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Sample records for circularly polarized light

  1. Absorption of circularly polarized light by solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, G.; Brandi, H.S.

    1984-03-01

    The multiphoton absorption rate of circularly polarized light, by direct gap crystals, was investigated following a non-perturbative scheme proposed by Jones and Reiss. It was possible to derive closed analytical solutions, for the N-photon transition rate, valid for all field strenghts of practical interest. The accuracy of the approximations introduced in deriving these results was determined comparing the numerical computations of the multiphoton transition rate ('exact') with the analytical solutions. Specific calculations are done for ZnS and GaAs in the presence of a Nd-laser. It is shown that this formalism leads to a total transition rate which has not the tunneling behavior previously discussed by several authors within similar contexts. (Author) [pt

  2. Simulation of erasure of photoinduced anisotropy by circularly polarized light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajti, Sz.; Kerekes, Á.; Barabás, M.

    2001-01-01

    The temporal evolution of photoinduced birefringence is investigated on the basis of a model proposed by Pedersen and co-workers, This model is extended for the case of elliptically polarized light, and used to describe the erasure of photoinduced birefringence by circularly polarized light...

  3. Polymer photovoltaic cells sensitive to the circular polarization ofl light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilot, J.; Abbel, R.J.; Lakhwani, G.; Meijer, E.W.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Meskers, S.C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Chiral conjugated polymer is used to construct a photovoltaic cell whose response depends on the circular polarization of the incoming light. The selectivity for left and right polarized light as a function of the thickness of the polymer layer is accounted for by modeling of the optical properties

  4. Chiral Plasmonic Nanostructures Fabricated by Circularly Polarized Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Koichiro; Tatsuma, Tetsu

    2018-05-09

    The chirality of materials results in a wide variety of advanced technologies including image display, data storage, light management including negative refraction, and enantioselective catalysis and sensing. Here, we introduce chirality to plasmonic nanostructures by using circularly polarized light as the sole chiral source for the first time. Gold nanocuboids as precursors on a semiconductor were irradiated with circularly polarized light to localize electric fields at specific corners of the cuboids depending on the handedness of light and deposited dielectric moieties as electron oscillation boosters by the localized electric field. Thus, plasmonic nanostructures with high chirality were developed. The present bottom-up method would allow the large-scale and cost-effective fabrication of chiral materials and further applications to functional materials and devices.

  5. Computational simulations of hydrogen circular migration in protonated acetylene induced by circularly polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xuetao; Li, Wen; Schlegel, H. Bernhard, E-mail: hbs@chem.wayne.edu [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    The hydrogens in protonated acetylene are very mobile and can easily migrate around the C{sub 2} core by moving between classical and non-classical structures of the cation. The lowest energy structure is the T-shaped, non-classical cation with a hydrogen bridging the two carbons. Conversion to the classical H{sub 2}CCH{sup +} ion requires only 4 kcal/mol. The effect of circularly polarized light on the migration of hydrogens in oriented C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +} has been simulated by Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Classical trajectory calculations were carried out with the M062X/6-311+G(3df,2pd) level of theory using linearly and circularly polarized 32 cycle 7 μm cosine squared pulses with peak intensity of 5.6 × 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2} and 3.15 × 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, respectively. These linearly and circularly polarized pulses transfer similar amounts of energy and total angular momentum to C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +}. The average angular momentum vectors of the three hydrogens show opposite directions of rotation for right and left circularly polarized light, but no directional preference for linearly polarized light. This difference results in an appreciable amount of angular displacement of the three hydrogens relative to the C{sub 2} core for circularly polarized light, but only an insignificant amount for linearly polarized light. Over the course of the simulation with circularly polarized light, this corresponds to a propeller-like motion of the three hydrogens around the C{sub 2} core of protonated acetylene.

  6. Magnetic field generation by circularly polarized laser light and inertial plasma confinement in a miniature 'Magnetic Bottle' induced by circularly polarized laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolka, E.

    1993-07-01

    A new concept of hot plasma confinement in a miniature magnetic bottle induced by circularly polarized laser light is suggested in this work. Magnetic fields generated by circularly polarized laser light may be of the order of megagauss. In this configuration the circularly polarized laser light is used to get confinement of a plasma contained in a good conductor vessel. The poloidal magnetic field induced by the circularly polarized laser and the efficiency of laser absorption by the plasma are calculated in this work. The confinement in this scheme is supported by the magnetic forces and the Lawson criterion for a DT plasma might be achieved for number density n=5*10 21 cm -3 and confinement time τ= 20 nsec. The laser and the plasma parameters required to get an energetic gain are calculated. (authors)

  7. Angular momentum of circularly polarized light in dielectric media

    OpenAIRE

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-01-01

    A circularly polarized plane-wave is known to have no angular momentum when examined through Maxwell's equations. This, however, contradicts the experimentally observed facts, where finite segments of plane waves are known to be capable of imparting angular momentum to birefringent platelets. Using a superposition of four plane-waves propagating at slightly different angles to a common direction, we derive an expression for the angular momentum density of a single plane-wave in the limit when...

  8. Detecting spin polarization of nano-crystalline manganese doped zinc oxide thin film using circular polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, H.M., E-mail: h_m_elsaid@hotmail.com

    2016-02-01

    The presence of spin polarization in Mn-doped ZnO thin film is very important for spintronic applications. Spin polarization was detected using simple method. This method depends on measuring the optical transmittance using circular polarized light in visible and near infra-red region. It was found that, there is a difference in the optical energy gap of the film for circular left and circular polarized light. For temperatures > 310 K the difference in energy gap is vanished. This result is confirmed by measuring the magnetic hysteresis of the film. This work introduces a promising method for measuring the ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors. - Highlights: • Highly oriented c-axis of Mn-ZnO thin film doped with nitrogen is prepared. • The optical energy gap depends on the state of circularly polarized light. • The presence of spin polarization is confirmed using simple optical method. • Magnetic measurements are consistent with the results of the optical method.

  9. Circularly polarized light emission in scanning tunneling microscopy of magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apell, S.P.; Penn, D.R.; Johansson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Light is produced when a scanning tunneling microscope is used to probe a metal surface. Recent experiments on cobalt utilizing a tungsten tip found that the light is circularly polarized; the sense of circular polarization depends on the direction of the sample magnetization, and the degree of polarization is of order 10%. This raises the possibility of constructing a magnetic microscope with very good spatial resolution. We present a theory of this effect for iron and cobalt and find a degree of polarization of order 0.1%. This is in disagreement with the experiments on cobalt as well as previous theoretical work which found order of magnitude agreement with the experimental results. However, a recent experiment on iron showed 0.0±2%. We predict that the use of a silver tip would increase the degree of circular polarization for a range of photon energies

  10. Angular momentum of circularly polarized light in dielectric media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2005-07-01

    A circularly polarized plane-wave is known to have no angular momentum when examined through Maxwell’s equations. This, however, contradicts the experimentally observed facts, where finite segments of plane waves are known to be capable of imparting angular momentum to birefringent platelets. Using a superposition of four plane-waves propagating at slightly different angles to a common direction, we derive an expression for the angular momentum density of a single plane-wave in the limit when the propagation directions of the four beams come into alignment. We proceed to use this four-beam technique to analyze the conservation of angular momentum when a plane-wave enters a dielectric slab from the free space. The angular momentum of the beam is shown to decrease upon entering the dielectric medium, by virtue of the fact that the incident beam exerts a torque on the slab surface at the point of entry. When the beam leaves the slab, it imparts an equal but opposite torque to the exit facet, thus recovering its initial angular momentum upon re-emerging into the free-space. Along the way, we derive an expression for the outward-directed force of a normally incident, finite-diameter beam on a dielectric surface; the possible relationship between this force and the experimentally observed bulging of a liquid surface under intense illumination is explored.

  11. Omnidirectional narrow optical filters for circularly polarized light in a nanocomposite structurally chiral medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño, Carlos G; Palomares, Laura O

    2018-04-20

    We consider the propagation of electromagnetic waves throughout a nanocomposite structurally chiral medium consisting of metallic nanoballs randomly dispersed in a structurally chiral material whose dielectric properties can be represented by a resonant effective uniaxial tensor. It is found that an omnidirectional narrow pass band and two omnidirectional narrow band gaps are created in the blue optical spectrum for right and left circularly polarized light, as well as narrow reflection bands for right circularly polarized light that can be controlled by varying the light incidence angle and the filling fraction of metallic inclusions.

  12. Arbitrary helicity control of circularly polarized light from lateral-type spin-polarized light-emitting diodes at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Nozomi; Aoyama, Masaki; Roca, Ronel C.; Nishibayashi, Kazuhiro; Munekata, Hiro

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate arbitrary helicity control of circularly polarized light (CPL) emitted at room temperature from the cleaved side facet of a lateral-type spin-polarized light-emitting diode (spin-LED) with two ferromagnetic electrodes in an antiparallel magnetization configuration. Driving alternate currents through the two electrodes results in polarization switching of CPL with frequencies up to 100 kHz. Furthermore, tuning the current density ratio in the two electrodes enables manipulation of the degree of circular polarization. These results demonstrate arbitrary electrical control of polarization with high speed, which is required for the practical use of lateral-type spin-LEDs as monolithic CPL light sources.

  13. Circularly polarized light to study linear magneto-optics for ferrofluids: θ-scan technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangshen; Huang, Yan; He, Zhenghong; Lin, Yueqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Li, Decai; Li, Jian; Qiu, Xiaoyan

    2018-06-01

    Circularly polarized light can be divided into two vertically linearly polarized light beams with  ±π/2 phase differences. In the presence of an external magnetic field, when circularly polarized light travels through a ferrofluid film, whose thickness is no more than that of λ/4 plate, magneto-optical, magnetic birefringence and dichroism effects cause the transmitted light to behave as elliptically polarized light. Using angular scan by a continuously rotating polarizer as analyzer, the angular (θ) distribution curve of relative intensity (T) corresponding to elliptically polarized light can be measured. From the T  ‑  θ curve having ellipsometry, the parameters such as the ratio of short to long axis, and angular orientation of the long axis to the vertical field direction can be obtained. Thus, magnetic birefringence and dichroism can be probed simultaneously by measuring magneto-optical, positive or negative birefringence and dichroism features from the transmission mode. The proposed method is called θ-scan technique, and can accurately determine sample stability, magnetic field direction, and cancel intrinsic light source ellipticity. This study may be helpful to further research done to ferrofluids and other similar colloidal samples with anisotropic optics.

  14. On-chip synthesis of circularly polarized emission of light with integrated photonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Li, Mo

    2014-05-01

    The helicity of circularly polarized (CP) light plays an important role in the light-matter interaction in magnetic and quantum material systems. Exploiting CP light in integrated photonic circuits could lead to on-chip integration of novel optical helicity-dependent devices for applications ranging from spintronics to quantum optics. In this Letter, we demonstrate a silicon photonic circuit coupled with a 2D grating emitter operating at a telecom wavelength to synthesize vertically emitting, CP light from a quasi-TE waveguide mode. Handedness of the emitted circular polarized light can be thermally controlled with an integrated microheater. The compact device footprint enables a small beam diameter, which is desirable for large-scale integration.

  15. Light in Condensed Matter in the Upper Atmosphere as the Origin of Homochirality: Circularly Polarized Light from Rydberg Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlid, Leif

    2009-08-01

    Clouds of the condensed excited Rydberg matter (RM) exist in the atmospheres of comets and planetary bodies (most easily observed at Mercury and the Moon), where they surround the entire bodies. Vast such clouds are recently proposed to exist in the upper atmosphere of Earth (giving rise to the enormous features called noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric clouds, and polar mesospheric summer radar echoes). It has been shown in experiments with RM that linearly polarized visible light scattered from an RM layer is transformed to circularly polarized light with a probability of approximately 50%. The circular Rydberg electrons in the magnetic field in the RM may be chiral scatterers. The magnetic and anisotropic RM medium acts as a circular polarizer probably by delaying one of the perpendicular components of the light wave. The delay process involved is called Rabi-flopping and gives delays of the order of femtoseconds. This strong effect thus gives intense circularly polarized visible and UV light within RM clouds. Amino acids and other chiral molecules will experience a strong interaction with this light field in the upper atmospheres of planets. The interaction will vary with the stereogenic conformation of the molecules and in all probability promote the survival of one enantiomer. Here, this strong effect is proposed to be the origin of homochirality. The formation of amino acids in the RM clouds is probably facilitated by the catalytic effect of RM.

  16. Light in condensed matter in the upper atmosphere as the origin of homochirality: circularly polarized light from Rydberg matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlid, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Clouds of the condensed excited Rydberg matter (RM) exist in the atmospheres of comets and planetary bodies (most easily observed at Mercury and the Moon), where they surround the entire bodies. Vast such clouds are recently proposed to exist in the upper atmosphere of Earth (giving rise to the enormous features called noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric clouds, and polar mesospheric summer radar echoes). It has been shown in experiments with RM that linearly polarized visible light scattered from an RM layer is transformed to circularly polarized light with a probability of approximately 50%. The circular Rydberg electrons in the magnetic field in the RM may be chiral scatterers. The magnetic and anisotropic RM medium acts as a circular polarizer probably by delaying one of the perpendicular components of the light wave. The delay process involved is called Rabi-flopping and gives delays of the order of femtoseconds. This strong effect thus gives intense circularly polarized visible and UV light within RM clouds. Amino acids and other chiral molecules will experience a strong interaction with this light field in the upper atmospheres of planets. The interaction will vary with the stereogenic conformation of the molecules and in all probability promote the survival of one enantiomer. Here, this strong effect is proposed to be the origin of homochirality. The formation of amino acids in the RM clouds is probably facilitated by the catalytic effect of RM.

  17. Photoemission of Bi_{2}Se_{3} with Circularly Polarized Light: Probe of Spin Polarization or Means for Spin Manipulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sánchez-Barriga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Topological insulators are characterized by Dirac-cone surface states with electron spins locked perpendicular to their linear momenta. Recent theoretical and experimental work implied that this specific spin texture should enable control of photoelectron spins by circularly polarized light. However, these reports questioned the so far accepted interpretation of spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. We solve this puzzle and show that vacuum ultraviolet photons (50–70 eV with linear or circular polarization indeed probe the initial-state spin texture of Bi_{2}Se_{3} while circularly polarized 6-eV low-energy photons flip the electron spins out of plane and reverse their spin polarization, with its sign determined by the light helicity. Our photoemission calculations, taking into account the interplay between the varying probing depth, dipole-selection rules, and spin-dependent scattering effects involving initial and final states, explain these findings and reveal proper conditions for light-induced spin manipulation. Our results pave the way for future applications of topological insulators in optospintronic devices.

  18. Light reflection by the cuticle of C. aurigans scarabs: a biological broadband reflector of left handed circularly polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, E.; Azofeifa, D. E.; Hernández-Jiménez, M.; Barboza-Aguilar, C.; Solís, A.; García-Aguilar, I.; Arce-Marenco, L.; Hernández, A.; Vargas, W. E.

    2014-08-01

    Measured reflection spectra from elytra of Chrysina aurigans scarabs are reported. They show a broad reflection band for wavelengths from 0.525 to 1.0 μm with a sequence of maxima and minima reflection values superimposed on a mean value of around 40% for the high reflection band. Different mechanisms contributing to the reflection spectra have been considered, with the dominant effect, reflection of left handed circularly polarized light, being produced by a laminated left handed twisted structure whose pitch changes with depth through the procuticle in a more complex way than that characterizing broad band circular polarizers based on cholesteric liquid crystals.

  19. Light reflection by the cuticle of C. aurigans scarabs: a biological broadband reflector of left handed circularly polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, E; Azofeifa, D E; Hernández-Jiménez, M; García-Aguilar, I; Arce-Marenco, L; Hernández, A; Vargas, W E; Barboza-Aguilar, C; Solís, A

    2014-01-01

    Measured reflection spectra from elytra of Chrysina aurigans scarabs are reported. They show a broad reflection band for wavelengths from 0.525 to 1.0 μm with a sequence of maxima and minima reflection values superimposed on a mean value of around 40% for the high reflection band. Different mechanisms contributing to the reflection spectra have been considered, with the dominant effect, reflection of left handed circularly polarized light, being produced by a laminated left handed twisted structure whose pitch changes with depth through the procuticle in a more complex way than that characterizing broad band circular polarizers based on cholesteric liquid crystals. (fast track communication)

  20. Circular polarization observed in bioluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynberg, H.; Meijer, E.W.; Hummelen, J.C.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.; Schippers, P.H.; Carlson, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    The left and right lanterns of live larvae of the fireflies Photuris lucicrescens and P. versicolor emitted circularly polarized light of opposite sense. A possible mechanism is discussed. [on SciFinder (R)

  1. Light trapping and circularly polarization at a Dirac point in 2D plasma photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Hu, Lei; Mao, Qiuping; Jiang, Haiming; Hu, Zhijia; Xie, Kang; Wei, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Light trapping at the Dirac point in 2D plasma photonic crystal has been obtained. The new localized mode, Dirac mode, is attributable to neither photonic bandgap nor total internal reflection. It exhibits a unique algebraic profile and possesses a high-Q factor resonator of about 105. The Dirac point could be modulated by tuning the filling factor, plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency, respectively. When a magnetic field parallel to the wave vector is applied, Dirac modes for right circularly polarized and left circularly polarized waves could be obtained at different frequencies, and the Q factor could be tuned. This property will add more controllability and flexibility to the design and modulation of novel photonic devices. It is also valuable for the possibilities of Dirac modes in photonic crystal containing other kinds of metamaterials.

  2. Comparison of two superconducting elliptical undulators for generating circularly polarized light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Hwang

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of two planar superconducting elliptical undulators—a vertically wound racetrack coil structure and a staggered array structure—to generate a circularly polarized hard x-ray source was investigated. The magnetic poles and wires of the up and down magnet arrays were rotated in alternating directions on the horizontal plane, an elliptical field is generated to provide circularly polarized light in the electron-storage ring and the energy-recovery linac accelerator. Rapid switching between right- and left-circularly polarized radiations is performed using two undulators with oppositely rotated wires and poles. Given a periodic length of 15 mm and a gap of 5 mm, the magnetic-flux densities in the elliptical undulator are B_{z}=1.2   T (B_{x}=0.6   T and B_{z}=0.35   T (B_{x}=0.15   T in the planar vertically wound racetrack coil and the staggered structure with poles rotated by 35° and 25°, respectively. In maximizing the merit of the flux and the width of the effective field region in the two superconducting elliptical undulators, the trade-off rotation angles of the coils and poles are 20° and 5°, for vertically wound racetrack coil and staggered undulators, respectively.

  3. Self-organized pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation by circularly polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamova, Olga; Costache, Florenta; Reif, Juergen; Bestehorn, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Surface ripples generation upon femtosecond laser ablation is attributed to self-organized structure formation from instability. We report that linear arrangements are observed not only for linearly polarized light but also for ablation with circularly polarized light. Long ordered chains of spherical nanoparticles, reminding of bead-strings are almost parallel but exhibit typical non-linear dynamics features such as bifurcations. In a first attempt to understand the self-assembly, we rely on models recently developed for the description of similar structures upon ion beam erosion and for the simulation of instabilities in thin liquid films. Our picture describes an unstable surface layer, non-uniformly eroded through Coulomb repulsion between individual positive charges

  4. Analytical Solutions of Temporal Evolution of Populations in Optically-Pumped Atoms with Circularly Polarized Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung-Ryoul Noh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present an analytical calculation of temporal evolution of populations for optically pumped atoms under the influence of weak, circularly polarized light. The differential equations for the populations of magnetic sublevels in the excited state, derived from rate equations, are expressed in the form of inhomogeneous second-order differential equations with constant coefficients. We present a general method of analytically solving these differential equations, and obtain explicit analytical forms of the populations of the ground state at the lowest order in the saturation parameter. The obtained populations can be used to calculate lineshapes in various laser spectroscopies, considering transit time relaxation.

  5. Collisional redistribution of circularly polarized light in barium perturbed by argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, W.J.; Andersen, N.; Belsley, M.; Cooper, J.; Warrington, D.M.; Burnett, K.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the orientation of the Ba 6p 1 P level produced by collision-induced excitation from the ground state by circularly polarized light. The detuning dependence of the far-wing excited state orientation can be interpreted in terms of reorientation of molecular orbitals which occur during the collision. Effects due to rotational coupling are seen to occure at large blue wing detunings. We have also determined the collisional rate for destruction of orientation by measuring the pressure dependence of the excited state orientation. (orig.)

  6. Miniature magnetic bottle confined by circularly polarized laser light and measurements of the inverse Faraday effect in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.; Paiss, Y.; Horovitz, Y.; Henis, Z.

    1997-01-01

    A new concept of hot plasma confinement in a miniature magnetic bottle induced by circularly polarized laser light is suggested. Magnetic fields generated by circularly polarized laser light may be of the order of megagauss, depending on the laser intensity. In this configuration the circularly polarized light is used to obtain confinement of a plasma contained in a good conductor vessel. The confinement in this scheme is supported by the magnetic forces. The Lawson criterion for a DT plasma might be achieved for number density n = 5*10 21 cm -3 and confinement time τ= 20 ns. The laser and plasma parameters required to obtain an energetic gain are calculated. Experiments and preliminary calculations were performed to study the feasibility of the above scheme. Measurements of the axial magnetic field induced by circularly polarized laser light, the so called inverse Faraday effect, and of the absorption of circularly polarized laser light in plasma, are reported. The experiments were performed with a circularly polarized Nd:YAG laser, having a wavelength of 1.06 τm and a pulse duration of 7 ns, in a range of irradiances from 10 9 to 10 14 W/cm 2 . Axial magnetic fields from 500 Gauss to 2 megagauss were measured. Up to 5*10 13 W/cm 3 the results are in agreement with a nonlinear model of the inverse Faraday effect dominated by the ponderomotive force. For the laser irradiance studied here, 9*10 13 - 2.5*10 14 W/cm 2 , the absorption of circularly polarized light was 14% higher relative to the absorption of linear polarized light

  7. Control of emitted light polarization in a 1310 nm dilute nitride spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser subject to circularly polarized optical injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alharthi, S. S., E-mail: ssmalh@essex.ac.uk; Hurtado, A.; Al Seyab, R. K.; Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Korpijarvi, V.-M.; Guina, M. [Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC), Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-11-03

    We experimentally demonstrate the control of the light polarization emitted by a 1310 nm dilute nitride spin-Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) at room temperature. This is achieved by means of a combination of polarized optical pumping and polarized optical injection. Without external injection, the polarization of the optical pump controls that of the spin-VCSEL. However, the addition of the externally injected signal polarized with either left- (LCP) or right-circular polarization (RCP) is able to control the polarization of the spin-VCSEL switching it at will to left- or right-circular polarization. A numerical model has been developed showing a very high degree of agreement with the experimental findings.

  8. Circular polarization of light by planet Mercury and enantiomorphism of its surface minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Thiemann, Wolfram H P; Barbier, Bernard; Brack, André; Alcaraz, Christian; Nahon, Laurent; Wolstencroft, Ray

    2002-04-01

    Different mechanisms for the generation of circular polarization by the surface of planets and satellites are described. The observed values for Venus, the Moon, Mars, and Jupiter obtained by photo-polarimetric measurements with Earth based telescopes, showed accordance with theory. However, for planet Mercury asymmetric parameters in the circular polarization were measured that do not fit with calculations. For BepiColombo, the ESA cornerstone mission 5 to Mercury, we propose to investigate this phenomenon using a concept which includes two instruments. The first instrument is a high-resolution optical polarimeter, capable to determine and map the circular polarization by remote scanning of Mercury's surface from the Mercury Planetary Orbiter MPO. The second instrument is an in situ sensor for the detection of the enantiomorphism of surface crystals and minerals, proposed to be included in the Mercury Lander MSE.

  9. Circularly Polarized Light with Sense and Wavelengths To Regulate Azobenzene Supramolecular Chirality in Optofluidic Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Laibing; Yin, Lu; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xiulin; Fujiki, Michiya

    2017-09-20

    Circularly polarized light (CPL) as a massless physical force causes absolute asymmetric photosynthesis, photodestruction, and photoresolution. CPL handedness has long been believed to be the determining factor in the resulting product's chirality. However, product chirality as a function of the CPL handedness, irradiation wavelength, and irradiation time has not yet been studied systematically. Herein, we investigate this topic using achiral polymethacrylate carrying achiral azobenzene as micrometer-size aggregates in an optofluidic medium with a tuned refractive index. Azobenzene chirality with a high degree of dissymmetry ratio (±1.3 × 10 -2 at 313 nm) was generated, inverted, and switched in multiple cycles by irradiation with monochromatic incoherent CPL (313, 365, 405, and 436 nm) for 20 s using a weak incoherent light source (≈ 30 μW·cm -2 ). Moreover, the optical activity was retained for over 1 week in the dark. Photoinduced chirality was swapped by the irradiating wavelength, regardless of whether the CPL sense was the same. This scenario is similar to the so-called Cotton effect, which was first described in 1895. The tandem choice of both CPL sense and its wavelength was crucial for azobenzene chirality. Our experimental proof and theoretical simulation should provide new insight into the chirality of CPL-controlled molecules, supramolecules, and polymers.

  10. Connective Tissue Characteristics around Healing Abutments of Different Geometries: New Methodological Technique under Circularly Polarized Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael Arcesio; Calvo-Guirado, Jose Luis; Abboud, Marcus; Ramirez-Fernandez, Maria Piedad; Maté-Sánchez de Val, José Eduardo; Negri, Bruno; Gomez-Moreno, Gerardo; Markovic, Aleksa

    2015-08-01

    To describe contact, thickness, density, and orientation of connective tissue fibers around healing abutments of different geometries by means of a new method using coordinates. Following the bilateral extraction of mandibular premolars (P2, P3, and P4) from six fox hound dogs and a 2-month healing period, 36 titanium implants were inserted, onto which two groups of healing abutments of different geometry were screwed: Group A (concave abutments) and Group B (wider healing abutment). After 3 months the animals were sacrificed and samples extracted containing each implant and surrounding soft and hard tissues. Histological analysis was performed without decalcifying the samples by means of circularly polarized light under optical microscope and a system of vertical and horizontal coordinates across all the connective tissue in an area delimited by the implant/abutment, epithelium, and bone tissue. In no case had the connective tissue formed a connection to the healing abutment/implant in the internal zone; a space of 35 ± 10 μm separated the connective tissue fibers from the healing abutment surface. The total thickness of connective tissue in the horizontal direction was significantly greater in the medial zone in Group B than in Group A (p connective tissue thickness. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Plasmon mediated non-photochemical nucleation of nanoparticles by circularly polarized light

    OpenAIRE

    Karpov, Victor G.; Grigorchuk, Nicholas I.

    2014-01-01

    We predict nucleation of pancake shaped metallic nanoparticles having plasmonic frequencies in resonance with a non-absorbed circularly polarized electromagnetic field. We show that the same field can induce nucleation of randomly oriented needle shaped particles. The probabilities of these shapes are estimated vs. field frequency and strength, material parameters, and temperature. This constitutes a quantitative model of non-photochemical laser induced nucleation (NPLIN) consistent with the ...

  12. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  13. Linear and circular polarized tunable slow light in Bragg-spaced graphene layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiang-Tao, E-mail: jtliu@semi.ac.cn [Nanoscale Science and Technology Laboratory, Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Liu, Nian-Hua [Nanoscale Science and Technology Laboratory, Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Hai [Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100037 (China); Wang, Tong-Biao [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Li, Xiao-Jing [College of Physics and Energy, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China)

    2014-11-01

    The light pulse delay in Bragg-spaced graphene layers (BSGs) combined with a magnetic field is investigated theoretically. BSGs can slow down the group velocity of light more effectively than traditional Bragg-spaced quantum wells due to the large binding energy and strong dipole oscillator strength of the magnetic-exciton of graphene. The group velocity can be tuned by varying the pulse frequency, the Bragg frequency, and the magnetic field. Especially, by tuning the occupation number of the Landau level the group velocity in BSGs shows strong tunable circular dichroism. Our findings could have applications in photonic integrated circuits and quantum computation.

  14. Circular polarization memory in single Quantum Dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsevich, S.; Poem, E.; Benny, Y.; Marderfeld, I.; Gershoni, D.; Badolato, A.; Petroff, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Under quasi-resonant circularly polarized optical excitation, charged quantum dots may emit polarized light. We measured various transitions with either positive, negative or no circular-polarization memory. We explain these observations and quantitatively calculate the polarization spectrum. Our model use the full configuration-interaction method, including the electron-hole exchange interaction, for calculating the quantum dot's confined many-carrier states, along with one assumption regarding the spin relaxation of photoexcited carriers: Electrons maintain their initial spin polarization, while holes do not.

  15. Stereo photograph of atomic arrangement by circularly-polarized-light two-dimensional photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daimon, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    A stereo photograph of atomic arrangement was obtained for the first time. The stereo photograph was displayed directly on the screen of display-type spherical-mirror analyzer without any computer-aided conversion process. This stereo photography was realized taking advantage of the phenomenon of circular dichroism in photoelectron angular distribution due to the reversal of orbital angular momentum of photoelectrons. The azimuthal shifts of forward focusing peaks in a photoelectron angular distribution pattern taken with left and right helicity light in a special arrangement are the same as the parallaxes in a stereo view of atoms. Hence a stereoscopic recognition of three-dimensional atomic arrangement is possible, when the left eye and the right eye respectively view the two images obtained by left and right helicity light simultaneously. (author)

  16. Application of circular polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Tsuneaki; Kawata, Hiroshi

    1988-03-01

    The idea of using the polarizing property of light for physical experiment by controlling it variously has been known from old time, and the Faraday effect and the research by polarizing microscopy are its examples. The light emitted from the electron orbit of an accelerator has the different polarizing characteristics from those of the light of a laboratory light source, and as far as observing it within the electron orbit plane, it becomes linearly polarized light. By utilizing this property well, research is carried out at present in synchrotron experimental facilities. Recently, the technology related to the insert type light cources using permanent magnets has advanced remarkably, and circular polarized light has become to be producible. If the light like this can be obtained with the energy not only in far ultraviolet region but also to x-ray region at high luminance, new possibility should open. At the stage that the design of an insert type light source was finished, and its manufacture was started, the research on the method of evaluating the degree of circular polarization and the research on the utilization of circular polarized synchrotron radiation are earnestly carried out. In this report, the results of researches presented at the study meeting are summarized. Moreover, the design and manufacture of the beam lines for exclusive use will be carried out. (Kako, I.)

  17. Multiple stable states of a periodically driven electron spin in a quantum dot using circularly polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2011-06-01

    The periodical modulation of circularly polarized light with a frequency close to the electron spin resonance frequency induces a sharp change of the single electron spin orientation. Hyperfine interaction provides a feedback, thus fixing the precession frequency of the electron spin in the external and the Overhauser field near the modulation frequency. The nuclear polarization is bidirectional and the electron-nuclear spin system (ENSS) possesses a few stable states. The same physics underlie the frequency-locking effect for two-color and mode-locked excitations. However, the pulsed excitation with mode-locked laser brings about the multitudes of stable states in ENSS in a quantum dot. The resulting precession frequencies of the electron spin differ in these states by the multiple of the modulation frequency. Under such conditions ENSS represents a digital frequency converter with more than 100 stable channels.

  18. Asymptotic theory of circular polarization memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark, Julia P; Kim, Arnold D

    2017-09-01

    We establish a quantitative theory of circular polarization memory, which is the unexpected persistence of the incident circular polarization state in a strongly scattering medium. Using an asymptotic analysis of the three-dimensional vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) in the limit of strong scattering, we find that circular polarization memory must occur in a boundary layer near the portion of the boundary on which polarized light is incident. The boundary layer solution satisfies a one-dimensional conservative scattering VRTE. Through a spectral analysis of this boundary layer problem, we introduce the dominant mode, which is the slowest-decaying mode in the boundary layer. To observe circular polarization memory for a particular set of optical parameters, we find that this dominant mode must pass three tests: (1) this dominant mode is given by the largest, discrete eigenvalue of a reduced problem that corresponds to Fourier mode k=0 in the azimuthal angle, and depends only on Stokes parameters U and V; (2) the polarization state of this dominant mode is largely circular polarized so that |V|≫|U|; and (3) the circular polarization of this dominant mode is maintained for all directions so that V is sign-definite. By applying these three tests to numerical calculations for monodisperse distributions of Mie scatterers, we determine the values of the size and relative refractive index when circular polarization memory occurs. In addition, we identify a reduced, scalar-like problem that provides an accurate approximation for the dominant mode when circular polarization memory occurs.

  19. Laser mass spectrometry with circularly polarized light: circular dichroism of cold molecules in a supersonic gas beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titze, Katharina; Zollitsch, Tilo; Heiz, Ulrich; Boesl, Ulrich

    2014-09-15

    An experiment on chiral molecules that combines circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, mass-selective detection by laser mass spectrometry (MS), and cooling of molecules by using a supersonic beam is presented. The combination of the former two techniques (CD-laser-MS) is a new method to investigate chiral molecules and is now used by several research groups. Cooling in a supersonic beam supplies a substantial increase in spectroscopic resolution, a feature that has not yet been used in CD spectroscopy. In the experiments reported herein, a large variation in the electronic CD of carbonyl 3-methylcyclopentanone was observed depending on the excited vibrational modes in the n → π* transition. This finding should be of interest for the detection of chiral molecules and for the theoretical understanding of the CD of vibronic bands. It is expected that this effect will show up in other chiral carbonyls because the n → π* transition is typical for the carbonyl group. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Circular polarization observed in bioluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, Hans; Meijer, E.W.; Hummelen, J.C.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.; Schippers, P.H.; Carlson, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    While investigating circular polarization in luminescence, and having found it in chemiluminescence, we have studied bioluminescence because it is such a widespread and dramatic natural phenomenon. We report here that left and right lanterns of live larvae of the fireflies, Photuris lucicrescens and

  1. NON-RACEMIC AMINO ACID PRODUCTION BY ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION OF ACHIRAL INTERSTELLAR ICE ANALOGS WITH CIRCULARLY POLARIZED LIGHT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marcellus, Pierre; Nuevo, Michel; Danger, Gregoire; Deboffle, Dominique; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis; Meinert, Cornelia; Filippi, Jean-Jacques; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; Nahon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The delivery of organic matter to the primitive Earth via comets and meteorites has long been hypothesized to be an important source for prebiotic compounds such as amino acids or their chemical precursors that contributed to the development of prebiotic chemistry leading, on Earth, to the emergence of life. Photochemistry of inter/circumstellar ices around protostellar objects is a potential process leading to complex organic species, although difficult to establish from limited infrared observations only. Here we report the first abiotic cosmic ice simulation experiments that produce species with enantiomeric excesses (e.e.'s). Circularly polarized ultraviolet light (UV-CPL) from a synchrotron source induces asymmetric photochemistry on initially achiral inter/circumstellar ice analogs. Enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography measurements show significant e.e.'s of up to 1.34% for ( 13 C)-alanine, for which the signs and absolute values are related to the helicity and number of CPL photons per deposited molecule. This result, directly comparable with some L excesses measured in meteorites, supports a scenario in which exogenous delivery of organics displaying a slight L excess, produced in an extraterrestrial environment by an asymmetric astrophysical process, is at the origin of biomolecular asymmetry on Earth. As a consequence, a fraction of the meteoritic organic material consisting of non-racemic compounds may well have been formed outside the solar system. Finally, following this hypothesis, we support the idea that the protosolar nebula has indeed been formed in a region of massive star formation, regions where UV-CPL of the same helicity is actually observed over large spatial areas.

  2. Reflection of circularly polarized light and the effect of particle distribution on circular dichroism in evaporation induced self-assembled cellulose nanocrystal thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hewson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation induced self-assembled (EISA thin films of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs have shown great potential for displaying structural colour across the visible spectrum. They are believed primarily to reflect left handed circularly polarised (LCP light due to their natural tendency to form structures comprising left handed chirality. Accordingly the fabrication of homogenously coloured CNC thin films is challenging. Deposition of solid material towards the edge of a dried droplet, via the coffee-stain effect, is one such difficulty in achieving homogenous colour across CNC films. These effects are most easily observed in films prepared from droplets where observable reflection of visible light is localised around the edge of the dry film. We report here, the observation of both left and right hand circularly polarised (LCP/RCP light in reflection from distinct separate regions of CNC EISA thin films and we elucidate how these reflections are dependent on the distribution of CNC material within the EISA thin film. Optical models of reflection are presented which are based on structures revealed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM images of film cross sections. We have also employed spectroscopic characterisation techniques to evaluate the distribution of solid CNC material within a selection of CNC EISA thin films and we have correlated this distribution with polarised light spectra collected from each film. We conclude that film regions from which RCP light was reflected were associated with lower CNC concentrations and thicker film regions.

  3. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2015-11-17

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.

  4. Circular polarization analyzer with polarization tunable focusing of surface plasmon polaritons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Sen; Zhang, Yan, E-mail: yzhang@mail.cnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Metamaterials and Devices, and Key Laboratory of Terahertz Optoelectronics, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Wang, Xinke [Beijing Key Laboratory for Metamaterials and Devices, and Key Laboratory of Terahertz Optoelectronics, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Kan, Qiang [State Key Laboratory for Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Qu, Shiliang [Optoelectronics Department, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2015-12-14

    A practical circular polarization analyzer (CPA) that can selectively focus surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at two separate locations, according to the helicity of the circularly polarized light, is designed and experimentally verified in the terahertz frequency range. The CPA consists of fishbone-slit units and is designed using the simulated annealing algorithm. By differentially detecting the intensities of the two SPPs focuses, the helicity of the incident circularly polarized light can be obtained and the CPA is less vulnerable to the noise of incident light. The proposed device may also have wide potential applications in chiral SPPs photonics and the analysis of chiral molecules in biology.

  5. Molecular electron recollision dynamics in intense circularly polarized laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Yuan, Kai-Jun

    2018-04-01

    Extreme UV and x-ray table top light sources based on high-order harmonic generation (HHG) are focused now on circular polarization for the generation of circularly polarized attosecond pulses as new tools for controlling electron dynamics, such as charge transfer and migration and the generation of attosecond quantum electron currents for ultrafast magneto-optics. A fundamental electron dynamical process in HHG is laser induced electron recollision with the parent ion, well established theoretically and experimentally for linear polarization. We discuss molecular electron recollision dynamics in circular polarization by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The control of the polarization of HHG with circularly polarized ionizing pulses is examined and it is shown that bichromatic circularly polarized pulses enhance recollision dynamics, rendering HHG more efficient, especially in molecules because of their nonspherical symmetry. The polarization of the harmonics is found to be dependent on the compatibility of the rotational symmetry of the net electric field created by combinations of bichromatic circularly polarized pulses with the dynamical symmetry of molecules. We show how the field and molecule symmetry influences the electron recollision trajectories by a time-frequency analysis of harmonics. The results, in principle, offer new unique controllable tools in the study of attosecond molecular electron dynamics.

  6. Cygnus X-1: Discovery of variable circular polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalsky, J.J.; Swedlund, J.B.; Stokes, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    HDE 226868, the optical counterpart of Cyg X-1, has been observed for circular polarization during 1974. Observations in five colors suggest that circular polarization results from an interstellar effect. Measurements of the blue polarization reveal circular polarization variations synchronous with the 5)./sub /6 orbital period. The circular polarization variation appears to be similar to the blue intensity variation

  7. A novel x-ray circularly polarized ranging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shi-Bin; Xu Lu-Ping; Zhang Hua; Shen Yang-He; Gao Na

    2015-01-01

    Range measurement has found multiple applications in deep space missions. With more and further deep space exploration activities happening now and in the future, the requirement for range measurement has risen. In view of the future ranging requirement, a novel x-ray polarized ranging method based on the circular polarization modulation is proposed, termed as x-ray circularly polarized ranging (XCPolR). XCPolR utilizes the circular polarization modulation to process x-ray signals and the ranging information is conveyed by the circular polarization states. As the circular polarization states present good stability in space propagation and x-ray detectors have light weight and low power consumption, XCPolR shows great potential in the long-distance range measurement and provides an option for future deep space ranging. In this paper, we present a detailed illustration of XCPolR. Firstly, the structure of the polarized ranging system is described and the signal models in the ranging process are established mathematically. Then, the main factors that affect the ranging accuracy, including the Doppler effect, the differential demodulation, and the correlation error, are analyzed theoretically. Finally, numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the performance of XCPolR. (paper)

  8. Vibrationally induced inversion of photoelectron forward-backward asymmetry in chiral molecule photoionization by circularly polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gustavo A.; Nahon, Laurent; Daly, Steven; Powis, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Electron–nuclei coupling accompanying excitation and relaxation processes is a fascinating phenomenon in molecular dynamics. A striking and unexpected example of such coupling is presented here in the context of photoelectron circular dichroism measurements on randomly oriented, chiral methyloxirane molecules, unaffected by any continuum resonance. Here, we report that the forward-backward asymmetry in the electron angular distribution, with respect to the photon axis, which is associated with photoelectron circular dichroism can surprisingly reverse direction according to the ion vibrational mode excited. This vibrational dependence represents a clear breakdown of the usual Franck–Condon assumption, ascribed to the enhanced sensitivity of photoelectron circular dichroism (compared with other observables like cross-sections or the conventional anisotropy parameter-β) to the scattering phase off the chiral molecular potential, inducing a dependence on the nuclear geometry sampled in the photoionization process. Important consequences for the interpretation of such dichroism measurements within analytical contexts are discussed. PMID:23828557

  9. Tight focusing of radially polarized circular Airy vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Musheng; Huang, Sujuan; Shao, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Tight focusing properties of radially polarized circular Airy vortex beams (CAVB) are studied numerically. The light field expressions for the focused fields are derived based on vectorial Debye theory. We also study the relationship between focal profiles, such as light intensity distribution, radius of focal spot and focal length, and the parameters of CAVB. Numerical results demonstrate that we can generate a radially polarized CAVB with super-long focal length, super-strong longitudinal intensity or subwavelength focused spot at the focal plane by properly choosing the parameters of incident light and high numerical aperture (NA) lens. These results have potential applications for optical trapping, optical storage and particle acceleration.

  10. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  11. Polarization measurement and vertical aperture optimization for obtaining circularly polarized bend-magnet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.; Hussain, Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Growing interest in utilizing circular polarization prompted the design of bend-magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, covering the 30-1500 eV spectral region, to include vertical aperturing capabilities for optimizing the collection of circular polarization above and below the orbit plane. After commissioning and early use of the beamline, a multilayer polarimeter was used to characterize the polarization state of the beam as a function of vertical aperture position. This report partially summarizes the polarimetry measurements and compares results with theoretical calculations intended to simulate experimental conditions.

  12. Circularly polarized luminescence of syndiotactic polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Paola; Abbate, Sergio; Longhi, Giovanna; Guerra, Gaetano

    2017-11-01

    Syndiotactic polystyrene (s-PS) films, when crystallized from the amorphous state by temporary sorption of non-racemic guest molecules (like carvone) not only exhibit unusually high optical activity, both in the UV-Visible and Infrared ranges, but also present circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) with high dissymmetry ratios (g = ΔI/I values in the range 0.02-0.03). Experimental evidences provide support, rather than to the usual molecular circular dichroism, to a supramolecular chiral optical response being extrinsic to the site of photon absorption and emission, possibly associated with a helical morphology of s-PS crystallites.

  13. Circularly polarized near-field optical mapping of spin-resolved quantum Hall chiral edge states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyouda, Syuhei; Ito, Hironori; Shibata, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masumi; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Ootuka, Youiti; Nomura, Shintaro

    2015-04-08

    We have successfully developed a circularly polarized near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) that enables us to irradiate circularly polarized light with spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. As a demonstration, we perform real-space mapping of the quantum Hall chiral edge states near the edge of a Hall-bar structure by injecting spin polarized electrons optically at low temperature. The obtained real-space mappings show that spin-polarized electrons are injected optically to the two-dimensional electron layer. Our general method to locally inject spins using a circularly polarized NSOM should be broadly applicable to characterize a variety of nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  14. Enantiomeric excesses induced in amino acids by ultraviolet circularly polarized light irradiation of extraterrestrial ice analogs: A possible source of asymmetry for prebiotic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modica, Paola; De Marcellus, Pierre; D'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant; Meinert, Cornelia; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; Nahon, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of meteoritic amino acids with enantiomeric excesses of the L-form (ee L ) has suggested that extraterrestrial organic materials may have contributed to prebiotic chemistry and directed the initial occurrence of the ee L that further led to homochirality of amino acids on Earth. A proposed mechanism for the origin of ee L in meteorites involves an asymmetric photochemistry of extraterrestrial ices by UV circularly polarized light (CPL). We have performed the asymmetric synthesis of amino acids on achiral extraterrestrial ice analogs by VUV CPL, investigating the chiral asymmetry transfer at two different evolutionary stages at which the analogs were irradiated (regular ices and/or organic residues) and at two different photon energies (6.6 and 10.2 eV). We identify 16 distinct amino acids and precisely measure the L-enantiomeric excesses using the enantioselective GC × GC-TOFMS technique in five of them: α-alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, valine, and norvaline, with values ranging from ee L = –0.20% ± 0.14% to ee L = –2.54% ± 0.28%. The sign of the induced ee L depends on the helicity and the energy of CPL, but not on the evolutionary stage of the samples, and is the same for all five considered amino acids. Our results support an astrophysical scenario in which the solar system was formed in a high-mass star-forming region where icy grains were irradiated during the protoplanetary phase by an external source of CPL of a given helicity and a dominant energy, inducing a stereo-specific photochemistry.

  15. Spatiotemporal polarization gradients in phase-bearing light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembessis, V. E.; Babiker, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown how the interference of two circularly polarized laser beams endowed with orbital angular momentum can give rise to spatial and temporal polarization gradients, displaying axial as well as angular symmetry properties. Illustrations are given with reference to circularly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian beams as typical light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

  16. High Performance Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondyopadhyay, Probir K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A microstrip antenna for radiating circularly polarized electromagnetic waves comprising a cluster array of at least four microstrip radiator elements, each of which is provided with dual orthogonal coplanar feeds in phase quadrature relation achieved by connection to an asymmetric T-junction power divider impedance notched at resonance. The dual fed circularly polarized reference element is positioned with its axis at a 45 deg angle with respect to the unit cell axis. The other three dual fed elements in the unit cell are positioned and fed with a coplanar feed structure with sequential rotation and phasing to enhance the axial ratio and impedance matching performance over a wide bandwidth. The centers of the radiator elements are disposed at the corners of a square with each side of a length d in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 times the free space wavelength of the antenna radiation and the radiator elements reside in a square unit cell area of sides equal to 2d and thereby permit the array to be used as a phased array antenna for electronic scanning and is realizable in a high temperature superconducting thin film material for high efficiency.

  17. A novel x-ray circularly polarized ranging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shi-Bin; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Na; Shen, Yang-He

    2015-05-01

    Range measurement has found multiple applications in deep space missions. With more and further deep space exploration activities happening now and in the future, the requirement for range measurement has risen. In view of the future ranging requirement, a novel x-ray polarized ranging method based on the circular polarization modulation is proposed, termed as x-ray circularly polarized ranging (XCPolR). XCPolR utilizes the circular polarization modulation to process x-ray signals and the ranging information is conveyed by the circular polarization states. As the circular polarization states present good stability in space propagation and x-ray detectors have light weight and low power consumption, XCPolR shows great potential in the long-distance range measurement and provides an option for future deep space ranging. In this paper, we present a detailed illustration of XCPolR. Firstly, the structure of the polarized ranging system is described and the signal models in the ranging process are established mathematically. Then, the main factors that affect the ranging accuracy, including the Doppler effect, the differential demodulation, and the correlation error, are analyzed theoretically. Finally, numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the performance of XCPolR. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2013JQ8040), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), the Open Research Fund of the Academy of Satellite Application, China (Grant No. 2014 CXJJ-DH 12), the Xi’an Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant No. CXY1350(4)), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 201413B, 201412B, and JB141303), and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Precision Navigation and Timing Technology, National Time Service Center, Chinese

  18. Polarization variablity among Wolf-Rayet stars. IV. A complete lack of circular polarization in the optical continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, C.; Moffat, A.F.J.

    1989-01-01

    Quasi-simultaneous blue and red, broadband optical monitoring in linear and circular polarization and in intensity has been carried out over an interval of three weeks for several Wolf-Rayet stars that show relatively large Delta P variations in linear polarization. No significant varying Delta V component of circular polarization is detected in any of these stars. The lower upper limit Delta V/Delta P implies that the intrinsic linearly polarized light which does vary cannot be produced by electrons gyrating in a magnetic field, unless they are ultrarelativistic - a rather unlikely situation. The low mean circular polarization typically observed is probably interstellar in origin. Lack of periodicity in the observed variations of linear polarization implies that even weak magnetic field loops are unlikely to be involved in confining pockets of wind plasma. The observed linear polarization variations are related mainly to electron scattering. 25 refs

  19. Linearly and circularly polarized laser photoinduced molecular order in azo dye doped polymer films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Bendaoud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Photo-induced behavior of Azo Disperse one (AZD1 doped Poly(Methyl MethAcrylate (PMMA using both linear and circular polarized light is studied. The anisotropy is not erased by the circular polarization light. The circular polarization light combined with relatively long lifetime of the cis state in azo dye doped polymers activate all transverse directions of the angular hole burning through the spot in the film inducing anisotropy. Under circular polarized light, there is no orientation perpendicularly to the helex described by the rotating electric field vector, trans molecules reorients in the propagation direction of the pump beam. The polarization state of the probe beam after propagation through the pumped spot depends strongly on the angle of incidence of both pump and probe beams on the input face. In the case where circular polarized pump and probe beams are under the same angle of incidence, the probe beam “sees” anisotropic film as if it is isotropic. Results of this work shows the possibility to reorient azobenzene-type molecules in two orthogonal directions using alternately linearly and circularly polarized beams.

  20. Chiral retrieval method based on right circularly polarized and left circularly polarized waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Ernesto; Muñoz, Juan; Margineda, José; Molina-Cuberos, Gregorio J; García-Collado, Ángel J

    2014-01-01

    The free-wave characterization of metamaterials is usually carried out by illuminating a sample with a linearly polarized plane electromagnetic wave. At points before and after the sample, sensors are introduced to measure the transverse components of the field, in order to compute the reflection and transmission coefficients related with the co- and cross-polar field components. Based on this information, retrieval algorithms allow parameters like rotation angle, effective chirality and refraction index to be calculated. Here we propose to use the transmission signals under illumination with plane circularly polarized waves, without sensing the reflection signal, to calculate the chirality parameter and the rotation angle due to the electromagnetic activity of the material. This new method, which allows a simpler characterization of a chiral slab, is applied to the study of metamaterials composed of both periodic and random distributions of metallic structures with chiral symmetry. The experimental results are contrasted with simulations and alternative measurements obtained using linearly polarized waves. (paper)

  1. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  2. Variation of linear and circular polarization persistence for changing field of view and collection area in a forward scattering environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, John D.; Wright, Jeremy B.; Scrymgeour, David A.; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    2016-05-01

    We present experimental and simulation results for a laboratory-based forward-scattering environment, where 1 μm diameter polystyrene spheres are suspended in water to model the optical scattering properties of fog. Circular polarization maintains its degree of polarization better than linear polarization as the optical thickness of the scattering environment increases. Both simulation and experiment quantify circular polarization's superior persistence, compared to that of linear polarization, and show that it is much less affected by variations in the field of view and collection area of the optical system. Our experimental environment's lateral extent was physically finite, causing a significant difference between measured and simulated degree of polarization values for incident linearly polarized light, but not for circularly polarized light. Through simulation we demonstrate that circular polarization is less susceptible to the finite environmental extent as well as the collection optic's limiting configuration.

  3. Generation of circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Stephon; Ochoa, Joseph; Kosowsky, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    The standard cosmological model, which includes only Compton scattering photon interactions at energy scales near recombination, results in zero primordial circular polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In this paper we consider a particular renormalizable and gauge-invariant standard model extension coupling photons to an external vector field via a Chern-Simons term, which arises as a radiative correction if gravitational torsion couples to fermions. We compute the transport equations for polarized photons from a Boltzmann-like equation, showing that such a coupling will source circular polarization of the microwave background. For the particular coupling considered here, the circular polarization effect is always negligible compared to the rotation of the linear polarization orientation, also derived using the same formalism. We note the possibility that limits on microwave background circular polarization may probe other photon interactions and related fundamental effects such as violations of Lorentz invariance.

  4. d-Amino acids in molecular evolution in space - Absolute asymmetric photolysis and synthesis of amino acids by circularly polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Haruna; Meinert, Cornelia; Nahon, Laurent; Jones, Nykola C; Hoffmann, Søren V; Hamase, Kenji; Takano, Yoshinori; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2018-07-01

    Living organisms on the Earth almost exclusively use l-amino acids for the molecular architecture of proteins. The biological occurrence of d-amino acids is rare, although their functions in various organisms are being gradually understood. A possible explanation for the origin of biomolecular homochirality is the delivery of enantioenriched molecules via extraterrestrial bodies, such as asteroids and comets on early Earth. For the asymmetric formation of amino acids and their precursor molecules in interstellar environments, the interaction with circularly polarized photons is considered to have played a potential role in causing chiral asymmetry. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the investigation of chirality transfer from chiral photons to amino acids involving the two major processes of asymmetric photolysis and asymmetric synthesis. We will discuss analytical data on cometary and meteoritic amino acids and their potential impact delivery to the early Earth. The ongoing and future ambitious space missions, Hayabusa2, OSIRIS-REx, ExoMars 2020, and MMX, are scheduled to provide new insights into the chirality of extraterrestrial organic molecules and their potential relation to the terrestrial homochirality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: d-Amino acids: biology in the mirror, edited by Dr. Loredano Pollegioni, Dr. Jean-Pierre Mothet and Dr. Molla Gianluca. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Circular dichroism measurements at an x-ray free-electron laser with polarization control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, G.; Shevchuk, I.; Walter, P.; Viefhaus, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Lindahl, A. O. [PULSE at Stanford, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Knie, A. [Institut für Physik, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany); Hartmann, N.; Lutman, A. A.; MacArthur, J. P.; Glownia, J. M.; Helml, W.; Huang, Z.; Marinelli, A.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Moeller, S.; Coffee, R. N.; Ilchen, M., E-mail: markus.ilchen@xfel.eu [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Buck, J.; Galler, A.; Liu, J. [European XFEL GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2016-08-15

    A non-destructive diagnostic method for the characterization of circularly polarized, ultraintense, short wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) light is presented. The recently installed Delta undulator at the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (USA) was used as showcase for this diagnostic scheme. By applying a combined two-color, multi-photon experiment with polarization control, the degree of circular polarization of the Delta undulator has been determined. Towards this goal, an oriented electronic state in the continuum was created by non-resonant ionization of the O{sub 2} 1s core shell with circularly polarized FEL pulses at hν ≃ 700 eV. An also circularly polarized, highly intense UV laser pulse with hν ≃ 3.1 eV was temporally and spatially overlapped, causing the photoelectrons to redistribute into so-called sidebands that are energetically separated by the photon energy of the UV laser. By determining the circular dichroism of these redistributed electrons using angle resolving electron spectroscopy and modeling the results with the strong-field approximation, this scheme allows to unambiguously determine the absolute degree of circular polarization of any pulsed, ultraintense XUV or X-ray laser source.

