WorldWideScience

Sample records for circular equatorial orbits

  1. Equatorial circular orbits in the Kerr-de Sitter spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Slany, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Equatorial motion of test particles in Kerr-de Sitter spacetimes is considered. Circular orbits are determined, their properties are discussed for both black-hole and naked-singularity spacetimes, and their relevance for thin accretion disks is established. The circular orbits constitute two families that coalesce at the so-called static radius. The orientation of the motion along the circular orbits is, in accordance with case of asymptotically flat Kerr spacetimes, defined by relating the motion to the locally nonrotating frames. The minus-family orbits are all counterrotating, while the plus-family orbits are usually corotating relative to these frames. However, the plus-family orbits become counterrotating in the vicinity of the static radius in all Kerr-de Sitter spacetimes, and they become counterrotating in the vicinity of the ring singularity in Kerr-de Sitter naked-singularity spacetimes with a low enough rotational parameter. In such spacetimes, the efficiency of the conversion of the rest energy into heat energy in the geometrically thin plus-family accretion disks can reach extremely high values exceeding the efficiency of the annihilation process. The transformation of a Kerr-de Sitter naked singularity into an extreme black hole due to accretion in the thin disks is briefly discussed for both the plus-family and minus-family disks. It is shown that such a conversion leads to an abrupt instability of the innermost parts of the plus-family accretion disks that can have strong observational consequences

  2. Monitoring Mars LOD Variations from a High Altitude Circular Equatorial Orbit: Theory and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriot, J.; Dehant, V.; Duron, J.

    2003-12-01

    We compute the perturbations of a high altitude circular equatorial orbit of a martian probe under the influence of an annual variation of the martian lenght of day. For this purpose, we use the first order perturbations of the newtonian equations of motion, where the small parameter is given from the hourglass model of Chao and Rubincam, which allow a simple computation of CO2 exchanges during the martian year. We are able to demonstrate that the perturbations contains two components: the first one is a sine/cosine modulation at the orbit frequency, the second one is composed of terms of the form exp(t)*sin(t), so the orbit may not stable in the long term (several martian years), with perturbations growing exponentially. We give the full theory and numbers.

  3. Gravitational self-force correction to the innermost stable circular equatorial orbit of a Kerr black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoyama, Soichiro; Barack, Leor; Dolan, Sam R; Le Tiec, Alexandre; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Shah, Abhay G; Tanaka, Takahiro; Warburton, Niels

    2014-10-17

    For a self-gravitating particle of mass μ in orbit around a Kerr black hole of mass M ≫ μ, we compute the O(μ/M) shift in the frequency of the innermost stable circular equatorial orbit due to the conservative piece of the gravitational self-force acting on the particle. Our treatment is based on a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics in terms of geodesic motion in a certain locally defined effective smooth spacetime. We recover the same result using the so-called first law of binary black-hole mechanics. We give numerical results for the innermost stable circular equatorial orbit frequency shift as a function of the black hole's spin amplitude, and compare with predictions based on the post-Newtonian approximation and the effective one-body model. Our results provide an accurate strong-field benchmark for spin effects in the general-relativistic two-body problem.

  4. Fast evolution and waveform generator for extreme-mass-ratio inspirals in equatorial-circular orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Wen-Biao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the development of a fast and accurate waveform model for the quasi-circular orbital evolution of extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs). This model simply employs the data of a few numerical Teukoulsky-based energy fluxes and waveforms to fit out a set of polynomials for the entire fluxes and waveforms. These obtained polynomials are accurate enough in the entire evolution domain, and much more accurate than the resummation post-Newtonian (PN) energy fluxes and waveforms, especially when the spin of a black hole becomes large. The dynamical equation we adopted for orbital revolution is the effective-one-body (EOB) formalism. Because of the simplified expressions, the efficiency of calculating the orbital evolution with our polynomials is also better than the traditional method which uses the resummed PN analytical fluxes. Our model should be useful in calculations of waveform templates of EMRIs for gravitational wave (GW) detectors such as the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA). (paper)

  5. Equatorial circular motion in Kerr spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, Daniela; Quevedo, Hernando; Ruffini, Remo

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the properties of circular orbits of test particles on the equatorial plane of a rotating central mass whose gravitational field is described by the Kerr spacetime. For rotating black holes and naked singularities we explore all the spatial regions where circular orbits can exist and analyze the behavior of the energy and the angular momentum of the corresponding test particles. In particular, we find all the radii at which a test particle can have zero angular momentum due to the repulsive gravity effects generated by naked singularities. We classify all the stability zones of circular orbits. It is shown that the geometric structure of the stability zones of black holes is completely different from that of naked singularities.

  6. The effect of J2 on equatorial and halo orbits around a magnetic planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inarrea, Manuel; Lanchares, Victor; Palacian, Jesus F.; Pascual, Ana I.; Pablo Salas, J.; Yanguas, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    We calculate equatorial and halo orbits around a non-spherical (both oblate and prolate) magnetic planet. It is known that circular equatorial and halo orbits exist for a dust grain orbiting a spherical magnetic planet. However, the frequency of the orbit is constrained by the charge-mass ratio of the particle. If the non-sphericity of the planet is taken into account this constraint is modified or, in some cases, it disappears.

  7. The effect of J{sub 2} on equatorial and halo orbits around a magnetic planet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inarrea, Manuel [Universidad de la Rioja, Area de Fisica, 26006 Logrono (Spain); Lanchares, Victor [Dpto. de Matematicas y Computacion, CIEMUR: Centro de Investigacion en Informatica, Estadistica y Matematicas, Universidad de la Rioja, 26004 Logrono (Spain)], E-mail: vlancha@unirioja.es; Palacian, Jesus F. [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Departamento de Ingenieria Matematica e Informatica, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Pascual, Ana I. [Dpto. de Matematicas y Computacion, CIEMUR: Centro de Investigacion en Informatica, Estadistica y Matematicas, Universidad de la Rioja, 26004 Logrono (Spain); Pablo Salas, J. [Universidad de la Rioja, Area de Fisica, 26006 Logrono (Spain); Yanguas, Patricia [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Departamento de Ingenieria Matematica e Informatica, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    We calculate equatorial and halo orbits around a non-spherical (both oblate and prolate) magnetic planet. It is known that circular equatorial and halo orbits exist for a dust grain orbiting a spherical magnetic planet. However, the frequency of the orbit is constrained by the charge-mass ratio of the particle. If the non-sphericity of the planet is taken into account this constraint is modified or, in some cases, it disappears.

  8. An analysis of near-circular lunar mapping orbits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Numerical investigations have been carried out to analyse the evolution of lunar circular orbits and the influence of the higher order harmonics of the lunar gravity field. The aim is to select the appropriate near-circular orbit characteristics, which extend orbit life through passive orbit maintenance. The spherical harmonic ...

  9. Innermost stable circular orbit of spinning particle in charged spinning black hole background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Peng; Wei, Shao-Wen; Guo, Wen-Di; Sui, Tao-Tao; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) (spin-aligned or anti-aligned orbit) for a classical spinning test particle with the pole-dipole approximation in the background of Kerr-Newman black hole in the equatorial plane. It is shown that the orbit of the spinning particle is related to the spin of the test particle. The motion of the spinning test particle will be superluminal if its spin is too large. We give an additional condition by considering the superluminal constraint for the ISCO in the black hole backgrounds. We obtain numerically the relations between the ISCO and the properties of the black holes and the test particle. It is found that the radius of the ISCO for a spinning test particle is smaller than that of a nonspinning test particle in the black hole backgrounds.

  10. Innermost stable circular orbit of Kerr-MOG black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Han, Yong-Jin [Soonchunhyang University, Department of Physics, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    We study the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) of the metric of the Kerr black hole in modified gravity (Kerr-MOG black hole), which is one of the exact solutions of the field equation of modified gravity in the strong gravity regime. The Kerr-MOG metric is constructed; it is the commonly known Kerr metric in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates by adding a repulsive term like the Yukawa force, which is explained in quantum gravity. In this paper, we numerically calculate the circular orbit of a photon and the ISCO of a test particle of Kerr-MOG black holes. (orig.)

  11. Circular Orbit Target Capture Using Space Tether-Net System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The space tether-net system for on-orbit capture is proposed in this paper. In order to research the dynamic behaviors during system deployment, both free and nonfree deployment dynamics in circular orbit are developed; the system motion with respect to Local Vertical and Local Horizontal frame is also researched with analysis and simulation. The results show that in the case of free deployment, the capture net follows curve trajectories due to the relative orbit dynamic perturbation, and the initial deployment velocities are planned by state transformation equations for static and floating target captures; in the case of non-free deployment, the system undergoes an altitude libration along the Local Vertical, and the analytical solutions that describe the attitude libration are obtained by using variable separation and integration. Finally, the dynamics of postdeployment system is also proved marginally stable if the critical initial conditions are satisfied.

  12. Robust Tracking Control for Rendezvous in Near-Circular Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Wan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a robust guaranteed cost tracking control problem for thrust-limited spacecraft rendezvous in near-circular orbits. Relative motion model is established based on the two-body problem with noncircularity of the target orbit described as a parameter uncertainty. A guaranteed cost tracking controller with input saturation is designed via a linear matrix inequality (LMI method, and sufficient conditions for the existence of the robust tracking controller are derived, which is more concise and less conservative compared with the previous works. Numerical examples are provided for both time-invariant and time-variant reference signals to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme when applied to the terminal rendezvous and other astronautic missions with scheduled states signal.

  13. Circular revisit orbits design for responsive mission over a single target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taibo; Xiang, Junhua; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-10-01

    The responsive orbits play a key role in addressing the mission of Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) because of their capabilities. These capabilities are usually focused on supporting specific targets as opposed to providing global coverage. One subtype of responsive orbits is repeat coverage orbit which is nearly circular in most remote sensing applications. This paper deals with a special kind of repeating ground track orbit, referred to as circular revisit orbit. Different from traditional repeat coverage orbits, a satellite on circular revisit orbit can visit a target site at both the ascending and descending stages in one revisit cycle. This typology of trajectory allows a halving of the traditional revisit time and does a favor to get useful information for responsive applications. However the previous reported numerical methods in some references often cost lots of computation or fail to obtain such orbits. To overcome this difficulty, an analytical method to determine the existence conditions of the solutions to revisit orbits is presented in this paper. To this end, the mathematical model of circular revisit orbit is established under the central gravity model and the J2 perturbation. A constraint function of the circular revisit orbit is introduced, and the monotonicity of that function has been studied. The existent conditions and the number of such orbits are naturally worked out. Taking the launch cost into consideration, optimal design model of circular revisit orbit is established to achieve a best orbit which visits a target twice a day in the morning and in the afternoon respectively for several days. The result shows that it is effective to apply circular revisit orbits in responsive application such as reconnoiter of natural disaster.

  14. Measuring the Innermost Stable Circular Orbits of Supermassive Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartas, G.; Zalesky, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Krawczynski, H. [Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, 1 Brookings Drive, CB 1105, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Dai, X. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Morgan, C. W.; Mosquera, A., E-mail: chartasg@cofc.edu [Physics Department, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21403 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    We present a promising new technique, the g -distribution method, for measuring the inclination angle ( i ), the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO), and the spin of a supermassive black hole. The g -distribution method uses measurements of the energy shifts in the relativistic iron line emitted by the accretion disk of a supermassive black hole due to microlensing by stars in a foreground galaxy relative to the g -distribution shifts predicted from microlensing caustic calculations. We apply the method to the gravitationally lensed quasars RX J1131–1231 ( z {sub s} = 0.658, z {sub l} = 0.295), QJ 0158–4325 ( z {sub s} = 1.294, z {sub l} = 0.317), and SDSS 1004+4112 ( z {sub s} = 1.734, z {sub l} = 0.68). For RX J1131−1231, our initial results indicate that r {sub ISCO} ≲ 8.5 gravitational radii ( r {sub g}) and i ≳ 55° (99% confidence level). We detect two shifted Fe lines in several observations, as predicted in our numerical simulations of caustic crossings. The current Δ E distribution of RX J1131–1231 is sparsely sampled, but further X-ray monitoring of RX J1131–1231 and other lensed quasars will provide improved constraints on the inclination angles, ISCO radii, and spins of the black holes of distant quasars.

  15. Precipitation regions on the Earth of high energy electrons, injected by a point source moving along a circular Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, E. K.; Klyushnikov, G. N.

    2018-05-01

    In the paper we continue the study of precipitation regions of high-energy charged particles, carried out by the authors since 2002. In contrast to previous papers, where a stationary source of electrons was considered, it is assumed that the source moves along a low circular near-earth orbit with a constant velocity. The orbit position is set by the inclination angle of the orbital plane to the equatorial plane and the longitude of the ascending node. The total number of injected electrons is determined by the source strength and the number of complete revolutions that the source makes along the circumference. Construction of precipitation regions is produced using the computational algorithm based on solving of the system of ordinary differential equations. The features of the precipitation regions structure for the dipole approximation of the geomagnetic field and the symmetrical arrangement of the orbit relative to the equator are noted. The dependencies of the precipitation regions on different orbital parametres such as the incline angle, the ascending node position and kinetic energy of injected particles have been considered.

  16. The Carter constant for inclined orbits about a massive Kerr black hole: I. Circular orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komorowski, P G; Valluri, S R; Houde, M, E-mail: pkomorow@uwo.c, E-mail: valluri@uwo.c, E-mail: mhoude2@uwo.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-11-21

    In an extreme binary black hole system, an orbit will increase its angle of inclination ({iota}) as it evolves in Kerr spacetime. We focus our attention on the behaviour of the Carter constant (Q) for near-polar orbits, and develop an analysis that is independent of and complements radiation-reaction models. For a Schwarzschild black hole, the polar orbits represent the abutment between the prograde and retrograde orbits at which Q is at its maximum value for given values of the latus rectum ({tilde l}) and the eccentricity (e). The introduction of spin ({tilde S}={vert_bar}J{vert_bar}/M{sup 2}) to the massive black hole causes this boundary, or abutment, to be moved towards greater orbital inclination; thus, it no longer cleanly separates prograde and retrograde orbits. To characterize the abutment of a Kerr black hole (KBH), we first investigated the last stable orbit (LSO) of a test-particle about a KBH, and then extended this work to general orbits. To develop a better understanding of the evolution of Q we developed analytical formulae for Q in terms of {tilde l}, e and {tilde S} to describe elliptical orbits at the abutment, polar orbits and LSOs. By knowing the analytical form of {partial_derivative}Q/{partial_derivative}{tilde l} at the abutment, we were able to test a 2PN flux equation for Q. We also used these formulae to numerically calculate the {partial_derivative}{iota}/{partial_derivative}{tilde l} of hypothetical circular orbits that evolve along the abutment. From these values we have determined that {partial_derivative}{iota}/{partial_derivative}{tilde l} = -(122.7{tilde S} - 36{tilde S}{sup 3}){tilde l}{sup -11/2} - (63/2 {tilde S} + 35/4 {tilde S}{sup 3}){tilde l}{sup -9/2} - 15/2 {tilde S}{tilde l}{sup -7/2} - 9/2 {tilde S}{tilde l}{sup -5/2}. By taking the limit of this equation for {tilde l} {yields} {infinity}, and comparing it with the published result for the weak-field radiation reaction, we found the upper limit on

  17. Topology of the Relative Motion: Circular and Eccentric Reference Orbit Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    FontdecabaiBaig, Jordi; Metris, Gilles; Exertier, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the topology of the relative trajectories in flight formations. The purpose is to study the different types of relative trajectories, their degrees of freedom, and to give an adapted parameterization. The paper also deals with the research of local circular motions. Even if they exist only when the reference orbit is circular, we extrapolate initial conditions to the eccentric reference orbit case.This alternative approach is complementary with traditional approaches in terms of cartesian coordinates or differences of orbital elements.

  18. WIYN Open Cluster Study: Binary Orbits and Tidal Circularization in NGC 6819

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Meagan B.; Mathieu, R. D.; Kaeppler, S.; Hole, K. T.; Meibom, S.

    2006-12-01

    We are conducting a comprehensive stellar radial-velocity survey in NGC 6819, a rich, intermediate age ( 2.4 Gyr) open cluster with [Fe/H] -0.05. As of October 2006, we have obtained 7065 radial-velocity measurements of 1409 stars using the WIYN Hydra Multi-Object Spectrograph, with typical velocity measurement precisions of 0.4 km/s. Using an E/I criterion of 3, we have identified 282 velocity variables. In the past year we have expanded the number of final orbital solutions by 45 to a total of more than 80 solutions. In coeval stellar populations, circular binaries tend to have the shortest orbital periods, while longer period binaries show a distribution of non-zero eccentricities. The circularization of the shortest period orbits is the result of an exchange of stellar and orbital angular momentum due to tidal interactions. We defined a population’s tidal circularization period as the longest orbital period at which a binary of typical initial eccentricity has become circularized (e.g., has evolved to an eccentricity e = 0.01) over the lifetime of the cluster (Meibom & Mathieu, 2005, ApJ, 620, 970). We are studying the trend of increasing tidal circularization periods with population age. Preliminary results in NGC 6819 indicate a tidal circularization period of 7.5 days, which is consistent with this overall trend. We will recalculate the tidal circularization period in order to include the latest sample of orbital solutions. This comprehensive survey also allows us to investigate the relative spatial distributions of spectroscopic binaries and other constant-velocity cluster members of similar mass. We find the spectroscopic binaries to be more centrally concentrated at a statistically significant level, which we attribute to energy equipartition processes. MM was supported by REU NSF grant AST-0453442. RDM, SK, KTH, and SM were supported by NSF grant AST-0406615.

  19. Searching Less Perturbed Circular Orbits for a Spacecraft Travelling around Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. S. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Space missions to visit the natural satellite of Jupiter, Europa, constitute an important topic in space activities today, because missions to this moon are under study now. Several considerations have to be made for these missions. The present paper searches for less perturbed circular orbits around Europa. This search is made based on the total effects of the perturbing forces over the time, evaluated by the integral of those forces over the time. This value depends on the dynamical model and on the orbit of the spacecraft. The perturbing forces considered are the third-body perturbation that comes from Jupiter and the J2, J3, and C22 terms of the gravitational potential of Europa. Several numerical studies are performed and the results show the locations of the less perturbed orbits. Using those results, it is possible to find near-circular frozen orbits with smaller amplitudes of variations of the orbital elements.

  20. Two-craft Coulomb formation study about circular orbits and libration points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inampudi, Ravi Kishore

    This dissertation investigates the dynamics and control of a two-craft Coulomb formation in circular orbits and at libration points; it addresses relative equilibria, stability and optimal reconfigurations of such formations. The relative equilibria of a two-craft tether formation connected by line-of-sight elastic forces moving in circular orbits and at libration points are investigated. In circular Earth orbits and Earth-Moon libration points, the radial, along-track, and orbit normal great circle equilibria conditions are found. An example of modeling the tether force using Coulomb force is discussed. Furthermore, the non-great-circle equilibria conditions for a two-spacecraft tether structure in circular Earth orbit and at collinear libration points are developed. Then the linearized dynamics and stability analysis of a 2-craft Coulomb formation at Earth-Moon libration points are studied. For orbit-radial equilibrium, Coulomb forces control the relative distance between the two satellites. The gravity gradient torques on the formation due to the two planets help stabilize the formation. Similar analysis is performed for along-track and orbit-normal relative equilibrium configurations. Where necessary, the craft use a hybrid thrusting-electrostatic actuation system. The two-craft dynamics at the libration points provide a general framework with circular Earth orbit dynamics forming a special case. In the presence of differential solar drag perturbations, a Lyapunov feedback controller is designed to stabilize a radial equilibrium, two-craft Coulomb formation at collinear libration points. The second part of the thesis investigates optimal reconfigurations of two-craft Coulomb formations in circular Earth orbits by applying nonlinear optimal control techniques. The objective of these reconfigurations is to maneuver the two-craft formation between two charged equilibria configurations. The reconfiguration of spacecraft is posed as an optimization problem using the

  1. Stable low-altitude orbits around Ganymede considering a disturbing body in a circular orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso dos Santos, J.; Carvalho, J. P. S.; Vilhena de Moraes, R.

    2014-10-01

    Some missions are being planned to visit Ganymede like the Europa Jupiter System Mission that is a cooperation between NASA and ESA to insert the spacecraft JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) into Ganymedes orbit. This comprehension of the dynamics of these orbits around this planetary satellite is essential for the success of this type of mission. Thus, this work aims to perform a search for low-altitude orbits around Ganymede. An emphasis is given in polar orbits and it can be useful in the planning of space missions to be conducted around, with respect to the stability of orbits of artificial satellites. The study considers orbits of artificial satellites around Ganymede under the influence of the third-body (Jupiter's gravitational attraction) and the polygenic perturbations like those due to non-uniform distribution of mass (J_2 and J_3) of the main body. A simplified dynamic model for these perturbations is used. The Lagrange planetary equations are used to describe the orbital motion of the artificial satellite. The equations of motion are developed in closed form to avoid expansions in eccentricity and inclination. The results show the argument of pericenter circulating. However, low-altitude (100 and 150 km) polar orbits are stable. Another orbital elements behaved variating with small amplitudes. Thus, such orbits are convenient to be applied to future space missions to Ganymede. Acknowledgments: FAPESP (processes n° 2011/05671-5, 2012/12539-9 and 2012/21023-6).

  2. General classification of charged test particle circular orbits in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D. [Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Opava (Czech Republic); Quevedo, H. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, ICRA, Rome (Italy); Icranet-Pescara, Pescara (Italy); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Kazakh National University, Department of Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Ruffini, R. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, ICRA, Rome (Italy); Icranet-Pescara, Pescara (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    We investigate charged particles' circular motion in the gravitational field of a charged mass distribution described by the Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime. We introduce a set of independent parameters completely characterizing the different spatial regions in which circular motion is allowed. We provide a most complete classification of circular orbits for different sets of particle and source charge-to-mass ratios. We study both black holes and naked singularities and show that the behavior of charged particles depend drastically on the type of source. Our analysis shows in an alternative manner that the behavior of circular orbits can in principle be used to distinguish between black holes and naked singularities. From this analysis, special limiting values for the dimensionless charge of black hole and naked singularity emerge, namely, Q/M = 1/2, Q/M = √(13)/5 and Q/M = √(2/3) for the black hole case and Q/M = 1, Q/M = 5/(2√(6)), Q/M = 3√(6)/7, and finally Q/M = √(9/8) for the naked singularity case. Similarly and surprisingly, analogous limits emerge for the orbiting particles charge-to-mass ratio ε, for positive charges ε = 1, ε = 2 and ε = M/Q. These limits play an important role in the study of the coupled electromagnetic and gravitational interactions, and the investigation of the role of the charge in the gravitational collapse of compact objects. (orig.)

  3. Circular-Polarization-Selective Transmission Induced by Spin-Orbit Coupling in a Helical Tape Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahong; Guo, Qinghua; Liu, Hongchao; Liu, Congcong; Song, Kun; Yang, Biao; Hou, Quanwen; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Shuang; Navarro-Cía, Miguel

    2018-05-01

    Spin-orbit coupling of light, describing the interaction between the polarization (spin) and spatial degrees of freedom (orbit) of light, plays an important role in subwavelength scale systems and leads to many interesting phenomena, such as the spin Hall effect of light. Here, based on the spin-orbit coupling, we design and fabricate a helical tape waveguide (HTW), which can realize a circular-polarization-selective process. When the incident circularly polarized wave is of the same handedness as the helix of the HTW, a nearly complete transmission is observed; in contrast, a counterrotating circular polarization of incident wave results in a much lower transmission or is even totally blocked by the HTW. Indeed, both simulations and experiments reveal that the blocked component of power leaks through the helical aperture of the HTW and forms a conical beam analogous to helical Cherenkov radiation due to the conversion from the spin angular momentum to the orbital angular momentum. Our HTW structure demonstrates its potential as a polarization selector in a broadband frequency range.

  4. Circular orbits and acceleration of particles by near-extremal dirty rotating black holes: general approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaslavskii, Oleg B

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of collisions of ultrahigh energy particles near the black hole horizon (BSW effect) for two scenarios: when one of the particles either (i) moves on a circular orbit or (ii) plunges from it toward the horizon. It is shown that such circular near-horizon orbits can exist for near-extremal black holes only. This includes the innermost stable orbit (ISCO), marginally bound orbit (MBO) and photon one (PhO). We consider generic ‘dirty’ rotating black holes not specifying the metric and show that the energy in the center-of-mass frame has the universal scaling dependence on the surface gravity κ. Namely, E c.m. ∼ κ −n where for the ISCO, n= 1/3 in case (i) or n= 1/2 in case (ii). For the MBO and PhCO, n= 1/2 in both scenarios that agrees with recent calculations of Harada and Kimura for the Kerr metric. We also generalize the Grib and Pavlov observations made for the Kerr metric. The magnitude of the BSW effect on the location of collision has a somewhat paradoxical character: it decreases when approaching the horizon. (paper)

  5. Circular orbits and acceleration of particles by near-extremal dirty rotating black holes: general approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2012-10-01

    We study the effect of collisions of ultrahigh energy particles near the black hole horizon (BSW effect) for two scenarios: when one of the particles either (i) moves on a circular orbit or (ii) plunges from it toward the horizon. It is shown that such circular near-horizon orbits can exist for near-extremal black holes only. This includes the innermost stable orbit (ISCO), marginally bound orbit (MBO) and photon one (PhO). We consider generic ‘dirty’ rotating black holes not specifying the metric and show that the energy in the center-of-mass frame has the universal scaling dependence on the surface gravity κ. Namely, Ec.m. ˜ κ-n where for the ISCO, n=\\frac{1}{3} in case (i) or n=\\frac{1}{2} in case (ii). For the MBO and PhCO, n=\\frac{1}{2} in both scenarios that agrees with recent calculations of Harada and Kimura for the Kerr metric. We also generalize the Grib and Pavlov observations made for the Kerr metric. The magnitude of the BSW effect on the location of collision has a somewhat paradoxical character: it decreases when approaching the horizon.

  6. Circular orbits in cosmic string and Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime with Fermi-Walker transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakke, K.; Furtado, C.; Carvalho, A.M. de

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the Fermi-Walker transport of vectors along orbits in cosmic string and Schwarzschild-AdS spacetimes. We analyze the influence of acceleration on these holonomies. An effect similar to Thomas precession is observed within the process of Fermi-Walker transport along these circular orbits which are studied in the limit of vanishing cosmological constant in Schwarzschild-AdS case; also we obtain Fermi-Walker transport in a Schwarzschild background. In the case of a Schwarzschild spacetime, we analyze the quantized band holonomy invariance. In the limit of zero acceleration we recover the well-known results for holonomy matrix obtained by parallel transport in all these spacetimes. (orig.)

  7. Analytic model for the long-term evolution of circular Earth satellite orbits including lunar node regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ting-Lei; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Jiang

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to obtain an analytic approximation to the evolution of circular orbits governed by the Earth's J2 and the luni-solar gravitational perturbations. Assuming that the lunar orbital plane coincides with the ecliptic plane, Allan and Cook (Proc. R. Soc. A, Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 280(1380):97, 1964) derived an analytic solution to the orbital plane evolution of circular orbits. Using their result as an intermediate solution, we establish an approximate analytic model with lunar orbital inclination and its node regression be taken into account. Finally, an approximate analytic expression is derived, which is accurate compared to the numerical results except for the resonant cases when the period of the reference orbit approximately equals the integer multiples (especially 1 or 2 times) of lunar node regression period.

  8. Circular orbits of corotating binary black holes: Comparison between analytical and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Grandclement, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    We compare recent numerical results, obtained within a 'helical Killing vector' approach, on circular orbits of corotating binary black holes to the analytical predictions made by the effective one-body (EOB) method (which has been recently extended to the case of spinning bodies). On the scale of the differences between the results obtained by different numerical methods, we find good agreement between numerical data and analytical predictions for several invariant functions describing the dynamical properties of circular orbits. This agreement is robust against the post-Newtonian accuracy used for the analytical estimates, as well as under choices of the resummation method for the EOB 'effective potential', and gets better as one uses a higher post-Newtonian accuracy. These findings open the way to a significant 'merging' of analytical and numerical methods, i.e. to matching an EOB-based analytical description of the (early and late) inspiral, up to the beginning of the plunge, to a numerical description of the plunge and merger. We illustrate also the 'flexibility' of the EOB approach, i.e. the possibility of determining some 'best fit' values for the analytical parameters by comparison with numerical data

  9. Cloud and Wind Variability in Saturn's Equatorial Jet prior to the Cassini orbital tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Hueso, R.; Rojas, J. F.; French, R. G.

    2004-11-01

    We use ground-based observations (going back to 1876), Pioneer-11 data (1979), Voyager 1 and 2 encounter images in 1980 and 1981, and HST 1990-2004 images, to study the changes that occurred in the vertical cloud structure and morphology and motions, in Saturn's Equatorial Region (approximately the band between latitudes 40 deg North and South). We compare ``calm periods" with ``stormy periods" i. e. those that occur during the development of the phenomenon known as the ``Great White Spots." We discuss different interpretations of the mechanisms that can be involved in the observed changes: vertical wind shears, waves, storm - mean flow interaction and changes in atmospheric angular momentum. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MCYT AYA 2003-03216. SPH acknowledges a PhD fellowship from the Spanish MECD and RH a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco. RGF was supported in part by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program NAG5-10197 and STSCI Grant GO-08660.01A.

  10. Reanalyses of the radiation belt electron phase space density using nearly equatorial CRRES and polar-orbiting Akebono satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Binbin; Shprits, Yuri; Nagai, Tsugunobu; Thorne, Richard; Chen, Yue; Kondrashov, Dmitri; Kim, Hee-jeong

    2009-05-01

    Data assimilation techniques provide algorithms that allow for blending of incomplete and inaccurate data with physics-based dynamic models to reconstruct the electron phase space density (PSD) in the radiation belts. In this study, we perform reanalyses of the radial PSD profile using two independent data sources from the nearly equatorial CRRES Medium Electron A (MEA) observations and the polar-orbiting Akebono Radiation Monitor (RDM) measurements for a 50-day period from 18 August to 6 October 1990. We utilize the University of California, Los Angeles, One-Dimensional Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (UCLA 1-D VERB) code and a Kalman filtering approach. Comparison of the reanalyses obtained independently using the CRRES MEA and Akebono RDM measurements shows that the dynamics of the PSD can be accurately reconstructed using Kalman filtering even when available data are sparse, inaccurate, and contaminated by random errors. The reanalyses exhibit similarities in the locations and magnitudes of peaks in radial profiles of PSD and the rate and radial extent of the dropouts during storms. This study shows that when unidirectional data are not available, pitch angle averaged flux measurements can be used to infer the long-term behavior (climatology) of the radiation belts. The methodology of obtaining PSD from pitch angle averaged and unidirectional fluxes using the Tsyganenko and Stern (1996) magnetic field model is described in detail.

  11. Influence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions on the electron states in circular quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, V.V.; Baran, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of perturbation theory the energy levels and wave functions are found for an electron in two-dimensional semiconductor circular quantum rings in the presence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions with a realistic axially symmetric confining square well potential of finite depth. (authors)

  12. Development of a methodology for deriving Plasmaspheric Total Electron Content from In-Situ electron density measurements in highly eccentric equatorial orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhique, Aliyuthuman; Buckley, Andrew; Gough, Paul; Sussex Space Science Centre Team

    2017-10-01

    The contribution of the Upper Plasmasphere (defined as the altitudes above semi-synchronous orbit height to the Plasmapause height) to the TEC has been and continues to be un-quantified. The PEACE instrument in the Chinese - ESA Double Star TC1 satellite, the mission's orbit's high eccentricity, low perigee, high apogee and the resulting smaller incident angle while in the above altitude range provide the ideal geometric opportunity to build a methodology and to utilize its empirical in-situ electron density measurements to determine the Upper Plasmaspheric TEC component. Furthermore, the variation of the Inclination Angle of TC1 makes it a suitable equatorial mission confined to the Near-Equatorial region, ie 200 - 250 on either sides of the magnetic equator. As the most pronounced absolute TEC values and variations are within this region, it offers an excellent opportunity to build a Upper Plasmaspheric TEC database. This research generates such, first-ever database along its orbital path, using a methodology of approximation equating arcs of the orbits to straight-line TEC Bars, utilizing complex mathematics, also enabling the determination of the whole Plasmaspheric TEC from any eccentric orbital probe. Presented the paper in 15th International Workshop on Technical and Scientific Aspects of MST radar (MST15/iMST2)'' and ``18th EISCAT Symposium (EISCAT18)'' in Tokyo, Japan and The Royal Astronomical Society National Astronomy Meeting 2017.

  13. Existence and stability of circular orbits in general static and spherically symmetric spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junji; Liu, Jiawei; Liu, Xionghui; Mo, Zhongyou; Pang, Xiankai; Wang, Yaoguang; Yang, Nan

    2018-02-01

    The existence and stability of circular orbits (CO) in static and spherically symmetric (SSS) spacetime are important because of their practical and potential usefulness. In this paper, using the fixed point method, we first prove a necessary and sufficient condition on the metric function for the existence of timelike COs in SSS spacetimes. After analyzing the asymptotic behavior of the metric, we then show that asymptotic flat SSS spacetime that corresponds to a negative Newtonian potential at large r will always allow the existence of CO. The stability of the CO in a general SSS spacetime is then studied using the Lyapunov exponent method. Two sufficient conditions on the (in)stability of the COs are obtained. For null geodesics, a sufficient condition on the metric function for the (in)stability of null CO is also obtained. We then illustrate one powerful application of these results by showing that three SSS spacetimes whose metric function is not completely known will allow the existence of timelike and/or null COs. We also used our results to assert the existence and (in)stabilities of a number of known SSS metrics.

  14. Mechanically Reconfigurable Single-Arm Spiral Antenna Array for Generation of Broadband Circularly Polarized Orbital Angular Momentum Vortex Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Zhou, Xiaoxiao

    2018-03-23

    In this paper, a mechanically reconfigurable circular array with single-arm spiral antennas (SASAs) is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate broadband circularly polarized orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex waves in radio frequency domain. With the symmetrical and broadband properties of single-arm spiral antennas, the vortex waves with different OAM modes can be mechanically reconfigurable generated in a wide band from 3.4 GHz to 4.7 GHz. The prototype of the circular array is proposed, conducted, and fabricated to validate the theoretical analysis. The simulated and experimental results verify that different OAM modes can be effectively generated by rotating the spiral arms of single-arm spiral antennas with corresponding degrees, which greatly simplify the feeding network. The proposed method paves a reconfigurable way to generate multiple OAM vortex waves with spin angular momentum (SAM) in radio and microwave satellite communication applications.

  15. Conjugate gradient determination of optimal plane changes for a class of three-impulse transfers between noncoplanar circular orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A particular type of three-impulse transfer between two circular orbits is analyzed. The possibility of three plane changes is recognized, and the problem is to optimally distribute these plane changes to minimize the sum of the individual impulses. Numerical difficulties and their solution are discussed. Numerical results obtained from a conjugate gradient technique are presented for both the case where the individual plane changes are unconstrained and for the case where they are constrained. Possibly not unexpectedly, multiple minima are found. The techniques presented could be extended to the finite burn case, but primarily the contents are addressed to preliminary mission design and vehicle sizing.

  16. Numerical and Analytical Study of Optimal Low-Thrust Limited-Power Transfers between Close Circular Coplanar Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro da Silva Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical and analytical study of optimal low-thrust limited-power trajectories for simple transfer (no rendezvous between close circular coplanar orbits in an inverse-square force field is presented. The numerical study is carried out by means of an indirect approach of the optimization problem in which the two-point boundary value problem, obtained from the set of necessary conditions describing the optimal solutions, is solved through a neighboring extremal algorithm based on the solution of the linearized two-point boundary value problem through Riccati transformation. The analytical study is provided by a linear theory which is expressed in terms of nonsingular elements and is determined through the canonical transformation theory. The fuel consumption is taken as the performance criterion and the analysis is carried out considering various radius ratios and transfer durations. The results are compared to the ones provided by a numerical method based on gradient techniques.

  17. MACSAT - A Near Equatorial Earth Observation Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B. J.; Park, S.; Kim, E.-E.; Park, W.; Chang, H.; Seon, J.

    MACSAT mission was initiated by Malaysia to launch a high-resolution remote sensing satellite into Near Equatorial Orbit (NEO). Due to its geographical location, Malaysia can have large benefits from NEO satellite operation. From the baseline circular orbit of 685 km altitude with 7 degrees of inclination, the neighboring regions around Malaysian territory can be frequently monitored. The equatorial environment around the globe can also be regularly observed with unique revisit characteristics. The primary mission objective of MACSAT program is to develop and validate technologies for a near equatorial orbit remote sensing satellite system. MACSAT is optimally designed to accommodate an electro-optic Earth observation payload, Medium-sized Aperture Camera (MAC). Malaysian and Korean joint engineering teams are formed for the effective implementation of the satellite system. An integrated team approach is adopted for the joint development for MACSAT. MAC is a pushbroom type camera with 2.5 m of Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) in panchromatic band and 5 m of GSD in four multi-spectral bands. The satellite platform is a mini-class satellite. Including MAC payload, the satellite weighs under 200 kg. Spacecraft bus is designed optimally to support payload operations during 3 years of mission life. The payload has 20 km of swath width with +/- 30 o of tilting capability. 32 Gbits of solid state recorder is implemented as the mass image storage. The ground element is an integrated ground station for mission control and payload operation. It is equipped with S- band up/down link for commanding and telemetry reception as well as 30 Mbps class X-band down link for image reception and processing. The MACSAT system is capable of generating 1:25,000-scale image maps. It is also anticipated to have capability for cross-track stereo imaging for Digital elevation Model (DEM) generation.

  18. Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for an electron in the circular quantum ring taking into account spin-orbit interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, V.V.; Baran, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    The exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation are obtained for an electron in two-dimensional circular semiconductor quantum ring in the presence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions of equal strength. Confinement is simulated by a realistic potential well of finite depth. The dependence of energy levels on the strength of spin-orbit interaction, the relative ring width, and the depth of a potential well is presented. (authors)

  19. Injection of a microsatellite in circular orbits using a three-stage launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, L. O.; Murcia, J. O.; Prado, A. F. B. A.; Solórzano, C. R. H.

    2017-10-01

    The injection of a satellite into orbit is usually done by a multi-stage launch vehicle. Nowadays, the space market demonstrates a strong tendency towards the use of smaller satellites, because the miniaturization of the systems improve the cost/benefit of a mission. A study to evaluate the capacity of the Brazilian Microsatellite Launch Vehicle (VLM) to inject payloads into Low Earth Orbits is presented in this paper. All launches are selected to be made to the east side of the Alcântara Launch Center (CLA). The dynamical model to calculate the trajectory consists of the three degrees of freedom (3DOF) associated with the translational movement of the rocket. Several simulations are performed according to a set of restrictions imposed to the flight. The altitude reached in the separation of the second stage, the altitude and velocity of injection, the flight path angle at the moment of the activation of the third stage and the duration of the ballistic flight are presented as a function of the payload carried.

