropped to approximately 300 ng/dL, milk production began. After the initial delay, both mothers breastfed their infants without supplementation.

  14. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Bone Mineral Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nicolien A; Noordam, Raymond; van Klinken, Jan B

    2018-01-01

    With population aging, prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and associated fracture risk are increased. To determine whether low circulating thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels within the normal range are causally related to BMD, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR...

  15. The effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on calciotropic hormones and bone mineral density in obese subjects with low levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin d: results from a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamberg, Louise; Pedersen, Steen B; Richelsen, Bjørn; Rejnmark, Lars

    2013-07-01

    Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) are associated with increased bone turnover and risk of fractures. Plasma 25OHD is inversely related to body mass index, and vitamin D deficiency is common in obesity. We aimed to determine whether vitamin D supplementation affects bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) in obese subjects. Fifty-two healthy obese men and women aged 18-50 years with plasma 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/L were randomized to 7,000 IU of cholecalciferol daily or placebo for 26 weeks. We measured plasma levels of 25OHD, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and markers of bone turnover, as well as BMD at the hip, spine, forearm, and whole body. Compared with placebo, treatment with cholecalciferol increased mean plasma 25OHD from 35 to 110 nmol/L (p importance to bone health in young obese subjects as increased levels of 25OHD are associated with a decrease in both PTH and bone turnover and with an increase in BMD at the forearm.

  16. Effects of dietary antioxidant supplementation in cow’s feed, milk processing and storage on lutein content and sensory quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, we studied the lutein content in milk as affected by lutein supplementation in the absence and presence of common antioxidants, vitamin E (Vit E), tea polyphenols (TP) and ethoxyquin (EQ) in cow’s feed, and by subsequent pasteurization (HTST and UHT) and storage. Results showed that l...

  17. Role of lutein in alleviating the effects of electron beam radiation induced hematological and biochemical changes in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidya, V.; Krishna, A.P.; Patil, Shrikant; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Lutein is a naturally occurring xanthophyll pigment derived from α-carotene. It is abundantly present in Tagetes erecta L. (marigold) and also present in a few vegetables, fruits and in animal sources. Lutein was evaluated for its protective role in electron beam radiation induced damages in Swiss albino mice. The drug was optimized for its radioprotective activity

  18. Macular pigment density in relation to serum and adipose tissue concentrations of lutein and serum concentrations of zeaxanthin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, W.M.R.; Berendschot, T.T.J.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Vries, A.J. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Poppel, G. van

    2002-01-01

    Background: Macular pigment (MP), concentrated in the central area of the retina, contains the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. A low MP density could be a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration. Little information is available regarding MP density in relation to serum lutein and

  19. DynPeak: An Algorithm for Pulse Detection and Frequency Analysis in Hormonal Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Alexandre; Zhang, Qinghua; Médigue, Claire; Fabre, Stéphane; Clément, Frédérique

    2012-01-01

    The endocrine control of the reproductive function is often studied from the analysis of luteinizing hormone (LH) pulsatile secretion by the pituitary gland. Whereas measurements in the cavernous sinus cumulate anatomical and technical difficulties, LH levels can be easily assessed from jugular blood. However, plasma levels result from a convolution process due to clearance effects when LH enters the general circulation. Simultaneous measurements comparing LH levels in the cavernous sinus and jugular blood have revealed clear differences in the pulse shape, the amplitude and the baseline. Besides, experimental sampling occurs at a relatively low frequency (typically every 10 min) with respect to LH highest frequency release (one pulse per hour) and the resulting LH measurements are noised by both experimental and assay errors. As a result, the pattern of plasma LH may be not so clearly pulsatile. Yet, reliable information on the InterPulse Intervals (IPI) is a prerequisite to study precisely the steroid feedback exerted on the pituitary level. Hence, there is a real need for robust IPI detection algorithms. In this article, we present an algorithm for the monitoring of LH pulse frequency, basing ourselves both on the available endocrinological knowledge on LH pulse (shape and duration with respect to the frequency regime) and synthetic LH data generated by a simple model. We make use of synthetic data to make clear some basic notions underlying our algorithmic choices. We focus on explaining how the process of sampling affects drastically the original pattern of secretion, and especially the amplitude of the detectable pulses. We then describe the algorithm in details and perform it on different sets of both synthetic and experimental LH time series. We further comment on how to diagnose possible outliers from the series of IPIs which is the main output of the algorithm. PMID:22802933

  20. Prevention of adsorption losses during radioimmunoassay of polypeptide hormones: effectiveness of albumins, gelatin, caseins, Tween 20 and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, J.H.; Donald, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that polypeptide hormones adsorb to glass and plastic surfaces and that this adsorption may be reduced by adding a relatively large quantity of another protein. Consequently proteins (or sometimes detergents) are added almost universally to peptide hormone radioimmunassays to minimise loss of analyte by adsorption. This study was undertaken because there are few reports of the relative effectiveness of the proteins so used. The results suggest that moderate concentrations of the widely used albumins of Tween 20 do not always adequately prevent the adsorption of hormonal polypeptides to surfaces. Casein and alkali-treated casein appear to be more effective than the adsorption inhibitors in general use in radioimmunoassay for the range of hormones and adsorptive surfaces tested. They were also found to be very effective for preventing the adsorption of radio-labelled human luteinizing hormone, human growth hormone and Tyr-somatostatin. (Auth.)