  6. Circular dichroism measurements at an x-ray free-electron laser with polarization control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G.; Lindahl, A. O.; Knie, A.; Hartmann, N.; Lutman, A. A.; MacArthur, J. P.; Shevchuk, I.; Buck, J.; Galler, A.; Glownia, J. M.; Helml, W.; Huang, Z.; Kabachnik, N. M.; Kazansky, A. K.; Liu, J.; Marinelli, A.; Mazza, T.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Walter, P.; Viefhaus, J.; Meyer, M.; Moeller, S.; Coffee, R. N.; Ilchen, M.

    2016-08-01

    A non-destructive diagnostic method for the characterization of circularly polarized, ultraintense, short wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) light is presented. The recently installed Delta undulator at the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (USA) was used as showcase for this diagnostic scheme. By applying a combined two-color, multi-photon experiment with polarization control, the degree of circular polarization of the Delta undulator has been determined. Towards this goal, an oriented electronic state in the continuum was created by non-resonant ionization of the O2 1s core shell with circularly polarized FEL pulses at hν ≃ 700 eV. An also circularly polarized, highly intense UV laser pulse with hν ≃ 3.1 eV was temporally and spatially overlapped, causing the photoelectrons to redistribute into so-called sidebands that are energetically separated by the photon energy of the UV laser. By determining the circular dichroism of these redistributed electrons using angle resolving electron spectroscopy and modeling the results with the strong-field approximation, this scheme allows to unambiguously determine the absolute degree of circular polarization of any pulsed, ultraintense XUV or X-ray laser source.

  7. Polarizing neutron by light-irradiated graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We study the spin orientation of the neutron scattered by light-irradiated graphene and calculate the average value of spin z-component of the neutron in terms of a generating functional technique. Our calculation results indicate that there is a remarkable neutron polarization effect when a neutron penetrates graphene irradiated by a circularly polarized light. We analyse the dynamical source of generating this effect from the aspect of photon-mediated interaction between the neutron spin and valley pseudospin. By comparing with the polarization induced by a magnetic field, we find that this polarization may be equivalent to the one led by a magnetic field of several hundred Teslas if the photon frequency is in the X-ray frequency range. This provides an approach of polarizing neutrons. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Molecular photoelectron holography with circularly polarized laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weifeng; Sheng, Zhihao; Feng, Xingpan; Wu, Miaoli; Chen, Zhangjin; Song, Xiaohong

    2014-02-10

    We investigate the photoelectron momentum distribution of molecular-ion H2+driven by ultrashort intense circularly polarized laser pulses. Both numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) and a quasiclassical model indicate that the photoelectron holography (PH) with circularly polarized pulses can occur in molecule. It is demonstrated that the interference between the direct electron wave and rescattered electron wave from one core to its neighboring core induces the PH. Moreover, the results of the TDSE predict that there is a tilt angle between the interference pattern of the PH and the direction perpendicular to the molecular axis. Furthermore, the tilt angle is sensitively dependent on the wavelength of the driven circularly polarized pulse, which is confirmed by the quasiclassical calculations. The PH induced by circularly polarized laser pulses provides a tool to resolve the electron dynamics and explore the spatial information of molecular structures.

  9. Negative circular polarization as a universal property of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Matthew W.; Spencer, Peter; Murray, Ray

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows that negative circular polarization, a spin flip of polarized carriers resulting in emission of opposite helicity, can be observed in undoped, n-doped, and p-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dots. These results contradict the usual interpretation of the effect. We show using power dependent and time resolved spectroscopy that the generation of negative circular polarization correlates with excited state emission. Furthermore, a longer spin lifetime of negatively polarized excitons is observed where emission is largely ground state in character

  10. Realizing Broadband and Invertible Linear-to-circular Polarization Converter with Ultrathin Single-layer Metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhancheng; Liu, Wenwei; Cheng, Hua; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    The arbitrary control of the polarization states of light has attracted the interest of the scientific community because of the wide range of modern optical applications that such control can afford. However, conventional polarization control setups are bulky and very often operate only within a narrow wavelength range, thereby resisting optical system miniaturization and integration. Here, we present the basic theory, simulated demonstration, and in-depth analysis of a high-performance broadband and invertible linear-to-circular (LTC) polarization converter composed of a single-layer gold nanorod array with a total thickness of ~λ/70 for the near-infrared regime. This setup can transform a circularly polarized wave into a linearly polarized one or a linearly polarized wave with a wavelength-dependent electric field polarization angle into a circularly polarized one in the transmission mode. The broadband and invertible LTC polarization conversion can be attributed to the tailoring of the light interference at the subwavelength scale via the induction of the anisotropic optical resonance mode. This ultrathin single-layer metasurface relaxes the high-precision requirements of the structure parameters in general metasurfaces while retaining the polarization conversion performance. Our findings open up intriguing possibilities towards the realization of novel integrated metasurface-based photonics devices for polarization manipulation, modulation, and phase retardation. PMID:26667360

  11. Simulation of generation and dynamics of polarization singularities with circular Airy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dong; Peng, Xinyu; Zhou, Muchun; Xin, Yu; Song, Minmin

    2017-11-01

    The generation and dynamics of polarization singularities have been underresearched for years, while the focusing property of the topological configuration has not been explored much. In this paper, we simulated the generation of low-order polarization singularities with a circular Airy beam and explored the focusing property of the synthetic light field during propagation due to the autofocusing of the component. Our work researched the focusing properties of the polarization singularity configuration, which may help to develop its application prospect.

  12. Photoconductive detector of circularly polarized radiation based on a MIS structure with a CoPt layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrin, A. V.; Dorokhin, M. V.; Zdoroveishchev, A. V.; Demina, P. B.; Vikhrova, O. V.; Kalent'eva, I. L.; Ved', M. V.

    2017-11-01

    A photoconductive detector of circularly polarized radiation based on the metal-insulator-semiconductor structure of CoPt/(Al2O3/SiO2/Al2O3)/InGaAs/GaAs is created. The efficiency of detection of circularly polarized radiation is 0.75% at room temperature. The operation of the detector is based on the manifestation of the effect of magnetic circular dichroism in the CoPt layer, that is, the dependence of the CoPt transmission coefficient on the sign of the circular polarization of light and magnetization.

  13. Investigating circular patterns in linear polarization observations of Venus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahapatra, G.; Stam, D.M.; Rossi, L.C.G.; Rodenhuis, M.; Snik, Frans; Keller, C.U.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyse linear polarization data of the planet at a distance, obtained with the Extreme Polarimeter (ExPo) on the William Herschel Telescope
    on La Palma. These spatially resolved, high-accuracy polarization observations of Venus show faint circular patterns centered on the

  14. Circular polarization measurements with a Ge(Li) detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopecký, J.; Warming, Inge Elisabeth

    1969-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained in measurements of the degree of circular polarization of gamma transitions to bound states of 33S, 36Cl, 49Ti, 56Mn, 57Fe, 60Co and 64Cu following the capture of polarized thermal neutrons. Spin values have been determined on the basis of these results....

  15. Polarized light and optical measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, D N; Ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Polarized Light and Optical Measurement is a five-chapter book that begins with a self-consistent conceptual picture of the phenomenon of polarization. Chapter 2 describes a number of interactions of light and matter used in devising optical elements in polarization studies. Specific optical elements are given in Chapter 3. The last two chapters explore the measurement of the state of polarization and the various roles played in optical instrumentation by polarization and polarization-sensitive elements. This book will provide useful information in this field of interest for research workers,

  16. Characterization of a microfocused circularly polarized x-ray probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollmann, J.; Srajer, G.; Maser, J.; Lang, J. C.; Nelson, C. S.; Venkataraman, C. T.; Isaacs, E. D.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the development of a circularly polarized x-ray microprobe in the intermediate energy range from 5 to 10 keV. In this experiment linearly polarized synchrotron radiation was circularly polarized by means of a Bragg-diffracting diamond phase retarder and subsequently focused down to a spot size of about 4x2 μm 2 by a Fresnel zone plate. The properties of the microprobe were characterized, and the technique was applied to the two-dimensional mapping of magnetic domains in HoFe 2 . (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  17. Electrically small circularly polarized spherical antenna with air core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2013-01-01

    An electrically small circularly polarized self-resonant spherical antenna with air core is presented. The antenna is a modified multiarm spherical helix exciting TM10 and TE10 spherical modes with equal radiated power, and thus yielding perfect circular polarization over the entire far......-field sphere (except the polar regions, where the radiation is low). The self-resonance is achieved by exciting higher-order TM modes, which provide the necessary electric stored energy in the near-field, while contributing negligibly to the far-field radiation of the antenna. The antenna has electrical size...

  18. Light-induced circular birefringence in cyanoazobenzene side-chain liquid-crystalline polyester films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenova, I; Nikolova, L; Ramanujam, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    We report the inducement of large circular birefringence (optical activity) in films of a cyanoazobenzene side-chain liquid-crystalline polyester on illumination with circularly polarized light. The polyester has no chiral groups and is initially isotropic. The induced optical rotation is up to 5...

  19. A New Limit on CMB Circular Polarization from SPIDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, J. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Benton, S. J.; Bergman, A. S.; Bihary, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Doré, O.; Duivenvoorden, A. J.; Eriksen, H. K.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L. M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Freese, K.; Galloway, M.; Gambrel, A. E.; Gandilo, N. N.; Ganga, K.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Halpern, M.; Hartley, J.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G.; Holmes, W.; Hristov, V. V.; Huang, Z.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kuo, C. L.; Kermish, Z. D.; Li, S.; Mason, P. V.; Megerian, K.; Moncelsi, L.; Morford, T. A.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nolta, M.; Padilla, I. L.; Racine, B.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Ruud, T. M.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Song, X.; Trangsrud, A.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; Van Der List, J. F.; Weber, A. C.; Wehus, I. K.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E. Y.

    2017-08-01

    We present a new upper limit on cosmic microwave background (CMB) circular polarization from the 2015 flight of Spider, a balloon-borne telescope designed to search for B-mode linear polarization from cosmic inflation. Although the level of circular polarization in the CMB is predicted to be very small, experimental limits provide a valuable test of the underlying models. By exploiting the nonzero circular-to-linear polarization coupling of the half-wave plate polarization modulators, data from Spider's 2015 Antarctic flight provide a constraint on Stokes V at 95 and 150 GHz in the range 33< {\\ell }< 307. No other limits exist over this full range of angular scales, and Spider improves on the previous limit by several orders of magnitude, providing 95% C.L. constraints on {\\ell }({\\ell }+1){C}{\\ell }{VV}/(2π ) ranging from 141 to 255 μK2 at 150 GHz for a thermal CMB spectrum. As linear CMB polarization experiments become increasingly sensitive, the techniques described in this paper can be applied to obtain even stronger constraints on circular polarization.

  20. A New Limit on CMB Circular Polarization from SPIDER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, J. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Benton, S. J.; Bergman, A. S.; Bihary, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Doré, O.; Duivenvoorden, A. J.; Eriksen, H. K.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L. M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Freese, K.; Galloway, M.; Gambrel, A. E.; Gandilo, N. N.; Ganga, K.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Halpern, M.; Hartley, J.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G.; Holmes, W.; Hristov, V. V.; Huang, Z.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kuo, C. L.; Kermish, Z. D.; Li, S.; Mason, P. V.; Megerian, K.; Moncelsi, L.; Morford, T. A.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nolta, M.; Padilla, I. L.; Racine, B.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Ruud, T. M.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Song, X.; Trangsrud, A.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; List, J. F. Van Der; Weber, A. C.; Wehus, I. K.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E. Y.

    2017-08-01

    We present a new upper limit on CMB circular polarization from the 2015 flight of SPIDER, a balloon-borne telescope designed to search for $B$-mode linear polarization from cosmic inflation. Although the level of circular polarization in the CMB is predicted to be very small, experimental limits provide a valuable test of the underlying models. By exploiting the non-zero circular-to-linear polarization coupling of the HWP polarization modulators, data from SPIDER's 2015 Antarctic flight provides a constraint on Stokes $V$ at 95 and 150 GHz from $33<\\ell<307$. No other limits exist over this full range of angular scales, and SPIDER improves upon the previous limit by several orders of magnitude, providing 95% C.L. constraints on $\\ell (\\ell+1)C_{\\ell}^{VV}/(2\\pi)$ ranging from 141 $\\mu K ^2$ to 203 $\\mu K ^2$ at 150 GHz for a thermal CMB spectrum. As linear CMB polarization experiments become increasingly sensitive, the techniques described in this paper can be applied to obtain stronger constraints on circular polarization.

  1. Design and simulation of a novel circularly polarized antenna with polarization reconfigurable characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel circularly polarized antenna with polarization reconfigurable characteristics was designed using co-simulation of Ansoft HFSS and Designer software. It consists of a dual-polarized antenna and phase switching network which act as the feed network for the dual-polarized antenna. The phase switching network was designed based on a Wilkinson power divider, where the output port was connected with SPDT to form a switching network. By controlling the SPDT state-off / on, the phase difference of the two ports could be alternated, which generated the orthogonal modes between the two ports of dual-polarized antenna. So that Left-hand circular polarization (LHCP and Right-hand circular polarization (RHCP could be achieved. The simulation shown that reflection coefficient was less than -12 dB and the axial ratio was below 3 dB between 1.8 GHz and 2.4 GHz with polarization reconfigurable characteristics.

  2. Circular polarization in a non-magnetic resonant tunneling device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airey Robert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have investigated the polarization-resolved photoluminescence (PL in an asymmetric n-type GaAs/AlAs/GaAlAs resonant tunneling diode under magnetic field parallel to the tunnel current. The quantum well (QW PL presents strong circular polarization (values up to -70% at 19 T. The optical emission from GaAs contact layers shows evidence of highly spin-polarized two-dimensional electron and hole gases which affects the spin polarization of carriers in the QW. However, the circular polarization degree in the QW also depends on various other parameters, including the g-factors of the different layers, the density of carriers along the structure, and the Zeeman and Rashba effects.

  3. Inkjet printed circularly polarized antennas for GPS applications

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2014-07-01

    Two novel, inkjet printed circularly polarized antenna designs are presented for GPS applications. First antenna design comprises a planar monopole which has been made circularly polarized by the introduction of an L-shaped slit. The antenna shows a gain of 0.2 dBi at 1.575 GHz with 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth of 3.8%. The second antenna design comprises a modified monopole in the form of an inverted L and has been termed as circularly polarized inverted L antenna (CILA). The antenna shows a gain of -2 dBi at 1.575 GHz with 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth of 4.1%. Both the antenna designs are attractive for mobile applications.

  4. Slotted Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna for RFID Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A single layer coaxial fed rectangular microstrip slotted antenna for circular polarization (CP is proposed for radio frequency identification (RFID application. Two triangular shaped slots and one rectangular slot along the diagonal axis of a square patch have been embedded. Due to slotted structure along the diagonal axis and less surface area, good quality of circular polarization has been obtained with the reduction in the size of microstrip antenna by 4.04 %. Circular polarization radiation performance has been studied by size and angle variation of diagonally slotted structures. The experimental result found for 10-dB return loss is 44 MHz with 10MHz of 3dB Axial Ratio (AR bandwidth respectively at the resonant frequency 910 MHz. The overall proposed antenna size including the ground plane is 80 mm x 80 mm x 4.572 mm.

  5. Applications of circularly polarized photons at the ALS with a bend magnet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this workshop is to focus attention on, and to stimulate the scientific exploitation of, the natural polarization properties of bend-magnet synchrotron radiation at the ALS -- for research in biology, materials science, physics, and chemistry. The topics include: The Advanced Light Source; Magnetic Circular Dichroism and Differential Scattering on Biomolecules; Tests of Fundamental Symmetries; High T c Superconductivity; Photoemission from Magnetic and Non-magnetic Solids; Studies of Highly Correlated Systems; and Instrumentation for Photon Transport and Polarization Measurements

  6. Superconducting Undulator with Variably Polarized Light

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Ching Shiang; Ching Fan, Tai; Li, W P; Lin, P H

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates planar in-vacuo superconducting undulators with periodic length of 5 cm (IVSU5) producing linearly and circularly polarized infrared rays or xrays source. The vertically wound racetrack coil is selected for the coil and pole fabrication of the IVSU5. When the up and down magnetic pole arrays with alternative directions rotated wires in the horizontal plane, a helical field radiates circularly polarized light in the electron storage ring, the free electron laser (FEL), and the energy recovery linac (ERL) facilities. Meanwhile, an un-rotated wire is constructed together with the rotated wire on the same undulator is used to switch the linear horizontal and vertical, the right- and left-circular polarization radiation. Given a periodic length of 5 cm and a gap of 23 mm, the maximum magnetic flux density in the helical undulator are Bz = 1.5 T and Bx = 0.5 T when the wires rotated by 20°. This article describes the main factors of the planar and helical undulator design for FEL and...

  7. Multiband Circular Polarizer Based on Fission Transmission of Linearly Polarized Wave for X-Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali Mangi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiband circular polarizer based on fission transmission of linearly polarized wave for x-band application is proposed, which is constructed of 2 × 2 metallic strips array. The linear-to-circular polarization conversion is obtained by decomposing the linearly incident x-polarized wave into two orthogonal vector components of equal amplitude and 90° phase difference between them. The innovative approach of “fission transmission of linear-to-circular polarized wave” is firstly introduced to obtain giant circular dichroism based on decomposition of orthogonal vector components through the structure. It means that the incident linearly polarized wave is converted into two orthogonal components through lower printed metallic strips layer and two transmitted waves impinge on the upper printed strips layer to convert into four orthogonal vector components at the end of structure. This projection and transmission sequence of orthogonal components sustain the chain transmission of electromagnetic wave and can achieve giant circular dichroism. Theoretical analysis and microwave experiments are presented to validate the performance of the structure. The measured results are in good agreement with simulation results. In addition, the proposed circular polarizer exhibits the optimal performance with respect to the normal incidence. The right handed circularly polarized wave is emitted ranging from 10.08 GHz to 10.53 GHz and 10.78 GHz to 11.12 GHz, while the left handed circular polarized wave is excited at 10.54 GHz–10.70 GHz and 11.13 GHz–11.14 GHz, respectively.

  8. Near-field circular polarization probed by chiral polyfluorene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savoini, M.; Biagioni, P.; Lakhwani, G.; Meskers, S.C.J.; Duò, L.; Finazzi, M.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that a high degree of circular polarization can be delivered to the near field (NF) of an aperture at the apex of hollow-pyramid probes for scanning optical microscopy. This result is achieved by analyzing the dichroic properties of an annealed thin polymer film containing a chiral

  9. Circularly polarized antennas for active holographic imaging through barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA; Severtsen, Ronald H [Richland, WA; Lechelt, Wayne M [West Richland, WA; Prince, James M [Kennewick, WA

    2011-07-26

    Circularly-polarized antennas and their methods of use for active holographic imaging through barriers. The antennas are dielectrically loaded to optimally match the dielectric constant of the barrier through which images are to be produced. The dielectric loading helps to remove barrier-front surface reflections and to couple electromagnetic energy into the barrier.

  10. Diffusion weighted imaging with circularly polarized oscillating gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Henrik; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Dyrby, Tim B

    2015-01-01

    presented. One major hurdle in practical implementation is the low effective diffusion weighting provided at high frequency with limited gradient strength. THEORY: As a solution to the low diffusion weighting of OGSE, circularly polarized OGSE (CP-OGSE) is introduced. CP-OGSE gives a twofold increase...

  11. Inkjet printed circularly polarized antennas for GPS applications

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2014-01-01

    gain of 0.2 dBi at 1.575 GHz with 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth of 3.8%. The second antenna design comprises a modified monopole in the form of an inverted L and has been termed as circularly polarized inverted L antenna (CILA). The antenna shows a gain

  12. Attosecond polarization control in atomic RABBITT-like experiments assisted by a circularly polarized laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, D. I. R.; Fojón, O. A.

    2017-12-01

    We study theoretically the single ionization of noble gas atoms by the combined action of an attosecond pulse train with linear polarization and an assistant laser field with circular polarization. We employ a non-perturbative model that under certain approximations gives closed-form expressions for the angular distributions of photoelectrons. Interestingly, our model allow us to interpret these angular distributions as two-centre interferences where the orientation and the modulus of the separation vector between the virtual emitters is governed by the assistant laser field. Additionally, we show that such a configuration of light fields is similar to the polarization control technique, where both the attosecond pulse train and the assistant laser field have linear polarizations whose relative orientation may be controlled. Moreover, in order to compare our results with the available experimental data, we obtain analytical expressions for the cross sections integrated over the photoelectron emission angles. By means of these expressions, we define the ‘magic time’ as the delay for which the total cross sections for atomic targets exhibit the same functional form as the one of the monochromatic photoionization of diatomic molecular targets.

  13. Circular-Polarization-Selective Transmission Induced by Spin-Orbit Coupling in a Helical Tape Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahong; Guo, Qinghua; Liu, Hongchao; Liu, Congcong; Song, Kun; Yang, Biao; Hou, Quanwen; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Shuang; Navarro-Cía, Miguel

    2018-05-01

    Spin-orbit coupling of light, describing the interaction between the polarization (spin) and spatial degrees of freedom (orbit) of light, plays an important role in subwavelength scale systems and leads to many interesting phenomena, such as the spin Hall effect of light. Here, based on the spin-orbit coupling, we design and fabricate a helical tape waveguide (HTW), which can realize a circular-polarization-selective process. When the incident circularly polarized wave is of the same handedness as the helix of the HTW, a nearly complete transmission is observed; in contrast, a counterrotating circular polarization of incident wave results in a much lower transmission or is even totally blocked by the HTW. Indeed, both simulations and experiments reveal that the blocked component of power leaks through the helical aperture of the HTW and forms a conical beam analogous to helical Cherenkov radiation due to the conversion from the spin angular momentum to the orbital angular momentum. Our HTW structure demonstrates its potential as a polarization selector in a broadband frequency range.

  14. Polarization dependent switching of asymmetric nanorings with a circular field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar R. Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigated the switching from onion to vortex states in asymmetric cobalt nanorings by an applied circular field. An in-plane field is applied along the symmetric or asymmetric axis of the ring to establish domain walls (DWs with symmetric or asymmetric polarization. A circular field is then applied to switch from the onion state to the vortex state, moving the DWs in the process. The asymmetry of the ring leads to different switching fields depending on the location of the DWs and direction of applied field. For polarization along the asymmetric axis, the field required to move the DWs to the narrow side of the ring is smaller than the field required to move the DWs to the larger side of the ring. For polarization along the symmetric axis, establishing one DW in the narrow side and one on the wide side, the field required to switch to the vortex state is an intermediate value.

  15. Modeling radio circular polarization in the Crab nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciantini, N.; Olmi, B.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present, for the first time, simulated maps of the circularly polarized synchrotron emission from the Crab nebula, using multidimensional state of the art models for the magnetic field geometry. Synchrotron emission is the signature of non-thermal emitting particles, typical of many high-energy astrophysical sources, both Galactic and extragalactic ones. Its spectral and polarization properties allow us to infer key information on the particles distribution function and magnetic field geometry. In recent years, our understanding of pulsar wind nebulae has improved substantially thanks to a combination of observations and numerical models. A robust detection or non-detection of circular polarization will enable us to discriminate between an electron-proton plasma and a pair plasma, clarifying once for all the origin of the radio emitting particles, setting strong constraints on the pair production in pulsar magnetosphere, and the role of turbulence in the nebula. Previous attempts at measuring the circular polarization have only provided upper limits, but the lack of accurate estimates, based on reliable models, makes their interpretation ambiguous. We show here that those results are above the expected values, and that current polarimetric techniques are not robust enough for conclusive result, suggesting that improvements in construction and calibration of next generation radio facilities are necessary to achieve the desired sensitivity.

  16. A Novel Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Rectangular Slot Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide fed dual-band circularly polarized rectangular slot antenna is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a rectangular metal frame acting as a ground and an S-shaped monopole as a radiator. The spatial distribution of the surface current density is employed to demonstrate that the circular polarization is generated by the S-shaped monopole which controls the path of the surface currents. An antenna prototype, having overall dimension 37 × 37 × 1 mm3, has been fabricated on FR4 substrate with dielectric constant 4.4. The proposed antenna achieves 10 dB return loss bandwidths and 3 dB axial ratio (AR in the frequency bands 2.39–2.81 GHz and 5.42–5.92 GHz, respectively. Both these characteristics are suitable for WLAN and WiMAX applications.

  17. Optimized fan-shaped chiral metamaterial as an ultrathin narrow-band circular polarizer at visible frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yizhuo; Wang, Xinghai; Ingram, Whitney; Ai, Bin; Zhao, Yiping

    2018-04-01

    Chiral metamaterials have the great ability to manipulate the circular polarizations of light, which can be utilized to build ultrathin circular polarizers. Here we build a narrow-band circular polarizer at visible frequencies based on plasmonic fan-shaped chiral nanostructures. In order to achieve the best optical performance, we systematically investigate how different fabrication factors affect the chiral optical response of the fan-shaped chiral nanostructures, including incident angle of vapor depositions, nanostructure thickness, and post-deposition annealing. The optimized fan-shaped nanostructures show two narrow bands for different circular polarizations with the maximum extinction ratios 7.5 and 6.9 located at wavelength 687 nm and 774 nm, respectively.

  18. Steady state ion acceleration by a circularly polarized laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaomei; Shen Baifei; Cang Yu; Li Xuemei; Jin Zhangying; Wang Fengchao

    2007-01-01

    The steady state ion acceleration at the front of a cold solid target by a circularly polarized flat-top laser pulse is studied with one-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. A model that ions are reflected by a steady laser-driven piston is used by comparing with the electrostatic shock acceleration. A stable profile with a double-flat-top structure in phase space forms after ions enter the undisturbed region of the target with a constant velocity

  19. Classical origins of stabilization in circularly polarized laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chism, Will; Choi, Dae-Il; Reichl, L. E.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of a two-dimensional model atom with an intense, high-frequency circularly polarized laser pulse. As the laser intensity is increased, the ionization rate initially increases, then decreases dramatically, with the electron wave function developing an asymmetric ring form which rotates with the electric field. We provide evidence that this wave form is due to localization of the electron onto nonlinear classical structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  20. Full-Stokes polarimetry with circularly polarized feeds. Sources with stable linear and circular polarization in the GHz regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myserlis, I.; Angelakis, E.; Kraus, A.; Liontas, C. A.; Marchili, N.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Karamanavis, V.; Fuhrmann, L.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Zensus, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    We present an analysis pipeline that enables the recovery of reliable information for all four Stokes parameters with high accuracy. Its novelty relies on the effective treatment of the instrumental effects even before the computation of the Stokes parameters, contrary to conventionally used methods such as that based on the Müller matrix. For instance, instrumental linear polarization is corrected across the whole telescope beam and significant Stokes Q and U can be recovered even when the recorded signals are severely corrupted by instrumental effects. The accuracy we reach in terms of polarization degree is of the order of 0.1-0.2%. The polarization angles are determined with an accuracy of almost 1°. The presented methodology was applied to recover the linear and circular polarization of around 150 active galactic nuclei, which were monitored between July 2010 and April 2016 with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope at 4.85 GHz and 8.35 GHz with a median cadence of 1.2 months. The polarized emission of the Moon was used to calibrate the polarization angle measurements. Our analysis showed a small system-induced rotation of about 1° at both observing frequencies. Over the examined period, five sources have significant and stable linear polarization; three sources remain constantly linearly unpolarized; and a total of 11 sources have stable circular polarization degree mc, four of them with non-zero mc. We also identify eight sources that maintain a stable polarization angle. All this is provided to the community for future polarization observations reference. We finally show that our analysis method is conceptually different from those traditionally used and performs better than the Müller matrix method. Although it has been developed for a system equipped with circularly polarized feeds, it can easily be generalized to systems with linearly polarized feeds as well. The data used to create Fig. C.1 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  1. Circular motion of particles suspended in a Gaussian beam with circular polarization validates the spin part of the internal energy flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya.; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    switching to the right (left) circular polarization, the particles performed spinning motion in agreement with the angular momentum imparted by the field, but they were involved in an orbital rotation around the beam axis as well, which in previous works [Y. Zhao et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007......Non-spherical dielectric microparticles were suspended in a water-filled cell and exposed to a coherent Gaussian light beam with controlled state of polarization. When the beam polarization is linear, the particles were trapped at certain off-axial position within the beam cross section. After...... of inhomogeneously polarized paraxial beams [A. Bekshaev et al, J. Opt. 13, 053001 (2011)]....

  2. Surface magnetism studied by polarized light emission after He+ scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manske, J; Dirska, M; Lubinski, G; Schleberger, M; Narmann, A; Hoekstra, R

    Surface magnetism is studied by means of an ion beam of low energy (2-15 keV) scattered off the surface under grazing incidence conditions. During the scattering, a small fraction of the ions is neutralized into excited states which decay subsequently by light emission. The circular polarization of

  3. Rotated infrared antenna transmitarray for the manipulation of circularly polarized wavefronts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yuchu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An IR optical transmitarray is presented based on Antenna Array Sheet (AAS for the manipulation of circularly polarized light. The unit cell of the transmitarray comprises three layers of metallic elliptical patches. Complete phase control is achieved through the local rotation of each unit cell. Thin refraction and focusing transmitarrays of this sort are demonstrated at infrared frequencies. Moreover, a new concept for realizing a polarization-discriminating device is introduced based on a flat refracting lens. These devices are compatible with current fabrication technology and can become crucial for the integration with other IR and nano-photonic devices.

  4. Experimentally determined characteristics of the degree of polarization of backscattered light from polystyrene sphere suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ping; Ma, Yongchao; Xu, Chengwei; Sun, Xiaochun; Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The degree of polarization (DOP) can be used to characterize the polarization-maintaining ability of a beam of polarized light propagating through a turbid medium. Experiments on polystyrene (PST) sphere suspensions show that, the linearly polarized light propagating through the PST sphere suspension of Rayleigh scatterers has better polarization-maintaining ability, whereas the circularly polarized light propagating through the PST sphere suspension of Mie scatterers has better polarization-maintaining ability. Moreover, helicity flipping occurs to the circularly polarized light propagating in the extremely weak PST sphere suspensions or on the surface of suspensions. In addition, the DOP is dependent on the wavelength of incident light. The results can be helpful to image in turbid media by use of diffuse backscattered light. (paper)

  5. Circularly Polarized Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna with Finite Ground Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyog Rawat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new geometry of circularly polarized patch antenna is proposed with improved bandwidth. The radiation performance of proposed patch antenna is investigated using IE3D simulation software and its performance is compared with that of conventional rectangular patch antenna. The simulated return loss, axial ratio and impedance with frequency for the proposed antenna are reported in this paper. It is shown that by selecting suitable ground-plane dimensions, air gap and location of the slots, the impedance bandwidth can be enhanced upto 10.15% as compared to conventional rectangular patch (4.24% with an axial ratio bandwidth of 4.05%.

  6. Interpreting tunneling time in circularly polarized strong-laser ionization

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, MingHu; Xin, PeiPei; Chu, TianShu; Liu, HongPing

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to study the tunneling process by analyzing the time-dependent ionization yield in circularly polarized laser. A numerical calculation shows that for an atom exposed to a long laser pulse, if its initial electronic state wave function is non-spherical symmetric, the delayed phase shift of the ionization rate vs. the laser cycle period in real time in the region close to the peak intensity of the laser pulse can be used to probe the tunneling time. In this region, an obviou...

  7. Minimum Q circularly polarized electrically small spherical antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2011-01-01

    The radiation problem for the TM10- and TE10-mode electric current densities on the surface of a spherical magnetic-coated PEC core is solved analytically. The combination of the electric and magnetic dipole modes reduces the radiation Q of the antenna. Moreover, with an appropriately designed...... magnetic-coated PEC core the stored energies of these modes balance each other making the antenna self-resonant and at the same time ensuring a perfect circularly polarized radiation. Numerical results for a practical dual-mode electrically small antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. A 4-arm...

  8. High-flux normal incidence monochromator for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefers, F.; Peatman, W.; Eyers, A.; Heckenkamp, C.; Schoenhense, G.; Heinzmann, U.

    1986-01-01

    A 6.5-m normal incidence monochromator installed at the storage ring BESSY, which is optimized for a high throughput of circularly polarized off-plane radiation at moderate resolution is described. The monochromator employs two exit slits and is specially designed and used for low-signal experiments such as spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on solids, adsorbates, free atoms, and molecules. The Monk--Gillieson mounting (plane grating in a convergent light beam) allows for large apertures with relatively little astigmatism. With two gratings, a flux of more than 10 11 photons s -1 bandwidth -1 (0.2--0.5 nm) with a circular polarization of more than 90% in the wavelength range from 35 to 675 nm is achieved

  9. Polarization holograms in a bifunctional amorphous polymer exhibiting equal values of photoinduced linear and circular birefringences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Clementina; Pagliusi, Pasquale; Cipparrone, Gabriella; Royes, Jorge; Piñol, Milagros; Oriol, Luis

    2014-10-09

    Light-controlled molecular alignment is a flexible and useful strategy introducing novelty in the fields of mechanics, self-organized structuring, mass transport, optics, and photonics and addressing the development of smart optical devices. Azobenzene-containing polymers are well-known photocontrollable materials with large and reversible photoinduced optical anisotropies. The vectorial holography applied to these materials enables peculiar optical devices whose properties strongly depend on the relative values of the photoinduced birefringences. Here is reported a polarization holographic recording based on the interference of two waves with orthogonal linear polarization on a bifunctional amorphous polymer that, exceptionally, exhibits equal values of linear and circular birefringence. The peculiar photoresponse of the material coupled with the holographic technique demonstrates an optical device capable of decomposing the light into a set of orthogonally polarized linear components. The holographic structures are theoretically described by the Jones matrices method and experimentally investigated.

  10. W-Band Circularly Polarized TE11 Mode Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Mingzhou; He, Wangdong; Wang, Lei

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a balanced sidewall exciting approach to realize the circularly polarized TE11 mode transducer. We used a voltage vector transfer matrix to establish the relationship between input and output vectors, then we analyzed amplitude and phase errors to estimate the isolation of degenerate mode. A mode transducer with a sidewall exciter was designed based on the results. In the 88-100 GHz frequency range, the simulated axial ratio is less than 1.05 and the isolation of linearly polarization TE11 mode is higher than 30 dBc. In back-to-back measurements, the return loss is generally greater than 20 dB with a typical insertion loss of 1.2 dB. Back-to-back transmission measurements are in excellent agreement with simulations.

  11. Electron Interference in Molecular Circular Polarization Attosecond XUV Photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jun Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-center electron interference in molecular attosecond photoionization processes is investigated from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Both symmetric H\\(_2^+\\ and nonsymmetric HHe\\(^{2+}\\ one electron diatomic systems are ionized by intense attosecond circularly polarized XUV laser pulses. Photoionization of these molecular ions shows signature of interference with double peaks (minima in molecular attosecond photoelectron energy spectra (MAPES at critical angles \\(\\vartheta_c\\ between the molecular \\(\\textbf{R}\\ axis and the photoelectron momentum \\(\\textbf{p}\\. The interferences are shown to be a function of the symmetry of electronic states and the interference patterns are sensitive to the molecular orientation and pulse polarization. Such sensitivity offers possibility for imaging of molecular structure and orbitals.

  12. Multi-band circular polarizer based on a twisted triple split-ring resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Song; Huang Xiao-Jun; Yang He-Lin; Xiao Bo-Xun; Jin Yan

    2014-01-01

    A multi-band circular polarizer using a twisted triple split-ring resonator (TSRR) is presented and studied numerically and experimentally. At four distinct resonant frequencies, the incident linearly polarized wave can be transformed into left/right-handed circularly polarized waves. Numerical simulation results show that a y-polarized wave can be converted into a right-handed circularly polarized wave at 5.738 GHz and 9.218 GHz, while a left-handed circularly polarized wave is produced at 7.292 GHz and 10.118 GHz. The experimental results are in agreement with the numerical results. The surface current distributions are investigated to illustrate the polarization transformation mechanism. Furthermore, the influences of the structure parameters of the circular polarizer on transmission spectra are discussed as well. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  13. A Minkowski Fractal Circularly Polarized Antenna for RFID Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhong Yu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A design of fractal-like antenna with circular polarization for radio frequency identification (RFID reader applications is presented in this article. The modified Minkowski fractal structure is adopted as radiating patch for size reduction and broadband operation. A corner-truncated technology and a slot-opened method are employed to realize circular polarization and improve the gain of the proposed antenna, respectively. The proposed antenna is analyzed and optimized by HFSS. Return loss and maximum gain of the optimized antenna achieve to -22.2 dB and 1.12 dB at 920 MHz, respectively. The optimized design has an axial ratio (AR of 1.2 dB at central frequency of 920 MHz and impedance bandwidth (S11<=-10 dB of 40 MHz (4.3 %. Its input impedance is (57.9-j2.6 W that is close to input impedance of coaxial line (50 W. Numerical results demonstrate that the optimized antenna exhibits acceptable performances and may satisfy requirements of RFID reader applications.

  14. Design of a C- Band Circular Polarization Microstrip Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohandri; Jumiah, Yusna; Tetuko Sri Sumantyo, Josaphat

    2018-04-01

    The development of circularly polarized microstrip antenna is an interesting topic in current research, due to its superiority in various applications. In this work, the design of a circular polarization antenna that will be operated in the C-band range will be described. The developed antenna is intended to be used for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) applications. Through this application, various targets or areas on the surface of the earth, such as buildings, soil and land can be observed. To get the ideal antenna characteristic, in this research the various parameters in antenna design will be simulated. A software CST Studio will be operated in this simulation. Based on the simulation results, the optimum parameters are obtained in term of reflection coefficient, VSWR, axial ratio, and gain. The reflection coefficient of the antenna (S11) is obtained at -19.75 dB and VSWR of 1.23. Meanwhile, the axial ratio and gain of the antenna were obtained at 2.66 dB and 2.1 dBi, respectively. Based on this simulated results, antenna design is potential to be developed and fabricated for SAR sensor applications.

  15. A computational protocol for the study of circularly polarized phosphorescence and circular dichroism in spin-forbidden absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Maciej; Cukras, Janusz; Pecul, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    We present a computational methodology to calculate the intensity of circular dichroism (CD) in spinforbidden absorption and of circularly polarized phosphorescence (CPP) signals, a manifestation of the optical activity of the triplet–singlet transitions in chiral compounds. The protocol is based...

  16. Broadband Circularly Polarized Slot Antenna Loaded by a Multiple-Circular-Sector Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh-Van, Son; Yang, Youngoo; Lee, Kang-Yoon; Hwang, Keum Cheol

    2018-05-15

    In this paper, a microstrip-fed broadband circularly polarized (CP) slot antenna is presented. CP operation can be attained simply by embedding an S-shaped strip. By loading with a multiple-circular-sector patch, which consists of 12 circular-sector patches with identical central angles of 30° and different radii, the 3 dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth is significantly broadened. To validate the performance of the proposed antenna, an antenna prototype is fabricated and tested. The fabricated antenna is 54 mm × 54 mm × 0.8 mm in size. The measured -10 dB reflection and 3 dB AR bandwidths are 81.06% (1.68⁻3.97 GHz) and 70.55% (1.89⁻3.95 GHz), respectively. Within the 3 dB AR bandwidth, the measured peak gain is 3.81 dBic. Reasonable agreement is also obtained between the measured and simulated results.

  17. Dynamical model of coherent circularly polarized optical pulse interactions with two-level quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavcheva, G.; Hess, O.

    2005-01-01

    We propose and develop a method for theoretical description of circularly (elliptically) polarized optical pulse resonant coherent interactions with two-level atoms. The method is based on the time-evolution equations of a two-level quantum system in the presence of a time-dependent dipole perturbation for electric dipole transitions between states with total angular-momentum projection difference (ΔJ z =±1) excited by a circularly polarized electromagnetic field [Feynman et al., J. Appl. Phys. 28, 49 (1957)]. The adopted real-vector representation approach allows for coupling with the vectorial Maxwell's equations for the optical wave propagation and thus the resulting Maxwell pseudospin equations can be numerically solved in the time domain without any approximations. The model permits a more exact study of the ultrafast coherent pulse propagation effects taking into account the vector nature of the electromagnetic field and hence the polarization state of the optical excitation. We demonstrate self-induced transparency effects and formation of polarized solitons. The model represents a qualitative extension of the well-known optical Maxwell-Bloch equations valid for linearly polarized light and a tool for studying coherent quantum control mechanisms

  18. Detecting primordial gravitational waves with circular polarization of the redshifted 21 cm line. II. Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Abhilash; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2018-05-01

    In the first paper of this series, we showed that the CMB quadrupole at high redshifts results in a small circular polarization of the emitted 21 cm radiation. In this paper we forecast the sensitivity of future radio experiments to measure the CMB quadrupole during the era of first cosmic light (z ˜20 ). The tomographic measurement of 21 cm circular polarization allows us to construct a 3D remote quadrupole field. Measuring the B -mode component of this remote quadrupole field can be used to put bounds on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r . We make Fisher forecasts for a future Fast Fourier Transform Telescope (FFTT), consisting of an array of dipole antennas in a compact grid configuration, as a function of array size and observation time. We find that a FFTT with a side length of 100 km can achieve σ (r )˜4 ×10-3 after ten years of observation and with a sky coverage fsky˜0.7 . The forecasts are dependent on the evolution of the Lyman-α flux in the pre-reionization era, that remains observationally unconstrained. Finally, we calculate the typical order of magnitudes for circular polarization foregrounds and comment on their mitigation strategies. We conclude that detection of primordial gravitational waves with 21 cm observations is in principle possible, so long as the primordial magnetic field amplitude is small, but would require a very futuristic experiment with corresponding advances in calibration and foreground suppression techniques.

  19. Proton triggered circularly polarized luminescence in orthogonal- and co-assemblies of chiral gelators with achiral perylene bisimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongxue; Han, Jianlei; Huo, Shengwei; Qu, Zuoming; Jiao, Tifeng; Liu, Minghua; Duan, Pengfei

    2018-05-29

    The orthogonal- or co-assembly of achiral perylene bisimide (PBI) with chiral gelators can be regulated by solvents. While the coassembly leads to the formation of chiroptical nanofibers through chirality transfer, the orthogonal assemblies could not. Moreover, protonation on the coassembled nanofibers could light up the circularly polarized luminescence (CPL).

  20. Beamline 9.3.2 - a high-resolution, bend-magnet beamline with circular polarization capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.2 is a high resolution, SGM beamline on an ALS bending magnet with access to photon energies from 30-1500 eV. Features include circular polarization capability, a rotating chamber platform that allows switching between experiments without breaking vacuum, an active feedback system that keeps the beam centered on the entrance slit of the monochromator, and a bendable refocusing mirror. The beamline optics consist of horizontally and vertically focussing mirrors, a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) with movable entrance and exit slits, and a bendable refocussing mirror. In addition, a movable aperature has been installed just upstream of the vertically focussing mirror which can select the x-rays above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring, allowing the user to select circularly or linearly polarized light. Circularly polarized x-rays are used to study the magnetic properties of materials. Beamline 9.3.2 can supply left and right circularly polarized x-rays by a computer controlled aperture which may be placed above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring. The degree of linear and circular polarization has been measured and calibrated.

  1. A survey of synchrotron radiation devices producing circular or variable polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the properties and operating principles of the new types of synchrotron radiation devices that produce circular polarization, or polarization that can be modulated in arbitrary fashion

  2. Circularly-polarized, semitransparent and double-sided holograms based on helical photonic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Junji; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Masanori

    2017-11-28

    Recent advances in nanofabrication techniques are opening new frontiers in holographic devices, with the capability to integrate various optical functions in a single device. However, while most efficient holograms are achieved in reflection-mode configurations, they are in general opaque because of the reflective substrate that must be used, and therefore, have limited applicability. Here, we present a semi-transparent, reflective computer-generated hologram that is circularly-polarization dependent, and reconstructs different wavefronts when viewed from different sides. The integrated functionality is realized using a single thin-film of liquid crystal with a self-organized helical structure that Bragg reflects circularly-polarized light over a certain band of wavelengths. Asymmetry depending on the viewing side is achieved by exploiting the limited penetration depth of light in the helical structure as well as the nature of liquid crystals to conform to different orientational patterns imprinted on the two substrates sandwiching the material. Also, because the operation wavelength is determined by the reflection band position, pseudo-color holograms can be made by simply stacking layers with different designs. The unique characteristics of this hologram may find applications in polarization-encoded security holograms and see-through holographic signage where different information need to be displayed depending on the viewing direction.

  3. Frenkel-exciton decomposition analysis of circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence for multichromophoric systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraogawa, Takafumi; Ehara, Masahiro; Jurinovich, Sandro; Cupellini, Lorenzo; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2018-06-15

    Recently, a method to calculate the absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra based on the exciton coupling has been developed. In this work, the method was utilized for the decomposition of the CD and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) spectra of a multichromophoric system into chromophore contributions for recently developed through-space conjugated oligomers. The method which has been implemented using rotatory strength in the velocity form and therefore it is gauge-invariant, enables us to evaluate the contribution from each chromophoric unit and locally excited state to the CD and CPL spectra of the total system. The excitonic calculations suitably reproduce the full calculations of the system, as well as the experimental results. We demonstrate that the interactions between electric transition dipole moments of adjacent chromophoric units are crucial in the CD and CPL spectra of the multichromophoric systems, while the interactions between electric and magnetic transition dipole moments are not negligible. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Scattering of inhomogeneous circularly polarized optical field and mechanical manifestation of the internal energy flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekshaev, A. Ya; Angelsky, O. V.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2012-01-01

    between the forward- and backward-scattered momentum fluxes in the Rayleigh scattering regime appears due to the spin part of the internal energy flow in the incident beam. The transverse ponderomotive forces exerted on dielectric and conducting particles of different sizes are calculated and special......Based on the Mie theory and on the incident beam model via superposition of two plane waves, we analyze numerically the momentum flux of the field scattered by a spherical, nonmagnetic microparticle placed within the spatially inhomogeneous circularly polarized paraxial light beam. The asymmetry...

  5. Circular dichroism beamline B23 at the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rohanah; Jávorfi, Tamás; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a well established technique in structural biology. The first UV-VIS beamline, dedicated to circular dichroism, at Diamond Light Source Ltd, a third-generation synchrotron facility in south Oxfordshire, UK, has recently become operational and it is now available for the user community. Herein the main characteristics of the B23 SRCD beamline, the ancillary facilities available for users, and some of the recent advances achieved are summarized.

  6. Analysis of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides excited by two orthogonal polarization waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, A. M.; Boria, V. E. [Departamento de Comunicaciones-iTEAM, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Gimeno, B. [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo-ICMUV, Universitat de València c/Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J. [Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Edificio de Desarrollo Empresarial 9B, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Circular waveguides, either employed as resonant cavities or as irises connecting adjacent guides, are widely present in many passive components used in different applications (i.e., particle accelerators and satellite subsystems). In this paper, we present the study of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides considering the coexistence of the two polarizations of the fundamental TE{sub 11} circular waveguide mode. For a better understanding of the problem, only low multipactor orders have been explored as a function of the polarization ellipse eccentricity. Special attention has been paid to the linear and circular polarizations, but other more general configurations have also been explored.

  7. Analysis of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides excited by two orthogonal polarization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, A. M.; Boria, V. E.; Gimeno, B.; Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J.

    2014-01-01

    Circular waveguides, either employed as resonant cavities or as irises connecting adjacent guides, are widely present in many passive components used in different applications (i.e., particle accelerators and satellite subsystems). In this paper, we present the study of the multipactor effect in circular waveguides considering the coexistence of the two polarizations of the fundamental TE 11 circular waveguide mode. For a better understanding of the problem, only low multipactor orders have been explored as a function of the polarization ellipse eccentricity. Special attention has been paid to the linear and circular polarizations, but other more general configurations have also been explored

  8. Measurement of the circular polarization in radio emission from extensive air showers confirms emission mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.; Trinh, T. N. G.; Bonardi, A.; Buitink, S.; Correa, P.; Corstanje, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Falcke, H.; Horandel, J. R.; Mitra, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Thoudam, S.; ter Veen, S.; de Vries, K. D.; Winchen, T.

    2016-01-01

    We report here on a novel analysis of the complete set of four Stokes parameters that uniquely determine the linear and/or circular polarization of the radio signal for an extensive air shower. The observed dependency of the circular polarization on azimuth angle and distance to the shower axis is a

  9. A solid-state dedicated circularly polarized luminescence spectrophotometer: Development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Takunori; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masayuki; Takamoto, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    A new solid-state dedicated circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) instrument (CPL-200CD) was successfully developed for measuring true CPL spectra for optically anisotropic samples on the basis of the Stokes-Mueller matrix approach. Electric components newly installed in the CPL-200CD include a pulse motor-driven sample rotation holder and a 100 kHz lock-in amplifier to achieve the linearly polarized luminescence measurement, which is essential for obtaining the true CPL signal for optically anisotropic samples. An acquisition approach devised for solid-state CPL analysis reduces the measurement times for a data set by ca. 98% compared with the time required in our previous method. As a result, the developed approach is very effective for samples susceptible to light-induced degradation. The theory and implementation of the method are described, and examples of its application to a CPL sample with macroscopic anisotropies are provided. An important advantage of the developed instrument is its ability to obtain molecular information for both excited and ground states because circular dichroism measurements can be performed by switching the monochromatic light to white light without rearrangement of the sample.

  10. Polarization of light and Hopf fibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurco, B.

    1987-01-01

    A set of polarization states of quasi-monochromatic light is described geometrically in terms of the Hopf fibration. Several associated alternative polarization parametrizations are given explicitly, including the Stokes parameters. (author). 8 refs

  11. Selective Deflection of Polarized Light Via Coherently Driven Four-Level Atoms in a Double-Λ Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yu

    2010-01-01

    We study the interaction of a weak probe field, having two circular polarized components, i.e., σ - and σ + polarization, with an optically dense medium of four-level atoms in a double-Λ configuration, which is mediated by the electromagnetically induced transparency with a polarized control light with spatially inhomogeneous profile. We analyse the deflection of the polarized probe light and we find that we can selectively determine which circular component will be deflected after the polarized probe light enters the atom medium via adjusting the polarization and detuning of the control field. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  12. A New Kind of Circular Polarization Leaky-Wave Antenna Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of circular polarization leaky-wave antenna with N-shaped slots cut in the upper side of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW is investigated and presented. The radiation pattern and polarization axial ratio of the leaky-wave antenna are studied. The results show that the width of N-shaped slots has significant effect on the circular polarization property of the antenna. By properly choosing structural parameters, the SIW based leaky-wave antenna can realize circular polarization with excellent axial ratio in 8 GHz satellite band.

  13. Simulation of circularly polarized luminescence spectra using coupled cluster theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAlexander, Harley R.; Crawford, T. Daniel, E-mail: crawdad@vt.edu [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2015-04-21

    We report the first computations of circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) rotatory strengths at the equation-of-motion coupled cluster singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) level of theory. Using a test set of eight chiral ketones, we compare both dipole and rotatory strengths for absorption (electronic circular dichroism) and emission to the results from time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) and available experimental data for both valence and Rydberg transitions. For two of the compounds, we obtained optimized geometries of the lowest several excited states using both EOM-CCSD and TD-DFT and determined that structures and EOM-CCSD transition properties obtained with each structure were sufficiently similar that TD-DFT optimizations were acceptable for the remaining test cases. Agreement between EOM-CCSD and the Becke three-parameter exchange function and Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional (B3LYP) corrected using the Coulomb attenuating method (CAM-B3LYP) is typically good for most of the transitions, though agreement with the uncorrected B3LYP functional is significantly worse for all reported properties. The choice of length vs. velocity representation of the electric dipole operator has little impact on the EOM-CCSD transition strengths for nearly all of the states we examined. For a pair of closely related β, γ-enones, (1R)-7-methylenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one and (1S)-2-methylenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-7-one, we find that EOM-CCSD and CAM-B3LYP agree with the energetic ordering of the two possible excited-state conformations, resulting in good agreement with experimental rotatory strengths in both absorption and emission, whereas B3LYP yields a qualitatively incorrect result for the CPL signal of (1S)-2-methylenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-7-one. Finally, we predict that one of the compounds considered here, trans-bicyclo[3.3.0]octane-3,7-dione, is unique in that it exhibits an achiral ground state and a chiral first excited state, leading to a strong CPL

  14. Polarized light in optics and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kliger, David S

    1990-01-01

    This comprehensive introduction to polarized light provides students and researchers with the background and the specialized knowledge needed to fully utilize polarized light. It provides a basic introduction to the interaction of light with matter for those unfamiliar with photochemistry and photophysics. An in-depth discussion of polarizing optics is also given. Different analytical techniques are introduced and compared and introductions to the use of polarized light in various forms of spectroscopy are provided.Key Features* Starts at a basic level and develops tools for resear

  15. Measurement of the circular polarization of gamma radiation from heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauterbach, C.