  20. On the lunar node resonance of the orbital plane evolution of the Earth's satellite orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ting-Lei

    2018-06-01

    This paper aims to investigate the effects of lunar node resonance on the circular medium Earth orbits (MEO). The dynamical model is established in classical Hamiltonian systems with the application of Lie transform to remove the non-resonant terms. Resonant condition, stability and phase structures are studied. The lunar node resonance occurs when the secular changing rates of the orbital node (with respect to the equator) and the lunar node (with respect to the ecliptic) form a simple integer ratio. The resonant conditions are satisfied for both inclined and equatorial orbits. The orbital plane would have long period (with typical timescales of several centuries) fluctuation due to the resonance.

  1. Orbital rhythms, monsoons, and playa lake response, Olduvai basin, Equatorial East Africa at 1.85-1.75 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, G. M.

    2001-12-01

    Wet-dry cycles in low latitudes are generally attributed to changes in solar radiation related to the 21 kyr tempo of orbital precession. Stronger insolation drives stronger summer monsoon maxima that increase precipitation and in closed basins produce larger lakes. However, a Plio-Pleistocene record from a closed rift-platform basin near the equator suggests that the obliquity (41 kyr) signal is also present. The 1.85-1.75 Ma sedimentary record deposited in the Olduvai basin, 3oN, reveals clear evidence of periodic expansion and contraction of paleolake Olduvai. The closed basin was 50 km wide and infilled by volcaniclastic material from Ngorongoro volcanic complex in several depositional environments.. A saline-alkaline lake expanded up to 15 km in width and deposited Mg-smectitic claystones. The lake clays in the central basin vary in clay mineralogy and the number of calcite crystal horizons reflecting compositional changes in the lake water. Lake expansions are recorded at the margins where lake clays are intercollated with deltaic and ephemeral fluvial sands and with lake margin wetland deposits. Marine dust records, off both west and east Africa, suggest that the precession signal (21kyr) dominated the climate until 2.8 Ma and the obliquity signal (41kyr) from 2.8 to 0.9 Ma (deMenocal, 1995). In contrast, the stratigraphic sequence for playa lake expansion at Olduvai, that is constrained by the tephra chronology (1.85-1.75 Ma) and paleomagnetic record, documents the combined effects of both obliquity and precession cycles.

  2. An atomic orbital based real-time time-dependent density functional theory for computing electronic circular dichroism band spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goings, Joshua J.; Li, Xiaosong, E-mail: xsli@uw.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2016-06-21

    One of the challenges of interpreting electronic circular dichroism (ECD) band spectra is that different states may have different rotatory strength signs, determined by their absolute configuration. If the states are closely spaced and opposite in sign, observed transitions may be washed out by nearby states, unlike absorption spectra where transitions are always positive additive. To accurately compute ECD bands, it is necessary to compute a large number of excited states, which may be prohibitively costly if one uses the linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework. Here we implement a real-time, atomic-orbital based TDDFT method for computing the entire ECD spectrum simultaneously. The method is advantageous for large systems with a high density of states. In contrast to previous implementations based on real-space grids, the method is variational, independent of nuclear orientation, and does not rely on pseudopotential approximations, making it suitable for computation of chiroptical properties well into the X-ray regime.

  3. Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Equatorial Guinea is situated on the Gulf of Guinea along the west African coast between Cameroon and Gabon. The people are predominantly of Bantu origin. The country's ties with Spain are significant; in 1959, it became the Spanish Equatorial region ruled by Spain's commissioner general. Recent political developments in Equatorial Guinea include the formation of the Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea in July of 1987 and the formation of a 60-member unicameral Chamber of Representatives of the People in 1983. Concerning the population, 83% of the people are Catholic and the official language is Spanish. Poverty and serious health, education and sanitary problems exist. There is no adequate hospital and few trained physicians, no dentists, and no opticians. Malaria is endemic and immunization for yellow fever is required for entrance into the country. The water is not potable and many visitors to the country bring bottled water. The tropical climate of Equatorial Guinea provides the climate for the country's largest exports and source of economy; cacao, wood and coffee. Although the country, as a whole, has progressed towards developing a participatory political system, there are still problems of governmental corruption in the face of grave health and welfare conditions. In recent years, the country has received assistance from the World Bank and the United States to aid in its development.

  4. Late Neogene Orbitally-Forced Sea Surface Temperature Variability in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific as Measured by Uk'37 and TEX86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K. T.; Pearson, A.; Castañeda, I. S.; Peterson, L.

    2017-12-01

    Key features of late Neogene climate remain uncertain due to conflicting records derived from different sea surface temperature (SST) proxies. To resolve these disputes, it is necessary to explore both the consistencies and differences between paleotemperature estimates from critical oceanographic regimes. Here, we report orbital-scale climate variability at ODP Site 846 in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) in the interval from 5-6 Ma using alkenone and TEX86 temperature estimates. Results from both proxies are very similar in their secular trends and magnitude of long-term temperature change; and spectral analysis demonstrates that the records are coherent and in-phase or nearly in-phase in both the obliquity and precession bands. However, we find that the temperatures reconstructed by TEX86 are consistently offset towards colder values by 2ºC with orbital-scale variations approximately twice the amplitude of the Uk'37 derived estimates. Both temperature records are antiphased - i.e. "colder" - at higher sediment alkenone concentrations, a qualitative indicator of increased glacial productivity. Temperature differences between the proxies are accentuated during glacial intervals in contrasts to modern observations of EEP surface and subsurface temperatures, which show that thermocline temperatures are fairly stable, and thus by analogy, glacial cooling and/or enhanced upwelling should have reduced rather than accentuated temperature gradients in the upper water column. Therefore, arguments that Uk'37 corresponds to temperature variability in the surface, while TEX86 responds to the subsurface, may be too simplistic. Instead, it appears generally true that high-productivity environments, including the EEP, tend to have negative TEX86 anomalies. This may reflect a dual dependence of TEX86 records on both water column temperature and local productivity. Overall, our data suggest that in the EEP and likely in other upwelling zones, paleotemperature data derived

  5. Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guochang

    2008-01-01

    This is the first book of the satellite era which describes orbit theory with analytical solutions of the second order with respect to all possible disturbances. Based on such theory, the algorithms of orbits determination are completely revolutionized.

  6. Comparison of circular orbit and Fourier power series ephemeris representations for backup use by the upper atmosphere research satellite onboard computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is a three-axis stabilized Earth-pointing spacecraft in a low-Earth orbit. The UARS onboard computer (OBC) uses a Fourier Power Series (FPS) ephemeris representation that includes 42 position and 42 velocity coefficients per axis, with position residuals at 10-minute intervals. New coefficients and 32 hours of residuals are uploaded daily. This study evaluated two backup methods that permit the OBC to compute an approximate spacecraft ephemeris in the event that new ephemeris data cannot be uplinked for several days: (1) extending the use of the FPS coefficients previously uplinked, and (2) switching to a simple circular orbit approximation designed and tested (but not implemented) for LANDSAT-D. The FPS method provides greater accuracy during the backup period and does not require additional ground operational procedures for generating and uplinking an additional ephemeris table. The tradeoff is that the high accuracy of the FPS will be degraded slightly by adopting the longer fit period necessary to obtain backup accuracy for an extended period of time. The results for UARS show that extended use of the FPS is superior to the circular orbit approximation for short-term ephemeris backup.

  7. Ground Target Overflight and Orbital Maneuvering via Atmospheric Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Total deceleration m ∙ s−2 Gravitational acceleration m ∙ s−2 ℎ Altitude m Inclination angle rad Vehicle mass kg Geocentric ...total atmospheric inclination change approached the limit of approximately 36.2° as the number of atmospheric passes increased. This inclination...determine the longitude. By expanding and simplifying Eqs. (3.1) and (3.5) for a circular orbit, the position can be written in the Geocentric Equatorial

  8. Periodic orbit-attitude solutions along planar orbits in a perturbed circular restricted three-body problem for the Earth-Moon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Lorenzo; Lavagna, Michèle; Guzzetti, Davide; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2018-06-01

    Interest on Large Space Structures (LSS), orbiting in strategic and possibly long-term stable locations, is nowadays increasing in the space community. LSS can serve as strategic outpost to support a variety of manned and unmanned mission, or may carry scientific payloads for astronomical observations. The paper focuses on analysing LSS in the Earth-Moon system, exploring dynamical structures that are available within a multi-body gravitational environment. Coupling between attitude and orbital dynamics is investigated, with particular interest on the gravity gradient torque exerted by the two massive attractors. First, natural periodic orbit-attitude solutions are obtained; a LSS that exploits such solutions would benefit of a naturally periodic body rotation synchronous with the orbital motion, easing the effort of the attitude control system to satisfy pointing requirements. Then, the solar radiation pressure is introduced into the fully coupled dynamical model and its effects investigated, discovering novel periodic attitude solutions. Benefits of periodic behaviours that incorporate solar radiation pressure are discussed, and analysed via the variation of some parameters (e.g reflection/absorption coefficients, position of the centre of pressure). As a final step to refine the current perturbed orbit-attitude model, a structure flexibility is also superimposed to a reference orbit-attitude rigid body motion via a simple, yet effective model. The coupling of structural vibrations and attitude motion is preliminarily explored, and allows identification of possible challenges, that may be faced to position a LSS in a periodic orbit within the Earth-Moon system.

  9. Orbital

    OpenAIRE

    Yourshaw, Matthew Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Orbital is a virtual reality gaming experience designed to explore the use of traditional narrative structure to enhance immersion in virtual reality. The story structure of Orbital was developed based on the developmental steps of 'The Hero's Journey,' a narrative pattern identified by Joseph Campbell. Using this standard narrative pattern, Orbital is capable of immersing the player quickly and completely for the entirety of play time. MFA

  10. Perturbation of a slowly rotating black hole by a stationary axisymmetric ring of matter. II. Penrose processes, circular orbits, and differential mass formulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will, C.M.

    1975-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the phenomenon of energy extraction (''Penrose'') from a slowly rotating black hole perturbed by a stationary axisymmetric ring of matter, and show that the gravitational interaction between the ring and the particles used in the Penrose process must be taken into account. For the case of a black-hole-ring configuration of ''minimum enregy'' we show that a Penrose process can extract further energy, but that by measns of their gravitational forces, the particles used in the process cause the radius of the ring to change, releasing precisely sufficient gravitational potential energy to make up for that extracted. By analyzing the properties of circular test-particle orbits in black-hole-ring spacetimes, we show quantitatively how this change in radius is produced. A ''differential mass formula'' relating the total masses of neighboring black-hole-ring configurations is also derived

  11. Influence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions of equal strength on the electron states in the circular quantum ring in the presence of a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, V.V.; Baran, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    The solutions of the Schrodinger equation are obtained for an electron in the two-dimensional circular semiconductor quantum ring in the presence of both an external magnetic and the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions of equal strength . Confinement is simulated by a realistic potential well of finite depth. The dependence of energy levels on the magnetic field, the strength of spin-orbit interaction, and the relative ring width is presented. (authors)

  12. Influence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions of equal strength on the electron states in the circular quantum dot in the presence of a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, V.V.; Baran, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    The solutions of the Schrodinger equation are obtained for an electron at a two-dimensional circular semiconductor quantum dot in the presence of both an external magnetic field and the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions of equal strength. Confinement is simulated by a realistic potential well of finite depth. The dependence of energy levels on a magnetic field and a strength of spin-orbit interaction is presented. (authors)

  13. Perturbative evolution of particle orbits around Kerr black holes: time-domain calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Aleman, Ramon [Physical Sciences Department, University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras, San Juan, PR 00931 (Puerto Rico); Khanna, Gaurav [Natural Science Division, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968 (United States); Pullin, Jorge [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)

    2003-07-21

    We consider the problem of the gravitational waves produced by a particle of negligible mass orbiting a Kerr black hole. We treat the Teukolsky perturbation equation in the time domain numerically as a 2 + 1 partial differential equation. We model the particle by smearing the singularities in the source term by the use of narrow Gaussian distributions. We have been able to reproduce earlier results for equatorial circular orbits that were computed using the frequency-domain formalism. The time-domain approach is however geared for a more general evolution, for instance of nearly geodesic orbits under the effects of radiation reaction.

  14. Perturbative evolution of particle orbits around Kerr black holes: time-domain calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Aleman, Ramon; Khanna, Gaurav; Pullin, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of the gravitational waves produced by a particle of negligible mass orbiting a Kerr black hole. We treat the Teukolsky perturbation equation in the time domain numerically as a 2 + 1 partial differential equation. We model the particle by smearing the singularities in the source term by the use of narrow Gaussian distributions. We have been able to reproduce earlier results for equatorial circular orbits that were computed using the frequency-domain formalism. The time-domain approach is however geared for a more general evolution, for instance of nearly geodesic orbits under the effects of radiation reaction

  15. Administrative Circulars

    CERN Document Server

    Département des Ressources humaines

    2004-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...

  16. A Numerical Study of Low-Thrust Limited Power Trajectories between Coplanar Circular Orbits in an Inverse-Square Force Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro da Silva Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of optimal low-thrust limited power trajectories for simple transfer (no rendezvous between circular coplanar orbits in an inverse-square force field is performed by two different classes of algorithms in optimization of trajectories. This study is carried out by means of a direct method based on gradient techniques and by an indirect method based on the second variation theory. The direct approach of the trajectory optimization problem combines the main positive characteristics of two well-known direct methods in optimization of trajectories: the steepest-descent (first-order gradient method and a direct second variation (second-order gradient method. On the other hand, the indirect approach of the trajectory optimization problem involves two different algorithms of the well-known neighboring extremals method. Several radius ratios and transfer durations are considered, and the fuel consumption is taken as the performance criterion. For small-amplitude transfers, the results are compared to the ones provided by a linear analytical theory.

  17. The third post-Newtonian gravitational wave polarizations and associated spherical harmonic modes for inspiralling compact binaries in quasi-circular orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Luc; Faye, Guillaume; Iyer, Bala R; Sinha, Siddhartha

    2008-01-01

    The gravitational waveform (GWF) generated by inspiralling compact binaries moving in quasi-circular orbits is computed at the third post-Newtonian (3PN) approximation to general relativity. Our motivation is two-fold: (i) to provide accurate templates for the data analysis of gravitational wave inspiral signals in laser interferometric detectors; (ii) to provide the associated spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition to facilitate comparison and match of the high post-Newtonian prediction for the inspiral waveform to the numerically-generated waveforms for the merger and ringdown. This extension of the GWF by half a PN order (with respect to previous work at 2.5PN order) is based on the algorithm of the multipolar post-Minkowskian formalism, and mandates the computation of the relations between the radiative, canonical and source multipole moments for general sources at 3PN order. We also obtain the 3PN extension of the source multipole moments in the case of compact binaries, and compute the contributions of hereditary terms (tails, tails-of-tails and memory integrals) up to 3PN order. The end results are given for both the complete plus and cross polarizations and the separate spin-weighted spherical harmonic modes

  18. Towards an Accurate Orbital Calibration of Late Miocene Climate Events: Insights From a High-Resolution Chemo- and Magnetostratigraphy (8-6 Ma) from Equatorial Pacific IODP Sites U1337 and U1338

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, A. J.; Westerhold, T.; Frederichs, T.; Wilkens, R.; Channell, J. E. T.; Evans, H. F.; Hodell, D. A.; John, C. M.; Lyle, M. W.; Roehl, U.; Tian, J.

    2015-12-01

    In the 8-6 Ma interval, the late Miocene is characterised by a long-term -0.3 ‰ reduction in benthic foraminiferal δ18O and distinctive short-term δ18O cycles, possibly related to dynamic Antarctic ice sheet variability. In addition, the late Miocene carbon isotope shift (LMCIS) marks a permanent long-term -1 ‰ shift in oceanic δ13CDIC, which is the largest, long-term perturbation in the global marine carbon cycle since the mid Miocene Monterey excursion. Accurate age control is crucial to investigate the origin of the δ18O cyclicity and determine the precise onset of the LMCIS. The current Geological Time Scale in the 8-6 Ma interval is constructed using astronomical tuning of sedimentary cycles in Mediterranean outcrops. However, outside of the Mediterranean, a comparable high-resolution chemo-, magneto-, and cyclostratigraphy at a single DSDP/ODP/IODP site does not exist. Generating an accurate astronomically-calibrated chemo- and magneto-stratigraphy in the 8-6 Ma interval became possible with retrieval of equatorial Pacific IODP Sites U1337 and U1338, as both sites have sedimentation rates ~2 cm/kyr, high biogenic carbonate content, and magnetic polarity stratigraphies. Here we present high-resolution correlation of Sites U1337 and U1338 using Milankovitch-related cycles in core images and X-ray fluorescence core scanning data. By combining inclination and declination data from ~400 new discrete samples with shipboard measurements, we are able to identify 14 polarity reversals at Site U1337 from the young end of Chron C3An.1n (~6.03 Ma) to the onset of Chron C4n.2n (~8.11 Ma). New high-resolution (<1.5 kyr) stable isotope records from Site U1337 correlate highly with Site U1338 records, enabling construction of a high-resolution stack. Initial orbital tuning of the U1337-U1338 records show that the δ18O cyclicity is obliquity driven, indicating high-latitude climate forcing. The LMCIS starts ~7.55 Ma and is anchored in Chron C4n.1n, which is

  19. Homoclinic orbits around spinning black holes. I. Exact solution for the Kerr separatrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Janna; Perez-Giz, Gabe

    2009-01-01

    For equatorial Kerr orbits, we show that each separatrix between bound and plunging geodesics is a homoclinic orbit--an orbit that asymptotes to an energetically-bound, unstable circular orbit. We derive exact expressions for these trajectories in terms of elementary functions. We also clarify the formal connection between the separatrix and zoom-whirl orbits and show that, contrary to popular belief, zoom-whirl behavior is not intrinsically a near-separatrix phenomenon. This paper focuses on homoclinic behavior in physical space, while in a companion paper we paint the complementary phase space portrait. Although they refer to geodesic motion, the exact solutions for the Kerr separatrix could be useful for analytic or numerical studies of eccentric transitions from orbital to plunging motion under the dissipative effects of gravitational radiation.

  20. Circular Coinduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Grigore; Goguen, Joseph; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Circular coinduction is a technique for behavioral reasoning that extends cobasis coinduction to specifications with circularities. Because behavioral satisfaction is not recursively enumerable, no algorithm can work for every behavioral statement. However. algorithms using circular coinduction can prove every practical behavioral result that we know. This paper proves the correctness of circular coinduction and some consequences.

  1. Analysis of Hot Ions Detected during Equatorial Orbits of the Cassini Spacecraft at Saturn using the Convected Kappa Distribution Function and a Comparison to Voyager and Galileo Measurements at Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Carbary, J. F.; Hill, M. E.; Dialynas, K.; Mauk, B.; Krimigis, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    An extensive analysis of Cassini INCA and CHEMS measurements of 5-149 keV ions acquired during all equatorial orbits has been completed using a 3-D convected kappa distribution model. The computed plasma azimuthal speed, expressed as a fraction of the local corotation speed, decreases sharply with increasing distance from Saturn. The oxygen ion profile follows the hydrogen ion trend. For both species, the polar convection speed is the smallest of the 3 velocity components, and is centered about zero, but the radial speed has a significant radially outward component. Further, the radial component is enhanced in the pre-dawn sector. The hydrogen and oxygen temperatures increase with decreasing distance to Saturn. The calculated pattern of convection is consistent with an empirical model of plasma convection that includes outward radial transport and escape of plasma in a dawnside boundary layer of plasma entrained by the dawn magnetosheath flow. When the model convection pattern is scaled to the sub-solar magnetopause distance and to the sizes of Jupiter and Saturn, the pattern agrees with that derived from analysis of hot ions detected by the LECP detector on Voyager and the EPD instrument on Galileo. This and previous analysis of hot ion distributions has shown that the convected kappa distribution, with isotropy assumed in the plasma rest frame, has well described hot ion observed fluxes within a limited range of ion energies and has produced meaningful and ordered physical plasma parameters including plasma bulk velocity vectors, kappa distribution temperature profiles, and the general magnetospheric convection pattern at Jupiter and Saturn.

  2. Pseudo-Newtonian planar circular restricted 3-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubeibe, F.L.; Lora-Clavijo, F.D.; González, Guillermo A.

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the planar circular restricted three-body problem in the context of a pseudo-Newtonian approximation. By using the Fodor–Hoenselaers–Perjés procedure, we perform an expansion in the mass potential of a static massive spherical source up to the first non-Newtonian term, giving place to a gravitational potential that includes first-order general relativistic effects. With this result, we model a system composed by two pseudo-Newtonian primaries describing circular orbits around their common center of mass, and a test particle orbiting the system in the equatorial plane. The dynamics of the new system of equations is studied in terms of the Poincaré section method and the Lyapunov exponents, where the introduction of a new parameter ϵ, allows us to observe the transition from the Newtonian to the pseudo-Newtonian regime. We show that when the Jacobian constant is fixed, a chaotic orbit in the Newtonian regime can be either chaotic or regular in the pseudo-Newtonian approach. As a general result, we find that most of the pseudo-Newtonian configurations are less stable than their Newtonian equivalent.

  3. Pseudo-Newtonian planar circular restricted 3-body problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubeibe, F.L., E-mail: fldubeibem@unal.edu.co [Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y de la Educación, Universidad de los Llanos, Villavicencio (Colombia); Grupo de Investigación en Relatividad y Gravitación, Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Lora-Clavijo, F.D., E-mail: fadulora@uis.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Relatividad y Gravitación, Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); González, Guillermo A., E-mail: guillermo.gonzalez@saber.uis.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Relatividad y Gravitación, Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2017-02-12

    We study the dynamics of the planar circular restricted three-body problem in the context of a pseudo-Newtonian approximation. By using the Fodor–Hoenselaers–Perjés procedure, we perform an expansion in the mass potential of a static massive spherical source up to the first non-Newtonian term, giving place to a gravitational potential that includes first-order general relativistic effects. With this result, we model a system composed by two pseudo-Newtonian primaries describing circular orbits around their common center of mass, and a test particle orbiting the system in the equatorial plane. The dynamics of the new system of equations is studied in terms of the Poincaré section method and the Lyapunov exponents, where the introduction of a new parameter ϵ, allows us to observe the transition from the Newtonian to the pseudo-Newtonian regime. We show that when the Jacobian constant is fixed, a chaotic orbit in the Newtonian regime can be either chaotic or regular in the pseudo-Newtonian approach. As a general result, we find that most of the pseudo-Newtonian configurations are less stable than their Newtonian equivalent.

  4. Intermonsoonal equatorial jets

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.

    , respectively. Hydrographic features and transport computations favour a well developed equatorial jet during both seasons. The net surface eastward and subsurface westward flows are well balanced during the premonsoon transition period and appear...

  5. Origin-Independent Sum Over States Simulations of Magnetic and Electronic Circular Dichroism Spectra via the Localized Orbital/Local Origin Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, Petr; Bouř, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 10 (2015), s. 723-730 ISSN 0192-8651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-03978S; GA ČR GAP208/11/0105 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200551205 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : density functional theory * electronic circular dichroism * magnetic circular dichroism * origin-dependence Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.648, year: 2015

  6. Administrative circular

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    • N° 21 - August 2003 Special leave This circular has been amended. Copies of this circular are available in the Divisional Secretariats. In addition, administrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation on the Web at: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/admincirc/listadmincirc.asp Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  7. Circular Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.; Bos, H.L.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Haas, de W.; Kuikman, P.J.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Sikirica, N.

    2016-01-01

    The fifth part of this report on Circular Solutions is about the circular principle From Waste to Resource. The purpose of this study is to select promising options for the implementation of this circular principle and to elaborate these options further.

  8. Information Circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars which were of current interest on 15 January 1969 is given below, followed by an index to their subject matter. Other circulars can be traced by reference to earlier issues of the present document.

  9. Information Circulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-01-24

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars which were of current interest on 15 January 1969 is given below, followed by an index to their subject matter. Other circulars can be traced by reference to earlier issues of the present document.

  10. Ionization of oriented targets by intense circularly polarized laser pulses: Imprints of orbital angular nodes in the two-dimensional momentum distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Christian; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a few-cycle circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulse that interacts with an oriented target exemplified by an argon atom, initially in a 3px or 3py state. The photoelectron momentum distributions show distinct signatures o...

  11. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Member States. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to February 1997, grouped by field of activity. A complete list of information circulars in numerical order is given in an annex

  12. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to the end of April 2002. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex

  13. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Member States. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to the end of May 1999, grouped by field of activity. A complete list of information circulars in numerical order is given in an annex

  14. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1994. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex

  15. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1992. A complete numerical lift of Information Circulars with their titles is reproduced in an Annex

  16. Information Circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current or on the press on 15 May 1966 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.

  17. Information Circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current on 31 December 1964 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.

  18. Information Circulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-06-10

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current or on the press on 15 May 1966 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.

  19. Information Circulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-01-18

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current on 31 December 1964 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.

  20. Information Circulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-10

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/.. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A subject index to the circulars is presented overleaf. It covers all those published in the last five years (that is, since the beginning of 1968 and ending with INFCIRC/192), as well as others which, for one reason or another, are still considered to be of current rather than merely historical interest. Such circulars can be traced by reference to the indexes that were included in earlier revisions of the present document.

  1. Information Circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/.. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A subject index to the circulars is presented overleaf. It covers all those published in the last five years (that is, since the beginning of 1968 and ending with INFCIRC/192), as well as others which, for one reason or another, are still considered to be of current rather than merely historical interest. Such circulars can be traced by reference to the indexes that were included in earlier revisions of the present document.

  2. Cygnus X-1: Discovery of variable circular polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalsky, J.J.; Swedlund, J.B.; Stokes, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    HDE 226868, the optical counterpart of Cyg X-1, has been observed for circular polarization during 1974. Observations in five colors suggest that circular polarization results from an interstellar effect. Measurements of the blue polarization reveal circular polarization variations synchronous with the 5)./sub /6 orbital period. The circular polarization variation appears to be similar to the blue intensity variation

  3. Circular Updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Circular Updates are periodic sequentially numbered instructions to debriefing staff and observers informing them of changes or additions to scientific and specimen...

  4. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The document summarizes the information circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. In the main body of the document only those documents which are regarded as likely to be of current interest are listed. A complete numerical list of information circulars with their titles is reproduced in the Annex

  5. Pacific Equatorial Transect

    OpenAIRE

    Pälike, Heiko; Nishi, Hiroshi; Lyle, Mitch; Raffi, Isabella; Klaus, Adam; Gamage, Kusali

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 320/321, "Pacific Equatorial Age Transect" (Sites U1331–U1338), was designed to recover a continuous Cenozoic record of the paleoequatorial Pacific by coring above the paleoposition of the Equator at successive crustal ages on the Pacific plate. These sediments record the evolution of the paleoequatorial climate system throughout the Cenozoic. As we gained more information about the past movement of plates and when in Earth's history "critical" cli...

  6. Operational Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Operational Circular N° 4 - April 2003 Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN - This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 5 - October 2000 Use of CERN computing facilities - Further details on the personal use of CERN computing facilities Operational Circular N° 5 and its Subsidiary Rules http://cern.ch/ComputingRules defines the rules for the use of CERN computing facilities. One of the basic principles governing such use is that it must come within the professional duties of the user concerned, as defined by the user's divisional hierarchy. However, personal use of the computing facilities is tolerated or allowed provided : a) It is in compliance with Operational Circular N° 5 and not detrimental to official duties, including those of other users; b) the frequency and duration is limited and there is a negligible use of CERN resources; c) it does not constitute a political, commercial and/or profit-making activity; d) it is not...

  7. A simple method to design non-collision relative orbits for close spacecraft formation flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Li, JunFeng; Jiang, FangHua; Bernelli-Zazzera, Franco

    2018-05-01

    A set of linearized relative motion equations of spacecraft flying on unperturbed elliptical orbits are specialized for particular cases, where the leader orbit is circular or equatorial. Based on these extended equations, we are able to analyze the relative motion regulation between a pair of spacecraft flying on arbitrary unperturbed orbits with the same semi-major axis in close formation. Given the initial orbital elements of the leader, this paper presents a simple way to design initial relative orbital elements of close spacecraft with the same semi-major axis, thus preventing collision under non-perturbed conditions. Considering the mean influence of J 2 perturbation, namely secular J 2 perturbation, we derive the mean derivatives of orbital element differences, and then expand them to first order. Thus the first order expansion of orbital element differences can be added to the relative motion equations for further analysis. For a pair of spacecraft that will never collide under non-perturbed situations, we present a simple method to determine whether a collision will occur when J 2 perturbation is considered. Examples are given to prove the validity of the extended relative motion equations and to illustrate how the methods presented can be used. The simple method for designing initial relative orbital elements proposed here could be helpful to the preliminary design of the relative orbital elements between spacecraft in a close formation, when collision avoidance is necessary.

  8. Modified circular velocity law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeghloul, Nazim

    2018-05-01

    A modified circular velocity law is presented for a test body orbiting around a spherically symmetric mass. This law exhibits a distance scale parameter and allows to recover both usual Newtonian behaviour for lower distances and a constant velocity limit at large scale. Application to the Galaxy predicts the known behaviour and also leads to a galactic mass in accordance with the measured visible stellar mass so that additional dark matter inside the Galaxy can be avoided. It is also shown that this circular velocity law can be embedded in a geometrical description of spacetime within the standard general relativity framework upon relaxing the usual asymptotic flatness condition. This formulation allows to redefine the introduced Newtonian scale limit in term of the central mass exclusively. Moreover, a satisfactory answer to the galactic escape speed problem can be provided indicating the possibility that one can also get rid of dark matter halo outside the Galaxy.

  9. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA under the symbol INFCIRC/ for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A complete list of INFCIRCs in numerical order with their titles is given in the Annex

  10. ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULARS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff membersN° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000Staff members contractsN° 16 (Rev. 2) - January 2000TrainingN° 30 (Rev. 1) - January 2000Indemnities and reimbursements upon taking up appointment and termination of contractN° 32 - February 2000Principles and procedures governing complaints of harassmentThese circular have been amended (No 2, N° 9, N° 16 and N° 30) or drawn up (N° 32).Copies are available in the Divisional Secretariats.Note:\tAdministrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation in the server SRV4_Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word files are available in the folder COM, folder Public, folder ADM.CIRC.docHuman Resources DivisionTel. 74128

  11. Circular RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yi-Neng; Xia, Shengqiang; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel type of universal and diverse endogenous noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and they form a covalently closed continuous loop without 5' or 3' tails unlike linear RNAs. Most circRNAs are presented with characteristics of abundance, stability, conservatism, and often exhi...... and expression regulators, RBP sponges in cancer as well as current research methods of circRNAs, providing evidence for the significance of circRNAs in cancer diagnosis and clinical treatment....

  12. DEMETER Observations of Equatorial Plasma Depletions and Related Ionospheric Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelier, J.; Malingre, M.; Pfaff, R.; Jasperse, J.; Parrot, M.

    2008-12-01

    DEMETER, the first micro-satellite of the CNES MYRIAD program, was launched from Baikonour on June 29, 2004 on a nearly circular, quasi helio-synchronous polar orbit at ~ 715 km altitude. The DEMETER mission focuses primarily on the search for a possible coupling between seismic activity and ionospheric disturbances as well as on the effects of natural phenomena such as tropospheric thunderstorms and man-made activities on the ionosphere. The scientific payload provides fairly complete measurements of the ionospheric plasma, energetic particles above ~ 70 keV, and plasma waves, up to 20 kHz for the magnetic and 3.3 MHz for the electric components. Several studies related to space weather and ionospheric physics have been conducted over the past years. Following a brief description of the payload and the satellite modes of operation, this presentation will focus on a set of results that provide a new insight into the physics of instabilities in the night-time equatorial ionosphere. The observations were performed during the major magnetic storm of November 2004. Deep plasma depletions were observed on several night-time passes at low latitudes characterized by the decrease of the plasma density by nearly 3 orders of magnitude relative to the undisturbed plasma, and a significant abundance of molecular ions. These features can be best interpreted as resulting from the rise of the F-layer above the satellite altitude over an extended region of the ionosphere. In one of the passes, DEMETER was operated in the Burst mode and the corresponding high resolution data allowed for the discovery of two unexpected phenomena. The first one is the existence of high intensity monochromatic wave packets at the LH frequency that develop during the decay phase of intense bursts of broadband LH turbulence. The broadband LH turbulence is triggered by whistlers emitted by lightning from atmospheric thunderstorms beneath the satellite. The second unexpected feature is the detection of a

  13. Equatorial electrojet in east Brazil longitudes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dip latitude as the electrons/ions can move vertically along the inclined magnetic field lines. Equatorial electrojet has been extensively studied from ground, rocket ... Keywords. Equatorial electrojet; Brazilian anomaly in equatorial electrojet; asymmetries in equatorial electrojet. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 119, No. 4, August 2010, pp.

  14. Space station orbit maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Jones, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The orbit maintenance problem is examined for two low-earth-orbiting space station concepts - the large, manned Space Operations Center (SOC) and the smaller, unmanned Science and Applications Space Platform (SASP). Atmospheric drag forces are calculated, and circular orbit altitudes are selected to assure a 90 day decay period in the event of catastrophic propulsion system failure. Several thrusting strategies for orbit maintenance are discussed. Various chemical and electric propulsion systems for orbit maintenance are compared on the basis of propellant resupply requirements, power requirements, Shuttle launch costs, and technology readiness.

  15. Contingency Trajectory Design for a Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver Failure by the LADEE Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a contingency trajectory analysis performed for the Lunar Atmosphere & Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission in the event of a missed lunar-orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver by the LADEE spacecraft. The effects of varying solar perturbations in the vicinity of the weak stability boundary (WSB) in the Sun-Earth system on the trajectory design are analyzed and discussed. It is shown that geocentric recovery trajectory options existed for the LADEE spacecraft, depending on the spacecraft's recovery time to perform an Earth escape-prevention maneuver after the hypothetical LOI maneuver failure and subsequent path traveled through the Sun-Earth WSB. If Earth-escape occurred, a heliocentric recovery option existed, but with reduced science capacapability for the spacecraft in an eccentric, not circular near-equatorial retrograde lunar orbit.

  16. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF HOT JUPITERS ON HIGHLY ECCENTRIC ORBITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P.; Lewis, N. K.; Fortney, J. J.; Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Of the over 800 exoplanets detected to date, over half are on non-circular orbits, with eccentricities as high as 0.93. Such orbits lead to time-variable stellar heating, which has major implications for the planet's atmospheric dynamical regime. However, little is known about the fundamental dynamical regime of such planetary atmospheres, and how it may influence the observations of these planets. Therefore, we present a systematic study of hot Jupiters on highly eccentric orbits using the SPARC/MITgcm, a model which couples a three-dimensional general circulation model (the MITgcm) with a plane-parallel, two-stream, non-gray radiative transfer model. In our study, we vary the eccentricity and orbit-average stellar flux over a wide range. We demonstrate that the eccentric hot Jupiter regime is qualitatively similar to that of planets on circular orbits; the planets possess a superrotating equatorial jet and exhibit large day-night temperature variations. As in Showman and Polvani, we show that the day-night heating variations induce momentum fluxes equatorward to maintain the superrotating jet throughout its orbit. We find that as the eccentricity and/or stellar flux is increased (corresponding to shorter orbital periods), the superrotating jet strengthens and narrows, due to a smaller Rossby deformation radius. For a select number of model integrations, we generate full-orbit light curves and find that the timing of transit and secondary eclipse viewed from Earth with respect to periapse and apoapse can greatly affect what we see in infrared (IR) light curves; the peak in IR flux can lead or lag secondary eclipse depending on the geometry. For those planets that have large temperature differences from dayside to nightside and rapid rotation rates, we find that the light curves can exhibit 'ringing' as the planet's hottest region rotates in and out of view from Earth. These results can be used to explain future observations of eccentric transiting exoplanets.

  17. Utilizing Solar Power Technologies for On-Orbit Propellant Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark W.

    2006-01-01

    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit may be reduced if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The cost of access to low Earth orbit may also be reduced by launching oxygen and hydrogen propellants in the form of water. To achieve this reduction in costs of access to low Earth orbit and beyond, a propellant depot is considered that electrolyzes water in orbit, then condenses and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen. Power requirements for such a depot require Solar Power Satellite technologies. A propellant depot utilizing solar power technologies is discussed in this paper. The depot will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit. It receives tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth, converts the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and stores up to 500 metric tons of cryogenic propellants. This requires a power system that is comparable to a large Solar Power Satellite capable of several 100 kW of energy. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotates once per orbit to track the Sun. The majority of the power is used to run the electrolysis system. Thermal control is maintained by body-mounted radiators; these also provide some shielding against orbital debris. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. Emphasis is placed on the Water-Ice to Cryogen propellant production facility. A very high power system is required for cracking (electrolyzing) the water and condensing and refrigerating the resulting oxygen and hydrogen. For a propellant production rate of 500 metric tons (1,100,000 pounds) per year, an average electrical power supply of 100 s of kW is required. To make the most efficient use of space solar power, electrolysis is performed only during the portion of the orbit that the Depot is in sunlight, so roughly twice this power level is needed for operations in sunlight

  18. Equatorial enhancement of the nighttime OH mesospheric infrared airglow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D J; Thurgood, B K; Harrison, W K; Mlynczak, M G; Russell, J M

    2007-01-01

    Global measurements of the hydroxyl mesospheric airglow over an extended period of time have been made possible by the NASA SABER infrared sensor aboard the TIMED satellite which has been functioning since December of 2001. The orbital mission has continued over a significant portion of a solar cycle. Experimental data from SABER for several years have exhibited equatorial enhancements of the nighttime mesospheric OH (Δv=2) airglow layer consistent with the high average diurnal solar flux. The brightening of the OH airglow typically means more H+O 3 is being reacted. At both the spring and autumn seasonal equinoxes when the equatorial solar UV irradiance mean is greatest, the peak volume emission rate (VER) of the nighttime Meinel infrared airglow typically appears to be both significantly brighter plus lower in altitude by several kilometres at low latitudes compared with midlatitude findings

  19. A Study of Single- and Double-Averaged Second-Order Models to Evaluate Third-Body Perturbation Considering Elliptic Orbits for the Perturbing Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Domingos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The equations for the variations of the Keplerian elements of the orbit of a spacecraft perturbed by a third body are developed using a single average over the motion of the spacecraft, considering an elliptic orbit for the disturbing body. A comparison is made between this approach and the more used double averaged technique, as well as with the full elliptic restricted three-body problem. The disturbing function is expanded in Legendre polynomials up to the second order in both cases. The equations of motion are obtained from the planetary equations, and several numerical simulations are made to show the evolution of the orbit of the spacecraft. Some characteristics known from the circular perturbing body are studied: circular, elliptic equatorial, and frozen orbits. Different initial eccentricities for the perturbed body are considered, since the effect of this variable is one of the goals of the present study. The results show the impact of this parameter as well as the differences between both models compared to the full elliptic restricted three-body problem. Regions below, near, and above the critical angle of the third-body perturbation are considered, as well as different altitudes for the orbit of the spacecraft.