  1. Effects of nitrogen source availability and bioreactor operating strategies on lutein production with Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Xie, Youping; Chan, Ming-Chang; Liu, Chen-Chun; Chen, Chun-Yen; Lee, Duu-Jong; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the effects of the type and concentration of nitrogen sources on the cell growth and lutein content of an isolated microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3 were investigated. With batch culture, the highest lutein content (4.61 mg/g) and lutein productivity (4.35 mg/L/day) were obtained when using 8.0 mM calcium nitrate as the nitrogen source. With this best nitrogen source condition, the microalgae cultivation was performed using two bioreactor strategies (namely, semi-continuous and two-stage operations) to further enhance the lutein content and productivity. Using semi-continuous operation with a 10% medium replacement ratio could obtain the highest biomass productivity (1304.8 mg/L/day) and lutein productivity (6.01 mg/L/day). This performance is better than most related studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Serum hormones that regulate the reproductive axis in men with testicular germ cell cancer and its impact on fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Rodríguez, José María; Chávez-Zúñiga, Irma; Bañuelos-Ávila, Leticia; Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies treat testicular germ cancer as a single disease, the behavior of the two histological types of cancer; seminoma and nonseminoma have differences in reproductive hormone secretion and impair fertility differently. To demonstrate that the serum concentration of pituitary hormones involved in fertility and spermatogenesis in the affected male is different in the two histological types. Were determined by radioimmunoassay or inmunoradiometric assay, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, total testosterone, prolactin, estradiol, human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha fetoprotein in 37 patients with germ cell cancer (15 seminoma and 22 nonseminoma) and 35 controls. We analyzed the semen of patients, and were questioned about paternity before the cancer diagnosis. Age was higher in patients with seminoma cancer, showed decreased luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and testosterone and increased estradiol and prolactin in nonseminoma compared with seminoma. In patients with nonseminoma they had 9 children, 5 were oligozoospermic, 3 azoospermic and 6 normal concentration, 8 did not provide sample, seminoma group they had eight children, only one azoospermic, nine normal concentration, and 5 did not provide sample . The hormonal behavior is different in men with nonseminoma compared with seminoma, so that the negative impact on the reproductive axis and fertility is higher in cases of non-seminoma.

  3. Thyroid-stimulating hormone pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michelle J; Erickson, Dana; Castro, M Regina; Atkinson, John L D

    2008-07-01

    , and 1 for follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone. Eleven patients (61%) ultimately required thyroid hormone replacement therapy, and 5 (24%) required additional pituitary hormone replacement. Of these, 2 patients required treatment for new anterior pituitary dysfunction as a complication of surgery, and 2 patients with preoperative partial anterior pituitary dysfunction developed complete panhypopituitarism. One patient had transient diabetes insipidus. The remainder had no change in pituitary function from their preoperative state. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary lesions are often delayed in diagnosis, are frequently macroadenomas and plurihormonal in terms of their pathological characteristics, have a heterogeneous clinical picture, and are difficult to treat. An experienced team approach will optimize results in the management of these uncommon lesions.

  4. The mare as a model for luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome : intrafollicular endocrine milieu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bashir, S T; Gastal, M O; Tazawa, S P; Tarso, S G S; Hales, D B; Cuervo-Arango, J; Baerwald, A R; Gastal, E L

    2016-01-01

    Luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF) syndrome is a recurrent anovulatory dysfunction that affects up to 23% of women with normal menstrual cycles and up to 73% with endometriosis. Mechanisms underlying the development of LUF syndrome in mares were studied to provide a potential model for human

  5. Clinical trial of lutein in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    We sought to determine whether lutein supplementation will slow visual function decline in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, double-masked trial of 225 nonsmoking patients, aged 18 to 60 years, evaluated over a 4-year interval. Patients received ...

  6. Two stage heterotrophy/photoinduction culture of Scenedesmus incrassatulus: potential for lutein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Miranda, Liliana; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia; Melchy-Antonio, Orlando; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Flores-Ortíz, Cesar Mateo

    2017-11-20

    A biomass production process including two stages, heterotrophy/photoinduction (TSHP), was developed to improve biomass and lutein production by the green microalgae Scenedesmus incrassatulus. To determine the effects of different nitrogen sources (yeast extract and urea) and temperature in the heterotrophic stage, experiments using shake flask cultures with glucose as the carbon source were carried out. The highest biomass productivity and specific pigment concentrations were reached using urea+vitamins (U+V) at 30°C. The first stage of the TSHP process was done in a 6L bioreactor, and the inductions in a 3L airlift photobioreactor. At the end of the heterotrophic stage, S. incrassatulus achieved the maximal biomass concentration, increasing from 7.22gL -1 to 17.98gL -1 with an increase in initial glucose concentration from 10.6gL -1 to 30.3gL -1 . However, the higher initial glucose concentration resulted in a lower specific growth rate (μ) and lower cell yield (Y x/s ), possibly due to substrate inhibition. After 24h of photoinduction, lutein content in S. incrassatulus biomass was 7 times higher than that obtained at the end of heterotrophic cultivation, and the lutein productivity was 1.6 times higher compared with autotrophic culture of this microalga. Hence, the two-stage heterotrophy/photoinduction culture is an effective strategy for high cell density and lutein production in S. incrassatulus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Structural aspects of the antioxidant activity of lutein in a model of photoreceptor membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska-Becker, Anna; Nawrocki, Grzegorz; Duda, Mariusz; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2014-01-01