    1981-01-01

    For the nuclear reactions 16 O + 27 Al, 16 O + 58 Ni, 16 O + 62 Ni, 40 Ar + sup(nat)Ag, 86 Kr + sup(nat)Ag, and 86 Kr + 197 Au at incident energies of about 7 MeV/nucleon the circular polarization of the #betta# radiation emitted by the reaction products was measured. The projectile - like reaction products were detected by a δE-E telescope at a fixed angle of 35 0 relative to the beam axis. It is shown that the sign of the scattering angle for the classical orbit of the reaction partners can be determined by the experimental detection of circularly polarized #betta#-radiation from the decay of the highly excited reaction products. In the performed experiments for the first time extensive polarization phenomena in deep inelastic reactions were observed. The dominance of negative scattering angles was verified for a large range of light and medium-heavy systems. The results are compared with the predictions of theoretical models in which statistical or quantum mechanical fluctuations of the dynamical quantities are regarded. (orig./HSI) [de

  16. Dual circularly polarized broadside beam antenna based on metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, A.; Caminita, F.; Martini, E.; Ederra, I.; Teniente, J.; Iriarte, J. C.; Gonzalo, R.; Maci, S.

    2018-02-01

    Design details of a Ku band metasurface (MTS) antenna with dual circularly polarized (CP) broadside radiation is shown in this work. By means of the surface impedance tensor modulation, synchronized propagation of two transversal magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) surface waves (SWs) is ensured in the structure, which contribute to the radiation in broadside direction by the generation of a CP leaky wave. The structure is implemented by elliptical subwavelength metallic elements with a cross-shaped aperture in the center, printed on top of a thin substrate with high permittivity (AD1000 with a thickness of λ0/17). For the experimental validation, the MTS prototype has been excited employing an orthomode transducer composed by a metallic stepped septum inside an air-filled waveguide. Two orthogonal TE11 modes excited with ±90° phase shift in the feed couple with the TM and TE SWs supported by the MTS and generate RHCP or LHCP broadside beam. Experimental results are compared with the simulation predictions. Finally, conclusions are drawn.

  17. Wigner distribution function of circularly truncated light beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Nijhawan, O.P.; Gupta, A.K.; Musla, A.K.; Singh, Kehar

    1998-01-01

    Truncating a light beam is expressed as a convolution of its Wigner distribution function and the WDF of the truncating aperture. The WDF of a circular aperture is derived and an approximate expression - which is exact in the space and the spatial-frequency origin and whose integral over the spatial

  18. Multiple scattering of elliptically polarized light in two-dimensional medium with large inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodnichev, E. E., E-mail: gorodn@theor.mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    For elliptically polarized light incident on a two-dimensional medium with large inhomogeneities, the Stokes parameters of scattered waves are calculated. Multiple scattering is assumed to be sharply anisotropic. The degree of polarization of scattered radiation is shown to be a nonmonotonic function of depth when the incident wave is circularly polarized or its polarization vector is not parallel to the symmetry axis of the inhomogeneities.

  19. Dual-band linearly and circularly polarized microstrip patch antennas with meandering slot and metallic vias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jin; Lin, Xianqi; Yu, Jiawei

    2018-01-01

    performances. The characteristics are analyzed in detail where we find that the existence of the vias also improves the impedance matching. Four samples are designed, where dual-band with both linear polarization, dual-band with circular- and linear-polarization, and single band with linear polarization...

  20. Bragg transmission phase plates for the production of circularly polarized x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, J.C.; Srajer, G.

    1994-01-01

    A thin-crystal Si (400) Bragg transmission x-ray phase plate has been constructed for the production of 5 to 12 keV circularly polarized x-rays. Using multiple beam diffraction from a GaAs crystal, a direct measurement of the degree of circular polarization as a function of off-Bragg position was made. These measurements indicated nearly complete circular polarization (|P c | ≥ 0.95) and full helicity reversal on opposite sides of the rocking curve

  1. Circularly Polarized Microwave Antenna Element with Very Low Off-Axis Cross-Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greem. David; DuToit, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to improve off-axis cross-polarization performance and ease of assembly of a circularly polarized microwave antenna element. To ease assembly, the initial design requirement of Hexweb support for the internal circuit part, as well as the radiating disks, was eliminated. There is a need for different plating techniques to improve soldering. It was also desirable to change the design to eliminate soldering as well as the need to use the Hexweb support. Thus, a technique was developed to build the feed without using solder, solving the lathing and soldering issue. Internal parts were strengthened by adding curvature to eliminate Hexweb support, and in the process, the new geometries of the internal parts opened the way for improving the off-axis cross-polarization performance as well. The radiating disks curvatures were increased for increased strength, but it was found that this also improved crosspolarization. Optimization of the curvatures leads to very low off-axis cross-polarization. The feed circuit was curved into a cylinder for improved strength, eliminating Hexweb support. An aperture coupling feed mechanism eliminated the need for feed pins to the disks, which would have required soldering. The aperture coupling technique also improves cross-polarization performance by effectively exciting the radiating disks very close to the antenna s central axis of symmetry. Because of the shape of the parts, it allowed for an all-aluminum design bolted together and assembled with no solder needed. The advantage of a solderless design is that the reliability is higher, with no single-point failure (solder), and no need for special plating techniques in order to solder the unit together. The shapes (curved or round) make for a more robust build without extra support materials, as well as improved offaxis cross-polarization.

  2. Circularly Polarized S Band Dual Frequency Square Patch Antenna Using Glass Microfiber Reinforced PTFE Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Samsuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circularly polarized (CP dual frequency cross-shaped slotted patch antenna on 1.575 mm thick glass microfiber reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE composite material substrate is designed and fabricated for satellite applications. Asymmetric cross-shaped slots are embedded in the middle of the square patch for CP radiation and four hexagonal slots are etched on the four sides of the square patch for desired dual frequency. Different substrate materials have been analysed to achieve the desired operating band. The experimental results show that the impedance bandwidth is approximately 30 MHz (2.16 GHz to 2.19 GHz for lower band and 40 MHz (3.29 GHz to 3.33 GHz for higher band with an average peak gain of 6.59 dBiC and 5.52 dBiC, respectively. Several optimizations are performed to obtain the values of the antenna physical parameters. Moreover, the proposed antenna possesses compactness, light weight, simplicity, low cost, and circularly polarized. It is an attractive candidate for dual band satellite antennas where lower band can be used for uplink and upper band can be used for downlink.

  3. A circularly polarized optical dipole trap and other developments in laser trapping of atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Kristan Lee

    Several innovations in laser trapping and cooling of alkali atoms are described. These topics share a common motivation to develop techniques for efficiently manipulating cold atoms. Such advances facilitate sensitive precision measurements such as parity non- conservation and 8-decay asymmetry in large trapped samples, even when only small quantities of the desired species are available. First, a cold, bright beam of Rb atoms is extracted from a magneto-optical trap (MOT) using a very simple technique. This beam has a flux of 5 × 109 atoms/s and a velocity of 14 m/s, and up to 70% of the atoms in the MOT were transferred to the atomic beam. Next, a highly efficient MOT for radioactive atoms is described, in which more than 50% of 221Fr atoms contained in a vapor cell are loaded into a MOT. Measurements were also made of the 221Fr 7 2P1/2 and 7 2P3/2 energies and hyperfine constants. To perform these experiments, two schemes for stabilizing the frequency of the light from a diode laser were developed and are described in detail. Finally, a new type of trap is described and a powerful cooling technique is demonstrated. The circularly polarized optical dipole trap provides large samples of highly spin-polarized atoms, suitable for many applications. Physical processes that govern the transfer of large numbers of atoms into the trap are described, and spin-polarization is measured to be 98(1)%. In addition, the trap breaks the degeneracy of the atomic spin states much like a magnetic trap does. This allows for RF and microwave cooling via both forced evaporation and a Sisyphus mechanism. Preliminary application of these techniques to the atoms in the circularly polarized dipole trap has successfully decreased the temperature by a factor of 4 while simultaneously increasing phase space density.

  4. Magnetic x-ray circular dichroism in spin-polarized photoelectron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddill, G.D.; Tobin, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The first structural determination with spin-polarized, energy-dependent photoelectron diffraction using circularly-polarized x-rays is reported for Fe films on Cu(001). Circularly-polarized x-rays produced spin-polarized photoelectrons from the Fe 2p doublet, and intensity asymmetries in the 2p 3/2 level are observed. Fully spin-specific multiple scattering calculations reproduced the experimentally-determined energy and angular dependences. A new analytical procedure which focuses upon intensity variations due to spin-dependent diffraction is introduced. A sensitivity to local geometric and magnetic structure is demonstrated

  5. Three-dimensional polarization states of monochromatic light fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A

    2011-11-01

    The 3×1 generalized Jones vectors (GJVs) [E(x) E(y) E(z)](t) (t indicates the transpose) that describe the linear, circular, and elliptical polarization states of an arbitrary three-dimensional (3-D) monochromatic light field are determined in terms of the geometrical parameters of the 3-D vibration of the time-harmonic electric field. In three dimensions, there are as many distinct linear polarization states as there are points on the surface of a hemisphere, and the number of distinct 3-D circular polarization states equals that of all two-dimensional (2-D) polarization states on the Poincaré sphere, of which only two are circular states. The subset of 3-D polarization states that results from the superposition of three mutually orthogonal x, y, and z field components of equal amplitude is considered as a function of their relative phases. Interesting contours of equal ellipticity and equal inclination of the normal to the polarization ellipse with respect to the x axis are obtained in 2-D phase space. Finally, the 3×3 generalized Jones calculus, in which elastic scattering (e.g., by a nano-object in the near field) is characterized by the 3-D linear transformation E(s)=T E(i), is briefly introduced. In such a matrix transformation, E(i) and E(s) are the 3×1 GJVs of the incident and scattered waves and T is the 3×3 generalized Jones matrix of the scatterer at a given frequency and for given directions of incidence and scattering.

  6. Linear Polarization, Circular Polarization, and Depolarization of Gamma-ray Bursts: A Simple Case of Jitter Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jirong; Wang, Jiancheng, E-mail: jirongmao@mail.ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 650011 Kunming, Yunnan Province (China)

    2017-04-01

    Linear and circular polarizations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been detected recently. We adopt a simplified model to investigate GRB polarization characteristics in this paper. A compressed two-dimensional turbulent slab containing stochastic magnetic fields is considered, and jitter radiation can produce the linear polarization under this special magnetic field topology. Turbulent Faraday rotation measure (RM) of this slab makes strong wavelength-dependent depolarization. The jitter photons can also scatter with those magnetic clumps inside the turbulent slab, and a nonzero variance of the Stokes parameter V can be generated. Furthermore, the linearly and circularly polarized photons in the optical and radio bands may suffer heavy absorptions from the slab. Thus we consider the polarized jitter radiation transfer processes. Finally, we compare our model results with the optical detections of GRB 091018, GRB 121024A, and GRB 131030A. We suggest simultaneous observations of GRB multi-wavelength polarization in the future.

  7. Characterization of Partially Polarized Light Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Herrero, Rosario; Piquero, Gemma

    2009-01-01

    Polarization involves the vectorial nature of light fields. In current applications of optical science, the electromagnetic description of light with its vector features has been shown to be essential: In practice, optical radiation also exhibits randomness and spatial non-uniformity of the polarization state. Moreover, propagation through photonic devices can alter the correlation properties of the light field, resulting in changes in polarization. All these vectorial properties have been gaining importance in recent years, and they are attracting increasing attention in the literature. This is the framework and the scope of the present book, which includes the authors’ own contributions to these issues.

  8. Astronomy in Denver: Probing Interstellar Circular Polarization with Polvis, a Full Stokes Single Shot Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Tristan; Stencel, Robert E.

    2018-06-01

    Measurements of optical circular polarization (Stokes V) introduced by dust grains in the ISM are important for two main reasons. First of all, the polarization itself contains information about the metallic versus dielectric composition of the dust grains themselves (H. C. van de Hulst 1957, textbook). Additionally, circular polarization can help constrain the interstellar component of the polarization of any source that may have intrinsic polarization, which needs to be calibrated for astrophysical study. Though interstellar circular polarization has been observed (P. G. Martin 1972, MNRAS 159), most broadband measurements of ISM polarization include linear polarization only (Stokes Q and U), due to the relatively low circular polarization signal and the added instrumentation complexity of including V-measurement capability. Prior circular polarization measurements have also received very little follow-up in the past several decades, even as polarimeters have become more accurate due to advances in technology. The University of Denver is pursuing these studies with POLVIS, a prototype polarimeter that utilizes a stress-engineered optic ("SEO", A. K. Spilman and T. G. Brown 2007, Applied Optics IP 46) to produce polarization-dependent PSFs (A. M. Beckley and T. G. Brown 2010, Proc SPIE 7570). These PSFs are analyzed to provide simultaneous Stokes I, Q, U, and V measurements, in a single beam and single image, along the line-of-sight to point source-like objects. Polvis is the first polarimeter to apply these optics and measurement techniques for astronomical observations. We present the first results of this instrument in B, V, and R wavebands, providing a fresh look at full Stokes interstellar polarization. Importantly, this set of efforts will constrain the ISM contribution to the polarization with respect to intrinsic stellar components. The authors are grateful to the estate of William Herschel Womble for the support of astronomy at the University of Denver

  9. Beam shaping of light sources using circular photonic crystal funnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mrityunjay; Kumar, Mithun; Dinesh Kumar, V.

    2012-10-01

    A novel two-dimensional circular photonic crystal (CPC) structure with a sectorial opening for shaping the beam of light sources was designed and investigated. When combined with light sources, the structure acts like an antenna emitting a directional beam which could be advantageously used in several nanophotonic applications. Using the two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (2D FDTD) method, we examined the effects of geometrical parameters of the structure on the directional and transmission properties of emitted radiation. Further, we examined the transmitting and receiving properties of a pair of identical structures as a function of distance between them.

  10. Circular polarization control for the LCLS baseline in the soft X-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The LCLS baseline includes a planar undulator system, which produces intense linearly polarized light in the wavelength range 0.15-1.5 nm. In the soft X-ray wavelength region polarization control from linear to circular is highly desirable for studying ultrafast magnetic phenomena and material science issues. Several schemes using helical undulators have been discussed in the context of the LCLS. One consists in replacing three of the last planar undulator segments by helical (APPLE III) ones. A second proposal, the 2nd harmonic helical afterburner, is based on the use of short, crossed undulators tuned to the second harmonic. This last scheme is expected to be the better one. Its advantages are a high (over 90%) and stable degree of circular polarization and a low cost. Its disadvantage is a small output power (1% of the power at the fundamental harmonic) and a narrow wavelength range. We propose a novel method to generate 10 GW level power at the fundamental harmonic with 99% degree of circular polarization from the LCLS baseline. Its merits are low cost, simplicity and easy implementation. In the option presented here, the microbunching of the planar undulator is used too. After the baseline undulator, the electron beam is sent through a 40 m long straight section, and subsequently passes through a short helical (APPLE II) radiator. In this case the microbunch structure is easily preserved, and intense coherent radiation is emitted in the helical radiator. The background radiation from the baseline undulator can be easily suppressed by letting radiation and electron beamthrough horizontal and vertical slits upstream the helical radiator, where the radiation spot size is about ten times larger than the electron bunch transverse size. Using thin Beryllium foils for the slits the divergence of the electron beam halo will increase by Coulomb scattering, but the beam will propagate through the setup without electron losses. The applicability of our method is not

  11. Revealing the dark side of Portlandite Clusters in cement paste by circular polarization microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copuroglu, O.

    2016-01-01

    Plane and crossed polarization are the two standard light modes in polarized light microscopy that are widely used to characterize crystalline and amorphous phases in cement-based materials. However, the use of the crossed polarized light mode has been found to be restrictive for studying

  12. Calcium hydroxylapatite treatment of human skin: evidence of collagen turnover through picrosirius red staining and circularly polarized microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerbinati N

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Zerbinati,1 Alberto Calligaro2 1Department of Surgical and Morphological Sciences, University of Insubria (Varese and Polyspecialist Medical Center, Pavia, 2Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Unit of Histology and Embryology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA, Radiesse® is a biocompatible, injectable filler for facial soft-tissue augmentation that provides volume to tissues, followed by a process of neocollagenesis for improved skin quality. Objective: To examine the effects of CaHA treatment on the molecular organization of collagen using a combination of picrosirius red staining and circularly polarized light microscopy.Methods: Five subjects received subdermal injection of 0.3 mL of CaHA in tissues scheduled for removal during abdominoplasty 2 months later. Tissue specimens from the CaHA injection site and a control untreated area were obtained from excised skin at the time of surgery. Processed tissue sections were stained with picrosirius red solution 0.1% and visualized under circularly polarized light microscopy for identification of thick mature (type I and thin newly formed (type III collagen fibers. Pixel signals from both the control and CaHA-treated areas were extracted from the images, and morphometric computerized hue analysis was performed to provide a quantitative evaluation of mature and newly formed collagen fibers.Results: Under picrosirius red staining and circularly polarized light microscopy, green/yellow areas (thin newly formed collagen type III were visible among the collagen fibers in tissue sections from the area of CaHA injection. In contrast, the majority of the collagen fibers appeared red (thick mature collagen type I in control tissues. Morphometric analysis confirmed that, following CaHA treatment, the proportion of fibers represented by thin newly formed collagen type III increased significantly (p<0.01 in comparison with the

  13. Circularly polarized infrared and visible sum-frequency-generation spectroscopy: Vibrational optical activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Sangheon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2005-01-01

    Vibrational optical activity spectroscopies utilizing either circularly polarized ir or circularly polarized visible beams were theoretically investigated by considering the infrared and visible sum-frequency-generation (IV-SFG) schemes. In addition to the purely electric dipole-allowed chiral component of the IV-SFG susceptibility, the polarizability-electric quadrupole hyperpolarizability term also contributes to the vibrationally resonant IV-SFG susceptibility. The circular-intensity-difference signal is shown to be determined by the interferences between the all-electric dipole-allowed chiral component and the polarizability-electric-dipole or electric-dipole-electric-quadrupole Raman optical activity tensor components. The circularly polarized SFG methods are shown to be potentially useful coherent spectroscopic tools for determining absolute configurations of chiral molecules in condensed phases

  14. A New Dual Circularly Polarized Feed Employing a Dielectric Cylinder-Loaded Circular Waveguide Open End Fed by Crossed Dipoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Bang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new dual circularly polarized feed that provides good axial ratio over wide angles and low cross-polarized radiation in backward direction. A circular waveguide open end is fed with two orthogonally polarized waves in phase quadrature by a pair of printed crossed dipoles and a compact connectorized quadrature hybrid coupler. The waveguide aperture is loaded with a dielectric cylinder to reduce the cross-polarization beyond 90 degrees off the boresight. The fabricated feed has, at 5.5 GHz, 6.33-dBic copolarized gain, 3-dB beamwidth of 106°, 10-dB beamwidth of 195°, 3-dB axial ratio beamwidth of 215°, maximum cross-polarized gain of −21.4 dBic, and 27-dB port isolation. The reflection coefficient of the feed is less than −10 dB at 4.99–6.09 GHz.

  15. Rydberg atoms in circular polarization: Classical stabilization in optical frequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chism, Will; Reichl, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the classical dynamics of the Rydberg atom in circularly polarized laser fields, restricted to the two-dimensional plane of polarization. We use a Poincare surface of section to study nonlinear resonance structures for optical frequency driving fields. We demonstrate the existence and morphology of these structures as the laser intensity transitions from moderate to intense

  16. Hybrid fluorescent layer emitting polarized light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadimasoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanorods have anisotropic absorption and emission properties. In this work a hybrid luminescent layer is produced based on a mixture of CdSe/CdS nanorods dispersed in a liquid crystal that is aligned by an electric field and polymerized by UV illumination. The film emits light with polarization ratio 0.6 (polarization contrast 4:1. Clusters of nanorods in liquid crystal can be avoided by applying an AC electric field with sufficient amplitude. This method can be made compatible with large-scale processing on flexible transparent substrates. Thin polarized light emitters can be used in LCD backlights or solar concentrators to increase the efficiency.

  17. Imaging linear and circular polarization features in leaves with complete Mueller matrix polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patty, C H Lucas; Luo, David A; Snik, Frans; Ariese, Freek; Buma, Wybren Jan; Ten Kate, Inge Loes; van Spanning, Rob J M; Sparks, William B; Germer, Thomas A; Garab, Győző; Kudenov, Michael W

    2018-06-01

    Spectropolarimetry of intact plant leaves allows to probe the molecular architecture of vegetation photosynthesis in a non-invasive and non-destructive way and, as such, can offer a wealth of physiological information. In addition to the molecular signals due to the photosynthetic machinery, the cell structure and its arrangement within a leaf can create and modify polarization signals. Using Mueller matrix polarimetry with rotating retarder modulation, we have visualized spatial variations in polarization in transmission around the chlorophyll a absorbance band from 650 nm to 710 nm. We show linear and circular polarization measurements of maple leaves and cultivated maize leaves and discuss the corresponding Mueller matrices and the Mueller matrix decompositions, which show distinct features in diattenuation, polarizance, retardance and depolarization. Importantly, while normal leaf tissue shows a typical split signal with both a negative and a positive peak in the induced fractional circular polarization and circular dichroism, the signals close to the veins only display a negative band. The results are similar to the negative band as reported earlier for single macrodomains. We discuss the possible role of the chloroplast orientation around the veins as a cause of this phenomenon. Systematic artefacts are ruled out as three independent measurements by different instruments gave similar results. These results provide better insight into circular polarization measurements on whole leaves and options for vegetation remote sensing using circular polarization. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Circular polarization opportunities at the SASE3 undulator line of the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    XFELs provide X-ray pulses with unprecedented peak brightness and ultrashort duration. They are usually driven by planar undulators, meaning that the output radiation is linearly polarized. For many experimental applications, however, polarization control is critical: besides the ability to produce linearly polarized radiation, one often needs the possibility of generating circularly polarized radiation with a high, stable degree of polarization. This may be achieved by using a first part of the XFEL undulator to produce bunching and then, by propagating the the bunched beam through an ''afterburner'' - a short undulator with tunable polarization, where only limited gain takes place. One of the issues that one needs to consider in this case is the separation of the circularly polarized radiation obtained in the radiator from the linearly polarized background produced in the first part of the FEL. In this article we review several methods to do so, including the inverse tapering technique. In particular, we use the Genesis FEL code to simulate a case study pertaining to the SASE3 FEL line at the European XFEL with up-to-date parameters and we confirm that a high degree of circular polarization is expected. Moreover, we propose to further improve the effectiveness of the inverse tapering technique either via angular separation of the linearly polarized radiation or strongly defocusing it at the sample position. In this way we exploit the unique flexibility of the European XFEL from both the electron beam and the photon beam optics side.

  19. A note on polarized light from magnetars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capparelli, L.M.; Damiano, A.; Polosa, A.D. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy); Maiani, L. [CERN, Theory Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-11-15

    In a recent paper it is claimed that vacuum birefringence has been experimentally observed for the first time by measuring the degree of polarization of visible light from a magnetar candidate, a neutron star with a magnetic field presumably as large as B ∝ 10{sup 13} G. The role of such a strong magnetic field is twofold. First, the surface of the star emits, at each point, polarized light with linear polarization correlated with the orientation of the magnetic field. Depending on the relative orientation of the magnetic axis of the star with the direction to the distant observer, a certain degree of polarization should be visible. Second, the strong magnetic field in the vacuum surrounding the star could enhance the effective degree of polarization observed: vacuum birefringence. We compare experimental data and theoretical expectations concluding that the conditions to support a claim of strong evidence of vacuum birefringence effects are not met. (orig.)

  20. Colloidal InP/ZnS core shell nanocrystals studied by linearly and circularly polarized photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langof, L.; Fradkin, L.; Ehrenfreund, E.; Lifshitz, E.; Micic, O. I.; Nozik, A. J.

    2004-02-01

    The magneto-optical properties of InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) were investigated by measuring the degree of linear and circular polarization of photoluminescence (PL) spectra, in the presence of an external magnetic field under resonant or non-resonant excitation. The linearly polarized PL data strongly indicate that InP/ZnS NCs have a prolongated shape. The resonant-excited circularly polarized PL decay curves indicate that the spin relaxation time of the studied samples is shorter than the radiative lifetime of their exciton. Furthermore, the magnetic field-induced circularly polarized PL process reveals an exciton g factor ( gex) of 0.55. Thus, such studies may serve as a tool to directly estimate the NC's shape anisotropy and to determine the g-factor of charge carriers and excitons in those NCs.

  1. Electrical access to critical coupling of circularly polarized waves in graphene chiral metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Teun-Teun; Oh, Sang Soon; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Park, Hyun Sung; Hess, Ortwin; Min, Bumki; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-09-01

    Active control of polarization states of electromagnetic waves is highly desirable because of its diverse applications in information processing, telecommunications, and spectroscopy. However, despite the recent advances using artificial materials, most active polarization control schemes require optical stimuli necessitating complex optical setups. We experimentally demonstrate an alternative-direct electrical tuning of the polarization state of terahertz waves. Combining a chiral metamaterial with a gated single-layer sheet of graphene, we show that transmission of a terahertz wave with one circular polarization can be electrically controlled without affecting that of the other circular polarization, leading to large-intensity modulation depths (>99%) with a low gate voltage. This effective control of polarization is made possible by the full accessibility of three coupling regimes, that is, underdamped, critically damped, and overdamped regimes by electrical control of the graphene properties.

  2. Polarization Of Light In The Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Kinsell L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a characterization of the fields of light polarization with which the optical designer or user of optical devices in the natural environment must be concerned. After a brief historical outline of the principal developments in polarization theory and observations during the last two centuries, the main emphasis is on the two primary processes responsible for the polarization of light in nature--scattering of light by particles of the atmosphere and reflection from soils, vegetation, snow, and water at the earth's surface. Finally, a seven minute film on polarization effects which can be seen in everyday surroundings will be shown. Scattering by atmospheric particles is responsible for high values of polarization in various atmospheric conditions and at certain scattering geometries. Such scattering particles include molecules of the atmospheric gases, aerosols of dust, haze, and air pollution, water droplets of fog and clouds, and the ice crystals of cirrus. It is seen that development of the theory of scattering by such particles has outstripped the measurements necessary for validation of the theory, a fact which points up the importance of symposia such as the present one. The reverse is true, however, for the polarizing properties of natural surfaces. Only in the case of still water is the theory of reflection adequate to characterize in a quantitative fashion the polarizing effects produced by the reflection of light from such natural surfaces. Polarization of light by reflection from vegetation is of prime importance in a remote sensing context, but much further work is needed to characterize vegetative reflectance for the purpose. The short film on polarization effects provides a good visualization technique and training aid for students interested in the field.

  3. Light polarization management via reflection from arrays of sub-wavelength metallic twisted bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, M.; Haberko, J.; Zinkiewicz, Ł.; Wasylczyk, P.

    2017-12-01

    With constant progress of nano- and microfabrication technologies, photolithography in particular, a number of sub-wavelength metallic structures have been demonstrated that can be used to manipulate light polarization. Numerical simulations of light propagation hint that helical twisted bands can have interesting polarization properties. We use three-dimensional two-photon photolithography (direct laser writing) to fabricate a few-micrometer-thick arrays of twisted bands and coat them uniformly with metal. We demonstrate that circular polarization can be generated from linear polarization upon reflection from such structures over a broad range of frequencies in the mid infrared.

  4. Room-temperature single-photon sources with definite circular and linear polarizations based on single-emitter fluorescence in liquid crystal hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Justin M; Lukishova, Svetlana G; Bissell, Luke J

    2013-01-01

    Definite circular and linear polarizations of room-temperature single-photon sources, which can serve as polarization bases for quantum key distribution, are produced by doping planar-aligned liquid crystal hosts with single fluorescence emitters. Chiral 1-D photonic bandgap microcavities for a single handedness of circularly polarized light were prepared from both monomeric and oligomeric cholesteric liquid crystals. Fluorescent emitters, such as nanocrystal quantum dots, nitrogen vacancy color centers in nanodiamonds, and rare-earth ions in nanocrystals, were doped into these microcavity structures and used to produce circularly polarized fluorescence of definite handedness. Additionally, we observed circularly polarized resonances in the spectrum of nanocrystal quantum dot fluorescence at the edge of the cholesteric microcavity's photonic stopband. For this polarization we obtained a ∼4.9 enhancement of intensity compared to the polarization of the opposite handedness that propagates without photonic bandgap microcavity effects. Such a resonance is indicative of coupling of quantum dot fluorescence to the cholesteric microcavity mode. We have also used planar-aligned nematic liquid crystal hosts to align DiI dye molecules doped into the host, thereby providing a single-photon source of linear polarization of definite direction. Antibunching is demonstrated for fluorescence of nanocrystal quantum dots, nitrogen vacancy color centers, and dye molecules in these liquid crystal structures.

  5. Edge states and phase diagram for graphene under polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi-Xiang, E-mail: wangyixiang@jiangnan.edu.cn [School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Li, Fuxiang [Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the topological phase transitions in graphene under the modulation of circularly polarized light, by analyzing the changes of edge states and its topological structures. A full phase diagram, with several different topological phases, is presented in the parameter space spanned by the driving frequency and light strength. We find that the high-Chern number behavior is very common in the driven system. While the one-photon resonance can create the chiral edge states in the π-gap, the two-photon resonance will induce the counter-propagating edge modes in the zero-energy gap. When the driving light strength is strong, the number and even the chirality of the edge states may change in the π-gap. The robustness of the edge states to disorder potential is also examined. We close by discussing the feasibility of experimental proposals.

  6. Bandwidth broadening of a graphene-based circular polarization converter by phase compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xi; Yang, Wanli; Cao, Weiping; Chen, Ming; Jiang, Yannan; Yu, Xinhua; Li, Haiou

    2017-10-02

    We present a broadband tunable circular polarization converter composed of a single graphene sheet patterned with butterfly-shaped holes, a dielectric spacer, and a 7-layer graphene ground plane. It can convert a linearly polarized wave into a circularly polarized wave in reflection mode. The polarization converter can be dynamically tuned by varying the Fermi energy of the single graphene sheet. Furthermore, the 7-layer graphene acting as a ground plane can modulate the phase of its reflected wave by controlling the Femi energy, which provides constructive interference condition at the surface of the single graphene sheet in a broad bandwidth and therefore significantly broadens the tunable bandwidth of the proposed polarization converter.

  7. Dual Circularly Polarized Omnidirectional Antenna with Slot Array on Coaxial Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual circularly polarized (CP omnidirectional antenna based on slot array in coaxial cylinder structure is presented in this paper. It is constructed by perpendicular slot pairs around and along the axis of the coaxial cylinder to realize the omnidirectional CP property, and two ports are assigned in its two sides as left hand circularly polarized (LHCP port and right hand circularly polarized (RHCP port, respectively. The proposed antenna achieves a bandwidth of 16.4% ranging from 5.05 to 5.95 GHz with an isolation higher than 15 dB between the two CP ports, and the return loss (RL is higher than 10 dB within the bandwidth in both of the two ports. From the measured results, the average axial ratio (AR of the proposed antenna in omnidirectional plane is lower than 1.5 dB.

  8. FEL polarization control studies on Dalian coherent light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tong; Deng Haixiao; Wang Dong; Zhao Zhentang; Zhang Weiqing; Wu Guorong; Dai Dongxu; Yang Xueming

    2013-01-01

    The polarization switch of a free-electron laser (FEL) is of great importance to the user scientific community. In this paper, we investigate the generation of controllable polarization FEL from two well-known approaches for Dalian coherent light source, i.e., crossed planar undulator and elliptical permanent undulator. In order to perform a fair comparative study, a one-dimensional time-dependent FEL code has been developed, in which the imperfection effects of an elliptical permanent undulator are taken into account. Comprehensive simulation results indicate that the residual beam energy chirp and the intrinsic FEL gain may contribute to the degradation of the polarization performance for the crossed planar undulator. The elliptical permanent undulator is not very sensitive to the undulator errors and beam imperfections. Meanwhile, with proper configurations of the main planar undulators and additional elliptical permanent undulator section, circular polarized FEL with pulse energy exceeding 100 μJ could be achieved at Dalian coherent light source. (authors)

  9. Analysis of Circularly Polarized Hemispheroidal Dielectric Resonator Antenna Phased Arrays Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The method of auxiliary sources is employed to model and analyze probe-fed hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antennas and arrays. Circularly polarized antenna elements of different designs are analyzed, and impedance bandwidths of up to 14.7% are achieved. Selected element designs are subsequen......The method of auxiliary sources is employed to model and analyze probe-fed hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antennas and arrays. Circularly polarized antenna elements of different designs are analyzed, and impedance bandwidths of up to 14.7% are achieved. Selected element designs...

  10. Magnetic Field Generation through Angular Momentum Exchange between Circularly Polarized Radiation and Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Shvets, G

    2002-01-01

    The interaction between circularly polarized (CP) radiation and charged particles can lead to generation of magnetic field through an inverse Faraday effect. The spin of the circularly polarized electromagnetic wave can be converted into the angular momentum of the charged particles so long as there is dissipation. We demonstrate this by considering two mechanisms of angular momentum absorption relevant for laser-plasma interactions: electron-ion collisions and ionization. The precise dissipative mechanism, however, plays a role in determining the efficiency of the magnetic field generation.

  11. Magnetic Field Generation through Angular Momentum Exchange between Circularly Polarized Radiation and Charged Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Shvets; N.J. Fisch; J.-M. Rax

    2002-01-01

    The interaction between circularly polarized (CP) radiation and charged particles can lead to generation of magnetic field through an inverse Faraday effect. The spin of the circularly polarized electromagnetic wave can be converted into the angular momentum of the charged particles so long as there is dissipation. We demonstrate this by considering two mechanisms of angular momentum absorption relevant for laser-plasma interactions: electron-ion collisions and ionization. The precise dissipative mechanism, however, plays a role in determining the efficiency of the magnetic field generation

  12. Sky light polarization detection with linear polarizer triplet in light field camera inspired by insect vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Liu, Zejin

    2015-10-20

    Stable information of a sky light polarization pattern can be used for navigation with various advantages such as better performance of anti-interference, no "error cumulative effect," and so on. But the existing method of sky light polarization measurement is weak in real-time performance or with a complex system. Inspired by the navigational capability of a Cataglyphis with its compound eyes, we introduce a new approach to acquire the all-sky image under different polarization directions with one camera and without a rotating polarizer, so as to detect the polarization pattern across the full sky in a single snapshot. Our system is based on a handheld light field camera with a wide-angle lens and a triplet linear polarizer placed over its aperture stop. Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. Not only real-time detection but simple and costless architecture demonstrates the superiority of the approach proposed in this paper.

  13. Crosstalk cancellation on linearly and circularly polarized communications satellite links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, W. P.; Bostian, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the cancellation network approach for reducing crosstalk caused by depolarization on a dual-polarized communications satellite link. If the characteristics of rain depolarization are sufficiently well known, the cancellation network can be designed in a way that reduces system complexity, the most important parameter being the phase of the cross-polarized signal. Relevant theoretical calculations and experimental data are presented. The simplicity of the cancellation system proposed makes it ideal for use with small domestic or private earth terminals.

  14. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersema, K.; Covino, S.; Toma, K.; van der Horst, A.J.; Varela, K.; Min, M.; Greiner, J.; Starling, R.L.C.; Tanvir, N.R.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Campana, S.; Curran, P.A.; Fan, Y.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Gorosabel, J.; Gomboc, A.; Götz, D.; Hjorth, J.; Jin, Z.P.; Kobayashi, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Mundell, C.; O’Brien, P.T.; Pian, E.; Rowlinson, A.; Russell, D.M.; Salvaterra, R.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vergani, S.D.; Elliott, J.; Fariña, C.; Hartoog, O.E.; Karjalainen, R.; Klose, S.; Knust, F.; Levan, A.J.; Schady, P.; Sudilovsky, V.; Willingale, R.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of the

  15. Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiersema, K.; Covino, S.; Toma, K.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are most probably powered by collimated relativistic outflows (jets) from accreting black holes at cosmological distances. Bright afterglows are produced when the outflow collides with the ambient medium. Afterglow polarization directly probes the magnetic properties of th...

  16. Reflection of a polarized light cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Jed; Weiss, Daniel; Berland, Keith

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a visually appealing experimental demonstration of Fresnel reflection. In this simple optical experiment, a polarized light beam travels through a high numerical-aperture microscope objective, reflects off a glass slide, and travels back through the same objective lens. The return beam is sampled with a polarizing beam splitter and produces a surprising geometric pattern on an observation screen. Understanding the origin of this pattern requires careful attention to geometry and an understanding of the Fresnel coefficients for S and P polarized light. We demonstrate that in addition to a relatively simple experimental implementation, the shape of the observed pattern can be computed both analytically and by using optical modeling software. The experience of working through complex mathematical computations and demonstrating their agreement with a surprising experimental observation makes this a highly educational experiment for undergraduate optics or advanced-lab courses. It also provides a straightforward yet non-trivial system for teaching students how to use optical modeling software.

  17. Measurement of electron beam polarization produced by photoemission from bulk GaAs using twisted light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayburn, Nathan; Dreiling, Joan; McCarter, James; Ryan, Dominic; Poelker, Matt; Gay, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    GaAs photocathodes produce spin polarized electron beams when illuminated with circularly polarized light with photon energy approximately equal to the bandgap energy [1, 2]. A typical polarization value obtained with bulk GaAs and conventional circularly polarized light is 35%. This study investigated the spin polarization of electron beams emitted from GaAs illuminated with ``twisted light,'' an expression that describes a beam of light having orbital angular momentum (OAM). In the experiment, 790nm laser light was focused to a near diffraction-limited spot size on the surface of the GaAs photocathode to determine if OAM might couple to valence band electron spin mediated by the GaAs lattice. Our polarization measurements using a compact retarding-field micro-Mott polarimeter [3] have established an upper bound on the polarization of the emitted electron beam of 2.5%. [4pt] [1] D.T. Pierce, F. Meier, P. Zurcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26 670 (1975).[0pt] [2] C.K. Sinclair, et al., PRSTAB 10 023501 (2007).[0pt] [3] J.L. McCarter, M.L. Stutzman, K.W. Trantham, T.G. Anderson, A.M. Cook, and T.J. Gay Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. A (2010).

  18. Improvement of the crossed undulator design for effective circular polarization control in X-ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The production of X-ray radiation with a high degree of circular polarization constitutes an important goal at XFEL facilities. A simple scheme to obtain circular polarization control with crossed undulators has been proposed so far. In its simplest configuration the crossed undulators consist of pair of short planar undulators in crossed position separated by an electromagnetic phase shifter. An advantage of this configuration is a fast helicity switching. A drawback is that a high degree of circular polarization (over 90 %) can only be achieved for lengths of the insertion devices significantly shorter than the gain length, i.e. at output power significantly lower than the saturation power level. The obvious and technically possible extension considered in this paper, is to use a setup with two or more crossed undulators separated by phase shifters. This cascade crossed undulator scheme is distinguished, in performance, by a fast helicity switching, a high degree of circular polarization (over 95%) and a high output power level, comparable with the saturation power level in the baseline undulator at fundamental wavelength. We present feasibility study and exemplifications for the LCLS baseline in the soft X-ray regime. (orig.)

  19. Construction and performance of BL28 of the Photon Factory for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagoshima, Y.; Muto, S.; Miyahara, T.; Koide, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Kitamura, H.

    1992-01-01

    A branch beamline, BL28A, has been constructed for the application of circularly polarized vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The radiation can be obtained in the helical undulator operation mode of an insertion device, EMPW number-sign 28, which is also cut for elliptically polarized hard x-ray radiation. T first harmonic of the helical undulator radiation can be tuned from 40 to 350 eV with its corresponding K value from 3 to 0.2. A monochromator working basically with constant deviation optics was installed, and has started its operation. A circularly polarized flux of ∼10 10 photons/s has been achieved with energy resolution of around 500--1000 at the first harmonic peak. The circular polarization after the monochromator was estimated to be higher than 70% by comparing theory and experiment on the magnetic circular dichroism of nickel films in the 3p-3d excitation region. The design philosophy of the beamline and recent results on the performance tests are presented

  20. Construction and performance of BL28 of the Photon Factory for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagoshima, Yasushi; Muto, Sadatsugu; Miyahara, Tsuneaki; Koide, Tsuneharu; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Kitamura, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    A branch beamline, BL28A, has been constructed for the application of circularly polarized vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The radiation can be obtained in the helical undulator operation mode of an insertion device, EMPW♯28, which is also cut for elliptically polarized hard x-ray radiation. T first harmonic of the helical undulator radiation can be tuned from 40 to 350 eV with its corresponding K value from 3 to 0.2. A monochromator working basically with constant deviation optics was installed, and has started its operation. A circularly polarized flux of ˜1010 photons/s has been achieved with energy resolution of around 500-1000 at the first harmonic peak. The circular polarization after the monochromator was estimated to be higher than 70% by comparing theory and experiment on the magnetic circular dichroism of nickel films in the 3p-3d excitation region. The design philosophy of the beamline and recent results on the performance tests are presented.

  1. The circular polarization of gamma rays from heavy-ion reactions high above the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauterbach, C.; Boer, J. de; Duennweber, W.; Graw, G.; Hering, W.; Puchta, H.; Trautmann, W.

    1978-01-01

    We have measured the circular polarization P of the γ radiation emitted in coincidence with the projectile-like fragments from the 100 MeV 16 O+ 27 Al, 58 Ni reactions at the Munich MP tandem accelerator and the 284 (303) Mev 40 Ar+Ag and 539 MeV 86 Kr+Ag reactions at the GSI UNILAC. (orig.) [de

  2. On the stability of a finite amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic wave in an anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, G.; Lundberg, J.

    1990-01-01

    To study the stability of a finite amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic wave in a plasma with pressure anisotropy we make use of a generalized version of the Chew-Goldberger-Low equations. The dispersion relation is derived. Special attention is focused on the MHD-limit. (orig.)

  3. Circular polarization with crossed-planar undulators in high-gain FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, K J K J

    2000-01-01

    We propose a crossed undulator configuration for a high-gain free-electron laser to allow versatile polarization control. This configuration consists of a long (saturation length) planar undulator, a dispersive section, and a short (a few gain lengths) planar undulator oriented perpendicular to the first one. In the first undulator, a radiation component linearly polarized in the x-direction is amplified to saturation. In the second undulator, the x-polarized component propagates freely, while a new component, polarized in the y-direction, is generated and reaches saturation in a few gain lengths. By adjusting the strength of the dispersive section, the relative phase of two radiation components can be adjusted to obtain a suitable polarization for the total radiation field, including the circular polarization. The operating principle of the high-gain crossed undulator, which is quite different from that of the crossed undulator for spontaneous radiation, is illustrated in terms of 1-D FEL theory.

  4. Effect of light polarization on the efficiency of photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinomas: an in vitro cellular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JalalKamali, M; Nematollahi-Mahani, S N; Shojaei, M; Shamsoddini, A; Arabpour, N

    2018-02-01

    In an in vitro study, the effect of light polarization on the efficiency of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy (PDT) of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was investigated. Three states of light polarization (non-polarized, linearly polarized, and circularly polarized) were considered. Cells were exposed to green (532 pm 20 nm) irradiation from light emitting diodes. Cell survival was measured by the colorimetric assay (WST-1) and Trypan blue staining. The colorimetric assay showed a pronounced decrease in the cell viability (up to 30%) using polarized light compared to the non-polarized one in the wavelength region used. Similar results were obtained by the cell counting method (20-30% increase in cell death). The observed effect was dependent on the concentration of photosensitizer. The effect is more expressed in the case of linearly polarized light compared to the circularly polarized one. Results show that the use of polarized light increases the efficiency of in vitro ALA-PDT of BCC. Utilizing polarized light, it is possible to obtain the same effect from PDT by lower concentrations of photosensitizer. Additionally, the concentration dependency of PDT response and photo-bleaching is also reduced.

  5. Plasmon-mediated circularly polarized luminescence of GaAs in a scanning tunneling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mühlenberend, Svenja; Gruyters, Markus; Berndt, Richard, E-mail: berndt@physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2015-12-14

    The electroluminescence from p-type GaAs(110) in a scanning tunneling microscope has been investigated at 6 K. Unexpectedly, high degrees of circular polarization have often been observed with ferromagnetic Ni tips and also with paramagnetic W and Ag tips. The data are interpreted in terms of two distinct excitation mechanisms. Electron injection generates intense luminescence with low polarization. Plasmon-mediated generation of electron-hole pairs leads to less intense emission, which, however, is highly polarized for many tips.

  6. Ionization of oriented carbonyl sulfide molecules by intense circularly polarized laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2011-01-01

    We present combined experimental and theoretical results on strong-field ionization of oriented carbonyl sulfide molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. The obtained molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions show pronounced asymmetries perpendicular to the direction of the molec......We present combined experimental and theoretical results on strong-field ionization of oriented carbonyl sulfide molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. The obtained molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions show pronounced asymmetries perpendicular to the direction......-dimensionally-oriented polar molecules, in particular asymmetries in the emission direction of the photoelectrons. In the following article [Phys. Rev. A 83, 023406 (2011)] the focus is to understand strong-field ionization from three-dimensionally-oriented asymmetric top molecules, in particular the suppression of electron...

  7. Quantitative assessment of spinal cord injury using circularly polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kideog; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2017-08-01

    We report the quantitative assessment of spinal cord injury using the circularly polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CP-CARS) technique together with Stokes parameters in the Poincaré sphere. The pump and Stokes excitation beams are circularly polarized to suppress both the linear polarization-dependent artifacts and the nonresonant background of tissue CARS imaging, enabling quantitative CP-CARS image analysis. This study shows that CP-CARS imaging uncovers significantly increased phase retardance of injured spinal cord tissue as compared to normal tissue, suggesting that CP-CARS is an appealing label-free imaging tool for determining the degree of tissue phase retardance, which could serve as a unique diagnostic parameter associated with nervous tissue injury.

  8. Circular Polarizations of Gravitational Waves from Core-Collapse Supernovae: A Clear Indication of Rapid Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Nakamura, Ko; Yamada, Shoichi

    2016-04-15

    We propose to employ the circular polarization of gravitational waves emitted by core-collapse supernovae as an unequivocal indication of rapid rotation deep in their cores just prior to collapse. It has been demonstrated by three dimensional simulations that nonaxisymmetric accretion flows may develop spontaneously via hydrodynamical instabilities in the postbounce cores. It is not surprising, then, that the gravitational waves emitted by such fluid motions are circularly polarized. We show, in this Letter, that a network of the second generation detectors of gravitational waves worldwide may be able to detect such polarizations up to the opposite side of the Galaxy as long as the rotation period of the core is shorter than a few seconds prior to collapse.

  9. Shielding synchrotron light sources: Advantages of circular shield walls tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, S.L. [Design and Accelerator Operations Consulting, 568 Wintergreen Ct Ridge, NY 11961 (United States); Ghosh, V.J.; Breitfeller, M. [NSLS-II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produce significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than lower energy injection and ramped operations. High energy neutrons produced in the forward direction from thin target beam losses are a major component of the dose rate outside the shield walls of the tunnel. The convention has been to provide thicker 90° ratchet walls to reduce this dose to the beam line users. We present an alternate circular shield wall design, which naturally and cost effectively increases the path length for this forward radiation in the shield wall and thereby substantially decreasing the dose rate for these beam losses. This shield wall design will greatly reduce the dose rate to the users working near the front end optical components but will challenge the beam line designers to effectively utilize the longer length of beam line penetration in the shield wall. Additional advantages of the circular shield wall tunnel are that it's simpler to construct, allows greater access to the insertion devices and the upstream in tunnel beam line components, as well as reducing the volume of concrete and therefore the cost of the shield wall.

  10. Competition of circularly polarized laser modes in the modulation instability of hot magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehri Javan, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the problem of modulation instability of an intense laser beam in the hot magnetized plasma. The propagation of intense circularly polarized laser beam along the external magnetic field is considered using a relativistic fluid model. The nonlinear equation describing the interaction of laser pulse with magnetized hot plasma is derived in the quasi-neutral approximation, which is valid for hot plasma. Nonlinear dispersion equation for hot plasma is obtained. For left- and right-hand polarizations, the growth rate of instability is achieved and the effect of temperature, external magnetic field, and kind of polarization on the growth rate is considered. It is observed that for the right-hand polarization, increase of magnetic field leads to the increasing of growth rate. Also for the left-hand polarization, increase of magnetic field inversely causes decrease of the growth rate.

  11. Emission of circularly polarized recombination radiation from p-doped GaAs and GaAs0.62P0.38 under the impact of polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromme, B.; Baum, G.; Goeckel, D.; Raith, W.

    1989-01-01

    Circularly polarized light is emitted in radiative transitions of polarized electrons from the conduction to the valence band in GaAs or GaAs 1-x P x crystals. The degree of light polarization is directly related to the polarization of the conduction-band electrons at the instant of recombination and allows conclusions about the depolarization of electrons in the conduction band. The depolarization is caused by spin-relaxation processes. The efficiency of these processes depends on crystal type, crystal temperature, degree of doping, and kinetic energy of the electrons. Highly p-doped GaAs and GaAs 0.62 P 0.38 crystals (N A >1x10 19 atoms/cm 3 ) were bombarded with polarized electrons (initial polarization 38%), and the spectral distribution and the circular polarization of the emitted recombination radiation were measured. The initial kinetic energy of the electrons in the conduction band was varied between 5 and 1000 eV. The measurements of the spectral distribution show that the electrons are thermalized before recombination occurs, independent of their initial energy. An important thermalization process in this energy range is the excitation of crystal electrons by electron-hole pair creation. The circular polarization of the recombination radiation lies below 1% in the whole energy range. It decreases with increasing electron energy but is still of measurable magnitude at 100 eV in the case of GaAs 0.62 P 0.38 . The circular polarization is smaller for GaAs than for GaAs 0.62 P 0.38 , which we attribute to more efficient spin relaxation in GaAs

  12. Scanning differential polarization microscope: Its use to image linear and circular differential scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickols, W.; Maestre, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    A differential polarization microscope that couples the sensitivity of single-beam measurement of circular dichroism and circular differential scattering with the simultaneous measurement of linear dichroism and linear differential scattering has been developed. The microscope uses a scanning microscope stage and single-point illumination to give the very shallow depth of field found in confocal microscopy. This microscope can operate in the confocal mode as well as in the near confocal condition that can allow one to program the coherence and spatial resolution of the microscope. This microscope has been used to study the change in the structure of chromatin during the development of sperm in Drosophila

  13. Linear versus circular polarization of head coils - comparison on phantom and in the clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schratter, M.; Kramer, J.; Prayer, L.; Wimberger, D.; Imhof, H.; Schmid, W.

    1990-01-01

    Two different head coils - one with linear polarization and the other with circular polarization - were compared under the same measurement conditions. Comparison was done on a phantom with waterfilled and gadolinium-filled pin-holes, as well as on anatomical MR images of 23 volunteers. In three volunteers the whole brain was examined while, in the remaining 20 volunteers the sella region or cerebellopontine angleregion was examined. Criteria for comparison were signal-to-noise ratio, background noise, and detail resolution (phantom), as well as subjective criteria - image sharpness, anatomical, contrast, and recognition of anatomical details -, evaluated on anatomical MR images by four radiologists independently of each other. The results show a significant improvement of signal-to-noise ratio, lower background noise and therefore marked improvement of images harpness, and moderate improvement in the recognition of anatomical details using the circular polarized head coil; as for as detail resolution and anatomical contrast were concerned, however, no significant difference was seen between the two coils. Major advantages of the circular, polarized head coil in clinical application are shorter measurement times (reduced number of acquisitions), as well as thinner slices without loss of signal-to-noise ratio. (orig.) [de

  14. Circularly polarized harmonic generation by intense bicircular laser pulses: electron recollision dynamics and frequency dependent helicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Mauger, François; Yuan, Kai-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations for one and two electron cyclic molecules {{{H}}}nq+ exposed to intense bichromatic circularly polarized laser pulses of frequencies {ω }1 and {ω }2, such that {ω }1/{ω }2={n}1/{n}2 (integer) produce circularly polarized high order harmonics with a cut-off recollision maximum energy at and greater than the linear polarization law (in atomic units) {N}m{ω }1={I}p+3.17{U}p, where I p is the ionization potential and {U}p={(2{E}0)}2/4{ω }2 is the ponderomotive energy defined by the field E 0 (intensity I={{cE}}02/8π ) from each pulse and mean frequency ω =({ω }1+{ω }2)/2 . An electron recollision model in a rotating frame at rotating frequency {{Δ }}ω =({ω }1-{ω }2)/2 predicts this simple result as a result of recollision dynamics in a combination of bichromatic circularly polarized pulses. The harmonic helicities and their intensities are shown to depend on compatible symmetries of the net pulse electric fields with that of the molecules.