  20. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  1. Administrative Circulars Rev.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 19 (Rev. 3) - April 2003 Subsistence indemnity - Other expenses necessarily incurred in the course of duty travelAdministrative Circular N° 25 (Rev. 2) - April 2003 Shift work - Special provisions for the Fire and Rescue Service - These circulars have been revised. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128Copies of these circulars are available in the Divisional Secretariats. In addition, administrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation on the Web at: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/internal/admin_services/admincirc/listadmincirc.asp

  2. Saturation of equatorial inertial instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterziel, R.C.; Orlandi, P.; Carnevale, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Inertial instability in parallel shear flows and circular vortices in a uniformly rotating system ( $f$f-plane) redistributes absolute linear momentum or absolute angular momentum in such a way as to neutralize the instability. In previous studies we showed that, in the absence of other

  3. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  4. 1s2p Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering Magnetic Circular Dichroism as a probe for the local and non-local orbitals in CrO 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Patric; Bouldi, Nadejda; Hunault, Myrtille O.j.y.; Sikora, Marcin; Ablett, James M.; Rueff, Jean Pascal; Lebert, Blair; Sainctavit, Philippe; De Groot, Frank M.f.; Juhin, Amélie

    2018-01-01

    We have determined the magnetic ground state of the half-metal CrO2 based on 1s2p Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering Magnetic Circular Dichroism (RIXS-MCD) experiments. The two-dimensional RIXS-MCD map displays the 1s X-ray absorption spectrum combined with the 1s2p X-ray emission decay, where

  5. Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang Xiangbin; Wadati, Miki

    2002-01-01

    Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits are studied. For the case of a one to two phase-covariant quantum cloning machine, we present the networks consisting of quantum gates to realize the quantum cloning transformations. The copied equatorial qubits are shown to be separable by using Peres-Horodecki criterion. The optimal one to M phase-covariant quantum cloning transformations are given

  6. Circular induction accelerator for borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.K.; Bertozzi, W.; Corris, G.W.; Diamond, W.; Doucet, J.A.; Schweitzer, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a downhole logging sonde adapted to be moved through a borehole, a source of gamma rays in the sonde for irradiating earth formations traversed by the borehole, one or more gamma ray detectors for detecting gamma rays scattered back to the sonde from the irradiated earth formations, and means for transmitting signals representative of the detected gamma rays to the earth's surface for processing. This patent describes improvement in the gamma ray source comprises a magnetic induction particle accelerator, including: a magnetic circuit having a field magnet, generally circular opposed pole pieces, and a core magnet metal ions from the group consisting of Mn, Zn and Ni; an excitation circuit including a field coil surrounding the field magnet and the core magnet and a core coil surrounding the central axially leg of the core magnet; an annular acceleration chamber interposed between the pole pieces; means for applying time-varying acceleration voltage pulses across the primary excitation circuit; means for injecting charged particles into orbit within the acceleration chamber; means for compressing the particle orbits to trap particles within generally circular orbits within the acceleration chamber; means for generating a particle accelerating magnetic flux in the magnetic circuit; and means for ejecting charged particles from the generally circular orbits and into contact with a target to produce gamma ray photons

  7. Publication of administrative circular

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee on 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in Departmental Secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  8. PUBLICATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  9. EQUATORIAL SUPERROTATION ON TIDALLY LOCKED EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showman, Adam P.; Polvani, Lorenzo M.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing richness of exoplanet observations has motivated a variety of three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric circulation models of these planets. Under strongly irradiated conditions, models of tidally locked, short-period planets (both hot Jupiters and terrestrial planets) tend to exhibit a circulation dominated by a fast eastward, or 'superrotating', jet stream at the equator. When the radiative and advection timescales are comparable, this phenomenon can cause the hottest regions to be displaced eastward from the substellar point by tens of degrees longitude. Such an offset has been subsequently observed on HD 189733b, supporting the possibility of equatorial jets on short-period exoplanets. Despite its relevance, however, the dynamical mechanisms responsible for generating the equatorial superrotation in such models have not been identified. Here, we show that the equatorial jet results from the interaction of the mean flow with standing Rossby waves induced by the day-night thermal forcing. The strong longitudinal variations in radiative heating-namely intense dayside heating and nightside cooling-trigger the formation of standing, planetary-scale equatorial Rossby and Kelvin waves. The Rossby waves develop phase tilts that pump eastward momentum from high latitudes to the equator, thereby inducing equatorial superrotation. We present an analytic theory demonstrating this mechanism and explore its properties in a hierarchy of one-layer (shallow-water) calculations and fully 3D models. The wave-mean-flow interaction produces an equatorial jet whose latitudinal width is comparable to that of the Rossby waves, namely the equatorial Rossby deformation radius modified by radiative and frictional effects. For conditions typical of synchronously rotating hot Jupiters, this length is comparable to a planetary radius, explaining the broad scale of the equatorial jet obtained in most hot-Jupiter models. Our theory illuminates the dependence of the equatorial jet

  10. The generalized circular model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webers, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a generalization of the circular model. In this model there are two concentric circular markets, which enables us to study two types of markets simultaneously. There are switching costs involved for moving from one circle to the other circle, which can also be thought of as

  11. Circularity and Lambda Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Thiemann, Peter; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    unknowns from what is done to them, which we lambda-abstract with functions. The circular unknowns then become dead variables, which we eliminate. The result is a strict circu- lar program a la Pettorossi. This transformation is reversible: given a strict circular program a la Pettorossi, we introduce...

  12. Towards Circular Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldmann, Eva; Remmen, Arne

    The present report concerns the practical process of developing initiatives based on the circular economy in eight Danish companies. The report outlines how the process of integrating the circular economy was approached in each of the participating companies during 2014 and 2015 and what came out...

  13. Satellite Orbital Precessions Caused by the Octupolar Mass Moment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. I consider a satellite moving around a non-spherical body of mass M and equatorial radius R, and calculate its orbital precessions caused by the body's octupolar mass moment J4. I consider only the effects averaged over one orbital period T of the satellite. I give exact for- mulas, not restricted to any special values ...

  14. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.

    1985-01-01

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs

  15. Photoelectric panel with equatorial mounting of drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhta, M. S.; Krauinsh, P. Y.; Krauinsh, D. P.; Sokolov, A. P.; Mainy, S. B.

    2018-03-01

    The relevance of the work is determined by the need to create effective models for sunny energy. The article considers a photoelectric panel equipped with a system for tracking the sun. Efficiency of the system is provided by equatorial mounting, which compensates for the rotation of the Earth by rotating the sunny panel in the plane of the celestial equator. The specificity of climatic and geographical conditions of Tomsk is estimated. The dynamics of power variations of photoelectric panels with equatorial mounting during seasonal fluctuations in Tomsk is calculated. A mobile photovoltaic panel with equatorial mounting of the drive has been developed. The methods of design strategy for placing photovoltaic panels in the architectural environment of the city are presented. Key words: sunny energy, photovoltaics, equatorial mounting, mechatronic model, wave reducer, electric drive.

  16. Antennas on circular cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, H. L.

    1959-01-01

    On the basis of the results obtained by Silver and Saunders [4] for the field radiated from an arbitrary slot in a perfectly conducting circular cylinder, expressions have been derived for the field radiated by a narrow helical slot, with an arbitrary aperture field distribution, in a circular...... antenna in a circular cylinder. By a procedure similar to the one used by Silver and Saunders, expressions have been derived for the field radiated from an arbitrary surface current distribution on a cylinder surface coaxial with a perfectly conducting cylinder. The cases where the space between the two...

  17. Equatorial Geodesics Around the Magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfradique, Viviane A. P.; Troconis, Orlenys N.; Negreiros, Rodrigo P.

    Neutron stars manifest themselves as different classes of astrophysical sources that are associated to distinct phenomenology. Here we focus our attention on magnetars (or strongly magnetized neutron stars) that are associated to Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars. The magnetic field on surface of these objects, reaches values greater than 1015 G. Under intense magnetic fields, relativistic effects begin to be decisive for the definition of the structure and evolution of these objects. We are tempted to question ourselves to how strengths fields affect the structure of neutron star. In this work, our objective is study and compare two solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations: the Bonnor solution, which is an analytical solution that describe the exterior spacetime for a massive compact object which has a magnetic field that is characterize as a dipole field and a complete solution that describe the interior and exterior spacetime for the same source found by numerical methods). For this, we describe the geodesic equations generated by such solutions. Our results show that the orbits generated by the Bonnor solution are the same as described by numerical solution. Also, show that the inclusion of magnetic fields with values up to 1017G in the center of the star does not modify sharply the particle orbits described around this star, so the use of Schwarzschild solution for the description of these orbits is a reasonable approximation.

  18. Evolution of the Orbital Elements for Geosynchronous Orbit of Communications Satellite, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Hong Choi

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available For a geostationary satellite north-south station keeping maneuver must control the inclination elements. The effects on the orbit plane of maneuvers and natural perturbations may be represented by a plane plot of Wc versus Ws, since these inclination elements represent the projection of the unit orbit normal onto the equatorial plane. The evolution of the semi-major axis and the inclination elements are obtained.

  19. Observations of EMIC Triggered Emissions off the Magnetic Equatorial Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; Breuillard, H.; Santolik, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2016-12-01

    On 19/08/2005 Cluster spacecraft had their perigee close to the dayside of the Earth magnetic equatorial plane, at about 14 hours Magnetic Local Time. The spacecraft crossed the equator from the southern hemisphere toward the northern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, at about -23° magnetic latitude (MLAT) and at distance of 5.25 Earth Radii from Earth, Cluster 3 observes an EMIC triggered emission between the He+ and the proton local gyrofrequencies. The magnetic waveform (STAFF instrument data) is transformed into the Fourier space for a study based on single value decomposition (SVD) analysis. The emission lasts about 30s. The emission frequency rises from 1Hz up to 1.9Hz. The emission polarization is left-hand, its coherence value is high and the propagation angle is field aligned (lower than 30º). The Poynting flux orientation could not be established. Based on previous study results, these properties are indicative of an observation in vicinity of the source region of the triggered emission. From our knowledge this is the first time that EMIC triggered emission are observed off the magnetic equator. In order to identify the source region we study two possibilities: a source region at higher latitudes than the observations (and particles orbiting in "Shabansky" orbits) and a source region close to the magnetic equatorial plane, as reported in previous studies. We propose to identify the source region from ray tracing analysis and to compare the observed propagation angle in several frequency ranges to the ray tracing results.

  20. Orbits of the inner satellites of Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozovic, Marina; Showalter, Mark R.; Jacobson, Robert Arthur; French, Robert S.; de Pater, Imke; Lissauer, Jack

    2018-04-01

    We report on the numerically integrated orbits of seven inner satellites of Neptune, including S/2004 N1, the last moon of Neptune to be discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The dataset includes Voyager imaging data as well as the HST and Earth-based astrometric data. The observations span time period from 1989 to 2016. Our orbital model accounts for the equatorial bulge of Neptune, perturbations from the Sun and the planets, and perturbations from Triton. The initial orbital integration assumed that the satellites are massless, but the residuals improved significantly as the masses adjusted toward values that implied that the density of the satellites is in the realm of 1 g/cm3. We will discuss how the integrated orbits compare to the precessing ellipses fits, mean orbital elements, current orbital uncertainties, and the need for future observations.

  1. The oil boom in Equatorial Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frynas, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    In less than a decade, Equatorial Guinea has transformed itself from an African backwater into one of the world's fastest growing economies and a sought-after political partner in the Gulf of Guinea. The sole reason for this transformation has been the discovery of oil and gas. This article outlines the rise of Equatorial Guinea as one of Africa's leading oil-producing countries and investigates the political, economic and social effects of becoming a petro-state. The article is based on the author's field research in Equatorial Guinea in the autumn of 2003 and interviews with senior oil company staff, government officials and staff of international organizations as well as secondary sources. This research demonstrates how reliance on oil and gas exports can lead to profound changes in a country's political economy. (author)

  2. Application of circular polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Tsuneaki; Kawata, Hiroshi

    1988-03-01

    The idea of using the polarizing property of light for physical experiment by controlling it variously has been known from old time, and the Faraday effect and the research by polarizing microscopy are its examples. The light emitted from the electron orbit of an accelerator has the different polarizing characteristics from those of the light of a laboratory light source, and as far as observing it within the electron orbit plane, it becomes linearly polarized light. By utilizing this property well, research is carried out at present in synchrotron experimental facilities. Recently, the technology related to the insert type light cources using permanent magnets has advanced remarkably, and circular polarized light has become to be producible. If the light like this can be obtained with the energy not only in far ultraviolet region but also to x-ray region at high luminance, new possibility should open. At the stage that the design of an insert type light source was finished, and its manufacture was started, the research on the method of evaluating the degree of circular polarization and the research on the utilization of circular polarized synchrotron radiation are earnestly carried out. In this report, the results of researches presented at the study meeting are summarized. Moreover, the design and manufacture of the beam lines for exclusive use will be carried out. (Kako, I.)

  3. Building a Circular Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Natural resources are scarce and construction accounts for 40 percent of the material and energy consumption in Europe. This means that a switch to a circular future is necessary. ’Building a Circular Future’ maps out where we are, where we are going, and what is needed for this conversion to take...... on the project’s strategies. The financial result is a profit of DKK 35 million on the structure alone in the demolition of a building built for the cost of DKK 860 million. The total potential for the whole building, calculated in projected material prices, is estimated to be up to 16% of the total construction...... of the circular strategies is not only in the future. Increased flexibility, optimized operation and maintenance, as well as a healthier building, is low-hanging fruit that can be harvested today. The project’s principles can be implemented in industrialized construction in a large scale today. That is proven...

  4. Equatorial waves in the stratosphere of Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, David P.; Magalhaes, Julio A.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses of radio occultation data from Voyager 2 have led to the discovery and characterization of an equatorial wave in the Uranus stratosphere. The observed quasi-periodic vertical atmospheric density variations are in close agreement with theoretical predictions for a wave that propagates vertically through the observed background structure of the stratosphere. Quantitative comparisons between measurements obtained at immersion and at emersion yielded constraints on the meridional and zonal structure of the wave; the fact that the two sets of measurements are correlated suggests a wave of planetary scale. Two equatorial wave models are proposed for the wave.

  5. Transposable elements and circular DNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Mourier, Tobias

    2016-09-26

    Circular DNAs are extra-chromosomal fragments that become circularized by genomic recombination events. We have recently shown that yeast LTR elements generate circular DNAs through recombination events between their flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs). Similarly, circular DNAs can be generated by recombination between LTRs residing at different genomic loci, in which case the circular DNA will contain the intervening sequence. In yeast, this can result in gene copy number variations when circles contain genes and origins of replication. Here, I speculate on the potential and implications of circular DNAs generated through recombination between human transposable elements.

  6. Transposable elements and circular DNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Mourier, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Circular DNAs are extra-chromosomal fragments that become circularized by genomic recombination events. We have recently shown that yeast LTR elements generate circular DNAs through recombination events between their flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs). Similarly, circular DNAs can be generated by recombination between LTRs residing at different genomic loci, in which case the circular DNA will contain the intervening sequence. In yeast, this can result in gene copy number variations when circles contain genes and origins of replication. Here, I speculate on the potential and implications of circular DNAs generated through recombination between human transposable elements.

  7. Injection and extraction techniques in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jingyu

    2008-01-01

    Injection and extraction are usually the key systems in circular accelerators. They play important roles in transferring the beam from one stage acceleration to the other or to experimental stations. It is also in the injection and extraction regions where beam losses happen mostly. Due to the tight space and to reduce the perturbation to the circulating orbit, the devices are usually designed to meet special requirements such as compactness, small stray field, fast rise time or fall time, etc. Usual injection and extraction devices include septum magnets, kicker magnets, electrostatic deflectors, slow bump magnets and strippers. In spite of different accelerators and specification for the injection and extraction devices, many techniques are shared in the design and manufacturing. This paper gives a general review on the techniques employed in the major circular accelerators in China. (authors)

  8. Circular arc structures

    KAUST Repository

    Bo, Pengbo; Pottmann, Helmut; Kilian, Martin; Wang, Wen Ping; Wallner, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    and connecting elements as well as repetition of costly parts. This paper proposes so-called circular arc structures as a means to faithfully realize freeform designs without giving up smooth appearance. In contrast to non-smooth meshes with straight edges where

  9. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  10. Administrative circular No. 12

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    On the recommendation of the Standing Concertation Committee, the Director-General has approved the amounts used for the reimbursements mentioned in Administrative Circular No. 12 as follows: The figures, effective from 1 September 2006, are: Paragraph 8a: 17 Swiss francs Paragraph 9a: 682 Swiss francs Paragraph 9b: 34 Swiss francs Human Resources Department Tel. 79257/72862

  11. Radical Circular Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Mohammadi, S.; Slob, N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently the Circular Economy (CE) concept has gained momentum in the Netherlands, propounding that environmental impact reduction can provide a significant positive economical impulse. The government, larger parts of the industry as a whole, as well as the construction industry, has warmly received

  12. Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinkel, Hanno; Baumann, K.-H.; Cepek, M.

    2000-01-01

    with each other. In general, the living coccolithophores in the surface and subsurface waters show considerable variation in cell numbers and distribution patterns. Cell densities reached a maximum of up to 300 x 10 coccospheres/l in the upwelling area of the equatorial Atlantic. Here, Emiliania huxleyi...

  13. Towards adiabatic waveforms for inspiral into Kerr black holes. II. Dynamical sources and generic orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, Pranesh A.; Hughes, Scott A.; Khanna, Gaurav; Drasco, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers whose aim is to generate adiabatic gravitational waveforms from the inspiral of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes. In earlier work, we presented an accurate (2+1)D finite-difference time-domain code to solve the Teukolsky equation, which evolves curvature perturbations near rotating (Kerr) black holes. The key new ingredient there was a simple but accurate model of the singular source term based on a discrete representation of the Dirac-delta function and its derivatives. Our earlier work was intended as a proof of concept, using simple circular, equatorial geodesic orbits as a test bed. Such a source is effectively static, in that the smaller body remains at the same coordinate radius and orbital inclination over an orbit. (It of course moves through axial angle, but we separate that degree of freedom from the problem. Our numerical grid has only radial, polar, and time coordinates.) We now extend the time-domain code so that it can accommodate dynamic sources that move on a variety of physically interesting world lines. We validate the code with extensive comparison to frequency-domain waveforms for cases in which the source moves along generic (inclined and eccentric) bound geodesic orbits. We also demonstrate the ability of the time-domain code to accommodate sources moving on interesting nongeodesic worldlines. We do this by computing the waveform produced by a test mass following a kludged inspiral trajectory, made of bound geodesic segments driven toward merger by an approximate radiation loss formula.

  14. Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Klimyk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, properties of orbit functions are reviewed and further developed. Orbit functions on the Euclidean space E_n are symmetrized exponential functions. The symmetrization is fulfilled by a Weyl group corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions will be described. An orbit function is the contribution to an irreducible character of a compact semisimple Lie group G of rank n from one of its Weyl group orbits. It is shown that values of orbit functions are repeated on copies of the fundamental domain F of the affine Weyl group (determined by the initial Weyl group in the entire Euclidean space E_n. Orbit functions are solutions of the corresponding Laplace equation in E_n, satisfying the Neumann condition on the boundary of F. Orbit functions determine a symmetrized Fourier transform and a transform on a finite set of points.

  15. Interactions of circular Rydberg atoms with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in experimental cross-field techniques has made it possible to produce oriented Rydberg atoms of any angular momentum l within a given n manifold. The largest angular momentum state l max = n - 1 of a given n manifold is of particular interest because of its semiclassical properties for n much-gt 1. The corresponding classical Kepler orbit is circular with highly localized phase space distribution. The circular Rydberg atoms afford the opportunity to study various interactions in the semiclassical regime. The authors report electron capture from circular Rydberg atoms by protons and positrons at speeds comparable to the electron orbital speed. They find orientation dependent, novel peak structures for both protons and positrons in the angular scattering of the particles. The structures may be understood in terms of quasi Thomas double scattering mechanism for capture. Other related aspects including final state population and orientation indulged scattering asymmetry will also be discussed

  16. Seasonal-longitudinal variability of equatorial plasma bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Burke

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We compare seasonal and longitudinal distributions of more than 8300 equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs observed during a full solar cycle from 1989-2000 with predictions of two simple models. Both models are based on considerations of parameters that influence the linear growth rate, γRT, of the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the context of finite windows of opportunity available during the prereversal enhancement near sunset. These parameters are the strength of the equatorial magnetic field, Beq, and the angle, α, it makes with the dusk terminator line. The independence of α and Beq from the solar cycle phase justifies our comparisons.

    We have sorted data acquired during more than 75000 equatorial evening-sector passes of polar-orbiting Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites into 24 longitude and 12 one-month bins, each containing ~250 samples. We show that: (1 in 44 out of 48 month-longitude bins EPB rates are largest within 30 days of when α=0°; (2 unpredicted phase shifts and asymmetries appear in occurrence rates at the two times per year when α≈0°; (3 While EPB occurrence rates vary inversely with Beq, the relationships are very different in regions where Beq is increasing and decreasing with longitude. Results (2 and (3 indicate that systematic forces not considered by the two models can become important. Damping by interhemispheric winds appears to be responsible for phase shifts in maximum rates of EPB occurrence from days when α=0°. Low EPB occurrence rates found at eastern Pacific longitudes suggest that radiation belt electrons in the drift loss cone reduce γRT by enhancing E-layer Pedersen conductances. Finally, we analyze an EPB event observed during a magnetic storm at a time and place where α≈-27°, to illustrate how electric-field penetration from

  17. Circular fringe projection profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Chunwei; Zhou, Changquan; Jiang, Kejian; Fang, Meiqi

    2016-11-01

    In this Letter, a novel three-dimensional (3D) measurement method, called the circular fringe projection profilometry (CFPP), is proposed. Similar to the conventional fringe projection profilometry, CFPP also requires fringe pattern projection and capture, phase demodulation, and phase unwrapping. However, it works with a totally different mechanism. CFPP recovers the height of a point by calculating its distance to the optical center of a projector along the optical axis. This distance is calculated with the aid of the divergence angle of a projected light ray and the distance between the measured point and the optical axis. The distance between the measured point and the optical axis is detected by a camera with telecentric lenses, while the divergence angle can be calculated from the phase of a captured circular fringe pattern. The validity of CFPP is confirmed by a set of experiments.

  18. Administrative Circular N° 12

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the Standing Concertation Committee, the Director-General has approved the amounts used for the reimbursements mentioned in Administrative Circular N° 12 as follows : The figures, effective from 1 September 2003, are : § 8a : 16.50 Swiss francs (previously 16.- Swiss francs) § 9a : 663 Swiss francs (previously 640.- Swiss francs) § 9b : 33 Swiss francs (previously 32.- Swiss francs) Human Resources Division Tel. 72862/74474

  19. Circular arc structures

    KAUST Repository

    Bo, Pengbo

    2011-07-01

    The most important guiding principle in computational methods for freeform architecture is the balance between cost efficiency on the one hand, and adherence to the design intent on the other. Key issues are the simplicity of supporting and connecting elements as well as repetition of costly parts. This paper proposes so-called circular arc structures as a means to faithfully realize freeform designs without giving up smooth appearance. In contrast to non-smooth meshes with straight edges where geometric complexity is concentrated in the nodes, we stay with smooth surfaces and rather distribute complexity in a uniform way by allowing edges in the shape of circular arcs. We are able to achieve the simplest possible shape of nodes without interfering with known panel optimization algorithms. We study remarkable special cases of circular arc structures which possess simple supporting elements or repetitive edges, we present the first global approximation method for principal patches, and we show an extension to volumetric structures for truly threedimensional designs. © 2011 ACM.

  20. The effect of orbital eccentricity on polarimetric binary diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspin, C.; Brown, J.C.; Simmons, J.F.L.

    1980-01-01

    The polarimetric variation from a binary system with an eccentric orbit, thus non-corotating, are calculated and the effect on determining the system parameters is discussed, relative to the circular case. (Auth.)

  1. ORBITAL INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kansky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orbit is involved in 40% of all facial fractures. There is considerable variety in severity, ranging from simple nondisplaced to complex comminuted fractures. Complex comminuted fractures (up to 20% are responsible for the majority of complications and unfavorable results. Orbital fractures are classified as internal orbital fractures, zygomatico-orbital fractures, naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures and combined fractures. The ophtalmic sequelae of midfacial fractures are usually edema and ecchymosis of the soft tissues, subconjuctival hemorrhage, diplopia, iritis, retinal edema, ptosis, enophthalmos, ocular muscle paresis, mechanical restriction of ocular movement and nasolacrimal disturbances. More severe injuries such as optic nerve trauma and retinal detachments have also been reported. Within the wide range of orbital fractures small group of complex fractures causes most of the sequelae. Therefore identification of severe injuries and adequate treatment is of major importance. The introduction of craniofacial techniques made possible a wide exposure even of large orbital wall defects and their reconstruction by bone grafts. In spite of significant progress, repair of complex orbital wall defects remains a problem even for the experienced surgeons.Results. In 1999 121 facial injuries were treated at our department (Clinical Centre Ljubljana Dept. Of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Orbit was involved in 65% of cases. Isolated inner orbital fractures presented 4% of all fractures. 17 (14% complex cases were treated, 5 of them being NOE, 5 orbital (frame and inner walls, 3 zygomatico-orbital, 2 FNO and 2 maxillo-orbital fractures.Conclusions. Final result of the surgical treatment depends on severity of maxillofacial trauma. Complex comminuted fractures are responsable for most of the unfavorable results and ocular function is often permanently damaged (up to 75% in these fractures.

  2. [Orbital inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriaux, F; Coffin-Pichonnet, S; Robert, P-Y; Abad, S; Martin-Silva, N

    2014-12-01

    Orbital inflammation is a generic term encompassing inflammatory pathologies affecting all structures within the orbit : anterior (involvement up to the posterior aspect of the globe), diffuse (involvement of intra- and/or extraconal fat), apical (involvement of the posterior orbit), myositis (involvement of only the extraocular muscles), dacryoadenitis (involvement of the lacrimal gland). We distinguish between specific inflammation and non-specific inflammation, commonly referred to as idiopathic inflammation. Specific orbital inflammation corresponds to a secondary localization of a "generalized" disease (systemic or auto-immune). Idiopathic orbital inflammation corresponds to uniquely orbital inflammation without generalized disease, and thus an unknown etiology. At the top of the differential diagnosis for specific or idiopathic orbital inflammation are malignant tumors, represented most commonly in the adult by lympho-proliferative syndromes and metastases. Treatment of specific orbital inflammation begins with treatment of the underlying disease. For idiopathic orbital inflammation, treatment (most often corticosteroids) is indicated above all in cases of visual loss due to optic neuropathy, in the presence of pain or oculomotor palsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Whirling orbits around twirling black holes from conformal symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadar, Shahar [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Porfyriadis, Achilleas P. [Department of Physics, UCSB,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2017-03-03

    Dynamics in the throat of rapidly rotating Kerr black holes is governed by an emergent near-horizon conformal symmetry. The throat contains unstable circular orbits at radii extending from the ISCO down to the light ring. We show that they are related by conformal transformations to physical plunges and osculating trajectories. These orbits have angular momentum arbitrarily higher than that of ISCO. Using the conformal symmetry we compute analytically the radiation produced by the physical orbits. We also present a simple formula for the full self-force on such trajectories in terms of the self-force on circular orbits.

  4. Long wavelength irregularities in the equatorial electrojet

    OpenAIRE

    Kudeki, E.; Farley, D. T.; Fejer, Bela G.

    1982-01-01

    We have used the radar interferometer technique at Jicamarca to study in detail irregularities with wavelengths of a few kilometers generated in the unstable equatorial electrojet plasma during strong type 1 conditions. In-situ rocket observations of the same instability process are discussed in a companion paper. These large scale primary waves travel essentially horizontally and have large amplitudes. The vertical electron drift velocities driven by the horizontal wave electric fields reach...

  5. System for circular and complex tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstrom, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention discloses a system for conducting circular as well as complex tomographic procedures utilizing apparatus which has no mechanical linkage between the X-ray source and the X-ray receptor. The path of travel of the X-ray source both circularly and linearly is sensed by electromagnetic radiation and more particularly by light radiation which is generated by a laser. The linear travel is sensed by means of reflected laser radiation directed to the X-ray source and fed to an interferometer. The circular travel, on the other hand, is sensed by means of a laser gyroscope also receiving light radiation from a laser. Optical energy sensing means is thus used to generate command signals which are coupled to respective drive motors which act to rotate and when desirable, translate the X-ray receptor so that its motion follows the motion, both orbital and linear, of the X-ray source for performing any desired type of tomographic procedure

  6. High altitude flights in equatorial regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redkar, R. T.

    A thorough analysis of balloon flights made from Hyderabad, India (Latitude 17°28'N, Longitude 78°35'E), and other equatorial sites has been made. It has been shown that limited success is expected for flights made from equatorial latitudes with balloons made out of natural colour polyethylene film, since the best known balloon film in the world today viz. Winzen Stratofilm is tested for low temperature brittleness only at -80°C., whereas the tropopause temperatures over equatorial latitudes vary between -80°C and -90°C. The success becomes even more critical when flights are made with heavy payloads and larger balloons particularly at night when in the absence of solar radiation the balloon film becomes more susceptible to low temperature brittle failure. It is recommended that in case of capped balloons longer caps should be used to fully cover the inflated protion of the balloon at the higher level equatorial tropopause. It is also advised that the conditions such as wind shears in the tropopause should be critically studied before launching and a day with the tropopause temperature nearer to -80°C should be chosen. Special care also should be taken while handling the balloon on ground and during launching phase. Properties of Winzen Stratofilm have been critically studied and fresh mandates have been recommended on the basis of limiting values of film stresses which caused balloon failures in the equatorial tropopause. It is also emphasized that the data on such flights is still meagre especially for flights with heavy payloads and larger balloons. It has been also shown that it is safest to use balloons made out of grey coloured film which retains its flexibility with the absorption of solar radiation, the success obtained with such balloons so far being 100%. The drawback, however, is that these balloons cannot be used for night flights. Stratospheric wind regimes over Hyderabad are also discussed with a view to determine the period over which long

  7. Circular RNAs in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L S; Hansen, T B; Venø, M T

    2018-01-01

    Circular RNA (circRNA) is a novel member of the noncoding cancer genome with distinct properties and diverse cellular functions, which is being explored at a steadily increasing pace. The list of endogenous circRNAs involved in cancer continues to grow; however, the functional relevance of the vast...... for circRNA cancer research and current caveats, which must be addressed to facilitate the translation of basic circRNA research into clinical use.Oncogene advance online publication, 9 October 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.361....

  8. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  9. Satellite orbits in Levi-Civita space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humi, Mayer

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we consider satellite orbits in central force field with quadratic drag using two formalisms. The first using polar coordinates in which the satellite angular momentum plays a dominant role. The second is in Levi-Civita coordinates in which the energy plays a central role. We then merge these two formalisms by introducing polar coordinates in Levi-Civita space and derive a new equation for satellite orbits which unifies these two paradigms. In this equation energy and angular momentum appear on equal footing and thus characterize the orbit by its two invariants. Using this formalism we show that equatorial orbits around oblate spheroids can be expressed analytically in terms of Elliptic functions. In the second part of the paper we derive in Levi-Civita coordinates a linearized equation for the relative motion of two spacecrafts whose trajectories are in the same plane. We carry out also a numerical verification of these equations.

  10. Equatorial westward electrojet impacting equatorial ionization anomaly development during the 6 April 2000 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2013-11-01

    investigate the forward plasma fountain and the equatorial ionosphere in the topside region during the 6 April 2000 superstorm in the Australian sector at ~0900 LT. Space- and ground-based multi-instrument measurements, Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Electrodynamics (CTIPe) simulations, and field-aligned observations comprise our results. These reveal an unusual storm development during which the eastward prompt penetration electric (E) field (PPEF) developed and operated under the continuous effects of the westward disturbance dynamo E-field (DDEF) while large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) traveled equatorward and generated strong equatorward wind surges. We have identified the eastward PPEF by the superfountain effect causing the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA)'s development with crests situated at ~±28°N (geomagnetic) in the topside ionosphere at ~840 km altitude. The westward DDEF's occurrence is confirmed by mapping the "anti-Sq" current system wherein the equatorial westward current created a weak long-lasting westward electrojet event. Line plots of vertical drift data tracked large-scale TIDs. Four scenarios, covering ~3.5 h in universal time, demonstrate that the westward DDEF became superimposed on the eastward PPEF. As these E-fields of different origins became mapped into the F region, they could interact. Consequently, the eastward PPEF-related equatorial upward E × B drift became locally reduced by up to 75 m/s near the dip equator by the westward DDEF-related equatorial downward E × B drift. Meanwhile, the EIA displayed a better development as equatorial wind surges, reproduced by CTIPe, increased from 501 to 629 m/s, demonstrating the crucial role of mechanical wind effects keeping plasma density high.

  11. Testing a class of non-Kerr metrics with hot spots orbiting SgrA*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    SgrA*, the supermassive black hole candidate at the Galactic Center, exhibits flares in the X-ray, NIR, and sub-mm bands that may be interpreted within a hot spot model. Light curves and images of hot spots orbiting a black hole are affected by a number of special and general relativistic effects, and they can be potentially used to check whether the object is a Kerr black hole of general relativity. However, in a previous study we have shown that the relativistic features are usually subdominant with respect to the background noise and the model-dependent properties of the hot spot, and eventually it is at most possible to estimate the frequency of the innermost stable circular orbit. In this case, tests of the Kerr metric are only possible in combination with other measurements. In the present work, we consider a class of non-Kerr spacetimes in which the hot spot orbit may be outside the equatorial plane. These metrics are difficult to constrain from the study of accretion disks and indeed current X-ray observations of stellar-mass and supermassive black hole candidates cannot put interesting bounds. Here we show that near future observations of SgrA* may do it. If the hot spot is sufficiently close to the massive object, the image affected by Doppler blueshift is brighter than the other one and this provides a specific observational signature in the hot spot's centroid track. We conclude that accurate astrometric observations of SgrA* with an instrument like GRAVITY should be able to test this class of metrics, except in the more unlikely case of a small viewing angle

  12. Reducing orbital eccentricity in binary black hole simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, Harald P; Brown, Duncan A; Kidder, Lawrence E; Lindblom, Lee; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    Binary black hole simulations starting from quasi-circular (i.e., zero radial velocity) initial data have orbits with small but nonzero orbital eccentricities. In this paper, the quasi-equilibrium initial-data method is extended to allow nonzero radial velocities to be specified in binary black hole initial data. New low-eccentricity initial data are obtained by adjusting the orbital frequency and radial velocities to minimize the orbital eccentricity, and the resulting (∼5 orbit) evolutions are compared with those of quasi-circular initial data. Evolutions of the quasi-circular data clearly show eccentric orbits, with eccentricity that decays over time. The precise decay rate depends on the definition of eccentricity; if defined in terms of variations in the orbital frequency, the decay rate agrees well with the prediction of Peters (1964 Phys. Rev. 136 1224-32). The gravitational waveforms, which contain ∼8 cycles in the dominant l = m = 2 mode, are largely unaffected by the eccentricity of the quasi-circular initial data. The overlap between the dominant mode in the quasi-circular evolution and the same mode in the low-eccentricity evolution is about 0.99

  13. Circular states of atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutwak, R.; Holley, J.; Chang, P.P.; Paine, S.; Kleppner, D.; Ducas, T.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the creation of circular states of hydrogen by adiabatic transfer of a Rydberg state in crossed electric and magnetic fields, and also by adiabatic passage in a rotating microwave field. The latter method permits rapid switching between the two circular states of a given n manifold. The two methods are demonstrated experimentally, and results are presented of an analysis of the field ionization properties of the circular states. An application for the circular states is illustrated by millimeter-wave resonance in hydrogen of the n=29→n=30 transition. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Geomagnetic storms and electric fields in the equatorial ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    Using direct measurements of equatorial electric field during a geomagnetic storm it is shown that the large decrease in the field observed near the dip equator is due to the reversal of the equatorial electrojet current. This is caused by the imposition of an additional westward electric field on the equatorial ionosphere which was originated by the interaction of solar wind with the interplanetary magnetic field. (author)

  15. The equatorial F-layer: progress and puzzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rishbeth

    Full Text Available This work reviews some aspects of the ionospheric F-layer in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator. Starting with a historical introduction, brief summaries are given of the physics that makes the equatorial ionosphere so interesting, concentrating on the large-scale structure rather than the smaller-scale instability phenomena. Several individual topics are then discussed, including eclipse effects, the asymmetries of the `equatorial trough', variations with longitude, the semiannual variation, the effects of the global thermospheric circulation, and finally the equatorial neutral thermosphere, including `superrotation' and possible topographic influences.

    Keyword: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere

  16. An equatorial coronal hole at solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromage, B. J. I.; DelZanna, G.; DeForest, C.; Thompson, B.; Clegg, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    The large transequatorial coronal hole that was observed in the solar corona at the end of August 1996 is presented. It consists of a north polar coronal hole called the 'elephant's trunk or tusk'. The observations of this coronal hole were carried out with the coronal diagnostic spectrometer onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The magnetic field associated with the equatorial coronal hole is strongly connected to that of the active region at its base, resulting in the two features rotating at almost the same rate.

  17. Orbiting compressor for residential air-conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Woo Young; Ahn, Jong Min [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Incheon, 12-1 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    A new type of compressor, called an orbiting compressor, is introduced in this paper. The orbiting compressor is characterized by an orbiting piston, and the piston or orbiter consists of a circular base plate and a ring type vane protruding vertically from the base plate. The orbiter is made to orbit in an annular space formed between two concentric circular walls via an Oldham-ring mechanism, producing two sealed gas pockets on both sides of the vane wrap with a 180 phase difference. This operating mechanism leads to alternating compression and discharge processes, which results in low torque variation. The orbiting compressor has been designed for an R410A residential air conditioner with a cooling capacity of 10.0 kW. The performance of the orbiting compressor model has been analytically investigated, where the volumetric, adiabatic and mechanical efficiencies were calculated to be 94.8%, 90.4% and 93.4%, respectively for the ARI condition. The EER was estimated to be about 10.86 with a motor efficiency of 89%. (author)

  18. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... repeatedly to convey the feeling of a man and a woman falling in love. This raises the question of why producers and directors choose certain stylistic features to narrate certain categories of content. Through the analysis of several short film and TV clips, this article explores whether...... or not there are perceptual aspects related to specific stylistic features that enable them to be used for delimited narrational purposes. The article further attempts to reopen this particular stylistic debate by exploring the embodied aspects of visual perception in relation to specific stylistic features...