    It was shown that in membranes containing raft domains, the macular xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin are not distributed uniformly, but are excluded from saturated raft domains and about ten times more concentrated in unsaturated bulk lipids. The selective accumulation of lutein and zeaxanthin in direct proximity to unsaturated lipids, which are especially susceptible to lipid peroxidation, could be very important as far as their antioxidant activity is concerned. Therefore, the protective role of lutein against lipid peroxidation was investigated in membranes made of raft-forming mixtures and in models of photoreceptor outer segment membranes and compared with their antioxidant activity in homogeneous membranes composed of unsaturated lipids. Lipid peroxidation was induced by photosensitized reactions using rose Bengal and monitored by an MDA-TBA test, an iodometric assay, and oxygen consumption (using EPR spectroscopy and the mHCTPO spin label as an oxygen probe). The results show that lutein protects unsaturated lipids more effectively in membranes made of raft-forming mixtures than in homogeneous membranes. This suggests that the selective accumulation of macular xanthophylls in the most vulnerable regions of photoreceptor membranes may play an important role in enhancing their antioxidant properties and ability to prevent age-related macular diseases (such as age-related macular degeneration [AMD]). PMID:22428148

  8. Effect of type of TAG fatty acids on lutein and zeaxanthin bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleize, Béatrice; Tourniaire, Franck; Depezay, Laurence; Bott, Romain; Nowicki, Marion; Albino, Lionel; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Borel, Patrick

    2013-07-14

    The xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin probably play a role in visual function and may participate in the prevention of age-related eye diseases. Although a minimum amount of TAG is required for an optimal bioavailability of these carotenoids, the effect of the type of TAG fatty acids (FA) is less clear. The aim was to assess the effect of the type of TAG FA on bioavailability of these xanthophylls. A total of three complementary models were used: an in vitro digestion model to study bioaccessibility, Caco-2 cells to study uptake efficiency and orally administered rats to study in vivo bioavailability. Results showed that lutein and zeaxanthin bioaccessibility was greater (about 20-30 %, Pxanthophyll uptake by Caco-2 cells, but some compounds present in natural oils significantly affected xanthophyll uptake. Oral administration of rats with spinach and butter over 3 d led to a higher fasting plasma lutein concentration than oral administration with olive or fish oils. In conclusion, dietary fats rich in SFA lead to a higher bioavailability of lutein and zeaxanthin, as compared with fats rich in MUFA and PUFA. This is due partly to the higher bioaccessibility of these xanthophylls in the smaller mixed micelles produced when SFA are incorporated into mixed micelles.

  9. Enhanced Productivity of a Lutein-Enriched Novel Acidophile Microalga Grown on Urea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casal, C.; Cuaresma, M.; Vega, J.M.; Vilchez, C.

    2011-01-01

    Coccomyxa acidophila is an extremophile eukaryotic microalga isolated from the Tinto River mining area in Huelva, Spain. Coccomyxa acidophila accumulates relevant amounts of b-carotene and lutein, well-known carotenoids with many biotechnological applications, especially in food and health-related

  10. Interaction involving the thymus and the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, immunomodulation by hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana 2

    2004-01-01

    metabolism through regulating osteoprotegerin (OPG production, the estrogen is involved in the processes of thymocyte development although aromatase mRNA has not been detectable in the thymus. While the increase of TNC number during lactation may be linked to the process of reconstruction of the thymic lymphoid population, the increased activity of lymphoepithelial interactions on GD14 may be associated with thymic engagement in pregnancy-induced immune processes [27,29] The major antigens in the experimental autoimmune hypophysitis in rats are growth hormone, thyrotropin, and luteinizing hormone [12]. The intrathymic T-lymphocyte selection is a complex, multistep process, influenced by several functionally specialised RE cells and under immuno-neuroendocrine regulation control reflecting the dynamic changes of the mammalian organism. In HIV-1-infected adults treated with growth hormone [25 ], thymic mass and circulating naive CD4 T cells are increased. The treatment would be easier for the diseased, as well as to us, the physicians, if we were aware of two millennia old wisdom - that the disease is a visit of God.

  11. Effects of feeding lutein on production performance, antioxidative status, and milk quality of high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C Z; Wang, H F; Yang, J Y; Wang, J H; Duan, Z Y; Wang, C; Liu, J X; Lao, Y

    2014-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the influences of supplementing different levels of an additive containing lutein in the diet of Chinese Holstein lactating cows on production performance, antioxidative plasma metabolites, and milk quality. This study was performed on 60 multiparous Holstein dairy cows in peak lactation. The cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 homogeneous treatments, with lutein preparation (extracted from marigolds; effective lutein content was 2%) added at levels of 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d per head, with the actual available amounts being 0, 2, 3, and 4 g of lutein/d per head, respectively. The experiment lasted for 13 wk, with the first week for adaptation. Milk yield and milk compositions were recorded weekly, and milk concentrations of lutein, dry matter intake, and antioxidative blood index were analyzed in the first, fourth, seventh, and thirteenth week of the study. The results showed that adding lutein in the diet had no effect on dry matter intake compared with the control group; however, it slowed down the trend of decline in milk yield, and had a linear incremental effect on milk yield with increasing concentration of lutein. Dietary lutein tended to quadratically increase the percentage of milk fat, and linearly increased milk lactose concentration, with the highest value when treated at 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head, and decreased somatic cell count, with the lowest values when treated with 150 and 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head. The concentration of lutein in milk linearly increased with the incorporation of the additive, with a value of 0.59, 0.70, 1.20, and 1.50 μg/100mL when treated with 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d, respectively. Total plasma antioxidant capacity tended to linearly increase in cows fed lutein preparation, whereas plasma superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities did not differ significantly. In conclusion, addition of lutein in the diet could improve the production

  12. Chronic food restriction and the circadian rhythms of pituitary-adrenal hormones, growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, A; Montero, J L; Jolin, T

    1987-01-01

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to food restriction so that they ate 65% of food ingested by control rats. While control rats had free access to food over the 24-hour period, food-restricted rats were provided with food daily at 10 a.m. The experimental period lasted for 34 days. On day 35, rats from both experimental groups were killed at 08.00, 11.00, 14.00, 24.00 and 02.00 h. Food restriction modified the circadian rhythms of ACTH and corticosterone. In addition, total circulating corticosterone throughout the day was higher in food-restricted than in control rats. In contrast, food restriction resulted in depressed secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone. The results indicate that time of food availability entrained circadian corticosterone rhythm but not thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone rhythms.