  15. Searching for Models Exhibiting High Circularly Polarized Luminescence: the Electroactive Inherently Chiral Oligothiophenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincori, Tiziana; Appoloni, Giulio; Mussini, Patrizia Romana; Arnaboldi, Serena; Cirilli, Roberto; Quartapelle Procopio, Elsa; Panigati, Monica; Abbate, Sergio; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Longhi, Giovanna

    2018-05-02

    Two new inherently chiral oligothiophenes characterized by the atropisomeric 3,3'-bithianaphtene scaffold functionalized with fused ring bithiophene derivatives, namely 4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b3:4b']dithiophene (CPDT) and dithieno[3,3-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole (DTP), were synthesized. The racemates were fully characterized and resolved into antipodes by enantioselective HPLC. The enantiomers were analyzed through different chiroptical techniques: electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) were employed to attribute the absolute configuration (AC). Comparison of experimental and calculated VCD spectra confirmed the DFT calculated conformational characteristics. The compound functionalized with two CPDT units was oxidized with FeCl3 and ECD and CPL of the resulting material were measured. Circularly Polarized Luminescence (CPL) was measured in order to verify if inherently chiral oligothiophenes could be promising systems for chiral photonics applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Chirality and energy transfer amplified circularly polarized luminescence in composite nanohelix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Duan, Pengfei; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua

    2017-01-01

    Transfer of both chirality and energy information plays an important role in biological systems. Here we show a chiral donor π-gelator and assembled it with an achiral π-acceptor to see how chirality and energy can be transferred in a composite donor–acceptor system. It is found that the individual chiral gelator can self-assemble into nanohelix. In the presence of the achiral acceptor, the self-assembly can also proceed and lead to the formation of the composite nanohelix. In the composite nanohelix, an energy transfer is realized. Interestingly, in the composite nanohelix, the achiral acceptor can both capture the supramolecular chirality and collect the circularly polarized energy from the chiral donor, showing both supramolecular chirality and energy transfer amplified circularly polarized luminescence (ETACPL). PMID:28585538

  17. Multiphoton processes in the field of two-frequency circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, An

    1997-01-01

    The authors solve Dirac's equation for an electron in the field of a two-frequency plane electromagnetic wave, deriving general formulae for the probabilities of radiation of a photon by the electron, and for the probabilities for pair production by a photon when the two-frequency wave is circularly polarized. In contrast to the case of a monochromatic-plane electromagnetic wave, when an electron is in the field of a two-frequency circularly polarized wave, besides the absorption of multiphotons and emission of simple harmonics of the individual waves, stimulated multiphoton emission processes and various composite harmonic-photon emission processes are occurred: when a high-energy photon is in a such a field, multiphoton processes also follow the pair production processes

  18. X-BAND CIRCULARLY POLARIZED RECTENNAS FOR MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xuexia; Xu Junshu; Xu Deming; Xu Changlong

    2008-01-01

    Circularly polarized rectennas operating at X-band are studied in this paper. The quasi-square patches fed by aperture coupling are used as the circularly polarized receiving antennas,which are easily matched and integrated with the circuits of rectennas. The double-layer structure not only minimizes the size of the rectennas but also decreases the effects of the circuits on the antenna. The receiving elements have broader bandwidth and higher gain than the single-layer patches.Two rectennas operating at 10GHz are designed, fabricated and measured. The voltage of 3.86V on a load of 200Ωis measured and a high RF-DC conversion efficiency of 75% is obtained at 9.98GHz. It is convenient for this kind of rectennas to form large arrays for high power applications.

  19. Multiphoton ionization of the hydrogen atom by a circularly polarized electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepelitsa, O.B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the multiphoton ionization of the ground state of the hydrogen atom in the field of a circularly polarized intense electromagnetic wave. To describe the states of photoelectrons, quasiclassical wave functions are introduced that partially allow for the effect of an intense electromagnetic wave and that of the Coulomb potential. Expressions are derived for the angular and energy distributions of photoelectrons with energies much lower than the ionization potential of an unperturbed atom. It is found that, due to allowance for the Coulomb potential in the wave function of the final electron states, the transition probability near the ionization threshold tends to a finite value. In addition, the well-known selection rules for multiphoton transitions in a circularly polarized electromagnetic field are derived in a natural way. Finally, the results are compared with those obtained in the Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss approximation

  20. Circularly Polarized Antenna Array Fed by Air-Bridge Free CPW-Slotline Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel design of 1×2 and 2×2 circularly polarized (CP microstrip patch antenna arrays is presented in this paper. The two CP antenna arrays are fed by sequentially rotated coplanar waveguide (CPW to slotline networks and are processed on 1 mm thick single-layer FR4 substrates. Both of the two arrays are low-profile and lightweight. An air-bridge free CPW-slotline power splitter is appropriately designed to form the feeding networks and realize the two CP antenna arrays. The mechanism of circular polarization in this design is explained. The simulated and measured impedance bandwidths as well as the 3 dB axial ratio bandwidths and the radiation patterns of the two proposed antenna arrays are presented. This proposed design can be easily extended to form a larger plane array with good performance owing to its simple structure.

  1. In-line phase retarder and polarimeter for conversion of linear to circular polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Smith, N.V.; Denlinger, J.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    An in-line polarimeter including phase retarder and linear polarizer was designed and commissioned on undulator beamline 7.0 for the purpose of converting linear to circular polarization for experiments downstream. In commissioning studies, Mo/Si multilayers at 95 eV were used both as the upstream, freestanding phase retarder and the downstream linear polarized. The polarization properties of the phase retarder were characterized by direct polarimetry and by collecting MCD spectra in photoemission from Gd and other magnetic surfaces. The resonant birefringence of transmission multilayers results from differing distributions of s- and p-component wave fields in the multilayer when operating near a structural (Bragg) interference condition. The resulting phase retardation is especially strong when the interference is at or near the Brewster angle, which is roughly 45{degrees} in the EUV and soft x-ray ranges.

  2. Assessment of tissue polarimetric properties using Stokes polarimetric imaging with circularly polarized illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; He, Honghui; Lin, Jianyu; Dong, Yang; Chen, Dongsheng; Ma, Hui; Elson, Daniel S

    2018-04-01

    Tissue-depolarization and linear-retardance are the main polarization characteristics of interest for bulk tissue characterization, and are normally interpreted from Mueller polarimetry. Stokes polarimetry can be conducted using simpler instrumentation and in a shorter time. Here, we use Stokes polarimetric imaging with circularly polarized illumination to assess the circular-depolarization and linear-retardance properties of tissue. Results obtained were compared with Mueller polarimetry in transmission and reflection geometry, respectively. It is found that circular-depolarization obtained from these 2 methods is very similar in both geometries, and that linear-retardance is highly quantitatively similar for transmission geometry and qualitatively similar for reflection geometry. The majority of tissue circular-depolarization and linear-retardance image information (represented by local image contrast features) obtained from Mueller polarimetry is well preserved from Stokes polarimetry in both geometries. These findings can be referred to for further understanding tissue Stokes polarimetric data, and for further application of Stokes polarimetry under the circumstances where short acquisition time or low optical system complexity is a priority, such as polarimetric endoscopy and microscopy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Wideband Circularly Polarized Printed Ring Slot Antenna for 5 GHz – 6 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrun Osman, Mohamed; Rahim, Mohamad Helmi A.; Jusoh, Muzammil; Sabapathy, Thennarasan; Rahim, Mohamad Kamal A.; Norlyana Azemi, Saidatul

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the design of circularly polarized printed slot antenna operating at 5 – 6 GHz. The proposed antenna consists of L-shaped feedline on the top of structure and circular ring slot positioned at the ground plane underneath the substrate as a radiator. A radial and narrow slot in the ground plane provides coupling between the L-shaped feedline and circular ring slot. The circular polarization is realized by implementing the slits perturbation located diagonally to perturb the current flow on the slot structure. The antenna prototype is fabricated on FR4 substrate. The simulated and measured results are compared and analyzed to demonstrate the performance of the antenna. Good measured of simulated results are obtained at the targeted operating frequency. The simulated -10dB reflection coefficient bandwidths and axial ratio are 750 MHz and 165 MHz, respectively. The investigation on the affect of the important parameters towards the reflection coefficient and axial are also presented. The proposed antenna is highly potential to be used for wireless local area network (WLAN) and wireless power transfer (WPT).

  4. Fast helicity switching of x-ray circular polarization at beamline P09 at PETRA III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strempfer, J., E-mail: Joerg.Strempfer@desy.de; Mardegan, J. R. L.; Francoual, S.; Veiga, L. S. I.; Spitzbart, T.; Zink, H. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Bouchenoire, L. [XMaS, ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, Grenoble 38043 (France); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    At the resonant scattering and diffraction beamline P09 at PETRA III/DESY, polarization manipulation in the X-ray energy range 3-13 keV is possible using wave-plates. Recently, fast flipping of circular polarization helicity using the Raspberry Pi controlled FPGA (PiLC) device developed at DESY and dedicated piezo-electric flippers has been commissioned. Functionality of the PiLC for XMCD and first XMCD measurements at the Fe K-and Dy-L{sub 3} absorption edges are presented.

  5. Investigation of beam self-polarization in the future e^{+}e^{-} circular collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gianfelice-Wendt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of resonant depolarization has been suggested for precise beam energy measurements (better than 100 keV in the e^{+}e^{-} Future Circular Collider (FCC-e^{+}e^{-} for Z and WW physics at 45 and 80 GeV beam energy respectively. Longitudinal beam polarization would benefit the Z peak physics program; however it is not essential and therefore it will be not investigated here. In this paper the possibility of self-polarized leptons is considered. Preliminary results of simulations in presence of quadrupole misalignments and beam position monitors (BPMs errors for a simplified FCC-e^{+}e^{-} ring are presented.

  6. Investigation of beam self-polarization in the future e+e- circular collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfelice-Wendt, E.

    2016-10-01

    The use of resonant depolarization has been suggested for precise beam energy measurements (better than 100 keV) in the e+e- Future Circular Collider (FCC-e+e-) for Z and W W physics at 45 and 80 GeV beam energy respectively. Longitudinal beam polarization would benefit the Z peak physics program; however it is not essential and therefore it will be not investigated here. In this paper the possibility of self-polarized leptons is considered. Preliminary results of simulations in presence of quadrupole misalignments and beam position monitors (BPMs) errors for a simplified FCC-e+e- ring are presented.

  7. Ultra-wideband circular-polarization converter with micro-split Jerusalem-cross metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xi; Yu, Xing-Yang; Cao, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Yan-Nan; Yu, Xin-Hua

    2016-12-01

    An ultrathin micro-split Jerusalem-cross metasurface is proposed in this paper, which can efficiently convert the linear polarization of electromagnetic (EM) wave into the circular polarization in ultra-wideband. By symmetrically employing two micro-splits on the horizontal arm (in the x direction) of the Jerusalem-cross structure, the bandwidth of the proposed device is significantly extended. Both simulated and experimental results show that the proposed metasurface is able to convert linearly polarized waves into circularly polarized waves in a frequency range from 12.4 GHz to 21 GHz, with an axis ratio better than 1 dB. The simulated results also show that such a broadband and high-performance are maintained over a wide range of incident angle. The presented polarization converter can be used in a number of areas, such as spectroscopy and wireless communications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61461016 and 61661012), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Grant Nos. 2014GXNSFAA118366, 2014GXNSFAA118283, and 2015jjBB7002), and the Innovation Project of Graduate Education of Guilin University of Electronic Technology, China (Grant No. 2016YJCX82).

  8. Negative circular polarization emissions from WSe2/MoSe2 commensurate heterobilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Wei-Ting

    2018-04-11

    Van der Waals heterobilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides with spin-valley coupling of carriers in different layers have emerged as a new platform for exploring spin/valleytronic applications. The interlayer coupling was predicted to exhibit subtle changes with the interlayer atomic registry. Manually stacked heterobilayers, however, are incommensurate with the inevitable interlayer twist and/or lattice mismatch, where the properties associated with atomic registry are difficult to access by optical means. Here, we unveil the distinct polarization properties of valley-specific interlayer excitons using epitaxially grown, commensurate WSe/MoSe heterobilayers with well-defined (AA and AB) atomic registry. We observe circularly polarized photoluminescence from interlayer excitons, but with a helicity opposite to the optical excitation. The negative circular polarization arises from the quantum interference imposed by interlayer atomic registry, giving rise to distinct polarization selection rules for interlayer excitons. Using selective excitation schemes, we demonstrate the optical addressability for interlayer excitons with different valley configurations and polarization helicities.

  9. Negative circular polarization emissions from WSe2/MoSe2 commensurate heterobilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Wei-Ting; Lu, Li-Syuan; Wu, Po-Hsun; Lee, Ming-Hao; Chen, Peng-Jen; Wu, Pei-Ying; Chou, Yi-Chia; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Li, Lain-Jong; Chu, Ming-Wen; Chang, Wen-Hao

    2018-01-01

    Van der Waals heterobilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides with spin-valley coupling of carriers in different layers have emerged as a new platform for exploring spin/valleytronic applications. The interlayer coupling was predicted to exhibit subtle changes with the interlayer atomic registry. Manually stacked heterobilayers, however, are incommensurate with the inevitable interlayer twist and/or lattice mismatch, where the properties associated with atomic registry are difficult to access by optical means. Here, we unveil the distinct polarization properties of valley-specific interlayer excitons using epitaxially grown, commensurate WSe/MoSe heterobilayers with well-defined (AA and AB) atomic registry. We observe circularly polarized photoluminescence from interlayer excitons, but with a helicity opposite to the optical excitation. The negative circular polarization arises from the quantum interference imposed by interlayer atomic registry, giving rise to distinct polarization selection rules for interlayer excitons. Using selective excitation schemes, we demonstrate the optical addressability for interlayer excitons with different valley configurations and polarization helicities.

  10. Triband Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Top-Loaded Alford Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxia Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A triband omnidirectional circularly polarized dielectric resonator antenna with a top-loaded modified Alford loop for GSM, WLAN, and WiMAX applications is proposed. Fed by an axial probe, the DRA (dielectric resonator antenna radiates like a vertically polarized electric monopole. The top-loaded modified Alford loop provides an equivalent horizontally polarized magnetic dipole mode at triband. Omnidirectional CP (circular polarized fields can be obtained when the two orthogonally polarized fields are equal in amplitude with phase quadrature. The antenna has been successfully simulated, fabricated, and measured. The experimental and numerical results exhibit that the antenna can obtain usable CP bandwidths of 1.925–1.955 GHz, 2.36–2.48 GHz, and 3.502–3.53 GHz with return loss larger than 10 dB and axial ratio less than 3 dB. In addition, over the three bands, the antenna obtains very good omnidirectional CP radiation patterns in the azimuth plane. Moreover, an average CP gain in the azimuth plane of 1.2, 1.6, and −1.5 dBic for the lower, middle, and upper bands has been obtained.

  11. A Wideband and Compact Circularly-Polarized Rectenna for Low Power Application

    OpenAIRE

    Okba , Abderrahim; Takacs , Alexandru; Aubert , Hervé; Bellion , Anthony; Grenana , D

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a wideband and compact circularly polarized rectenna composed by an Archimedean spiral antenna that covers the S and C frequency bands and a silicon Schottky diode. This rectenna (rectifier + antenna) is used for electromagnetic energy harvesting over a wide frequency band, in order to power autonomous wireless sensors used for satellite health monitoring. For low incident power densities (around 14 µW/cm²) the measured efficiency of at least 19% be...

  12. Intense field stabilization in circular polarization: Three-dimensional time-dependent dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dae-Il; Chism, Will

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the stabilization of hydrogen atoms in a circularly polarized laser field. We use a three-dimensional, time-dependent approach to study the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms subject to high-intensity, short-wavelength, laser pulses. We find an enhanced survival probability as the field is increased under fixed envelope conditions. We also confirm wave packet behaviors previously seen in two-dimensional time-dependent computations

  13. Chaotic scattering from hydrogen atoms in a circularly polarized laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okon, Elias; Parker, William; Chism, Will; Reichl, Linda E.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the classical dynamics of a hydrogen atom in a circularly polarized laser beam with finite radius. The spatial cutoff for the laser field allows us to use scattering processes to examine the laser-atom dynamics. We find that for certain field parameters, the delay times, the angular momentum, and the distance of closest approach of the scattered electron exhibit fractal behavior. This fractal behavior is a signature of chaos in the dynamics of the atom-field system

  14. Circularly Polarized Transparent Microstrip Patch Reflectarray Integrated with Solar Cell for Satellite Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zainud-Deen, S. H.; El-Shalaby, N. A.; Gaber, S. M.; Malhat, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Circularly polarized (CP) transparent microstrip reflectarray antenna is integrated with solar cell for small satellite applications at 10 GHz. The reflectarray unit cell consists of a perfect electric conductor (PEC) square patch printed on an optically transparent substrate with the PEC ground plane. A comparison between using transparent conducting polymers and using the PEC in unit-cell construction has been introduced. The waveguide simulator is used to calculate the required compensatio...

  15. Detecting primordial gravitational waves with circular polarization of the redshifted 21 cm line. I. Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Christopher M.; Mishra, Abhilash; Venumadhav, Tejaswi

    2018-05-01

    We propose a new method to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio r using the circular polarization of the 21 cm radiation from the pre-reionization epoch. Our method relies on the splitting of the F =1 hyperfine level of neutral hydrogen due to the quadrupole moment of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We show that unlike the Zeeman effect, where MF=±1 have opposite energy shifts, the CMB quadrupole shifts MF=±1 together relative to MF=0 . This splitting leads to a small circular polarization of the emitted 21 cm radiation. In this paper (Paper I in a series on this effect), we present calculations on the microphysics behind this effect, accounting for all processes that affect the hyperfine transition. We conclude with an analytic formula for the circular polarization from the Dark Ages as a function of pre-reionization parameters and the value of the remote quadrupole of the CMB. We also calculate the splitting of the F =1 hyperfine level due to other anisotropic radiation sources and show that they are not dominant. In a companion paper (Paper II) we make forecasts for measuring the tensor-to-scalar ratio r using future radio arrays.

  16. CORPORATE FEED WITH DUAL SEGMENT CIRCULAR POLARIZED ARRAY RECTENNA FOR LOW POWER RF ENERGY HARVESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIA CHAO KANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the investigation of the level powers that can be scavenged from the ambient environment by using corporate feed with dual segment circular polarized antenna array . It will converts the received power to direct current (DC. Being a circular polarized antenna, it has higher inductance per unit area, a good Q-factor and compact capability. The design of corporate-series feed rectenna array is to achieve a high gain antenna and maximize the RF energy received by the rectenna system at ultra low power levels. The entire structure was investigated using a combination of harmonic balance nonlinear analysis and full wave electromagnetic field analysis. The results show that 5.0 dBi gain for circular polarized antenna array can be achieved at frequency 956 MHz. When the input power of 20 dBm fed into the transmitting antenna, the maximum distance for radio frequency (RF harvesting is 5.32m. The output DC voltage for various values of incident RF power is also presented. There are noticed reasonable agreements between the simulated and measured result and the works concludes that the investigation of RF energy harvesting system was successful.

  17. Concave pulse shaping of a circularly polarized laser pulse from non-uniform overdense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Min Sup [School of Natural Science, UNIST, BanYeon-Ri 100, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kulagin, Victor V. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Universitetsky prosp. 13, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Suk, Hyyong, E-mail: hysuk@gist.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Photon Science, GIST, 123 Cheomdan-gwangiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-20

    Pulse shaping of circularly polarized laser pulses in nonuniform overdense plasmas are investigated numerically. Specifically we show by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations the generation of a concave pulse front of a circularly polarized, a few tens of petawatt laser pulse from a density-tapered, overdense plasma slab. The concept used for the transverse-directional shaping is the differential transmittance depending on the plasma density, and the laser intensity. For suitable selection of the slab parameters for the concave pulse shaping, we studied numerically the pulse transmittance, which can be used for further parameter design of the pulse shaping. The concavely shaped circularly polarized pulse is expected to add more freedom in controlling the ion-beam characteristics in the RPDA regime. - Highlights: • Laser pulse shaping for a concave front by non-uniform overdense plasma was studied. • Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations were used for the investigation. • A laser pulse can be shaped by a density-tapered overdense plasma. • The concave and sharp pulse front are useful in many laser–plasma applications. • They are important for ion acceleration, especially in the radiation pressure dominant regime.

  18. Polarization holograms allow highly efficient generation of complex light beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, U; Pagliusi, P; Provenzano, C; Volke-Sepúlveda, K; Cipparrone, Gabriella

    2013-03-25

    We report a viable method to generate complex beams, such as the non-diffracting Bessel and Weber beams, which relies on the encoding of amplitude information, in addition to phase and polarization, using polarization holography. The holograms are recorded in polarization sensitive films by the interference of a reference plane wave with a tailored complex beam, having orthogonal circular polarizations. The high efficiency, the intrinsic achromaticity and the simplicity of use of the polarization holograms make them competitive with respect to existing methods and attractive for several applications. Theoretical analysis, based on the Jones formalism, and experimental results are shown.

  19. Use of Linear and Circular Polarization: The Secret LCD Screen and 3D Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtberg, Stefan; Girwidz, Raimund

    2017-01-01

    References to everyday life are important for teaching physics. Discussing polarization phenomena, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and 3D cinemas provide such references. In this paper we describe experiments to support students' understanding of linearly polarized light as well as the phenomenon of inverted colors using a secret LCD screen.…

  20. In-line production of a bi-circular field for generation of helically polarized high-order harmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kfir, Ofer, E-mail: ofertx@technion.ac.il, E-mail: oren@si.technion.ac.il; Bordo, Eliyahu; Ilan Haham, Gil; Lahav, Oren; Cohen, Oren, E-mail: ofertx@technion.ac.il, E-mail: oren@si.technion.ac.il [Solid State Institute and Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Fleischer, Avner [Solid State Institute and Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Ort Braude College, Karmiel 21982 (Israel)

    2016-05-23

    The recent demonstration of bright circularly polarized high-order harmonics of a bi-circular pump field gave rise to new opportunities in ultrafast chiral science. In previous works, the required nontrivial bi-circular pump field was produced using a relatively complicated and sensitive Mach-Zehnder-like interferometer. We propose a compact and stable in-line apparatus for converting a quasi-monochromatic linearly polarized ultrashort driving laser field into a bi-circular field and employ it for generation of helically polarized high-harmonics. Furthermore, utilizing the apparatus for a spectroscopic spin-mixing measurement, we identify the photon spins of the bi-circular weak component field that are annihilated during the high harmonics process.

  1. SEARCH FOR A MAGNETIC FIELD VIA CIRCULAR POLARIZATION IN THE WOLF-RAYET STAR EZ CMa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Chevrotiere, A.; St-Louis, N.; Moffat, A. F. J. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal and Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique du Quebec (CRAQ), C. P. 6128, succ. centre-ville, Montreal (Quebec) H3C 3J7 (Canada); Collaboration: MiMeS Collaboration

    2013-02-20

    We report on the first deep, direct search for a magnetic field via the circular polarization of Zeeman splitting in a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star. Using the highly efficient ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we observed at three different epochs one of the best W-R candidates in the sky expected to harbor a magnetic field, the bright, highly variable WN4 star EZ CMa = WR6 = HD 50896. We looked for the characteristic circular polarization (Stokes V) pattern in strong emission lines that would arise as a consequence of a global, rotating magnetic field with a split monopole configuration. We also obtained nearly simultaneous linear polarization spectra (Stokes Q and U), which are dominated by electron scattering, most likely from a flattened wind with large-scale corotating structures. As the star rotates with a period of 3.766 days, our view of the wind changes, which in turn affects the value of the linear polarization in lines versus continuum at the {approx}0.2% level. Depending on the epoch of observation, our Stokes V data were affected by significant crosstalk from Stokes Q and U to V. We removed this spurious signal from the circular polarization data and experimented with various levels of spectral binning to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of our data. In the end, no magnetic field is unambiguously detected in EZ CMa. Assuming that the star is intrinsically magnetic and harbors a split monopole configuration, we find an upper limit of B {approx} 100 G for the intensity of its field in the line-forming regions of the stellar wind.

  2. SEARCH FOR A MAGNETIC FIELD VIA CIRCULAR POLARIZATION IN THE WOLF-RAYET STAR EZ CMa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Chevrotière, A.; St-Louis, N.; Moffat, A. F. J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the first deep, direct search for a magnetic field via the circular polarization of Zeeman splitting in a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star. Using the highly efficient ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we observed at three different epochs one of the best W-R candidates in the sky expected to harbor a magnetic field, the bright, highly variable WN4 star EZ CMa = WR6 = HD 50896. We looked for the characteristic circular polarization (Stokes V) pattern in strong emission lines that would arise as a consequence of a global, rotating magnetic field with a split monopole configuration. We also obtained nearly simultaneous linear polarization spectra (Stokes Q and U), which are dominated by electron scattering, most likely from a flattened wind with large-scale corotating structures. As the star rotates with a period of 3.766 days, our view of the wind changes, which in turn affects the value of the linear polarization in lines versus continuum at the ∼0.2% level. Depending on the epoch of observation, our Stokes V data were affected by significant crosstalk from Stokes Q and U to V. We removed this spurious signal from the circular polarization data and experimented with various levels of spectral binning to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of our data. In the end, no magnetic field is unambiguously detected in EZ CMa. Assuming that the star is intrinsically magnetic and harbors a split monopole configuration, we find an upper limit of B ∼ 100 G for the intensity of its field in the line-forming regions of the stellar wind.

  3. Circular dichroism measured on single chlorosomal light-harvesting complexes of green photosynthetic bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Furumaki, Shu

    2012-12-06

    We report results on circular dichroism (CD) measured on single immobilized chlorosomes of a triple mutant of green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum. The CD signal is measured by monitoring chlorosomal bacteriochlorphyll c fluorescence excited by alternate left and right circularly polarized laser light with a fixed wavelength of 733 nm. The excitation wavelength is close to a maximum of the negative CD signal of a bulk solution of the same chlorosomes. The average CD dissymmetry parameter obtained from an ensemble of individual chlorosomes was gs = -0.025, with an intrinsic standard deviation (due to variations between individual chlorosomes) of 0.006. The dissymmetry value is about 2.5 times larger than that obtained at the same wavelength in the bulk solution. The difference can be satisfactorily explained by taking into account the orientation factor in the single-chlorosome experiments. The observed distribution of the dissymmetry parameter reflects the well-ordered nature of the mutant chlorosomes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Circular dichroism measured on single chlorosomal light-harvesting complexes of green photosynthetic bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Furumaki, Shu; Yabiku, Yu; Habuchi, Satoshi; Tsukatani, Yusuke; Bryant, Donald A.; Vá cha, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We report results on circular dichroism (CD) measured on single immobilized chlorosomes of a triple mutant of green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum. The CD signal is measured by monitoring chlorosomal bacteriochlorphyll c fluorescence excited by alternate left and right circularly polarized laser light with a fixed wavelength of 733 nm. The excitation wavelength is close to a maximum of the negative CD signal of a bulk solution of the same chlorosomes. The average CD dissymmetry parameter obtained from an ensemble of individual chlorosomes was gs = -0.025, with an intrinsic standard deviation (due to variations between individual chlorosomes) of 0.006. The dissymmetry value is about 2.5 times larger than that obtained at the same wavelength in the bulk solution. The difference can be satisfactorily explained by taking into account the orientation factor in the single-chlorosome experiments. The observed distribution of the dissymmetry parameter reflects the well-ordered nature of the mutant chlorosomes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Polarization-dependent atomic dipole traps behind a circular aperture for neutral-atom quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen-Christandl, Katharina; Copsey, Bert D.

    2011-01-01

    The neutral-atom quantum computing community has successfully implemented almost all necessary steps for constructing a neutral-atom quantum computer. We present computational results of a study aimed at solving the remaining problem of creating a quantum memory with individually addressable sites for quantum computing. The basis of this quantum memory is the diffraction pattern formed by laser light incident on a circular aperture. Very close to the aperture, the diffraction pattern has localized bright and dark spots that can serve as red-detuned or blue-detuned atomic dipole traps. These traps are suitable for quantum computing even for moderate laser powers. In particular, for moderate laser intensities (∼100 W/cm 2 ) and comparatively small detunings (∼1000-10 000 linewidths), trap depths of ∼1 mK and trap frequencies of several to tens of kilohertz are achieved. Our results indicate that these dipole traps can be moved by tilting the incident laser beams without significantly changing the trap properties. We also explored the polarization dependence of these dipole traps. We developed a code that calculates the trapping potential energy for any magnetic substate of any hyperfine ground state of any alkali-metal atom for any laser detuning much smaller than the fine-structure splitting for any given electric field distribution. We describe details of our calculations and include a summary of different notations and conventions for the reduced matrix element and how to convert it to SI units. We applied this code to these traps and found a method for bringing two traps together and apart controllably without expelling the atoms from the trap and without significant tunneling probability between the traps. This approach can be scaled up to a two-dimensional array of many pinholes, forming a quantum memory with single-site addressability, in which pairs of atoms can be brought together and apart for two-qubit gates for quantum computing.

  6. Light Emitting Diode (LED) circular traffic signal lifetime management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this research is to build lifetime curves for red, yellow, and green LED circular traffic signals through 20,000-hr. accelerated stress testing of samples operating under Louisianas environmental conditions.

  7. Polarized Light Sources for photocathode electron guns at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.; Frisch, J.; Witte, K.; Zolotorev, M.

    1992-12-01

    We describe current and future Polarized Light Sources at SLAC for use with photocathode electron guns to produce polarized electron beams. The SLAC experiments SLD and E142 are considered, and are used to define the required parameters for the Polarized Light Sources

  8. An offset-fed 20/30 GHz dual-band circularly polarized reflectarray antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Thomas Gunst; Vesterdal, Niels; Gothelf, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    A dual-frequency circularly polarized offset reflectarray antenna for Ka-band satellite communication is presented. The reflectarray is designed using the concentric dual split-loop element which enables full 360° phase adjustment simultaneously in two separate frequency bands. The elements have...... been optimized to suppress the cross-polar reflection. Thereafter, the element data is used for synthesis of the reflectarray layout and computation of the associated radiation patterns. The reflectarray is 400mm × 400mm and radiates LHCP at 19.95 GHz and RHCP at 29.75 GHz. Aperture efficiencies of 58......% and 60% are obtained at these frequencies, and the cross-polarization is more than 25 dB below peak gain....

  9. Negative circular polarization dynamics in InP/InGaP quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasov, S. V.; Kusrayev, Yu G.; Akimov, I. A.; Korenev, V. L.; Langer, L.; Salewski, M.

    2016-08-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) negative circular polarization (NCP) dynamics of InP/InGaP quantum dots (QDs) was studied. Time resolved measurements of PL demonstrated that NCP vanishes, when transverse magnetic field is applied, while oscillations of polarization (that are typical for both low-dimensional and bulk materials) do not occur. Hole g-factor spread in the QD ensemble was supposed to be the most probable reason for such NCP magnetic field behavior. The dependence of NCP dynamics on the repetition period of excitation laser pulses was investigated. In case of fairly small repetition period (T = 13.3 ns) long living NCP (13.3 ns < t < 133 ns) was detected, what was ascribed to resident electron spin orientation, accumulated during many laser pulses. In that regime more than one luminescence polarization decay time exist.

  10. Negative circular polarization dynamics in InP/InGaP quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekrasov, S V; Kusrayev, Yu G; Akimov, I A; Korenev, V L; Langer, L; Salewski, M

    2016-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) negative circular polarization (NCP) dynamics of InP/InGaP quantum dots (QDs) was studied. Time resolved measurements of PL demonstrated that NCP vanishes, when transverse magnetic field is applied, while oscillations of polarization (that are typical for both low-dimensional and bulk materials) do not occur. Hole g-factor spread in the QD ensemble was supposed to be the most probable reason for such NCP magnetic field behavior. The dependence of NCP dynamics on the repetition period of excitation laser pulses was investigated. In case of fairly small repetition period (T = 13.3 ns) long living NCP (13.3 ns < t < 133 ns) was detected, what was ascribed to resident electron spin orientation, accumulated during many laser pulses. In that regime more than one luminescence polarization decay time exist. (paper)

  11. Circular polarization of gravitational waves from non-rotating supernova cores: a new probe into the pre-explosion hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya

    2018-06-01

    We present an analysis of the circular polarization of gravitational waves (GWs) using results from three-dimensional (3D), general relativistic (GR) core-collapse simulations of a non-rotating 15 M⊙ star. For the signal detection, we perform a coherent network analysis taking into account the four interferometers of LIGO Hanford, LIGO Livingston, VIRGO, and KAGRA. We focus on the Stokes V parameter, which directly characterizes the asymmetry of the GW circular polarization. We find that the amplitude of the GW polarization becomes bigger for our 3D-GR model that exhibits strong activity of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). Our results suggest that the SASI-induced accretion flows to the proto-neutron star (PNS) lead to a characteristic, low-frequency modulation (100-200 Hz) in both the waveform and the GW circular polarization. By estimating the signal-to-noise ratio of the GW polarization, we demonstrate that the detection horizon of the circular polarization extends by more than a factor of several times farther comparing to that of the GW amplitude. Our results suggest that the GW circular polarization, if detected, could provide a new probe into the pre-explosion hydrodynamics such as the SASI activity and the g-mode oscillation of the PNS.

  12. Circular polarization of gravitational waves from non-rotating supernova cores: a new probe into the pre-explosion hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya

    2018-04-01

    We present an analysis of the circular polarization of gravitational-waves (GWs) using results from three-dimensional (3D), general relativistic (GR) core-collapse simulations of a non-rotating 15M⊙ star. For the signal detection, we perform a coherent network analysis taking into account the four interferometers of LIGO Hanford, LIGO Livingston, VIRGO, and KAGRA. We focus on the Stokes V parameter, which directly characterizes the asymmetry of the GW circular polarization. We find that the amplitude of the GW polarization becomes bigger for our 3D-GR model that exhibits strong activity of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). Our results suggest that the SASI-induced accretion flows to the proto-neutron star (PNS) lead to a characteristic, low-frequency modulation (100 ˜ 200 Hz) in both the waveform and the GW circular polarization. By estimating the signal-to-noise ratio of the GW polarization, we demonstrate that the detection horizon of the circular polarization extends by more than a factor of several times farther comparing to that of the GW amplitude. Our results suggest that the GW circular polarization, if detected, could provide a new probe into the pre-explosion hydrodynamics such as the SASI activity and the g-mode oscillation of the PNS.

  13. Two-color stabilization of atomic hydrogen in circularly polarized laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, D.; Ceccherini, F.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic stabilization of atomic hydrogen against ionization in high-frequency single- and two-color, circularly polarized laser pulses is observed by numerically solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The single-color case is revisited and numerically determined ionization rates are compared with both, the exact and the approximate high-frequency Floquet rates. The positions of the peaks in the photoelectron spectra can be explained with the help of dressed initial states. In two-color laser fields of opposite circular polarization, the stabilized probability density may be shaped in various ways. For laser frequencies ω 1 and ω 2 =nω 1 , n=2,3,..., and sufficiently large excursion amplitudes (n+1) distinct probability density peaks are observed. This may be viewed as the generalization of the well-known 'dichotomy' in linearly polarized laser fields, i.e, as 'trichotomy', 'quatrochotomy', 'pentachotomy' etc. All those observed structures and their 'hula-hoop'-like dynamics can be understood with the help of high-frequency Floquet theory and the two-color Kramers-Henneberger transformation. The shaping of the probability density in the stabilization regime can be realized without additional loss in the survival probability, as compared to the corresponding single-color results

  14. Potential Sources of Polarized Light from a Plant Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements have demonstrated that sunlight polarized during a first surface reflection by shiny leaves dominates the optical polarization of the light reflected by shiny-leafed plant canopies having approximately spherical leaf angle probability density functions ("Leaf Angle Distributions" - LAD). Yet for other canopies - specifically those without shiny leaves and/or spherical LADs - potential sources of optically polarized light may not always be obvious. Here we identify possible sources of polarized light within those other canopies and speculate on the ecologically important information polarization measurements of those sources might contain.

  15. Obtaining high degree of circular polarization at X-ray FELs via a reverse undulator taper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2013-08-15

    Baseline design of a typical X-ray FEL undulator assumes a planar configuration which results in a linear polarization of the FEL radiation. However, many experiments at X-ray FEL user facilities would profit from using a circularly polarized radiation. As a cheap upgrade one can consider an installation of a short helical (or cross-planar) afterburner, but then one should have an efficient method to suppress powerful linearly polarized background from the main undulator. In this paper we propose a new method for such a suppression: an application of the reverse taper in the main undulator. We discover that in a certain range of the taper strength, the density modulation (bunching) at saturation is practically the same as in the case of non-tapered undulator while the power of linearly polarized radiation is suppressed by orders of magnitude. Then strongly modulated electron beam radiates at full power in the afterburner. Considering SASE3 undulator of the European XFEL as a practical example, we demonstrate that soft X-ray radiation pulses with peak power in excess of 100 GW and an ultimately high degree of circular polarization can be produced. The proposed method is rather universal, i.e. it can be used at SASE FELs and seeded (self-seeded) FELs, with any wavelength of interest, in a wide range of electron beam parameters, and with any repetition rate. It can be used at different X-ray FEL facilities, in particular at LCLS after installation of the helical afterburner in the near future.

  16. Anomalous Polarized Raman Scattering and Large Circular Intensity Differential in Layered Triclinic ReS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shishu; Mao, Nannan; Zhang, Na; Wu, Juanxia; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin

    2017-10-24

    The Raman tensor of a crystal is the derivative of its polarizability tensor and is dependent on the symmetries of the crystal and the Raman-active vibrational mode. The intensity of a particular mode is determined by the Raman selection rule, which involves the Raman tensor and the polarization configurations. For anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) layered crystals, polarized Raman scattering has been used to reveal the crystalline orientations. However, due to its complicated Raman tensors and optical birefringence, the polarized Raman scattering of triclinic 2D crystals has not been well studied yet. Herein, we report the anomalous polarized Raman scattering of 2D layered triclinic rhenium disulfide (ReS 2 ) and show a large circular intensity differential (CID) of Raman scattering in ReS 2 of different thicknesses. The origin of CID and the anomalous behavior in polarized Raman scattering were attributed to the appearance of nonzero off-diagonal Raman tensor elements and the phase factor owing to optical birefringence. This can provide a method to identify the vertical orientation of triclinic layered materials. These findings may help to further understand the Raman scattering process in 2D materials of low symmetry and may indicate important applications in chiral recognition by using 2D materials.

  17. Local Electronic and Magnetic Structure of Ni below and above TC: A Spin-Resolved Circularly Polarized Resonant Photoemission Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinkovic, B.; Tjeng, L.H.; Brookes, N.B.; Goedkoop, J.B.; Hesper, R.; Pellegrin, E.; Groot, F.M.F. de; Altieri, S.; Hulbert, S.L.; Shekel, E.; Sawatzky, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    We report the measurement of the local Ni 3d spin polarization, not only below but also above the Curie temperature (TC), using the newly developed spin-resolved circularly polarized 2p (L3) resonant photoemission technique. The experiment identifies the presence of 3d8 singlets at high energies

  18. Study the effect of dye concentration on optical history using circular polarization holographic grating in thin polymeric film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajerani, E.; Hosain Nataj, N.

    2006-01-01

    By studying the effect of dye concentration, we obtained the optimal dye concentration for recording holographic gratings. The history of circular polarization grating is also investigated. We built polarization holographic grating with more than 2 weeks history. By using a mask in front of pump beam, different pictures could be built up in the film.

  19. Circularly Polarized Planar Helix Phased Antenna Array for 5G Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syrytsin, Igor A.; Zhang, Shuai; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a planar helix mobile phased antenna array is proposed for 5th generation communication systems with operating frequency of 28GHz. The proposed array displays circular polarization in the endfire direction. Over 65 degrees of axial ratio beamwidth and 7GHz of axial ratio bandwidth...... has been achieved in the proposed design. The coverage performance of the proposed phased antenna array has also been studied by using the coverage efficiency metric. Coverage efficiency of 50 % at 5 dBi gain is achieved by the proposed phased mobile antenna array....

  20. Dynamical polarizability of graphene irradiated by circularly polarized ac electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busl, Maria; Platero, Gloria; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    We examine the low-energy physics of graphene in the presence of a circularly polarized electric field in the terahertz regime. Specifically, we derive a general expression for the dynamical polarizability of graphene irradiated by an ac electric field. Several approximations are developed...... that allow one to develop a semianalytical theory for the weak-field regime. The ac field changes qualitatively the single- and many-electron excitations of graphene: Undoped samples may exhibit collective excitations (in contrast to the equilibrium situation), and the properties of the excitations in doped...

  1. Topological events on the lines of circular polarization in nonparaxial vector optical fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Isaac

    2017-02-01

    In nonparaxial vector optical fields, the following topological events are shown to occur in apparent violation of charge conservation: as one translates the observation plane along a line of circular polarization (a C line), the points on the line (C points) are seen to change not only the signs of their topological charges, but also their handedness, and, at turning points on the line, paired C points with the same topological charge and opposite handedness are seen to nucleate. These counter-intuitive events cannot occur in paraxial fields.

  2. Raman backscattering of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves propagating along a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraghechi, B.; Willett, J.e.

    1979-01-01

    The stimulated Raman backscattering of an intense electromagnetic wave propagating in the extraordinary mode along a uniform, static magnetic field is considered. The dispersion relation for a homogeneous magnetized plasma in the presence of the circularly polarized pump waves is developed in the cold-plasma approximation with the pump frequency above the plasma frequency. Formulas are derived for the threshold νsub(OT) of the parametric instability and for the growth rate γ of the backscattered extraordinary wave and Langmuir wave. The effects of the magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation on νsub(0T) and γ are studied numerically. (author)

  3. Investigation of beam self-polarization in the future e+e− circular collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2075800

    2016-10-24

    The use of resonant depolarization has been suggested for precise beam energy measurements (better than 100 keV) in the eþe− Future Circular Collider (FCC-eþe−) for Z and WW physics at 45 and 80 GeV beam energy respectively. Longitudinal beam polarization would benefit the Z peak physics program; however it is not essential and therefore it will be not investigated here. In this paper the possibility of selfpolarized leptons is considered. Preliminary results of simulations in presence of quadrupole misalignments and beam position monitors (BPMs) errors for a simplified FCC-eþe− ring are presented.

  4. Circularly polarized zero-phonon transitions of vacancies in diamond at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braukmann, D.; Glaser, E. R.; Kennedy, T. A.; Bayer, M.; Debus, J.

    2018-05-01

    We study the circularly polarized photoluminescence of negatively charged (NV-) and neutral (NV0) nitrogen-vacancy ensembles and neutral vacancies (V0) in diamond crystals exposed to magnetic fields of up to 10 T. We determine the orbital and spin Zeeman splitting as well as the energetic ordering of their ground and first-excited states. The spin-triplet and -singlet states of the NV- are described by an orbital Zeeman splitting of about 9 μ eV /T , which corresponds to a positive orbital g -factor of gL=0.164 under application of the magnetic field along the (001) and (111) crystallographic directions, respectively. The zero-phonon line (ZPL) of the NV- singlet is defined as a transition from the 1E' states, which are split by gLμBB , to the 1A1 state. The energies of the zero-phonon triplet transitions show a quadratic dependence on intermediate magnetic field strengths, which we attribute to a mixing of excited states with nonzero orbital angular momentum. Moreover, we identify slightly different spin Zeeman splittings in the ground (gs) and excited (es) triplet states, which can be expressed by a deviation between their spin g -factors: gS ,es=gS ,gs+Δ g with values of Δ g =0.014 and 0.029 in the (001) and (111) geometries, respectively. The degree of circular polarization of the NV- ZPLs depends significantly on the temperature, which is explained by an efficient spin-orbit coupling of the excited states mediated through acoustic phonons. We further demonstrate that the sign of the circular polarization degree is switched under rotation of the diamond crystal. A weak Zeeman splitting similar to Δ g μBB measured for the NV- ZPLs is also obtained for the NV0 zero-phonon lines, from which we conclude that the ground state is composed of two optically active states with compensated orbital contributions and opposite spin-1/2 momentum projections. The zero-phonon lines of the V0 show Zeeman splittings and degrees of the circular polarization with opposite

  5. Polarized light scattering as a probe for changes in chromosome structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Daniel Benjamin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Measurements and calculations of polarized light scattering are applied to chromosomes. Calculations of the Mueller matrix, which completely describes how the polarization state of light is altered upon scattering, are developed for helical structures related to that of chromosomes. Measurements of the Mueller matrix are presented for octopus sperm heads, and dinoflagellates. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made. A working theory of polarized light scattering from helices is developed. The use of the first Born approximation vs the coupled dipole approximation are investigated. A comparison of continuous, calculated in this work, and discrete models is also discussed. By comparing light scattering measurements with theoretical predictions the average orientation of DNA in an octopus sperm head is determined. Calculations are made for the Mueller matrix of DNA plectonemic helices at UV, visible and X-ray wavelengths. Finally evidence is presented that the chromosomes of dinoflagellates are responsible for observed differential scattering of circularly-polarized light. This differential scattering is found to vary in a manner that is possibly correlated to the cell cycle of the dinoflagellates. It is concluded that by properly choosing the wavelength probe polarized light scattering can provide a useful tool to study chromosome structure.

  6. Colloidal InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals studied by linearly and circularly polarized photoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langof, L.; Fradkin, L.; Ehrenfreund, E.; Lifshitz, E.; Micic, O.I.; Nozik, A.J

    2004-02-16

    The magneto-optical properties of InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) were investigated by measuring the degree of linear and circular polarization of photoluminescence (PL) spectra, in the presence of an external magnetic field under resonant or non-resonant excitation. The linearly polarized PL data strongly indicate that InP/ZnS NCs have a prolongated shape. The resonant-excited circularly polarized PL decay curves indicate that the spin relaxation time of the studied samples is shorter than the radiative lifetime of their exciton. Furthermore, the magnetic field-induced circularly polarized PL process reveals an exciton g factor (g{sub ex}) of 0.55. Thus, such studies may serve as a tool to directly estimate the NC's shape anisotropy and to determine the g-factor of charge carriers and excitons in those NCs.

  7. Colloidal InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals studied by linearly and circularly polarized photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langof, L.; Fradkin, L.; Ehrenfreund, E.; Lifshitz, E.; Micic, O.I.; Nozik, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The magneto-optical properties of InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) were investigated by measuring the degree of linear and circular polarization of photoluminescence (PL) spectra, in the presence of an external magnetic field under resonant or non-resonant excitation. The linearly polarized PL data strongly indicate that InP/ZnS NCs have a prolongated shape. The resonant-excited circularly polarized PL decay curves indicate that the spin relaxation time of the studied samples is shorter than the radiative lifetime of their exciton. Furthermore, the magnetic field-induced circularly polarized PL process reveals an exciton g factor (g ex ) of 0.55. Thus, such studies may serve as a tool to directly estimate the NC's shape anisotropy and to determine the g-factor of charge carriers and excitons in those NCs

  8. Vitamin E Circular Dichroism Studies: Insights into Conformational Changes Induced by the Solvent’s Polarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Marquardt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We used circular dichroism (CD to study differences in CD spectra between α-, δ-, and methylated-α-tocopherol in solvents with different polarities. CD spectra of the different tocopherol structures differ from each other in intensity and peak locations, which can be attributed to chromanol substitution and the ability to form hydrogen bonds. In addition, each structure was examined in different polarity solvents using the Reichardt index—a measure of the solvent’s ionizing ability, and a direct measurement of solvent–solute interactions. Differences across solvents indicate that hydrogen bonding is a key contributor to CD spectra at 200 nm. These results are a first step in examining the hydrogen bonding abilities of vitamin E in a lipid bilayer.

  9. Light-induced spin polarizations in quantum rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joibari, F.K.; Blanter, Y.M.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2014-01-01

    Nonresonant circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation can exert torques on magnetizations by the inverse Faraday effect (IFE). Here, we discuss the enhancement of IFE by spin-orbit interactions. We illustrate the principle by studying a simple generic model system, i.e., the

  10. Near-infrared Polarimetry of the Outflow Source AFGL 6366S: Detection of Circular Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jungmi; Nakagawa, Takao; Tamura, Motohide; Hough, James H.; Kandori, Ryo; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Cho, Jungyeon; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagata, Tetsuya

    2018-07-01

    We have carried out near-infrared circular and linear imaging polarimetry of the AFGL 6366S region. There is one large infrared reflection nebula associated with the AFGL 6366S cluster and one small infrared reflection nebula associated with AFGL 6366S NE. Prominent and extended polarized nebulosities over the AFGL 6366S cluster field are found to be composed of several components and local nebula peaks, and those nebulosities are illuminated by at least three sources, which is roughly consistent with a previous study. However, the detailed linear polarization patterns and their degrees differ from the earlier study. The brightest regions of the nebulae are illuminated by the IRAS/WISE source. In addition, we report the first detection of circular polarization (CP) in the reflection nebula associated with AFGL 6366S. The CP is as large as approximately 4% in the K s band, and the maximum CP extent is approximately 0.45 pc, which is comparable to that for the largest CP regions known to date, such as Orion and Mon R2, although the CP degrees are much smaller. The CP pattern is mostly quadrupolar, and its morphology resembles the shape of the C18O dense core. Therefore, the CP region is probably illuminated by the IRAS/WISE source and its polarization is amplified by the dichroic absorption of the dense core associated with the cluster. This is the ninth source whose degrees of CPs are measured to be greater than 3%, suggesting that large and extended infrared CP regions are common among mid- to high-mass young stellar objects.

  11. Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Thorhauge, Morten

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the properties of TM polarized light in planar photonic crystal waveguide structures, which exhibit photonic band gaps for TE polarized light. Straight and bent photonic crystal waveguides and couplers have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and modelled using a 3......D finite-difference-time-domain method. The simulated spectra are in excellent agreement with the experimental results, which show a propagation loss as low as 2.5±4 dB/mm around 1525 nm and bend losses at 2.9±0.2 dB for TM polarized light. We demonstrate a high coupling for TM polarized light...

  12. Circularly Polarized Luminescence from a Pyrene-Cyclodextrin Supra-Dendron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuening; Yang, Dong; Han, Jianlei; Zhou, Jin; Jin, Qingxian; Liu, Minghua; Duan, Pengfei

    2018-05-22

    Soft nanomaterials with circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) have been currently attracting great interest. Here, we report a pyrene-containing π-peptide dendron hydrogel, which shows 1D and 2D nanostructures with varied CPL activities. It was found that the individual dendrons formed hydrogels in a wide pH range (3-12) and self-assembled into helices with pH-tuned pitches. Through chirality transfer, the pyrene unit could show CPL originated from both the monomer and excimer bands. When cyclodextrin was introduced, different supra-dendrons were obtained with β-cyclodextrin (PGAc@β-CD) and γ-cyclodextrin (PGAc@γ-CD) through host-guest interactions, respectively. Interestingly, the PGAc@β-CD and PGAc@γ-CD supra-dendrons self-assembled into 2D nanosheet and entangled nanofibers, respectively, showing cyclodextrin induced circularly polarized emission from both the monomer and excimer bands of the pyrene moiety. Thus, through a simple host-guest interaction, both the nanostructures and the chiroptical activities could be modulated.

  13. A Circular Polarized Rectenna with Out-of-Band Suppression for Microwave Power Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel circular polarized rectenna with out-of-band suppression is proposed in this paper. The circular polarization is realized by corner perturbation on a rectangular radiation patch and enhanced by a diagonal slim slot etched at the center of the patch. An open stub connecting to the quarter wavelength impedance transformer is used to suppress out-of-band wave through harmonics notching. The results of simulations and experiments agree very well, which show that the rectenna obtained −19 dB return loss at 2.4 GHz and −15.5 dB, −18.1 dB, and −11.4 dB suppression on second, third, and fourth harmonic frequency bands, respectively. The reflection coefficient in overall out-of-band, up to 10 GHz, is limited up to −3 dB. Integrated with a voltage doubling rectification circuit, the proposed rectenna can obtain 75.5% RF-to-DC conversion efficiency.

  14. Improvement of RF Wireless Power Transmission Using a Circularly Polarized Retrodirective Antenna Array with EBG Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Trinh-Van

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance improvement of a circularly polarized (CP retrodirective array (RDA through the suppression of mutual coupling effects. The RDA is designed based on CP Koch-shaped patch antenna elements with an inter-element spacing as small as 0.4 λ for a compact size ( λ is the wavelength in free space at the designed frequency of 5.2 GHz. Electromagnetic band gap (EBG structures are applied to reduce the mutual coupling between the antenna elements, thus improving the circular polarization characteristic of the RDA. Two CP RDAs with EBGs, in the case 5 × 5 and 10 × 10 arrays, are used as wireless power transmitters to transmit a total power of 50 W. A receiver is located at a distance of 1 m away from the transmitter to harvest the transmitted power. At the broadside direction, the simulated results demonstrate that the received powers are improved by approximately 11.32% and 12.45% when using the 5 × 5 and 10 × 10 CP RDAs with the EBGs, respectively, as the transmitters.

  15. Circularly Polarized Low-Profile Antenna for Radiating Parallel to Ground Plane for RFID Reader Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittima Lertsakwimarn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-profile printed antenna with double U-shaped arms radiating circular polarization for the UHF RFID readers. The proposed antenna consists of double U-shaped strip structures and a capacitive feeding line to generate circular polarization. A part of the U-shaped arms is bent by 90° to direct the main beam parallel to the ground plane. From the results, -10 dB |S11| and 3 dB axial ratio of the antenna cover a typical UHF RFID band from 920 MHz to 925 MHz. The bidirectional beam is obtained with the maximum gain of 1.8 dBic in the parallel direction to the ground plane at the 925 MHz. The overall size of the proposed antenna including ground plane is 107 mm × 57 mm × 12.8 mm (0.33λ0 × 0.17λ0 × 0.04λ0.

  16. Hole dynamics and spin currents after ionization in strong circularly polarized laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, Ingo; Smirnova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    We apply the time-dependent analytical R-matrix theory to develop a movie of hole motion in a Kr atom upon ionization by strong circularly polarized field. We find rich hole dynamics, ranging from rotation to swinging motion. The motion of the hole depends on the final energy and the spin of the photoelectron and can be controlled by the laser frequency and intensity. Crucially, hole rotation is a purely non-adiabatic effect, completely missing in the framework of quasistatic (adiabatic) tunneling theories. We explore the possibility to use hole rotation as a clock for measuring ionization time. Analyzing the relationship between the relative phases in different ionization channels we show that in the case of short-range electron-core interaction the hole is always initially aligned along the instantaneous direction of the laser field, signifying zero delays in ionization. Finally, we show that strong-field ionization in circular fields creates spin currents (i.e. different flow of spin-up and spin-down density in space) in the ions. This phenomenon is intimately related to the production of spin-polarized electrons in strong laser fields Barth and Smirnova (2013 Phys. Rev. A 88 013401). We demonstrate that rich spin dynamics of electrons and holes produced during strong field ionization can occur in typical experimental conditions and does not require relativistic intensities or strong magnetic fields. (paper)

  17. 77 GHz MEMS antennas on high-resistivity silicon for linear and circular polarization

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Two new MEMS antennas operating at 77 GHz are presented in this paper. The first antenna is linearly polarized. It possesses a vertical silicon wall that carries a dipole on top of it. The wall is located on top of silicon substrate covered with a ground plane. The other side of the substrate carries a microstrip feeding network in the form of U-turn that causes 180 phase shift. This phase-shifter feeds the arms of the dipole antenna via two vertical Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) that go through the entire wafer. The second antenna is circularly polarized and formed using two linearly polarized antennas spatially rotated with respect to each other by 90 and excited with 90 phase shift. Both antennas are fabricated using novel process flow on a single high-resistivity silicon wafer via bulk micromachining. Only three processing steps are required to fabricate these antennas. The proposed antennas have appealing characteristics, such as high polarization purity, high gain, and high radiation efficiency. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. [Application of polarized light in purulent-septic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiateryk, V I; Mikhno, S P; Kryvyts'kyĭ, Iu M; Kostiuk, S O

    2002-09-01

    Influence of polarized light on general state and healing of wounds and trophic ulcers in 57 patients with obliterating atherosclerosis of lower extremities, chronic venous insufficiency of extremities, purulent postoperative complications, purulent-septic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus was analyzed. Main mechanisms of the polarized light action in "Bioptron" apparatus were enlighted, effective schemes of its usage were determined.