  19. Operational circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) – Operational circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Operational Circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) is applicable to members of the personnel and other persons concerned. Operational Circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) entitled "Operational circulars", approved following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 4 May 2011, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: https://hr-docs.web.cern.ch/hr-docs/opcirc/opcirc.asp It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 1 entitled "Operational Circulars” of December 1996. This new version clarifies, in particular, that operational circulars do not necessarily arise from the Staff Rules and Regulations, and the functional titles have been updated to bring them into line with the current CERN organigram. Department Head Office  

  20. Circular defects detection in welded joints using circular hough transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafizal Yazid; Mohd Harun; Shukri Mohd; Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Shaharudin Sayuti; Muhamad Daud

    2007-01-01

    Conventional radiography is one of the common non-destructive testing which employs manual image interpretation. The interpretation is very subjective and depends much on the inspector experience and working conditions. It is therefore useful to have pattern recognition system in order to assist human interpreter in evaluating the quality of the radiograph sample, especially radiographic image of welded joint. This paper describes a system to detect circular discontinuities that is present in the joints. The system utilizes together 2 different algorithms, which is separability filter to identify the best object candidate and Circular Hough Transform to detect the present of circular shape. The result of the experiment shows a promising output in recognition of circular discontinuities in a radiographic image. This is based on 81.82-100% of radiography film with successful circular detection by using template movement of 10 pixels. (author)

  1. Symplectic methods in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, E.

    1994-01-01

    By now symplectic integration has been applied to many problems in classical mechanics. It is my conviction that the field of particle simulation in circular rings is ideally suited for the application of symplectic integration. In this paper, I present a short description symplectic tools in circular storage rings

  2. Projectile Motion in the "Language" of Orbital Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurcher, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    We consider the orbit of projectiles launched with arbitrary speeds from the Earth's surface. This is a generalization of Newton's discussion about the transition from parabolic to circular orbits, when the launch speed approaches the value [image omitted]. We find the range for arbitrary launch speeds and angles, and calculate the eccentricity of…

  3. Preliminary report: STOIC CGCM intercomparison - equatorial sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, M; Huddleston, M; Sperber, K R.

    1999-01-01

    An intercomparison and assessment of the tropical behaviour of coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) is being carried out, to identify common strengths and weaknesses and thus guide future CGCM development. The work is being carried out as part of the CLIVAR climate research programme, as a WG-SIP (Working Group on Seasonal to Interannual Prediction) project called STOIC (Study of Tropical Oceans In CGCMs), organised by Michael Davey. This project complements a companion sub-project called ENSIP (El Ni no Simulation Intercomparison Project) organised by Mojib Latif (Max- Planck-Institute for Meteorology) that focusses on equatorial Pacific CGCM behaviour (Latif et al. 1999). Previous coupled model assessments (Mechoso et al. 1995, Neelin et al. 1992, and ENSIP) have focussed on tropical Pacific behaviour. The aim of STOIC is to look at model performance in all tropical ocean regions. This status report contains a sample of the STOIC assessment work, highlighting mean and inter- annual equatorial sea surface temperatures and zonal windstresses. The intention is to submit STOIC and ENSIP papers in mid-1999 for publication together in a refereed journal

  4. Nighttime ionospheric D region: Equatorial and nonequatorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Neil R.; McRae, Wayne M.

    2009-08-01

    Nighttime ionospheric D region parameters are found to be generally well modeled by the traditional H‧ and β as used by Wait and by the U.S. Navy in their Earth-ionosphere VLF radio waveguide programs. New comparisons with nonequatorial, mainly all-sea VLF path observations reported over several decades are shown to be consistent with the previously determined height H‧ ˜ 85.0 km and sharpness β ˜ 0.63 km-1. These paths include NPM (Hawaii) to Washington, D. C., Omega Hawaii and NLK (Seattle) to Japan, NWC (N.W. Australia) to Madagascar, and NBA (Panama) to Colorado. In marked contrast, transequatorial path observations (even when nearly all-sea) are found to be often not well modeled: for example, for Omega Japan and JJI (Japan) to Dunedin, New Zealand, the observed amplitudes are markedly lower than those which would be expected from H‧ ˜ 85.0 km and β ˜ 0.63 km-1, or any other realistic values of H‧ and β. Other transequatorial observations compared with modeling include NWC to Japan, Omega Hawaii to Dunedin, and NPM (Hawaii) to Dunedin. It is suggested that the effects of irregularities in the equatorial electrojet may extend down into the nighttime D region and so account for the observed equatorial VLF perturbations through scattering or mode conversion.

  5. Midday reversal of equatorial ionospheric electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the geomagnetic and ionospheric data at equatorial and low-latitude stations in India over the 20 year period 1956–1975 is described. The reversal of the electric field in the ionosphere over the magnetic equator during the midday hours indicated by the disappearance of the equatorial sporadic E region echoes on the ionograms is a rare phenomenon occurring on about 1% of time. Most of these events are associated with geomagnetically active periods. By comparing the simultaneous geomagnetic H field at Kodaikanal and at Alibag during the geomagnetic storms it is shown that ring current decreases are observed at both stations. However, an additional westward electric field is superimposed in the ionosphere during the main phase of the storm which can be strong enough to temporarily reverse the normally eastward electric field in the dayside ionosphere. It is suggested that these electric fields associated with the V×Bz electric fields originate at the magnetopause due to the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field.

  6. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). Design document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Earth`s climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27{degree}C, but never 31{degree}C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  7. Midday reversal of equatorial ionospheric electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the geomagnetic and ionospheric data at equatorial and low-latitude stations in India over the 20 year period 1956–1975 is described. The reversal of the electric field in the ionosphere over the magnetic equator during the midday hours indicated by the disappearance of the equatorial sporadic E region echoes on the ionograms is a rare phenomenon occurring on about 1% of time. Most of these events are associated with geomagnetically active periods. By comparing the simultaneous geomagnetic H field at Kodaikanal and at Alibag during the geomagnetic storms it is shown that ring current decreases are observed at both stations. However, an additional westward electric field is superimposed in the ionosphere during the main phase of the storm which can be strong enough to temporarily reverse the normally eastward electric field in the dayside ionosphere. It is suggested that these electric fields associated with the V×Bz electric fields originate at the magnetopause due to the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field.

  8. Orbital Eccentricity and the Stability of Planets in the Alpha Centauri System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Planets on initially circular orbits are typically more dynamically stable than planets initially having nonzero eccentricities. However, the presence of a major perturber that forces periodic oscillations of planetary eccentricity can alter this situation. We investigate the dependance of system lifetime on initial eccentricity for planets orbiting one star within the alpha Centauri system. Our results show that initial conditions chosen to minimize free eccentricity can substantially increase stability compared to planets on circular orbits.

  9. Orbital transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, H. Jr.; Koerner, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Third Aerospace Symposium in Braunschweig presented, for the first time, the possibility of bringing together the classical disciplines of aerospace engineering and the natural science disciplines of meteorology and air chemistry in a european setting. In this way, aspects of environmental impact on the atmosphere could be examined quantitatively. An essential finding of the european conference, is the unrestricted agreement of the experts that the given launch frequencies of the present orbital transport result in a negligible amount of pollutants being released in the atmosphere. The symposium does, however, call attention to the increasing need to consider the effect of orbital and atmospheric environmental impact of a future increase in launch frequencies of orbital transport in connection with future space stations. The Third Aerospace Symposium, 'Orbital Transport, Technical, Meteorological and Chemical Aspects', constituted a first forum of discussion for engineers and scientists. Questions of new orbital transport technologies and their environmental impact were to be discussed towards a first consensus. Through the 34 reports and articles, the general problems of space transportation and environmental protection were addressed, as well as particular aspects of high temperatures during reentry in the atmosphere of the earth, precision navigation of flight vehicles or flow behavior and air chemistry in the stratosphere. (orig./CT). 342 figs

  10. Design for Circular Behaviour: Considering Users in a Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wastling

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In a linear economy, a product is manufactured and sold to a customer. Then, little concern is given to what the user actually does with it when they have it. However, in a circular economy where the aim is to circulate products at their highest level of value, the customer’s behaviour can become an important part of the system. Circular design strategies have tended to focus on the physical aspects of a product (e.g., disassembly, material selection, but the design of products and services can also have an influence on user behaviour and, to date, this aspect of circular design has not been fully explored. This project aims to define what key user behaviours are required for circular business models to work and to outline how design can enable these ‘circular behaviours’. This research project consists of a literature review, case study analysis and expert interviews with practitioners. A theoretical framework for designing products and services to encourage circular behaviour is developed. This work provides an initial step towards a better understanding of the user’s role in the transition to a circular economy as well as a preliminary model for how design for behaviour change strategies could be implemented in this context.

  11. An asymptotically consistent approximant for the equatorial bending angle of light due to Kerr black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Nathaniel S.; Weinstein, Steven J.; Faber, Joshua A.

    2017-07-01

    An accurate closed-form expression is provided to predict the bending angle of light as a function of impact parameter for equatorial orbits around Kerr black holes of arbitrary spin. This expression is constructed by assuring that the weak- and strong-deflection limits are explicitly satisfied while maintaining accuracy at intermediate values of impact parameter via the method of asymptotic approximants (Barlow et al 2017 Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 70 21-48). To this end, the strong deflection limit for a prograde orbit around an extremal black hole is examined, and the full non-vanishing asymptotic behavior is determined. The derived approximant may be an attractive alternative to computationally expensive elliptical integrals used in black hole simulations.

  12. An asymptotically consistent approximant for the equatorial bending angle of light due to Kerr black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, Nathaniel S; Faber, Joshua A; Weinstein, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    An accurate closed-form expression is provided to predict the bending angle of light as a function of impact parameter for equatorial orbits around Kerr black holes of arbitrary spin. This expression is constructed by assuring that the weak- and strong-deflection limits are explicitly satisfied while maintaining accuracy at intermediate values of impact parameter via the method of asymptotic approximants (Barlow et al 2017 Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math . 70 21–48). To this end, the strong deflection limit for a prograde orbit around an extremal black hole is examined, and the full non-vanishing asymptotic behavior is determined. The derived approximant may be an attractive alternative to computationally expensive elliptical integrals used in black hole simulations. (paper)

  13. The D1 parameter for the equatorial F1 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniyi, J.O.; Radicella, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the effort at improving the representation of the F1 equatorial ionospheric region in the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. The D1 parameter has been proposed for describing the F1 layer. We have therefore produced a maiden table of D1 parameter for an equatorial station. Diurnal and seasonal effects were considered. (author)

  14. OH Airglow and Equatorial Variations Observed by ISUAL Instrument on Board the FORMOSAT 2 Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Bai Nee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OH airglow observed by the ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning instrument on board the FORMOSAT 2 satellite is reported in this paper. The satellite is sun-synchronous and it returns to the same orbit at the same local time daily. By using this property, we can study the upper atmosphere in detail. With a CCD camera, ISUAL has measured the emission layers of OH Meinel band at 630 nm for several two-week periods in 2004 and 2007 in equatorial regions. ISUAL images are snapshots of the atmosphere 250 km (height ¡_ 1200 km (horizontal distance. These images of OH airglow are analyzed to derive its peak height and latitudinal variations. ISUAL observation is unique in its capability of continuous observation of the upper atmosphere as the satellite travels from south to north along a specific orbit. However, 630 nm filter also measured O(1D at 200 km, and there are interferences between O(1D and OH airglows as as observed from a distance in space. We have studied the overlap of two airglows by simulations, and our final analyses show that OH airglow can be correctly derived with its average peak height of 89 ¡_ 2.1 km usually lying within ¡_10¢X latitude about the equator. ISUAL data reveal detailed structures of equatorial OH airglow such as the existences of a few secondary maxima within the equatorial regions, and the oscillations of the peak latitudes. These results are discussed and compared with previous reports.

  15. A tool for symmetry studies in circular machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoki, E.

    1988-05-01

    The use of the C [mrad/Amp] conversion factors of the orbit corrector magnets in the sudy of the symmetry properties of a circular accelerator or storage ring, and in the determination of the ratios of the β-functions at corrector locations is discussed. Measurements obtained for the VUV and x-ray rings of the NSLS at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented. 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Towards Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN presently provides proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics programme will extend through the second half of the 2030’s. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ∼100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on $Nb_3Sn$ superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton c...

  17. Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In response to a request from the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is preparing the foundation for a next-generation large-scale accelerator infrastructure in the heart of Europe. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh), to be accommodated in a new ∼100 km tunnel near Geneva. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), which could be installed in the same tunnel as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detector, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. The int...

  18. Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In response to a request from the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is preparing the foundation for a next-generation large-scale accelerator infrastructure in the heart of Europe. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh), to be accommodated in a new ∼100 km tunnel near Geneva. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), which could be installed in the same tunnel as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. The in...

  19. Nuclear spin circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra

  20. Equatorial electrojet and its response to external electromagnetic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalov, P. A.; Savina, O. N.

    2012-09-01

    In the quiet low-latitude Earth's ionosphere, a sufficiently developed current system that is responsible for the Sq magnetic-field variations is formed in quiet Sun days under the action of tidal streams. The density of the corresponding currents is maximum in the midday hours at the equatorial latitudes, where the so-called equatorial electrojet is formed. In this work, we discuss the nature of the equatorial electrojet. This paper studies the value of its response to external effects. First of all, it is concerned with estimating the possibility of using the equatorial electrojet for generating low-frequency electromagnetic signals during periodic heating of the ionosphere by the heating-facility radiation. The equatorial electrojet can also produce electrodynamic response to the natural atmospheric processes, e.g., an acoustic-gravity wave.

  1. Orbital Resonances in the Vinti Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, L. D.

    As space becomes more congested, contested, and competitive, high-accuracy orbital predictions become critical for space operations. Current orbit propagators use the two-body solution with perturbations added, which have significant error growth when numerically integrated for long time periods. The Vinti Solution is a more accurate model than the two-body problem because it also accounts for the equatorial bulge of the Earth. Unfortunately, the Vinti solution contains small divisors near orbital resonances in the perturbative terms of the Hamiltonian, which lead to inaccurate orbital predictions. One approach to avoid the small divisors is to apply transformation theory, which is presented in this research. The methodology of this research is to identify the perturbative terms of the Vinti Solution, perform a coordinate transformation, and derive the new equations of motion for the Vinti system near orbital resonances. An analysis of these equations of motion offers insight into the dynamics found near orbital resonances. The analysis in this research focuses on the 2:1 resonance, which includes the Global Positioning System. The phase portrait of a nominal Global Positioning System satellite orbit is found to contain a libration region and a chaotic region. Further analysis shows that the dynamics of the 2:1 resonance affects orbits with semi-major axes ranging from -5.0 to +5.4 kilometers from an exactly 2:1 resonant orbit. Truth orbits of seven Global Positioning System satellites are produced for 10 years. Two of the satellites are found to be outside of the resonance region and three are found to be influenced by the libration dynamics of the resonance. The final satellite is found to be influenced by the chaotic dynamics of the resonance. This research provides a method of avoiding the small divisors found in the perturbative terms of the Vinti Solution near orbital resonances.

  2. Long wavelength irregularities in the equatorial electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudeki, E.; Farley, D.T.; Fejer, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    We have used the radar interferometer technique at Jicamarca to study in detail irregularities with wavelengths of a few kilometers generated in the unstable equatorial electrojet plasma during strong type 1 conditions. In-situ rocket observations of the same instability process are discussed in a companion paper. These large scale primary waves travel essentially horizontally and have large amplitudes. The vertical electron drift velocities driven by the horizontal wave electric fields reach or exceed the ion-acoustic velocity even though the horizontal phase velocity of the wave is considerably smaller. A straightforward extension to the long wavelength regime of the usual linear theory of the electrojet instability explains this and several other observed features of these dominant primary waves

  3. Linear theory of equatorial spread F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.K.; Kennel, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    A fluid dispersion relation for the drift and interchange (Rayleigh-Taylor) modes in a collisional plasma forms the basis for a linear theory of equatorial spread F. The collisional drift mode growth rate will exceed the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor mode at short perpendicular wavelengths and density gradient scale lengths, and the drift mode can grow on top side as well as on bottom side density gradients. However, below the F peak, where spread F predominates, it is concluded that both the drift and the Rayleigh-Taylor modes contribute to the total spread F spectrum, the Rayleigh-Taylor mode dominating at long and the drift mode at short perpendicular wavelengths above the ion Larmor radius

  4. Microscopic Stern-Gerlach effect and spin-orbit pendulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozmej, P.; Arvieu, R.

    1996-01-01

    The motion of a particle with spin in spherical harmonic oscillator potential with spin-orbit interaction is discussed. The attention is focused on the spatial motion of wave packets. The particular case of wave packets moving along the circular orbits for which the most transparent and pedagogical description is possible is considered. The splitting of the wave packets into two components moving differently along classical orbits reflects a strong analogy with the Stern-Gerlach experiment. The periodic transfer of average angular momentum between spin and orbital subspaces accompanying this time evolution is called the spin-orbit pendulum. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  5. Dynamical variability in Saturn Equatorial Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Hueso, R.; Rojas, J. F.; French, R. G.; Grupo Ciencias Planetarias Team

    2003-05-01

    Historical ground-based and recent HST observations show that Saturn's Equatorial Atmosphere is the region where the most intense large-scale dynamical variability took place at cloud level in the planet. Large-scale convective storms (nicknamed the ``Great White Spots") occurred in 1876, 1933 and 1990. The best studied case (the 1990 storm), produced a dramatic change in the cloud aspect in the years following the outburst of September 1990. Subsequently, a new large storm formed in 1994 and from 1996 to 2002 our HST observations showed periods of unusual cloud activity in the southern part of the Equator. This contrast with the aspect observed during the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters in 1980 and 1981 when the Equator was calm, except for some mid-scale plume-like features seen in 1981. Cloud-tracking of the features have revealed a dramatic slow down in the equatorial winds from maximum velocities of ˜ 475 m/s in 1980-1981 to ˜ 275 m/s during 1996-2002, as we have recently reported in Nature, Vol. 423, 623 (2003). We discuss the possibility that seasonal and ring-shadowing effects are involved in generating this activity and variability. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MCYT PNAYA 2000-0932. SPH acknowledges a PhD fellowship from the Spanish MECD and RH a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco. RGF was supported in part by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program NAG5-10197 and STSCI Grant GO-08660.01A.

  6. Digitalizing the Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus A.

    2016-12-01

    Metallurgy is a key enabler of a circular economy (CE), its digitalization is the metallurgical Internet of Things (m-IoT). In short: Metallurgy is at the heart of a CE, as metals all have strong intrinsic recycling potentials. Process metallurgy, as a key enabler for a CE, will help much to deliver its goals. The first-principles models of process engineering help quantify the resource efficiency (RE) of the CE system, connecting all stakeholders via digitalization. This provides well-argued and first-principles environmental information to empower a tax paying consumer society, policy, legislators, and environmentalists. It provides the details of capital expenditure and operational expenditure estimates. Through this path, the opportunities and limits of a CE, recycling, and its technology can be estimated. The true boundaries of sustainability can be determined in addition to the techno-economic evaluation of RE. The integration of metallurgical reactor technology and systems digitally, not only on one site but linking different sites globally via hardware, is the basis for describing CE systems as dynamic feedback control loops, i.e., the m-IoT. It is the linkage of the global carrier metallurgical processing system infrastructure that maximizes the recovery of all minor and technology elements in its associated refining metallurgical infrastructure. This will be illustrated through the following: (1) System optimization models for multimetal metallurgical processing. These map large-scale m-IoT systems linked to computer-aided design tools of the original equipment manufacturers and then establish a recycling index through the quantification of RE. (2) Reactor optimization and industrial system solutions to realize the "CE (within a) Corporation—CEC," realizing the CE of society. (3) Real-time measurement of ore and scrap properties in intelligent plant structures, linked to the modeling, simulation, and optimization of industrial extractive process

  7. Towards future circular colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikt, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) presently provides proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics program will extend through the second half of the 2030's. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ˜100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCCee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3 S n superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly-efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. Following the FCC concept, the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in Beijing has initiated a parallel design study for an e + e - Higgs factory in China (CEPC), which is to be succeeded by a high-energy hadron collider (SPPC). At present a tunnel circumference of 54 km and a hadron collider c.m. energy of about 70 TeV are being considered. After a brief look at the LHC, this article reports the motivation and the present status of the FCC study, some of the primary design challenges and R&D subjects, as well as the emerging global collaboration.

  8. Circular polarization observed in bioluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynberg, H.; Meijer, E.W.; Hummelen, J.C.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.; Schippers, P.H.; Carlson, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    The left and right lanterns of live larvae of the fireflies Photuris lucicrescens and P. versicolor emitted circularly polarized light of opposite sense. A possible mechanism is discussed. [on SciFinder (R)

  9. Magnetospheric conditions near the equatorial footpoints of proton isotropy boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sergeev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from a cluster of three THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms spacecraft during February–March 2009 frequently provide an opportunity to construct local data-adaptive magnetospheric models, which are suitable for the accurate mapping along the magnetic field lines at distances of 6–9 Re in the nightside magnetosphere. This allows us to map the isotropy boundaries (IBs of 30 and 80 keV protons observed by low-altitude NOAA POES (Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites to the equatorial magnetosphere (to find the projected isotropy boundary, PIB and study the magnetospheric conditions, particularly to evaluate the ratio KIB (Rc/rc; the magnetic field curvature radius to the particle gyroradius in the neutral sheet at that point. Special care is taken to control the factors which influence the accuracy of the adaptive models and mapping. Data indicate that better accuracy of an adaptive model is achieved when the PIB distance from the closest spacecraft is as small as 1–2 Re. For this group of most accurate predictions, the spread of KIB values is still large (from 4 to 32, with the median value KIB ~13 being larger than the critical value Kcr ~ 8 expected at the inner boundary of nonadiabatic angular scattering in the current sheet. It appears that two different mechanisms may contribute to form the isotropy boundary. The group with K ~ [4,12] is most likely formed by current sheet scattering, whereas the group having KIB ~ [12,32] could be formed by the resonant scattering of low-energy protons by the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC waves. The energy dependence of the upper K limit and close proximity of the latter event to the plasmapause locations support this conclusion. We also discuss other reasons why the K ~ 8 criterion for isotropization may fail to work, as well as a possible relationship between the two scattering mechanisms.

  10. Proton flux under radiation belts: near-equatorial zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, O.R.; Panasyuk, M.I.; Petrov, A.N.; Kudela, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the features of low-energy proton flux increases in near-equatorial region (McIlvein parameter L th the proton flux (with energy from tens keV up to several MeV) increases are registering regularly. However modern proton flux models (for example AP8 model) works at L>1.15 only and does not take into account near-equatorial protons. These fluxes are not too big, but the investigation of this phenomenon is important in scope of atmosphere-ionosphere connections and mechanisms of particles transport in magnetosphere. In according to double charge-exchange model the proton flux in near-equatorial region does not depend on geomagnetic local time (MLT) and longitude. However the Azur satellite data and Kosmos-484, MIR station and Active satellite data revealed the proton flux dependence on longitude. The other feature of near-equatorial proton flux is the dependence on geomagnetic local time revealed in the Sampex satellite experiment and other experiments listed above. In this work the dependences on MLT and longitude are investigated using the Active satellite (30-500 keV) and Sampex satellite (>800 keV). This data confirms that main sources of near-equatorial protons are radiation belts and ring current. The other result is that near-equatorial protons are quasi-trapped. The empirical proton flux dependences on L, B at near-equatorial longitudes are presented. (author)

  11. Spin flip in single quantum ring with Rashba spin–orbit interation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duan-Yang; Xia, Jian-Bai

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically investigate spin transport in the elliptical ring and the circular ring with Rashba spin–orbit interaction. It is shown that when Rashba spin–orbit interaction is relatively weak, a single circular ring can not realize spin flip, however an elliptical ring may work as a spin-inverter at this time, and the influence of the defect of the geometry is not obvious. Howerver if a giant Rashba spin–orbit interaction strength has been obtained, a circular ring can work as a spin-inverter with a high stability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11504016).

  12. Validation of Galileo orbits using SLR with a focus on satellites launched into incorrect orbital planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sośnica, Krzysztof; Prange, Lars; Kaźmierski, Kamil; Bury, Grzegorz; Drożdżewski, Mateusz; Zajdel, Radosław; Hadas, Tomasz

    2018-02-01

    The space segment of the European Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Galileo consists of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) and Full Operational Capability (FOC) spacecraft. The first pair of FOC satellites was launched into an incorrect, highly eccentric orbital plane with a lower than nominal inclination angle. All Galileo satellites are equipped with satellite laser ranging (SLR) retroreflectors which allow, for example, for the assessment of the orbit quality or for the SLR-GNSS co-location in space. The number of SLR observations to Galileo satellites has been continuously increasing thanks to a series of intensive campaigns devoted to SLR tracking of GNSS satellites initiated by the International Laser Ranging Service. This paper assesses systematic effects and quality of Galileo orbits using SLR data with a main focus on Galileo satellites launched into incorrect orbits. We compare the SLR observations with respect to microwave-based Galileo orbits generated by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) in the framework of the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment for the period 2014.0-2016.5. We analyze the SLR signature effect, which is characterized by the dependency of SLR residuals with respect to various incidence angles of laser beams for stations equipped with single-photon and multi-photon detectors. Surprisingly, the CODE orbit quality of satellites in the incorrect orbital planes is not worse than that of nominal FOC and IOV orbits. The RMS of SLR residuals is even lower by 5.0 and 1.5 mm for satellites in the incorrect orbital planes than for FOC and IOV satellites, respectively. The mean SLR offsets equal -44.9, -35.0, and -22.4 mm for IOV, FOC, and satellites in the incorrect orbital plane. Finally, we found that the empirical orbit models, which were originally designed for precise orbit determination of GNSS satellites in circular orbits, provide fully appropriate results also for highly eccentric orbits with variable linear

  13. Daily observations of the development of the ionospheric equatorial anomaly by means of differential Doppler shift method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.N.; Cheng, K.; Chen, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    The differential Doppler frequency shifts observed by receiving coherent radio signals at frequencies of 150 and 400 MHz transmitted from the polar orbiting satellites of U.S. Navy Navigation Satellite System have been used to deduce the latitudinal variations of the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) near the ionospheric equatorial anomaly crest region. All latitudinal variations of TEC thus obtained for each passage of an NNSS satellite are used to construct daily contour plots of TEC in a latitude versus local time coordinates. It has been shown that these contour plot of TEC can be used to investigate the behavior of TEC around equatorial anomaly crest region. Some results are presented and discussed. 18 references

  14. Pursuit/evasion in orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, H. J.; Cliff, E. M.; Lutze, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Maneuvers available to a spacecraft having sufficient propellant to escape an antisatellite satellite (ASAT) attack are examined. The ASAT and the evading spacecraft are regarded as being in circular orbits, and equations of motion are developed for the ASAT to commence a two-impulse maneuver sequence. The ASAT employs thrust impulses which yield a minimum-time-to-rendezvous, considering available fuel. Optimal evasion is shown to involve only in-plane maneuvers, and begins as soon as the ASAT launch information is gathered and thrust activation can be initiated. A closest approach, along with a maximum evasion by the target spacecraft, is calculated to be 14,400 ft. Further research to account for ASATs in parking orbit and for generalization of a continuous control-modeled differential game is indicated.

  15. Man-Made Debris In and From Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    During 1966-1976, as part of the first phase of lunar exploration, 29 manned and robotic missions placed more than 40 objects into lunar orbit. Whereas several vehicles later successfully landed on the Moon and/or returned to Earth, others were either abandoned in orbit or intentionally sent to their destruction on the lunar surface. The former now constitute a small population of lunar orbital debris; the latter, including four Lunar Orbiters and four Lunar Module ascent stages, have contributed to nearly 50 lunar sites of man's refuse. Other lunar satellites are known or suspected of having fallen from orbit. Unlike Earth satellite orbital decays and deorbits, lunar satellites impact the lunar surface unscathed by atmospheric burning or melting. Fragmentations of lunar satellites, which would produce clouds of numerous orbital debris, have not yet been detected. The return to lunar orbit in the 1990's by the Hagoromo, Hiten, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector spacecraft and plans for increased lunar exploration early in the 21st century, raise questions of how best to minimize and to dispose of lunar orbital debris. Some of the lessons learned from more than 40 years of Earth orbit exploitation can be applied to the lunar orbital environment. For the near-term, perhaps the most important of these is postmission passivation. Unique solutions, e.g., lunar equatorial dumps, may also prove attractive. However, as with Earth satellites, debris mitigation measures are most effectively adopted early in the concept and design phase, and prevention is less costly than remediation.

  16. Scaling of the L2,3 circular magnetic x-ray dichroism of Fe nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alouani, M.; Wills, J.M.; Wilkins, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    We have implemented the calculation of the x-ray-absorption cross section for left- and right-circularly polarized x-ray beams within the local-density approximation by means of our all-electron full-relativistic and spin-polarized full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method. We show that the L 2,3 circular magnetic x-ray dichroism of Fe, Fe 3 N, and Fe 4 N compounds scales to a single curve when divided by the local magnetic moment. Sum rules determine the spin and orbital magnetic moment of iron atoms in these ordered iron nitrides. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  17. Equatorial wave activity during 2007 over Gadanki, a tropical station

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    been used to investigate the wave activity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Waves in the ...... Oltmans S J 2001 Water vapor control at the tropopause by equatorial Kelvin .... observed in UARS microwave limb sounder temperature.

  18. An overview on the equatorial electrojet theoretical grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamlutti, C.J.; Sobral, J.H.A.; Abdu, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The grounds on which the equatorial electrojet theory is based are reexamined in a way as to suggest specific additional implementations in the existing electrodynamical modeling of this phenomena, making use of now existing improved computer processing speeds. (author) [pt

  19. ITER L 6 equatorial maintenance duct remote handling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.

    1996-09-01

    The status and conclusions of a preliminary study of equatorial maintenance duct remote handling is reported. Due to issues with the original duct design a significant portion of the study had to be refocused on equatorial duct layout studies. The study gives an overview of some of the options for design of these ducts and the impact of the design on the equipment to work in the duct. To develop a remote handling concept for creating access through the ducts the following design tasks should be performed: define the operations sequences for equatorial maintenance duct opening and closing; review the remote handling requirements for equatorial maintenance duct opening and closing; design concept for door and pipe handling equipment and to propose preliminary procedures for material handling outsides the duct. 35 figs

  20. Modelling the development of mixing height in near equatorial region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samah, A.A. [Univ. of Malaya, Air Pollution Research Unit, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1997-10-01

    Most current air pollution models were developed for mid-latitude conditions and as such many of the empirical parameters used were based on observations taken in the mid-latitude boundary layer which is physically different from that of the equatorial boundary layer. In the equatorial boundary layer the Coriolis parameter f is small or zero and moisture plays a more important role in the control of stability and the surface energy balance. Therefore air pollution models such as the OMLMULTI or the ADMS which were basically developed for mid-latitude conditions must be applied with some caution and would need some adaptation to properly simulate the properties of equatorial boundary layer. This work elucidates some of the problems of modelling the evolution of mixing height in the equatorial region. The mixing height estimates were compared with routine observations taken during a severe air pollution episodes in Malaysia. (au)

  1. Orbit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators

  2. Brane orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We complete the classification of half-supersymmetric branes in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory in terms of representations of the T-duality group. As a by-product we derive a last wrapping rule for the space-filling branes. We find examples of T-duality representations of branes in lower dimensions, suggested by supergravity, of which none of the component branes follow from the reduction of any brane in ten-dimensional IIA/IIB string theory. We discuss the constraints on the charges of half-supersymmetric branes, determining the corresponding T-duality and U-duality orbits.

  3. Orbit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.

  4. Onset conditions for equatorial spread F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendillo, M.; Baumgardner, J.; Xiaoqing Pi; Sultan, P.J.; Tsunoda, R.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of day-to-day variability in the occurrence of equatorial spread F (ESF) is addressed using multidiagnostic observations and semiempirical modeling. The observational results are derived from a two-night case study of ESF onset conditions observed at Kwajalein Atoll (Marshall Islands) using the ALTAIR incoherent scatter radar and all-sky optical imaging techniques. The major difference between nights when ESF instabilities did not occur (August 14, 1988) and did occur (August 15, 1988) in the Kwajalein sector was that the northern meridional gradient of 6300-angstrom airglow was reduced on the night of limited ESF activity. Modeling results suggest that this unusual airglow pattern is due to equatorward neutral winds. Previous researchers have shown that transequatorial thermospheric winds can exert a control over ESF seasonal and longitudinal occurrence patterns by inhibiting Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rates. They present evidence to suggest that this picture can be extended to far shorter time scales, namely, that 'surges' in transequatoral winds acting over characteristic times of a few hours to a day can result in a stabilizing influence upon irregularity growth rates. The seemingly capricious nature of ESF onset may thus be controlled, in part, by the inherent variability of low-latitude thermospheric winds

  5. An equatorial temperature and wind anomaly (ETWA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavarao, R.; Wharton, L.E.; Mayr, H.G.; Brace, L.H.; Spencer, N.W.

    1991-01-01

    Data obtained from the WATS (Wind and Temperature Spectrometer) and LP (Langmuir Probe) experiments on board DE-2 (Dynamic Explorer) during high solar activity show evidence of anomalous latitudinal variations in the zonal winds and temperature at low latitudes. The zonal winds exhibit a broad maximum centered around the dip equator, flanked by minima on either side around 25 degrees; while the temperature exhibits a pronounced bowl-shaped minimum at the dip equator which is flanked by maxima. The two minima in the zonal winds and the corresponding maxima in the temperature are nearly collocated with the crests of the well known Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA). The maximum in the zonal winds and the minimum in the gas temperature are collected with the trough of the EIA. The differences between the maxima and minima in temperature and zonal winds, on many occasions, are observed to exceed 100 K and 100 m/s, respectively. The characteristics of this new phenomenon have eluded present day empirical models of thermospheric temperature and winds. The connection among these variables can be understood from the ion-neutral drag effect on the motions of the neutrals that in turn affect their energy balance

  6. Plasma instabilities multifrequency study in equatorial electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanuise, C.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis, multifrequential HF coherent radar results are presented, in the field plasma instabilities in equatorial electrojet. In a first part, characteristics of the irregularities observed either at the 3 meter wavelength by VHF radars, either at other wavelengths during pinpoint experiments, or in-situ by probe rockets are recalled. Theoretical studies progressed and are presented, at the same time with these experimental observations: instability linear theory, non linear theories, HF radar specificity, and problems associated to HF waves propagation and refraction in ionosphere. Original experimental results from Ethiopia are gathered in the second part. Plasma instability has been studied in different geophysical conditions and Doppler spectra characteristics are presented for each one of them. These characteristics are completely different according to the various cases; they are also different according to wether observations are made during the day in normal conditions (electric field pointed to the east at the equator) or in counter-electrojet conditions (electric field pointed to the west). The last part is concerned with theoretical interpretation of the previous results. A comprehensive view of the instability physical mechanisms, according to the geophysical conditions encountered, has been allowed by our results, VHF radar measurements at Jicamarca, or in situ probe measurements on the whole. Irregularities study has been limited to the E region [fr

  7. Condor equatorial electrojet campaign: Radar results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudeki, E.; Fejer, B.G.; Farley, D.T.; Hanuise, C.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the experimental and theoretical background to the Condor equatorial electrojet compaign is followed by the presentation and discussion of VHF radar interferometer and HF radar backscatter data taken concurrently with two rocket in situ experiments reported in companion papers (Pfaff et al., this issue (a, b). Both experiments were conducted in strongly driven periods with the on-line radar interferometer displaying signatures of what has been interpreted in earlier radar work (Kudeki et al., 1982) as kilometer scale gradient drift waves. Low-frequency density fluctuations detected by in situ rocket sensors confirm the earlier interpretation. VHF radar/rocket data comparisons also indicate the existence of a turbulent layer in the upper portion of the daytime electrojet at about 108 km altitude driven purely by the two-stream instability. Nonlinear mode coupling of linearly growing two-stream waves to linearly damped 3-m vertical modes could account for the radar echoes scattered from this layer, which showed no indication of large-scale gradient drift waves. Nonlinear mode coupling may therefore compete with the wave-induced anomalous diffusion mechanism proposed recently by Sudan (1983) for the saturation of directly excited two-stream waves. Nighttime radar data show a bifurcated layer with the two parts having comparable echo strength but oppositely directed zonal drift velocities. The lower layer shows narrow backscatter spectra; the upper layer is characterized by kilometer scale waves and vertically propagating type 1 waves

  8. Radiation protection in hospitals of Equatorial Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabat Macambo, P.

    2001-01-01

    With a population of four hundred thousand (400.000) inhabitants and distributed in a territory of 28 thousand (28.000) km 2 , the use of ionizing radiations for medical practice in Equatorial Guinea is few and decreasing. It is used for diagnostic practices in the main hospitals of the country, where the work burden is not over 20 patients per day. The political, social and economical embryonic development of the country until recently had a negative influence on indicators and health organisations, so that even now the country does not have any radiological protection law, this shortness, in addition with the old architectural structure that x ray tools is lodging, as well as dosimetrical lack of employed staff, put this staff under risk of electromagnetic energy. This is to show the present survey of medical activities with ionizing radiation and to request technical support for implementing suitably the basic standards of radiation protection which will help us as basis for the elaboration outline law, on radiological protection in accordance with the new guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  9. Intraseasonal vertical velocity variation caused by the equatorial wave in the central equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Horii, T.; Masumoto, Y.; Ueki, I.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Mizuno, K.

    to the theoretical solution of the equatorial waves [Matsuno, 1966] and the phase speed of the baroclinic mode, the wave that has meridional current on the equator with a quasi-biweekly period is the anti-symmetric mixed Rossby-gravity wave. In the wave... and conclusions are given in section 5. 2. Field Experiment, Data, and Methods 2.1. MISMO Ocean Observation [8] The goal of MISMO was to observe atmospheric conditions and variability associated with intraseasonal disturbances and resulting ocean responses...

  10. Time dependent response of equatorial ionospheric electric fieldsto magnetospheric disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Fejer, Bela G.; Scherliess, L.

    1995-01-01

    We use extensive radar measurements of F region vertical plasma drifts and auroral electrojet indices to determine the storm time dependence of equatorial zonal electric fields. These disturbance drifts result from the prompt penetration of high latitude electric fields and from the dynamo action of storm time winds which produce largest perturbations a few hours after the onset of magnetic activity. The signatures of the equatorial disturbance electric fields change significantly depending o...

  11. Equatorial ionospheric electric fields during the November 2004 magnetic storm

    OpenAIRE

    Fejer, Bela G.; Jensen, J. W.; Kikuchi, T.; Abdu, M. A.; Chau, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    [1] We use radar measurements from the Jicamarca Radio Observatory, magnetometer observations from the Pacific sector and ionosonde data from Brazil to study equatorial ionospheric electric fields during the November 2004 geomagnetic storm. Our data show very large eastward and westward daytime electrojet current perturbations with lifetimes of about an hour (indicative of undershielding and overshielding prompt penetration electric fields) in the Pacific equatorial region during the November...

  12. Performance evaluation of GPS receiver under equatorial scintillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison de Oliveira Moraes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Equatorial scintillation is a phenomenon that occurs daily in the equatorial region after the sunset and affects radio signals that propagate through the ionosphere. Depending on the temporal and spatial situation, equatorial scintillation can represent a problem in the availability and precision of the Global Positioning System (GPS. This work is concerned with evaluating the impact of equatorial scintillation on the performance of GPS receivers. First, the morphology and statistical model of equatorial scintillation is briefly presented. A numerical model that generates synthetic scintillation data to simulate the effects of equatorial scintillation is presented. An overview of the main theoretical principles on GPS receivers is presented. The analytical models that describe the effects of scintillation at receiver level are presented and compared with numerical simulations using a radio software receiver and synthetic data. The results achieved by simulation agreed quite well with those predicted by the analytical models. The only exception is for links with extreme levels of scintillation and when weak signals are received.