  13. Hormonal changes after localized prostate cancer treatment. Comparison between external beam radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, J; Celma, A; Placer, J; Maldonado, X; Trilla, E; Salvador, C; Lorente, D; Regis, L; Cuadras, M; Carles, J; Morote, J

    2016-11-01

    To determine the influence of radical prostatectomy (RP) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) on the hypothalamic pituitary axis of 120 men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with RP or EBRT exclusively. 120 patients with localized prostate cancer were enrolled. Ninety two patients underwent RP and 28 patients EBRT exclusively. We measured serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), total testosterone (T), free testosterone, and estradiol at baseline and at 3 and 12 months after treatment completion. Patients undergoing RP were younger and presented a higher prostate volume (64.3 vs. 71.1 years, p<0.0001 and 55.1 vs. 36.5 g, p<0.0001; respectively). No differences regarding serum hormonal levels were found at baseline. Luteinizing hormone and FSH levels were significantly higher in those patients treated with EBRT at three months (luteinizing hormone 8,54 vs. 4,76 U/l, FSH 22,96 vs. 8,18 U/l, p<0,0001) while T and free testosterone levels were significantly lower (T 360,3 vs. 414,83ng/dl, p 0,039; free testosterone 5,94 vs. 7,5pg/ml, p 0,018). At 12 months FSH levels remained significantly higher in patients treated with EBRT compared to patients treated with RP (21,01 vs. 8,51 U/l, p<0,001) while T levels remained significantly lower (339,89 vs. 402,39ng/dl, p 0,03). Prostate cancer treatment influences the hypothalamic pituitary axis. This influence seems to be more important when patients with prostate cancer are treated with EBRT rather than RP. More studies are needed to elucidate the role that prostate may play as an endocrine organ. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Macular pigment and lutein supplementation in retinitis pigmentosa and Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, T S; Duncan, J L; Bieber, M L; de Castro, E; Marks, D A; Gardner, L M; Steinberg, J D; Cideciyan, A V; Maguire, M G; Jacobson, S G

    2001-07-01

    To determine macular pigment (MP) in patients with inherited retinal degeneration and the response of MP and vision to supplementation of lutein. Patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or Usher syndrome and normal subjects had MP optical density profiles measured with heterochromatic flicker photometry. Serum carotenoids, visual acuity, foveal sensitivity, and retinal thickness (by optical coherence tomography [OCT]) were quantified. The effects on MP and central vision of 6 months of lutein supplementation at 20 mg/d were determined. MP density in the patients as a group did not differ from normal. Among patients with lower MP, there was a higher percentage of females, smokers, and light-colored irides. Disease expression tended to be more severe in patients with lower MP. Inner retinal thickness by OCT correlated positively with MP density in the patients. After supplementation, all participants showed an increase in serum lutein. Only approximately half the patients showed a statistically significant increase in MP. Retinal nonresponders had slightly greater disease severity but were otherwise not distinguishable from responders. Central vision was unchanged after supplementation. Factors previously associated with lower or higher MP density in normal subjects showed similar associations in RP and Usher syndrome. In addition, MP in patients may be affected by stage of retinal disease, especially that leading to abnormal foveal architecture. MP could be augmented by supplemental lutein in many but not all patients. There was no change in central vision after 6 months of lutein supplementation, but long-term influences on the natural history of these retinal degenerations require further study.

  15. Sex hormone studies by radioimmunoassay in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in women treated with hormonal contraceptives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafurt, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    Blood concentration profiles for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, cortisol and sex hormonebinding globulin throughout a menstrual cycle were derived from measurements by radioimmunoassay and related procedures on serial blood samples from 16 normal women as controls. Similar studies were then performed on 9 normal women receiving a low-dose oral contraceptive combination of D-norgestrel and ethynlestradiol. Further studies were performed on 9 out of 16 normal women in whom progestational contraception was carried out with orally administered lynestrenol or intramuscularly administered norethindrone enathate and on 12 normal pregnant women from the 28th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Additional studies embracing chorionic gonadotropin progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were performed on 10 normal pregnant women from the 6th to the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed results are presented and their significance discussed

  16. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in oocyte donors co-treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuong, T. N. L.; Ho, M. T.; Ha, T. D.

    2016-01-01

    -35 years, body mass index [BMI] hormone level >1.25 ng/mL, and antral follicle count >= 6). Intervention(s): Ovulation trigger with 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mg triptorelin in a GnRH antagonist cycle. Main Outcome Measure(s): The primary end point was number of metaphase II oocytes...... to number of metaphase II oocytes (16.0 +/- 8.5, 15.9 +/- 7.8, and 14.7 +/- 8.4, respectively), embryos (13.2 +/- 7.8, 11.7 +/- 6.9, 11.8 +/- 7.0), and number of top-quality embryos (3.8 +/- 2.9, 3.6 +/- 3.0, 4.1 +/- 3.0). Luteinizing hormone levels at 24 hours and 36 hours after trigger was significantly...