  19. Electron spin polarization in realistic trajectories around the magnetic node of two counter-propagating, circularly polarized, ultra-intense lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sorbo, D.; Seipt, D.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Ridgers, C. P.

    2018-06-01

    It has recently been suggested that two counter-propagating, circularly polarized, ultra-intense lasers can induce a strong electron spin polarization at the magnetic node of the electromagnetic field that they setup (Del Sorbo et al 2017 Phys. Rev. A 96 043407). We confirm these results by considering a more sophisticated description that integrates over realistic trajectories. The electron dynamics is weakly affected by the variation of power radiated due to the spin polarization. The degree of spin polarization differs by approximately 5% if considering electrons initially at rest or already in a circular orbit. The instability of trajectories at the magnetic node induces a spin precession associated with the electron migration that establishes an upper temporal limit to the polarization of the electron population of about one laser period.

  20. The copepod Calanus spp. (Calanidae) is repelled by polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I.

    2016-10-01

    Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.

  1. Constraining ALPs with linear and circular polarisation measurements of quasar light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payez, Alexandre

    2013-09-01

    We discuss the constraints derived on the mixing of photons with light pseudoscalars using the distributions of good-quality linear and circular polarisation measurements of light from the least polarised classes of quasars. We also provide the dependence of our limit on the average electron density in the local supercluster for nearly massless particles.

  2. Constraining ALPs with linear and circular polarisation measurements of quasar light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payez, Alexandre [Liege Univ. (Belgium). IFPA Group; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    We discuss the constraints derived on the mixing of photons with light pseudoscalars using the distributions of good-quality linear and circular polarisation measurements of light from the least polarised classes of quasars. We also provide the dependence of our limit on the average electron density in the local supercluster for nearly massless particles.

  3. Injection and detection of a spin-polarized current in a light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiederling, R.; Keim, M.; Reuscher, G.; Ossau, W.; Schmidt, G.; Waag, A.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    1999-12-01

    The field of magnetoelectronics has been growing in practical importance in recent years. For example, devices that harness electronic spin-such as giant-magnetoresistive sensors and magnetoresistive memory cells-are now appearing on the market. In contrast, magnetoelectronic devices based on spin-polarized transport in semiconductors are at a much earlier stage of development, largely because of the lack of an efficient means of injecting spin-polarized charge. Much work has focused on the use of ferromagnetic metallic contacts, but it has proved exceedingly difficult to demonstrate polarized spin injection. More recently, two groups have reported successful spin injection from an NiFe contact, but the observed effects of the spin-polarized transport were quite small (resistance changes of less than 1%). Here we describe a different approach, in which the magnetic semiconductor BexMnyZn1-x-ySe is used as a spin aligner. We achieve injection efficiencies of 90% spin-polarized current into a non-magnetic semiconductor device. The device used in this case is a GaAs/AlGaAs light-emitting diode, and spin polarization is confirmed by the circular polarization state of the emitted light.

  4. Direct Detection of Polarized, Scattered Light from Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Gregory

    We propose to radically advance the state of exoplanet characterization, which lags dramatically behind exoplanet discovery. We propose to directly detect scattered light from the atmospheres of close-in, highly eccentric, and extended/non-spherical exoplanets and thereby determine the following: orbital inclination (and therefore masses free of the M sin i mass ambiguity), geometric albedo, presence or lack of hazes and cloud layers, and scattering particle size and composition. Such measurements are crucial to the understanding of exoplanet atmospheres, because observations with NASA s Hubble, Spitzer, and Kepler space telescopes present the following questions: 1) Do exoplanets have highly reflective haze layers? 2) How does the upper atmospheric composition differ between exoplanets with and without thermal inversions? 3) What are the optical manifestations of the extreme heating of highly eccentric exoplanets? 4) Are the atmospheres of certain exoplanets truly escaping their Roche lobes? Using the POLISH2 polarimeter developed by the Postdoctoral Associate (Wiktorowicz) for the Lick 3-m telescope, we propose to monitor the linear polarization state of exoplanet host stars at the part per million level. POLISH2 consistently delivers nearly photon shot noise limited measurements with this precision. In addition, the simultaneous full-Stokes measurements of POLISH2 and the equatorial mount of the Lick 3-m telescope ensure that systematic effects are mitigated to the part per million level. Indeed, we find the accuracy of the POLISH2 polarimeter to be 0.1 parts per million. This instrument and telescope represent the highest precision polarimeter in the world for exoplanet research. We present potential detection of polarized, scattered light from the HD 189733b, Tau Boo b, and WASP-12b exoplanets. We propose to observe hot Jupiters on circular orbits, highly eccentric exoplanets, exoplanets with extended or non-spherical scattering surfaces, and 55 Cnc e, the

  5. All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hermann; Kao, Meng-Chun; Lai, Chih-Ming; Huang, Jyun-Cin; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    A swept source (SS)-based circular-state (CS) polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) constructed entirely with polarization-maintaining fiber optics components is proposed with the experimental verification. By means of the proposed calibration scheme, bulk quarter-wave plates can be replaced by fiber optics polarization controllers to, therefore, realize an all-fiber optics CS SSPS-OCT. We also present a numerical dispersion compensation method, which can not only enhance the axial resolution, but also improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the images. We demonstrate that this compact and portable CS SSPS-OCT system with an accuracy comparable to bulk optics systems requires less stringent lens alignment and can possibly serve as a technology to realize PS-OCT instrument for clinical applications (e.g., endoscopy). The largest deviations in the phase retardation (PR) and fast-axis (FA) angle due to sample probe in the linear scanning and a rotation angle smaller than 65 deg were of the same order as those in stationary probe setups. The influence of fiber bending on the measured PR and FA is also investigated. The largest deviations of the PR were 3.5 deg and the measured FA change by ~12 to 21 deg. Finally, in vivo imaging of the human fingertip and nail was successfully demonstrated with a linear scanning probe.

  6. Design of a device for sky light polarization measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Hu, Xiaoping; Lian, Junxiang; Zhang, Lilian; Xian, Zhiwen; Ma, Tao

    2014-08-14

    Sky polarization patterns can be used both as indicators of atmospheric turbidity and as a sun compass for navigation. The objective of this study is to improve the precision of sky light polarization measurements by optimal design of the device used. The central part of the system is composed of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera; a fish-eye lens and a linear polarizer. Algorithms for estimating parameters of the polarized light based on three images are derived and the optimal alignments of the polarizer are analyzed. The least-squares estimation is introduced for sky light polarization pattern measurement. The polarization patterns of sky light are obtained using the designed system and they follow almost the same patterns of the single-scattering Rayleigh model. Deviations of polarization angles between observation and the theory are analyzed. The largest deviations occur near the sun and anti-sun directions. Ninety percent of the deviations are less than 5° and 40% percent of them are less than 1°. The deviations decrease evidently as the degree of polarization increases. It also shows that the polarization pattern of the cloudy sky is almost identical as in the blue sky.

  7. Computational efficiency improvement with Wigner rotation technique in studying atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Minghu; Feng, Liqiang; Lü, Rui; Chu, Tianshu

    2014-01-01

    We show that by introducing Wigner rotation technique into the solution of time-dependent Schrödinger equation in length gauge, computational efficiency can be greatly improved in describing atoms in intense few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses. The methodology with Wigner rotation technique underlying our openMP parallel computational code for circularly polarized laser pulses is described. Results of test calculations to investigate the scaling property of the computational code with the number of the electronic angular basis function l as well as the strong field phenomena are presented and discussed for the hydrogen atom

  8. Circular polarization control for the European XFEL in the soft X-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    The possibility of producing X-ray radiation with high degree of circular polarization is an important asset at XFEL facilities. Polarization control is most important in the soft X-ray region.However, the baseline of the European XFEL, including the soft X-ray SASE3 line, foresees planar undulators only, yielding linearly-polarized radiation. It is clear that the lowest-risk strategy for implementing polarization control at SASE3 involves adding an APPLE II-type undulator at the end of the planar undulator, in order to exploit the micro bunching from the baseline FEL. Detailed experience is available in synchrotron radiation laboratories concerning the manufacturing of 5 m-long APPLE II undulators. However, the choice of a short helical radiator leads to the problem of background suppression. The driving idea of our proposal is that the background radiation can be suppressed by spatial filtering. This operation can be performed by inserting slits behind the APPLE II radiator, where the linearly-polarized radiation spot size is about 30 times larger than the radiation spot size from the helical radiator. The last 7 cells of the SASE3 undulator are left with an open gap in order to provide a total 42 m drift section for electron beam and radiation. Due to the presence of the drift the linearly-polarized radiation spot size increases, and the linearly polarized background radiation can be suppressed by the slits. At the same time, the microbunch structure is easily preserved, so that intense (100 GW) coherent radiation is emitted in the helical radiator. We propose a filtering setup consisting of a pair of water cooled slits for X-ray beam filtering and of a 5 m-long magnetic chicane, which creates an offset for slit installation immediately behind the helical radiator. Electrons and X-rays are separated before the slits by the magnetic chicane, so that the electron beam can pass by the filtering setup without perturbations. Based on start-to-end simulations we

  9. Circular polarization control for the European XFEL in the soft X-ray regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-06-01

    The possibility of producing X-ray radiation with high degree of circular polarization is an important asset at XFEL facilities. Polarization control is most important in the soft X-ray region.However, the baseline of the European XFEL, including the soft X-ray SASE3 line, foresees planar undulators only, yielding linearly-polarized radiation. It is clear that the lowest-risk strategy for implementing polarization control at SASE3 involves adding an APPLE II-type undulator at the end of the planar undulator, in order to exploit the micro bunching from the baseline FEL. Detailed experience is available in synchrotron radiation laboratories concerning the manufacturing of 5 m-long APPLE II undulators. However, the choice of a short helical radiator leads to the problem of background suppression. The driving idea of our proposal is that the background radiation can be suppressed by spatial filtering. This operation can be performed by inserting slits behind the APPLE II radiator, where the linearly-polarized radiation spot size is about 30 times larger than the radiation spot size from the helical radiator. The last 7 cells of the SASE3 undulator are left with an open gap in order to provide a total 42 m drift section for electron beam and radiation. Due to the presence of the drift the linearly-polarized radiation spot size increases, and the linearly polarized background radiation can be suppressed by the slits. At the same time, the microbunch structure is easily preserved, so that intense (100 GW) coherent radiation is emitted in the helical radiator. We propose a filtering setup consisting of a pair of water cooled slits for X-ray beam filtering and of a 5 m-long magnetic chicane, which creates an offset for slit installation immediately behind the helical radiator. Electrons and X-rays are separated before the slits by the magnetic chicane, so that the electron beam can pass by the filtering setup without perturbations. Based on start-to-end simulations we

  10. Pitch angle scattering of an energetic magnetized particle by a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between a circularly polarized wave and an energetic gyrating particle is described using a relativistic pseudo-potential that is a function of the frequency mismatch. Analysis of the pseudo-potential provides a means for interpreting numerical results. The pseudo-potential profile depends on the initial mismatch, the normalized wave amplitude, and the initial angle between the wave magnetic field and the particle perpendicular velocity. For zero initial mismatch, the pseudo-potential consists of only one valley, but for finite mismatch, there can be two valleys separated by a hill. A large pitch angle scattering of the energetic electron can occur in the two-valley situation but fast scattering can also occur in a single valley. Examples relevant to magnetospheric whistler waves show that the energetic electron pitch angle can be deflected 5°towards the loss cone when transiting a 10 ms long coherent wave packet having realistic parameters.

  11. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED APERTURE ANTENNA WITH COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE FED FOR BROADBAND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. P. MADHAV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coplanar waveguide fed circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna performance evaluation is presented in this paper. The broadband characteristics are attained by placing open end slot at the lower side of the antenna. The proposed design has the return loss of less than -10dB and VSWR<2 in the desired band of operation. A gain of 3dB to 4dB is attained in the desired band with good radiation characteristics and a suitable axial ratio of less than 3 dB is attained in the prescribed band of operation. Proposed antenna is fabricated on the FR4 substrate with dielectric constant of 4.4. Parametric analysis with change in substrate permittivity also performed and the optimized dimensions are presented in this work.

  12. CPW-Fed Wideband Circular Polarized Antenna for UHF RFID Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Woong Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a wide bandwidth antenna with a circular polarization for universal Ultra High Frequency (UHF radio-frequency identification (RFID reader applications. To achieve a wide 3 dB axial ratio (AR bandwidth, three T-shaped microstrip lines are inserted into the ground plane. The measured impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 480 MHz and extends from 660 to 1080 MHz, and the 3 dB AR bandwidth is 350 MHz and extends from 800 to 1155 MHz. The radiation pattern is a bidirectional pattern with a maximum antenna gain of 3.67 dBi. The overall size of the proposed antenna is 114 × 114 × 0.8 mm3.

  13. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C.; Jiang, J. A.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  14. Compact circularly polarized truncated square ring slot antenna with suppressed higher resonances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursyidul Idzam Sabran

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compact circularly polarized (CP antenna with an integrated higher order harmonic rejection filter. The proposed design operates within the ISM band of 2.32 GHz- 2.63 GHz and is suitable for example for wireless power transfer applications. Asymmetrical truncated edges on a square ring create a defected ground structure to excite the CP property, simultaneously realizing compactness. It offers a 50.5% reduced patch area compared to a conventional design. Novel stubs and slot shapes are integrated in the transmission line to reduce higher (up to the third order harmonics. The proposed prototype yields a -10 dB reflection coefficient (S11 impedance bandwidth of 12.53%, a 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 3.27%, and a gain of 5.64 dBi. Measurements also show good agreement with simulations.

  15. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R., E-mail: krchu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C. [Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jiang, J. A. [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  16. Investigating tunneling process of atom exposed in circularly polarized strong-laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, MingHu; Xin, PeiPei; Chu, TianShu; Liu, HongPing

    2017-03-01

    We propose a method for studying the tunneling process by analyzing the instantaneous ionization rate of a circularly polarized laser. A numerical calculation shows that, for an atom exposed to a long laser pulse, if its initial electronic state wave function is non-spherical symmetric, the delayed phase shift of the ionization rate vs the laser cycle period in real time in the region close to the peak intensity of the laser pulse can be used to probe the tunneling time. In this region, an obvious time delay phase shift of more than 190 attoseconds is observed. Further study shows that the atom has a longer tunneling time in the ionization under a shorter wavelength laser pulse. In our method, a Wigner rotation technique is employed to numerically solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of a single-active electron in a three-dimensional spherical coordinate system.

  17. Investigating tunneling process of atom exposed in circularly polarized strong-laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, MingHu; Xin, PeiPei; Liu, HongPing; Chu, TianShu

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for studying the tunneling process by analyzing the instantaneous ionization rate of a circularly polarized laser. A numerical calculation shows that, for an atom exposed to a long laser pulse, if its initial electronic state wave function is non-spherical symmetric, the delayed phase shift of the ionization rate vs the laser cycle period in real time in the region close to the peak intensity of the laser pulse can be used to probe the tunneling time. In this region, an obvious time delay phase shift of more than 190 attoseconds is observed. Further study shows that the atom has a longer tunneling time in the ionization under a shorter wavelength laser pulse. In our method, a Wigner rotation technique is employed to numerically solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of a single-active electron in a three-dimensional spherical coordinate system. (paper)

  18. Research on the Scattering Characteristics and the RCS Reduction of Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of the radiation and scattering of the circularly polarized (CP antenna, a novel radar cross-section (RCS reduction technique is proposed for CP antenna in this paper. Quasi-fractal slots are applied in the design of the antenna ground plane to reduce the RCS of the CP antenna. Both prototype antenna and array are designed, and their time-, frequency-, and space-domain characteristics are studied to authenticate the proposed technique. The simulated and measured results show that the RCS of the prototype antenna and array is reduced up to 7.85 dB and 6.95 dB in the band of 1 GHz–10 GHz. The proposed technique serves a candidate in the design of low RCS CP antennas and arrays.

  19. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, W Y; Wu, M H; Wu, K L; Lin, M H; Teng, H H; Tsai, Y F; Ko, C C; Yang, E C; Jiang, J A; Barnett, L R; Chu, K R

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  20. Study of the parity violation in nuclei - Circular polarization of photons emitted in a nuclear transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplanques, Bertrand.

    1975-01-01

    Many experiments have shown parity violation in nuclear forces and a theoretical interpretation of these results should give some information on the weak interaction. The present work has to do with the calculation of the circular polarization of photons emitted in the transitions 5/2 + →7/2 + in 181 Ta and 9/2 - →7/2 + in 175 Lu. This calculation has been done by employing a good description of the final and initial states and in particular by including the effects of the short and long range correlations. The results so obtained differ somewhat from those obtained previously with a simpler nuclear model and seem to favor weak interaction models with a large ΔT=1 component [fr

  1. Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Inorganic Materials: Encapsulating Guest Lanthanide Oxides in Chiral Silica Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masumi; Liu, Xin-Ling; Tsunega, Seiji; Nakajima, Erika; Abe, Shunsuke; Nakashima, Takuya; Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Jin, Ren-Hua

    2018-05-02

    Recently, circularly polarized luminescence (CPL)-active systems have become a very hot and interesting subject in chirality- and optics-related areas. The CPL-active systems are usually available by two approaches: covalently combining a luminescent centre to chiral motif or associating the guest of luminescent probe to a chiral host. However, all the chiral components in CPL materials were organic, although the luminescent components were alternatively organics or inorganics. Herein, the first totally inorganic CPL-active system by "luminescent guest-chiral host" strategy is proposed. Luminescent sub-10 nm lanthanide oxides (Eu 2 O 3 or Tb 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles (guests) were encapsulated into chiral non-helical SiO 2 nanofibres (host) through calcination of chiral SiO 2 hybrid nanofibres, trapping Eu 3+ (or Tb 3+ ). These lanthanide oxides display circular dichroism (CD) optical activity in the ultraviolet wavelength and CPL signals around at 615 nm for Eu 3+ and 545 nm for Tb 3+ . This work has implications for inorganic-based CPL-active systems by incorporation of various luminescent guests within chiral inorganic hosts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Polarization Patterns of Transmitted Celestial Light under Wavy Water Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to describe the polarization patterns of celestial light, which includes sunlight and skylight, when refracted by wavy water surfaces. The polarization patterns and intensity distribution of refracted light through the wave water surface were calculated. The model was validated by underwater experimental measurements. The experimental and theoretical values agree well qualitatively. This work provides a quantitative description of the repolarization and transmittance of celestial light transmitted through wave water surfaces. The effects of wind speed and incident sources on the underwater refraction polarization patterns are discussed. Scattering skylight dominates the polarization patterns while direct solar light is the dominant source of the intensity of the underwater light field. Wind speed has an influence on disturbing the patterns under water.

  3. A Simplified, Low-Cost Method for Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Richard J.; Buapetch, Wanchana; Silamut, Kamolrat

    2009-01-01

    Malaria pigment is an intracellular inclusion body that appears in blood and tissue specimens on microscopic examination and can help in establishing the diagnosis of malaria. In simple light microscopy, it can be difficult to discern from cellular background and artifacts. It has long been known that if polarized light microscopy is used, malaria pigment can be much easier to distinguish. However, this technique is rarely used because of the need for a relatively costly polarization microscope. We describe a simple and economical technique to convert any standard light microscope suitable for examination of malaria films into a polarization microscope. PMID:19861611

  4. A Study of the use of a Crystal as a `Quarter-Wave Plate' to Produce High Energy Circularly Polarized Photons

    CERN Multimedia

    Kononets, I

    2002-01-01

    %NA59 %title\\\\ \\\\We present a proposal to study the use of a crystal as a `quarter-wave plate' to produce high energy circularly polarized photons, starting from unpolarized electrons. The intention is to generate linearly polarized photons by letting electrons pass a crystalline target, where they interact coherently with the lattice nuclei. The photon polarization is subsequently turned into circular polarization after passing another crystal, which acts as a `quarter-wave plate'.

  5. Optical properties of polarization-dependent geometrical phase elements with partially polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetski, Y.; Biener, G.; Niv, A.; Kleiner, V.; Hasman, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:The behavior of geometrical phase elements illuminated with partially polarized monochromatic beams is being theoretically as well as experimentally investigated. The element discussed in this paper is composed of wave plates with retardation and space-variant orientation angle. We found that a beam emerging from such an element comprises two polarization orders of right and left-handed circularly polarized states with conjugate geometrical phase modification. This phase equals twice the orientation angle of the space-variant wave plate comprising the element. Apart from the two polarization orders, the emerging beam coherence polarization matrix comprises a matrix termed as the vectorial interference matrix. This matrix contains the information concerning the correlation between the two orthogonal circularly polarized portions of the incident beam. In this paper we measure this correlation by a simple interference experiment. Furthermore, we found that the equivalent mutual intensity of the emerging beam is being modulated according to the geometrical phase induced by the element. Other interesting phenomena along propagation will be discussed theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. We demonstrate experimentally our analysis by using a spherical geometrical phase element, which is realized by use of space-variant sub wavelength grating and illuminated with a CO 2 laser radiation of 10.6μm wavelength

  6. Application of polarization information to a light-controlling-light technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J C; Wang, H C

    2017-09-15

    Nonlinear effects of photo-induced waveguides based on isomerization photochemistry are investigated. It is found that polarization information of the controlling light can be used to control the propagation of the signal light in all-optical waveguides, and an accurate and convenient light-controlling-light scheme is proposed, that is, controlling propagation of the signal light by synergic use of the intensity information and polarization information of the controlling light. The polarization dependence of optical nonlinearity is expected to enrich the connotation of the optical nonlinear effects and has theoretical significance and practical value.

  7. Polarized light modulates light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muheim, Rachel; Sjöberg, Sissel; Pinzon-Rodriguez, Atticus

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoreception of the light-dependent magnetic compass in birds is suggested to be mediated by a radical-pair mechanism taking place in the avian retina. Biophysical models on magnetic field effects on radical pairs generally assume that the light activating the magnetoreceptor molecules is nondirectional and unpolarized, and that light absorption is isotropic. However, natural skylight enters the avian retina unidirectionally, through the cornea and the lens, and is often partially polarized. In addition, cryptochromes, the putative magnetoreceptor molecules, absorb light anisotropically, i.e., they preferentially absorb light of a specific direction and polarization, implying that the light-dependent magnetic compass is intrinsically polarization sensitive. To test putative interactions between the avian magnetic compass and polarized light, we developed a spatial orientation assay and trained zebra finches to magnetic and/or overhead polarized light cues in a four-arm “plus” maze. The birds did not use overhead polarized light near the zenith for sky compass orientation. Instead, overhead polarized light modulated light-dependent magnetic compass orientation, i.e., how the birds perceive the magnetic field. Birds were well oriented when tested with the polarized light axis aligned parallel to the magnetic field. When the polarized light axis was aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, the birds became disoriented. These findings are the first behavioral evidence to our knowledge for a direct interaction between polarized light and the light-dependent magnetic compass in an animal. They reveal a fundamentally new property of the radical pair-based magnetoreceptor with key implications for how birds and other animals perceive the Earth’s magnetic field. PMID:26811473

  8. Electromagnetic frozen waves with radial, azimuthal, linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corato-Zanarella, Mateus; Zamboni-Rached, Michel

    2016-11-01

    Frozen waves (FWs) are a class of diffraction- and attenuation-resistant beams whose intensity pattern along the direction of propagation can be chosen arbitrarily, thus making them relevant for engineering the spatial configuration of optical fields. To date, analyses of such beams have been done essentially for the scalar case, with the vectorial nature of the electromagnetic fields often neglected. Although it is expected that the field components keep the fundamental properties of the scalar FWs, a deeper understanding of their electromagnetic counterparts is mandatory in order to exploit their different possible polarization states. The purpose of this paper is to study the properties of electromagnetic FWs with radial, azimuthal, linear, circular, and elliptical polarizations under paraxial and nonparaxial regimes in nonabsorbing media. An intensity pattern is chosen for a scalar FW, and the vectorial solutions are built after it via the use of Maxwell's equations. The results show that the field components and the longitudinal component of the time-averaged Poynting vector closely follow the pattern chosen even under highly nonparaxial conditions, showing the robustness of the FW structure to parameters variations.

  9. Performances of a Compact, High-Power WB Source with Circular Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmote, P.; Pinguet, S.; Bieth, F.

    This paper presents the design and the performances of an embedded high-power microwave (HPM) wideband source, developed and built at the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis. The system was intended for dual use, homeland security, and military applications. It is powered by a 400 kV compact Marx generator with specificities in coaxial design and low energy. The slow monopolar signal from the Marx is sharpened using a pulse-forming stage, made of a switching module pressurized with nitrogen, followed by a monopulse-to-monocycle converter. The duration and rise times of this signal could be adjusted by varying the pressure and space between electrodes. Repetitive operations were performed up to 100 Hz during 10 s without a gas flow. Two kinds of antennas can be connected to the source. The first one is a TEM horn, with an optional dielectric lens, that radiates a vertically polarized UWB short pulse. The second one is a nine-turn helix, working in Kraus monopolar axial mode and radiating a circularly polarized wideband signal along the main axis. A dedicated conical reflector increases its directivity and bandwidth. The whole source is designed to be embedded inside an aluminum trailer, powered by batteries and remote controlled through an optical fiber.

  10. Nanotrumpets and circularly polarized luminescent nanotwists hierarchically self-assembled from an achiral C3-symmetric ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yutao; Duan, Pengfei; Liu, Minghua

    2018-04-17

    An achiral C3-symmetric molecule was found to self-assemble into various hierarchical nanostructures such as nanotwists, nanotrumpets and nanobelts, in which the twisted fibers showed supramolecular chirality as well as circularly polarized luminescence although the compound is achiral.

  11. Counterintuitive angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distribution for atoms in strong few-cycle circularly polarized laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Christian; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2009-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a three-cycle circularly polarized laser pulse interacting with an atom. The photoelectron momentum distributions show counterintuitive shifts, similar to those observed in a recent experiment (Eckle et al 2008 Science 322 1525...

  12. Organic light emitting diodes with spin polarized electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arisi, E.; Bergenti, I.; Dediu, V.; Loi, M.A.; Muccini, M.; Murgia, M.; Ruani, G.; Taliani, C.; Zamboni, R.

    2003-01-01

    Electrical and optical properties of Alq3 based organic light emitting diodes with normal and spin polarized electrodes are presented. Epitaxial semitransparent highly spin polarized La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 were used as hole injector, substituting the traditional indium tin oxide electrode. A comparison of

  13. Using Polarization features of visible light for automatic landmine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, W. de; Schavemaker, J.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the usage of polarization features of visible light for automatic landmine detection. The first section gives an introduction to land-mine detection and the usage of camera systems. In section 2 detection concepts and methods that use polarization features are described.

  14. Do cephalopods communicate using polarized light reflections from their skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Shashar, Nadav; Hanlon, Roger T

    2009-07-01

    Cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish and octopus) are probably best known for their ability to change color and pattern for camouflage and communication. This is made possible by their complex skin, which contains pigmented chromatophore organs and structural light reflectors (iridophores and leucophores). Iridophores create colorful and linearly polarized reflective patterns. Equally interesting, the photoreceptors of cephalopod eyes are arranged in a way to give these animals the ability to detect the linear polarization of incoming light. The capacity to detect polarized light may have a variety of functions, such as prey detection, navigation, orientation and contrast enhancement. Because the skin of cephalopods can produce polarized reflective patterns, it has been postulated that cephalopods could communicate intraspecifically through this visual system. The term 'hidden' or 'private' communication channel has been given to this concept because many cephalopod predators may not be able to see their polarized reflective patterns. We review the evidence for polarization vision as well as polarization signaling in some cephalopod species and provide examples that tend to support the notion--currently unproven--that some cephalopods communicate using polarized light signals.

  15. The effects of polarized light therapy in pressure ulcer healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Neglecting polarized light as an adjuvant therapy for pressure ulcers and methodology distinctions in the trials engaging polarized light are the reasons for many dilemmas and contradictions. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of polarized light therapy in pressure ulcer healing. Methods. This prospective randomized single-blind study involved 40 patients with stage I-III of pressure ulcer. The patients in the experimental group (E were subjected, besides polarized light therapy, to standard wound cleaning and dressing. Standard wound cleaning and dressing were the only treatment used in the control group (C. A polarized light source was a Bioptron lamp. Polarized light therapy was applied for six min daily, five times a week, four weeks. The Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH was used in the assessment of outcome. Statistic analysis included Mann Whitney Test, Fisher Exact Test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Results. There were significant differences between the groups at the end of the treatment regarding the surface of pressure ulcer (E: 10.80±19.18; C: 22,97±25,47; p = 0.0005, rank of pressure ulcer (E: 5.90±2.48; C: 8.6±1.05; p = 0.0005 and total PUSH score (E: 7.35±3.17; C: 11.85±2.35; p = 0,0003. The patients in the experimental group had significantly better values of the parameters monitored than the patients in the control group. Conclusion. After a four-week polarized light therapy 20 patients with stage I-III ulcer had significant improvement in pressure ulcer healing, so it could be useful to apply polarized light in the treatment of pressure ulcers.

  16. The effects of polarized light therapy in pressure ulcer healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durović, Aleksandar; Marić, Dragan; Brdareski, Zorica; Jevtić, Miodrag; Durdević, Slavisa

    2008-12-01

    Neglecting polarized light as an adjuvant therapy for pressure ulcers and methodology distinctions in the trials engaging polarized light are the reasons for many dilemmas and contradictions. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of polarized light therapy in pressure ulcer healing. This prospective randomized single-blind study involved 40 patients with stage I-III of pressure ulcer. The patients in the experimental group (E) were subjected, besides polarized light therapy, to standard wound cleaning and dressing. Standard wound cleaning and dressing were the only treatment used in the control group (C). A polarized light source was a Bioptron lamp. Polarized light therapy was applied for six min daily, five times a week, four weeks. The Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) was used in the assessment of outcome. Statistic analysis included Mann Whitney Test, Fisher Exact Test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. There were significant differences between the groups at the end of the treatment regarding the surface of pressure ulcer (E: 10.80 +/- 19.18; C: 22,97 +/- 25,47; p = 0.0005), rank of pressure ulcer (E: 5.90 +/- 2.48; C: 8.6 +/- 1.05; p = 0.0005) and total PUSH score (E: 7.35 +/- 3.17; C: 11.85 +/- 2.35; p = 0,0003). The patients in the experimental group had significantly better values of the parameters monitored than the patients in the control group. After a four-week polarized light therapy 20 patients with stage I-III ulcer had significant improvement in pressure ulcer healing, so it could be useful to apply polarized light in the treatment of pressure ulcers.

  17. Robust reflective ghost imaging against different partially polarized thermal light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Guo; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Rui-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Liu, Hong-Chao; Li, Zong-Guo; Xiong, Jun

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically study the influence of degree of polarization (DOP) of thermal light on the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the reflective ghost imaging (RGI), which is a novel and indirect imaging modality. An expression for the CNR of RGI with partially polarized thermal light is carefully derived, which suggests a weak dependence of CNR on the DOP, especially when the ratio of the object size to the speckle size of thermal light has a large value. Different from conventional imaging approaches, our work reveals that RGI is much more robust against the DOP of the light source, which thereby has advantages in practical applications, such as remote sensing.

  18. Low-Cost and High-Gain SIW Circularly Polarized Circular-Horn-Loaded Antenna for Broadband Millimeter-Wave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Du

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A wideband, low-cost and high-gain circularly polarized (CP circular-horn-loaded antenna based on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW technology operating at Ka band is presented. The proposed antenna, which is built on a single-layer substrate, consists of five parts: a short-ended SIW, a centro-symmetric wide slot, an L-shaped probe, a circular horn and a transition from SIW to air-filled rectangular waveguide for measurement. The slot is etched on the upper ground of the SIW, while the L-shaped probe for generating CP wave is printed inside the slot and connected to the SIW. A circular horn is also loaded on the surface of the SIW slot for high gain. Then, the proposed antenna with a dimension of 45×45×24.16 mm3 was fabricated and measured. The measured results show that the antenna has a wide impedance matching bandwidth of 28.6% from 30 to 40 GHz for |S11| ≤10 dB and a wide axial ratio (AR bandwidth of 22.8% from 31.5 to 39.6 GHz for AR ≤ 3 dB. The measured maximum gain is 15.6 dBi at 36 GHz with slight fluctuations over the 30–40-GHz frequency range. This kind of antenna merits low cost and easy integration with common differential circuits at the same time.

  19. Circular polarization of γ-quanta radiated in the capture of polarized neutrons by protons and the quark compound bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.L.; Shmatkov, M.Zh.

    1983-01-01

    The circular polarization Psub(γ) of γ-quanta radiated in the capture of polarized neutrons by protons is calculated The contribution of the M1 and E2 radiation of nucleons to Psub(γ) is found using the accurate wave functions of the continuous spectrum. The contribution of the six-quark bag to the polarization Psub(γ) is determined. The value of Psub(γ) is related to the admixture of the 6q-bag in the deuteron. Experimental value of Psub(γ) corresponds to small (< or approximately 0.7%) admixture of the bag

  20. Source of spin polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.T.; Meier, F.A.; Siegmann, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described of producing intense beams of polarized free electrons in which a semiconductor with a spin orbit split valence band and negative electron affinity is used as a photocathode and irradiated with circularly polarized light

  1. State preparation and detector effects in quantum measurements of rotation with circular polarization-entangled photons and photon counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Longzhu; Zhang, Zijing; Zhang, Jiandong; Li, Shuo; Sun, Yifei; Yan, Linyu; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Circular polarization-entangled photons can be used to obtain an enhancement of the precision in a rotation measurement. In this paper, the method of entanglement transformation is used to produce NOON states in circular polarization from a readily generated linear polarization-entangled photon source. Detection of N -fold coincidences serves as the postselection and N -fold superoscillating fringes are obtained simultaneously. A parity strategy and conditional probabilistic statistics contribute to a better fringe, saturating the angle sensitivity to the Heisenberg limit. The impact of imperfect state preparation and detection is discussed both separately and jointly. For the separated case, the influence of each system imperfection is pronounced. For the joint case, the feasibility region for surpassing the standard quantum limit is given. Our work pushes the state preparation of circular polarization-entangled photons to the same level as that in the case of linear polarization. It is also confirmed that entanglement can be transformed into different frames for specific applications, serving as a useful scheme for using entangled sources.

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF POLARIZED LIGHT INFLUENCE ON PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. О. Gulyar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are presented experimental evidences of BIOPTRON device polarized light influence on the acupuncture points and pain locus. It is proved that PILER-light can induce analgesia which depends on the choice of the application zone, exposure and nature of pain (tonic, acute or visceral. Analgesic response has systemic character and is accompanied by participation of opioidergic nociceptive system

  3. PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF POLARIZED LIGHT INFLUENCE ON PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    S. О. Gulyar; Z. А. Tamarova

    2016-01-01

    There are presented experimental evidences of BIOPTRON device polarized light influence on the acupuncture points and pain locus. It is proved that PILER-light can induce analgesia which depends on the choice of the application zone, exposure and nature of pain (tonic, acute or visceral). Analgesic response has systemic character and is accompanied by participation of opioidergic nociceptive system

  4. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, E. C.; Bencok, P.; Dobrynin, A.; Rial, E. C. M.; Rose, A.; Steadman, P.; Thompson, C.; Thomson, A.; Wang, H.

    2013-03-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  5. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhi, E C; Bencok, P; Dobrynin, A; Rial, E C M; Rose, A; Steadman, P; Thompson, C; Thomson, A; Wang, H

    2013-01-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  6. A helical optical for circular polarized UV-FEL project at the UVSOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hama, Hiroyuki [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Most of existing storage ring free electron lasers (SRFEL) are restricted those performances by degradation of mirrors in optical cavities. In general, the SRFEL gain at the short wavelength region with high energy electrons is quite low, and the high reflectivity mirrors such as dielectric multilayer mirrors are therefore required. The mirror degradation is considered as a result of irradiation of higher harmonic photons that are simultaneously emitted from planar optical klystron (OK) type undulators, which are commonly used in SRFEL. This problem is getting severer as the lasing wavelength becomes shorter. The UVSOR-FEL had been originally scheduled to be shutdown by 1996 because another undulator project for spectroscopic studies with circular polarized photon would take the FEL`s place. According to suggestion of the insertion device group of the SPring-8, we have designed a helical undulator that is able to vary degree and direction of the polarization easily. In addition, the undulator can be converted into a helical OK by replacing magnets at the center part of undulator in order to coexist with further FEL experiments. Using a calculated magnetic field for magnet configurations of the OK mode, the radiation spectrum at wide wavelength range was simulated by a Fourier transform of Lienard-Wiechert potentials. As a matter of course, some higher harmonics are radiated on the off-axis angle. However it was found out that the higher harmonics is almost negligible as far as inside a solid angle of the Gaussian laser mode. Moreover the gain at the UV region of 250 nm is expected to be much higher than our present FEL because of high brilliant fundamental radiation. The calculated spatial distribution of higher harmonics and the estimated instantaneous gain is presented. Advantages of the helical OK for SRFEL will be discussed in view of our experience, and a possibility of application two-color experiment with SR will be also mentioned.

  7. CHANG-ES - XI. Circular polarization in the cores of nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Judith A.; Henriksen, Richard N.; WeŻgowiec, Marek; Damas-Segovia, Ancor; Wang, Q. Daniel; Krause, Marita; Heald, George; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; Li, Jiang-Tao; Wiegert, Theresa; Stein, Yelena; Braun, Timothy T.; Im, Jisung; Schmidt, Philip; Macdonald, Scott; Miskolczi, Arpad; Merritt, Alison; Mora-Partiarroyo, S. C.; Saikia, D. J.; Sotomayor, Carlos; Yang, Yang

    2018-06-01

    We detect five galaxies in the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies - an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) sample that show circular polarization (CP) at L band in our high-resolution data sets. Two of the galaxies (NGC 4388 and NGC 4845) show strong Stokes V/I ≡ mC ˜ 2 per cent, two (NGC 660 and NGC 3628) have values of mC ˜ 0.3 per cent, and NGC 3079 is a marginal detection at mC ˜ 0.2 per cent. The two strongest mC galaxies also have the most luminous X-ray cores and the strongest internal absorption in X-rays. We have expanded on our previous Faraday conversion interpretation and analysis and provide analytical expressions for the expected V signal for a general case in which the cosmic ray (CR) electron energy spectral index can take on any value. We provide examples as to how such expressions could be used to estimate magnetic field strengths and the lower energy cut-off for CR electrons. Four of our detections are resolved, showing unique structures, including a jet in NGC 4388 and a CP `conversion disc' in NGC 4845. The conversion disc is inclined to the galactic disc but is perpendicular to a possible outflow direction. Such CP structures have never before been seen in any galaxy to our knowledge. None of the galaxy cores show linear polarization at L band. Thus radio CP may provide a unique probe of the physical conditions in the cores of active galactic nuclei.

  8. A Low-Profile Dual-Layer Patch Antenna with a Circular Polarizer Consisting of Dual Semicircular Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a circular polarizer comprising dual semicircular split-rings (DSSRs is presented. By placing it above an elliptical radiator that radiates linearly polarized (LP waves, dual-layer patch antennas capable of radiating right-hand (RH or left-hand (LH circularly polarized (CP waves are achieved in terms of the different offset direction of the bottom splits of the DSSRs. Because of both the capacitive coupling to the radiator and the degenerate modes existing in the excited DSSRs, the DSSRs collaboratively result in a circularly polarized radiation, successfully converting incident LP waves into CP ones. Simulated results show that the impedance, axial ratio (AR, and gain frequency response of both proposed CP antennas are identical, with a simulated 3-dB AR bandwidth of 72 MHz covering 2.402–2.474 GHz and a gain enhanced by 3.9 dB. The proposed antennas were fabricated and measured, revealing an operational bandwidth of 65 MHz (2.345–2.41 GHz and a peak gain up to 9 dBi. Moreover, a low profile of 0.063λ0 is maintained. The proposed CP antennas could be as a candidate for wireless target detection applications in terms of their identical frequency response property.

  9. Dynamical behaviour of FEL devices operating with two undulators having opposite circular polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy); Ottaviani, P.L. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche, Bologna (Italy); Bucci, L. [ENEA, Guest Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Optical-Klystron FELs operating with undulators having opposite circular polarizations are characterized by a spontaneous emission spectrum which does not exhibit the characteristic interference pattern. The use of the Madey theorem may allow the conclusion that, for such configuration, the dispersive section does not provide any gain enhancement. In this paper it has been analyzed the problem from a dynamical point of view and clarify how the optical field evolve, what is the role of the bunching and how the consequences of the Madey theorem should be correctly understood. [Italian] Klystron ottici operanti con ondulatori aventi polarizzazione elicoidali opposte, sono caratterizzati da uno spettro di emissione spontanea senza il termine interferenziale dovuto alla sezione dispersiva. L'uso del teorema di Madey indurrebbe alla conclusione che, per una tale configurazione, la sezione dispersiva non induce nessun aumento del guadagno. In questo lavoro analizziamo il problema da un punto di vista dinamico che chiarisce l'evoluzione del campo ottico, quale e' il ruolo del bunching e come le conseguenze del teorema di Madey debbano essere interpretate.

  10. Photoinduced electric currents in ring-shaped molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobusada, Katsuyuki; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    We have theoretically demonstrated that circularly polarized laser pulses induce electric currents and magnetic moments in ring-shaped molecules Na 10 and benzene. The time-dependent adiabatic local density approximation is employed for this purpose, solving the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equation in real space and real time. It has been found that the electric currents are induced efficiently and persist continuously even after the laser pulses were switched off provided the frequency of the applied laser pulse is in tune with the excitation energy of the electronic excited state with the dipole strength for each molecular system. The electric currents are definitely revealed to be a second-order nonlinear optical response to the magnitude of the electric field. The magnetic dipole moments inevitably accompany the ring currents, so that the molecules are magnetized. The production of the electric currents and the magnetic moments in the present procedure is found to be much more efficient than that utilizing static magnetic fields

  11. Circularly polarized luminescence of helically assembled pyrene π-stacks on RNA and DNA duplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsunobu; Ota, Fuyuki; Takada, Tadao; Akagi, Kazuo; Yamana, Kazushige

    2018-05-01

    In this report, we describe the circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) of the RNA duplexes having one to four 2'-O-pyrene modified uridines (Upy) and the DNA duplexes having two, four, and six pyrene modified non-nucleosidic linkers (Py). Both the pyrene π-stack arrays formed on the RNA and DNA double helical structures exhibited pyrene excimer fluorescence. In the pyrene-modified RNA systems, the RNA duplex having four Upys gives CPL emission with g lum value of <0.01 at 480 nm. The structure of pyrene stacks on the RNA duplex may be rigidly regulated with increase in the Upy domains, which resulted in the CPL emission. In the DNA systems, the pyrene-modified duplexes containing two and four Pys exhibited CPL emission with g lum values of <0.001 at 505 nm. The pyrene π-stack arrays presented here show CPL emission. However, the g lum values are relatively small when compared with our previous system consisting of the pyrene-zipper arrays on RNA. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. SCRLH-TL Based Sequential Rotation Feed Network for Broadband Circularly Polarized Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Zong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a broadband circularly polarized (CP microstrip antenna array using composite right/left-handed transmission line (SCRLH-TL based sequential rotation (SR feed network is presented. The characteristics of a SCRLH-TL are initially investigated. Then, a broadband and low insertion loss 45º phase shifter is designed using the SCRLH-TL and the phase shifter is employed in constructing a SR feed network for CP antenna array. To validate the design method of the SR feed network, a 2×2 antenna array comprising sequentially rotated coupled stacked CP antenna elements is designed, fabricated and measured. Both the simulated and measured results indicate that the performances of the antenna element are further enhanced when the SR network is used. The antenna array exhibits the VSWR less than 1.8 dB from 4 GHz to 7 GHz and the 3 dB axial ratio (AR from 4.4 GHz to 6.8 GHz. Also, high peak gain of 13.7 dBic is obtained. Besides, the normalized radiation patterns at the operating frequencies are symmetrical and the side lobe levels are low at φ=0º and φ=90º.

  13. Broadbanding of circularly polarized patch antenna by waveguided magneto-dielectric metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Mi Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Design of bandwidth-enhanced circularly polarized (CP patch antenna using artificial magneto-dielectric substrate was investigated. The artificial magneto-dielectric material adopted here takes the form of waveguided metamaterial (WG-MTM. In particular, the embedded meander line (EML structure was employed as the building element of the WG-MTM. As verified by the retrieved effective medium parameters, the EML-based waveguided magneto-dielectric metamaterial (WG-MDM exhibits two-dimensionally isotropic magneto-dielectric property with respect to TEM wave excitations applied in two orthogonal directions. A CP patch antenna loaded with the EML-based WG-MDM (WG-MDM antenna has been proposed and its design procedure is described in detail. Simulation results show that the impedance and axial ratio bandwidths of the WG-MDM antenna have increased by 125% and 133%, respectively, compared with those obtained with pure dielectric substrate offering the same patch size. The design of the novel WG-MDM antenna was also validated by measurement results, which show good agreement with their simulated counterparts.

  14. Multiscale deformations lead to high toughness and circularly polarized emission in helical nacre-like fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Feng, Wenchun; Zhang, Huangxi; Wang, Zhenlong; Calcaterra, Heather A; Yeom, Bongjun; Hu, Ping An; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2016-02-24

    Nacre-like composites have been investigated typically in the form of coatings or free-standing sheets. They demonstrated remarkable mechanical properties and are used as ultrastrong materials but macroscale fibres with nacre-like organization can improve mechanical properties even further. The fiber form or nacre can, simplify manufacturing and offer new functional properties unknown yet for other forms of biomimetic materials. Here we demonstrate that nacre-like fibres can be produced by shear-induced self-assembly of nanoplatelets. The synergy between two structural motifs--nanoscale brick-and-mortar stacking of platelets and microscale twisting of the fibres--gives rise to high stretchability (>400%) and gravimetric toughness (640 J g(-1)). These unique mechanical properties originate from the multiscale deformation regime involving solid-state self-organization processes that lead to efficient energy dissipation. Incorporating luminescent CdTe nanowires into these fibres imparts the new property of mechanically tunable circularly polarized luminescence. The nacre-like fibres open a novel technological space for optomechanics of biomimetic composites, while their continuous spinning methodology makes scalable production realistic.

  15. Asymmetric Vibration of Polar Orthotropic Annular Circular Plates of Quadratically Varying Thickness with Same Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bhardwaj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, asymmetric vibration of polar orthotropic annular circular plates of quadratically varying thickness resting on Winkler elastic foundation is studied by using boundary characteristic orthonormal polynomials in Rayleigh-Ritz method. Convergence of the results is tested and comparison is made with results already available in the existing literature. Numerical results for the first ten frequencies for various values of parameters describing width of annular plate, thickness profile, material orthotropy and foundation constant for all three possible combinations of clamped, simply supported and free edge conditions are shown and discussed. It is found that (a higher elastic property in circumferential direction leads to higher stiffness against lateral vibration; (b Lateral vibration characteristics of F-Fplates is more sensitive towards parametric changes in material orthotropy and foundation stiffness than C-C and S-Splates; (c Effect of quadratical thickness variation on fundamental frequency is more significant in cases of C-C and S-S plates than that of F-Fplates. Thickness profile which is convex relative to plate center-line tends to result in higher stiffness of annular plates against lateral vibration than the one which is concave and (d Fundamental mode of vibration of C-C and S-Splates is axisymmetrical while that of F-Fplates is asymmetrical.

  16. Circularly polarized triple band glass shaped monopole patch antenna with metallic reflector for bluetooth & wireless applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangid, K. G.; Choudhary, N.; Jain, P.; Sharma, B. R.; Saini, J. S.; Kulhar, V. S.; Bhatnagar, D.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the design and performance of strip line fed glass shaped monopole patch antenna having with overall size 30mm × 30 mm × 1.59 mm. In the patch; an eight shaped slot and in the ground plane an eight shaped ring are introduced. A metallic ground plane is also introduced at appropriate location beneath the ground plane. The proposed antenna is simulated by applying CST Microwave Studio simulator. Antenna provides circularly polarized radiations, triple broad impedance bandwidth of 203MHz (2.306GHz to 2.510GHz), 42MHz (2.685GHz to 2.757GHz) & GHz (3.63 GHz to 6.05 GHz), high flat gain (close to 5dBi) and good radiation properties in the desired frequency range. This antenna may be a very useful tool for 2.45GHz Bluetooth communication band as well as for 2.4GHz/5.2 GHz /5.8 GHz WLAN bands & 3.7GHz/5.5 GHz Wi-Max bands.

  17. Circularly polarized triple band glass shaped monopole patch antenna with metallic reflector for bluetooth & wireless applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jangid, K. G.; Kulhar, V. S. [Department of Physics, Manipal University Jaipur, Jaipur-303007 (India); Choudhary, N.; Jain, P.; Sharma, B. R.; Saini, J. S.; Bhatnagar, D., E-mail: dbhatnagar-2000@rediffmail.com [Microwave Lab, Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004 (India)

    2016-03-09

    This paper presents the design and performance of strip line fed glass shaped monopole patch antenna having with overall size 30mm × 30 mm × 1.59 mm. In the patch; an eight shaped slot and in the ground plane an eight shaped ring are introduced. A metallic ground plane is also introduced at appropriate location beneath the ground plane. The proposed antenna is simulated by applying CST Microwave Studio simulator. Antenna provides circularly polarized radiations, triple broad impedance bandwidth of 203MHz (2.306GHz to 2.510GHz), 42MHz (2.685GHz to 2.757GHz) & GHz (3.63 GHz to 6.05 GHz), high flat gain (close to 5dBi) and good radiation properties in the desired frequency range. This antenna may be a very useful tool for 2.45GHz Bluetooth communication band as well as for 2.4GHz/5.2 GHz /5.8 GHz WLAN bands & 3.7GHz/5.5 GHz Wi-Max bands.

  18. Propagation of polarized light through azobenzene polyester films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedelchev, L; Matharu, A; Nikolova, Ludmila

    2002-01-01

    When elliptically polarized light of appropriate wavelength Corresponding to trans-cis-trans isomerisation process is incident on thin films of azobenzene polyesters, a helical structure is induced. We investigate the propagation of the exciting light beam (self-induced) as well as a probe light...... beam outside the absorption band through the polyester films. Investigations are carried out in one amorphous and one liquid crystalline polyester. We show that amorphous polyester after irradiation behaves like classical helical material....

  19. Comparison study for multiple ionization of carbonyl sulfide by linearly and circularly polarized intense femtosecond laser fields using Coulomb explosion imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pan; Wang, Chuncheng; Luo, Sizuo; Yu, Xitao; Li, Xiaokai; Wang, Zhenzhen; Hu, Wenhui; Yu, Jiaqi; Yang, Yizhang; Tian, Xu; Cui, Zhonghua; Ding, Dajun

    2018-05-01

    We studied the relative yields and dissociation dynamics for two- and three-body Coulomb explosion (CE) channels from highly charged carbonyl sulfide molecules in intense laser fields using the CE imaging technique. The electron recollision contributions are evaluated by comparing the relative yields for the multiple ionization process in linearly polarized and circularly polarized (LP and CP) laser fields. The nonsequential multiple ionization is only confirmed for the charge states of 2 to 4 because the energy for further ionization from the inner orbital is much larger than the maximum recollision energy, 3.2U p . The novel deviations of kinetic energy releases distributions between LP and CP pulses are observed for the charge states higher than 4. It can be attributed to the stronger molecular bending in highly charged states before three-body CE with CP light, in which the bending wave packet is initialed by the triple or quartic ionization and spread along their potential curves. Compared to LP light, CP light ionizes a larger fraction of bending molecules in the polarization plane.