  13. Cosmic censorship, black holes, and particle orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    One of the main reasons for believing in the cosmic censorship hypothesis is the disquieting nature of the alternative: the existence of naked singularities, and hence loss of predictability, the possibility of closed timelike lines and so forth. The consequences of assuming the cosmic hypothesis can also be somewhat strange and unexpected. In particular, Hawking's black hole area theorem is applied to the study of particle orbits near a Schwarzschild black hole. If the cosmic censorship hypothesis (and hence the area theorem) is true, then there exist stable near-circular orbits arbitrarily close to the horizon at r = 2M. (author)

  14. Authigenic Uranium in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantonio, F.; Lyle, M. W.; Loveley, M. R.; Ibrahim, R.

    2014-12-01

    Authigenic U concentrations have been used as an indicator of redox state in marine sediments. Soluble U(VI) in porewaters is reduced to insoluble U(IV) under suboxic conditions setting up a diffusion gradient through which U in bottom waters is supplied to reducing sediments. Researchers have used sedimentary redox enrichment of U as a tool to identify past redox changes, which may be caused by changes in organic carbon rain rates and/or bottom water oxygen levels. Differentiating between these two explanations is important, as the former is tied to the use of authigenic U as a paleoproductivity proxy. We examined sediments from 4 sediment cores retrieved from two different localities in the Panama Basin in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Two cores were retrieved from the northern Panama basin at the Cocos Ridge, (4JC at 5° 44.7'N 85° 45.5' W, 1730 m depth; 8JC at 6° 14.0'N 86° 2.6' W, 1993 m depth), and two were retrieved from the south at the Carnegie Ridge, (11JC at 0° 41.6'S 85° 20.0' W, 2452 m depth; 17JC at 0° 10.8'S 85° 52.0' W, 2846 m depth). Using 230Th systematics and seismic profiling at each of the sites, we've identified significant sediment winnowing (4JC and 11JC) and focusing (8JC and 17JC). At all sites, we believe that changes in age-model-derived sand (i.e., >63µm) mass accumulation rates (MAR) best represent changes in rain rates. Glacial rain rates are higher than those in the Holocene by a factor of 2-3 at both sites. Peak Mn levels (>1%), the brown-to-green color transition (which likely represents the oxic/post-oxic boundary), and peak U concentrations all appear in the same order with increasing depth down core. At the Carnegie sites, where MARs are greater than those at the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 4 ppm) occur during the mid- to late Holocene at depths of 10-15 cm. At the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 12 ppm) occur lower in the sediment column (25-30 cm) during the late glacial. The decrease

  15. Soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of UFe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okane, T.; Takeda, Y.; Fujimori, S.-I.; Terai, K.; Saitoh, Y.; Muramatsu, Y.; Fujimori, A.; Haga, Y.; Yamamoto, E.; Onuki, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism has been measured at the U N 4,5 and Fe L 2,3 absorption edges of ferromagnetic UFe 2 . The orbital and spin magnetic moments of U 5f and Fe 3d electrons are evaluated by a sum-rule analysis of the XMCD data. It is confirmed that the U 5f orbital moment is parallel to the Fe 3d spin moment

  16. Circular magnetic dichroism of the Fa center adsorption in KCl doped with Li and Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldacchini, G.; Botti, S.; Grassano, U.M.

    1990-01-01

    The spin-orbit structure of F A in KCl:Li and KCl:Na have been studied by means of the magnetic circular dichroism. Due to their C 4V , symmetry the F A centers have two different spin-orbit parameters, Δ * and Δ * , which only in the KCl:Li case follow the relation: Δ * F A centers have been determined using the method of moment

  17. Orbital and Landing Operations at Near-Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    Orbital and landing operations about near-Earth asteroids are different than classical orbital operations about large bodies. The major differences lie with the small mass of the asteroid, the lower orbital velocities, the larger Solar tide and radiation pressure perturbations, the irregular shape of the asteroid and the potential for non-uniform rotation of the asteroid. These differences change the nature of orbits about an asteroid to where it is often common to find trajectories that evolve from stable, near-circular orbits to crashing or escaping orbits in a matter of days. The understanding and control of such orbits is important if a human or robotic presence at asteroids is to be commonplace in the future.

  18. Calculation of precision satellite orbits with nonsingular elements /VOP formulation/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, C. E.; Cefola, P. J.; Long, A. C.; Nimitz, K. S.

    1974-01-01

    Review of some results obtained in an effort to develop efficient, high-precision trajectory computation processes for artificial satellites by optimum selection of the form of the equations of motion of the satellite and the numerical integration method. In particular, the matching of a Gaussian variation-of-parameter (VOP) formulation is considered which is expressed in terms of equinoctial orbital elements and partially decouples the motion of the orbital frame from motion within the orbital frame. The performance of the resulting orbit generators is then compared with the popular classical Cowell/Gauss-Jackson formulation/integrator pair for two distinctly different orbit types - namely, the orbit of the ATS satellite at near-geosynchronous conditions and the near-circular orbit of the GEOS-C satellite at 1000 km.

  19. Circular polarization observed in bioluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, Hans; Meijer, E.W.; Hummelen, J.C.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.; Schippers, P.H.; Carlson, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    While investigating circular polarization in luminescence, and having found it in chemiluminescence, we have studied bioluminescence because it is such a widespread and dramatic natural phenomenon. We report here that left and right lanterns of live larvae of the fireflies, Photuris lucicrescens and

  20. 140 CIRCULAR INTERACTION BETWEEN LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economy. Although a country or administrative district should have one or more official languages for obvious reasons, Nelde (1991) proposes that the ... circular interaction between linguistic departments and language departments. Finding an answer to' Plato's abovementioned problem entails that as many languages as ...

  1. High intensity circular proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    Circular machines suitable for the acceleration of high intensity proton beams include cyclotrons, FFAG accelerators, and strong-focusing synchrotrons. This paper discusses considerations affecting the design of such machines for high intensity, especially space charge effects and the role of beam brightness in multistage accelerators. Current plans for building a new generation of high intensity 'kaon factories' are reviewed. 47 refs

  2. Nonlinear bounce resonances between magnetosonic waves and equatorially mirroring electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lunjin; Maldonado, Armando; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard M.; Li, Jinxing; Dai, Lei; Zhan, Xiaoya

    2015-08-01

    Equatorially mirroring energetic electrons pose an interesting scientific problem, since they generally cannot resonate with any known plasma waves and hence cannot be scattered down to lower pitch angles. Observationally it is well known that the flux of these equatorial particles does not simply continue to build up indefinitely, and so a mechanism must necessarily exist that transports these particles from an equatorial pitch angle of 90° down to lower values. However, this mechanism has not been uniquely identified yet. Here we investigate the mechanism of bounce resonance with equatorial noise (or fast magnetosonic waves). A test particle simulation is used to examine the effects of monochromatic magnetosonic waves on the equatorially mirroring energetic electrons, with a special interest in characterizing the effectiveness of bounce resonances. Our analysis shows that bounce resonances can occur at the first three harmonics of the bounce frequency (nωb, n = 1, 2, and 3) and can effectively reduce the equatorial pitch angle to values where resonant scattering by whistler mode waves becomes possible. We demonstrate that the nature of bounce resonance is nonlinear, and we propose a nonlinear oscillation model for characterizing bounce resonances using two key parameters, effective wave amplitude à and normalized wave number k~z. The threshold for higher harmonic resonance is more strict, favoring higher à and k~z, and the change in equatorial pitch angle is strongly controlled by k~z. We also investigate the dependence of bounce resonance effects on various physical parameters, including wave amplitude, frequency, wave normal angle and initial phase, plasma density, and electron energy. It is found that the effect of bounce resonance is sensitive to the wave normal angle. We suggest that the bounce resonant interaction might lead to an observed pitch angle distribution with a minimum at 90°.

  3. Seasonal influence of ENSO on the Atlantic ITCZ and equatorial South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münnich, M.; Neelin, J. D.

    2005-11-01

    In late boreal spring, especially May, a strong relationship exists in observations among precipitation anomalies over equatorial South America and the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), and eastern equatorial Pacific and central equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA). A chain of correlations of equatorial Pacific SSTA, western equatorial Atlantic wind stress (WEA), equatorial Atlantic SSTA, sea surface height, and precipitation supports a causal chain in which El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) induces WEA stress anomalies, which in turn affect Atlantic equatorial ocean dynamics. These correlations show strong seasonality, apparently arising within the atmospheric links of the chain. This pathway and the influence of equatorial Atlantic SSTA on South American rainfall in May appear independent of that of the northern tropical Atlantic. Brazil's Nordeste is affected by the northern tropical Atlantic. The equatorial influence lies further to the north over the eastern Amazon and the Guiana Highlands.

  4. Effects of solar radiation on the orbits of small particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    A modification of the Robertson (1937) equations of particle motion in the presence of solar radiation is developed which allows for partial reflection of sunlight as a result of rapid and varying particle rotations caused by interaction with the solar wind. The coefficients and forces in earlier forms of the equations are compared with those in the present equations, and secular rates of change of particle orbital elements are determined. Orbital dimensions are calculated in terms of time, probable sizes and densities of meteoric and cometary particles are estimated, and times of infall to the sun are computed for a particle moving in an almost circular orbit and a particle moving in an elliptical orbit of high eccentricity. Changes in orbital elements are also determined for particles from a long-period sun-grazing comet. The results show that the time of infall to the sun from a highly eccentric orbit is substantially shorter than from a circular orbit with a radius equal to the mean distance in the eccentric orbit. The possibility is considered that the free orbital kinetic energy of particles drawn into the sun may be the energy source for the solar corona.

  5. The growth and decay of equatorial backscatter plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, R. T.

    1980-02-01

    During the past three years, a series of rocket experiments from the Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, were conducted to investigate the character of intense, scintillation-producing irregularities that occur in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere. Because the source mechanism of equatorial irregularities, believed to be the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, is analogous to that which generates plasma-density striations in a nuclear-induced environment, there is considerable interest in the underlying physics that controls the characteristics of these irregularities. A primary objective of ALTAIR investigations of equatorial irregularities is to seek an understanding of the underlying physics by establishing the relationship between meter-scale irregularities (detected by ALTAIR), and the large-scale plasma-density depletions (or 'bubbles') that contain the kilometer-scale, scintillation-producing irregularities. We describe the time evolution of backscatter 'plumes' produced by one meter equatorial field-aligned irregularities. Using ALTAIR, a fully steerable backscatter radar, to repeatedly map selected plumes, we characterize the dynamic behavior of plumes in terms of growth and a decay phase. Most of the observed characteristics are found to be consistent with equatorial-irregularity generation predicted by current theories of Rayleigh-Taylor and gradient-drift instabilities. However, other characteristics have been found that suggest key roles played by the eastward neutral wind and by altitude-modulation of the bottomside F layer in establishing the initial conditions for plume growth.

  6. SOLVING BY PARALLEL COMPUTATION THE POISSON PROBLEM FOR HIGH INTENSITY BEAMS IN CIRCULAR ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUCCIO, A.U.; DIMPERIO, N.L.; SAMULYAK, R.; BEEB-WANG, J.

    2001-01-01

    Simulation of high intensity accelerators leads to the solution of the Poisson Equation, to calculate space charge forces in the presence of acceleration chamber walls. We reduced the problem to ''two-and-a-half'' dimensions for long particle bunches, characteristic of large circular accelerators, and applied the results to the tracking code Orbit

  7. X-RAY CIRCULAR-DICHROISM AND LOCAL MAGNETIC-FIELDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CARRA, P; THOLE, BT; ALTARELLI, M; WANG, XD

    1993-01-01

    Sum rules are derived for the circular dichroic response of a core line (CMXD). They relate the intensity of the CMXD signal to the ground-state expectation value of the magnetic field operators (orbital, spin, and magnetic dipole) of the valence electrons. The results obtained are discussed and

  8. Cone-beam and fan-beam image reconstruction algorithms based on spherical and circular harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Gengsheng L; Gullberg, Grant T

    2004-01-01

    A cone-beam image reconstruction algorithm using spherical harmonic expansions is proposed. The reconstruction algorithm is in the form of a summation of inner products of two discrete arrays of spherical harmonic expansion coefficients at each cone-beam point of acquisition. This form is different from the common filtered backprojection algorithm and the direct Fourier reconstruction algorithm. There is no re-sampling of the data, and spherical harmonic expansions are used instead of Fourier expansions. As a special case, a new fan-beam image reconstruction algorithm is also derived in terms of a circular harmonic expansion. Computer simulation results for both cone-beam and fan-beam algorithms are presented for circular planar orbit acquisitions. The algorithms give accurate reconstructions; however, the implementation of the cone-beam reconstruction algorithm is computationally intensive. A relatively efficient algorithm is proposed for reconstructing the central slice of the image when a circular scanning orbit is used

  9. Architectural Surfaces and Structures from Circular Arcs

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Ling

    2013-01-01

    the most attention from geometry researchers. In this thesis, we aim to realize this process with simple geometric primitives, circular arcs. We investigate architectural surfaces and structures consisting of circular arcs. Our focus is lying on how

  10. Effect of geomagnetic storm conditions on the equatorial ionization anomaly and equatorial temperature anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Gaurav; Bag, T.; Sunil Krishna, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of the geomagnetic storm on the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) and equatorial temperature anomaly (ETA) has been studied using the atomic oxygen dayglow emissions at 577.7 nm (OI 557.7 nm) and 732.0 nm (OII 732.0 nm). For the purpose of this study, four intense geomagnetic storms during the ascending phase of solar cycle 24 have been considered. This study is primarily based on the results obtained using photochemical models with necessary inputs from theoretical studies and experimental observations. The latest reaction rate coefficients, quantum yields and the corresponding cross-sections have also been incorporated in these models. The volume emission rate of airglow emissions has been calculated using the neutral densities from NRLMSISE-00 and charged densities from IRI-2012 model. The modeled volume emission rate (VER) for OI 557.7 nm shows a positive correlation with the Dst index at 150 km and negative correlation with Dst at 250 and 280 km altitudes. Latitudinal profile of the greenline emission rate at different altitudes show a distinct behaviour similar to what has been observed in EIA with crests on either sides of the equator. The EIA crests are found to show poleward movement in the higher altitude regions. The volume emission rate of 732.0 nm emission shows a strong enhancement during the main phase of the storm. The changes observed in the airglow emission rates are explained with the help of variations induced in neutral densities and parameters related to EIA and ETA. The latitudinal variation of 732.0 nm emission rate is correlated to the variability in EIA during the storm period.

  11. Off-equatorial orbits in strong gravitational fields near compact objects - II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovář, J.; Kopáček, Ondřej; Karas, Vladimír; Stuchlík, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2010), 135006/1-135006/21 ISSN 0264-9381 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0052; GA ČR GD205/09/H033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astrophysics * black holes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.098, year: 2010

  12. 76 FR 60593 - Title VI; Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ..., several of them related to ambiguous language in the existing Circular. The proposed Circular reorganizes... regional entity, and inclusive of public and private entities. This term is used exclusively in Chapter IV... revisions to the Title VI Circular. The section that addresses the existing requirement for a Language...

  13. Circular Business: Collaborate and Circulate : a bookreview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Ratna W.; Witjes, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/381088200

    2016-01-01

    With their book, “Circular Business: Collaborate and Circulate”, Circular Collaboration, Amersfoort, ISBN: 978-90-824902-0-6, €35, Kraaijenhagen et al. (2016) give companies practical guidance on their contribution to the development of a more circular economy by presenting a practical 10-step

  14. Space Weather Research in the Equatorial Region: A Philosophical Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Victor; Odunaike, Rasaki; Laoye, John

    Investigations using radio waves reflected from the ionosphere, at high-and mid-latitudes indicate that ionospheric absorption can strongly increase following geomagnetic storms; which appears to suggest some definite relationship between ionospheric radio wave absorption and geomagnetic storms at these latitudes. However, corresponding earlier studies in the equatorial region did not appear to show any explicit relationship between ionospheric radio wave absorption and geomagnetic storm activity. This position appeared acceptable to the existing scientific paradigm, until in an act of paradigm shift, by a change of storm selection criteria, some more recent space weather investigations in the low latitudes showed that ionospheric radio wave absorption in the equatorial region clearly increases after intense storms. Given that these results in the equatorial region stood against the earlier results, this paper presently attempts to highlight their philosophical underpinning and posit that they constitute a scientific statement.

  15. Occurrence of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles during Intense Magnetic Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Song Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An important issue in low-latitude ionospheric space weather is how magnetic storms affect the generation of equatorial plasma bubbles. In this study, we present the measurements of the ion density and velocity in the evening equatorial ionosphere by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites during 22 intense magnetic storms. The DMSP measurements show that deep ion density depletions (plasma bubbles are generated after the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF turns southward. The time delay between the IMF southward turning and the first DMSP detection of plasma depletions decreases with the minimum value of the IMF Bz, the maximum value of the interplanetary electric field (IEF Ey, and the magnitude of the Dst index. The results of this study provide strong evidence that penetration electric field associated with southward IMF during the main phase of magnetic storms increases the generation of equatorial plasma bubbles in the evening sector.

  16. Coulomb-interacting billiards in circular cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanpää, J; Räsänen, E; Nokelainen, J; Luukko, P J J

    2013-01-01

    We apply a molecular dynamics scheme to analyze classically chaotic properties of a two-dimensional circular billiard system containing two Coulomb-interacting electrons. As such, the system resembles a prototype model for a semiconductor quantum dot. The interaction strength is varied from the noninteracting limit with zero potential energy up to the strongly interacting regime where the relative kinetic energy approaches zero. At weak interactions the bouncing maps show jumps between quasi-regular orbits. In the strong-interaction limit we find an analytic expression for the bouncing map. Its validity in the general case is assessed by comparison with our numerical data. To obtain a more quantitative view on the dynamics as the interaction strength is varied, we compute and analyze the escape rates of the system. Apart from very weak or strong interactions, the escape rates show consistently exponential behavior, thus suggesting strongly chaotic dynamics and a phase space without significant sticky regions within the considered time scales. (paper)

  17. Capacitance of circular patch resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, G.; Verolino, L.; Naples Univ.; Panariello, G.; Vaccaro, V.G.; Naples Univ.

    1995-11-01

    In this paper the capacitance of the circular microstrip patch resonator is computed. It is shown that the electrostatic problem can be formulated as a system of dual integral equations, and the most interesting techniques of solutions of these systems are reviewed. Some useful approximated formulas for the capacitance are derived and plots of the capacitance are finally given in a wide range of dielectric constants

  18. Investigation of electrodynamic stabilization and control of long orbiting tethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, G.; Arnold, D.

    1984-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in tether modelling among participants in the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Program, the slack tether and its behavior, and certain advanced applications of the tether to problems in orbital mechanics are identified. The features and applications of the TSS software set are reviewed. Modelling the slack tether analytically with as many as 50 mass points and the application of this new model to a study of the behavior of a broken tether near the Shuttle are described. A reel control algorithm developed by SAO and examples of its use are described, including an example which also demonstrates the use of the tether in transferring a heavy payload from a low-orbiting Shuttle to a high circular orbit. Capture of a low-orbiting payload by a Space Station in high circular orbit is described. Energy transfer within a dumbbell-type spacecraft by cyclical reeling operations or gravitational effects on the natural elasticity of the connecting tether, it is shown, can circularize the orbit of the spacecraft.

  19. Periodic orbits near the particle resonance in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1978-01-01

    Near the particle resonance of a spiral galaxy the almost circular periodic orbits that exist inside the resonance (direct) or outside it (retrograde) are replaced by elongated trapped orbits around the maxima of the potential L/sub 4/ and L/sub 5/. These are the long- period trapped periodic orbits. The long-period orbits shrink to the points L/sub 4/, L/sub 5/ for a critical value of the Hamiltonian h. For still larger h, a family of short-period trapped orbits appears, with continuously growing size. The evolution of the periodic orbits with h is followed, theoretically and numerically, from the untrapped orbits to the long-periodic orbits and then to the short-periodic orbits, mainly in the case of a bar. In a tight spiral case an explanation of the asymmetric periodic and banana orbits is given, and an example of short-period orbits not surrounding L/sub 4/ or L/sub 5/ is provided. Another family of periodic orbits reaching corotation is trapped at the inner Lindblad resonance. (5 refs).

  20. Optical force and torque on a dielectric Rayleigh particle by a circular Airy vortex beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Musheng; Huang, Sujuan; Shao, Wei; Liu, Xianpeng

    2018-03-01

    Optical force and torque exerted on the Rayleigh particles by tightly focused circularly polarized circular Airy vortex beams (CAVB) in the far field are studied in this paper. The relation between parameters of circularly polarized CAVB and the trapping properties is numerically analyzed based on Rayleigh models and the Debye diffraction theory. The results show that both the high refractive index and low refractive index particles can be fully stably trapped in three dimensions by circularly polarized CAVB. The parameters of circularly polarized CAVB greatly affect the optical force. The longitudinal and transverse gradient force increase with the increase of decay factor and scaling factor, and decrease with the increase of the radius of the first primary ring and topological charges. The positions of the longitudinal stable equilibrium move toward the high numerical aperture lens when the scaling factor and the radius of the primary ring increase. The trapping range is broadened with the decrease of scaling factor. The optical orbital torque (OOT) of circularly polarized CAVB has circular symmetry and remains positive or negative. With the increase of topological charges, the peak value of OOT first increases and then decreases after reaches a maximum. These results are useful for optical trapping, optical levitation and particle acceleration.

  1. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from humans in Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, María Alejandra; Iborra, Asunción; Vargas, Antonio; Nsie, Eugenia; Mbá, Luciano; Fuentes, Isabel

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to perform a molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Cryptosporidium species from Equatorial Guinea. Standard laboratory methods were used to identify 35 cryptosporidiosis cases among 185 patients. PCR-RFLP successfully identified 34 Cryptosporidium species from these 35 cases, comprising C. parvum (52.9%), C. hominis (44.1%) and C. meleagridis (2.9%); over 90% of the species were isolated from HIV-positive patients. This is the first report of the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species isolated from humans in Equatorial Guinea and shows that zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission is present in this country.

  2. Longitudinal Variation and Waves in Jupiter's South Equatorial Wind Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, A. A.; Rogers, John H.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Choi, David; Allison, Michael; Adamoli, Gianluigi; Mettig, Hans-Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed study of the cloud features in the strong southern equatorial wind jet near 7.5 S planetographic latitude. To understand the apparent variations in average zonal wind jet velocity at this latitude [e.g.. 1,2,3], we have searched for variations iIi both feature latitude and velocity with longitude and time. In particular, we focused on the repetitive chevron-shaped dark spots visible on most dates and the more transient large anticyclonic system known as the South Equatorial Disturbance (SED). These small dark spots are interpreted as cloud holes, and are often used as material tracers of the wind field.

  3. Instability of equatorial protons in Jupiter's mid-magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northrop, T.G.; Schardt, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    Two different models for the distribution function are fit to the Jovian protons seen by Pioneer 10 inbound. The models reproduce the observed energy and angular distributions. These models are then used to assess the collisionless mirror instability. Because of the pancake proton angular distributions in the equatorial ring current region, the ring current particle population appears to be mirror unstable at times, with instability growth rates of approx.10 min. Such a time is consistent with observed proton flux autocorrelation times. An instability such as this (there are other candidates) may be responsible for the previously established proton flux flowing parallel to the magnetic field away from the equatorial region

  4. The stellar orbit distribution in present-day galaxies inferred from the CALIFA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; van de Ven, Glenn; Bosch, Remco van den; Rix, Hans-Walter; Lyubenova, Mariya; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Martig, Marie; Mao, Shude; Xu, Dandan; Jin, Yunpeng; Obreja, Aura; Grand, Robert J. J.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Gómez, Facundo A.; Walcher, Jakob C.; García-Benito, Rubén; Zibetti, Stefano; Sánchez, Sebastian F.

    2018-03-01

    Galaxy formation entails the hierarchical assembly of mass, along with the condensation of baryons and the ensuing, self-regulating star formation1,2. The stars form a collisionless system whose orbit distribution retains dynamical memory that can constrain a galaxy's formation history3. The orbits dominated by ordered rotation, with near-maximum circularity λz ≈ 1, are called kinematically cold, and the orbits dominated by random motion, with low circularity λz ≈ 0, are kinematically hot. The fraction of stars on `cold' orbits, compared with the fraction on `hot' orbits, speaks directly to the quiescence or violence of the galaxies' formation histories4,5. Here we present such orbit distributions, derived from stellar kinematic maps through orbit-based modelling for a well-defined, large sample of 300 nearby galaxies. The sample, drawn from the CALIFA survey6, includes the main morphological galaxy types and spans a total stellar mass range from 108.7 to 1011.9 solar masses. Our analysis derives the orbit-circularity distribution as a function of galaxy mass and its volume-averaged total distribution. We find that across most of the considered mass range and across morphological types, there are more stars on `warm' orbits defined as 0.25 ≤ λz ≤ 0.8 than on either `cold' or `hot' orbits. This orbit-based `Hubble diagram' provides a benchmark for galaxy formation simulations in a cosmological context.

  5. ERS orbit control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Mats

    1991-12-01

    The European remote sensing mission orbit control is addressed. For the commissioning phase, the orbit is defined by the following requirements: Sun synchronous, local time of descending node 10:30; three days repeat cycle with 43 orbital revolutions; overhead Venice tower (12.508206 deg east, 45.314222 deg north). The launch, maneuvers for the initial acquisition of the operational orbit, orbit maintenance maneuvers, evaluation of the orbit control, and the drift of the inclination are summarized.

  6. Stable orbits for lunar landing assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoleo, Ennio; Cinelli, Marco; Ortore, Emiliano; Circi, Christian

    2017-10-01

    To improve lunar landing performances in terms of mission costs, trajectory determination and visibility the use of a single probe located over an assistance orbit around the Moon has been taken into consideration. To this end, the properties of two quasi-circular orbits characterised by a stable behaviour of semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination have been investigated. The analysis has demonstrated the possibility of using an assistance probe, located over one of these orbits, as a relay satellite between lander and Earth, even in the case of landings on the far side of the Moon. A comparison about the accuracy in retrieving the lander's state with respect to the use of a probe located in the Lagrangian point L2 of the Earth-Moon system has also been carried out.

  7. Best Practice Examples of Circular Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldmann, Eva

    Best practice examples of circular business models are presented in this report. The purpose is to inform and inspire interested readers, in particular companies that aspire to examine the potentials of the circular economy. Circular business models in two different sectors are examined, namely...... the textile and clothing sector as well as the durable goods sector. In order to appreciate the notion of circular business models, the basics of the circular economy are outlined along with three frameworks for categorizing the various types of circular business models. The frameworks take point of departure...... in resource loops, value bases and business model archetypes respectively, and they are applied for analysing and organizing the business models that are presented throughout the report. The investigations in the report show that circular business models are relevant to businesses because they hold...

  8. Upper ocean circulation modulation by phytoplankton concentration in the Equatorial Pacific and the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Sammarco, P.; Muneyama, K.; Sato, T.; AjoyKumar, A.; Frouin, R.

    gradient in the upper ocean. This strengthens the geostrophically balanced westward currents in both side of the equatorial wave-guide (within 5 degree bands). Once these currents reach the western Pacific coast, they feed the Equatorial undercurrent (EUC...

  9. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years

    OpenAIRE

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low latitude regimes especially east of the dateline where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high nutrient low chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited in part by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Paci...

  10. Iron sources and pathways into the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Xuerong; Menviel, Laurie; Sen Gupta, Alex; van Sebille, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Using a novel observationally constrained Lagrangian iron model forced by outputs from an eddy-resolving biogeochemical ocean model, we examine the sensitivity of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) iron distribution to EUC source region iron concentrations. We find that elevated iron concentrations

  11. Equatorial electrojet in the Indian region during the geomagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1998-11-14

    Nov 14, 1998 ... In the recovery phase of the storm, the electric field due to shielding layer penetrates to equatorial latitudes as an overshielding electric field with opposite polarity, westward during day- side and eastward during night side (Kelley et al. 1979). In addition to the prompt penetration elec- tric fields, there are ...

  12. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Dempewolf, J.; Trigg, S. N.; Randerson, J. T.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Giglio, L.; Murdiyarso, D.; Peters, W.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Dolman, A. J.; Defries, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire

  13. Backscatter measurements of 11-cm equatorial spread-F irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    In the equatorial F-region ionosphere, a turbulent cascade process has been found to exist that extends from irregularity spatial wavelengths longer than tens of kilometers down to wavelengths as short as 36 cm. To investigate the small-scale regime of wavelengths less than 36 cm, an equatorial radar experiment was conducted using a frequency of 1320 MHz that corresponds to an irregularity wavelength of 11 cm. The first observations of radar backscatter from 11-cm field-aligned irregularities (FAI) are described. These measurements extend the spatial wavelength regime of F-region FAI to lengths that approach both electron gyroradius and the Debye length. Agreement of these results with the theory of high-frequency drift waves suggests that these observations may be unique to the equatorial ionosphere. That is, the requirement of low electron densities for which the theroy calls may preclude the existence of 11-cm FAI elsewhere in the F-region ionosphere, except in equatorial plasma bubbles

  14. Characterisation of tectonic lineaments in the Central Equatorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterisation of tectonic lineaments in the Central Equatorial Atlantic region of Africa using Bouguer anomaly gravity data. ... Ife Journal of Science ... 3-D standard Euler deconvolution analysis was carried out on Bouguer anomaly gravity data for configuration definition and approximate depth estimate of tectonic ...

  15. Planktonic foraminifera from core tops of western equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; Guptha, M.V.S.

    distributional pattern showing upward trend in its abundance from 38 per cent at 21 degrees S latitude to 0.8 per cent at 6 degrees N latitude. Sub-tropical fauna is sparsely distributed in the Equatorial Indian Ocean. Based on these studies it is interpreted...

  16. equatorial electrojet strength in the african sector during high

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    shown to be consistent with the earlier similar work carried out for the American and ... reference to the quiet day night time level of H, ... February and July, and shifts equator ward to 27°N ... effect of the equatorial electrojet along this line is.

  17. Radar observation of the equatorial counter-electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanuise, C.; Crochet, M.; Gouin, P.; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan

    1979-01-01

    Electron drift velocity in the equatorial electrojet has been measured for a few years by coherent radar techniques in Africa. For the first time such measurements were performed during a strong reversal of the ionospheric current dubbed 'counter-electrojet'. These observations agree with the theories of the plasma instabilities at the origin of the electron density irregularities giving the radar echoes

  18. A global climatology for equatorial plasma bubbles in the topside ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Gentile

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a global climatology of equatorial plasma bubble (EPB occurrence based on evening sector plasma density measurements from polar-orbiting Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP spacecraft during 1989-2004. EPBs are irregular plasma density depletions in the post-sunset ionosphere that degrade communication and navigation signals. More than 14400 EPBs were identified in ~134000 DMSP orbits. DMSP observations basically agree with Tsunoda's (1985 hypothesis that EPB rates peak when the terminator is aligned with the Earth's magnetic field, but there are also unpredicted offsets in many longitude sectors. We present an updated climatology for the full database from 1989-2004 along with new plots for specific phases of the solar cycle: maximum 1989-1992 and 1999-2002, minimum 1994-1997, and transition years 1993, 1998, and 2003. As expected, there are significant differences between the climatologies for solar maximum and minimum and between the two solar maximum phases as well. We also compare DMSP F12, F14, F15, and F16 observations at slightly different local times during 2000-2004 to examine local time effects on EPB rates. The global climatologies developed using the DMSP EPB database provide an environmental context for the long-range prediction tools under development for the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS mission.

  19. Post-midnight occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, K. K.; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Tulasiram, S.

    2016-07-01

    The equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs)/equatorial spread F (ESF) irregularities are an important topic of space weather interest because of their impact on transionospheric radio communications, satellite-based navigation and augmentation systems. This local plasma depleted structures develop at the bottom side F layer through Rayleigh-Taylor instability and rapidly grow to topside ionosphere via polarization electric fields within them. The steep vertical gradients due to quick loss of bottom side ionization and rapid uplift of equatorial F layer via prereversal enhancement (PRE) of zonal electric field makes the post-sunset hours as the most preferred local time for the formation of EPBs. However, there is a different class of irregularities that occurs during the post-midnight hours of June solstice reported by the previous studies. The occurrence of these post-midnight EPBs maximize during the low solar activity periods. The growth characteristics and the responsible mechanism for the formation of these post-midnight EPBs are not yet understood. Using the rapid beam steering ability of 47 MHz Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) at Kototabang (0.2°S geographic latitude, 100.3°E geographic longitude, and 10.4°S geomagnetic latitude), Indonesia, the spatial and temporal evolution of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were examined to classify the evolutionary-type EPBs from those which formed elsewhere and drifted into the field of view of radar. The responsible mechanism for the genesis of summer time post-midnight EPBs were discussed in light of growth rate of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using SAMI2 model.

  20. Lagrangian mixed layer modeling of the western equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Toshiaki; Lukas, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Processes that control the upper ocean thermohaline structure in the western equatorial Pacific are examined using a Lagrangian mixed layer model. The one-dimensional bulk mixed layer model of Garwood (1977) is integrated along the trajectories derived from a nonlinear 1 1/2 layer reduced gravity model forced with actual wind fields. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data are used to estimate surface freshwater fluxes for the mixed layer model. The wind stress data which forced the 1 1/2 layer model are used for the mixed layer model. The model was run for the period 1987-1988. This simple model is able to simulate the isothermal layer below the mixed layer in the western Pacific warm pool and its variation. The subduction mechanism hypothesized by Lukas and Lindstrom (1991) is evident in the model results. During periods of strong South Equatorial Current, the warm and salty mixed layer waters in the central Pacific are subducted below the fresh shallow mixed layer in the western Pacific. However, this subduction mechanism is not evident when upwelling Rossby waves reach the western equatorial Pacific or when a prominent deepening of the mixed layer occurs in the western equatorial Pacific or when a prominent deepening of the mixed layer occurs in the western equatorial Pacific due to episodes of strong wind and light precipitation associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Comparison of the results between the Lagrangian mixed layer model and a locally forced Eulerian mixed layer model indicated that horizontal advection of salty waters from the central Pacific strongly affects the upper ocean salinity variation in the western Pacific, and that this advection is necessary to maintain the upper ocean thermohaline structure in this region.

  1. Mechanical systems with closed orbits on manifolds of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtseva, E A; Fedoseev, D A

    2015-01-01

    We study natural mechanical systems describing the motion of a particle on a two-dimensional Riemannian manifold of revolution in the field of a central smooth potential. We obtain a classification of Riemannian manifolds of revolution and central potentials on them that have the strong Bertrand property: any nonsingular (that is, not contained in a meridian) orbit is closed. We also obtain a classification of manifolds of revolution and central potentials on them that have the 'stable' Bertrand property: every parallel is an 'almost stable' circular orbit, and any nonsingular bounded orbit is closed. Bibliography: 14 titles

  2. CONGENITAL ORBITAL TERATOMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was done without contrast and 3mm/5mm/10mm slices were obtained to cover the orbit, skull base and brain. The findings included a soft tissue mass arising from the orbit. The left eye ball was extra orbital. There was no defect .... love's Short Practice of Surgery. 7 Edition,. Levis London, 1997; 45-64. 2. Orbital tumor Part 1, ...

  3. Modern shelf ice, equatorial Aeolis Quadrangle, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a detailed study of the geological and geomorphological evolution of Aeolis Quadrangle, I have encountered evidence suggesting that near surface ice exists at low latitudes and was formed by partial or complete freezing of an inland sea. The area of interest is centered at approximately -2 deg, 196 deg. As seen in a suite of Viking Orbiter frames obtained at a range of approximately 600 km, the plains surface at this location is very lightly cratered or uncratered, and it is thus of late Amazonian age. Extant topographic data indicate that the Amazonian plains at this location occupy a trough whose surface lies at least 1000 m below the Mars datum. A reasonable hypothesis is that quite recent surface water releases, perhaps associated with final evolution of large 'outflow chasms' to the south, but possibly from other source areas, filled this trough, that ice floes formed almost immediately, and that either grounded ice or an ice-covered sea still persists. A reasonable hypothesis is that quite recent surface water releases, perhaps associated with final evolution of large 'outflow chasms' to the south, but possibly from other source areas, filled this trough, that ice floes formed almost immediately, and that either grounded ice or an ice-covered sea still persists. In either case, the thin (a few meters at most) high albedo, low thermal inertia cover of aeolian materials was instrumental in allowing ice preservation, and at least the lower portions of this dust cover may be cemented by water ice. Detailed mapping using Viking stereopairs and quantitative comparisons to terrestrial shelf ice geometries are underway.

  4. Radiovolumetry of the orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abujamra, S.

    1983-01-01

    The authors present a method called ''Radiovolumetry of the orbit'' that permits the evaluation of the orbital volume from anteroposterior skull X-Rays (CALDWELL 30 0 position). The research was based in the determination of the orbital volume with lead spheres, in 1010 orbits of 505 dry skulls of Anatomy Museums. After the dry skulls was X-rayed six frontal orbital diameters were made, with care to correct the radiographic amplification. PEARSON correlation coeficient test was applied between the mean orbital diameter and the orbital volume. The result was r = 0,8 with P [pt

  5. Targeting Ballistic Lunar Capture Trajectories Using Periodic Orbits in the Sun-Earth CRTBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, D.S.; Griesemer, Paul Ricord; Ocampo, Cesar

    2009-01-01

    A particular periodic orbit in the Earth-Sun circular restricted three body problem is shown to have the characteristics needed for a ballistic lunar capture transfer. An injection from a circular parking orbit into the periodic orbit serves as an initial guess for a targeting algorithm. By targeting appropriate parameters incrementally in increasingly complicated force models and using precise derivatives calculated from the state transition matrix, a reliable algorithm is produced. Ballistic lunar capture trajectories in restricted four body systems are shown to be able to be produced in a systematic way.

  6. Attenuation in Superconducting Circular Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yeap

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis on wave propagation in superconducting circular waveguides. In order to account for the presence of quasiparticles in the intragap states of a superconductor, we employ the characteristic equation derived from the extended Mattis-Bardeen theory to compute the values of the complex conductivity. To calculate the attenuation in a circular waveguide, the tangential fields at the boundary of the wall are first matched with the electrical properties (which includes the complex conductivity of the wall material. The matching of fields with the electrical properties results in a set of transcendental equations which is able to accurately describe the propagation constant of the fields. Our results show that although the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide above cutoff (but below the gap frequency is finite, it is considerably lower than that in a normal waveguide. Above the gap frequency, however, the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide increases sharply. The attenuation eventually surpasses that in a normal waveguide. As frequency increases above the gap frequency, Cooper pairs break into quasiparticles. Hence, we attribute the sharp rise in attenuation to the increase in random collision of the quasiparticles with the lattice structure.

  7. Chemical Synthesis of Circular Proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, James P.; Wong, Clarence T. T.