  17. Hot issues in female and male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gava, Giulia; Lantadilla, Claudia; Martelli, Valentina; Fattorini, Anna; Seracchioli, Renato; Meriggiola, Maria C

    2016-02-01

    In recent years a number of significant developments in the field of female hormonal contraception have been made which have produced new formulations and delivery systems providing high efficacy, safety and important non-contraceptive benefits. In particular long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) formulations have been demonstrated to ensure extremely high efficacy in typical use, minimal contraindications, optimal safety in all women thereby representing the best option for most women of all ages. Their effectiveness is not reliant upon user adherence and their ability to reduce unintended pregnancies and abortions has been proven. Unfortunately the same considerations cannot be made for male hormonal contraception. Although a large number of men are interested and would welcome the opportunity to use male contraceptive methods, no safe, effective and reversible methods are available on the market. Current methods available for men are limited to condoms and vasectomy. Highly effective prototype regimens have been developed but the pharmaceutical industry is unwilling to pursue further development and market these products. Of all new approaches to male contraception, hormonal methods are the closest to clinical application. These are based on the reversible suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone with subsequent reversible inhibition of spermatogenesis and consequent replacement to maintain androgen dependent physiological functions. Most approaches tested combination regimens such as testosterone and a progestin or testosterone and a GnRH analog.

  18. Increases in plasma lutein through supplementation are correlated with increases in physical activity and reductions in sedentary time in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Coates, Alison M; Howe, Peter R C; Bryan, Janet; Matsumoto, Megumi; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2014-03-03

    Cross-sectional studies have reported positive relationships between serum lutein concentrations and higher physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine whether increasing plasma lutein levels increases physical activity. Forty-four older adults (BMI, 25.3 ± 2.6 kg/m²; age, 68.8 ± 6.4 year) not meeting Australian physical activity guidelines (150 min/week of moderate to vigorous activity) were randomized to consume capsules containing 21 mg of lutein or placebo with 250 mL of full-cream milk per day for 4 weeks and encouraged to increase physical activity. Physical activity was assessed by self-report, pedometry and accelerometry (daily activity counts and sedentary time). Exercise self-efficacy was assessed by questionnaire. Thirty-nine participants competed the study (Lutein = 19, Placebo = 20). Lutein increased plasma lutein concentrations compared with placebo (p lutein were inversely associated with absolute (r = -0.36, p = 0.03) and percentage changes (r = -0.39, p = 0.02) in sedentary time. Percentage change in plasma lutein was positively associated with the percentage change in average daily activity counts (r = 0.36, p = 0.03). Exercise self-efficacy did not change (p = 0.16). Lutein increased plasma lutein, which was associated with increased physical activity and reduced sedentary time in older adults. Larger trials should evaluate whether Lutein can provide health benefits over the longer term.

  19. Stressed lungs: unveiling the role of circulating stress ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone, a major component of smog generated through the interaction of light and anthropogenic emissions, induces adverse pulmonary, cardiovascular, and systemic health effects upon inhalation. It is generally accepted that ozone-induced lung injury is mediated by its interaction with lung lining components causing local oxidative changes, which then leads to cell damage and recruitment of inflammatory cells. It is postulated that the spillover of reactive intermediates and pro-inflammatory molecules from lung to systemic circulation mediates extra-pulmonary effects. However, recent work from our laboratory supports an alternative hypothesis that circulating stress hormones, such as epinephrine and corticosterone/cortisol, are involved in mediating ozone pulmonary effects. We have shown in rats and humans that ozone increases the levels of circulating stress hormones through activation of the hypothalamus- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis before any measurable effects are observed in the lung. The surgical removal of adrenals diminishes circulating stress hormones and at the same time, the pulmonary effects of ozone suggesting a significant contribution of these hormones in ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation. While ozone effects in the lung have been extensively studied, the contribution of central nervous system -mediated hormonal stress response has not been examined. In order to understand the signaling pathways that might be involved in ozone-induced lun

  20. Lutein/zeaxanthin for the treatment of age-related cataract: AREDS2 randomized trial report no. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Emily Y; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Ferris, Frederick L; Wong, Wai T; Agron, Elvira; Clemons, Traci E; Sperduto, Robert; Danis, Ronald; Chandra, Suresh R; Blodi, Barbara A; Domalpally, Amitha; Elman, Michael J; Antoszyk, Andrew N; Ruby, Alan J; Orth, David; Bressler, Susan B; Fish, Gary E; Hubbard, George B; Klein, Michael L; Friberg, Thomas R; Rosenfeld, Philip J; Toth, Cynthia A; Bernstein, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Age-related cataract is a leading cause of visual impairment in the United States. The prevalence of age-related cataract is increasing, with an estimated 30.1 million Americans likely to be affected by 2020. To determine whether daily oral supplementation with lutein/zeaxanthin affects the risk for cataract surgery. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2), a multicenter, double-masked clinical trial, enrolled 4203 participants, aged 50 to 85 years, at risk for progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration. Participants were randomly assigned to daily placebo; lutein/zeaxanthin, 10mg/2mg; omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, 1 g; or a combination to evaluate the effects on the primary outcome of progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration. Cataract surgery was documented at annual study examination with the presence of pseudophakia or aphakia, or reported during telephone calls at 6-month intervals between study visits. Annual best-corrected visual acuity testing was performed. A secondary outcome of AREDS2 was to evaluate the effects of lutein/zeaxanthin on the subsequent need for cataract surgery. A total of 3159 AREDS2 participants were phakic in at least 1 eye and 1389 of 6027 study eyes underwent cataract surgery during the study, with median follow-up of 4.7 years. The 5-year probability of progression to cataract surgery in the no lutein/zeaxanthin group was 24%. For lutein/zeaxanthin vs no lutein/zeaxanthin, the hazard ratios for progression to cataract surgery was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.84-1.10; P = .54). For participants in the lowest quintile of dietary intake of lutein/zeaxanthin, the hazard ratio comparing lutein/zeaxanthin vs no lutein/zeaxanthin for progression to cataract surgery was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48-0.96; P = .03). The hazard ratio for 3 or more lines of vision loss was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.93-1.13; P = .61 for lutein/zeaxanthin vs no lutein/zeaxanthin). Daily supplementation with lutein/zeaxanthin had no statistically