  20. Low-Gain Circularly Polarized Antenna with Torus-Shaped Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Luis R.; Kruid, Ronald C.; Vacchione, Joseph D.; Prata, Aluizio

    2012-01-01

    The Juno mission to Jupiter requires an antenna with a torus-shaped antenna pattern with approximately 6 dBic gain and circular polarization over the Deep Space Network (DSN) 7-GHz transmit frequency and the 8-GHz receive frequency. Given the large distances that accumulate en-route to Jupiter and the limited power afforded by the solar-powered vehicle, this toroidal low-gain antenna requires as much gain as possible while maintaining a beam width that could facilitate a +/-10deg edge of coverage. The natural antenna that produces a toroidal antenna pattern is the dipole, but the limited approx. = 2.2 dB peak gain would be insufficient. Here a shaped variation of the standard bicone antenna is proposed that could achieve the required gains and bandwidths while maintaining a size that was not excessive. The final geometry that was settled on consisted of a corrugated, shaped bicone, which is fed by a WR112 waveguide-to-coaxial- waveguide transition. This toroidal low-gain antenna (TLGA) geometry produced the requisite gain, moderate sidelobes, and the torus-shaped antenna pattern while maintaining a very good match over the entire required frequency range. Its "horn" geometry is also low-loss and capable of handling higher powers with large margins against multipactor breakdown. The final requirement for the antenna was to link with the DSN with circular polarization. A four-layer meander-line array polarizer was implemented; an approach that was fairly well suited to the TLGA geometry. The principal development of this work was to adapt the standard linear bicone such that its aperture could be increased in order to increase the available gain of the antenna. As one increases the aperture of a standard bicone, the phase variation across the aperture begins to increase, so the larger the aperture becomes, the greater the phase variation. In order to maximize the gain from any aperture antenna, the phase should be kept as uniform as possible. Thus, as the standard

  1. Navigation by light polarization in clear and turbid waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Sabbah, Shai; Erlick, Carynelisa; Shashar, Nadav

    2011-01-01

    Certain terrestrial animals use sky polarization for navigation. Certain aquatic species have also been shown to orient according to a polarization stimulus, but the correlation between underwater polarization and Sun position and hence the ability to use underwater polarization as a compass for navigation is still under debate. To examine this issue, we use theoretical equations for per cent polarization and electric vector (e-vector) orientation that account for the position of the Sun, refraction at the air–water interface and Rayleigh single scattering. The polarization patterns predicted by these theoretical equations are compared with measurements conducted in clear and semi-turbid coastal sea waters at 2 m and 5 m depth over sea floors of 6 m and 28 m depth. We find that the per cent polarization is correlated with the Sun's elevation only in clear waters. We furthermore find that the maximum value of the e-vector orientation angle equals the angle of refraction only in clear waters, in the horizontal viewing direction, over the deeper sea floor. We conclude that navigation by use of underwater polarization is possible under restricted conditions, i.e. in clear waters, primarily near the horizontal viewing direction, and in locations where the sea floor has limited effects on the light's polarization. PMID:21282170

  2. Mechanically Reconfigurable Single-Arm Spiral Antenna Array for Generation of Broadband Circularly Polarized Orbital Angular Momentum Vortex Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Zhou, Xiaoxiao

    2018-03-23

    In this paper, a mechanically reconfigurable circular array with single-arm spiral antennas (SASAs) is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate broadband circularly polarized orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex waves in radio frequency domain. With the symmetrical and broadband properties of single-arm spiral antennas, the vortex waves with different OAM modes can be mechanically reconfigurable generated in a wide band from 3.4 GHz to 4.7 GHz. The prototype of the circular array is proposed, conducted, and fabricated to validate the theoretical analysis. The simulated and experimental results verify that different OAM modes can be effectively generated by rotating the spiral arms of single-arm spiral antennas with corresponding degrees, which greatly simplify the feeding network. The proposed method paves a reconfigurable way to generate multiple OAM vortex waves with spin angular momentum (SAM) in radio and microwave satellite communication applications.

  3. Enantiopure distorted ribbon-shaped nanographene combining two-photon absorption-based upconversion and circularly polarized luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Carlos M; Márquez, Irene R; Mariz, Inês F A; Blanco, Victor; Sánchez-Sánchez, Carlos; Sobrado, Jesús M; Martín-Gago, José A; Cuerva, Juan M; Maçôas, Ermelinda; Campaña, Araceli G

    2018-04-28

    Herein we describe a distorted ribbon-shaped nanographene exhibiting unprecedented combination of optical properties in graphene-related materials, namely upconversion based on two-photon absorption (TPA-UC) together with circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). The compound is a graphene molecule of ca. 2 nm length and 1 nm width with edge defects that promote the distortion of the otherwise planar lattice. The edge defects are an aromatic saddle-shaped ketone unit and a [5]carbohelicene moiety. This system is shown to combine two-photon absorption and circularly polarized luminescence and a remarkably long emission lifetime of 21.5 ns. The [5]helicene is responsible for the chiroptical activity while the push-pull geometry and the extended network of sp 2 carbons are factors favoring the nonlinear absorption. Electronic structure theoretical calculations support the interpretation of the results.

  4. Circularly polarized microwaves for magnetic resonance study in the GHz range: Application to nitrogen-vacancy in diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrózek, M.; Rudnicki, D. S.; Gawlik, W.; Mlynarczyk, J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to create time-dependent magnetic fields of controlled polarization is essential for many experiments with magnetic resonance. We describe a microstrip circuit that allows us to generate strong magnetic field at microwave frequencies with arbitrary adjusted polarization. The circuit performance is demonstrated by applying it to an optically detected magnetic resonance and Rabi nutation experiments in nitrogen-vacancy color centers in diamond. Thanks to high efficiency of the proposed microstrip circuit and degree of circular polarization of 85%; it is possible to address the specific spin states of a diamond sample using a low power microwave generator. The circuit may be applied to a wide range of magnetic resonance experiments with a well-controlled polarization of microwaves

  5. Global positioning method based on polarized light compass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Yang, Jiangtao; Wang, Yubo; Tang, Jun; Shen, Chong

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a global positioning method based on a polarized light compass system. A main limitation of polarization positioning is the environment such as weak and locally destroyed polarization environments, and the solution to the positioning problem is given in this paper which is polarization image de-noising and segmentation. Therefore, the pulse coupled neural network is employed for enhancing positioning performance. The prominent advantages of the present positioning technique are as follows: (i) compared to the existing position method based on polarized light, better sun tracking accuracy can be achieved and (ii) the robustness and accuracy of positioning under weak and locally destroyed polarization environments, such as cloudy or building shielding, are improved significantly. Finally, some field experiments are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed global positioning technique. The experiments have shown that our proposed method outperforms the conventional polarization positioning method, the real time longitude and latitude with accuracy up to 0.0461° and 0.0911°, respectively.

  6. Design, Manufacturing, and Testing of a 20/30-GHz Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Reflectarray Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Thomas Gunst; Gothelf, Ulrich; Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    This letter documents the design, manufacturing, and testing of a single-layer dual-band circularly polarized reflectarray antenna for 19.7–20.2 and 29.5–30.0 GHz. The reflectarray is designed using the concentric dual split-loop element and the variable rotation technique that enables full 360......$^{\\circ}$ phase adjustment simultaneously in two separate frequency bands. The elements have been optimized to suppress cross-polar reflection. Thereafter, the element data is included in a design tool that computes the reflectarray layout and the associated radiation patterns. The reflectarray...

  7. Pyrene-Containing ortho-Oligo(phenylene)ethynylene Foldamer as a Ratiometric Probe Based on Circularly Polarized Luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiné, Pablo; Justicia, Jose; Morcillo, Sara P; Abbate, Sergio; Vaz, Belen; Ribagorda, María; Orte, Ángel; Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Luis; Longhi, Giovanna; Campaña, Araceli G; Miguel, Delia; Cuerva, Juan M

    2018-04-20

    In this manuscript, we report the first synthesis of an organic monomolecular emitter, which behaves as a circularly polarized luminescence (CPL)-based ratiometric probe. The enantiopure helical ortho-oligo(phenylene)ethynylene ( o-OPE) core has been prepared by a new and efficient macrocyclization reaction. The combination of such o-OPE helical skeleton and a pyrene couple leads to two different CPL emission features in a single structure whose ratio linearly responds to silver(I) concentration.

  8. Alteration in non-classicality of light on passing through a linear polarization beam splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Namrata; Prakash, Ranjana

    2016-06-01

    We observe the polarization squeezing in the mixture of a two mode squeezed vacuum and a simple coherent light through a linear polarization beam splitter. Squeezed vacuum not being squeezed in polarization, generates polarization squeezed light when superposed with coherent light. All the three Stokes parameters of the light produced on the output port of polarization beam splitter are found to be squeezed and squeezing factor also depends upon the parameters of coherent light.

  9. DOA and Polarization Estimation Using an Electromagnetic Vector Sensor Uniform Circular Array Based on the ESPRIT Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Na; Qu, Zhiyu; Si, Weijian; Jiao, Shuhong

    2016-12-13

    In array signal processing systems, the direction of arrival (DOA) and polarization of signals based on uniform linear or rectangular sensor arrays are generally obtained by rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT). However, since the ESPRIT algorithm relies on the rotational invariant structure of the received data, it cannot be applied to electromagnetic vector sensor arrays (EVSAs) featuring uniform circular patterns. To overcome this limitation, a fourth-order cumulant-based ESPRIT algorithm is proposed in this paper, for joint estimation of DOA and polarization based on a uniform circular EVSA. The proposed algorithm utilizes the fourth-order cumulant to obtain a virtual extended array of a uniform circular EVSA, from which the pairs of rotation invariant sub-arrays are obtained. The ESPRIT algorithm and parameter pair matching are then utilized to estimate the DOA and polarization of the incident signals. The closed-form parameter estimation algorithm can effectively reduce the computational complexity of the joint estimation, which has been demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  10. Photoinduced Circular Anisotropy in Side-Chain Azobenzene Polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Todorov, T.; Ivanov, M.

    1997-01-01

    We report for the first time the inducing of large circular anisotropy in previously unoriented films of side-chain azobenzene polyesters on illumination with circularly polarized light at a wavelength of 488 nm. The circular dichroism and optical activity are measured simultaneously in real time...

  11. Study of a filament with a circularly polarized beam at 3.8 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straka, R.M.; Papagiannis, M.D.; Kogut, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Extensive observations of left and right circularly polarized emission were carried out with the 120 ft Haystack antenna, which at 3.8 cm has a HPBW of 4.4 minutes of arc. During a very quite period, September 22-26, 1974, two regions were observed in the southern hemisphere of the sun with brightness temperatures approximately 10% below the surrounding solar disk temperature. Hα photographs show that the main region was associated with a long filament. The separation between the center of the radio depression and the filament increased as the filament advanced toward the limb, with the depression finally disappearing when the filament was at a radial distance >0.8 R(Sun) from the center of the solar disk. These observations are in agreement with a filament model consisting of a thin, tall and exceedingly long sheet of enhanced density encaged in a large and equally long tunnel-like cavity of lower density. The electron density at the 3.8 cm emission level which occurs immediately below the transition zone was estimated to be lower inside the cavity than outside by a factor of 2. The origin of the other depression remains unclear because no relation to any Hα or magnetic feature could be found. A possible association with a coronal hole could not be established because no pertinent EUV or X-ray data were available. It would be of interest to investigate in future observations if a secondary depression is normally associated with the primary depression region over a long filament. (Auth.)

  12. 77 FR 38375 - Advisory Circular (AC) 150/5345-53D, Airport Lighting Equipment Certification Program; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular (AC) 150/5345-53D... Advisory Circular (AC) 150/5345-53D, Airport Lighting Equipment Certification Program, is being circulated... on a separate document and not embedded in the draft AC. Additionally, please provide justification...

  13. Polarized light improves cutaneous healing on diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Oliveira, Priscila Chagas; Marques, Aparecida Maria Cordeiro; Barbosa Pinheiro, Antonio L.

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing of 3rd degree burn on diabetic rats submitted or not to treatment with Polarized Light. Diabetes mellitus (Streptozotocin, 60mg/kg) was induced on 45 male Wistar albinus rats and a third degree burn (1.5× 1.5cm) was created in the dorsum of each animal under general anesthesia. After a regular quarantine period, the animals were randomly distributed into three groups as follows: G1: control (no treatment, n =15); G2: Polarized Light (λ=400-2000nm, 20J/cm2) and G3: Polarized Light (λ=400-2000nm, 40J/cm2). The phototherapy performed on group G2 was Polarized Light dose 20J/cm2 and G3 was Polarized Light dose 40J/cm2 (Bioptron®, λ400-2000 nm, 40mW; 2.4J/cm2 per minute; Φ +/- 5.5 cm; Bioptron AG, Monchaltorf, Switzerland). The phototherapy started immediately post-burning and was repeated daily until the day before the animal death. The energy was applied transcutaneously respecting the focal distance of 10cm as recommended by the manufacturer. The dose was 20 or 40J/cm2 (4min 15s or 8min.and 30s). At each time point chosen (7, 14, and 21 days post-burning) and following macroscopic examination, each animal was killed by an overdose of general anesthesia. Slides were stained with HE, Sirius Red, and CK AE1/AE3 antibody. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses were performed under light microscopy. The animals submitted to phototherapy (20J/cm2) showed significant differences on regards revascularization and epithelialization. The use of 20J/cm2 was effective on improving the healing of third degree buns on diabetic animals at both early and late stages of the repair.

  14. The Polarization of Light and Malus' Law Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Martín; Stari, Cecilia; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C.

    2017-01-01

    Originally an empirical law, nowadays Malus' law is seen as a key experiment to demonstrate the transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, as well as the intrinsic connection between optics and electromagnetism. In this work, a simple and inexpensive setup is proposed to quantitatively verify the nature of polarized light. A flat computer screen…

  15. Reflection and transmission of polarized light by planetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooij, W.A. de.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis the reflection and transmission of sunlight by planetary atmospheres is studied, taking full account of the polarization of light. The atmospheres are treated as being locally plane-parallel, and are assumed to consist of a number of homogeneous layers, the lowest one being either a ground surface or a semi-infinite homogeneous layer. (Auth.)

  16. Hyperchaotic Dynamics for Light Polarization in a Laser Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatto, Cristian

    2018-04-01

    It is shown that a highly randomlike behavior of light polarization states in the output of a free-running laser diode, covering the whole Poincaré sphere, arises as a result from a fully deterministic nonlinear process, which is characterized by a hyperchaotic dynamics of two polarization modes nonlinearly coupled with a semiconductor medium, inside the optical cavity. A number of statistical distributions were found to describe the deterministic data of the low-dimensional nonlinear flow, such as lognormal distribution for the light intensity, Gaussian distributions for the electric field components and electron densities, Rice and Rayleigh distributions, and Weibull and negative exponential distributions, for the modulus and intensity of the orthogonal linear components of the electric field, respectively. The presented results could be relevant for the generation of single units of compact light source devices to be used in low-dimensional optical hyperchaos-based applications.

  17. Smart Sensing Methodology for Object Identification Using Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Coordination-Driven Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yuki; Nakano, Yuka; Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Yuasa, Junpei

    2018-05-21

    This work demonstrates a potential use of circularly polarized luminescence for object identification methodology in a sensor application. Towards this aim, we have developed new luminescence probes using pyrene derivatives as sensor luminophores. The probes [(R,R)- and (S,S)-Im2Py] contain two chiral imidazole moieties at 1,6-positions through ethynyl spacers (the angle between the spacers is close to 180°). The probe molecules spontaneously self-assemble into chiral stacks (P or M helicity) upon coordination to metal ions with tetrahedral coordination preference (e.g., Zn2+). The chiral probes display neither circular dichroism (CD) nor circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) in the absence of metal ions. However, [(R,R)- and (S,S)-Im2Py] begins to exhibit intense chiroptical activity (CD and CPL) upon self-assembly with Zn2+ ions. The unique chiroptical properties of [(R,R)- and (S,S)-Im2Py] with chemical stimuli-responsibility are capable of demonstrating the new sensing methodology using the CPL signal as detection output, enabling us to discriminate between a signal from the target analyte and that from non-target species. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Polarization of sky light from a canopy atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H

    2004-01-01

    Light from the clear sky is produced by the scattering of unpolarized sunlight by molecules of the atmosphere and is partially linearly polarized in the process. Singly scattered light, for instance, is fully polarized in viewing directions perpendicular to the sun direction and less and less so towards the parallel and antiparallel directions, where it is unpolarized. The true, multiple, scattering is much less tractable, but importantly different, changing the polarization pattern's topology by splitting the unpolarized directions into pairs. The underlying cause of this 'symmetry breaking' is that the atmosphere is 'wider' than it is deep. Simplifying as much as possible while retaining this feature leads to the caricature atmosphere analysed here: a flattened sheet atmosphere in the sky, a canopy. The multiple scattering is fully tractable and leads to a simple polarization pattern in the sky: the ellipses and hyperbolas of standard confocal ellipsoidal coordinates. The model realizes physically a mathematical pattern of polarization in terms of a complex function proposed by Berry, Dennis and Lee (2004 New J. Phys.6 162) as the simplest one which captures the topology

  19. Polarized light use in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freas, Cody A; Narendra, Ajay; Lemesle, Corentin; Cheng, Ken

    2017-08-01

    Solitary foraging ants have a navigational toolkit, which includes the use of both terrestrial and celestial visual cues, allowing individuals to successfully pilot between food sources and their nest. One such celestial cue is the polarization pattern in the overhead sky. Here, we explore the use of polarized light during outbound and inbound journeys and with different home vectors in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas . We tested foragers on both portions of the foraging trip by rotating the overhead polarization pattern by ±45°. Both outbound and inbound foragers responded to the polarized light change, but the extent to which they responded to the rotation varied. Outbound ants, both close to and further from the nest, compensated for the change in the overhead e-vector by about half of the manipulation, suggesting that outbound ants choose a compromise heading between the celestial and terrestrial compass cues. However, ants returning home compensated for the change in the e-vector by about half of the manipulation when the remaining home vector was short (1-2 m) and by more than half of the manipulation when the remaining vector was long (more than 4 m). We report these findings and discuss why weighting on polarization cues change in different contexts.

  20. A high throughput liquid crystal light shutter for unpolarized light using polymer polarization gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komanduri, Ravi K.; Lawler, Kris F.; Escuti, Michael J.

    2011-05-01

    We report on a broadband, diffractive, light shutter with the ability to modulate unpolarized light. This polarizer-free approach employs a conventional liquid crystal (LC) switch, combined with broadband Polarization Gratings (PGs) formed with polymer LC materials. The thin-film PGs act as diffractive polarizing beam-splitters, while the LC switch operates on both orthogonal polarization states simultaneously. As an initial experimental proof-of- concept for unpolarized light with +/-7° aperture, we utilize a commercial twisted-nematic LC switch and our own polymer PGs to achieve a peak transmittance of 80% and peak contrast ratio of 230:1. We characterize the optoelectronic performance, discuss the limitations, and evaluate its use in potential nonmechanical shutter applications (imaging and non-imaging).

  1. Can invertebrates see the e-vector of polarization as a separate modality of light?

    OpenAIRE

    Labhart, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The visual world is rich in linearly polarized light stimuli, which are hidden from the human eye. But many invertebrate species make use of polarized light as a source of valuable visual information. However, exploiting light polarization does not necessarily imply that the electric (e)-vector orientation of polarized light can be perceived as a separate modality of light. In this Review, I address the question of whether invertebrates can detect specific e-vector orientations in a ...

  2. Theory and simulation of ion acceleration with circularly polarized laser pulses; Theorie et simulation de l'acceleration des ions par impulsions laser a polarisation circulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macchi, A. [CNR/INFM/polyLAB, Pisa (Italy); Macchi, A.; Tuveri, S.; Veghini, S. [Pisa Univ., Dept. of Physics E. Fermi (Italy); Liseikina, T.V. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Ion acceleration driven by the radiation pressure of circularly polarized pulses is investigated via analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulations. Both thick and thin targets, i.e. the 'hole boring' and 'light sail' regimes are considered. Parametric studies in one spatial dimension are used to determine the optimal thickness of thin targets and to address the effects of preformed plasma profiles and laser pulse ellipticity in thick targets. Three-dimensional (3D) simulations show that 'flat-top' radial profiles of the intensity are required to prevent early laser pulse breakthrough in thin targets. The 3D simulations are also used to address the issue of the conservation of the angular momentum of the laser pulse and its absorption in the plasma. (authors)

  3. Generation of Bright Phase-matched Circularly-polarized Extreme Ultraviolet High Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-08

    1995). 42. Eichmann , H. et al. Polarization-dependent high-order two-color mixing. Phys. Rev. A 51, R3414–R3417 (1995). 43. Fleischer, A., Kfir, O...calculations of polarization-dependent two- color high-harmonic generation. Phys. Rev. A 52, 2262–2278 (1995). 10. Eichmann , H. et al. polarization

  4. Motility analysis of circularly swimming bull spermatozoa by quasi-elastic light scattering and cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, T; Hallett, F R; Nickel, B

    1982-04-01

    The Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation is used to predict the electric field autocorrelation functions of light scattered from circularly swimming bull spermatozoa. Using parameters determined from cinematography and modeling the cells as coated ellipsoids of semiaxes a = 0.5 micrometers, b = 2.3 micrometers, and c = 9.0 micrometers, we were able to obtain model spectra that mimic the data exactly. A coat is found to be a necessary attribute of the particle. It is also clear that these model functions at 15 degrees may be represented by the relatively simple function used before by Hallett et al. (1978) to fit data from circularly swimming cells, thus giving some physical meaning to these functional shapes. Because of this agreement the half-widths of experimental functions can now be interpreted in terms of an oscillatory frequency for the movement of the circularly swimming cell. The cinematographic results show a trend to chaotic behavior as the temperature of the sample is increased, with concomitant decrease in overall efficiency. This is manifested by a decrease in oscillatory frequency and translational speed.

  5. Robust sky light polarization detection with an S-wave plate in a light field camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Cao, Yu; Liu, Haibo; Liu, Zejin

    2016-05-01

    The sky light polarization navigator has many advantages, such as low cost, no decrease in accuracy with continuous operation, etc. However, current celestial polarization measurement methods often suffer from low performance when the sky is covered by clouds, which reduce the accuracy of navigation. In this paper we introduce a new method and structure based on a handheld light field camera and a radial polarizer, composed of an S-wave plate and a linear polarizer, to detect the sky light polarization pattern across a wide field of view in a single snapshot. Each micro-subimage has a special intensity distribution. After extracting the texture feature of these subimages, stable distribution information of the angle of polarization under a cloudy sky can be obtained. Our experimental results match well with the predicted properties of the theory. Because the polarization pattern is obtained through image processing, rather than traditional methods based on mathematical computation, this method is less sensitive to errors of pixel gray value and thus has better anti-interference performance.

  6. Ultra-wideband high-efficiency reflective linear-to-circular polarization converter based on metasurface at terahertz frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yannan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jiao; Akwuruoha, Charles Nwakanma; Cao, Weiping

    2017-10-30

    The polarization conversion of electromagnetic (EM) waves, especially linear-to-circular (LTC) polarization conversion, is of great significance in practical applications. In this study, we propose an ultra-wideband high-efficiency reflective LTC polarization converter based on a metasurface in the terahertz regime. It consists of periodic unit cells, each cell of which is formed by a double split resonant square ring, dielectric layer, and fully reflective gold mirror. In the frequency range of 0.60 - 1.41 THz, the magnitudes of the reflection coefficients reach approximately 0.7, and the phase difference between the two orthogonal electric field components of the reflected wave is close to 90° or -270°. The results indicate that the relative bandwidth reaches 80% and the efficiency is greater than 88%, thus, ultra-wideband high-efficiency LTC polarization conversion has been realized. Finally, the physical mechanism of the polarization conversion is revealed. This converter has potential applications in antenna design, EM measurement, and stealth technology.

  7. Reversible Shaping of Microwells by Polarized Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Pirani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, stimuli-responsive polymeric materials have attracted great interest, due to their low cost and ease of structuration over large areas combined with the possibility to actively manipulate their properties. In this work, we propose a polymeric pattern of soft-imprinted microwells containing azobenzene molecules. The shape of individual elements of the pattern can be controlled after fabrication by irradiation with properly polarized light. By taking advantage of the light responsivity of the azobenzene compound, we demonstrate the possibility to reversibly modulate a contraction-expansion of wells from an initial round shape to very narrow slits. We also show that the initial shape of the microconcavities can be restored by flipping the polarization by 90°. The possibility to reversibly control the final shape of individual elements of structured surfaces offers the opportunity to engineer surface properties dynamically, thus opening new perspectives for several applications.

  8. Optically Polarized Conduction-Band Electrons in Tungsten Observed by Spin-Polarized Photoemission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zürcher, P.; Meier, F.; Christensen, N. E.

    1979-01-01

    Along the (100) direction of tungsten, interband transitions induced by circularly polarized light of energy 1.5 eV......Along the (100) direction of tungsten, interband transitions induced by circularly polarized light of energy 1.5 eV...

  9. Extended high circular polarization in the Orion massive star forming region: implications for the origin of homochirality in the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Tsubasa; Tamura, Motohide; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hough, James H; Bailey, Jeremy; Whittet, Douglas C B; Lucas, Philip W; Nakajima, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Jun

    2010-06-01

    We present a wide-field (approximately 6' x 6') and deep near-infrared (K(s) band: 2.14 mum) circular polarization image in the Orion nebula, where massive stars and many low-mass stars are forming. Our results reveal that a high circular polarization region is spatially extended (approximately 0.4 pc) around the massive star-forming region, the BN/KL nebula. However, other regions, including the linearly polarized Orion bar, show no significant circular polarization. Most of the low-mass young stars do not show detectable extended structure in either linear or circular polarization, in contrast to the BN/KL nebula. If our solar system formed in a massive star-forming region and was irradiated by net circularly polarized radiation, then enantiomeric excesses could have been induced, through asymmetric photochemistry, in the parent bodies of the meteorites and subsequently delivered to Earth. These could then have played a role in the development of biological homochirality on Earth.

  10. Trinary optical logic processors using shadow casting with polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amal K.; Basuray, A.

    1990-10-01

    An optical implementation is proposed of the modified trinary number (MTN) system (Datta et al., 1989) in which any binary number can have arithmetic operations performed on it in parallel without the need for carry and borrow steps. The present method extends the lensless shadow-casting technique of Tanida and Ichioka (1983, 1985). Three kinds of spatial coding are used for encoding the trinary input states, whereas in the decoding plane three states are identified by no light and light with two orthogonal states of polarization.

  11. The HIP 79977 debris disk in polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, N.; Schmid, H. M.; Thalmann, Ch.; Boccaletti, A.; Bazzon, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Beuzit, J. L.; Claudi, R.; Costille, A.; Desidera, S.; Dohlen, K.; Dominik, C.; Feldt, M.; Fusco, T.; Ginski, C.; Gisler, D.; Girard, J. H.; Gratton, R.; Henning, T.; Hubin, N.; Janson, M.; Kasper, M.; Kral, Q.; Langlois, M.; Lagadec, E.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M. R.; Milli, J.; Mouillet, D.; Olofsson, J.; Pavlov, A.; Pragt, J.; Puget, P.; Quanz, S. P.; Roelfsema, R.; Salasnich, B.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Sissa, E.; Suarez, M.; Szulagyi, J.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Wildi, F.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Debris disks are observed around 10 to 20% of FGK main-sequence stars as infrared excess emission. They are important signposts for the presence of colliding planetesimals and therefore provide important information about the evolution of planetary systems. Direct imaging of such disks reveals their geometric structure and constrains their dust-particle properties. Aims: We present observations of the known edge-on debris disk around HIP 79977 (HD 146897) taken with the ZIMPOL differential polarimeter of the SPHERE instrument. We measure the observed polarization signal and investigate the diagnostic potential of such data with model simulations. Methods: SPHERE-ZIMPOL polarimetric data of the 15 Myr-old F star HIP 79977 (Upper Sco, 123 pc) were taken in the Very Broad Band (VBB) filter (λc = 735 nm, Δλ = 290 nm) with a spatial resolution of about 25 mas. Imaging polarimetry efficiently suppresses the residual speckle noise from the AO system and provides a differential signal with relatively small systematic measuring uncertainties. We measure the polarization flux along and perpendicular to the disk spine of the highly inclined disk for projected separations between 0.2'' (25 AU) and 1.6'' (200 AU). We perform model calculations for the polarized flux of an optically thin debris disk which are used to determine or constrain the disk parameters of HIP 79977. Results: We measure a polarized flux contrast ratio for the disk of (Fpol)disk/F∗ = (5.5 ± 0.9) × 10-4 in the VBB filter. The surface brightness of the polarized flux reaches a maximum of SBmax = 16.2 mag arcsec-2 at a separation of 0.2''-0.5'' along the disk spine with a maximum surface brightness contrast of 7.64 mag arcsec-2. The polarized flux has a minimum near the star 1''. This can be explained by a radial blow-out of small grains. The data are modelled as a circular dust belt with a well defined disk inclination I = 85( ± 1.5)° and a radius between r0 = 60 and 90 AU. The radial

  12. Controlling electron quantum paths for generation of circularly polarized high-order harmonics by H2+ subject to tailored (ω , 2 ω ) counter-rotating laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslar, John; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, studies of high-order harmonics (HHG) from atoms driven by bichromatic counter-rotating circularly polarized laser fields as a source of coherent circularly polarized extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft-x-ray beams in a tabletop-scale setup have received considerable attention. Here, we demonstrate the ability to control the electron recollisions giving three returns per one cycle of the fundamental frequency ω by using tailored bichromatic (ω , 2 ω ) counter-rotating circularly polarized laser fields with a molecular target. The full control of the electronic pathway is first analyzed by a classical trajectory analysis and then extended to a detailed quantum study of H2+ molecules in bichromatic (ω , 2 ω ) counter-rotating circularly polarized laser fields. The radiation spectrum contains doublets of left- and right-circularly polarized harmonics in the XUV ranges. We study in detail the below-, near-, and above-threshold harmonic regions and describe how excited-state resonances alter the ellipticity and phase of the generated harmonic peaks.

  13. Research of the impact of coupling between unit cells on performance of linear-to-circular polarization conversion metamaterial with half transmission and half reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengchao; Zhou, Kan; Wang, Xiaokun; Zhuang, Haiyan; Tang, Dongming; Zhang, Baoshan; Yang, Yi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the impact of coupling between unit cells on the performance of linear-to-circular polarization conversion metamaterial with half transmission and half reflection is analyzed by changing the distance between the unit cells. An equivalent electrical circuit model is then built to explain it based on the analysis. The simulated results show that, when the distance between the unit cells is 23 mm, this metamaterial converts half of the incident linearly-polarized wave into reflected left-hand circularly-polarized wave and converts the other half of it into transmitted left-hand circularly-polarized wave at 4.4 GHz; when the distance is 28 mm, this metamaterial reflects all of the incident linearly-polarized wave at 4.4 GHz; and when the distance is 32 mm, this metamaterial converts half of the incident linearly-polarized wave into reflected right-hand circularly-polarized wave and converts the other half of it into transmitted right-hand circularly-polarized wave at 4.4 GHz. The tunability is realized successfully. The analysis shows that the changes of coupling between unit cells lead to the changes of performance of this metamaterial. The coupling between the unit cells is then considered when building the equivalent electrical circuit model. The built equivalent electrical circuit model can be used to perfectly explain the simulated results, which confirms the validity of it. It can also give help to the design of tunable polarization conversion metamaterials.

  14. Switchable polarization rotation of visible light using a plasmonic metasurface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart K. Earl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A metasurface comprising an array of silver nanorods supported by a thin film of the phase change material vanadium dioxide is used to rotate the primary polarization axis of visible light at a pre-determined wavelength. The dimensions of the rods were selected such that, across the two phases of vanadium dioxide, the two lateral localized plasmon resonances (in the plane of the metasurface occur at the same wavelength. Illumination with linearly polarized light at 45° to the principal axes of the rod metasurface enables excitation of both of these resonances. Modulating the phase of the underlying substrate, we show that it is possible to reversibly switch which axis of the metasurface is resonant at the operating wavelength. Analysis of the resulting Stokes parameters indicates that the orientation of the principal linear polarization axis of the reflected signal is rotated by 90° around these wavelengths. Dynamic metasurfaces such as these have the potential to form the basis of an ultra-compact, low-energy multiplexer or router for an optical signal.

  15. Understanding interference experiments with polarized light through photon trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, A.S.; Davidovic, M.; Bozic, M.; Miret-Artes, S.

    2010-01-01

    Bohmian mechanics allows to visualize and understand the quantum-mechanical behavior of massive particles in terms of trajectories. As shown by Bialynicki-Birula, Electromagnetism also admits a hydrodynamical formulation when the existence of a wave function for photons (properly defined) is assumed. This formulation thus provides an alternative interpretation of optical phenomena in terms of photon trajectories, whose flow yields a pictorial view of the evolution of the electromagnetic energy density in configuration space. This trajectory-based theoretical framework is considered here to study and analyze the outcome from Young-type diffraction experiments within the context of the Arago-Fresnel laws. More specifically, photon trajectories in the region behind the two slits are obtained in the case where the slits are illuminated by a polarized monochromatic plane wave. Expressions to determine electromagnetic energy flow lines and photon trajectories within this scenario are provided, as well as a procedure to compute them in the particular case of gratings totally transparent inside the slits and completely absorbing outside them. As is shown, the electromagnetic energy flow lines obtained allow to monitor at each point of space the behavior of the electromagnetic energy flow and, therefore, to evaluate the effects caused on it by the presence (right behind each slit) of polarizers with the same or different polarization axes. This leads to a trajectory-based picture of the Arago-Fresnel laws for the interference of polarized light.

  16. Multiangular hyperspectral investigation of polarized light in case 2 waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonizzo, A.; Zhou, J.; Gilerson, A.; Chowdhary, J.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.; Ahmed, S.

    2009-09-01

    The focus of this work is on the dependence of in situ hyperspectral and multiangular polarized data on the size distribution and refractive index of the suspended particles. Underwater polarization measurements were obtained using a polarimeter developed at the Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory of the City College of New York, NY. The degree of polarization (DOP) of the underwater light field in coastal environments was measured and the water-leaving polarized radiance was derived. In-water optical properties were also measured with an ac-9 (WET Labs). Absorption and attenuation spectra are then used to derive information on the dissolved and suspend components in the water medium which are used in a vector radiative transfer code which provides the upwelling radiance. The model was run for various values of the refractive index of mineral particles until the modeled DOP matched the measured one. The relationship between the intensity of the maximum of the DOP and both the refractive index of the mineral particles and the shapes of their size distributions is analyzed in detail.

  17. Stopping power and polarization induced in a plasma by a fast charged particle in circular motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villo-Perez, Isidro [Departamento de Electronica, Tecnologia de las Computadoras y Proyectos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Spain); Arista, Nestor R. [Division Colisiones Atomicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Bariloche (Argentina); Garcia-Molina, Rafael [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia (Spain)

    2002-03-28

    We describe the perturbation induced in a plasma by a charged particle in circular motion, analysing in detail the evolution of the induced charge, the electrostatic potential and the energy loss of the particle. We describe the initial transitory behaviour and the different ways in which convergence to final stationary solutions may be obtained depending on the basic parameters of the problem. The results for the stopping power show a resonant behaviour which may give place to large stopping enhancement values as compared with the case of particles in straight-line motion with the same linear velocity. The results also explain a resonant effect recently obtained for particles in circular motion in magnetized plasmas. (author)

  18. Physical processes in azobenzene polymers on irradiation with polarized light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, N.C.R.; Nikolova, L.; Norris, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    Azobenzenes can serve as model compounds for the study of trans-cis isomerization in more complex molecules. We have performed time-resolved spectroscopy in solutions containing free azobenzene chromophores and diols with a view to obtaining the energy levels and lifetimes of the excited states....... A transition route based on experimental results for the theoretically calculated energy level scheme is proposed. Physical observations of surface relief in thin films of azobenzene polymers when irradiated with polarized light are reported. These include two beam polarization holographic observations...... and single beam transmission measurements through a mask, followed by atomic force microscope and profiler investigations. It is concluded that none of the prevalent theories can explain all the observed facts....

  19. Photonic Heterostructures with Properties of Ferroelectrics and Light Polarizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P., E-mail: palto@online.ru; Draginda, Yu A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-15

    The optical and electro-optical properties of a new type of photonic heterostructure composed of alternating ferroelectric molecular layers and optically anisotropic layers of another material are considered. A numerical simulation of the real prototype of this heterostructure, which can be prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett method from layers of a ferroelectric copolymer (polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) and an azo dye with photoinduced optical anisotropy, has been performed. It is shown that this heterostructure has pronounced polarization optical properties and yields a significant change in the polarization state of light at the photonic band edges in the ranges of the maximum density of photon states. The latter property can be used to obtain an enhanced electro-optic effect at small spectral shifts of the photonic band (the latter can be provided by the piezoelectric effect in ferroelectric layers).

  20. The experimental method of measurement for spatial distribution of full aperture backscatter light by circular PIN-array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xuefeng; Wang Chuanke; Hu Feng; Kuang Longyu; Wang Zhebin; Li Sanwei; Liu Shengye; Jiang Gang

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of backscatter light is very important for understanding the production of backscatter light. The experimental method of spatial distribution of full aperture backscatter light is based on the circular PIN array composed of concentric orbicular multi-PIN detectors. The image of backscatter light spatial distribution of full aperture SBS is obtained by measuring spatial distribution of full aperture backscatter light using the method in the experiment of laser hohlraum targets interaction at 'Shenguang II'. A preliminary method to measure spatial distribution of full aperture backscatter light is established. (authors)

  1. Submicron scale tissue multifractal anisotropy in polarized laser light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandan Kumar; Dey, Rajib; Chakraborty, Semanti; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Meglinski, Igor; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2018-03-01

    The spatial fluctuations of the refractive index within biological tissues exhibit multifractal anisotropy, leaving its signature as a spectral linear diattenuation of scattered polarized light. The multifractal anisotropy has been quantitatively assessed by the processing of relevant Mueller matrix elements in the Fourier domain, utilizing the Born approximation and subsequent multifractal analysis. The differential scaling exponent and width of the singularity spectrum appear to be highly sensitive to the structural multifractal anisotropy at the micron/sub-micron length scales. An immediate practical use of these multifractal anisotropy parameters was explored for non-invasive screening of cervical precancerous alterations ex vivo, with the indication of a strong potential for clinical diagnostic purposes.

  2. Wavefronts, light rays and caustic of a circular wave reflected by an arbitrary smooth curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano-Melchor, Magdalena; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Montiel-Piña, Enrique; Román-Hernández, Edwin; Santiago-Santiago, José Guadalupe; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Rosado, Alfonso; Suárez-Xique, Román

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to obtain expressions for both the wavefront train and the caustic associated with the light rays reflected by an arbitrary smooth curve after being emitted by a point light source located at an arbitrary position in the two-dimensional free space. To this end, we obtain an expression for the k-function associated with the general integral of Stavroudis to the eikonal equation that describes the evolution of the reflected light rays. The caustic is computed by using the definitions of the critical and caustic sets of the two-dimensional map that describes the evolution of an arbitrary wavefront associated with the general integral. The general results are applied to circular and parabolic mirrors. The main motivation to carry out this research is to establish, in future work, the caustic touching theorem in a two-dimensional optical medium and to study the diffraction problem by using the k-function concept. Both problems are important in the computation of the image of an arbitrary object under reflection and refraction

  3. Spin-polarized light-emitting diodes based on organic bipolar spin valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardeny, Zeev Valentine; Nguyen, Tho Duc; Ehrenfreund, Eitan Avraham

    2017-10-25

    Spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes are provided. Such spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes incorporate ferromagnetic electrodes and show considerable spin-valve magneto-electroluminescence and magneto-conductivity responses, with voltage and temperature dependencies that originate from the bipolar spin-polarized space charge limited current.

  4. Chiral Binaphthylbis(4,4'-Bipyridin-1-Ium)/Cucurbit[8]Uril Supramolecular System and Its Induced Circularly Polarized Luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Man; Chen, Yong; Liang, Lu; Liu, Qiu-Jun; Liu, Yu

    2018-05-01

    Circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) induced by host-guest complexation remains a challenge in supramolecular chemistry. Herein, a couple of CPL-silent enantiomeric guest binaphthylbis(4,4'-bipyridinium) salts can emit obvious CPL in the presence of cucurbit[8]uril in aqueous media, due to the restriction of molecular rotation limitation effect. Such CPL can be reversibly adjusted by the addition of acid and base. Furthermore, the resultant supramolecular systems can interact with DNA, accompanied by the morphological conversion from branched supramolecular nanowires to exfoliated nanowires, which can enable to the exploration of such supramolecular systems as DNA markers by CPL signals. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Intense Vibronic Modulation of the Chiral Photoelectron Angular Distribution Generated by Photoionization of Limonene Enantiomers with Circularly Polarized Synchrotron Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee Fanood, Mohammad M; Ganjitabar, Hassan; Garcia, Gustavo A; Nahon, Laurent; Turchini, Stefano; Powis, Ivan

    2018-04-17

    Photoionization of the chiral monoterpene limonene has been investigated using polarized synchrotron radiation between the adiabatic ionization threshold, 8.505 and 23.5 eV. A rich vibrational structure is seen in the threshold photoelectron spectrum and is interpreted using a variety of computational methods. The corresponding photoelectron circular dichroism-measured in the photoelectron angular distribution as a forward-backward asymmetry with respect to the photon direction-was found to be strongly dependent on the vibronic structure appearing in the photoelectron spectra, with the observed asymmetry even switching direction in between the major vibrational peaks. This effect can be ultimately attributed to the sensitivity of this dichroism to small phase shifts between adjacent partial waves of the outgoing photoelectron. These observations have implications for potential applications of this chiroptical technique, where the enantioselective analysis of monoterpene components is of particular interest. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. CPW-fed Circularly Polarized Slot Antenna with Small Gap and Stick-shaped Shorted Strip for UHF FRID Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yuan; Su, Chum-Chieh; Yang, Wei-Lin

    2018-04-01

    A new circularly polarized (CP) slot antenna with a small gap and a stick-shaped shorted strip is presented. The proposed antenna has a sufficient bandwidth for ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader applications. The antenna structure consists of a rectangular slot with a small gap, a stick-shaped shorted strip and a 50 Ω coplanar waveguide (CPW) feedline with an asymmetrical ground plane. By using the stick -shaped shorted strip to disturb magnetic current distribution on the slot, the CP radiation can be generated. The measured results demonstrate that the proposed antenna can reach a 10 dB return loss impedance bandwidth of 14.1 % (894-1030 MHz) and a 3 dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of 6.4 % (910-970 MHz). The whole antenna size is 80 × 80 × 1.6 mm3.

  7. Dirac electron in a chiral space-time crystal created by counterpropagating circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzdov, G. N.

    2017-10-01

    The family of solutions to the Dirac equation for an electron moving in an electromagnetic lattice with the chiral structure created by counterpropagating circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves is obtained. At any nonzero quasimomentum, the dispersion equation has two solutions which specify bispinor wave functions describing electron states with different energies and mean values of momentum and spin operators. The inversion of the quasimomentum results in two other linearly independent solutions. These four basic wave functions are uniquely defined by eight complex scalar functions (structural functions), which serve as convenient building blocks of the relations describing the electron properties. These properties are illustrated in graphical form over a wide range of quasimomenta. The superpositions of two basic wave functions describing different spin states and corresponding to (i) the same quasimomentum (unidirectional electron states with the spin precession) and (ii) the two equal-in-magnitude but oppositely directed quasimomenta (bidirectional electron states) are also treated.

  8. Chiroptical methods in a wide wavelength range for obtaining Ln3+ complexes with circularly polarized luminescence of practical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Marcin; Carpita, Luca; Arrico, Lorenzo; Zinna, Francesco; Di Bari, Lorenzo

    2018-05-29

    We studied enantiopure chiral trivalent lanthanide (Ln3+ = La3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tm3+, and Yb3+) complexes with two fluorinated achiral tris(β-diketonate) ligands (HFA = hexafluoroacetylacetonate and TTA = 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate), incorporating a chiral bis(oxazolinyl)pyridine (PyBox) unit as a neutral ancillary ligand, by the combined use of optical and chiroptical methods, ranging from UV to IR both in absorption and circular dichroism (CD), and including circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). Ultimately, all the spectroscopic information is integrated into a total and a chiroptical super-spectrum, which allows one to characterize a multidimensional chemical space, spanned by the different Ln3+ ions, the acidity and steric demand of the diketone and the chirality of the PyBox ligand. In all cases, the Ln3+ ions endow the systems with peculiar chiroptical properties, either allied to f-f transitions or induced by the metal onto the ligand. In more detail, we found that Sm3+ complexes display interesting CPL features, which partly superimpose and partly integrate the more common Eu3+ properties. Especially, in the context of security tags, the pair Sm/Eu may be a winning choice for chiroptical barcoding.

  9. Optically Active CdSe-Dot/CdS-Rod Nanocrystals with Induced Chirality and Circularly Polarized Luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiaji; Hao, Junjie; Liu, Haochen; Li, Jiagen; Li, Junzi; Zhu, Xi; Lin, Xiaodong; Wang, Kai; He, Tingchao

    2018-05-30

    Ligand-induced chirality in semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) has attracted attention because of the tunable optical properties of the NCs. Induced circular dichroism (CD) has been observed in CdX (X = S, Se, Te) NCs and their hybrids, but circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) in these fluorescent nanomaterials has been seldom reported. Herein, we describe the successful preparation of l- and d-cysteine-capped CdSe-dot/CdS-rods (DRs) with tunable CD and CPL behaviors and a maximum anisotropic factor ( g lum ) of 4.66 × 10 -4 . The observed CD and CPL activities are sensitive to the relative absorption ratio of the CdS shell to the CdSe core, suggesting that the anisotropic g-factors in both CD and CPL increase to some extent for a smaller shell-to-core absorption ratio. In addition, the molar ratio of chiral cysteine to the DRs is investigated. Instead of enhancing the chiral interactions between the chiral molecules and DRs, an excess of cysteine molecules in aqueous solution inhibits both the CD and CPL activities. Such chiral and emissive NCs provide an ideal platform for the rational design of semiconductor nanomaterials with chiroptical properties.

  10. Helicity-Selective Phase-Matching and Quasi-Phase matching of Circularly Polarized High-Order Harmonics: Towards Chiral Attosecond Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-23

    2 Department of Physics and JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, Boulder, CO 80309, USA 3Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Ort Braude...polarized high harmonic generation, phase matching, ultrafast chiral physics, attosecond pulses (Some figures may appear in colour only in the online...temporal resolution and in spectral regions unavailable to circular polarization thus far. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the USA –Israel

  11. Measuring polarization dependent dispersion of non-polarizing beam splitter cubes with spectrally resolved white light interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csonti, K.; Hanyecz, V.; Mészáros, G.; Kovács, A. P.

    2017-06-01

    In this work we have measured the group-delay dispersion of an empty Michelson interferometer for s- and p-polarized light beams applying two different non-polarizing beam splitter cubes. The interference pattern appearing at the output of the interferometer was resolved with two different spectrometers. It was found that the group-delay dispersion of the empty interferometer depended on the polarization directions in case of both beam splitter cubes. The results were checked by inserting a glass plate in the sample arm of the interferometer and similar difference was obtained for the two polarization directions. These results show that to reach high precision, linearly polarized white light beam should be used and the residual dispersion of the empty interferometer should be measured at both polarization directions.

  12. High ambient contrast ratio OLED and QLED without a circular polarizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Guanjun; Zhu, Ruidong; Luo, Zhenyue; Wu, Shin-Tson; Tsai, Yi-Shou; Lee, Kuo-Chang; Lee, Yuh-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A high ambient contrast ratio display device using a transparent organic light emitting diode (OLED) or transparent quantum-dot light-emitting diode (QLED) with embedded multilayered structure and absorber is proposed and its performance is simulated. With the help of multilayered structure, the device structure allows almost all ambient light to get through the display device and be absorbed by the absorber. Because the reflected ambient light is greatly reduced, the ambient contrast ratio of the display system is improved significantly. Meanwhile, the multilayered structure helps to lower the effective refractive index, which in turn improves the out-coupling efficiency of the display system. Potential applications for sunlight readable flexible and rollable displays are emphasized. (paper)

  13. Critical heat flux experiments in a circular tube with heavy water and light water. (AWBA Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.L.; Beus, S.G.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments were performed to establish the critical heat flux (CHF) characteristics of heavy water and light water. Testing was performed with the up-flow of heavy and of light water within a 0.3744 inch inside diameter circular tube with 72.3 inches of heated length. Comparisons were made between heavy water and light water critical heat flux levels for the same local equilibrium quality at CHF, operating pressure, and nominal mass velocity. Results showed that heavy water CHF values were, on the average, 8 percent below the light water CHF values

  14. Ionization of oriented targets by intense circularly polarized laser pulses: Imprints of orbital angular nodes in the two-dimensional momentum distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Christian; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a few-cycle circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulse that interacts with an oriented target exemplified by an argon atom, initially in a 3px or 3py state. The photoelectron momentum distributions show distinct signatures o...

  15. Theory and analysis of a large field polarization imaging system with obliquely incident light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaotian; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Li; Wang, Xia; Qiu, Su; Liu, Jing

    2018-02-05

    Polarization imaging technology provides information about not only the irradiance of a target but also the polarization degree and angle of polarization, which indicates extensive application potential. However, polarization imaging theory is based on paraxial optics. When a beam of obliquely incident light passes an analyser, the direction of light propagation is not perpendicular to the surface of the analyser and the applicability of the traditional paraxial optical polarization imaging theory is challenged. This paper investigates a theoretical model of a polarization imaging system with obliquely incident light and establishes a polarization imaging transmission model with a large field of obliquely incident light. In an imaging experiment with an integrating sphere light source and rotatable polarizer, the polarization imaging transmission model is verified and analysed for two cases of natural light and linearly polarized light incidence. Although the results indicate that the theoretical model is consistent with the experimental results, the theoretical model distinctly differs from the traditional paraxial approximation model. The results prove the accuracy and necessity of the theoretical model and the theoretical guiding significance for theoretical and systematic research of large field polarization imaging.

  16. Proposal of coherent Cherenkov radiation matched to circular plane wave for intense terahertz light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sei, Norihiro; Sakai, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Ken; Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Nakao, Keisuke; Nogami, Kyoko; Inagaki, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a new intense terahertz-wave source based on coherent Cherenkov radiation (CCR). • A hollow conical dielectric is used to generate the CCR beam. • The wave front of the CCR beam can be matched to the basal plane. • The peak-power of the CCR beam is above 1 MW per micropulse with a short interval of 350 ps. - Abstract: We propose a high-peak-power terahertz-wave source based on an electron accelerator. By passing an electron beam through a hollow conical dielectric with apex facing the incident electron beam, the wave front of coherent Cherenkov radiation generated on the inner surface of the hollow conical dielectric matches the basal plane. Using the electron beam generated at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application at Nihon University, the calculated power of coherent Cherenkov radiation that matched the circular plane (CCR-MCP) was above 1 MW per micropulse with a short interval of 350 ps, for wavelengths ranging from 0.5 to 5 mm. The electron beam is not lost for generating the CCR-MCP beam by using the hollow conical dielectric. It is possible to combine the CCR-MCP beams with other light sources based on an accelerator

  17. Slim planar apparatus for converting LED light into collimated polarized light uniformly emitted from its top surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Tun-Chien; Tseng, Li-Wei

    2014-10-20

    This study proposes a slim planar apparatus for converting nonpolarized light from a light-emitting diode (LED) into an ultra-collimated linearly polarized beam uniformly emitted from its top surface. The apparatus was designed based on a folded-bilayer configuration comprising a light-mixing collimation element, polarization conversion element, and polarization-preserving light guide plate (PPLGP) with an overall thickness of 5 mm. Moreover, the apparatus can be extended transversally by connecting multiple light-mixing collimation elements and polarization conversion elements in a side-by-side configuration to share a considerably wider PPLGP, so the apparatus can have theoretically unlimited width. The simulation results indicate that the proposed apparatus is feasible for the maximal backlight modules in 39-inch liquid crystal panels. In the case of an apparatus with a 480 × 80 mm emission area and two 8-lumen LED light sources, the average head-on polarized luminance and spatial uniformity over the emission area was 5000 nit and 83%, respectively; the vertical and transverse angular distributions of the emitting light were only 5° and 10°, respectively. Moreover, the average degree of polarization and energy efficiency of the apparatus were 82% and 72%, respectively. As compared with the high-performance ultra-collimated nonpolarized backlight module proposed in our prior work, not only did the apparatus exhibit outstanding optical performance, but also the highly polarized light emissions actually increased the energy efficiency by 100%.

  18. Material and device studies for the development of ultra-violet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDS) along polar, non-polar and semi-polar directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Ramya

    Over the past few years, significant effort was dedicated to the development of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) for a variety of applications. Such applications include chemical and biological detection, water purification and solid-state lighting. III-Nitride LEDs based on multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown along the conventional [0001] (polar) direction suffer from the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE), due to the existence of strong electric fields that arise from spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization. Thus, there is strong motivation to develop MQW-based III-nitride LED structures grown along non-polar and semi-polar directions. The goal of this dissertation is to develop UV-LEDs along the [0001] polar and [11 2¯ 0] non-polar directions by the method of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). The polar and non-polar LEDs were grown on the C-plane and R-plane sapphire substrates respectively. This work is a combination of materials science studies related to the nucleation, growth and n- and p-type doping of III-nitride films on these two substrates, as well as device studies related to fabrication and characterization of UV-LEDs. It was observed that the crystallographic orientation of the III-nitride films grown on R-plane sapphire depends strongly on the kinetic conditions of growth of the Aluminum Nitride (AIN) buffer. Specifically, growth of the AIN buffer under group III-rich conditions leads to nitride films having the (11 2¯ 0) non polar planes parallel to the sapphire surface, while growth of the buffer under nitrogen rich conditions leads to nitride films with the (11 2¯ 6) semi-polar planes parallel to the sapphire surface. The electron concentration and mobility for the films grown along the polar, non-polar and semi-polar directions were investigated. P-type doping of Gallium Nitride (GaN) films grown on the nonpolar (11 2¯ 0) plane do not suffer from polarity inversion and thus the material was doped p-type with a hole concentration

  19. Circular polarimetry of the magnetic compact binary AM Herculis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piirola, V; Vilhu, O; Tuominen, I

    1982-01-01

    Circular polarimetry in the red and simultaneous photometric observations in the UBVRI bands during the period June 1 to 3, 1981, of AM Herculis are discussed. Peak value of negative circular polarization (- 15 %) is stronger than observed in 1976 to 1979. Variations in the shape of the polarization and light curves occur from night to night. Positive crossover and reversal of the sign of the circular polarization are only marginal. Long term changes in polarization may be partly due to precession of the axis of rotation of the white dwarf about the binary axis. However, the duration of the phase interval where circular polarization remains close to zero changes on a time scale of days, casting doubt on precession models. The changing shape and position of the accretion columns with respect to the magnetic axis could explain short term variations. (ESA)

  20. Highly polarized light emission by isotropic quantum dots integrated with magnetically aligned segmented nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uran, Can; Erdem, Talha; Guzelturk, Burak; Perkgöz, Nihan Kosku; Jun, Shinae; Jang, Eunjoo; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept system for generating highly polarized light from colloidal quantum dots (QDs) coupled with magnetically aligned segmented Au/Ni/Au nanowires (NWs). Optical characterizations reveal that the optimized QD-NW coupled structures emit highly polarized light with an s-to p-polarization (s/p) contrast as high as 15:1 corresponding to a degree of polarization of 0.88. These experimental results are supported by the finite-difference time-domain simulations, which demonstrate the interplay between the inter-NW distance and the degree of polarization.