    2012-01-01

    Circular proteins, once thought to be rare, are now commonly found in plants. Their chemical synthesis, once thought to be difficult, is now readily achievable. The enabling methodology is largely due to the advances in entropic chemical ligation to overcome the entropy barrier in coupling the N- and C-terminal ends of large peptide segments for either intermolecular ligation or intramolecular ligation in end-to-end cyclization. Key elements of an entropic chemical ligation consist of a chemoselective capture step merging the N and C termini as a covalently linked O/S-ester intermediate to permit the subsequent step of an intramolecular O/S-N acyl shift to form an amide. Many ligation methods exploit the supernucleophilicity of a thiol side chain at the N terminus for the capture reaction, which makes cysteine-rich peptides ideal candidates for the entropy-driven macrocyclization. Advances in desulfurization and modification of the thiol-containing amino acids at the ligation sites to other amino acids add extra dimensions to the entropy-driven ligation methods. This minireview describes recent advances of entropy-driven ligation to prepare circular proteins with or without a cysteinyl side chain. PMID:22700959

  8. The Transit Ingress and the Tilted Orbit of the Extraordinarily Eccentric Exoplanet HD 80606b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Joshua N.; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Gazak, J. Zachary; Starkey, Donn; Ford, Eric B.; Colon, Knicole D.; Reyes, Francisco; Nortmann, Lisa; hide

    2009-01-01

    We reported the first detection of the transit ingress, revealing the transit duration to be 11.64 plus or minus 0.25 hr and allowing more robust determinations of the system parameters. Keck spectra obtained at midtransit exhibited an anomalous blueshift, giving definitive evidence that the stellar spin axis and planetary orbital axis are misaligned. Thus, the orbit of this planet is not only highly eccentric but is also tilted away from the equatorial plane of its parent star. A large tilt had been predicted, based on the idea that the planet's eccentric orbit was caused by the Kozai mechanism.

  9. Polarization measurement and vertical aperture optimization for obtaining circularly polarized bend-magnet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.; Hussain, Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Growing interest in utilizing circular polarization prompted the design of bend-magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, covering the 30-1500 eV spectral region, to include vertical aperturing capabilities for optimizing the collection of circular polarization above and below the orbit plane. After commissioning and early use of the beamline, a multilayer polarimeter was used to characterize the polarization state of the beam as a function of vertical aperture position. This report partially summarizes the polarimetry measurements and compares results with theoretical calculations intended to simulate experimental conditions.

  10. Properties of the Equatorial Magnetotail Flanks ˜50-200 RE Downtail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.; Wang, C.-P.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    In space, thin boundaries separating plasmas with different properties serve as a free energy source for various plasma instabilities and determine the global dynamics of large-scale systems. In planetary magnetopauses and shock waves, classical examples of such boundaries, the magnetic field makes a significant contribution to the pressure balance and plasma dynamics. The configuration and properties of such boundaries have been well investigated and modeled. However, much less is known about boundaries that form between demagnetized plasmas where the magnetic field is not important for pressure balance. The most accessible example of such a plasma boundary is the equatorial boundary layer of the Earth's distant magnetotail. Rather, limited measurements since its first encounter in the late 1970s by the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3 spacecraft revealed the basic properties of this boundary, but its statistical properties and structure have not been studied to date. In this study, we use Geotail and Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) missions to investigate the equatorial boundary layer from lunar orbit (˜55 Earth radii, RE, downtail) to as far downtail as ˜200 RE. Although the magnetic field has almost no effect on the structure of the boundary layer, the layer separates well the hot, rarefied plasma sheet from dense cold magnetosheath plasmas. We suggest that the most important role in plasma separation is played by polarization electric fields, which modify the efficiency of magnetosheath ion penetration into the plasma sheet. We also show that the total energies (bulk flow plus thermal) of plasma sheet ions and magnetosheath ions are very similar; that is, magnetosheath ion thermalization (e.g., via ion scattering by magnetic field fluctuations) is sufficient to produce hot plasma sheet ions without any additional acceleration.

  11. Verifying black hole orbits with gravitational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drasco, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational waves from test masses bound to geodesic orbits of rotating black holes are simulated, using Teukolsky's black hole perturbation formalism, for about ten thousand generic orbital configurations. Each binary radiates power exclusively in modes with frequencies that are integer-linear combinations of the orbit's three fundamental frequencies. General spectral properties are found with a survey of orbits about a black hole taken to be rotating at 80% of the maximal spin. The orbital eccentricity is varied from 0.1 to 0.9. Inclination ranges from 20 deg. to 160 deg. and comes to within 20 deg. of polar. Semilatus rectum is varied from 1.2 to 3 times the value at the innermost stable circular orbits. The following general spectral properties are found: (i) 99% of the radiated power is typically carried by a few hundred modes, and at most by about a thousand modes, (ii) the dominant frequencies can be grouped into a small number of families defined by fixing two of the three integer frequency multipliers, and (iii) the specifics of these trends can be qualitatively inferred from the geometry of the orbit under consideration. Detections using triperiodic analytic templates modeled on these general properties would constitute a verification of radiation from an adiabatic sequence of black hole orbits and would recover the evolution of the fundamental orbital frequencies. In an analogy with ordinary spectroscopy, this would compare to observing the Bohr model's atomic hydrogen spectrum without being able to rule out alternative atomic theories or nuclei. The suitability of such a detection technique is demonstrated using snapshots computed at 12-hour intervals throughout the last three years before merger of a kludged inspiral. The system chosen is typical of those thought to occur in galactic nuclei and to be observable with space-based gravitational wave detectors like LISA. Because of circularization, the number of excited modes decreases as the binary

  12. Tidal Heating of Earth-like Exoplanets around M Stars: Thermal, Magnetic, and Orbital Evolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, P E; Barnes, R

    2015-09-01

    The internal thermal and magnetic evolution of rocky exoplanets is critical to their habitability. We focus on the thermal-orbital evolution of Earth-mass planets around low-mass M stars whose radiative habitable zone overlaps with the "tidal zone," where tidal dissipation is expected to be a significant heat source in the interior. We develop a thermal-orbital evolution model calibrated to Earth that couples tidal dissipation, with a temperature-dependent Maxwell rheology, to orbital circularization and migration. We illustrate thermal-orbital steady states where surface heat flow is balanced by tidal dissipation and cooling can be stalled for billions of years until circularization occurs. Orbital energy dissipated as tidal heat in the interior drives both inward migration and circularization, with a circularization time that is inversely proportional to the dissipation rate. We identify a peak in the internal dissipation rate as the mantle passes through a viscoelastic state at mantle temperatures near 1800 K. Planets orbiting a 0.1 solar-mass star within 0.07 AU circularize before 10 Gyr, independent of initial eccentricity. Once circular, these planets cool monotonically and maintain dynamos similar to that of Earth. Planets forced into eccentric orbits can experience a super-cooling of the core and rapid core solidification, inhibiting dynamo action for planets in the habitable zone. We find that tidal heating is insignificant in the habitable zone around 0.45 (or larger) solar-mass stars because tidal dissipation is a stronger function of orbital distance than stellar mass, and the habitable zone is farther from larger stars. Suppression of the planetary magnetic field exposes the atmosphere to stellar wind erosion and the surface to harmful radiation. In addition to weak magnetic fields, massive melt eruption rates and prolonged magma oceans may render eccentric planets in the habitable zone of low-mass stars inhospitable for life.

  13. Global communication using a constellation of low earth meridian orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oli, P. V. S.; Nagarajan, N.; Rayan, H. R.

    1993-07-01

    The concept of 'meridian orbits' is briefly reviewed. It is shown that, if a satellite in the meridian orbit makes an odd number of revolutions per day, then the satellite passes over the same set of meridians twice a day. Satellites in such orbits pass over the same portion of the sky twice a day and every day. This enables a user to adopt a programmed mode of tracking, thereby avoiding a computational facility for orbit prediction, look angle generation, and auto tracking. A constellation of 38 or more satellites placed in a 1200 km altitude circular orbit is favorable for global communications due to various factors. It is shown that appropriate phasing in right ascension of the ascending node and mean anomaly results in a constellation, wherein each satellite appears over the user's horizon one satellite after another. Visibility and coverage plots are provided to verify the continuous coverage.

  14. Circular economy and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Circular economy means no production of waste through re-using and recycling. As other industries, nuclear industry has committed itself to a policy of sustainability and resource preservation. EDF has developed a 5 point strategy: 1) the closure of the fuel cycle through recycling, 2) operating nuclear power plants beyond 40 years, 3) reducing the volume of waste, 4) diminishing the consumption of energy through the implementation of new processes (for instance the enrichment through centrifugation uses 50 times less power than gaseous diffusion enrichment) and 5) making evolve the prevailing doctrine concerning the management of very low level radioactive waste: making possible the re-use of slightly contaminated steel scrap or concrete instead of storing them in dedicated disposal centers. (A.C.)

  15. Circular economy and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article first recalls what circular economy is, and its main principles (sustainable supply, eco-design, industrial and territorial ecology, economy of function rather than of possession, extension of product lifetime, recycling). It outlines its different benefits: improved resilience, inclusion of all actors of the territory, creation of local jobs, a global vision. In the next part, the nuclear industry is presented as a pioneer in this respect through various trends and developments: closure of the fuel cycle and saving of uranium and energy in the upstream part, reduction of wastes in the downstream part, exploitation of plants on a longer term, management of the production of conventional wastes, reduction of energy consumption, evolution of the doctrine in terms of management of very low level radioactive wastes

  16. Some properties of circular proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosselkov, P.; John, P.; Dixon, N.E.; Liepinsh, E.; Williams, N.K.; University of Sydney, NSW; Matthews, J.M.; Otting, G.; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm,

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Protein backbone cyclization can be achieved by use of a circularly-permuted split mini-intein. We have used the small N-terminal domain of the E coli DnaB helicase (DnaB-N, residues 24-136) as a model protein for cyclization because its structure has been determined both by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography, and its ends are close together. Joining of the ends of DnaB-N' via a 9-amino acid linker occurs efficiently in vivo, and the circular (cz-) protein is stabilized in comparison to the linear (Hn-) protein against thermal denaturation (ΔΔG ∼2 kcal/mol). DnaB-N exists as a dimer in the crystalline state and in solution at high concentrations. To produce linear and cyclized versions that could not dimerize, Phe102 (at the dimer interface) was changed to Glu. NMR spectra showed that the F102E mutants remained monomeric at high concentrations but otherwise had essentially the same structures as the wild-type domains. Individual rate constants for proton exchange at the amide groups in lin- and cz-DnaB-N were determined at 10 C. Although they varied as expected depending on exposure to solvent, the ratios of rates between corresponding amides in the two proteins were constant. In the same buffer, lin- and cz-DnaB-N both unfolded reversibly, with transition temperatures of 37.9 and 48.5 deg C, respectively. Correlation of the (constant) ratio of amide exchange rates with measured thermodynamic parameters suggests that amide exchange in DnaB-N occurs predominantly in a globally unfolded state. Similar studies with other proteins are underway

  17. Global mode of Pi2 waves in the equatorial region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Tai-ichi; Saka, Ousuke; Shimoizumi, Masashi

    1988-01-01

    Fluxgate magnetometers with accurate timing data logger were set up at two equatorial stations (Garous-Marous and Huancayo), and also at a middle latitude station (Kuju). The phase of Pi2 waves is compared among these stations. It is found that 1) Pi2 pulsations in low and equatorial latitudes are linearly polarized approximately along the magnetic meridian, 2) phase difference of the H component of Pi2 waves at different stations is much less than 1 - 10 of the pulsation period despite a large longitudinal separation (∼ 90 deg) of the stations, showing the so-called azimuthal wave number, m, to be much less than unity and 3) phase difference of the D component at different stations is variable. (author)

  18. Ongoing Analysis of Jupiter's Equatorial Hotspots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, D. S.; Showmwn, A. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present updated results from our ongoing analysis of Cassini observations of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach of the planet, the ISS instrument onboard Cassini regularly imaged the atmosphere of Jupiter. We created time-lapse movies from this period that show the complex activity and interactions of the equatorial atmosphere. During this period, hot spots exhibited significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes appear to be a result of interactions with passing vortex systems in adjacent latitudes. Strong anticyclonic gyres to the southeast of the dark areas converge with flow from the west and appear to circulate into a hot spot at its southwestern corner.

  19. Bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, C. E.; Hanson, W. B.; Mcclure, J. P.; Cragin, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    By using the Ogo 6 satellite, McClure and Hanson (1973) have discovered sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region ion number density. In the present investigation, a description is provided of the properties of a distinct category of sinusoidal irregularities found in equatorial data from the AE-C and AE-E satellites. The observed scale sizes vary from about 300 m to 3 km in the direction perpendicular to B, overlapping with and extending the range observed by using Ogo 6. Attention is given to low and high resolution data, a comparison with Huancayo ionograms, the confinement of 'bottomside sinusoidal' (BSS) irregularities essentially to the bottomside of the F layer, spectral characteristics, and BSS, scintillation, and ionosonde observations.

  20. Nonlinearly coupled dynamics of irregularities in the equatorial electrojet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atul, J.K., E-mail: jkatulphysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Commerce under Magadh University, Patna 800020 (India); Sarkar, S. [FCIPT, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Singh, S.K. [Department of Physics, College of Commerce under Magadh University, Patna 800020 (India)

    2016-04-01

    Kinetic wave description is used to study the nonlinear influence of background Farley Buneman (FB) modes on the Gradient Drift (GD) modes in the equatorial electrojet ionosphere. The dominant nonlinearity is mediated through the electron flux term in the governing fluid equation which further invokes a turbulent current into the system. Electron dynamics reveals the modification in electron collision frequency and inhomogeneity scale length. It is seen that the propagation and growth rate of GD modes get modified by the background FB modes. Also, a new quasimode gets excited through the quadratic dispersion relation. Physical significance of coupled dynamics between the participating modes is also discussed. - Highlights: • Nonlinear influence of Farley Buneman mode on the Gradient drift mode, is investigated. • Electron collision frequency and density gradient scale length get modified. • A new quasimode gets excited due to the competition between these modes. • It seems to be important for modelling of Equatorial Electrojet current system.

  1. Nonlinearly coupled dynamics of irregularities in the equatorial electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atul, J.K.; Sarkar, S.; Singh, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic wave description is used to study the nonlinear influence of background Farley Buneman (FB) modes on the Gradient Drift (GD) modes in the equatorial electrojet ionosphere. The dominant nonlinearity is mediated through the electron flux term in the governing fluid equation which further invokes a turbulent current into the system. Electron dynamics reveals the modification in electron collision frequency and inhomogeneity scale length. It is seen that the propagation and growth rate of GD modes get modified by the background FB modes. Also, a new quasimode gets excited through the quadratic dispersion relation. Physical significance of coupled dynamics between the participating modes is also discussed. - Highlights: • Nonlinear influence of Farley Buneman mode on the Gradient drift mode, is investigated. • Electron collision frequency and density gradient scale length get modified. • A new quasimode gets excited due to the competition between these modes. • It seems to be important for modelling of Equatorial Electrojet current system.

  2. Saturn's equatorial jet structure from Cassini/ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Melendo, Enrique; Legarreta, Jon; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín.; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Hueso, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Detailed wind observations of the equatorial regions of the gaseous giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, are crucial for understanding the basic problem of the global circulation and obtaining new detailed information on atmospheric phenomena. In this work we present high resolution data of Saturn's equatorial region wind profile from Cassini/ISS images. To retrieve wind measurements we applied an automatic cross correlator to image pairs taken by Cassini/ISS with the MT1, MT2, MT3 filters centred at the respective three methane absorbing bands of 619nm, 727nm, and 889nm, and with the adjacent continuum CB1, CB2, and CB3 filters. We obtained a complete high resolution coverage of Saturn's wind profile in the equatorial region. The equatorial jet displays an overall symmetric structure similar to that shown the by same region in Jupiter. This result suggests that, in accordance to some of the latest compressible atmosphere computer models, probably global winds in gaseous giants are deeply rooted in the molecular hydrogen layer. Wind profiles in the methane absorbing bands show the effect of strong vertical shear, ~40m/s per scale height, confirming previous results and an important decay in the wind intensity since the Voyager era (~100 m/s in the continuum and ~200 m/s in the methane absorbing band). We also report the discovery of a new feature, a very strong and narrow jet on the equator, about only 5 degrees wide, that despite the vertical shear maintains its intensity (~420 m/s) in both, the continuum and methane absorbing band filters. Acknowledgements: Work supported by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  3. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  4. Equatorial noise emissions with quasiperiodic modulation of wave intensity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, F.; Santolík, Ondřej; Hrbáčková, Zuzana; Pickett, J. S.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 4 (2015), s. 2649-2661 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11122 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : equatorial noise * magnetosonic waves * quasiperiodic modulation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020816/full

  5. Increases of equatorial total electron content (TEC) during magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeboah-Amankwah, D.

    1976-01-01

    This paper is a report on the analysis of equatorial electron content, TEC, during magnetic storms. Storms between 1969 and 1972 have been examined as part of an on-going study of TEC morphology during magnetically disturbed days. The published magnetic Ksup(p) indices and TEC data from the Legon abservatory have been employed. The general picture arising from the analysis is that the total electron content of the ionosphere is significantly enhanced during magnetic storms. (author)

  6. Fast-PPP assessment in European and equatorial region near the solar cycle maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira-Garcia, Adria; Juan, José Miguel; Sanz, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    The Fast Precise Point Positioning (Fast-PPP) is a technique to provide quick high-accuracy navigation with ambiguity fixing capability, thanks to an accurate modelling of the ionosphere. Indeed, once the availability of real-time precise satellite orbits and clocks is granted to users, the next challenge is the accuracy of real-time ionospheric corrections. Several steps had been taken by gAGE/UPC to develop such global system for precise navigation. First Wide-Area Real-Time Kinematics (WARTK) feasibility studies enabled precise relative continental navigation using a few tens of reference stations. Later multi-frequency and multi-constellation assessments in different ionospheric scenarios, including maximum solar-cycle conditions, were focussed on user-domain performance. Recently, a mature evolution of the technique consists on a dual service scheme; a global Precise Point Positioning (PPP) service, together with a continental enhancement to shorten convergence. A end to end performance assessment of the Fast-PPP technique is presented in this work, focussed in Europe and in the equatorial region of South East Asia (SEA), both near the solar cycle maximum. The accuracy of the Central Processing Facility (CPF) real-time precise satellite orbits and clocks is respectively, 4 centimetres and 0.2 nanoseconds, in line with the accuracy of the International GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centres. This global PPP service is enhanced by the Fast-PPP by adding the capability of global undifferenced ambiguity fixing thanks to the fractional part of the ambiguities determination. The core of the Fast-PPP is the capability to compute real-time ionospheric determinations with accuracies at the level or better than 1 Total Electron Content Unit (TECU), improving the widely-accepted Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM), with declared accuracies of 2-8 TECU. This large improvement in the modelling accuracy is achieved thanks to a two-layer description of the ionosphere combined with

  7. Circular relativistic motion of two identical bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shavokhina, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Circular relativistic motion of two bodies as a solution of the earlier obtained equations with a deflecting argument where the self-deflection of the argument is an unknown function of time is considered. In case of circular motion the argument deflection is independent from time and it is the root of the transcendental equation obtained in the paper

  8. The circular economy applied to local communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Blonk, Heico; van Spijk, Alex; van der Schoor, Tineke

    2015-01-01

    Based on a theoretical discussion the main difference between models of lineair economy and circular economy are elaborated; (1) Elimination of waste is essential the circulation of circular flows and reclamation of (raw) materials; this requires mechanisms for the return of obsolete materials. (2)

  9. Culture as a Caveat Towards Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Circular economy represents an economic and political challenge, as well as a cultural one, requiring a massive transformation on all levels of society. But why is cultural change so important to understanding today’s economy and how can the circular model be considered a truly cross-cultural...

  10. The structure and stability of orbits in Hoag-like ring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikova, Elena Yu

    2018-05-01

    Ring galaxies are amazing objects exemplified by the famous case of Hoag's Object. Here the mass of the central galaxy may be comparable to the mass of the ring, making it a difficult case to model mechanically. In a previous paper, it was shown that the outer potential of a torus (ring) can be represented with good accuracy by the potential of a massive circle with the same mass. This approach allows us to simplify the problem of the particle motion in the gravitational field of a torus associated with a central mass by replacing the torus with a massive circle. In such a system, there is a circle of unstable equilibrium that we call `Lagrangian circle' (LC). Stable circular orbits exist only in some region limited by the last possible circular orbit related to the disappearance of the extrema of the effective potential. We call this orbit `the outermost stable circular orbit' (OSCO) by analogy with the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) in the relativistic case of a black hole. Under these conditions, there is a region between OSCO and LC where the circular motion is not possible due to the competition between the gravitational forces by the central mass and the ring. As a result, a gap in the matter distribution can form in Hoag-like system with massive rings.

  11. Traumatic orbital CSF leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borumandi, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the cerebrospinalfluid (CSF) leak through the nose and ear, the orbital CSF leak is a rare and underreported condition following head trauma. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with oedematous eyelid swelling and ecchymosis after a seemingly trivial fall onto the right orbit. Apart from the above, she was clinically unremarkable. The CT scan revealed a minimally displaced fracture of the orbital roof with no emphysema or intracranial bleeding. The fractured orbital roof in combination with the oedematous eyelid swelling raised the suspicion for orbital CSF leak. The MRI of the neurocranium demonstrated a small-sized CSF fistula extending from the anterior cranial fossa to the right orbit. The patient was treated conservatively and the lid swelling resolved completely after 5 days. Although rare, orbital CSF leak needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of periorbital swelling following orbital trauma. PMID:24323381

  12. Circular polarization of light by planet Mercury and enantiomorphism of its surface minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Thiemann, Wolfram H P; Barbier, Bernard; Brack, André; Alcaraz, Christian; Nahon, Laurent; Wolstencroft, Ray

    2002-04-01

    Different mechanisms for the generation of circular polarization by the surface of planets and satellites are described. The observed values for Venus, the Moon, Mars, and Jupiter obtained by photo-polarimetric measurements with Earth based telescopes, showed accordance with theory. However, for planet Mercury asymmetric parameters in the circular polarization were measured that do not fit with calculations. For BepiColombo, the ESA cornerstone mission 5 to Mercury, we propose to investigate this phenomenon using a concept which includes two instruments. The first instrument is a high-resolution optical polarimeter, capable to determine and map the circular polarization by remote scanning of Mercury's surface from the Mercury Planetary Orbiter MPO. The second instrument is an in situ sensor for the detection of the enantiomorphism of surface crystals and minerals, proposed to be included in the Mercury Lander MSE.

  13. Perceptions of Circular Business Models in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian-Ion Ceptureanu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Testing circular economy business models is crucial in understanding Circular Economy features across various industries. This paper analyses Circular Economy perceptions in Romanian SMEs by investigating entrepreneurs from PVC joinery industry. Using a multidimensional framework, ReSOLVE, as a conceptual model, and Lewandowski systematization, we measured 6 business actions and their relations with Value creation. The results of our survey can be described as mixed. Of the 6 business actions of ReSOLVE framework, for half of them (Regenerate, Optimize and Exchange we can definitely conclude that these are correlated with Circular Economy in terms of Value Creation, while for a fourth there are variables significantly correlated without being able to conclude its overall contribution in terms of Value creation. Our empirical investigation contributes to literature development on Circular Economy research in SMEs and a step forward to shape future research initiatives.

  14. Eye and orbital cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilova, G.V.; Koval', G.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Radioanatomy of eyes and orbit is described. Diseases of the orbit (developmental anomalies, inflammatory diseases, lacrimal apparatus deseases, toxoplasmosis, tumors and cysts et al.), methods of foreign body localization in the eye are considered. Roentgenograms of the orbit and calculation table for foreign body localization in spherical eyes of dissimilar diameter are presented

  15. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  16. Loops in the Sun’s orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanov Milutin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides translation, spin around its axis and rotation around center of the Milky Way, the Sun performs relative motion in the solar system Laplacian plane, also. This motion was anticipated by Newton himself, in his Principia. The form of the Sun’s orbit is substantially different from the other solar system bodies’ orbits. Namely, the Sun moves along the path composed of the chain of large and small loops [1, 2, 6, 9]. This chain is situated within the circular outline with the diameter approximately twice as large as the Sun’s is. Under supposition that the solar system is stable, the Sun is going to move along it, in the same region, for eternity, never reitereiting the same path. It was also shown in this work that velocity and acceleration of the Sun’s center of mass are completely defined by the relative velocities and accelerations of the planets with respect to the Sun.

  17. Use of eigenvectors in understanding and correcting storage ring orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.; Bozoki, E.

    1994-01-01

    The response matrix A is defined by the equation X=AΘ, where Θ is the kick vector and X is the resulting orbit vector. Since A is not necessarily a symmetric or even a square matrix we symmetrize it by using A T A. Then we find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of this A T A matrix. The physical interpretation of the eigenvectors for circular machines is discussed. The task of the orbit correction is to find the kick vector Θ for a given measured orbit vector X. We are presenting a method, in which the kick vector is expressed as linear combination of the eigenvectors. An additional advantage of this method is that it yields the smallest possible kick vector to correct the orbit. We will illustrate the application of the method to the NSLS X-ray and UV storage rings and the resulting measurements. It will be evident, that the accuracy of this method allows the combination of the global orbit correction and local optimization of the orbit for beam lines and insertion devices. The eigenvector decomposition can also be used for optimizing kick vectors, taking advantage of the fact that eigenvectors with corresponding small eigenvalue generate negligible orbit changes. Thus, one can reduce a kick vector calculated by any other correction method and still stay within the tolerance for orbit correction. The use of eigenvectors in accurately measuring the response matrix and the use of the eigenvalue decomposition orbit correction algorithm in digital feedback is discussed. (orig.)

  18. Spontaneous excitation of a circularly accelerated atom coupled to electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yao; Hu, Jiawei; Yu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    We study, using the formalism proposed by Dalibard, Dupont-Roc and Cohen-Tannoudji, the contributions of the vacuum fluctuation and radiation reaction to the rate of change of the mean atomic energy for a circularly accelerated multilevel atom coupled to vacuum electromagnetic fields in the ultrarelativistic limit. We find that the balance between vacuum fluctuation and radiation reaction is broken, which causes spontaneous excitations of accelerated ground state atoms in vacuum. Unlike for a circularly accelerated atom coupled to vacuum scalar fields, the contribution of radiation reaction is also affected by acceleration, and this term takes the same form as that of a linearly accelerated atom coupled to vacuum electromagnetic fields. For the contribution of vacuum fluctuations, we find that in contrast to the linear acceleration case, terms proportional to the Planckian factor are replaced by those proportional to a non-Planck exponential term, and this indicates that the radiation perceived by a circularly orbiting observer is no longer thermal as is in the linear acceleration case. However, for an ensemble of two-level atoms, an effective temperature can be defined in terms of the atomic transition rates, which is found to be dependent on the transition frequency of the atom. Specifically, we calculate the effective temperature as a function of the transition frequency and find that in contrast to the case of circularly accelerated atoms coupled to the scalar field, the effective temperature in the current case is always larger than the Unruh temperature. -- Highlights: •We study the spontaneous excitation of a circularly accelerated atom. •Contribution of radiation reaction to the excitation is affected by acceleration. •The radiation perceived by a circularly orbiting observer is no longer thermal. •An effective temperature can be defined in terms of atomic transition rates. •Effective temperature is larger than Unruh temperature and frequency-dependent

  19. Measuring localized nonlinear components in a circular accelerator with a nonlinear tune response matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Franchetti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for measuring the nonlinear errors in a circular accelerator by taking advantage of the feed-down effect of high order multipoles when the closed orbit is globally deformed. We devise a nonlinear tune response matrix in which the response to a closed orbit deformation is obtained in terms of change of machine tune and correlated with the strength of the local multipoles. A numerical example and a proof of principle experiment to validate the theoretical methods are presented and discussed.

  20. BIRTH: a beam deposition code for non-circular tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Michio; Nagami, Masayuki; Matsuda, Toshiaki

    1982-09-01

    A new beam deposition code has been developed which is capable of calculating fast ion deposition profiles including the orbit correction. The code incorporates any injection geometry and a non-circular cross section plasma with a variable elongation and an outward shift of the magnetic flux surface. Typical cpu time on a DEC-10 computer is 10 - 20 seconds and 5 - 10 seconds with and without the orbit correction, respectively. This is shorter by an order of magnitude than that of other codes, e.g., Monte Carlo codes. The power deposition profile calculated by this code is in good agreement with that calculated by a Monte Carlo code. (author)

  1. Vesta: its shape and deformed equatorial belt predicted by the wave planetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    At EPSC2011 we stated: "Expected detailed images of Vesta sent by DAWN spacecraft certainly will show a prominent tectonic (must be also compositional) dichotomy of this large asteroid. The assuredness is based on some mainly the HST photos and the wave planetology fundamental conception: Theorem 1 - " Ce lestial bodies are dichotomous""[1]. Now a convexo-concave shape of Vesta is well known but the huge deep depression of the south hemisphere is assigned to two random large impacts almost at one place [2, 3]. This supposition has a very small probability, besides the largest asteroid Ceres also has a large depression at one side (the Piazzi basin). The theorem 1 of the wave planetology explains that all celestial bodies (not only small ones) are subjected to a warping action of the fundamental wave1 uplifting one side and subsiding (pressing in) the opposite one. This is a manifestation of the orbital energy acting in any body moving in keplerian noncircular orbit with changing acceleration (a). Arising inertia-gravity force F= (a1 - a2) x m is very important because of large planetary masses (m) and large cosmic speeds. Increase and decrease of accelerations were much larger in the beginning of planetary formation when orbits were more elliptical. Thus, pressing in of the subsiding hemisphere-segment is so strong that it often squeezes out some mantle material appearing as elevation-mound (compare to the Hawaii in the Pacific basin and look at Hyperion with a large basin and a mound at its center, Fig, 1, 2). Vesta's prominent subsiding equatorial belt with graben systems [4] (Fig. 4, 5) is a manifestation of another general planetary rule : " Rotating celestial body tends to even angular momenta of tropics and extra-tropics by regulating mass distribution and distance to the rotation axis " [5-7]. Often observed a sensible difference in appearance and structure between tropical and extra-tropical zones of various heavenly bodies including rocky and gas planets

  2. Nontraumatic orbital roof encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Amber; Maugans, Todd; Ngo, Thang; Ikeda, Jamie

    2017-02-01

    Intraorbital meningoencephaloceles occur most commonly as a complication of traumatic orbital roof fractures. Nontraumatic congenital orbital meningoncephaloceles are very rare, with most secondary to destructive processes affecting the orbit and primary skull defects. Treatment for intraorbital meningoencephaloceles is surgical repair, involving the excision of herniated brain parenchyma and meninges and reconstruction of the osseous defect. Most congenital lesions present in infancy with obvious globe and orbital deformities; we report an orbital meningoencephalocele in a 3-year-old girl who presented with ptosis. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. FUTURE CIRCULAR COLLIDER LOGISTICS STUDY

    CERN Document Server

    Beißert, Ulrike; Kuhlmann, Gerd; Nettsträter, Andreas; Prasse, Christian; Wohlfahrt, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN in Geneva is the largest and most powerful collider in the world. CERN and its research and experimental infrastructure is not only a focus for the science community but is also very much in the public eye. With the Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study, CERN has begun to examine the feasibility of a new underground accelerator ring with a length of approximately 100 kilometres. Logistics is of great importance for the construction, assembly and operation of the FCC. During the planning, construction and assembly of the LHC, logistics proved to be one of the key factors. As the FCC is even larger than the LHC, logistics will also become more and more significant. This report therefore shows new concepts, methods and analytics for logistics, supply chain and transport concepts as part of the FCC study. This report deals with three different logistics aspects for the planning and construction phase of FCC: 1. A discussion of d...

  4. Deadly Sunflower Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2018-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure is usually very effective at removing hazardous millimeter-sized debris from distant orbits around asteroidsand other small solar system bodies (Hamilton and Burns 1992). Theprimary loss mechanism, driven by the azimuthal component of radiationpressure, is eccentricity growth followed by a forced collision withthe central body. One large class of orbits, however, neatly sidestepsthis fate. Orbits oriented nearly perpendicular to the solar directioncan maintain their face-on geometry, oscillating slowly around a stableequilibrium orbit. These orbits, designated sunflower orbits, arerelated to terminator orbits studied by spacecraft mission designers(Broschart etal. 2014).Destabilization of sunflower orbits occurs only for particles smallenough that radiation pressure is some tens of percent the strength ofthe central body's direct gravity. This greatly enhanced stability,which follows from the inability of radiation incident normal to theorbit to efficiently drive eccentricities, presents a threat tospacecraft missions, as numerous dangerous projectiles are potentiallyretained in orbit. We have investigated sunflower orbits insupport of the New Horizons, Aida, and Lucy missions and find thatthese orbits are stable for hazardous particle sizes at asteroids,comets, and Kuiper belt objects of differing dimensions. Weinvestigate the sources and sinks for debris that might populate suchorbits, estimate timescales and equilibrium populations, and willreport on our findings.

  5. Orbital fractures: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey M Joseph, Ioannis P GlavasDivision of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA; Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1 to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2 to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3 to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training.Keywords: orbit, trauma, fracture, orbital floor, medial wall, zygomatic, zygomatic complex, zmc fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures 

  6. Electron Interference in Molecular Circular Polarization Attosecond XUV Photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jun Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-center electron interference in molecular attosecond photoionization processes is investigated from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Both symmetric H\\(_2^+\\ and nonsymmetric HHe\\(^{2+}\\ one electron diatomic systems are ionized by intense attosecond circularly polarized XUV laser pulses. Photoionization of these molecular ions shows signature of interference with double peaks (minima in molecular attosecond photoelectron energy spectra (MAPES at critical angles \\(\\vartheta_c\\ between the molecular \\(\\textbf{R}\\ axis and the photoelectron momentum \\(\\textbf{p}\\. The interferences are shown to be a function of the symmetry of electronic states and the interference patterns are sensitive to the molecular orientation and pulse polarization. Such sensitivity offers possibility for imaging of molecular structure and orbitals.

  7. Spin dynamics of electron beams in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldt, Oliver

    2014-04-01

    Experiments using high energy beams of spin polarized, charged particles still prove to be very helpful in disclosing a deeper understanding of the fundamental structure of matter. An important aspect is to control the beam properties, such as brilliance, intensity, energy, and degree of spin polarization. In this context, the present studies show various numerical calculations of the spin dynamics of high energy electron beams in circular accelerators. Special attention has to be paid to the emission of synchrotron radiation, that occurs when deflecting charged particles on circular orbits. In the presence of the fluctuation of the kinetic energy due to the photon emission, each electron spin moves non-deterministically. This stochastic effect commonly slows down the speed of all numeric estimations. However, the shown simulations cover - using appropriate approximations - trackings for the motion of thousands of electron spins for up to thousands of turns. Those calculations are validated and complemented by empirical investigations at the electron stretcher facility ELSA of the University of Bonn. They can largely be extended to other boundary conditions and thus, can be consulted for new accelerator layouts.

  8. Quantum wave-packet revivals in circular billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinett, R.W.; Heppelmann, S.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the long-term time dependence of Gaussian wave packets in a circular infinite well (billiard) system and find that there are approximate revivals. For the special case of purely m=0 states (central wave packets with no momentum) the revival time is T rev (m=0) =8μR 2 /(ℎ/2π)π, where μ is the mass of the particle, and the revivals are almost exact. For all other wave packets, we find that T rev (m≠0) =(π 2 /2)T rev (m=0) ≅5T rev (m=0) and the nature of the revivals becomes increasingly approximate as the average angular momentum or number of m≠0 states is increased. The dependence of the revival structure on the initial position, energy, and angular momentum of the wave packet and the connection to the energy spectrum is discussed in detail. The results are also compared to two other highly symmetrical two-dimensional infinite well geometries with exact revivals, namely, the square and equilateral triangle billiards. We also show explicitly how the classical periodicity for closed orbits in a circular billiard arises from the energy eigenvalue spectrum, using a WKB analysis

  9. Breaking the fault tree circular logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankin, M.

    2000-01-01

    Event tree - fault tree approach to model failures of nuclear plants as well as of other complex facilities is noticeably dominant now. This approach implies modeling an object in form of unidirectional logical graph - tree, i.e. graph without circular logic. However, genuine nuclear plants intrinsically demonstrate quite a few logical loops (circular logic), especially where electrical systems are involved. This paper shows the incorrectness of existing practice of circular logic breaking by elimination of part of logical dependencies and puts forward a formal algorithm, which enables the analyst to correctly model the failure of complex object, which involves logical dependencies between system and components, in form of fault tree. (author)

  10. University Students Alternative Conceptions On Circular Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Phil Canlas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to find out university students alternative conceptions on circular motion. An 18-item researcher-compiled and content-validated questionnaire was administered to twenty-six 26 students taking up a program in Bachelor in Secondary Education-Physical Science in their second year enrolled in a course on mechanics. Results revealed that majority of the students possess alternative conceptions on circular motion specifically along velocity acceleration and force. Moreover results showed the inconsistencies in the students understanding of circular motion concepts.

  11. The Circular Economy between Desiderates and Realities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tăchiciu Laurentiu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present issue of Amfiteatru Economic Journal addresses the subject of the circular economy, bringing together research contributions to a better understanding of the current state and perspectives of the adoption of economic and business models conceived to give resources’ highest utility and value in every stage by reducing waste, reusing and recycling. Contributors are approaching the circular economy from different perspectives. Some are concerned with the macroeconomic and social conditions accompanying a higher circularity in the economy, while others focus on businesses’ and individuals’ behaviours.

  12. Post-midnight equatorial irregularity distributions and vertical drift velocity variations during solstices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S.-Y.; Liu, C. H.; Chao, C.-K.

    2018-04-01

    Longitudinal distributions of post-midnight equatorial ionospheric irregularity occurrences observed by ROCSAT-1 (1st satellite of the Republic of China) during moderate to high solar activity years in two solstices are studied with respect to the vertical drift velocity and density variations. The post-midnight irregularity distributions are found to be similar to the well-documented pre-midnight ones, but are different from some published distributions taken during solar minimum years. Even though the post-midnight ionosphere is sinking in general, longitudes of frequent positive vertical drift and high density seems to coincide with the longitudes of high irregularity occurrences. Large scatters found in the vertical drift velocity and density around the dip equator in different ROCSAT-1 orbits indicate the existence of large and frequent variations in the vertical drift velocity and density that seem to be able to provide sufficient perturbations for the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability to cause the irregularity occurrences. The need of seeding agents such as gravity waves from atmospheric convective clouds to initiate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability may not be necessary.

  13. Temperature correlations between the eastern equatorial Pacific and Antarctica over the past 230,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutavas, Athanasios

    2018-03-01

    Tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) warmed and cooled in step with the Pleistocene ice age cycles, but the mechanisms are not known. It is assumed that the answer must involve radiative forcing by CO2 but SST reconstructions have been too sparse for a conclusive test. Here I present a 230,000-yr tropical SST stack from the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) using two new Mg/Ca reconstructions combined with three earlier ones. The EEP stack shows persistent covariation with Antarctic temperature on orbital and millennial timescales indicating tight coupling between the two regions. This coupling however cannot be explained solely by CO2 forcing because in at least one important case, the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e-5d glacial inception, both regions cooled ∼5-6.5 thousand years before CO2 decreased. More likely, their covariation was due to advection of Antarctic climate signals to the EEP by the ocean. To explain the MIS 5e-5d event and glacial inception in general the hypothesis is advanced that the cooling signal spreads globally from the Northern Hemisphere with an active ocean circulation - first from the North Atlantic to the Southern Ocean with a colder North Atlantic Deep Water, and then to the Indian and Pacific Oceans with cooler Antarctic deep and intermediate waters.