  1. Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone associated with a mutation in the ligand-binding domain of the human thyroid hormone receptor β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, A.; Takeda, K.; Ain, K.; Ceccarelli, P.; Nakai, A.; Seino, S.; Bell, G.I.; Refetoff, S.; DeGroot, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    The syndrome of generalized resistance to thyroid hormone is characterized by elevated circulating levels of thyroid hormone in the presence of an overall eumetabolic state and failure to respond normally to triiodothyronine. The authors have evaluated a family with inherited generalized resistance to thyroid hormone for abnormalities in the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors. A single guanine → cytosine replacement in the codon for amino acid 340 resulted in a glycine → arginine substitution in the hormone-binding domain of one of two alleles of the patient's thyroid hormone nuclear receptor β gene. In vitro translation products of this mutant human thyroid hormone nuclear receptor β gene did not bind triiodothyronine. Thus, generalized resistance to thyroid hormone can result from expression of an abnormal thyroid hormone nuclear receptor molecule

  2. Broodstock management and hormonal manipulations of fish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, Constantinos C; Fostier, Alexis; Zanuy, Silvia

    2010-02-01

    Control of reproductive function in captivity is essential for the sustainability of commercial aquaculture production, and in many fishes it can be achieved by manipulating photoperiod, water temperature or spawning substrate. The fish reproductive cycle is separated in the growth (gametogenesis) and maturation phase (oocyte maturation and spermiation), both controlled by the reproductive hormones of the brain, pituitary and gonad. Although the growth phase of reproductive development is concluded in captivity in most fishes-the major exemption being the freshwater eel (Anguilla spp.), oocyte maturation (OM) and ovulation in females, and spermiation in males may require exogenous hormonal therapies. In some fishes, these hormonal manipulations are used only as a management tool to enhance the efficiency of egg production and facilitate hatchery operations, but in others exogenous hormones are the only way to produce fertilized eggs reliably. Hormonal manipulations of reproductive function in cultured fishes have focused on the use of either exogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) preparations that act directly at the level of the gonad, or synthetic agonists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRHa) that act at the level of the pituitary to induce release of the endogenous LH stores, which, in turn act at the level of the gonad to induce steroidogenesis and the process of OM and spermiation. After hormonal induction of maturation, broodstock should spawn spontaneously in their rearing enclosures, however, the natural breeding behavior followed by spontaneous spawning may be lost in aquaculture conditions. Therefore, for many species it is also necessary to employ artificial gamete collection and fertilization. Finally, a common question in regards to hormonal therapies is their effect on gamete quality, compared to naturally maturing or spawning broodfish. The main factors that may have significant consequences on gamete quality-mainly on eggs-and should be considered

  3. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.; Stein, J.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  4. Heterologous radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca luteinizing hormone with a monoclonal antibody, and equine standard and a human tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aba, M.A.; Forsberg, M.

    1995-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca LH was developed using a human I 125 LH tracer from a commercial kit, equine LH diluted in human LH free serum as standard, and amonoclonal antibody (518B7) specific for LH but with low species specificity. A 60-min delay in the addition of the tracer and overnight incubation gave a sensitivity of 0.8 μ3g L -1 . The intra-assay coefficient of variation was 37% at 1 μg L -1 , declined to 15% at 4 μg L -1 and was below 6% for concentrations up to 32 μg L -1 . The inter-assay coefficients of variation for 3 control samples were 20% (2.8 μg L -1 ), 16% (7.1 μg L -1 ) and 9.8% (19 μg L -1 ). In an attempt to increase sensitivity, all tubes were preincubated for 4 h at room temperature before adding the tracer, and the sample volume was increased from 50 μL to 100 μL (in the standard curve the increased volume was compensated for by human LH free serum). With this protocol, the assay sensitivity was 0,5 μg L -1 . The assay was validated clinically and demonstrated increased concentrations of LH after mating in llamas and alpacas. Furthermore, the assay was used to monitor LH responses to a single dose of GnRH in llamas (adult males and females at different ages). (au) 9 refs

  5. Characterization and application of a radioimmunoassay for reduced, carboxymethylated human luteinizing hormone. cap alpha. -subunit. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keutmann, H.T.; Beitins, I.Z.; Johnson, L.; McArthur, J.W.