  1. Optical parametric amplification of arbitrarily polarized light in periodically poled LiNbO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guang-hao; Song, Xiao-shi; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2012-08-13

    Optical parametric amplification (OPA) of arbitrarily polarized light is proposed in a multi-section periodically poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN). External electric field is applied on selected sections to induce the polarization rotation of involved lights, thus the quasi-phase matched optical parametric processes exhibit polarization insensitivity under suitable voltage. In addition to the amplified signal wave, an idler wave with the same polarization is generated simultaneously. As an example, a ~10 times OPA showing polarization independency is simulated. Applications of this technology are also discussed.

  2. Simulation of a circular phased array for a portable ultrasonic polar scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemen, Jannes; Kersemans, Mathias; Martens, Arvid; Verboven, Erik; Delrue, Steven; Van Paepegem, Wim; Degrieck, Joris; Van Den Abeele, Koen

    2018-04-01

    The development of new composite materials, often anisotropic in nature, requires intricate approaches to characterize these materials and to detect internal defects. The Ultrasonic Polar Scan (UPS) is able to achieve both goals. During an UPS experiment, a material spot is insonified at several angles Ψ(θ,ϕ), after which the reflected or transmitted signal is recorded. While excellent results have been obtained using an in-house developed 5-axis scanner, UPS measurements with the current set-up are too lengthy and cumbersome for in-situ industrial application. Therefore, we propose to replace the complex mechanical steering of the transducers by a hemispherical phased array consisting of small PZT elements. This allows to create a compact and portable setup without compromising the current data quality. By successively activating a specific set of elements of the array and choosing appropriate inter-element time delays, the beam can be electronically steered from any angle to a fixed position on the targeted sample. Consequently, UPS reflection measurements can be performed at this position from a wide range of angles in a timeframe of seconds. Additionally, by using apodization windows, it is possible to efficiently reduce the intensity of unwanted side lobes and to create a phase profile which closely resembles that of a bounded plane wave, leading to an easier interpretation of the recorded data. The appropriate time delays and apodization parameters can be found though a multi-objective inverse problem in which both the phase profile and the side lobe reduction are optimized. This approach enables the creation of an effective beam profile to be used during UPS experiments for the characterization and inspection of composite materials. Our simulation approach is a crucial step towards a next-generation UPS device for industrial applications and in-field measurements.

  3. Molecular frame photoemission: a probe of electronic/nuclear photo-dynamics and polarization state of the ionizing light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veyrinas, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This is thesis is dedicated to the study and the use of the remarkable properties of the molecular frame photoelectron angular distribution (MFPAD). This observable is a very sensitive probe of both the photoionization (PI) processes in small molecules, through the determination of the magnitudes and relative phases of the dipole matrix elements, and the polarization state of the ionizing light, which is entirely encoded in the MFPAD in terms of the Stokes parameters (s1, s2, s3). MFPAD measurements take advantage of dissociative photoionization (DPI) processes by combining an electron-ion 3D momentum spectroscopy technique with the use of different radiation facilities: SOLEIL synchrotron (DESIRS and PLEIADES beamlines) and the XUV PLFA beamline (SLIC, LIDyL Attophysics group, CEA Saclay) based on the interaction of a strong laser field with a gaseous target called high harmonic generation (HHG). The first part of the thesis is devoted to the complete characterization of the polarization state of an incoming radiation. In this context, an original 'molecular polarimetry' method is introduced and demonstrated by comparison with a VUV optical polarimeter available on the DESIRS beamline. Using this method to determine the full polarization ellipse of HHG radiation generated in different conditions on the XUV PLFA facility leads to original results that include the challenging disentanglement of the circular and unpolarized components of the studied radiation. The second part deals with the study of DPI of the H 2 , D 2 and HD molecules induced by circularly polarized light at resonance with the doubly excited states Q1 and Q2. In this energy region (30-35 eV) where direct ionization, autoionization and dissociation compete on a femtosecond timescale, the photonic excitation gives rise to complex ultrafast electronic and nuclear coupled dynamics. The remarkable asymmetries observed in the circular dichroism in the molecular frame, compared to quantum

  4. ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING AND ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY (EMSAT) Task Order 0003: Design of a Circularly Polarized, 20 60 GHZ Active Phased Array for Wide Angle Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    previously published linear -to-circular polarizers. This is because the first sheet has a low inductance in the -direction, which acts as a wire-grid...GHZ Active Phased Array for Wide Angle Scanning Carl R. Pfeiffer Defense Engineering Corporation Boris Tomasic Multispectral Sensing and...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62204F/61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Carl R. Pfeiffer (Defense Engineering Corporation) Boris Tomasic (AFRL

  5. Methods for polarized light emission from CdSe quantum dot based monolithic pillar microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfried, Moritz; Kalden, Joachim; Sebald, Kathrin; Gutowski, Juergen; Kruse, Carsten; Hommel, Detlef [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A lifting of the polarization degeneracy of the fundamental cavity mode in pillar microcavities (MCs) would allow for controlling the polarization state of the emitted photons. Therefore, monolithic VCSEL structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy containing either one CdSe/ZnSSe quantum dot layer or three quantum well layers as active material. By using focused-ion-beam etching, MC pillars with different geometries were prepared out of the planar samples. Among these are circularly shaped pillar MCs with diameters in the range from 500 nm up to 4 {mu}m and quality factors of up to 7860, elliptically shaped MCs, and so-called photonic molecules consisting of circular pillar MCs which are connected by small bars. Polarization dependent photoluminescence investigations of the fundamental cavity mode reveal a lifting of the polarization degeneracy for all three types of MCs. The energy splitting of up to 0.42 meV in the circularly shaped pillar MCs is probably caused by anisotropic strain conditions within the sample and directly dependent on the pillar diameter, whereas the larger energy splitting of up to 0.72 meV for the photonic molecules or even 4.5 meV for the elliptically shaped MC is based on their asymmetric cross sections.

  6. Field-induced spin splitting and anomalous photoluminescence circular polarization in C H3N H3Pb I3 films at high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Sheng, Chuan-Xiang; McGill, Stephen; Semenov, Dmitry; Vardeny, Zeev Valy

    2018-04-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites show excellent optical and electrical properties for photovoltaic and a myriad of other optoelectronics applications. Using high-field magneto-optical measurements up to 17.5 T at cryogenic temperatures, we have studied the spin-dependent optical transitions in the prototype C H3N H3Pb I3 , which are manifested in the field-induced circularly polarized photoluminescence emission. The energy splitting between left and right circularly polarized emission bands is measured to be ˜1.5 meV at 17.5 T, from which we obtained an exciton effective g factor of ˜1.32. Also from the photoluminescence diamagnetic shift we estimate the exciton binding energy to be ˜17 meV at low temperature. Surprisingly, the corresponding field-induced circular polarization is "anomalous" in that the photoluminescence emission of the higher split energy band is stronger than that of the lower split band. This "reversed" intensity ratio originates from the combination of long electron spin relaxation time and hole negative g factor in C H3N H3Pb I3 , which are in agreement with a model based on the k.p effective-mass approximation.

  7. The effect of polarized light on the organization of collagen secreted by fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilbekova, Dana; Boddupalli, Anuraag; Bratlie, Kaitlin M

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of low-power lasers and polarized light on wound healing, inflammation, and the treatment of rheumatologic and neurologic disorders. The overall effect of laser irradiation treatment is still controversial due to the lack of studies on the biochemical mechanisms and the optimal parameters for the incident light that should be chosen for particular applications. Here, we study how NIH/3T3 fibroblasts respond to irradiation with linearly polarized light at different polarization angles. In particular, we examined vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, differentiation to myofibroblasts, and collagen organization in response to 800 nm polarized light at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° with a power density of 40 mW/cm 2 for 6 min every day for 6 days. Additional experiments were conducted in which the polarization angle of the incident was changed every day to induce an isotropic distribution of collagen. The data presented here shows that polarized light can upregulate VEGF production, myofibroblast differentiation, and induce different collagen organization in response to different polarization angles of the incident beam. These results are encouraging and demonstrate possible methods for controlling cell response through the polarization angle of the laser light, which has potential for the treatment of wounds.

  8. Measuring circular dichroism in a capillary cell using the b23 synchrotron radiation CD beamline at diamond light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jávorfi, Tamás; Hussain, Rohanah; Myatt, Daniel; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2010-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a well-established method in structural biology. The first UV-VIS beamline dedicated to circular dichroism at Diamond Light Source, a third generation synchrotron facility in South Oxfordshire, has recently become operational and it is now available for the user community. Herein we present an important application of SRCD: the CD measurement of protein solutions in fused silica rectangular capillary cells. This was achieved without the use of any lens between the photoelastic modulator and the photomultiplier tube detectors by exploiting the high photon flux of the collimated beam that can be as little as half a millimeter squared. Measures to minimize or eliminate vacuum-UV protein denaturation effects are discussed. The CD spectra measured in capillaries is a proof of principle to address CD measurements in microdevice systems using the new B23 SRCD beamline. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Polarized light sensitivity and orientation in coral reef fish post-larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igal Berenshtein

    Full Text Available Recent studies of the larvae of coral-reef fishes reveal that these tiny vertebrates possess remarkable swimming capabilities, as well as the ability to orient to olfactory, auditory, and visual cues. While navigation according to reef-generated chemicals and sounds can significantly affect dispersal, the effect is limited to the vicinity of the reef. Effective long-distance navigation requires at least one other capacity-the ability to maintain a bearing using, for example, a sun compass. Directional information in the sun's position can take the form of polarized-light related cues (i.e., e-vector orientation and percent polarization and/or non-polarized-light related cues (i.e., the direct image of the sun, and the brightness and spectral gradients. We examined the response to both types of cues using commercially-reared post-larvae of the spine-cheeked anemonefish Premnas biaculeatus. Initial optomotor trials indicated that the post-larval stages are sensitive to linearly polarized light. Swimming directionality was then tested using a Drifting In-Situ Chamber (DISC, which allowed us to examine the response of the post-larvae to natural variation in light conditions and to manipulated levels of light polarization. Under natural light conditions, 28 of 29 post-larvae showed significant directional swimming (Rayleigh's test p<0.05, R = 0.74±0.23, but to no particular direction. Swimming directionality was positively affected by sky clarity (absence of clouds and haze, which explained 38% of the observed variation. Moreover, post-larvae swimming under fully polarized light exhibited a distinct behavior of tracking the polarization axis, as it rotated along with the DISC. This behavior was not observed under partially-polarized illumination. We view these findings as an indication for the use of sun-related cues, and polarized light signal in specific, by orienting coral-reef fish larvae.

  10. Polarized light sensitivity and orientation in coral reef fish post-larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenshtein, Igal; Kiflawi, Moshe; Shashar, Nadav; Wieler, Uri; Agiv, Haim; Paris, Claire B

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of the larvae of coral-reef fishes reveal that these tiny vertebrates possess remarkable swimming capabilities, as well as the ability to orient to olfactory, auditory, and visual cues. While navigation according to reef-generated chemicals and sounds can significantly affect dispersal, the effect is limited to the vicinity of the reef. Effective long-distance navigation requires at least one other capacity-the ability to maintain a bearing using, for example, a sun compass. Directional information in the sun's position can take the form of polarized-light related cues (i.e., e-vector orientation and percent polarization) and/or non-polarized-light related cues (i.e., the direct image of the sun, and the brightness and spectral gradients). We examined the response to both types of cues using commercially-reared post-larvae of the spine-cheeked anemonefish Premnas biaculeatus. Initial optomotor trials indicated that the post-larval stages are sensitive to linearly polarized light. Swimming directionality was then tested using a Drifting In-Situ Chamber (DISC), which allowed us to examine the response of the post-larvae to natural variation in light conditions and to manipulated levels of light polarization. Under natural light conditions, 28 of 29 post-larvae showed significant directional swimming (Rayleigh's test p<0.05, R = 0.74±0.23), but to no particular direction. Swimming directionality was positively affected by sky clarity (absence of clouds and haze), which explained 38% of the observed variation. Moreover, post-larvae swimming under fully polarized light exhibited a distinct behavior of tracking the polarization axis, as it rotated along with the DISC. This behavior was not observed under partially-polarized illumination. We view these findings as an indication for the use of sun-related cues, and polarized light signal in specific, by orienting coral-reef fish larvae.

  11. Electron and nuclear spin system polarization in semiconductors by light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenya, B; Flejsher, V

    1981-02-01

    Discussed are the principles of optical electron spin orientation, dynamic polarization and cooling of nuclear spin systems in optical electron orientation, and behavioural characteristics of bound electron and nuclear spin systems of a semiconductor in the optical orientation situation.

  12. Optical asymmetric cryptography based on amplitude reconstruction of elliptically polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jianjun; Shen, Xueju; Lei, Ming

    2017-11-01

    We propose a novel optical asymmetric image encryption method based on amplitude reconstruction of elliptically polarized light, which is free from silhouette problem. The original image is analytically separated into two phase-only masks firstly, and then the two masks are encoded into amplitudes of the orthogonal polarization components of an elliptically polarized light. Finally, the elliptically polarized light propagates through a linear polarizer, and the output intensity distribution is recorded by a CCD camera to obtain the ciphertext. The whole encryption procedure could be implemented by using commonly used optical elements, and it combines diffusion process and confusion process. As a result, the proposed method achieves high robustness against iterative-algorithm-based attacks. Simulation results are presented to prove the validity of the proposed cryptography.

  13. Central-moment description of polarization for quantum states of light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björk, G.; Söderholm, J.; Kim, Y.-S.

    2012-01-01

    We present a moment expansion for the systematic characterization of the polarization properties of quantum states of light. Specifically,we link the method to themeasurements of the Stokes operator in different directions on the Poincar´e sphere and provide a scheme for polarization tomography w...

  14. Polarization-dependent diffraction in all-dielectric, twisted-band structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardaś, Tomasz M.; Jagodnicka, Anna; Wasylczyk, Piotr, E-mail: pwasylcz@fuw.edu.pl [Photonic Nanostructure Facility, Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-11-23

    We propose a concept for light polarization management: polarization-dependent diffraction in all-dielectric microstructures. Numerical simulations of light propagation show that with an appropriately configured array of twisted bands, such structures may exhibit zero birefringence and at the same time diffract two circular polarizations with different efficiencies. Non-birefringent structures as thin as 3 μm have a significant difference in diffraction efficiency for left- and right-hand circular polarizations. We identify the structural parameters of such twisted-band matrices for optimum performance as circular polarizers.

  15. Haemozoin Detection in Mouse Liver Histology Using Simple Polarized Light Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    DWI RAMADHANI; SITI NURHAYATI; TUR RAHARDJO

    2014-01-01

    The presence of malarial pigment (haemozoin) due to Plasmodium infection is a common histopathological effect in mouse liver. Previous research showed that by using a polarized light microscope, researchers were better able to detect haemozoin in mouse liver histology section. Thus, the aim of this research was to compare the haemozoin area observed by a conventional vs. simple polarized light microscope by using image processing analysis. A total of 40 images produced from both conventional ...

  16. Centralized light-source optical access network based on polarization multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Fulvio; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a centralized light source optical access network based on optical polarization multiplexing technique. By using two optical sources emitting light orthogonally polarized in the Central Node for downstream and upstream operations, the Remote Node is kept source-free. EVM values below telecommunication standard requirements have been measured experimentally when bidirectional digital signals have been transmitted over 10 km of SMF employing subcarrier multiplexing technique in the electrical domain.

  17. A novel autonomous real-time position method based on polarized light and geomagnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yinlong; Chu, Jinkui; Zhang, Ran; Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhiwen

    2015-01-01

    Many animals exploit polarized light in order to calibrate their magnetic compasses for navigation. For example, some birds are equipped with biological magnetic and celestial compasses enabling them to migrate between the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. The Vikings' ability to derive true direction from polarized light is also widely accepted. However, their amazing navigational capabilities are still not completely clear. Inspired by birds' and Vikings' ancient navigational skills. Here we...

  18. Light-mediated polarization of the PIN3 auxin transporter for the phototropic response in Arabidopsis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Zhaojun; Galván-Ampudia Carlos S; Demarsy Emilie; Langowski Lukasz; Kleine-Vehn Jürgen; Fan Yuanwei; Morita Miyo T; Tasaka Masao; Fankhauser Christian; Offringa Remko; Friml Jirí

    2011-01-01

    Phototropism is an adaptation response through which plants grow towards the light. It involves light perception and asymmetric distribution of the plant hormone auxin. Here we identify a crucial part of the mechanism for phototropism revealing how light perception initiates auxin redistribution that leads to directional growth. We show that light polarizes the cellular localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN3 in hypocotyl endodermis cells resulting in changes in auxin distribution and d...

  19. Full Alignment of Molecules Using Elliptically Polarized Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Juul; Hald, Kasper; Seideman, Tamar

    When a molecule with an anisotropic polarizability is placed in a strong nonresonant laser field the interaction occurs through the induced dipole moment. The outcome is that the molecule experiences an angular dependent potential energy. It is now well established that a linearly polarized laser...... field can be used to align molecules along their axis of highest polarizability. Here we demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, that an elliptically polarized laser field can be used to simultaneously force two axes of a molecule into alignment through the same mechanism. Due to the rigidity...

  20. Can invertebrates see the e-vector of polarization as a separate modality of light?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhart, Thomas

    2016-12-15

    The visual world is rich in linearly polarized light stimuli, which are hidden from the human eye. But many invertebrate species make use of polarized light as a source of valuable visual information. However, exploiting light polarization does not necessarily imply that the electric (e)-vector orientation of polarized light can be perceived as a separate modality of light. In this Review, I address the question of whether invertebrates can detect specific e-vector orientations in a manner similar to that of humans perceiving spectral stimuli as specific hues. To analyze e-vector orientation, the signals of at least three polarization-sensitive sensors (analyzer channels) with different e-vector tuning axes must be compared. The object-based, imaging polarization vision systems of cephalopods and crustaceans, as well as the water-surface detectors of flying backswimmers, use just two analyzer channels. Although this excludes the perception of specific e-vector orientations, a two-channel system does provide a coarse, categoric analysis of polarized light stimuli, comparable to the limited color sense of dichromatic, 'color-blind' humans. The celestial compass of insects employs three or more analyzer channels. However, that compass is multimodal, i.e. e-vector information merges with directional information from other celestial cues, such as the solar azimuth and the spectral gradient in the sky, masking e-vector information. It seems that invertebrate organisms take no interest in the polarization details of visual stimuli, but polarization vision grants more practical benefits, such as improved object detection and visual communication for cephalopods and crustaceans, compass readings to traveling insects, or the alert 'water below!' to water-seeking bugs. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Unusual Circularly Polarized and Aggregation-Induced Near-Infrared Phosphorescence of Helical Platinum(II) Complexes with Tetradentate Salen Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jintong; Wang, Man; Zhou, Xiangge; Xiang, Haifeng

    2018-05-17

    A series of chiral and helical Pt II -Salen complexes with 1,1'-binaphthyl linkers were synthesized and characterized. Owing to the restriction of intramolecular motions of central 1,1'-binaphthyls, the complexes exhibit unusual near-infrared aggregation-induced phosphorescence (AIP). The (R)/(S) enantiopure complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, circular dichroism spectra, time-dependent density functional theory calculations, and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). The present work explores the use of tetradentate ligands that can be easily prepared from commercially available enantiopure compounds, and the subsequent preparation of stable CPL-active square planar Pt II complexes with AIP effect that may have interest in many applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Dynamics of a charged particle in a circularly polarized travelling electromagnetic wave. Self-consistent model for the wave-particle dynamical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, A.

    1999-01-01

    This work concerns mainly the dynamics of a charged particle in an electromagnetic wave. It is a first step in elaborating a more general model permitting to predict the wave-particle interaction. We show how deriving a first integral gives an idea on how to create an electron current in a cold electron plasma. We present results which can be used to test the 2D and 3D Vlasov-Maxwell codes being built up in CEA-DAM. These codes will allow the calcination of the magnetic field created by an electromagnetic wave like the one due to the inverse Faraday effect when a circularly polarized wave drives the electrons of a plasma into circular orbits. (author)

  3. Electron and nuclear spin system polarization in semiconductors by light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharchenya, B.; Flejsher, V.

    1981-01-01

    Discussed are the principles of optical electron spin orientation, dynamic polarization and cooling of nuclear spin systems in optical electron orientation, and behavioural characteristics of bound electron and nuclear spin systems of a semiconductor in the optical orientation situation. (J.P.)

  4. Design and Calibration of a Novel Bio-Inspired Pixelated Polarized Light Compass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Han

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Animals, such as Savannah sparrows and North American monarch butterflies, are able to obtain compass information from skylight polarization patterns to help them navigate effectively and robustly. Inspired by excellent navigation ability of animals, this paper proposes a novel image-based polarized light compass, which has the advantages of having a small size and being light weight. Firstly, the polarized light compass, which is composed of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD camera, a pixelated polarizer array and a wide-angle lens, is introduced. Secondly, the measurement method of a skylight polarization pattern and the orientation method based on a single scattering Rayleigh model are presented. Thirdly, the error model of the sensor, mainly including the response error of CCD pixels and the installation error of the pixelated polarizer, is established. A calibration method based on iterative least squares estimation is proposed. In the outdoor environment, the skylight polarization pattern can be measured in real time by our sensor. The orientation accuracy of the sensor increases with the decrease of the solar elevation angle, and the standard deviation of orientation error is 0 . 15 ∘ at sunset. Results of outdoor experiments show that the proposed polarization navigation sensor can be used for outdoor autonomous navigation.

  5. A novel fibrous duct structure discovered in the brain meninges by using polarized light microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Min-Ho; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Lim, Jaekwan; Seo, Eunseok; Lim, Jun; Baek, Miok; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-05-01

    We have previously reported the discovery of a novel fibrous structure (NFS) consisting of unidirectionally arranged collagen fibers in the spinal pia mater. Due to its unique structure, it was easily detected using polarized light microscopy. In the current study, we describe the discovery of a similar NFS in the brain meninges of rats by using polarized light microscopy. This NFS is located beneath the superior sagittal sinus. Initially, we systemically analyzed the polarization properties of the NFS. The change in the light intensity of the NFS, with respect to the polarization angle, was eight times greater than that of blood vessels, showing that the collagen fibers are oriented in a particular direction with almost perfect parallelism (0.99). The orientation angle of the polarization ellipse confirmed the orientation of the collagen fibers in the NFS. Histological studies further confirmed that the unidirectionally arranged collagen fibers were responsible for this distinct polarization property. Surprisingly, X-ray microtomography and 3D confocal imaging revealed that the NFS contains within it a duct structure, a putative primo vessel. In conclusion, we report a NFS in the brain meninges, detected by using polarized light microscopy, that provides space for a putative primo vessel, not a blood vessel.

  6. Retrieving the polarization information for satellite-to-ground light communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Qiangqiang; Guo, Zhongyi; Xu, Qiang; Gao, Jun; Jiao, Weiyan; Wang, Xinshun; Qu, Shiliang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the reconstruction of the polarization states (degree of polarization (DoP) and angle of polarization (AoP)) of the incident light which passed through a 10 km atmospheric medium between the satellite and the Earth. Here, we proposed a more practical atmospheric model in which the 10 km atmospheric medium is divided into ten layers to be appropriate for the Monte Carlo simulation algorithm. Based on this model, the polarization retrieve (PR) method can be used for reconstructing the initial polarization information effectively, and the simulated results demonstrate that the mean errors of the retrieved DoP and AoP are very close to zero. Moreover, the results also show that although the atmospheric medium system is fixed, the Mueller matrices for the downlink and uplink are completely different, which shows that the light transmissions in the two links are irreversible in the layered atmospheric medium system. (paper)

  7. Control the polarization state of light with symmetry-broken metallic metastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Xiang; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Hu, Yuan-Sheng; Hu, Yu-Hui; Wang, Zheng-Han; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the polarization state, the transmission direction, the amplitude and the phase of light in a very limited space is essential for the development of on-chip photonics. Over the past decades, numerous sub-wavelength metallic microstructures have been proposed and fabricated to fulfill these demands. In this article, we review our efforts in achieving negative refractive index, controlling the polarization state, and tuning the amplitude of light with two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. We designed an assembly of stacked metallic U-shaped resonators that allow achieving negative refraction for pure magnetic and electric responses respectively at the same frequency by selecting the polarization of incident light. Based on this, we tune the permittivity and permeability of the structure, and achieve negative refractive index. Further, by control the excitation and radiation of surface electric current on a number of 2D and 3D asymmetric metallic metastructures, we are able to control the polarization state of light. It is also demonstrated that with a stereostructured metal film, the whole metal surfaces can be used to construct either polarization-sensitive or polarization-insensitive prefect absorbers, with the advantage of efficient heat dissipation and electric conductivity. Our practice shows that metamaterials, including metasurface, indeed help to master light in nanoscale, and are promising in the development of new generation of photonics

  8. Double photoionization of helium at an excess energy of 60 eV using left- and right-elliptically-polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.A.; Cvejanovic, S.; Dawson, C.; Reddish, T.J.; Seccombe, D.P.; Huetz, A.; Malegat, L.; Selles, P.; Kazansky, A.K.; Danjo, A.; Soejima, K.; Okuno, K.; Yagishita, A.

    2002-01-01

    Helium double photoionization (γ,2e) triple differential cross sections (TDCSs) were measured at an excess energy of 60 eV using a dual toroidal spectrometer and synchrotron radiation from a helical undulator (BL-28A, Photon Factory, Japan). Energy-sharing ratios (R=E 2 /E 1 ) for the two ejected electrons of 5 and 11 are studied with both right- and left-handed elliptically polarized light. The TDCSs are found to be in good agreement with those obtained using the hyperspherical R matrix with semiclassical outgoing waves theory. The circular dichroism for a limited mutual angular range (φ 12 ≅110 deg. -200 deg.) is determined from the experimental data for both R=5 and 11, and compared to theoretical calculations performed over the complete range of mutual angles. No dynamic nodes are found in either the experimental (within the explored φ 12 range) or theoretical circular dichroism for these R values at this excess energy

  9. Nonlinear dynamics of circularly polarized laser pulse propagating in a magnetized plasma with superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etemadpour, R.; Dorranian, D., E-mail: doran@srbiau.ac.ir [Laser Laboratory, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepehri Javan, N. [Department of Physics, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P.O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of a circularly polarized laser pulse propagating in the magnetized plasmas whose constituents are superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons is studied theoretically. A nonlinear equation which describes the dynamics of the slowly varying amplitude is obtained using a relativistic two-fluid model. Based on this nonlinear equation and taking into account some nonlinear phenomena such as modulational instability, self-focusing and soliton formation are investigated. Effect of the magnetized plasma with superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons on these phenomena is considered. It is shown that the nonthermality and superthermality of particles can substantially change the nonlinearity of medium.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of circularly polarized laser pulse propagating in a magnetized plasma with superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etemadpour, R.; Dorranian, D.; Sepehri Javan, N.

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a circularly polarized laser pulse propagating in the magnetized plasmas whose constituents are superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons is studied theoretically. A nonlinear equation which describes the dynamics of the slowly varying amplitude is obtained using a relativistic two-fluid model. Based on this nonlinear equation and taking into account some nonlinear phenomena such as modulational instability, self-focusing and soliton formation are investigated. Effect of the magnetized plasma with superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons on these phenomena is considered. It is shown that the nonthermality and superthermality of particles can substantially change the nonlinearity of medium.

  11. Detecting Super-Thin Clouds With Polarized Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenbo; Videen, Gorden; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel method for detecting cloud particles in the atmosphere. Solar radiation backscattered from clouds is studied with both satellite data and a radiative transfer model. A distinct feature is found in the angle of linear polarization of solar radiation that is backscattered from clouds. The dominant backscattered electric field from the clear-sky Earth-atmosphere system is nearly parallel to the Earth surface. However, when clouds are present, this electric field can rotate significantly away from the parallel direction. Model results demonstrate that this polarization feature can be used to detect super-thin cirrus clouds having an optical depth of only 0.06 and super-thin liquid water clouds having an optical depth of only 0.01. Such clouds are too thin to be sensed using any current passive satellite instruments.

  12. Characterization of highly scattering media by measurement of diffusely backscattered polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Mourant, Judith R.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for recording spatially dependent intensity patterns of polarized light that is diffusely backscattered from highly scattering media are described. These intensity patterns can be used to differentiate different turbid media, such as polystyrene-sphere and biological-cell suspensions. Polarized light from a He-Ne laser (.lambda.=543 nm) is focused onto the surface of the scattering medium, and a surface area of approximately 4.times.4 cm centered on the light input point is imaged through polarization analysis optics onto a CCD camera. A variety of intensity patterns may be observed by varying the polarization state of the incident laser light and changing the analyzer configuration to detect different polarization components of the backscattered light. Experimental results for polystyrene-sphere and Intralipid suspensions demonstrate that the radial and azimuthal variations of the observed pattern depend on the concentration, size, and anisotropy factor, g, of the particles constituting the scattering medium. Measurements performed on biological cell suspensions show that intensity patterns can be used to differentiate between suspensions of cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Introduction of the Mueller-matrix for diffusely backscattered light, permits the selection of a subset of measurements which comprehensively describes the optical properties of backscattering media.

  13. Flying Drosophilamelanogaster maintain arbitrary but stable headings relative to the angle of polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Timothy L; Weir, Peter T; Dickinson, Michael H

    2018-05-11

    Animals must use external cues to maintain a straight course over long distances. In this study, we investigated how the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster selects and maintains a flight heading relative to the axis of linearly polarized light, a visual cue produced by the atmospheric scattering of sunlight. To track flies' headings over extended periods, we used a flight simulator that coupled the angular velocity of dorsally presented polarized light to the stroke amplitude difference of the animals' wings. In the simulator, most flies actively maintained a stable heading relative to the axis of polarized light for the duration of 15 min flights. We found that individuals selected arbitrary, unpredictable headings relative to the polarization axis, which demonstrates that D . melanogaster can perform proportional navigation using a polarized light pattern. When flies flew in two consecutive bouts separated by a 5 min gap, the two flight headings were correlated, suggesting individuals retain a memory of their chosen heading. We found that adding a polarized light pattern to a light intensity gradient enhanced flies' orientation ability, suggesting D . melanogaster use a combination of cues to navigate. For both polarized light and intensity cues, flies' capacity to maintain a stable heading gradually increased over several minutes from the onset of flight. Our findings are consistent with a model in which each individual initially orients haphazardly but then settles on a heading which is maintained via a self-reinforcing process. This may be a general dispersal strategy for animals with no target destination. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION OF POLARIZED LIGHT IN THE Λ-TYPE MULTI-TERM POLARIZED ATOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, R. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Sainz, R. Manso [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-06-20

    We study the effects of Rayleigh and Raman scattering on the formation of polarized spectral lines in a Λ-type multi-term atom. We fully take into account the partial redistribution of frequency and the presence of atomic polarization in the lower states of the atomic model. Problems that can be modeled with this formalism include, for example, the formation of the Ca ii H–K and IR triplet, the analogous system of Ba ii, and the Ly β –H α system of hydrogenic ions.

  15. Universal holonomic single quantum gates over a geometric spin with phase-modulated polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Naoki; Nakamura, Takaaki; Tanaka, Touta; Mishima, Shota; Kano, Hiroki; Kuroiwa, Ryota; Sekiguchi, Yuhei; Kosaka, Hideo

    2018-05-15

    We demonstrate universal non-adiabatic non-abelian holonomic single quantum gates over a geometric electron spin with phase-modulated polarized light and 93% average fidelity. This allows purely geometric rotation around an arbitrary axis by any angle defined by light polarization and phase using a degenerate three-level Λ-type system in a negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Since the control light is completely resonant to the ancillary excited state, the demonstrated holonomic gate not only is fast with low power, but also is precise without the dynamical phase being subject to control error and environmental noise. It thus allows pulse shaping for further fidelity.

  16. Haemozoin Detection in Mouse Liver Histology Using Simple Polarized Light Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI RAMADHANI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of malarial pigment (haemozoin due to Plasmodium infection is a common histopathological effect in mouse liver. Previous research showed that by using a polarized light microscope, researchers were better able to detect haemozoin in mouse liver histology section. Thus, the aim of this research was to compare the haemozoin area observed by a conventional vs. simple polarized light microscope by using image processing analysis. A total of 40 images produced from both conventional light microscope and simple polarized light microscope were collected. All images were analyzed using ImageJ 1.47 software to measure the haemozoin areas. Our results showed that non birefringent haemozoin and birefringent haemozoin area was significantly different. This was because when using conventional light microscope the brown area that contained images of non birefringent haemozoin images also contained Kupffer cells which appeared as the same brown color as haemozoin. In contrast, haemozoin gave bright effect and can be easily differentiated with Kupffer cells in the birefringent haemozoin images. This study concluded that haemozoin detection in mouse liver histology using a simple polarized light microscope was more accurate compared to that of conventional light microscope.

  17. Observations of Near-Earth Asteroids in Polarized Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, V. L.; Ipatov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    We report the results of position, photometric, and polarimetric observations of two near-Earth asteroids made with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 1.2-hour measurements of the photometric variations of the asteroid 2009 DL46 made onMarch 8, 2016 (approximately 20m at a distance of about 0.23 AU from the Earth) showed a 0.m2-amplitude flash with a duration of about 20 minutes. During this time the polarization degree increased from the average level of 2-3% to 14%. The angle of the polarization plane and the phase angle were equal to 113° ± 1° and 43°, respectively. Our result indicates that the surface of the rotating asteroid (the rotation period of about 2.5 hours) must be non-uniformly rough. Observations of another asteroid—1994 UG—whose brightness was of about 17m and which was located at a geocentric distance of 0.077 AU, were carried out during the night of March 6/7, 2016 in two modes: photometric and spectropolarimetric. According to the results of photometric observations in Johnson's B-, V-, and R-band filters, over one hour the brightness of the asteroid remained unchanged within the measurement errors (about 0.m02). Spectropolarimetric observations in the 420-800 nm wavelength interval showed the polarization degree to decrease from 8% in the blue part of the spectrum to 2% in the red part with the phase angle equal to 44°, which is typical for S-type near-Earth asteroids.

  18. Dinosaur demise in light of their alleged perennial polar residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy, Zeev

    2017-10-01

    The end-Cretaceous biological crisis is represented by the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs. However, most crucial biologically was the elimination of the photosynthesizing marine phyto- and zooplankton forming the base of the marine food chain. Their abrupt demise attests to sunlight screening darkening the atmosphere for a few years. Alvarez et al. (Science 208:1095-1108, 1980. doi: 10.1126/science.208.44) noticed in deep marine end-Cretaceous sediments an anomalous rise in the chemical element iridium (Ir), which is rare on planet Earth and thus suggests an extraterrestrial origin through an impact of a large asteroid. This impact would have ejected enormous quantities of particles and aerosols, shading the solar illumination as attested to by the elimination of the marine photosynthesizing plankton. Such a dark period must have affected life on land. The apparent cold-blooded non-avian dinosaurs, which were used to living in open terrains to absorb the solar illumination, became inactive during the dark period and were incapable of withstanding predators. This was in contrast to cold-blooded crocodilians, turtles and lizards that could hide in refuge sites on land and in the water. Dinosaur relics discovered in Cretaceous Polar Regions were attributed to perennial residents, surviving the nearly half-year-long dark winter despite their ability to leave. The polar concentrations of disarticulated dinosaur bones were suggested as having resulted from a catastrophic burial of a population by floods. However, this should have fossilized complete skeletons. Alternatively, herds of dinosaurs living in high latitudes might have been sexually driven to spend the half year of continuously illuminated polar summer for mating rather than for nourishment, in which the lower latitudes provided as well. The aggressive mating competitions would have left victims among the rivals and of young ones incidentally trampled over, all being consumed and their skeletons

  19. 20/30 GHz dual-band circularly polarized reflectarray antenna based on the concentric dual split-loop element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Thomas Gunst; Vesterdal Larsen, Niels; Vesterager Gothelf, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    A concentric dual split-loop element is designed and investigated for reflectarray antenna design in the emerging 20 GHz and 30 GHz Ka-band satellite communication spectrum. The element is capable of providing adjustment of the phase of reflection coefficients for circular plane waves in two...

  20. Optically polarized atoms understanding light-atom interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Auzinsh, Marcis; Rochester, Simon M

    2010-01-01

    This book is addressed at upper-level undergraduate and graduate students involved in research in atomic, molecular, and optical Physics. It will also be useful to researchers practising in this field. It gives an intuitive, yet sufficiently detailed and rigorous introduction to light-atom interactions with a particular emphasis on the symmetry aspects of the interaction, especially those associated with the angular momentum of atoms and light. The book will enable readers to carryout practical calculations on their own, and is richly illustrated with examples drawn from current research topic

  1. A spin-optoelectronic detector for the simultaneous measurement of the degree of circular polarization and intensity of a laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamari, Shailesh K.; Porwal, S.; Oak, S. M.; Sharma, T. K.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of the degree of circular polarization and intensity of a laser beam is essential in advanced photonic applications. However, it is not feasible with conventional helicity dependent detectors where an additional detector is needed to measure the intensity. Here, we report the development of a spin-optoelectronic detector that can measure the degree of circular polarization and the intensity of a laser beam simultaneously. The principle of operation of device is based on the two independent fundamental phenomena occurring in Au/InP hybrid structures, namely, Inverse Spin Hall Effect (ISHE) and the Photo-Voltaic (PV) Effect. The magnitude of ISHE and PV signals is simultaneously measured across the two pairs of contacts that are made on the top of device. No cross talk is observed between the two detectors made on the same chip. The all-electronic compact device is fast, operates at room temperature, and opens up the possibility of many applications in an integrated optoelectronic platform

  2. Theoretical and numerical evaluation of polarimeter using counter-circularly-polarized-probing-laser under the coupling between Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazawa, Ryota; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated an effect of an coupling between the Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effect to a measurement signal of the Dodel-Kunz method which uses counter-circular-polarized probing-laser for measuring the Faraday effect. When the coupling is small (the Faraday effect is dominant and the characteristic eigenmodes are approximately circularly polarized), the measurement signal can be algebraically expressed and it is shown that the finite effect of the coupling is still significant. When the Faraday effect is not dominant, a numerical calculation is necessary. The numerical calculation under an ITER-like condition (Bt = 5.3 T, Ip = 15 MA, a = 2 m, ne = 10(20) m(-3) and λ = 119 μm) showed that difference between the pure Faraday rotation and the measurement signal of the Dodel-Kunz method was an order of one degree, which exceeds allowable error of ITER poloidal polarimeter. In conclusion, similar to other polarimeter techniques, the Dodel-Kunz method is not free from the coupling between the Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effect.

  3. Extinction of polarized light in ferrofluids with different magnetic particle concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socoliuc, V.; Popescu, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic field intensity and nanoparticle concentration dependence of the polarized light extinction in a ferrofluid made of magnetite particles stabilized with technical grade oleic acid dispersed in transformer oil was experimentally investigated. The magnetically induced optical anisotropy, i.e. the dichroism divided by concentration, was found to decrease with increasing sample concentration from 2% to 8%. The magnetically induced change in the optical extinction of light polarized at 54.74 o with respect to the magnetic field direction was found to be positive for the less concentrated sample (2%) and negative for the samples with 4% and 8% magnetic nanoparticle concentrations, the more negative the higher the concentration and field intensity. Based on the theoretically proven fact that the particle orientation mechanism has no effect on the extinction of light polarized at 54.74 o with respect to the field direction, we analyzed the experimental findings in the frames of the agglomeration and long-range pair correlations theories for the magnetically induced optical anisotropy in ferrofluids. We developed a theoretical model in the approximation of single scattering for the optical extinction coefficient of a ferrofluid with magnetically induced particle agglomeration. The model predicts the existence of a polarization independent component of the optical extinction coefficient that is experimentally measurable at 54.74 o polarization angle. The change in the optical extinction of light polarized at 54.74 o is positive if only the formation of straight n-particle chains is considered and may become negative in the hypothesis that the longer chains degenerate to more isotropic structures (polymer-like coils, globules or bundles of chains). The model for the influence on the light absorption of the long-range pair correlations, published elsewhere, predicts that the change in the optical extinction of light polarized at 54.74 o is always negative, the more

  4. Practical demonstration of the theory of the principle of reflection and refraction of light polarized lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Diaz, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Using an optical system comprising a light source to semiconductor, two collimating lenses, one rotating polarizer, two focusing lenses and an electronic circuit mounted amplifiers based on operational, two pulse outputs of variable width is obtained according to the orientation of the plane of polarized light incident on the lenses coplanar standing together with the electronic circuit inside the optoelectronic head. The difference between the width of both pulses is equivalent to the amount has rotated the plane of polarization and is calculated by the use and programming of a PIC and displayed on an alphanumeric LCD. the result of the measurements are shown performed well plates that you can see the change in the value on the LCD to rotate the polarizer. (Author)

  5. Optical asymmetric cryptography based on elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Wang, Zhisong; Zhao, Cheng

    2014-06-20

    We demonstrate a novel optical asymmetric cryptosystem based on the principle of elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique. The device of an array of linear polarizers is introduced to achieve linear truncation on the spatially resolved elliptical polarization distribution during image encryption. This encoding process can be characterized as confusion-based optical cryptography that involves no Fourier lens and diffusion operation. Based on the Jones matrix formalism, the intensity transmittance for this truncation is deduced to perform elliptical polarized light reconstruction based on two intensity measurements. Use of a quick response code makes the proposed cryptosystem practical, with versatile key sensitivity and fault tolerance. Both simulation and preliminary experimental results that support theoretical analysis are presented. An analysis of the resistance of the proposed method on a known public key attack is also provided.

  6. Vacuum Polarization Tensor for QED in the Light Front Gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, A.T.; Soriano, L.A.; Bolzan, J.D.; Sales, J.H.O.

    2012-01-01

    The use of light front coordinates in quantum field theories (QFT) always brought some problems and controversies. In this work we explore some aspects of its formalism with respect to the employment of dimensional regularization in the computation of the photon's self-energy at the one-loop level and how the fermion propagator has an important role in the outcoming results. (author)

  7. Reconfigurable terahertz grating with enhanced transmission of TE polarized light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an optically reconfigurable grating with enhanced transmission of TE-polarized waves in the terahertz (THz waveband. This kind of grating is realized by projecting a grating image onto a thin Si wafer with a digital micromirror device (DMD. The enhanced transmission is caused by a resonance of the electromagnetic fields between the photoexcited strips. The position of the transmission peak shifts with the variation of the period and duty cycle of the photoinduced grating, which can be readily controlled by the DMD. Furthermore, a flattened Gaussian model was applied to describe the distribution of the photoexcited free carriers in the Si wafer, and the simulated transmittance spectra are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. In future, the photoexcited carriers could also be used to produce THz diffractive elements with reconfigurable functionality.

  8. Polarized scattered light from self-luminous exoplanets. Three-dimensional scattering radiative transfer with ARTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolker, T.; Min, M.; Stam, D. M.; Mollière, P.; Dominik, C.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Direct imaging has paved the way for atmospheric characterization of young and self-luminous gas giants. Scattering in a horizontally-inhomogeneous atmosphere causes the disk-integrated polarization of the thermal radiation to be linearly polarized, possibly detectable with the newest generation of high-contrast imaging instruments. Aims: We aim to investigate the effect of latitudinal and longitudinal cloud variations, circumplanetary disks, atmospheric oblateness, and cloud particle properties on the integrated degree and direction of polarization in the near-infrared. We want to understand how 3D atmospheric asymmetries affect the polarization signal in order to assess the potential of infrared polarimetry for direct imaging observations of planetary-mass companions. Methods: We have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code (ARTES) for scattered light simulations in (exo)planetary atmospheres. The code is applicable to calculations of reflected light and thermal radiation in a spherical grid with a parameterized distribution of gas, clouds, hazes, and circumplanetary material. A gray atmosphere approximation is used for the thermal structure. Results: The disk-integrated degree of polarization of a horizontally-inhomogeneous atmosphere is maximal when the planet is flattened, the optical thickness of the equatorial clouds is large compared to the polar clouds, and the clouds are located at high altitude. For a flattened planet, the integrated polarization can both increase or decrease with respect to a spherical planet which depends on the horizontal distribution and optical thickness of the clouds. The direction of polarization can be either parallel or perpendicular to the projected direction of the rotation axis when clouds are zonally distributed. Rayleigh scattering by submicron-sized cloud particles will maximize the polarimetric signal whereas the integrated degree of polarization is significantly reduced with micron

  9. POLARIZED LIGHT APPLICATION AT CHRONIC INSOMNIA AND HABIT OF SMOKING

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tubič; M. Skorbič

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of patients with situational neurosis, which for years suffered from insomnia, we used a BIOPTRON-2 device. After 10 everyday evening sessions, the process of falling asleep was normalized, and night sleep was maintained with no additional drugs. A group of 30 patients with a chronic habit of intensive smoking was subjected to applications of BIOPTRON-2 generated PILER light for 10 days. In a considerable part of the tested persons, we noticed a decrease in the inclination fo...

  10. Sensing system with USB camera for experiments of polarization of the light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Fabris

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work shows a sensor system for educational experiments, composed of a USB camera and a software developed and provided by the authors. The sensor system is suitable for the purpose of studying phenomena related to the polarization of the light. The system was tested in experiments performed to verify the Malus’ Law and the spectral efficiency of polarizers. Details of the experimental setup are shown. The camera captures the light in the visible spectral range from a LED that illuminates a white screen after passing through two polarizers. The software uses the image captured by the camera to provide the relative intensity of the light. With the use of two rotating H-sheet linear polarizers, a linear fitting of the Malus’s Law to the transmitted light intensity data resulted in correlation coefficients R larger than 0.9988. The efficiency of the polarizers in different visible spectral regions was verified with the aid of color filters added to the experimental setup. The system was also used to evaluate the intensity time stability of a white LED.

  11. POLARIZED LIGHT APPLICATION AT CHRONIC INSOMNIA AND HABIT OF SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tubič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of patients with situational neurosis, which for years suffered from insomnia, we used a BIOPTRON-2 device. After 10 everyday evening sessions, the process of falling asleep was normalized, and night sleep was maintained with no additional drugs. A group of 30 patients with a chronic habit of intensive smoking was subjected to applications of BIOPTRON-2 generated PILER light for 10 days. In a considerable part of the tested persons, we noticed a decrease in the inclination for smoking and an increase in the wish for final putting an end to smoke.

  12. Nuclear spin circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra

  13. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (Bioptron light): a preliminary, prospective, open clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasinopoulos, D; Stasinopoulos, I; Johnson, M I

    2005-04-01

    Our aim was to assess the efficacy of polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (Bioptron light) in the treatment of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compression neuropathy, but no satisfactory conservative treatment is available at present. An uncontrolled experimental study was conducted in patients who visited our clinic from mid-2001 to mid-2002. A total of 25 patients (22 women and three men) with unilateral idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome, mild to moderate nocturnal pain, and paraesthesia lasting >3 months participated in the study. The average age of the patients was 47.4 years and the average duration of patients' symptoms was 5.2 months. Polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (Bioptron light) was administered perpendicular to the carpal tunnel area. The irradiation time for each session was 6 min at an operating distance of 5-10 cm from the carpal tunnel area, three times weekly for 4 weeks. Outcome measures used were the participants' global assessments of nocturnal pain and paraesthesia, respectively, at 4 weeks and 6 months. At 4 weeks, two patients (8%) had no change in nocturnal pain, six (24%) were in slightly less nocturnal pain, 12 (48%) were much better in regard to nocturnal pain and five (20%) were pain-free. At 6 months, three patients (12%) were slightly better in regard to nocturnal pain, 13 (52%) were much better regarding nocturnal pain, and nine patients (36%) were pain-free. At 4 weeks, four patients (16%) had no change in paraesthesia, five (20%) were slightly better, 13 patients (52%) were much better, and three patients (12%) were without paraesthesia. At 6 months, two patients (8%) had no change in paraesthesia, two (8%) were slightly better, 14 (56%) were much better, and seven (28%) were without paraesthesia. Nocturnal pain and paraesthesia associated with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome improved during polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (Bioptron light) treatment. Controlled

  14. New shapes of light-cone distributions of the transversely polarized ρ-mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakulev, A.P.; Mikhajlov, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    The leading twist light-cone distributions for transversely polarized ρ-, ρ ' - and b 1 mesons are reanalyzed in the framework of QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates. Using different kinds of sum rules to obtain reliable predictions, we estimate the 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-th moments for transversely polarized ρ- and ρ ' -meson distributions and reestimate tensor couplings f ρ,ρ ' ,b 1 T . It is stressed that the results of standard sum rules also support our estimation of the second moment of the transversely polarized ρ-meson distribution. New models for light-cone distributions are briefly discussed. Our results are compared with those found by Ball and Braun (1996), and the latter is shown to be incomplete

  15. [Particle Size and Number Density Online Analysis for Particle Suspension with Polarization-Differentiation Elastic Light Scattering Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-kang; Fang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The basic principle of polarization-differentiation elastic light scattering spectroscopy based techniques is that under the linear polarized light incidence, the singlely scattered light from the superficial biological tissue and diffusively scattered light from the deep tissue can be separated according to the difference of polarization characteristics. The novel point of the paper is to apply this method to the detection of particle suspension and, to realize the simultaneous measurement of its particle size and number density in its natural status. We design and build a coaxial cage optical system, and measure the backscatter signal at a specified angle from a polystyrene microsphere suspension. By controlling the polarization direction of incident light with a linear polarizer and adjusting the polarization direction of collected light with another linear polarizer, we obtain the parallel polarized elastic light scattering spectrum and cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum. The difference between the two is the differential polarized elastic light scattering spectrum which include only the single scattering information of the particles. We thus compare this spectrum to the Mie scattering calculation and extract the particle size. We then also analyze the cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum by applying the particle size already extracted. The analysis is based on the approximate expressions taking account of light diffusing, from which we are able to obtain the number density of the particle suspension. We compare our experimental outcomes with the manufacturer-provided values and further analyze the influence of the particle diameter standard deviation on the number density extraction, by which we finally verify the experimental method. The potential applications of the method include the on-line particle quality monitoring for particle manufacture as well as the fat and protein density detection of milk products.

  16. arXiv Black hole superradiance and polarization-dependent bending of light

    CERN Document Server

    Plascencia, Alexis D.

    2018-04-27

    An inhomogeneous pseudo-scalar field configuration behaves like an optically active medium. Consequently, if a light ray passes through an axion cloud surrounding a Kerr black hole, it may experience a polarization-dependent bending. We explore the size and relevance of such effect considering both the QCD axion and a generic axion-like particle.

  17. Modeling optical behavior of birefringent biological tissues for evaluation of quantitative polarized light microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative polarized light microscopy (qPLM) is a popular tool for the investigation of birefringent architectures in biological tissues. Collagen, the most abundant protein in mammals, is such a birefringent material. Interpretation of results of qPLM in terms of collagen network architecture and

  18. Contribution of spontaneous polarization and its fluctuations to refraction of light in ferroelectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markovin, P.A.; Trepakov, Vladimír; Tagantsev, A. K.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Andreev, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2016), 134-139 ISSN 1063-7834 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13778S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : contribution * spontaneous polarization * fluctuations * refraction * light * ferroelectrics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2016

  19. arXiv Black hole superradiance and polarization-dependent bending of light

    CERN Document Server

    Plascencia, Alexis D.

    2017-01-01

    An inhomogeneous pseudo-scalar field configuration behaves like an optically active medium. Consequently, if a light ray passes through an axion cloud surrounding a Kerr black hole, it may experience a polarization-dependent bending. We explore the size and relevance of such effect considering both the QCD axion and a generic axion-like particle.

  20. Myth polar light. Why sky bands, herring lightnings, and solar winds fascinate; Mythos Polarlicht. Warum Himmelsbaender, Heringsblitze und Sonnenwinde faszinieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunnekuhl, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The actual state of knowledge of the polar-light research is in this illustrated volume as entertainingly as scientific-foundedly presented. The pecularities of pola lights beyond the polar-light zones as for instance in Germany are thematized and the conditions and periods, in which it there occurs, explained. Michael Hunnekuhl succeeds to mediate the fascination and emotion and simultaneously to explain the phenomena according to the latest state of science generally understandably. Which very old interpretations and descriptions are transmitted, which imaginations had men of polar lights long before the science could them explain? Hunnekuhl takes the reader along with into the world of legends and myths around the polar light. An experience report from the deeply snowed up wideness of Lapland lets everybody closely participate at a polar-light observation and feel the emotion, which it can fan. Above 70 polar-light pictures of high value and further explaining graphics show the continuously changing play of colors, supplement the explanations, and make the fascination comprehensible. Spectacular polar-light films from the international space station ISS, photographs from sun-observation satellites, as well as a polar-light film in real time are bound in the book via QR codes and make the time dimension and the dynamics of this fascinating natural spectacle alively comprehensible.

  1. Electron's anomalous magnetic-moment effects on electron-hydrogen elastic collisions in the presence of a circularly polarized laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhandi, S.; Taj, S.; Attaourti, Y.; Manaut, B.; Oufni, L.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the electron's anomalous magnetic moment on the relativistic electronic dressing for the process of electron-hydrogen atom elastic collisions is investigated. We consider a laser field with circular polarization and various electric field strengths. The Dirac-Volkov states taking into account this anomaly are used to describe the process in the first order of perturbation theory. The correlation between the terms coming from this anomaly and the electric field strength gives rise to the strong dependence of the spinor part of the differential cross section (DCS) with respect to these terms. A detailed study has been devoted to the nonrelativistic regime as well as the moderate relativistic regime. Some aspects of this dependence as well as the dynamical behavior of the DCS in the relativistic regime have been addressed.