  14. Nanosatellites constellation as an IoT communication platform for near equatorial countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, A.; Ahmad, Y. A.; Othman, M.

    2017-11-01

    Anytime, anywhere access for real-time intelligence by Internet of Things (IoT) is changing the way that the whole world will operate as it moves toward data driven technologies. Over the next five years, IoT related devices going to have a dramatic breakthrough in current and new applications, not just on increased efficiency and cost reduction on current system, but it also will make trillion-dollar revenue generation and improve customer satisfaction. IoT communications is the networking of intelligent devices which enables data collection from remote assets. It covers a broad range of technologies and applications which connect to the physical world while allowing key information to be transferred automatically. The current terrestrial wireless communications technologies used to enable this connectivity include GSM, GPRS, 3G, LTE, WIFI, WiMAX and LoRa. These connections occur short to medium range distance however, none of them can cover a whole country or continent and the networks are getting congested with the multiplication of IoT devices. In this study, we discuss a conceptual design of a nanosatellite constellation those can provide a space-based communication platform for IoT devices for near Equatorial countries. The constellation design i.e. the orbital plane and number of satellites and launch deployment concepts are presented.

  15. Meteor Observational Data Visualisation in the Equatorial Coordinate System Using Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovashchenko, V. A.; Kolomiyets, S. V.

    As a result of dynamic evolution of IT industry and astronomical research in the XXI century, which have resulted in obtaining large and complex data sets known as Big Data (e.g. data from the European Space Agency missions, such as GAIA mission, etc.), as well as due to rapid development of computer technologies, astronomy and computer science have become closely linked to each other. In the XXI century, Information technology has become an essential part of understanding the world around. This paper presents a solution to the problem of meteor data representation in the second equatorial coordinate (RA-Dec) system using Information Technology. Such a visualisation solution is needed to analyse the results of experiments based on the radar observations conducted in 1972-1978 (stage 1 - the data obtained in 1972 comprise 10,247 meteor orbits), which have been accumulated and stored in the Meteor Database of the Kharkiv National University of Radio Electronics (KNURE). A sample set of data with their characteristics and details about their delivery has been presented by (Kashcheyev & Tkachuk, 1980). An electronic calculator application was developed by employing the model of data visualisation in the form of celestial hemispheres using the object-oriented programming language C#.

  16. Analysis of the Variation of Energetic Electron Flux with Respect to Longitude and Distance Normal to the Magnetic Equatorial Plane for Galileo Energetic Particle Detector Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimm, R.; Garrett, H. B.; Jun, I.; Evans, R. W.

    2004-12-01

    In this study we examine ten-minute omni-directional averages of energetic electron data measured by the Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EPD). Count rates from electron channels B1, DC2, and DC3 are evaluated using a power law model to yield estimates of the differential electron fluxes from 1 MeV to 11 MeV at distances from the planet Jupiter from 8 to 28 Jupiter radii. Whereas the orbit of the Galileo spacecraft remained close to the rotational equatorial plane of Jupiter, the approximately 11 degree tilt of the magnetic axis of Jupiter relative to its rotational axis allowed the EPD instrument to sample high energy electrons at limited distances normal to the magnetic equatorial plane. We present a Fourier analysis of the semi-diurnal variation of electron radiation with longitude. We also develop a model of the electron flux with respect to distance normal to the magnetic equatorial plane as a function of the distance from Jupiter.

  17. Revisiting the Ceara Rise, equatorial Atlantic Ocean: isotope stratigraphy of ODP Leg 154 from 0 to 5 Ma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Wilkens

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Isotope stratigraphy has become the method of choice for investigating both past ocean temperatures and global ice volume. Lisiecki and Raymo (2005 published a stacked record of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records versus age (LR04 stack. In this study LR04 is compared to high-resolution records collected at all of the sites drilled during ODP Leg 154 on the Ceara Rise, in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Newly developed software is used to check data splices of the Ceara Rise sites and better align out-of-splice data with in-splice data. Core images recovered from core table photos are depth and age scaled and greatly assist in the data analysis. The entire splices of ODP sites 925, 926, 927, 928 and 929 were reviewed. Most changes were minor although several were large enough to affect age models based on orbital tuning. A Ceara Rise composite record of benthic δ18O is out of sync with LR04 between 1.80 and 1.90 Ma, where LR04 exhibits two maxima but Ceara Rise data contain only one. The interval between 4.0 and 4.5 Ma in the Ceara Rise compilation is decidedly different from LR04, reflecting both the low amplitude of the signal over this interval and the limited amount of data available for the LR04 stack. A regional difference in benthic δ18O of 0.2 ‰ relative to LR04 was found. Independent tuning of Site 926 images and physical property data to the Laskar et al. (2004 orbital solution and integration of available benthic stable isotope data from the Ceara Rise provides a new regional reference section for the equatorial Atlantic covering the last 5 million years.

  18. Revisiting the Ceara Rise, equatorial Atlantic Ocean: isotope stratigraphy of ODP Leg 154 from 0 to 5 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Roy H.; Westerhold, Thomas; Drury, Anna J.; Lyle, Mitchell; Gorgas, Thomas; Tian, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Isotope stratigraphy has become the method of choice for investigating both past ocean temperatures and global ice volume. Lisiecki and Raymo (2005) published a stacked record of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records versus age (LR04 stack). In this study LR04 is compared to high-resolution records collected at all of the sites drilled during ODP Leg 154 on the Ceara Rise, in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Newly developed software is used to check data splices of the Ceara Rise sites and better align out-of-splice data with in-splice data. Core images recovered from core table photos are depth and age scaled and greatly assist in the data analysis. The entire splices of ODP sites 925, 926, 927, 928 and 929 were reviewed. Most changes were minor although several were large enough to affect age models based on orbital tuning. A Ceara Rise composite record of benthic δ18O is out of sync with LR04 between 1.80 and 1.90 Ma, where LR04 exhibits two maxima but Ceara Rise data contain only one. The interval between 4.0 and 4.5 Ma in the Ceara Rise compilation is decidedly different from LR04, reflecting both the low amplitude of the signal over this interval and the limited amount of data available for the LR04 stack. A regional difference in benthic δ18O of 0.2 ‰ relative to LR04 was found. Independent tuning of Site 926 images and physical property data to the Laskar et al. (2004) orbital solution and integration of available benthic stable isotope data from the Ceara Rise provides a new regional reference section for the equatorial Atlantic covering the last 5 million years.

  19. Longitudinal Variation of the Lunar Tide in the Equatorial Electrojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yosuke; Stolle, Claudia; Matzka, Jürgen; Siddiqui, Tarique A.; Lühr, Hermann; Alken, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    The atmospheric lunar tide is one known source of ionospheric variability. The subject received renewed attention as recent studies found a link between stratospheric sudden warmings and amplified lunar tidal perturbations in the equatorial ionosphere. There is increasing evidence from ground observations that the lunar tidal influence on the ionosphere depends on longitude. We use magnetic field measurements from the CHAMP satellite during July 2000 to September 2010 and from the two Swarm satellites during November 2013 to February 2017 to determine, for the first time, the complete seasonal-longitudinal climatology of the semidiurnal lunar tidal variation in the equatorial electrojet intensity. Significant longitudinal variability is found in the amplitude of the lunar tidal variation, while the longitudinal variability in the phase is small. The amplitude peaks in the Peruvian sector (˜285°E) during the Northern Hemisphere winter and equinoxes, and in the Brazilian sector (˜325°E) during the Northern Hemisphere summer. There are also local amplitude maxima at ˜55°E and ˜120°E. The longitudinal variation is partly due to the modulation of ionospheric conductivities by the inhomogeneous geomagnetic field. Another possible cause of the longitudinal variability is neutral wind forcing by nonmigrating lunar tides. A tidal spectrum analysis of the semidiurnal lunar tidal variation in the equatorial electrojet reveals the dominance of the westward propagating mode with zonal wave number 2 (SW2), with secondary contributions by westward propagating modes with zonal wave numbers 3 (SW3) and 4 (SW4). Eastward propagating waves are largely absent from the tidal spectrum. Further study will be required for the relative importance of ionospheric conductivities and nonmigrating lunar tides.

  20. New Measurements Of Jupiter's Equatorial Region In Visible Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jose; Arregi, J.; García-Melendo, E.; Barrado-Izagirre, N.; Hueso, R.; Gómez-Forrellad, J. M.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Sanz-Requena, J. F.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2010-10-01

    We have studied the equatorial region of Jupiter, between 15ºS and 15ºN, on Cassini ISS images obtained during the Jupiter flyby at the end of 2000 and on HST images acquired in May and July 2008. We have found significant longitudinal variations in the intensity of the 6ºN eastward jet, up to 60 m s-1 in Cassini and HST observations. In the HST case we found that these longitudinal variations are associated to different cloud morphology. Photometric and radiative transfer analysis of the cloud features used as tracers in HST images shows that there is only a small height difference, no larger than 0.5 - 1 scale heights at most, between the slow ( 100 m s-1) and fast ( 150 m s-1) moving features. This suggests that speed variability at 6ºN is not dominated by vertical wind shears and we propose that Rossby wave activity is the responsible for the zonal variability. After removing this variability we found that Jupiter's equatorial jet is actually symmetric relative to the equator with two peaks of 140 - 150 m s-1 located at latitudes 6ºN and 6ºS and at a similar pressure level. We also studied a large, long-lived feature called the White Spot (WS) located at 6ºS that turns to form and desapear. The internal flow field in the White Spot indicates that it is a weakly rotating quasi-equatorial anticyclone relative to the ambient meridionally sheared flow. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  1. Discovery Of A Rossby Wave In Jupiter's South Equatorial Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Choi, D. S.; Rogers, J. H.; Gierasch, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed study of the chevron-shaped dark spots on the strong southern equatorial wind jet near 7.5 deg S planetographic latitude shows variations in velocity with longitude and time. The chevrons move with velocities near the maximum wind jet velocity of approx.140 m/s, as deduced by the history of velocities at this latitude and the magnitude of the symmetric wind jet near 7 deg N latitude. Their repetitive nature is consistent with an inertia-gravity wave (n = 75-100) with phase speed up to 25 m/s, relative to the local flow, but the identity of this wave mode is not well constrained. However, high spatial resolution movies from Cassini images show that the chevrons oscillate in latitude with a approx.7-day period. This oscillating motion has a wavelength of approx.20 deg and a speed of approx.100 m/s, following a pattern similar to that seen in the Rossby wave plumes of the North Equatorial Zone, and possibly reinforced by it, though they are not perfectly in phase. The transient anticyclonic South Equatorial Disturbance (SED) may be a similar wave feature, but moves at slower velocity. All data show chevron latitude variability, but it is unclear if this Rossby wave is present during other epochs, without time series movies that fully delineate it. In the presence of multiple wave modes, the difference in dominant cloud appearance between 7 deg N and 7.5 deg S may be due to the presence of the Great Red Spot, either through changes in stratification and stability or by acting as a wave boundary.

  2. Regulation of primary productivity rate in the equatorial Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, R.T.; Chavez, F.P.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of the Chl-specific rate of primary productivity (P B ) as a function of subsurface nutrient concentration at >300 equatorial stations provides an answer to the question: What processes regulate primary productivity rate in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll waters of the equatorial Pacific? In the western Pacific where there is a gradient in 60-m [NO 3 ] from 0 to ∼12 μM, the productivity rate is a linear function of nutrient concentration; in the eastern Pacific where the gradient is from 12 to 28 μM, the productivity rate is independent of nutrient concentration and limited to ∼36 mg C(mg Chl) -1 d -1 , or a mean euphotic zone C-specific growth rate (μ) of 0.47 d -1 . However, rates downstream of the Galapagos Islands are not limited; they are 46.4 mg C(mg Chl) -1 d -1 and μ = 0.57 d -1 , very close to the predicted nutrient-regulated rates in the absence of other limitation. This pattern of rate regulation can be accounted for by a combination of eolian Fe, subsurface nutrients, and sedimentary Fe derived from the Galapagos platform. In the low-nutrient western Pacific the eolian supply of Fe is adequate to allow productivity rate to be set by subsurface nutrient concentration. In the nutrient-rich easter equatorial region eolian Fe is inadequate to support productivity rates proportional to the higher nutrient concentrations, so in this region eolian Fe is rate limiting. Around the Galapagos Islands productivity rates reach levels consistent with nutrient concentrations; sedimentary Fe from the Galapagos platform seems adequate to support increased nutrient-regulated productivity rates in this region

  3. Propagation of EMIC triggered emissions toward the magnetic equatorial plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; Santolik, O.; Pickett, J. S.; Omura, Y.; Engebretson, M. J.; Dandouras, I. S.; Masson, A.; Decreau, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2011-12-01

    EMIC triggered emissions are observed close to the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere at locations where EMIC waves are commonly observed: close to the plasmapause region and in the dayside magnetosphere close to the magnetopause. Their overall characteristics (frequency with time dispersion, generation mechanism) make those waves the EMIC analogue of rising frequency whistler-mode chorus emissions. In our observations the Poynting flux of these emissions is usually clearly arriving from the equatorial region direction, especially when observations take place at more than 5 degrees of magnetic latitude. Simulations have also confirmed that the conditions of generation by interaction with energetic ions are at a maximum at the magnetic equator (lowest value of the background magnetic field along the field line). However in the Cluster case study presented here the Poynting flux of EMIC triggered emissions is propagating toward the equatorial region. The large angle between the wave vector and the background magnetic field is also unusual for this kind of emission. The rising tone starts just above half of the He+ gyrofrequency (Fhe+) and it disappears close to Fhe+. At the time of detection, the spacecraft magnetic latitude is larger than 10 degrees and L shell is about 4. The propagation sense of the emissions has been established using two independent methods: 1) sense of the parallel component of the Poynting flux for a single spacecraft and 2) timing of the emission detections at each of the four Cluster spacecraft which were in a relatively close configuration. We propose here to discuss this unexpected result considering a reflection of this emission at higher latitude.

  4. Equatorial storm sudden commencements and interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison is made of the signatures of interplanetary (IP) shocks in the B and theta plots of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data of satellites Explorer 33, 34 and 35 and in the H magnetograms at ground observatories within the equatorial electrojet belt, Huancayo, Addis Ababa and Trivandrum associated with major storm sudden commencements during 1967-70. The IP shocks showing sudden increase of the scalar value of IMF, i.e. B without any change of the latitude theta or with the southward turning of theta, were followed by a purely positive sudden increase of H, at any of the magnetic observatories, either on the dayside or the nightside of the earth. The IP shocks identified by a sudden increase of B and with the northward turning of the latitude theta (positive ΔBsub(z)) were associated with purely positive sudden commencement (SC) at the observatories in the nightside, but at the equatorial observatories in the dayside of the earth the signature of the shock was a SC in H with a preliminary negative impulse followed by the main positive excursion (SC-+). It is suggested that the SCs in H at low latitudes are composed of two effects, viz. (i) one due to hydromagnetic pressure on the magnetosphere by the solar plasma and (ii) the other due to the induced electric field associated with the solar wind velocity, V and the Z-component of the IP magnetic field (E = - V x Bsub(z)). The effect of magnetosphere electric field is faster than the effect due to the compression of the magnetosphere by the impinging solar plasma. The negative impulse of SC-+ at low latitude is seen at stations close to the dip equator and only during daytime due to the existence of high ionospheric conductivities in the equatorial electrojet region. (author)

  5. Frozen orbit realization using LQR analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, N.; Rayan, H. Reno

    In the case of remote sensing orbits, the Frozen Orbit concept minimizes altitude variations over a given region using passive means. This is achieved by establishing the mean eccentricity vector at the orbital poles i.e., by fixing the mean argument of perigee at 90 deg with an appropriate eccentricity to balance the perturbations due to zonal harmonics J2 and J3 of the Earth's potential. Eccentricity vector is a vector whose magnitude is the eccentricity and direction is the argument of perigee. The launcher dispersions result in an eccentricity vector which is away from the frozen orbit values. The objective is then to formulate an orbit maneuver strategy to optimize the fuel required to achieve the frozen orbit in the presence of visibility and impulse constraints. It is shown that the motion of the eccentricity vector around the frozen perigee can be approximated as a circle. Combining the circular motion of the eccentricity vector around the frozen point and the maneuver equation, the following discrete equation is obtained. X(k+1) = AX(k) + Bu(k), where X is the state (i.e. eccentricity vector components), A the state transition matrix, u the scalar control force (i.e. dV in this case) and B the control matrix which transforms dV into eccentricity vector change. Based on this, it is shown that the problem of optimizing the fuel can be treated as a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) problem in which the maneuver can be solved by using control system design tools like MATLAB by deriving an analogy LQR design.

  6. Circularly polarized zero-phonon transitions of vacancies in diamond at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braukmann, D.; Glaser, E. R.; Kennedy, T. A.; Bayer, M.; Debus, J.

    2018-05-01

    We study the circularly polarized photoluminescence of negatively charged (NV-) and neutral (NV0) nitrogen-vacancy ensembles and neutral vacancies (V0) in diamond crystals exposed to magnetic fields of up to 10 T. We determine the orbital and spin Zeeman splitting as well as the energetic ordering of their ground and first-excited states. The spin-triplet and -singlet states of the NV- are described by an orbital Zeeman splitting of about 9 μ eV /T , which corresponds to a positive orbital g -factor of gL=0.164 under application of the magnetic field along the (001) and (111) crystallographic directions, respectively. The zero-phonon line (ZPL) of the NV- singlet is defined as a transition from the 1E' states, which are split by gLμBB , to the 1A1 state. The energies of the zero-phonon triplet transitions show a quadratic dependence on intermediate magnetic field strengths, which we attribute to a mixing of excited states with nonzero orbital angular momentum. Moreover, we identify slightly different spin Zeeman splittings in the ground (gs) and excited (es) triplet states, which can be expressed by a deviation between their spin g -factors: gS ,es=gS ,gs+Δ g with values of Δ g =0.014 and 0.029 in the (001) and (111) geometries, respectively. The degree of circular polarization of the NV- ZPLs depends significantly on the temperature, which is explained by an efficient spin-orbit coupling of the excited states mediated through acoustic phonons. We further demonstrate that the sign of the circular polarization degree is switched under rotation of the diamond crystal. A weak Zeeman splitting similar to Δ g μBB measured for the NV- ZPLs is also obtained for the NV0 zero-phonon lines, from which we conclude that the ground state is composed of two optically active states with compensated orbital contributions and opposite spin-1/2 momentum projections. The zero-phonon lines of the V0 show Zeeman splittings and degrees of the circular polarization with opposite

  7. Variability in equatorial B0 and B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniyi, J.O.; Radicella, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Variability of ionospheric profile parameters B0 and B1, below the F2 peak is investigated for an equatorial station at two levels of solar activities. The whole 24 hours of the day and the four seasons of the year are covered. Absolute and relative variability indices were utilized in the study. Some evidences of correlations of variability index and profiles parameters were observed. Daytime values of relative variability in B1 at solar minimum were found to be greater than those of solar maximum. (author)

  8. Searching sequences of resonant orbits between a spacecraft and Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formiga, J K S; Prado, A F B A

    2013-01-01

    This research shows a study of the dynamical behavior of a spacecraft that performs a series of close approaches with the planet Jupiter. The main idea is to find a sequence of resonant orbits that allows the spacecraft to stay in the region of the space near the orbit of Jupiter around the Sun gaining energy from each passage by the planet. The dynamical model considers the existence of only two massive bodies in the systems, which are the Sun and Jupiter. They are assumed to be in circular orbits around their center of mass. Analytical equations are used to obtain the values of the parameters required to get this sequence of close approaches. Those equations are useful, because they show which orbits are physically possible when taking into account that the periapsis distances have to be above the surface of the Sun and that the closest approach distances during the passage by Jupiter have to be above its surface

  9. A Nonequilibrium Figure of Saturn's Satellite Iapetus and the Origin of the Equatorial Ridge on Its Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratyev, B. P.

    2018-03-01

    The structure, dynamical equilibrium, and evolution of Saturn's moon Iapetus are studied. It has been shown that, in the current epoch, the oblateness of the satellite ɛ2 ≈ 0.046 does not correspond to its angular velocity of rotation, which causes the secular spherization behavior of the ice shell of Iapetus. To study this evolution, we apply a spheroidal model, containing a rock core and an ice shell with an external surface ɛ2, to Iapetus. The model is based on the equilibrium finite-difference equation of the Clairaut theory, while the model parameters are taken from observations. The mean radius of the rock core and the oblateness of its level surface, ɛ1 ≈ 0.028, were determined. It was found that Iapetus is covered with a thick ice shell, which is 56.6% of the mean radius of the figure. We analyze a role of the core in the evolution of the shape of a gravitating figure. It was determined that the rock core plays a key part in the settling of the ice masses of the equatorial bulge, which finally results in the formation of a large circular equatorial ridge on the surface of the satellite. From the known mean altitude of this ice ridge, it was found that, in the epoch of its formation, the rotation period of Iapetus was 166 times shorter than that at present, as little as T ≈ 11h27m. This is consistent with the fact that a driving force of the evolution of the satellite in our model was its substantial despinning. The model also predicts that the ice ridge should be formed more intensively in the leading (dark and, consequently, warmer) hemisphere of the satellite, where the ice is softer. This inference agrees with the observations: in the leading hemisphere of Iapetus, the ridge is actually high and continuous everywhere, while it degenerates into individual ice peaks in the opposite colder hemisphere.

  10. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Repetition of information should be avoided; cross-referencing of information within the document is... COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SELLING LITERATURE. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO AN...

  11. 77 FR 42077 - Environmental Justice: Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ..., rulemaking, and policy formulation. The DOT Order sets forth steps to prevent disproportionately high and... Circular as a whole. Some commenters expressed concerns about perceived administrative and financial... Engagement With Environmental Justice Populations Chapter III contains recommended strategies and techniques...

  12. A Conceptual Framework for Circular Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariale Moreno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Design has been recognised in the literature as a catalyst to move away from the traditional model of take-make-dispose to achieve a more restorative, regenerative and circular economy. As such, for a circular economy to thrive, products need to be designed for closed loops, as well as be adapted to generate revenues. This should not only be at the point of purchase, but also during use, and be supported by low-cost return chains and reprocessing structures, as well as effective policy and regulation. To date, most academic and grey literature on the circular economy has focused primarily on the development of new business models, with some of the latter studies addressing design strategies for a circular economy, specifically in the area of resource cycles and design for product life extension. However, these studies primarily consider a limited spectrum of the technical and biological cycles where materials are recovered and restored and nutrients (e.g., materials, energy, water are regenerated. This provides little guidance or clarity for designers wishing to design for new circular business models in practice. As such, this paper aims to address this gap by systematically analysing previous literature on Design for Sustainability (DfX (e.g., design for resource conservation, design for slowing resource loops and whole systems design and links these approaches to the current literature on circular business models. A conceptual framework is developed for circular economy design strategies. From this conceptual framework, recommendations are made to enable designers to fully consider the holistic implications for design within a circular economy.

  13. University Students Alternative Conceptions On Circular Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Phil Canlas

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to find out university students alternative conceptions on circular motion. An 18-item researcher-compiled and content-validated questionnaire was administered to twenty-six 26 students taking up a program in Bachelor in Secondary Education-Physical Science in their second year enrolled in a course on mechanics. Results revealed that majority of the students possess alternative conceptions on circular motion specifically along velocity acceleration and force. Moreover res...

  14. Single particle dynamics in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1986-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the reader to the theory associated with the transverse dynamics of single particle, in circular accelerators. The discussion begins with a review of Hamiltonian dynamics and canonical transformations. The case of a single particle in a circular accelerator is considered with a discussion of non-linear terms and chromaticity. The canonical perturbation theory is presented and nonlinear resonances are considered. Finally, the concept of renormalization and residue criterion are examined. (FI)

  15. Asymptotic theory of circular polarization memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark, Julia P; Kim, Arnold D

    2017-09-01

    We establish a quantitative theory of circular polarization memory, which is the unexpected persistence of the incident circular polarization state in a strongly scattering medium. Using an asymptotic analysis of the three-dimensional vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) in the limit of strong scattering, we find that circular polarization memory must occur in a boundary layer near the portion of the boundary on which polarized light is incident. The boundary layer solution satisfies a one-dimensional conservative scattering VRTE. Through a spectral analysis of this boundary layer problem, we introduce the dominant mode, which is the slowest-decaying mode in the boundary layer. To observe circular polarization memory for a particular set of optical parameters, we find that this dominant mode must pass three tests: (1) this dominant mode is given by the largest, discrete eigenvalue of a reduced problem that corresponds to Fourier mode k=0 in the azimuthal angle, and depends only on Stokes parameters U and V; (2) the polarization state of this dominant mode is largely circular polarized so that |V|≫|U|; and (3) the circular polarization of this dominant mode is maintained for all directions so that V is sign-definite. By applying these three tests to numerical calculations for monodisperse distributions of Mie scatterers, we determine the values of the size and relative refractive index when circular polarization memory occurs. In addition, we identify a reduced, scalar-like problem that provides an accurate approximation for the dominant mode when circular polarization memory occurs.

  16. Unleashing the Power of the Circular Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, L.; Wurpel, G.; Ten Wolde, A. [IMSA Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The concept of circular economy is an economic and industrial system that focuses on the reusability of products and raw materials, reduces value destruction in the overall system and aims at value creation within each tier of the system. This report for Circle Economy (CE) outlines the general direction and concrete steps that must be taken to accomplish a breakthrough to a circular economy. It also provides a knowledge base behind the concept, connecting it to sustainability.

  17. Breaking the Barriers to the Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchherr, J.W.; Hekkert, M.P.; Bour, Ruben; Huijbrechtse-Truijens, Anne; Kostense-Smit, Erica; Muller, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, the Netherlands and Deloitte have jointly carried out research on barriers to the Circular Economy (CE) in the European Union. For this research, a survey with 153 businesses, 55 government officials and expert interviews with forty-seven thought leaders on the circular economy from businesses, governments, academia and NGOs have been carried out. Two types of barriers emerged as main barriers Firstly, there are the cult...

  18. On the spacecraft attitude stabilization in the orbital frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antipov Kirill A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with spacecraft in the circular near-Earth orbit. The spacecraft interacts with geomagnetic field by the moments of Lorentz and magnetic forces. The octupole approximation of the Earth’s magnetic field is accepted. The spacecraft electromagnetic parameters, namely the electrostatic charge moment of the first order and the eigen magnetic moment are the controlled quasiperiodic functions. The control algorithms for the spacecraft electromagnetic parameters, which allows to stabilize the spacecraft attitude position in the orbital frame are obtained. The stability of the spacecraft stabilized orientation is proved both analytically and by PC computations.

  19. Circular codes revisited: a statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, D L; Giannerini, S; Rosa, R

    2011-04-21

    In 1996 Arquès and Michel [1996. A complementary circular code in the protein coding genes. J. Theor. Biol. 182, 45-58] discovered the existence of a common circular code in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes. Since then, circular code theory has provoked great interest and underwent a rapid development. In this paper we discuss some theoretical issues related to the synchronization properties of coding sequences and circular codes with particular emphasis on the problem of retrieval and maintenance of the reading frame. Motivated by the theoretical discussion, we adopt a rigorous statistical approach in order to try to answer different questions. First, we investigate the covering capability of the whole class of 216 self-complementary, C(3) maximal codes with respect to a large set of coding sequences. The results indicate that, on average, the code proposed by Arquès and Michel has the best covering capability but, still, there exists a great variability among sequences. Second, we focus on such code and explore the role played by the proportion of the bases by means of a hierarchy of permutation tests. The results show the existence of a sort of optimization mechanism such that coding sequences are tailored as to maximize or minimize the coverage of circular codes on specific reading frames. Such optimization clearly relates the function of circular codes with reading frame synchronization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Congenital orbital teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Aiyub, Shereen; Chan, Weng Onn; Szetu, John; Sullivan, Laurence J; Pater, John; Cooper, Peter; Selva, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The p...

  1. Pictorial essay: Orbital tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Mahender K; Chaudhary, Vikas; Baruah, Dhiraj; Kathuria, Manoj; Anand, Rama

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the orbit is rare, even in places where tuberculosis is endemic. The disease may involve soft tissue, the lacrimal gland, or the periosteum or bones of the orbital wall. Intracranial extension, in the form of extradural abscess, and infratemporal fossa extension has been described. This pictorial essay illustrates the imaging findings of nine histopathologically confirmed cases of orbital tuberculosis. All these patients responded to antituberculous treatment

  2. Radiology of orbital trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.K.; Lazo, A.; Metes, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography has become the gold standard against which to measure orbital imaging modalities. The simultaneous display of bone, soft tissues, paranasal sinuses, and intracranial structures is a unique advantage. Radiation dose and cost have been cited as disadvantages. These would suggest that CT be reserved for the patient with significant orbital injury or difficult diagnostic problems. Magnetic resonance is limited in the investigation of orbital trauma

  3. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil M Al-Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital complications due to ethmoiditis are rare in neonates. A case of orbital abscess due to acute ethmoiditis in a 28-day-old girl is presented. A Successful outcome was achieved following antimicrobial therapy alone; spontaneous drainage of the abscess occurred from the lower lid without the need for surgery. From this case report, we intend to emphasize on eyelid retraction as a sign of neonatal orbital abscess, and to review all the available literature of similar cases.

  4. Vertical Rise Velocity of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles Estimated from Equatorial Atmosphere Radar Observations and High-Resolution Bubble Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, T.; Ajith, K. K.; Yamamoto, M.; Niranjan, K.

    2017-12-01

    Equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) is a well-known phenomenon in the equatorial ionospheric F region. As it causes severe scintillation in the amplitude and phase of radio signals, it is important to understand and forecast the occurrence of EPBs from a space weather point of view. The development of EPBs is presently believed as an evolution of the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have already developed a 3D high-resolution bubble (HIRB) model with a grid spacing of as small as 1 km and presented nonlinear growth of EPBs which shows very turbulent internal structures such as bifurcation and pinching. As EPBs have field-aligned structures, the latitude range that is affected by EPBs depends on the apex altitude of EPBs over the dip equator. However, it was not easy to observe the apex altitude and vertical rise velocity of EPBs. Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) in Indonesia is capable of steering radar beams quickly so that the growth phase of EPBs can be captured clearly. The vertical rise velocities of the EPBs observed around the midnight hours are significantly smaller compared to those observed in postsunset hours. Further, the vertical growth of the EPBs around midnight hours ceases at relatively lower altitudes, whereas the majority of EPBs at postsunset hours found to have grown beyond the maximum detectable altitude of the EAR. The HIRB model with varying background conditions are employed to investigate the possible factors that control the vertical rise velocity and maximum attainable altitudes of EPBs. The estimated rise velocities from EAR observations at both postsunset and midnight hours are, in general, consistent with the nonlinear evolution of EPBs from the HIRB model.

  5. Tunnelling of orbital angular momentum in parallel optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeyev, C N; Fadeyeva, T A; Yavorsky, M A; Boklag, N A

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of circularly polarized optical vortices (OVs) in the system of two coupled few-mode optical fibres. We demonstrate that upon propagation OVs tunnel into the adjacent fibre as a complex superposition of OVs that comprise also OVs of opposite polarization and topological charge. The initial OV may tunnel into the other fibre as the same vortex state of lesser energy. The evolution of the orbital angular momentum in coupled fibres is studied

  6. Vortical null orbits, repulsive barriers, energy confinement in Kerr metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; De Felice, F

    1978-10-01

    The complete analytical description of the null trajectories in the field of a Kerr naked singularity is given. Two peculiar phenomena are described: the existence of repulsive barriers in the r < O world and the existence of null circular bound orbits which surround the singularity in 'shells'. They distribute around the surface at r = m, which is the position of the horizon in the extreme black-hole case; this suggests that a naked singularity 'remembers' the position of the last horizon.

  7. Orbital glass in HTSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusmartsev, F.V.

    1992-10-01

    The physical reasons why the orbital glass may exist in granular high-temperature superconductors and the existing experimental data appeared recently are discussed. The orbital glass is characterized by the coexistence of the orbital paramagnetic state with the superconducting state and occurs at small magnetic fields H c0 c1 . The transition in orbital glass arises at the critical field H c0 which is inversely proportional to the surface cross-area S of an average grain. In connection with theoretical predictions the possible experiments are proposed. (author). 10 refs

  8. Preface: The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) at equatorial latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Bodo; Bilitza, Dieter

    2017-07-01

    This issue of Advances in Space Research includes papers that report and discuss improvements of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). IRI is the international standard for the representation of the plasma in Earth's ionosphere and recognized as such by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and the International Standardization Organization (ISO). As requested, particularly by COSPAR and URSI, IRI is an empirical model relying on most of the available and reliable ground and space observations of the ionosphere. As new data become available and as older data sources are fully exploited the IRI model undergoes improvement cycles to stay as close to the existing data record as possible. The latest episode of this process is documented in the papers included in this issue using data from the worldwide network of ionosondes, from a few of the incoherent scatter radars, from the Alouette and ISIS topside sounders, and from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The focus of this issue is on the equatorial and low latitude region that is of special importance for ionospheric physics because it includes the largest densities and steep density gradients in the double hump latitudinal structure, the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA), which is characteristic for this region.

  9. The Plasma Environment Associated With Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathon M.; Heelis, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the density structure of equatorial depletions referred to here as equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs). Data recorded by the Ion Velocity Meter as part of the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) aboard the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite are used to study EPBs from 1600 to 0600 h local time at altitudes from 350 to 850 km. The data are taken during the 7 years from 2008 to 2014, more than one half of a magnetic solar cycle, that include solar minimum and a moderate solar maximum. Using a rolling ball algorithm, EPBs are identified by profiles in the plasma density, each having a depth measured as the percent change between the background and minimum density (ΔN/N). During solar moderate activity bubbles observed in the topside postsunset sector are more likely to have large depths compared to those observed in the topside postmidnight sector. Large bubble depths can be observed near 350 km in the bottomside F region in the postsunset period. Conversely at solar minimum the distribution of depths is similar in the postsunset and postmidnight sectors in all longitude sectors. Deep bubbles are rarely observed in the topside postsunset sector and never in the bottomside above 400 km in altitude. We suggest that these features result from the vertical drift of the plasma for these two solar activity levels. These drift conditions affect both the background density in which bubbles are embedded and the growth rate of perturbations in the bottomside where bubbles originate.

  10. Mutual control of axial and equatorial ligands: model studies with [Ni]-bacteriochlorophyll-a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerushalmi, Roie; Noy, Dror; Baldridge, Kim K; Scherz, Avigdor

    2002-07-17

    Modification of the metal's electronic environment by ligand association and dissociation in metalloenzymes is considered cardinal to their catalytic activity. We have recently presented a novel system that utilizes the bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) macrocycle as a ligand and reporter. This system allows for charge mobilization in the equatorial plane and experimental estimate of changes in the electronic charge density around the metal with no modification of the metal's chemical environment. The unique spectroscopy, electrochemistry and coordination chemistry of [Ni]-bacteriochlorophyll ([Ni]-BChl) enable us to follow directly fine details and steps involved in the function of the metal redox center. This approach is utilized here whereby electro-chemical reduction of [Ni]-BChl to the monoanion [Ni]-BChl(-) results in reversible dissociation of biologically relevant axial ligands. Similar ligand dissociation was previously detected upon photoexcitation of [Ni]-BChl (Musewald, C.; Hartwich, G.; Lossau, H.; Gilch, P.; Pollinger-Dammer, F.; Scheer, H.; Michel-Beyerle, M. E. J. Phys. Chem. B 1999, 103, 7055-7060 and Noy, D.; Yerushalmi, R.; Brumfeld, V.; Ashur, I.; Baldridge, K. K.; Scheer, H.; Scherz, A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 3937-3944). The electrochemical measurements and quantum mechanical (QM) calculations performed here for the neutral, singly reduced, monoligated, and singly reduced, monoligated [Ni]-BChl suggest the following: (a) Electroreduction, although resulting in a pi anion [Ni]-BChl(-) radical, causes electron density migration to the [Ni]-BChl core. (b) Reduction of nonligated [Ni]-BChl does not change the macrocycle conformation, whereas axial ligation results in a dramatic expansion of the metal core and a flattening of the highly ruffled macrocycle conformation. (c) In both the monoanion and singly excited [Ni]-BChl ([Ni]-BChl*), the frontier singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) has a small but nonnegligible metal character. Finally, (d

  11. Revisiting the Ceara Rise, equatorial Atlantic Ocean: isotope stratigraphy of ODP Leg 154

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Roy; Drury, Anna Joy; Westerhold, Thomas; Lyle, Mitchell; Gorgas, Thomas; Tian, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Isotope stratigraphy has become the method of choice for investigating both past ocean temperatures and global ice volume. Lisiecki and Raymo (2005) published a stacked record of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records versus age (LR04 stack). In this study LR04 is compared to high resolution records collected at all of the sites drilled during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 154 on the Ceara Rise, in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Newly developed software - the Code for Ocean Drilling Data (CODD) - is used to check data splices of the Ceara sites and better align out-of-splice data with in-splice data. CODD allows to depth and age scaled core images recovered from core table photos enormously facilitating data analysis. The entire splices of ODP Sites 925, 926, 927, 928 and 929 were reviewed. Most changes were minor although several large enough to affect age models based on orbital tuning. We revised the astronomically tuned age model for the Ceara Rise by tuning darker, more clay rich layers to Northern Hemisphere insolation minima. Then we assembled a regional composite benthic stable isotope record from published data. This new Ceara Rise stack provides a new regional reference section for the equatorial Atlantic covering the last 5 million years with an independent age model compared to the non-linear ice volume models of the LR04 stack. Comparison shows that the benthic δ18O composite is consistent with the LR04 stack from 0 - 4 Ma despite a short interval between 1.80 and 1.90 Ma, where LR04 exhibits 2 maxima but where Ceara Rise contains only 1. The interval between 4.0 and 4.5 Ma in the Ceara Rise compilation is decidedly different from LR04, reflecting both the low amplitude of the signal over this interval and the limited amount of data available for the LR04 stack. Our results also point out that precession cycles have been misinterpreted as obliquity in the LR04 stack as suggested by the Ceara Rise composite at 4.2 Ma.

  12. Be discs in coplanar circular binaries: Phase-locked variations of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoglou, Despina; Faes, Daniel M.; Carciofi, Alex C.; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Baade, Dietrich; Rivinius, Thomas; Borges Fernandes, Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first results of radiative transfer calculations on decretion discs of binary Be stars. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics code computes the structure of Be discs in coplanar circular binary systems for a range of orbital and disc parameters. The resulting disc configuration consists of two spiral arms, and this can be given as input into a Monte Carlo code, which calculates the radiative transfer along the line of sight for various observational coordinates. Making use of the property of steady disc structure in coplanar circular binaries, observables are computed as functions of the orbital phase. Some orbital-phase series of line profiles are given for selected parameter sets under various viewing angles, to allow comparison with observations. Flat-topped profiles with and without superimposed multiple structures are reproduced, showing, for example, that triple-peaked profiles do not have to be necessarily associated with warped discs and misaligned binaries. It is demonstrated that binary tidal effects give rise to phase-locked variability of the violet-to-red (V/R) ratio of hydrogen emission lines. The V/R ratio exhibits two maxima per cycle; in certain cases those maxima are equal, leading to a clear new V/R cycle every half orbital period. This study opens a way to identifying binaries and to constraining the parameters of binary systems that exhibit phase-locked variations induced by tidal interaction with a companion star.