    1978-12-01

    We have established a double antibody RIA using a rabbit antiserum prepared against reduced, carboxymethylated (RCXM) human LH ..cap alpha..-subunit, with RCXM-..cap alpha.. as tracer and standard. This antiserum did not cross-react with any native gonadotropins or subunit, and reacted only weakly with RCXM-..cap alpha... A tryptic digest of RCXM ..cap alpha..-subunit was completely reactive, while chymotryptic digestion abolished all immunoreactivity. By testing with separate tryptic fragments, the recognition site could be localized to a segment close to the amino-terminus of the peptide chain. When applied to measurement of serum and urine, an immunoreactive species, parallel to RCXM ..cap alpha..-subunit by serial dilution, was found in concentrations of 1-2 ng/ml in serum and 3-4 ng/ml in urine. Similar levels of the immunoreactive component were found in conditions of elevated gonadotropins (e.g. pregnancy) as well as gonadotropin deficiency (panhypopituitarism and Kallmann's syndrome). After stimulation with LHRH, no rise was noted at times up to 6 h despite the fact that both LH and LH-..cap alpha.. were elevated. The data indicate that the sequence-specific antiserum may be detecting an immunoreactive form of ..cap alpha..-subunit of LH whose kinetics of appearance and disappearance differs from those of the native subunit.

  6. Blunted day-night changes in luteinizing hormone pulse frequency in girls with obesity: the potential role of hyperandrogenemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jessicah S; Beller, Jennifer P; Burt Solorzano, Christine; Patrie, James T; Chang, R Jeffrey; Marshall, John C; McCartney, Christopher R

    2014-08-01

    Puberty is marked by sleep-associated changes in LH pulse frequency and amplitude. Early pubertal girls with obesity exhibit blunted day-to-night changes in LH secretion; whether this occurs in late pubertal obese girls is unknown. The objective of the study was to test two hypotheses: 1) blunted day-to-night changes in LH secretion occur in both early and late pubertal obese girls, and 2) such alterations are specifically associated with hyperandrogenemia. This was a cross-sectional analysis. The study was conducted at a clinical research center. Twenty-seven early pubertal, premenarcheal girls (12 of whom were obese) and 63 late pubertal (postmenarcheal) girls (27 of whom were obese) participated in the study. Blood samples were taken every 10 minutes from 7:00 pm to 7:00 am. Change in LH pulse frequency [LH interpulse interval (IPI)] from daytime hours (7:00 pm-11:00 pm, while awake) to nighttime hours (11:00 pm to 7:00 am, while generally asleep). Both nonobese and obese postmenarcheal girls demonstrated significant day-to-night decreases in LH pulse frequency (IPI increases of 33% and 16%, respectively), but day-to-night changes were blunted in obese girls (P = .004, obese vs nonobese). Day-to-night LH pulse frequency decreased significantly in postmenarcheal obese subjects with normal T concentrations (26% IPI increase) but not in those with hyperandrogenemia. Similar differences were evident for LH pulse amplitude. Nonobese and obese early pubertal girls exhibited nonsignificant differences in day-night LH pulse frequency (day to night IPI increase of 26% vs decrease of 1%, respectively). Day-to-night changes in LH pulse secretion are blunted in postmenarcheal obese adolescent girls. This phenomenon may in part reflect hyperandrogenemia.

  7. Energy balance affects luteinizing hormone pulses and expression of neurokinin B in the hypothalamus of ovariectomized gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pubertal transition of gonadotropin secretion in pigs is metabolically gated, but the mechanisms that underpin this regulation are unknown. Kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) are coexpressed in neurons within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) and are thought to play an important role ...

  8. Circadian Control of the Estrogenic Circuits Regulating GnRH Secretion and the Preovulatory Luteinizing Hormone Surge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance J Kriegsfeld

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Female reproduction requires the precise temporal organization of interacting, estradiol-sensitive neural circuits that converge to optimally drive hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis functioning. In mammals, the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachaismatic nucleus (SCN of the anterior hypothalamus coordinates reproductively-relevant neuroendocrine events necessary to maximize reproductive success. Likewise, in species where periods of fertility are brief, circadian oversight of reproductive function ensures that estradiol-dependent increases in sexual motivation coincide with ovulation. Across species, including humans, disruptions to circadian timing (e.g., through rotating shift work, night shift work, poor sleep hygiene lead to pronounced deficits in ovulation and fecundity. Despite the well-established roles for the circadian system in female reproductive functioning, the specific neural circuits and neurochemical mediators underlying these interactions are not fully understood. Most work to date has focused on the direct and indirect communication from the SCN to the GnRH system in control of the preovulatory LH surge. However, the same clock genes underlying circadian rhythms at the cellular level in SCN cells are also common to target cell populations of the SCN, including the GnRH neuronal network. Exploring the means by which the master clock synergizes with subordinate clocks in GnRH cells and its upstream modulatory systems represents an exciting opportunity to further understand the role of endogenous timing systems in female reproduction. Herein we provide an overview of the state of knowledge regarding interactions between the circadian timing system and estradiol-sensitive neural circuits driving GnRH secretion and the preovulatory LH surge.

  9. Circadian control of kisspeptin and a gated GnRH response mediate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Wilbur P; Jarjisian, Stephan G; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    In spontaneously ovulating rodents, the preovulatory LH surge is initiated on the day of proestrus by a timed, stimulatory signal originating from the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The present studies explored whether kisspeptin is part of the essential neural circuit...... linking the SCN to the GnRH system to stimulate ovulation in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Kisspeptin neurons exhibit an estrogen-dependent, daily pattern of cellular activity consistent with a role in the circadian control of the LH surge. The SCN targets kisspeptin neurons via vasopressinergic...... of ovulatory control with interactions among the circadian system, kisspeptin signaling, and a GnRH gating mechanism of control....

  10. Removal of ruminal contents followed by restricted feeding does not affect the frequency of luteinizing-hormone pulses in steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of removal of ruminal contents and reduced nutrient intake on concentrations of LH in serum of beef cattle. Gonadectomized, male, Angus x Hereford cattle (steers, 402 ± 17 kg) with rumen cannulae were randomly assigned to treatment. Control (C...