  2. Ultrashort x-ray pulse generation by nonlinear Thomson scattering of a relativistic electron with an intense circularly polarized laser pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear Thomson scattering of a relativistic electron with an intense laser pulse is calculated numerically. The results show that an ultrashort x-ray pulse can be generated by an electron with an initial energy of 5 MeV propagating across a circularly polarized laser pulse with a duration of 8 femtosecond and an intensity of about 1.1×10^{21}  W/cm^{2}, when the detection direction is perpendicular to the propagation directions of both the electron and the laser beam. The optimal values of the carrier-envelop phase and the intensity of the laser pulse for the generation of a single ultrashort x-ray pulse are obtained and verified by our calculations of the radiation characteristics.

  3. Effect of a radial space-charge field on the movement of particles in a magneto-static field and under the influence of a circularly polarized wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffa, A.

    1967-06-01

    The effect of a circularly polarized wave on a cylindrical plasma in a axial magnetostatic field and a radial space-charge field proportional to r is studied. Single particle motion is considered. The electrostatic field produces a shift in the cyclotron resonance frequency and,in case of high charge density, a radial movement of the off-resonance particles. In these conditions a radio-frequency-particle resonance is also possible called 'drift-resonance'. The drift resonance can be produced, with whistler mode, and may be employed in ion acceleration. Afterwards parametrical resonances produced by space-charge field oscillations and collisional limits of theory are studied. Cases in which ion acceleration is possible are considered on the basis of a quantitative analysis of results. (author) [fr

  4. Mono-energetic ion beam acceleration in solitary waves during relativistic transparency using high-contrast circularly polarized short-pulse laser and nanoscale targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Bowers, K. J.; Shah, R. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Fernandez, J. C.; Jung, D.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent experiments at the Trident laser facility, quasi-monoenergetic ion beams have been obtained from the interaction of an ultraintense, circularly polarized laser with a diamond-like carbon target of nm-scale thickness under conditions of ultrahigh laser pulse contrast. Kinetic simulations of this experiment under realistic laser and plasma conditions show that relativistic transparency occurs before significant radiation pressure acceleration and that the main ion acceleration occurs after the onset of relativistic transparency. Associated with this transition are a period of intense ion acceleration and the generation of a new class of ion solitons that naturally give rise to quasi-monoenergetic ion beams. An analytic theory has been derived for the properties of these solitons that reproduces the behavior observed in kinetic simulations and the experiments.

  5. A New Approach to Suppress the Effect of Machining Error for Waveguide Septum Circular Polarizer at 230 GHz Band in Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yutaka; Harada, Ryohei; Tokuda, Kazuki; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Onishi, Toshikazu; Nishimura, Atsushi; Han, Johnson; Inoue, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    A new stepped septum-type waveguide circular polarizer (SST-CP) was developed to operate in the 230 GHz band for radio astronomy, especially submillimeter-band VLBI observations. For previously reported SST-CP models, the 230 GHz band is too high to achieve the design characteristics in manufactured devices because of unexpected machining errors. To realize a functional SST-CP that can operate in the submillimeter band, a new method was developed, in which the division surface is shifted from the top step of the septum to the second step from the top, and we simulated the expected machining error. The SST-CP using this method can compensate for specified machining errors and suppress serious deterioration. To verify the proposed method, several test pieces were manufactured, and their characteristics were measured using a VNA. These results indicated that the insertion losses were approximately 0.75 dB, and the input return losses and the crosstalk of the left- and right-hand circular polarization were greater than 20 dB at 220-245 GHz on 300 K. Moreover, a 230 GHz SST-CP was developed by the proposed method and installed in a 1.85-m radio telescope receiver systems, and then had used for scientific observations during one observation season without any problems. These achievements demonstrate the successful development of a 230 GHz SST-CP for radio astronomical observations. Furthermore, the proposed method can be applicable for observations in higher frequency bands, such as 345 GHz.

  6. Administrative Circulars

    CERN Document Server

    Département des Ressources humaines

    2004-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...

  7. Enhancement of Chiroptical Signals by Circular Differential Mie Scattering of Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    SeokJae Yoo; Q-Han Park

    2015-01-01

    We enhance the weak optical signals of small chiral molecules via circular differential Mie scattering (CDMS) of nanoparticles immersed in them. CDMS is the preferential Mie scattering of left- and right-handed circularly polarized light by nanoparticles whose sizes are about the same as the wavelength of light. Solving the Mie scattering theory for chiral media, we find that the CDMS signal of the particle is linearly proportional to the chirality parameter κ of the molecules. This linear am...

  8. Lateral refraction and reflection of light polarized lenses principle. Coplanar lens systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, L.

    2012-01-01

    Studying the behavior of the linearly polarized light to impact a lens and in the lens itself, resulted in the discovery of a physical principle of optics, not mentioned or used so far. This phenomenon is very useful in practice. Perhaps the manifestation of the phenomenon occurs in the plane perpendicular to the road or optical axis, is due the reason that was not seen before, but it has always been there when polarized light passes through a lens. Known and mastered the principle has been manipulated for better research results, using for the first time a planar lens system, which according to the placement of the lens allows for accurate lags between the light beams ar the exits the system. (Author)

  9. Imaging differential polarization microscope with electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickols, W.; Tinoco, I.; Katz, J.E.; Maestre, M.F.; Bustamante, C.

    1985-01-01

    A differential polarization microscope forms two images: one of the transmitted intensity and the other due to the change in intensity between images formed when different polarizations of light are used. The interpretation of these images for linear dichroism and circular dichroism are described. The design constraints on the data acquisition systems and the polarization modulation are described. The advantage of imaging several biological systems which contain optically anisotropic structures are described

  10. Model of the negative polarization of light of cosmic bodies deprived by atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkuratov, Yu.G.

    1982-01-01

    The formulae are obtained describing the polarization of light scattered by planets deprived of atmospheres, for small phase angles (up to 30 deg). It is suggested that the negative polarization is due to a combination of the shadow effect with single and double noncoplanar Fresnel reflections from microfacets of particles. Theoretical calculations are compared with the experimental data obtained by Lio and Dollfus during Moon observation as well as Zellner and others during 324 Bamberga asteroid observation. In the case with the Moon the best agreement with the experiment is obtained when the actual part of the refractive index n=1.60 and for asteroid n=1.78

  11. Optical image encryption method based on incoherent imaging and polarized light encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Xiong, D.; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.

    2018-05-01

    We propose an incoherent encoding system for image encryption based on a polarized encoding method combined with an incoherent imaging. Incoherent imaging is the core component of this proposal, in which the incoherent point-spread function (PSF) of the imaging system serves as the main key to encode the input intensity distribution thanks to a convolution operation. An array of retarders and polarizers is placed on the input plane of the imaging structure to encrypt the polarized state of light based on Mueller polarization calculus. The proposal makes full use of randomness of polarization parameters and incoherent PSF so that a multidimensional key space is generated to deal with illegal attacks. Mueller polarization calculus and incoherent illumination of imaging structure ensure that only intensity information is manipulated. Another key advantage is that complicated processing and recording related to a complex-valued signal are avoided. The encoded information is just an intensity distribution, which is advantageous for data storage and transition because information expansion accompanying conventional encryption methods is also avoided. The decryption procedure can be performed digitally or using optoelectronic devices. Numerical simulation tests demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme.

  12. Electronic-Optical Amplifier in the measurement of light polarization plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Diaz, Lazaro

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the behavior of the output response of two electronic-optical amplifiers with constant amplitude and phase variable, in which photodiodes each them are arranged spatially 90th each other and both with their faces detection parallel to the axis of light transmission. Outward both amplifiers are going to a digital circuit that compares the fronts outputs to the front of the pulse signal that feeds the light source, to finally obtain the difference in time when fronts of light capture the photodiodes. This configuration permit to analyze the influence of the geometric arrangement of the system optical and understand the principle of why the diodes with their faces parallel to the axis of light transmission are capable of capturing variations of this, and even detect the rotation of the plane of light polarized. (Author)

  13. Single-Layer, Dual-Port, Dual-Band, and Orthogonal-Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna Array with Low Frequency Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-layer, dual-port, dual-band, and dual circularly polarized (CP microstrip array is designed for satellite communication in this paper. The operating frequencies are 8.2 and 8.6 GHz with a very low ratio of 1.05. First, a rectangular patch element is fed through microstrip lines at two orthogonal edges to excite two orthogonal dominant modes of TM01 and TM10. The very low frequency ratio can be realized with high polarization isolations. Then, a 2-by-2 dual-band dual-CP subarray is constructed by two independent sets of sequentially rotated (SR feed structures. An 8-by-8 array is designed on the single-layer thin substrate. Finally, by utilizing one-to-four power dividers and semirigid coaxial cables, a 16-by-16 array is developed to achieve higher gain. Measured results show that the 16-by-16 array has 15 dB return loss (RL bandwidths of 4.81% and 6.75% and 3 dB axial ratio (AR bandwidths of 2.84% and 1.57% in the lower and the upper bands, respectively. Isolations of 18.6 dB and 19.4 dB and peak gains of 25.1 dBic and 25.6 dBic are obtained at 8.2 and 8.6 GHz, respectively.

  14. Indoor radio channel modeling and mitigation of fading effects using linear and circular polarized antennas in combination for smart home system at 868 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, S.; Welpot, M.; Gaspard, I.

    2014-11-01

    The markets for smart home products and services are expected to grow over the next years, driven by the increasing demands of homeowners considering energy monitoring, management, environmental controls and security. Many of these new systems will be installed in existing homes and offices and therefore using radio based systems for cost reduction. A drawback of radio based systems in indoor environments are fading effects which lead to a high variance of the received signal strength and thereby to a difficult predictability of the encountered path loss of the various communication links. For that reason it is necessary to derive a statistical path loss model which can be used to plan a reliable and cost effective radio network. This paper presents the results of a measurement campaign, which was performed in six buildings to deduce realistic radio channel models for a high variety of indoor radio propagation scenarios in the short range devices (SRD) band at 868 MHz. Furthermore, a potential concept to reduce the variance of the received signal strength using a circular polarized (CP) patch antenna in combination with a linear polarized antenna in an one-to-one communication link is presented.

  15. Testing the magnetar scenario for superluminous supernovae with circular polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikota, Aleksandar; Leloudas, Giorgos; Bulla, Mattia; Inserra, Cosimo; Chen, Ting-Wan; Spyromilio, Jason; Patat, Ferdinando; Cano, Zach; Cikota, Stefan; Coughlin, Michael W.; Kankare, Erkki; Lowe, Thomas B.; Maund, Justyn R.; Rest, Armin; Smartt, Stephen J.; Smith, Ken W.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Young, David R.

    2018-05-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are at least ˜5 times more luminous than common supernovae (SNe). Especially hydrogen-poor SLSN-I are difficult to explain with conventional powering mechanisms. One possible scenario that might explain such luminosities is that SLSNe-I are powered by an internal engine, such as a magnetar or an accreting black hole. Strong magnetic fields or collimated jets can circularly polarize light. In this work, we measured circular polarization of two SLSNe-I with the FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph (FORS2) mounted at the ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). PS17bek, a fast evolving SLSN-I, was observed around peak, while OGLE16dmu, a slowly evolving SLSN-I, was observed 100 days after maximum. Neither SLSN shows evidence of circularly polarized light, however, these non-detections do not rule out the magnetar scenario as the powering engine for SLSNe-I. We calculate the strength of the magnetic field and the expected circular polarization as a function of distance from the magnetar, which decreases very fast. Additionally, we observed no significant linear polarization for PS17bek at four epochs, suggesting that the photosphere near peak is close to spherical symmetry.

  16. In vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using polarized and multiple scattered light spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Matthew Allen

    This thesis research presents the development of a non-invasive diagnostic technique for distinguishing between skin cancer, moles, and normal skin using polarized and multiple scattered light spectroscopy. Polarized light incident on the skin is single scattered by the epidermal layer and multiple scattered by the dermal layer. The epidermal light maintains its initial polarization while the light from the dermal layer becomes randomized and multiple scattered. Mie theory was used to model the epidermal light as the scattering from the intercellular organelles. The dermal signal was modeled as the diffusion of light through a localized semi-homogeneous volume. These models were confirmed using skin phantom experiments, studied with in vitro cell cultures, and applied to human skin for in vivo testing. A CCD-based spectroscopy system was developed to perform all these experiments. The probe and the theory were tested on skin phantoms of latex spheres on top of a solid phantom. We next extended our phantom study to include in vitro cells on top of the solid phantom. Optical fluorescent microscope images revealed at least four distinct scatterers including mitochondria, nucleoli, nuclei, and cell membranes. Single scattering measurements on the mammalian cells consistently produced PSD's in the size range of the mitochondria. The clinical portion of the study consisted of in vivo measurements on cancer, mole, and normal skin spots. The clinical study combined the single scattering model from the phantom and in vitro cell studies with the diffusion model for multiple scattered light. When parameters from both layers were combined, we found that a sensitivity of 100% and 77% can be obtained for detecting cancers and moles, respectively, given the number of lesions examined.

  17. Photon polarization tensor in the light front field theory at zero and finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Charles da Rocha; Perez, Silvana; Strauss, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, light front quantized field theories have been successfully generalized to finite temperature. The light front frame was introduced by Dirac , and the quantization of field theories on the null-plane has found applications in many branches of physics. In order to obtain the thermal contribution, we consider the hard thermal loop approximation. This technique was developed by Braaten and Pisarski for the thermal quantum field theory at equal times and is particularly useful to extract the leading thermal contributions to the amplitudes in perturbative quantum field theories. In this work, we consider the light front quantum electrodynamics in (3+1) dimensions and evaluate the photon polarization tensor at one loop for both zero and finite temperatures. In the first case, we apply the dimensional regularization method to extract the finite contribution and find the transverse structure for the amplitude in terms of the light front coordinates. The result agrees with one-loop covariant calculation. For the thermal corrections, we generalize the hard thermal loop approximation to the light front and calculate the dominant temperature contribution to the polarization tensor, consistent with the Ward identity. In both zero as well as finite temperature calculations, we use the oblique light front coordinates. (author)

  18. Ionization of one- and three-dimensionally-oriented asymmetric-top molecules by intense circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Lerche; Holmegaard, Lotte; Kalhøj, Line

    2011-01-01

    are quantum-state selected using a deflector and three-dimensionally (3D) aligned and oriented adiabatically using an elliptically polarized laser pulse in combination with a static electric field. A characteristic splitting in the molecular frame photoelectron momentum distribution reveals the position...... of the nodal planes of the molecular orbitals from which ionization occurs. The experimental results are supported by a theoretical tunneling model that includes and quantifies the splitting in the momentum distribution. The focus of the present article is to understand strong-field ionization from 3D...

  19. Study of polarization phenomena in Schottky CdTe diodes using infrared light illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Goro, E-mail: gsato@astro.isas.jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Fukuyama, Taro [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Watanabe, Shin; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ohta, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Shin' nosuke [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Takahashi, Tadayuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shiraki, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Ryoichi [ACRORAD Co., Ltd., 13-23 Suzaki, Uruma, Okinawa 904-2234 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    Schottky CdTe diode detectors suffer from a polarization phenomenon, which is characterized by degradation of the spectral properties over time following exposure to high bias voltage. This is considered attributable to charge accumulation at deep acceptor levels. A Schottky CdTe diode was illuminated with an infrared light for a certain period during a bias operation, and two opposite behaviors emerged. The detector showed a recovery when illuminated after the bias-induced polarization had completely progressed. Conversely, when the detector was illuminated before the emergence of bias-induced polarization, the degradation of the spectral properties was accelerated. Interpretation of these effects and discussion on the energy level of deep acceptors are presented.

  20. Spectral and spatial properties of polarized light reflections from the arms of squid (Loligo pealeii) and cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Cronin, Thomas W

    2007-10-01

    On every arm of cuttlefish and squid there is a stripe of high-reflectance iridophores that reflects highly polarized light. Since cephalopods possess polarization vision, it has been hypothesized that these polarized stripes could serve an intraspecific communication function. We determined how polarization changes when these boneless arms move. By measuring the spectral and polarizing properties of the reflected light from samples at various angles of tilt and rotation, we found that the actual posture of the arm has little or no effect on partial polarization or the e-vector angle of the reflected light. However, when the illumination angle changed, the partial polarization of the reflected light also changed. The spectral reflections of the signals were also affected by the angle of illumination but not by the orientation of the sample. Electron microscope samples showed that these stripes are composed of several groups of multilayer platelets within the iridophores. The surface normal to each group is oriented at a different angle, which produces essentially constant reflection of polarized light over a range of viewing angles. These results demonstrate that cuttlefish and squid could send out reliable polarization signals to a receiver regardless of arm orientation.

  1. Coding and decoding in a point-to-point communication using the polarization of the light beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavehvash, Z; Massoumian, F

    2008-05-10

    A new technique for coding and decoding of optical signals through the use of polarization is described. In this technique the concept of coding is translated to polarization. In other words, coding is done in such a way that each code represents a unique polarization. This is done by implementing a binary pattern on a spatial light modulator in such a way that the reflected light has the required polarization. Decoding is done by the detection of the received beam's polarization. By linking the concept of coding to polarization we can use each of these concepts in measuring the other one, attaining some gains. In this paper the construction of a simple point-to-point communication where coding and decoding is done through polarization will be discussed.

  2. Electrically switchable photonic liquid crystal devices for routing of a polarized light wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushnova, Irina I.; Melnikova, Elena A.; Tolstik, Alexei L.; Muravsky, Alexander A.

    2018-04-01

    The new mode of LC alignment based on photoalignment AtA-2 azo dye where the refractive interface between orthogonal orientations of the LC director exists without voltage and disappeared or changed with critical voltage has been proposed. The technology to fabricate electrically controlled liquid crystal elements for spatial separation and switching of linearly polarized light beams on the basis of the total internal reflection effect has been significantly improved. Its distinctive feature is the application of a composite alignment material comprising two sublayers of Nylon-6 and AtA-2 photoalignment azo dye offering patterned liquid crystal director orientation with high alignment quality value q = 0 . 998. The fabricated electrically controlled spatially structured liquid crystal devices enable implementation of propagation directions separation for orthogonally polarized light beams and their switching with minimal crosstalk.

  3. Multiple scattering of polarized light: comparison of Maxwell theory and radiative transfer theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voit, Florian; Hohmann, Ansgar; Schäfer, Jan; Kienle, Alwin

    2012-04-01

    For many research areas in biomedical optics, information about scattering of polarized light in turbid media is of increasing importance. Scattering simulations within this field are mainly performed on the basis of radiative transfer theory. In this study a polarization sensitive Monte Carlo solution of radiative transfer theory is compared to exact Maxwell solutions for all elements of the scattering Müller matrix. Different scatterer volume concentrations are modeled as a multitude of monodisperse nonabsorbing spheres randomly positioned in a cubic simulation volume which is irradiated with monochromatic incident light. For all Müller matrix elements effects due to dependent scattering and multiple scattering are analysed. The results are in overall good agreement between the two methods with deviations related to dependent scattering being prominent for high volume concentrations and high scattering angles.

  4. Imaging and modeling of collagen architecture in living tissue with polarized light transfer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Stoff, Susan; Chue-Sang, Joseph; Bai, Yuqiang

    2016-03-01

    The extra-cellular space in connective tissue of animals and humans alike is comprised in large part of collagen. Monitoring of collagen arrangement and cross-linking has been utilized to diagnose a variety of medical conditions and guide surgical intervention. For example, collagen monitoring is useful in the assessment and treatment of cervical cancer, skin cancer, myocardial infarction, and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. We have developed a suite of tools and models based on polarized light transfer for the assessment of collagen presence, cross-linking, and orientation in living tissue. Here we will present some example of such approach applied to the human cervix. We will illustrate a novel Mueller Matrix (MM) imaging system for the study of cervical tissue; furthermore we will show how our model of polarized light transfer through cervical tissue compares to the experimental findings. Finally we will show validation of the methodology through histological results and Second Harmonic imaging microscopy.

  5. Method for measuring retardation of infrared wave-plate by modulated-polarized visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Song, Feijun

    2012-11-01

    A new method for precisely measuring the optical phase retardation of wave-plates in the infrared spectral region is presented by using modulated-polarized visible light. An electro-optic modulator is used to accurately determine the zero point by the frequency-doubled signal of the Modulated-polarized light. A Babinet-Soleil compensator is employed to make the phase delay compensation. Based on this method, an instrument is set up to measure the retardations of the infrared wave-plates with visible region laser. Measurement results with high accuracy and sound repetition are obtained by simple calculation. Its measurement precision is less than and repetitive precision is within 0.3%.

  6. Quantitative Light Fluorescence (QLF and Polarized White Light (PWL assessments of dental fluorosis in an epidemiological setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pretty Iain A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine if a novel dual camera imaging system employing both polarized white light (PWL and quantitative light induced fluorescence imaging (QLF is appropriate for measuring enamel fluorosis in an epidemiological setting. The use of remote and objective scoring systems is of importance in fluorosis assessments due to the potential risk of examiner bias using clinical methods. Methods Subjects were recruited from a panel previously characterized for fluorosis and caries to ensure a range of fluorosis presentation. A total of 164 children, aged 11 years (±1.3 participated following consent. Each child was examined using the novel imaging system, a traditional digital SLR camera, and clinically using the Dean’s and Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF Indices on the upper central and lateral incisors. Polarized white light and SLR images were scored for both Dean’s and TF indices by raters and fluorescence images were automatically scored using software. Results Data from 164 children were available with a good distribution of fluorosis severity. The automated software analysis of QLF images demonstrated significant correlations with the clinical examinations for both Dean’s and TF index. Agreement (measured by weighted Kappa’s between examiners scoring clinically, from polarized photographs and from SLR images ranged from 0.56 to 0.92. Conclusions The study suggests that the use of a digital imaging system to capture images for either automated software analysis, or remote assessment by raters is suitable for epidemiological work. The use of recorded images enables study archiving, assessment by multiple examiners, remote assessment and objectivity due to the blinding of subject status.

  7. Low crosstalk waveguide intersections in honeycomb lattice photonic crystals for TM-polarized light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, P; Jäckel, H

    2011-01-01

    We present the design of a low crosstalk, high throughput waveguide intersection for transverse-magnetic-polarized light. The design is based on two orthogonal photonic crystal waveguides and a resonant photonic crystal cavity in honeycomb lattice geometry. The results of our numerical simulation validate the concept of the design and demonstrate a crosstalk smaller than 0.1% and throughput transmission of more than 80% for both orthogonal waveguide branches

  8. THE EFFECT OF GRAVITATION ON THE POLARIZATION STATE OF A LIGHT RAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Tanay; Sen, A. K. [Department of Physics Assam University, Silchar-788011, Assam (India)

    2016-12-10

    In the present work, detailed calculations have been carried out on the rotation of the polarization vector of an electromagnetic wave due to the presence of a gravitational field of a rotating body. This has been done using the general expression of Maxwell’s equation in curved spacetime. Considering the far-field approximation (i.e., the impact parameter is greater than the Schwarzschild radius and rotation parameter), the amount of rotation of the polarization vector as a function of impact parameter has been obtained for a rotating body (considering Kerr geometry). The present work shows that the rotation of the polarization vector cannot be observed in the case of Schwarzschild geometry. This work also calculates the rotational effect when considering prograde and retrograde orbits for the light ray. Although the present work demonstrates the effect of rotation of the polarization vector, it confirms that there would be no net polarization of an electromagnetic wave due to the curved spacetime geometry in a Kerr field.

  9. Interferometric characterization of the structured polarized light beam produced by the conical refraction phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Alba; Turpin, Alex; Iemmi, Claudio; Márquez, Andrés; Kalkandjiev, Todor K; Mompart, Jordi; Campos, Juan

    2015-07-13

    The interest on the conical refraction (CR) phenomenon in biaxial crystals has revived in the last years due to its prospective for generating structured polarized light beams, i.e. vector beams. While the intensity and the polarization structure of the CR beams are well known, an accurate experimental study of their phase structure has not been yet carried out. We investigate the phase structure of the CR rings by means of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer while applying the phase-shifting interferometric technique to measure the phase at the focal plane. In general the two beams interfering correspond to different states of polarization (SOP) which locally vary. To distinguish if there is an additional phase added to the geometrical one we have derived the appropriate theoretical expressions using the Jones matrix formalism. We demonstrate that the phase of the CR rings is equivalent to that one introduced by an azimuthally segmented polarizer with CR-like polarization distribution. Additionally, we obtain direct evidence that the Poggendorff dark ring is an annular singularity, with a π phase change between the inner and outer bright rings.

  10. [Suppression of visceral pain by action of the low intensity polarized light on acupuncture antinociceptive points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymans'kyĭ, Iu P; Tamarova, Z A; Huliar, S O

    2003-01-01

    In experiments on mice, statistically authentic weakening of visceral pain has been shown after an action of low intensity polarized light from a device Bioptron on antinociceptive acupuncture points (AP). Pain was caused by an intraperitoneal injection of 2% acetic acid (0.1 ml/10 g). The intensity of pain was judged on duration and frequency of painful behavioral reactions (writhing, licking of abdomen), as well as on duration of sleep, eating and motor activity. In animals which immediately after injections of acetic acid were exposed to polarized light of low intensity for 10 min, applied on any of antinociceptive APs (E-36, E-43, VC-8, RP-6), the duration of painful behavioral reaction was determined to be reduced, while that of non-painful one increased. The comparison of the total duration of the writhing at control and experimental mice showed that an activation of AP E-43 induced the greatest analgesic effect (76.5%), from AP VC-8 it was 76.3%, from RP-6--46.8%, and from E-36--41.4%. We have concluded that the effect of polarized light of low intensity on APs was a convenient non-pharmacological method of treating visceral pain.

  11. Circular Coinduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Grigore; Goguen, Joseph; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Circular coinduction is a technique for behavioral reasoning that extends cobasis coinduction to specifications with circularities. Because behavioral satisfaction is not recursively enumerable, no algorithm can work for every behavioral statement. However. algorithms using circular coinduction can prove every practical behavioral result that we know. This paper proves the correctness of circular coinduction and some consequences.

  12. Study of a 4 elements circularly polarized microstrip antenna array%一种四单元圆极化微带天线阵的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥伟; 丁卫平

    2012-01-01

    本文设计了一种新颖的四单元圆极化微带天线阵。通过去掉单元贴片周围的介质,使天线阵的重量减少了54%。文中采用电磁仿真软件HFSS10进行优化与仿真,讨论了阵元间距对天线阵的增益、半功率波束宽度、旁瓣电平以及后瓣电平的影响。最后加工制作了相应的微带天线阵,测试结果与仿真吻合较好。%A novel 4 elements microstrip antenna array for circular polarization is presented.By cutting out the dielectric substrate around the element,the weight of the array has been reduced by 54%.The array is designed and optimized by HFSS10 software.Effects of the element spacing on the gain,half power,sidelobe level,and backlobe level are investigated.The microstrip array is fabricated and measured and the measured results are in good agreement with the simulated results.

  13. ANN Synthesis Model of Single-Feed Corner-Truncated Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna with an Air Gap for Wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongbao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer-aided design model based on the artificial neural network (ANN is proposed to directly obtain patch physical dimensions of the single-feed corner-truncated circularly polarized microstrip antenna (CPMA with an air gap for wideband applications. To take account of the effect of the air gap, an equivalent relative permittivity is introduced and adopted to calculate the resonant frequency and Q-factor of square microstrip antennas for obtaining the training data sets. ANN architectures using multilayered perceptrons (MLPs and radial basis function networks (RBFNs are compared. Also, six learning algorithms are used to train the MLPs for comparison. It is found that MLPs trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM algorithm are better than RBFNs for the synthesis of the CPMA. An accurate model is achieved by using an MLP with three hidden layers. The model is validated by the electromagnetic simulation and measurements. It is enormously useful to antenna engineers for facilitating the design of the single-feed CPMA with an air gap.

  14. Luminescence and circularly polarized luminescence of macrocyclic Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes embedded in xerogel and sol-gel SiO2 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, M.; Rau, D.; Kai, T.

    2002-01-01

    Luminescence, time-resolved luminescence, circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) and decay profiles of Ln(III)(15-crownether-5) (Ln=Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb) and Tb(III)-(R),(S)-cyclen derivative complexes doped in xerogel and sol-gel silica glasses are measured at temperatures down to 10 K to characterize luminescence properties and the electronic structure in the excited states. Luminescence spectral profiles and calculation of crystal field parameters (B 0 (2) ,B 2 (2) ) in the 5 D 0 → 7 F J (J=1,2) transition give evidence of the fact that the pentagonal and planar structure of Eu(III) (15-crownether-5) does hold in xerogel and sol-gel glasses prepared at temperatures below 100 deg. C. As annealing temperatures are increased from 80 deg. C to 750 deg. C, Eu(III) complexes in sol-gel glasses are found to decompose gradually to SiO 2 :Eu 3+ . Tb(III)-(R) and (S)-cyclen derivative complexes in xerogel reveal at room temperature and 10 K sharp CPL spectra with luminescence dissymmetry factors g lum =-0.1 and 0.1, respectively. These complexes doped in sol-gel glasses represent luminescence characteristics of rare earth ions encapsulated in the nano-porous host

  15. The third post-Newtonian gravitational wave polarizations and associated spherical harmonic modes for inspiralling compact binaries in quasi-circular orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Luc; Faye, Guillaume; Iyer, Bala R; Sinha, Siddhartha

    2008-01-01

    The gravitational waveform (GWF) generated by inspiralling compact binaries moving in quasi-circular orbits is computed at the third post-Newtonian (3PN) approximation to general relativity. Our motivation is two-fold: (i) to provide accurate templates for the data analysis of gravitational wave inspiral signals in laser interferometric detectors; (ii) to provide the associated spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition to facilitate comparison and match of the high post-Newtonian prediction for the inspiral waveform to the numerically-generated waveforms for the merger and ringdown. This extension of the GWF by half a PN order (with respect to previous work at 2.5PN order) is based on the algorithm of the multipolar post-Minkowskian formalism, and mandates the computation of the relations between the radiative, canonical and source multipole moments for general sources at 3PN order. We also obtain the 3PN extension of the source multipole moments in the case of compact binaries, and compute the contributions of hereditary terms (tails, tails-of-tails and memory integrals) up to 3PN order. The end results are given for both the complete plus and cross polarizations and the separate spin-weighted spherical harmonic modes

  16. The right circular polarized waves in the three-dimensional anisotropic dispersive photonic crystals consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material as the Faraday effects considered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Tang, Yi-Jun; Zhen, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the properties of the right circular polarized (RCP) waves in the three-dimensional (3D) dispersive photonic crystals (PCs) consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material with face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices are theoretically investigated by the plane wave expansion method, which the homogeneous anisotropic dielectric spheres (the uniaxial material) immersed in the magnetized plasma background, as the Faraday effects of magnetized plasma are considered (the incidence electromagnetic wave vector is parallel to the external magnetic field at any time). The equations for calculating the anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) for the RCP waves in the first irreducible Brillouin zone are theoretically deduced. The anisotropic PBGs and a flatbands region can be obtained. The effects of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, anisotropic dielectric filling factor, plasma frequency, and plasma cyclotron frequency (the external magnetic field) on the properties of first two anisotropic PBGs for the RCP waves are investigated in detail, respectively. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in fcc lattices at U and W points, and the complete PBGs for the RCP waves can be achieved compared to the conventional 3D dispersive PCs composed of the magnetized plasma and isotropic material. It is also shown that the first two anisotropic PBGs can be tuned by those parameters as mentioned above. Those PBGs can be enlarged by introducing the uniaxial material into such 3D PCs as the Faraday effects are considered

  17. Terahertz radiation by subpicosecond spin-polarized photocurrent originating from Dirac electrons in a Rashba-type polar semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuto; Kida, Noriaki; Miyamoto, Tatsuya; Kanou, Manabu; Sasagawa, Takao; Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    The spin-splitting energy bands induced by the relativistic spin-orbit interaction in solids provide a new opportunity to manipulate the spin-polarized electrons on the subpicosecond timescale. Here, we report one such example in a bulk Rashba-type polar semiconductor BiTeBr. Strong terahertz electromagnetic waves are emitted after the resonant excitation of the interband transition between the Rashba-type spin-splitting energy bands with a femtosecond laser pulse circularly polarized. The phase of the emitted terahertz waves is reversed by switching the circular polarization. This suggests that the observed terahertz radiation originates from the subpicosecond spin-polarized photocurrents, which are generated by the asymmetric depopulation of the Dirac state. Our result provides a way for the current-induced terahertz radiation and its phase control by the circular polarization of incident light without external electric fields.

  18. Nanomagnetic behavior of fullerene thin films in Earth magnetic field in dark and under polarization light influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruga, Djuro; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Mihajlović, Spomenko; Matija, Lidija

    2005-10-01

    In this paper magnetic fields intensity of C60 thin films of 60 nm and 100 nm thickness under the influence of polarization lights are presented. Two proton magnetometers were used for measurements. Significant change of magnetic field intensity in range from 2.5 nT to 12.3 nT is identified as a difference of dark and polarization lights of 60 nm and 100 nm thin films thickness, respectively. Specific power density of polarization light was 40 mW/cm2. Based on 200 measurement data average value of difference between magnetic intensity of C60 thin films, with 60 nm and 100 nm thickness, after influence of polarization light, were 3.9 nT and 9.9 nT respectively.

  19. Simultaneously improving optical absorption of both transverse-electric polarized and transverse-magnetic polarized light for organic solar cells with Ag grating used as transparent electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbing Long

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical simulations are performed to investigate optical performance of organic solar cells with Ag grating electrode. It is demonstrated that optical absorption for both transverse-electric (TE polarized and transverse-magnetic(TM polarized light is simultaneously improved when compared with that for the device without the Ag grating. The improvement is respectively attributed to the resonance and the surface plasmon polaritons within the device. After an additional WO3 layer is capped on the Ag grating, absorption of TE-polarized light is further improved due to resonance of double microcavities within the device, and absorption of TM-polarized light is improved by the combined effects of the microcavity resonance and the surface plasmon polaritons. Correspondingly, the short current density for randomly polarized light is improved by 18.1% from that of the device without the Ag grating. Finally, it is demonstrated that high transmission may not be an essential prerequisite for metallic gratings when they are used as transparent electrode since absorption loss caused by low transmission can be compensated by using a capping layer to optimize optical resonance of the WMC structure within the device.

  20. Investigation of the polarization state of dual APPLE-II undulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Matthew; Wang, Hongchang; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    The use of an APPLE II undulator is extremely important for providing a high-brilliance X-ray beam with the capability to switch between various photon beam polarization states. A high-precision soft X-ray polarimeter has been used to systematically investigate the polarization characteristics of the two helical APPLE II undulators installed on beamline I06 at Diamond Light Source. A simple data acquisition and processing procedure has been developed to determine the Stokes polarization parameters for light polarized at arbitrary linear angles emitted from a single undulator, and for circularly polarized light emitted from both undulators in conjunction with a single-period undulator phasing unit. The purity of linear polarization is found to deteriorate as the polarization angle moves away from the horizontal and vertical modes. Importantly, a negative correlation between the degree of circular polarization and the photon flux has been found when the phasing unit is used.

  1. Photoexcitation circular dichroism in chiral molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S.; Comby, A.; Descamps, D.; Fabre, B.; Garcia, G. A.; Géneaux, R.; Harvey, A. G.; Légaré, F.; Mašín, Z.; Nahon, L.; Ordonez, A. F.; Petit, S.; Pons, B.; Mairesse, Y.; Smirnova, O.; Blanchet, V.

    2018-05-01

    Chiral effects appear in a wide variety of natural phenomena and are of fundamental importance in science, from particle physics to metamaterials. The standard technique of chiral discrimination—photoabsorption circular dichroism—relies on the magnetic properties of a chiral medium and yields an extremely weak chiral response. Here, we propose and demonstrate an orders of magnitude more sensitive type of circular dichroism in neutral molecules: photoexcitation circular dichroism. This technique does not rely on weak magnetic effects, but takes advantage of the coherent helical motion of bound electrons excited by ultrashort circularly polarized light. It results in an ultrafast chiral response and the efficient excitation of a macroscopic chiral density in an initially isotropic ensemble of randomly oriented chiral molecules. We probe this excitation using linearly polarized laser pulses, without the aid of further chiral interactions. Our time-resolved study of vibronic chiral dynamics opens a way to the efficient initiation, control and monitoring of chiral chemical change in neutral molecules at the level of electrons.

  2. Large-amplitude, circularly polarized, compressive, obliquely propagating electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves throughout the Earth's magnetosheath: low plasma β conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remya, B.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Kalamboli Highway, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Tsurutani, B. T.; Falkowski, B. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Echer, E. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Avenida Astronautas, 1758, P.O. Box 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Glassmeier, K.-H., E-mail: remyaphysics@gmail.com [Institute for Geophysics and Extraterrestrial Physics (IGEP), Mendelssohnstr.3, D-38106, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-09-20

    During 1999 August 18, both Cassini and WIND were in the Earth's magnetosheath and detected transverse electromagnetic waves instead of the more typical mirror-mode emissions. The Cassini wave amplitudes were as large as ∼14 nT (peak to peak) in a ∼55 nT ambient magnetic field B {sub 0}. A new method of analysis is applied to study these waves. The general wave characteristics found were as follows. They were left-hand polarized and had frequencies in the spacecraft frame (f {sub scf}) below the proton cyclotron frequency (f{sub p} ). Waves that were either right-hand polarized or had f {sub scf} > f{sub p} are shown to be consistent with Doppler-shifted left-hand waves with frequencies in the plasma frame f{sub pf} < f{sub p} . Thus, almost all waves studied are consistent with their being electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves. Most of the waves (∼55%) were found to be propagating along B {sub 0} (θ{sub kB{sub 0}}<30{sup ∘}), as expected from theory. However, a significant fraction of the waves were found to be propagating oblique to B {sub 0}. These waves were also circularly polarized. This feature and the compressive ([B {sub max} – B {sub min}]/B {sub max}, where B {sub max} and B {sub min} are the maximum and minimum field magnitudes) nature (ranging from 0.27 to 1.0) of the waves are noted but not well understood at this time. The proton cyclotron waves were shown to be quasi-coherent, theoretically allowing for rapid pitch-angle transport of resonant protons. Because Cassini traversed the entire subsolar magnetosheath and WIND was in the dusk-side flank of the magnetosheath, it is surmised that the entire region was filled with these waves. In agreement with past theory, it was the exceptionally low plasma β (0.35) that led to the dominance of the proton cyclotron wave generation during this interval. A high-speed solar wind stream ((V{sub sw} ) = 598 km s{sup –1}) was the source of this low-β plasma.

  3. Room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes with a single ferromagnetic electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Baofu, E-mail: b.ding@ecu.edu.au; Alameh, Kamal, E-mail: k.alameh@ecu.edu.au [Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027 Australia (Australia); Song, Qunliang [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2014-05-19

    In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of a room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diode (Spin-OLED) structure based on (i) the deposition of an ultra-thin p-type organic buffer layer on the surface of the ferromagnetic electrode of the Spin-OLED and (ii) the use of oxygen plasma treatment to modify the surface of that electrode. Experimental results demonstrate that the brightness of the developed Spin-OLED can be increased by 110% and that a magneto-electroluminescence of 12% can be attained for a 150 mT in-plane magnetic field, at room temperature. This is attributed to enhanced hole and room-temperature spin-polarized injection from the ferromagnetic electrode, respectively.

  4. Nuclear-charge polarization at scission in fission from moderately excited light-actinide nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishinaka, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Fragment mass yields and the average neutron multiplicity in the proton-induced fission of 232 Th and 238 U were measured by a double time-of-flight method. The most probable charges of secondary fragments were evaluated from the fragment mass yields measured by the double time-of-flight method and the fractional cumulative and independent yields reported in literature. The nuclear-charge polarization of primary fragments at scission was obtained by correcting the most probable charge of secondary fragments for neutron evaporation. The results show that the nuclear-charge polarization at scission is associated with the liquid-drop properties of nuclei and the proton shell effect with Z = 50 of heavy fragments and that it is practically insensitive to mass and excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus in the region of light-actinide nuclei. (author)

  5. Highly polarized light from stable ordered magnetic fields in GRB 120308A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, C G; Kopač, D; Arnold, D M; Steele, I A; Gomboc, A; Kobayashi, S; Harrison, R M; Smith, R J; Guidorzi, C; Virgili, F J; Melandri, A; Japelj, J

    2013-12-05

    After the initial burst of γ-rays that defines a γ-ray burst (GRB), expanding ejecta collide with the circumburst medium and begin to decelerate at the onset of the afterglow, during which a forward shock travels outwards and a reverse shock propagates backwards into the oncoming collimated flow, or 'jet'. Light from the reverse shock should be highly polarized if the jet's magnetic field is globally ordered and advected from the central engine, with a position angle that is predicted to remain stable in magnetized baryonic jet models or vary randomly with time if the field is produced locally by plasma or magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. Degrees of linear polarization of P ≈ 10 per cent in the optical band have previously been detected in the early afterglow, but the lack of temporal measurements prevented definitive tests of competing jet models. Hours to days after the γ-ray burst, polarization levels are low (P < 4 per cent), when emission from the shocked ambient medium dominates. Here we report the detection of P =28(+4)(-4) per cent in the immediate afterglow of Swift γ-ray burst GRB 120308A, four minutes after its discovery in the γ-ray band, decreasing to P = 16(+5)(-4) per cent over the subsequent ten minutes. The polarization position angle remains stable, changing by no more than 15 degrees over this time, with a possible trend suggesting gradual rotation and ruling out plasma or magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. Instead, the polarization properties show that GRBs contain magnetized baryonic jets with large-scale uniform fields that can survive long after the initial explosion.

  6. Optical Polarization of Light from a Sorghum Canopy Measured Under Both a Clear and an Overcast Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Biehl, Larry; Dahlgren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We tested the hypothesis that the optical polarization of the light reflected by a sorghum canopy is due to a Fresnel-type redirection, by sorghum leaf surfaces, of light from an unpolarized light source, the sun or overcast sky, toward the measuring sensor. If it can be shown that the source of the polarization of the light scattered by the sorghum canopy is a first surface, Fresnel-type reflection, then removing this surface reflected light from measurements of canopy reflectance presumably would allow better insight into the biochemical processes such as photosynthesis and metabolism that occur in the interiors of sorghum canopy leaves. Methods: We constructed a tower 5.9m tall in the center of a homogenous sorghum field. We equipped two Barnes MMR radiometers with polarization analyzers on the number 1, 3 and 7 Landsat TM wavelength bands. Positioning the radiometers atop the tower, we collected radiance data in 44 view directions on two days, one day with an overcast sky and the other, clear and sunlit. From the radiance data we calculated the linear polarization of the reflected light for each radiometer wavelength channel and view direction. Results and Discussion: Our experimental results support our hypothesis, showing that the amplitude of the linearly polarized portion of the light reflected by the sorghum canopy varied dramatically with view azimuth direction under a point source, the sun, but the amplitude varied little with view azimuth direction under the hemispherical source, the overcast sky. Under the clear sky, the angle of polarization depended upon the angle of incidence of the sunlight on the leaf, while under the overcast sky the angle of polarization depended upon the zenith view angle. These results support a polarized radiation transport model of the canopy that is based upon a first surface, Fresnel reflection from leaves in the sorghum canopy.

  7. Compton polarimetry detection of small circularly and linearly polarized impurities in Mössbauer 8.4 keV (3/2-1/2) M1 γ-transition of {sup 169}Tm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsinoev, V.; Cherepanov, V.; Shuvalov, V.; Balysh, A.; Gabbasov, R., E-mail: graul@list.ru [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The arrangement of an experiment to detect the P−odd and P, T−odd polarized part of the Mössbauer ({sup +}3/2– {sup +}1/2) gamma transition of a deformed {sup 169}Tm nucleus with an energy of 8.4 keV by Compton polarimetry is discussed. Tm {sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal with a quadrupolarly split Mössbauer spectrum is proposed as a resonance polarizer. A Be-scatterer-based Compton polarimeter and a synchronously detecting system will be used to measure the P-odd circular polarization P{sub C}and P, T-odd linear polarization P{sub L}.The expected accuracy of measuring the relative magnitude of the P, T-odd contribution is about 1% of the magnitude of usual weak nucleon–nucleon interaction.

  8. Influence of refraction of p-polarized light on photoemission from metallic surface states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, A.; Barrera, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    The refraction of p-polarized light at a metal surface leads, under certain circumstances, to a large peak in the spatial distribution of the normal component of the electric field near the surface. The origin of this peak is explained both in terms of a classical correspondence and in terms of a theory based on the non-local dielectric response of the metal surface. The significance of the large magnitude and rapid variation of the surface electric field in exciting photoelectrons from surface states is discussed [pt

  9. Light-free magnetic resonance force microscopy for studies of electron spin polarized systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelekhov, Denis V.; Selcu, Camelia; Banerjee, Palash; Chung Fong, Kin; Chris Hammel, P.; Bhaskaran, Harish; Schwab, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance force microscopy is a scanned probe technique capable of three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. Its excellent sensitivity opens the possibility for magnetic resonance studies of spin accumulation resulting from the injection of spin polarized currents into a para-magnetic collector. The method is based on mechanical detection of magnetic resonance which requires low noise detection of cantilever displacement; so far, this has been accomplished using optical interferometry. This is undesirable for experiments on doped silicon, where the presence of light is known to enhance spin relaxation rates. We report a non-optical displacement detection scheme based on sensitive microwave capacitive readout

  10. [The possibility for using the phenomenon of polarized light interference in treating amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, V G; Vakurina, A E; Kashchenko, T P; Pargina, N M

    1996-01-01

    A new method for treating amblyopia is proposed, making use of the phenomenon of polarized light interference. It helps act simultaneously on the brightness, contrast frequency, and color sensitivity in response to patterns. The method was used in the treatment of 36 children. In group 1 (n = 20) it was combined with the traditional methods. Such treatment was more effective than in controls treated routinely. Group 2 consisted of 16 children in whom previous therapy was of no avail. Visual function was improved in 7 of them.

  11. Administrative circular

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    • N° 21 - August 2003 Special leave This circular has been amended. Copies of this circular are available in the Divisional Secretariats. In addition, administrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation on the Web at: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/admincirc/listadmincirc.asp Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  12. Circular Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.; Bos, H.L.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Haas, de W.; Kuikman, P.J.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Sikirica, N.

    2016-01-01

    The fifth part of this report on Circular Solutions is about the circular principle From Waste to Resource. The purpose of this study is to select promising options for the implementation of this circular principle and to elaborate these options further.

  13. Spin-polarized electron tunneling across a Si delta-doped GaMnAs/n-GaAs interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, S.E.; Sørensen, B.S.; Lindelof, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    Spin-polarized electron coupling across a Si delta-doped GaMnAs/n-GaAs interface was investigated. The injection of spin-polarized electrons was detected as circular polarized emission from a GaInAs/GaAs quantum well light emitting diode. The angular momentum selection rules were simplified...

  14. Polarization and collision velocity dependence of associative ionization in cold Na (3p)-Na(3p) collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the polarization dependence of the associative ionization (AI) process Na(3p) + Na(3p) → Na2+ at collision velocities between 100 and 700 m/s (5 and 200 K), using linearly and circularly polarized light for the excitation. We found that the polarization dependence varies strongly in the

  15. Lamp-lit bridges as dual light-traps for the night-swarming mayfly, Ephoron virgo: interaction of polarized and unpolarized light pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denes Szaz

    Full Text Available Ecological photopollution created by artificial night lighting can alter animal behavior and lead to population declines and biodiversity loss. Polarized light pollution is a second type of photopollution that triggers water-seeking insects to ovisposit on smooth and dark man-made objects, because they simulate the polarization signatures of natural water bodies. We document a case study of the interaction of these two forms of photopollution by conducting observations and experiments near a lamp-lit bridge over the river Danube that attracts mass swarms of the mayfly Ephoron virgo away from the river to oviposit on the asphalt road of the bridge. Millions of mayflies swarmed near bridge-lights for two weeks. We found these swarms to be composed of 99% adult females performing their upstream compensatory flight and were attracted upward toward unpolarized bridge-lamp light, and away from the horizontally polarized light trail of the river. Imaging polarimetry confirmed that the asphalt surface of the bridge was strongly and horizontally polarized, providing a supernormal ovipositional cue to Ephoron virgo, while other parts of the bridge were poor polarizers of lamplight. Collectively, we confirm that Ephoron virgo is independently attracted to both unpolarized and polarized light sources, that both types of photopollution are being produced at the bridge, and that spatial patterns of swarming and oviposition are consistent with evolved behaviors being triggered maladaptively by these two types of light pollution. We suggest solutions to bridge and lighting design that should prevent or mitigate the impacts of such scenarios in the future. The detrimental impacts of such scenarios may extend beyond Ephoron virgo.

  16. Lamp-lit bridges as dual light-traps for the night-swarming mayfly, Ephoron virgo: interaction of polarized and unpolarized light pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaz, Denes; Horvath, Gabor; Barta, Andras; Robertson, Bruce A; Farkas, Alexandra; Egri, Adam; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Racz, Gergely; Kriska, Gyorgy

    2015-01-01

    Ecological photopollution created by artificial night lighting can alter animal behavior and lead to population declines and biodiversity loss. Polarized light pollution is a second type of photopollution that triggers water-seeking insects to ovisposit on smooth and dark man-made objects, because they simulate the polarization signatures of natural water bodies. We document a case study of the interaction of these two forms of photopollution by conducting observations and experiments near a lamp-lit bridge over the river Danube that attracts mass swarms of the mayfly Ephoron virgo away from the river to oviposit on the asphalt road of the bridge. Millions of mayflies swarmed near bridge-lights for two weeks. We found these swarms to be composed of 99% adult females performing their upstream compensatory flight and were attracted upward toward unpolarized bridge-lamp light, and away from the horizontally polarized light trail of the river. Imaging polarimetry confirmed that the asphalt surface of the bridge was strongly and horizontally polarized, providing a supernormal ovipositional cue to Ephoron virgo, while other parts of the bridge were poor polarizers of lamplight. Collectively, we confirm that Ephoron virgo is independently attracted to both unpolarized and polarized light sources, that both types of photopollution are being produced at the bridge, and that spatial patterns of swarming and oviposition are consistent with evolved behaviors being triggered maladaptively by these two types of light pollution. We suggest solutions to bridge and lighting design that should prevent or mitigate the impacts of such scenarios in the future. The detrimental impacts of such scenarios may extend beyond Ephoron virgo.

  17. Quantum mechanical modeling the emission pattern and polarization of nanoscale light emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rulin; Zhang, Yu; Bi, Fuzhen; Frauenheim, Thomas; Chen, GuanHua; Yam, ChiYung

    2016-07-21

    Understanding of the electroluminescence (EL) mechanism in optoelectronic devices is imperative for further optimization of their efficiency and effectiveness. Here, a quantum mechanical approach is formulated for modeling the EL processes in nanoscale light emitting diodes (LED). Based on non-equilibrium Green's function quantum transport equations, interactions with the electromagnetic vacuum environment are included to describe electrically driven light emission in the devices. The presented framework is illustrated by numerical simulations of a silicon nanowire LED device. EL spectra of the nanowire device under different bias voltages are obtained and, more importantly, the radiation pattern and polarization of optical emission can be determined using the current approach. This work is an important step forward towards atomistic quantum mechanical modeling of the electrically induced optical response in nanoscale systems.

  18. A Spin-Light Polarimeter for Multi-GeV Longitudinally Polarized Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanmurthy, Prajwal [Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS (United States); Dutta, Dipangkar [Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS (United States) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The physics program at the upgraded Jefferson Lab (JLab) and the physics program envisioned for the proposed electron-ion collider (EIC) include large efforts to search for interactions beyond the Standard Model (SM) using parity violation in electroweak interactions. These experiments require precision electron polarimetry with an uncertainty of < 0.5 %. The spin dependent Synchrotron radiation, called "spin-light," can be used to monitor the electron beam polarization. In this article we develop a conceptual design for a "spin-light" polarimeter that can be used at a high intensity, multi-GeV electron accelerator. We have also built a Geant4 based simulation for a prototype device and report some of the results from these simulations.

  19. Transfer of polarized light in planetary atmospheres basic concepts and practical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hovenier, Joop W; Domke, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The principal elements of the theory of polarized light transfer in planetary atmospheres are expounded in a systematic but concise way. Basic concepts and practical methods are emphasized, both for single and multiple scattering of electromagnetic radiation by molecules and particles in the atmospheres of planets in the Solar System, including the Earth, and beyond. A large part of the book is also useful for studies of light scattering by particles in comets, the interplanetary and interstellar medium, circumstellar disks, reflection nebulae, water bodies like oceans and suspensions of particles in a gas or liquid in the laboratory. Throughout the book symmetry principles, such as the reciprocity principle and the mirror symmetry principle, are employed. In this way the theory is made more transparent and easier to understand than in most papers on the subject. In addition, significant computational reductions, resulting from symmetry principles, are presented. Hundreds of references to relevant literature ...

  20. On interstellar light polarization by diamagnetic silicate and carbon dust in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoular, R.

    2018-04-01

    The motion of diamagnetic dust particles in interstellar magnetic fields is studied numerically with several different sets of parameters. Two types of behaviour are observed, depending on the value of the critical number R, which is a function of the grain inertia, the magnetic susceptibility of the material and of the strength of rotation braking. If R ≤ 10, the grain ends up in a static state and perfectly aligned with the magnetic field, after a few braking times. If not, it goes on precessing and nutating about the field vector for a much longer time. Usual parameters are such that the first situation can hardly be observed. Fortunately, in the second and more likely situation, there remains a persistent partial alignment that is far from negligible, although it decreases as the field decreases and as R increases. The solution of the complete equations of motion of grains in a field helps understanding the details of this behaviour. One particular case of an ellipsoidal forsterite silicate grain is studied in detail and shown to polarize light in agreement with astronomical measurements of absolute polarization in the infrared. Phonons are shown to contribute to the progressive flattening of extinction and polarization towards long wavelengths. The measured dielectric properties of forsterite qualitatively fit the Serkowski peak in the visible.