  11. The human luteinizing hormone receptor gene promoter: activation by Sp1 and Sp3 and inhibitory regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Y; Tsai-Morris, C H; Zhang, Y; Dufau, M L

    1999-09-24

    To understand the transcriptional mechanism(s) of human LH receptor (LHR) gene expression, we have identified the dominant functional cis-elements that regulate the activity of the promoter domain (-1 to -176 bp from ATG). Mutagenesis demonstrated that the promoter activity was dependent on two Sp1 domains (-79 bp, -120 bp) in a transformed normal placental cell (PLC) and the choriocarcinoma JAR cell. Both elements interacted with endogenous Sp1 and Sp3 factors but not with Sp2 or Sp4. In Drosophila SL2 cells, the promoter was activated by either Sp1 or Sp3. An ERE half-site (EREhs) at -174 bp was inhibitory (by 100%), but was unresponsive to estradiol and did not bind the estrogen receptor or orphan receptors ERR1 and SF-1. The 5' upstream sequence (-177 to -2056 bp) inhibited promoter activity in PLC by 60%, but only minimally in JAR cells. Activation of the human LHR promoter through Sp1/3 factors is negatively regulated through EREhs and upstream sequences to exert control of gene expression. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Luteinizing hormone-induced Akt phosphorylation and androgen production are modulated by MAP Kinase in bovine theca cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda Shin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theca cells play an important role in controlling ovarian steroidogenesis by providing aromatizable androgens for granulosa cell estrogen biosynthesis. Although it is well established that the steroidogenic activity of theca cells is mainly regulated by LH, the intracellular signal transduction mechanisms that regulate thecal proliferation and/or steroidogenesis remain obscure. In this study, we examined whether and how LH controls the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and androgen production in bovine theca cells. We also explored whether this LH-induced PI3K/Akt activation is modulated with other signaling pathways (i.e. PKA and MAPK. Methods Ovarian theca cells were isolated from bovine small antral follicles and were incubated with LH for various durations. Phospho-Akt and total-Akt content in the cultured theca cells were examined using Western blotting. Androstenedione levels in the spent media were determined using EIA. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses were conducted to analyze the mRNA levels of CYP17A1 and StAR in the theca cells. To examine whether Akt activity is involved in theca cell androgen production, the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 were also added to the cells. Results Akt is constitutively expressed, but is gradually phosphorylated in cultured bovine theca cells through exposure to LH. LH significantly increased androstenedione production in bovine theca cells, whereas addition of the wortmannin and LY294002 significantly decreased LH-induced androstenedione production. LH significantly increased CYP17A1 mRNA level in theca cells, whereas addition of LY294002 significantly decreased LH-induced CYP17A1 expression. Neither LH nor PI3K inhibitors alter the mRNA levels of StAR in theca cells. Although H89 (a selective inhibitor of PKA does not affect LH-mediated changes in Akt, U0126 (a potent MEK inhibitor suppressed LH-induced Akt phosphorylation, CYP17A1 expression, and androgen production in theca cells. Conclusion These results indicate that LH stimulates CYP17 mRNA expression and androgen production in theca cells via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. The LH-induced Akt phosphorylation and androgen production are modulated by the MAPK signaling in bovine theca cells.

  13. Evidence for alterations in luteinizing hormone secreted in rhesus monkeys with normal and inadequate luteal phases using radioreceptor and radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, C.N.; Channing, C.P.

    1979-05-01

    A radioreceptor assay (RRA) using porcine granulosa cells and (/sup 125/I)hCG was developed and validated for the measurement of LH or CG. The RRA was used in conjunction with a heterologous RIA employing antiserum against ovine LH and (/sup 125/I)ovine LH (RIA) to measure serum LH in the rhesus monkey throughout the menstrual cycle. Discrepancies were found in the measurement of serum LH using RRA and RIA. Measurements of serum LH using RIA were consistently higher than the measurements of serum LH using RRA in serum from adult intact female and male monkeys and hypophysectomized, ovariectomized, and pregnant monkeys.

  14. Employing Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Lutein and β-Carotene from Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Altemimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of lutein and β-carotene from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. leaves is important to the dietary supplement industry. A Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM were used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of lutein and β-carotene from spinach. Three independent variables, extraction temperature (°C, extraction power (% and extraction time (min were studied. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC followed by UV visualization and densitometry was used as a simple and rapid method for both identification and quantification of lutein and β-carotene during UAE. Methanol extracts of leaves from spinach and authentic standards of lutein and β-carotene were separated by normal-phase TLC with ethyl acetate-acetone (5:4 (v/v as the mobile phase. In this study, the combination of TLC, densitometry, and Box–Behnken with RSM methods were effective for the quantitative analysis of lutein and β-carotene from spinach extracts. The resulting quadratic polynomial models for optimizing lutein and β-carotene from spinach had high coefficients of determination of 0.96 and 0.94, respectively. The optimal UAE settings for output of lutein and β-carotene simultaneously from spinach extracts were an extraction temperature of 40 °C, extraction power of 40% (28 W/cm3 and extraction time of 16 min. The identity and purity of each TLC spot was measured using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Therefore, UAE assisted extraction of carotenes from spinach can provide a source of lutein and β-carotene for the dietary supplement industry.

  15. Identification of StARD3 as a lutein-binding protein in the macula of the primate retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith; Frederick, Jeanne M; Bernstein, Paul S

    2011-04-05

    Lutein, zeaxanthin, and their metabolites are the xanthophyll carotenoids that form the