  13. Expected first-order effects of a notional equatorial ring on Earth's night sky: a geometric consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, L. O.

    2013-12-01

    G. Jones (1856) was first to suggest that the Earth might have its own ring, noting that an Earth ring in the ecliptic plane would account for the latitude dependence of the zodiacal light. Jones's proposal was not accepted: it is difficult to see why the ecliptic would accumulate mass within the Earth-Moon system. Very recently, however, this objection has been mitigated by the discovery of Saturn's Phoebe ring: evidently, the plane of a planetary moon's orbit has now been observed as the site of mass accumulation. An adjustment of just a few degrees from ecliptic to the plane of the lunar orbit gives Jones's proposal the boost of an existing Solar System analogue, mysterious though the analogue is. J. O'Keefe (1980) was first to suggest that an Earth ring system could drive climate: a ring in the equatorial plane, waxing and waning in optical depth, could drive the alternation of Ice Age and interglacial climates. This driver would account for the observation that the Ice Age climate was mainly a difference in winter only. Could Earth have a ring system with one or both elements? Even if light and unstable, it would be important to assess, as it could drive climate change. Dust assessments have not discovered a ring system, but they do not cover low orbits well, nor rule out very small particles stringently. Yet tiny particles can be optically important. There are many difficulties with this hypothesis: Why have ground-based observers never identified an equatorial ring, which after all should be the brightest element of a ring system? Why should a ring system be made of very small particles only? The material must be constantly falling to Earth - where is it? Finally, can we believe in the level of lunar geological activity needed to sustain an Earth ring system? This presentation addresses only one issue: Could ground-based observers have seen but misidentified an equatorial ring? To support consideration of that question, herewith a simple geometric exercise

  14. Gigantic Circular Shock Acoustic Waves in the Ionosphere Triggered by the Launch of FORMOSAT-5 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Min-Yang; Shen, Ming-Hsueh; Lin, Charles C. H.; Yue, Jia; Chen, Chia-Hung; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Lin, Jia-Ting

    2018-02-01

    The launch of SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket delivered Taiwan's FORMOSAT-5 satellite to orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 18:51:00 UT on 24 August 2017. To facilitate the delivery of FORMOSAT-5 to its mission orbit altitude of 720 km, the Falcon 9 made a steep initial ascent. During the launch, the supersonic rocket induced gigantic circular shock acoustic waves (SAWs) in total electron content (TEC) over the western United States beginning approximately 5 min after the liftoff. The circular SAWs emanated outward with 20 min duration, horizontal phase velocities of 629-726 m/s, horizontal wavelengths of 390-450 km, and period of 10.28 ± 1 min. This is the largest rocket-induced circular SAWs on record, extending approximately 114-128°W in longitude and 26-39°N in latitude ( 1,500 km in diameter), and was due to the unique, nearly vertical attitude of the rocket during orbit insertion. The rocket-exhaust plume subsequently created a large-scale ionospheric plasma hole ( 900 km in diameter) with 10-70% TEC depletions in comparison with the reference days. While the circular SAWs, with a relatively small amplitude of TEC fluctuations, likely did not introduce range errors into the Global Navigation Satellite Systems navigation and positioning system, the subsequent ionospheric plasma hole, on the other hand, could have caused spatial gradients in the ionospheric plasma potentially leading to a range error of 1 m.

  15. Equatorial Cross-Cutting Ripples on Titan - Regularly Warped Subsiding Methane Plains, not Eolian Dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2008-09-01

    Widely circulating opinion that titanian methane lowlands in a broad equatorial region are covered with eolian formations needs to be carefully checked. Of coarse, all three solid bodies with atmospheres in the inner solar system have dunes. Why do not have them on Titan? Most probably they do exist but discovered by radar up to now cross-cutting rippling features cannot be taken for them. For this there are several reasons. How it can be that prevailing "dune" strike coincides with prevailing wind direction? Normally (with some African exceptions) one sees real terrestrial dunes stretching across winds. And this is understandable from a point of view eolian dunes formation. This formation gives particular cross profile to dunes. Asymmetric profile - one slope is long and gentle and another one short and abrupt. But titanian "dunes" are mostly uniform and symmetric. And this characteristic is preserved for many hundreds of kilometers of very straight features. Then, the finest solid particles precipitation from the thick atmosphere of Titan should be distributed on the satellite surface more uniformly and cover dark lowlands and light icy highlands of the wide equatorial belt more or less evenly. But "dunes" are strictly associated with dark lowlands and tend to turn round light icy obstacles. Cindering smoggy particles to produce sands for making dunes is a pure imagination. Then, radar preferably sees one direction but nevertheless one or more crossing directions of rippling are distinguished (Fig.3, 4) They mean two wind directions at the same time or another wind direction at another time? If so, the earlier "dunes" should be more or less obliterated by the later ones. Nothing of the kind! Both crossing ripples directions are fresh. Then, eolian action is not seen at the higher latitudes (Fig. 5). There are no winds there? Probably it is not so. Only a liquid state of methane can help (but liquid should be disturbed by winds). Solid methane there is also

  16. Congenital orbital encephalocele, orbital dystopia, and exophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Han Joon

    2012-07-01

    We present here an exceedingly rare variant of a nonmidline basal encephalocele of the spheno-orbital type, and this was accompanied with orbital dystopia in a 56-year-old man. On examination, his left eye was located more inferolaterally than his right eye, and the patient said this had been this way since his birth. The protrusion of his left eye was aggravated when he is tired. His naked visual acuity was 0.7/0.3, and the ocular pressure was 14/12 mm Hg. The exophthalmometry was 10/14 to 16 mm. His eyeball motion was not restricted, yet diplopia was present in all directions. The distance from the midline to the medial canthus was 20/15 mm. The distance from the midline to the midpupillary line was 35/22 mm. The vertical dimension of the palpebral fissure was 12/9 mm. The height difference of the upper eyelid margin was 11 mm, and the height difference of the lower eyelid margin was 8 mm. Facial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed left sphenoid wing hypoplasia and herniation of the left anterior temporal pole and dura mater into the orbit, and this resulted into left exophthalmos and encephalomalacia in the left anterior temporal pole. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the second case of basal encephalocele and orbital dystopia.

  17. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the interface between ultrathin Fe film and MgO studied by angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, J. [Research Center for Spectrochemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Koo, J. W.; Mitani, S. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Sukegawa, H. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Takagi, Y.; Yokoyama, T. [Institute of Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan)

    2014-09-22

    Interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in ultrathin Fe/MgO (001) has been investigated using angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We found that anisotropic orbital magnetic moments deduced from the analysis of XMCD contribute to the large PMA energies, whose values depend on the annealing temperature. The large PMA energies determined from magnetization measurements are related to those estimated from the XMCD and the anisotropic orbital magnetic moments through the spin-orbit interaction. The enhancement of anisotropic orbital magnetic moments can be explained mainly by the hybridization between the Fe 3d{sub z}{sup 2} and O 2p{sub z} states.

  18. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Orbital and adnexal sarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C.; Saeed, Perooz; Esmaeli, Bita; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Mcnab, Alan; Davis, Garry; Valenzuela, Alejandra; Leibovitch, Igal; Kesler, Anat; Sivak-Callcott, Jennifer; Hoyama, Erika; Selva, Dinesh

    2007-01-01

    To present the clinical features and management in a series of patients with orbital and adnexal sarcoidosis. This multicenter retrospective study included patients with biopsy-proven noncaseating granuloma involving the orbit or adnexa and evidence of systemic sarcoidosis. Clinical records were

  20. Update on orbital reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Tzung; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2010-08-01

    Orbital trauma is common and frequently complicated by ocular injuries. The recent literature on orbital fracture is analyzed with emphasis on epidemiological data assessment, surgical timing, method of approach and reconstruction materials. Computed tomographic (CT) scan has become a routine evaluation tool for orbital trauma, and mobile CT can be applied intraoperatively if necessary. Concomitant serious ocular injury should be carefully evaluated preoperatively. Patients presenting with nonresolving oculocardiac reflex, 'white-eyed' blowout fracture, or diplopia with a positive forced duction test and CT evidence of orbital tissue entrapment require early surgical repair. Otherwise, enophthalmos can be corrected by late surgery with a similar outcome to early surgery. The use of an endoscope-assisted approach for orbital reconstruction continues to grow, offering an alternative method. Advances in alloplastic materials have improved surgical outcome and shortened operating time. In this review of modern orbital reconstruction, several controversial issues such as surgical indication, surgical timing, method of approach and choice of reconstruction material are discussed. Preoperative fine-cut CT image and thorough ophthalmologic examination are key elements to determine surgical indications. The choice of surgical approach and reconstruction materials much depends on the surgeon's experience and the reconstruction area. Prefabricated alloplastic implants together with image software and stereolithographic models are significant advances that help to more accurately reconstruct the traumatized orbit. The recent evolution of orbit reconstruction improves functional and aesthetic results and minimizes surgical complications.

  1. Orbital wall fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, Toshitaka; Ishio, Ken-ichirou; Yoshinami, Hiroyoshi; Kuriyama, Jun-ichi; Hirota, Yoshiharu.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 59 cases of mild facial fractures (simple orbital wall fractures, 34 cases, other facial fractures, 25 cases) with the clinical suspects of orbital wall fractures were evaluated both by conventional views (Waters' and Caldwell views) and coronal CT scans. Conventional views were obtained, as an average, after 4 days and CT after 7 days of injuries. Both the medial wall and the floor were evaluated at two sites, i.e., anterior and posterior. The ethmoid-maxillary plate was also included in the study. The degree of fractures was classified as, no fractures, fractures of discontinuity, dislocation and fragmentation. The coronal CT images in bone window condition was used as reference and the findings were compared between conventional views and CT. The correct diagnosis was obtained as follows: orbital floor (anterior, 78%, posterior, 73%), medial orbital wall (anterior, 72%, posterior, 72%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (64%). The false positive diagnosis was as follows: orbital floor (anterior only, 13%), medial orbital wall (anterior only, 7%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (11%). The false negative diagnosis was as follows: orbital floor (anterior, 9%, posterior, 10%), medial orbital wall (anterior, 21%, posterior, 28%) and ethmoid-maxillary plate (21%). The results were compared with those of others in the past. (author)

  2. Variability in the origins and pathways of Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Xuerong; Sen Gupta, Alex; Van Sebille, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) transports water originating from a number of distinct source regions, eastward across the Pacific Ocean. It is responsible for supplying nutrients to the productive eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Of particular importance is the transport of iron by the

  3. A study on ionospheric scintillation near the EIA crest in relation to equatorial electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Chakraborty, S. K.; Veenadhari, B.; Banola, S.

    2014-02-01

    Equatorial electrojet (EEJ) data, which are considered as a proxy index of equatorial electric field, are analyzed in conjunction with equatorial ionosonde, total electron content (TEC) and scintillation data near the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest for the equinoctial months of high solar activity years (2011-2012) to identify any precursor index of postsunset evolution of equatorial electron density irregularities and subsequent occurrence of scintillation near the northern EIA crest. Only geomagnetically quiet and normal electrojet days are considered. The diurnal profiles of EEJ on the scintillation days exhibit a secondary enhancement in the afternoon to presunset hours following diurnal peaks. A series of electrodynamical processes conducive for generation of irregularities emerge following secondary enhancement of EEJ. Latitudinal profile of TEC exhibits resurgence in EIA structure around the postsunset period. Diurnal TEC profile near the EIA crest resembles postsunset secondary enhancement on the days with afternoon enhancement in EEJ. Occurrence of equatorial spread F and postsunset scintillation near the EIA crest seems to follow the secondary enhancement events in EEJ. Both the magnitude and duration of enhanced EEJ are found to be important for postsunset intensification of EIA structure and subsequent occurrence of equatorial irregularities. A critical value combining the two may be considered an important precursor for postsunset occurrence of scintillation near the EIA crest. The results are validated using archived data for the years 1989-1990 and explained in terms of modulation effects of enhanced equatorial fountain.

  4. Influence of biomass burning emissions on precipitation chemistry in the equatorial forests of Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaux, J.P.; Lefeivre, B.; Delmas, R.A.; Cros, B.; Andreae, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the DESCAFE program (Dynamics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere in Equatorial Forest), measurements of precipitation chemistry were made at two sampling sites of the equatorial forest in the Republic of Congo. The measurements were made in order to identify and compare atmospheric sources of gases and particles (mainly biogenic sources and emissions from burning vegetation)

  5. APPLIED OPTICS. Voltage-tunable circular photogalvanic effect in silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Sajal; Mele, Eugene J; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-08-14

    Electronic bands in crystals can support nontrivial topological textures arising from spin-orbit interactions, but purely orbital mechanisms can realize closely related dynamics without breaking spin degeneracies, opening up applications in materials containing only light elements. One such application is the circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE), which is the generation of photocurrents whose magnitude and polarity depend on the chirality of optical excitation. We show that the CPGE can arise from interband transitions at the metal contacts to silicon nanowires, where inversion symmetry is locally broken by an electric field. Bias voltage that modulates this field further controls the sign and magnitude of the CPGE. The generation of chirality-dependent photocurrents in silicon with a purely orbital-based mechanism will enable new functionalities in silicon that can be integrated with conventional electronics. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Peripheral orbit model

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Yasuo

    1975-01-01

    Peripheral orbit model, in which an incoming hadron is assumed to revolve in a peripheral orbit around a target hadron, is discussed. The non-diffractive parts of two-body reaction amplitudes of hadrons are expressed in terms of the radius, width an absorptivity of the orbit. The radius of the orbit is about 1 fm and the width of the orbit is determined by the range of the interaction between the hadrons. The model reproduces all available experimental data on differential cross-sections and polarizations of $K^{-}p\\to K^{-}p$ and $\\bar K^{\\circ}n$ reactions for all angles successfully. This contribution is not included in the proceedings since it will appear in Progress of Theoretical Physics Vol. 51 (1974) No 2. Any person interested in the subject may apply for reprints to the author.

  7. NICER Discovers the Ultracompact Orbit of the Accreting Millisecond Pulsar IGR J17062–6143

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strohmayer, T. E.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Bogdanov, S.

    2018-01-01

    We present results of recent Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) observations of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar (AMXP) IGR J17062−6143 that show that it resides in a circular, ultracompact binary with a 38-minute orbital period. NICER observed the source for ≈26 ks over a 5...... of the neutron star. A coherent search for the orbital solution using the Z2 method finds a best-fitting circular orbit with a period of 2278.21 s (37.97 minutes), a projected semimajor axis of 0.00390 lt-s, and a barycentric pulsar frequency of 163.6561105 Hz. This is currently the shortest known orbital period...

  8. Total and Differential Efficiencies for a Circular Detector Viewing a Circular Radiator of Finite Thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauber, A; Tollander, B

    1967-08-15

    Total and differential detection efficiencies have been computed for a circular detector viewing a circular radiator of finite thickness. Isotropic, cosines and n-p scattering angular emission distributions of the radiated particles are considered. Tables are given for the total efficiencies as well as for the differential efficiencies in the n-p scattering case.

  9. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2015-11-17

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.

  10. Spread F – an old equatorial aeronomy problem finally resolved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Woodman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the oldest scientific topics in Equatorial Aeronomy is related to Spread-F. It includes all our efforts to understand the physical mechanisms responsible for the existence of ionospheric F-region irregularities, the spread of the traces in a night-time equatorial ionogram – hence its name – and all other manifestations of the same. It was observed for the first time as an abnormal ionogram in Huancayo, about 70 years ago. But only recently are we coming to understand the physical mechanisms responsible for its occurrence and its capricious day to day variability. Several additional techniques have been used to reveal the spatial and temporal characteristics of the F-region irregularities responsible for the phenomenon. Among them we have, in chronological order, radio star scintillations, trans-equatorial radio propagation, satellite scintillations, radar backscatter, satellite and rocket in situ measurements, airglow, total electron content techniques using the propagation of satellite radio signals and, recently, radar imaging techniques. Theoretical efforts are as old as the observations. Nevertheless, 32 years after their discovery, Jicamarca radar observations showed that none of the theories that had been put forward could explain them completely. The observations showed that irregularities were detected at altitudes that were stable according to the mechanisms proposed. A breakthrough came a few years later, again from Jicamarca, by showing that some of the "stable" regions had become unstable by the non-linear propagation of the irregularities from the unstable to the stable region of the ionosphere in the form of bubbles of low density plasma. A problem remained, however; the primary instability mechanism proposed, an extended (generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability, was too slow to explain the rapid development seen by the observations. Gravity waves in the neutral background have been proposed as a seeding mechanism to

  11. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  12. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Špirková, M., E-mail: marta.spirkova@stuba.sk; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J. [Paulínska 16, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava (Slovakia)

    2016-04-21

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  13. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  14. Circular motion of particles suspended in a Gaussian beam with circular polarization validates the spin part of the internal energy flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya.; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    switching to the right (left) circular polarization, the particles performed spinning motion in agreement with the angular momentum imparted by the field, but they were involved in an orbital rotation around the beam axis as well, which in previous works [Y. Zhao et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007......Non-spherical dielectric microparticles were suspended in a water-filled cell and exposed to a coherent Gaussian light beam with controlled state of polarization. When the beam polarization is linear, the particles were trapped at certain off-axial position within the beam cross section. After...... of inhomogeneously polarized paraxial beams [A. Bekshaev et al, J. Opt. 13, 053001 (2011)]....

  15. Spin-orbit beams for optical chirality measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Suna, Rashmi Ranjan; Naik, Dinesh N.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2018-01-01

    Accurate measurement of chirality is essential for the advancement of natural and pharmaceutical sciences. We report here a method to measure chirality using non-separable states of light with geometric phase-gradient in the circular polarization basis, which we refer to as spin-orbit beams. A modified polarization Sagnac interferometer is used to generate spin-orbit beams wherein the spin and orbital angular momentum of the input Gaussian beam are coupled. The out-of-phase interference between counter-propagating Gaussian beams with orthogonal spin states and lateral-shear or/and linear-phase difference between them results in spin-orbit beams with linear and azimuthal phase gradient. The spin-orbit beams interact efficiently with the chiral medium, inducing a measurable change in the center-of-mass of the beam, using the polarization rotation angle and hence the chirality of the medium are accurately calculated. Tunable dynamic range of measurement and flexibility to introduce large values of orbital angular momentum for the spin-orbit beam, to improve the measurement sensitivity, highlight the techniques' versatility.

  16. Role of interannual Kelvin wave propagations in the equatorial Atlantic on the Angola Benguela Current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbol Koungue, Rodrigue Anicet; Illig, Serena; Rouault, Mathieu

    2017-06-01

    The link between equatorial Atlantic Ocean variability and the coastal region of Angola-Namibia is investigated at interannual time scales from 1998 to 2012. An index of equatorial Kelvin wave activity is defined based on Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA). Along the equator, results show a significant correlation between interannual PIRATA monthly dynamic height anomalies, altimetric monthly Sea Surface Height Anomalies (SSHA), and SSHA calculated with an Ocean Linear Model. This allows us to interpret PIRATA records in terms of equatorial Kelvin waves. Estimated phase speed of eastward propagations from PIRATA equatorial mooring remains in agreement with the linear theory, emphasizing the dominance of the second baroclinic mode. Systematic analysis of all strong interannual equatorial SSHA shows that they precede by 1-2 months extreme interannual Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies along the African coast, which confirms the hypothesis that major warm and cold events in the Angola-Benguela current system are remotely forced by ocean atmosphere interactions in the equatorial Atlantic. Equatorial wave dynamics is at the origin of their developments. Wind anomalies in the Western Equatorial Atlantic force equatorial downwelling and upwelling Kelvin waves that propagate eastward along the equator and then poleward along the African coast triggering extreme warm and cold events, respectively. A proxy index based on linear ocean dynamics appears to be significantly more correlated with coastal variability than an index based on wind variability. Results show a seasonal phasing, with significantly higher correlations between our equatorial index and coastal SSTA in October-April season.

  17. Multistation digisonde observations of equatorial spread F in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Reinisch

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Directional ionogram and F-region drift observations were conducted at seven digisonde stations in South America during the COPEX campaign from October to December 2002. Five stations in Brazil, one in Argentina, and one in Peru, monitored the ionosphere across the continent to study the onset and development of F-region density depletions that cause equatorial spread F (ESF. New ionosonde techniques quantitatively describe the prereversal uplifting of the F layer at the magnetic equator and the eastward motion of the depletions over the stations. Three of the Brazilian stations were located along a field line with a 350-km apex over the equator to investigate the relation of the occurrence of ESF and the presence of sporadic E-layers at the two E-region intersections of the field line. No simple correlation was found.

  18. Observers in Kerr spacetimes. The ergoregion on the equatorial plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D. [Silesian University in Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics, Opava (Czech Republic); Quevedo, H. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Kazakh National University, Department of Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2018-01-15

    We perform a detailed analysis of the properties of stationary observers located on the equatorial plane of the ergosphere in a Kerr spacetime, including light-surfaces. This study highlights crucial differences between black hole and the super-spinner sources. In the case of Kerr naked singularities, the results allow us to distinguish between ''weak'' and ''strong'' singularities, corresponding to spin values close to or distant from the limiting case of extreme black holes, respectively. We derive important limiting angular frequencies for naked singularities. We especially study very weak singularities as resulting from the spin variation of black holes. We also explore the main properties of zero angular momentum observers for different classes of black hole and naked singularity spacetimes. (orig.)

  19. Seeding and layering of equatorial spread F by gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hysell, D.L.; Kelley, M.C.; Swartz, W.E.; Woodman, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Studies dating back more than 15 years have presented evidence that atmospheric gravity waves play a role in initiating nighttime equatorial F region instabilities. This paper analyzes a spectabular spread F event that for the first time demonstrates a layering which, the authors argue, is controlled by a gravity wave effect. The 50-km vertical wavelength of a gravity wave which they have found is related theoretically to a plasma layering irregularity that originated at low altitudes and then was convected, intact, to higher altitudes. Gravity waves also seem to have determined bottomside intermediate scale undulations, although this fact is not as clear in the data. The neutral wind dynamo effect yields wave number conditions on the gravity wave's ability to modulate the Rayleigh-Taylor instaiblity process. Finally, after evaluating the gravity wave dispersion relation and spatial resonance conditions, we estimate the properties of the seeding wave

  20. Solar cycle signatures in the NCEP equatorial annual oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Huang, F. T.; Nash, E. R.

    2009-08-01

    Our analysis of temperature and zonal wind data (1958 to 2006) from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis (Re-1), supplied by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), shows that the hemispherically symmetric 12-month equatorial annual oscillation (EAO) contains spectral signatures with periods around 11 years. Moving windows of 44 years show that, below 20 km, the 11-year modulation of the EAO is phase locked to the solar cycle (SC). The spectral features from the 48-year data record reveal modulation signatures of 9.6 and 12 years, which produce EAO variations that mimic in limited altitude regimes the varying maxima and minima of the 10.7 cm flux solar index. Above 20 km, the spectra also contain modulation signatures with periods around 11 years, but the filtered variations are too irregular to suggest that systematic SC forcing is the principal agent.

  1. Is there a hole in the topside, equatorial ionosphere?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gallagher

    Full Text Available A paper in 2000 (Huba, 2000 found a depression in electron density in the topside ionosphere near the magnetic equator, based on the SAMI-2 physical ionospheric model. The model showed, for the first time, the formation of a hole in electron density in the altitude range 1500–2500 km at geomagnetic equatorial latitudes. The model produced the hole because of transhemispheric O+ flows that collisionally couple to H+, transporting it to lower altitudes, and thereby reducing the electron density at high altitudes. At that time and until now, no published observations have been reported to confirm or refute this numerical result. Recent, new analysis of Dynamics Explorer 1 Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer measurements provides the first tentative experimental support for this model result. Keywords: Ionosphere, Topside, Magnetic equator, Plasmasphere

  2. Solar cycle signatures in the NCEP equatorial annual oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Mayr

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Our analysis of temperature and zonal wind data (1958 to 2006 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR reanalysis (Re-1, supplied by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP, shows that the hemispherically symmetric 12-month equatorial annual oscillation (EAO contains spectral signatures with periods around 11 years. Moving windows of 44 years show that, below 20 km, the 11-year modulation of the EAO is phase locked to the solar cycle (SC. The spectral features from the 48-year data record reveal modulation signatures of 9.6 and 12 years, which produce EAO variations that mimic in limited altitude regimes the varying maxima and minima of the 10.7 cm flux solar index. Above 20 km, the spectra also contain modulation signatures with periods around 11 years, but the filtered variations are too irregular to suggest that systematic SC forcing is the principal agent.

  3. Combined radar observations of equatorial electrojet irregularities at Jicamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Daytime equatorial electrojet plasma irregularities were investigated using five distinct radar diagnostics at Jicamarca including range-time-intensity (RTI mapping, Faraday rotation, radar imaging, oblique scattering, and multiple-frequency scattering using the new AMISR prototype UHF radar. Data suggest the existence of plasma density striations separated by 3–5 km and propagating slowly downward. The striations may be caused by neutral atmospheric turbulence, and a possible scenario for their formation is discussed. The Doppler shifts of type 1 echoes observed at VHF and UHF frequencies are compared and interpreted in light of a model of Farley Buneman waves based on kinetic ions and fluid electrons with thermal effects included. Finally, the up-down and east-west asymmetries evident in the radar observations are described and quantified.

  4. The earth's equatorial principal axes and moments of inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. S.; Chao, B. F.

    1991-01-01

    The earth's equatorial principal moments of inertia are given as A and B, where A is less than B, and the corresponding principal axes are given as a and b. Explicit formulas are derived for determining the orientation of a and b axes and the difference B - A using C(22) and S(22), the two gravitational harmonic coefficients of degree 2 and order 2. For the earth, the a axis lies along the (14.93 deg W, 165.07 deg E) diameter, and the b axis lies perpendicular to it along the (75.07 deg E, 104.93 deg W) diameter. The difference B - A is 7.260 x 10 to the -6th MR2. These quantities for other planets are contrasted, and geophysical implications are discussed.

  5. Topology of tokamak orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, J.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1978-09-01

    Guiding center orbits in noncircular axisymmetric tokamak plasmas are studied in the constants of motion (COM) space of (v, zeta, psi/sub m/). Here, v is the particle speed, zeta is the pitch angle with respect to the parallel equilibrium current, J/sub parallels/, and psi/sub m/ is the maximum value of the poloidal flux function (increasing from the magnetic axis) along the guiding center orbit. Two D-shaped equilibria in a flux-conserving tokamak having β's of 1.3% and 7.7% are used as examples. In this space, each confined orbit corresponds to one and only one point and different types of orbits (e.g., circulating, trapped, stagnation and pinch orbits) are represented by separate regions or surfaces in the space. It is also shown that the existence of an absolute minimum B in the higher β (7.7%) equilibrium results in a dramatically different orbit topology from that of the lower β case. The differences indicate the confinement of additional high energy (v → c, within the guiding center approximation) trapped, co- and countercirculating particles whose orbit psi/sub m/ falls within the absolute B well

  6. Optics modules for circular accelerator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Servranckx, R.V.

    1986-05-01

    The first-order differential equations of motion for a single particle in a closed circular machine are solved, introducing the concepts of phase shift, beta functions, and the Courant-Snyder invariant. The transfer matrix between two points in the machine is derived as a function of the phase shift and the parameters contained in the Courant-Snyder invariant. Typical optical modules used in circular machine designs are introduced and related to their characteristic transfer matrix elements, the phase shift through them, and the Courant-Snyder-Twiss parameters. The systematics of some elementary phase ellipse matching problems between optical modules are discussed. Second-order optical modules are discussed, including how they are used to provide the momentum bandwidth needed for the design of a typical circular machine

  7. Circular economy and waste to energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, E. C.; Ragazzi, M.; Torretta, V.; Castagna, G.; Adami, L.; Cioca, L. I.

    2018-05-01

    Waste management in European Union has long being regulated by the 4Rs principle, i.e. reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery, with landfill disposal as the last option. This vision recently led the European Union (especially since 2015) to the introduction of virtuous goals based on the rejection of linear economy in favour of circular economy strongly founded on materials recovery. In this scenario, landfill disposal option will disappear, while energy recovery may appear controversial when not applied to biogas production from anaerobic digestion. The present work aims to analyse the effects that circular economy principles introduced in the European Union context will have on the thermochemical waste treatment plants design. Results demonstrate that indirect combustion (gasification + combustion) along with integrated vitrification of the non-combustible fraction of treated waste will have a more relevant role in the field of waste treatment than in the past, thanks to the compliance of this option with the principles of circular economy.

  8. Analysis of orbit determination from Earth-based tracking for relay satellites in a perturbed areostationary orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, P.; Pablos, B.; Barderas, G.

    2017-07-01

    Areostationary satellites are considered a high interest group of satellites to satisfy the telecommunications needs of the foreseen missions to Mars. An areostationary satellite, in an areoequatorial circular orbit with a period of 1 Martian sidereal day, would orbit Mars remaining at a fixed location over the Martian surface, analogous to a geostationary satellite around the Earth. This work addresses an analysis of the perturbed orbital motion of an areostationary satellite as well as a preliminary analysis of the aerostationary orbit estimation accuracy based on Earth tracking observations. First, the models for the perturbations due to the Mars gravitational field, the gravitational attraction of the Sun and the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, and solar radiation pressure are described. Then, the observability from Earth including possible occultations by Mars of an areostationary satellite in a perturbed areosynchronous motion is analyzed. The results show that continuous Earth-based tracking is achievable using observations from the three NASA Deep Space Network Complexes in Madrid, Goldstone and Canberra in an occultation-free scenario. Finally, an analysis of the orbit determination accuracy is addressed considering several scenarios including discontinuous tracking schedules for different epochs and different areoestationary satellites. Simulations also allow to quantify the aerostationary orbit estimation accuracy for various tracking series durations and observed orbit arc-lengths.

  9. A Generalized Equatorial Model for the Accelerating Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnim, S.; Cairns, Iver H.; Wheatland, M. S.

    2018-02-01

    A new theoretical model for the solar wind is developed that includes the wind's acceleration, conservation of angular momentum, deviations from corotation, and nonradial velocity and magnetic field components from an inner boundary (corresponding to the onset of the solar wind) to beyond 1 AU. The model uses a solution of the time-steady isothermal equation of motion to describe the acceleration and analytically predicts the Alfvénic critical radius. We fit the model to near-Earth observations of the Wind spacecraft during the solar rotation period of 1-27 August 2010. The resulting data-driven model demonstrates the existence of noncorotating, nonradial flows and fields from the inner boundary (r = rs) outward and predicts the magnetic field B = (Br,Bϕ), velocity v = (vr,vϕ), and density n(r,ϕ,t), which vary with heliocentric distance r, heliolatitude ϕ, and time t in a Sun-centered standard inertial plane. The description applies formally only in the equatorial plane. In a frame corotating with the Sun, the transformed velocity v' and a field B' are not parallel, resulting in an electric field with a component Ez' along the z axis. The resulting E'×B'=E'×B drift lies in the equatorial plane, while the ∇B and curvature drifts are out of the plane. Together these may lead to enhanced scattering/heating of sufficiently energetic particles. The model predicts that deviations δvϕ from corotation at the inner boundary are common, with δvϕ(rs,ϕs,ts) comparable to the transverse velocities due to granulation and supergranulation motions. Abrupt changes in δvϕ(rs,ϕs,ts) are interpreted in terms of converging and diverging flows at the cell boundaries and centers, respectively. Large-scale variations in the predicted angular momentum demonstrate that the solar wind can drive vorticity and turbulence from near the Sun to 1 AU and beyond.

  10. A tropospheric ozone maximum over the equatorial Southern Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We examine the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone (O3 from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS and the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem. MLS and TES observations of tropospheric O3 during 2005 to 2009 reveal a distinct, persistent O3 maximum, both in mixing ratio and tropospheric column, in May over the Equatorial Southern Indian Ocean (ESIO. The maximum is most pronounced in 2006 and 2008 and less evident in the other three years. This feature is also consistent with the total column O3 observations from the Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS. Model results reproduce the observed May O3 maximum and the associated interannual variability. The origin of the maximum reflects a complex interplay of chemical and dynamic factors. The O3 maximum is dominated by the O3 production driven by lightning nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions, which accounts for 62% of the tropospheric column O3 in May 2006. We find the contribution from biomass burning, soil, anthropogenic and biogenic sources to the O3 maximum are rather small. The O3 productions in the lightning outflow from Central Africa and South America both peak in May and are directly responsible for the O3 maximum over the western ESIO. The lightning outflow from Equatorial Asia dominates over the eastern ESIO. The interannual variability of the O3 maximum is driven largely by the anomalous anti-cyclones over the southern Indian Ocean in May 2006 and 2008. The lightning outflow from Central Africa and South America is effectively entrained by the anti-cyclones followed by northward transport to the ESIO.

  11. Priority areas for large mammal conservation in Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Mizuki; Ruffler, Heidi; Berlemont, Antoine; Campbell, Genevieve; Esono, Fidel; Agbor, Anthony; Mbomio, Domingo; Ebana, Agustín; Nze, Antonio; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2013-01-01

    Hunting is one of the main driving forces behind large mammal density distribution in many regions of the world. In tropical Africa, urban demand for bushmeat has been shown to dominate over subsistence hunting and its impact often overrides spatial-ecological species characteristics. To effectively protect remaining mammal populations the main factors that influence their distribution need to be integrated into conservation area prioritisation and management plans. This information has been lacking for Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea, as prior studies have been outdated or have not systematically covered the continental region of the country. In this study we evaluated: 1) the relative importance of local vs. commercial hunting; 2) wildlife density of protected vs. non-protected areas; and 3) the importance of ecological factors vs. human influence in driving mammal density distribution in Río Muni. We adopted a systematic countrywide line transect approach with particular focus on apes and elephants, but also including other mammal species. For analysis of field data we used generalised linear models with a set of predictor variables representing ecological conditions, anthropogenic pressure and protected areas. We estimate that there are currently 884 (437-1,789) elephants and 11,097 (8,719-13,592) chimpanzees and gorillas remaining in Río Muni. The results indicate strong hunting pressures on both local and commercial levels, with roads demonstrating a negative impact on elephants and overall mammal body mass. Protected areas played no role in determining any of the mammal species distributions and significant human hunting signs were found inside these protected areas, illustrating the lack of environmental law enforcement throughout the country. Río Muni is currently under-represented in conservation efforts in Western Equatorial Africa, and we recommend a focus on cross-boundary conservation, in particular in the Monte Alén-Monts de Cristal and Río Campo

  12. Characteristics of Volcanic Stratospheric Aerosol Layer Observed by CALIOP and Ground Based Lidar at Equatorial Atmosphere Radar Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Makoto; Shibata, Yasukuni; Nagasawa, Chikao

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the relation between major tropical volcanic eruptions in the equatorial region and the stratospheric aerosol data, which have been collected by the ground based lidar observations at at Equatorial Atmosphere Radar site between 2004 and 2015 and the CALIOP observations in low latitude between 2006 and 2015. We found characteristic dynamic behavior of volcanic stratospheric aerosol layers over equatorial region.

  13. METHOD OF CONJUGATED CIRCULAR ARCS TRACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ageyev Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometric properties of conjugated circular arcs connecting two points on the plane with set directions of tan- gent vectors are studied in the work. It is shown that pairs of conjugated circular arcs with the same conditions in frontier points create one-parameter set of smooth curves tightly filling all the plane. One of the basic properties of this set is the fact that all coupling points of circular arcs are on the circular curve going through the initially given points. The circle radius depends on the direction of tangent vectors. Any point of the circle curve, named auxiliary in this work, determines a pair of conjugated arcs with given boundary conditions. One more condition of the auxiliary circle curve is that it divides the plane into two parts. The arcs going from the initial point are out of the circle limited by this circle curve and the arcs coming to the final point are inside it. These properties are the basis for the method of conjugated circular arcs tracing pro- posed in this article. The algorithm is rather simple and allows to fulfill all the needed plottings using only the divider and ruler. Two concrete examples are considered. The first one is related to the problem of tracing of a pair of conjugated arcs with the minimal curve jump when going through the coupling point. The second one demonstrates the possibility of trac- ing of the smooth curve going through any three points on the plane under condition that in the initial and final points the directions of tangent vectors are given. The proposed methods of conjugated circular arcs tracing can be applied in solving of a wide variety of problems connected with the tracing of cam contours, for example pattern curves in textile industry or in computer-aided-design systems when programming of looms with numeric control.

  14. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  15. Thrombosis of orbital varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi Oyhenart, J.; Tenyi, A.; Boschi Pau, J.

    2002-01-01

    Orbital varices are venous malformations produced by an abnormal dilatation of one or more orbital veins, probably associated with congenital weakness of the vascular wall. They are rare lesions, usually occurring in young patients, that produce intermittent proptosis related to the increase in the systemic venous pressure. The presence of hemorrhage or thrombosis is associated with rapid development of proptosis, pain and decreased ocular motility. We report the cases of two adult patients with orbital varices complicated by thrombosis in whom the diagnosis was based on computed tomography. The ultrasound and magnetic resonance findings are also discussed. (Author) 16 refs

  16. Circular polarization memory in single Quantum Dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatsevich, S.; Poem, E.; Benny, Y.; Marderfeld, I.; Gershoni, D.; Badolato, A.; Petroff, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Under quasi-resonant circularly polarized optical excitation, charged quantum dots may emit polarized light. We measured various transitions with either positive, negative or no circular-polarization memory. We explain these observations and quantitatively calculate the polarization spectrum. Our model use the full configuration-interaction method, including the electron-hole exchange interaction, for calculating the quantum dot's confined many-carrier states, along with one assumption regarding the spin relaxation of photoexcited carriers: Electrons maintain their initial spin polarization, while holes do not.

  17. Forced vibrations of rotating circular cylindrical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igawa, Hirotaka; Maruyama, Yoshiyuki; Endo, Mitsuru

    1995-01-01

    Forced vibrations of rotating circular cylindrical shells are investigated. Basic equations, including the effect of initial stress due to rotation, are formulated by the finite-element method. The characteristic relations for finite elements are derived from the energy principle by considering the finite strain. The equations of motion can be separated into quasi-static and dynamic ones, i.e., the equations in the steady rotating state and those in the vibration state. Radial concentrated impulses are considered as the external dynamic force. The transient responses of circular cylindrical shells are numerically calculated under various boundary conditions and rotating speeds. (author)

  18. Circularly polarized luminescence of syndiotactic polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Paola; Abbate, Sergio; Longhi, Giovanna; Guerra, Gaetano

    2017-11-01

    Syndiotactic polystyrene (s-PS) films, when crystallized from the amorphous state by temporary sorption of non-racemic guest molecules (like carvone) not only exhibit unusually high optical activity, both in the UV-Visible and Infrared ranges, but also present circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) with high dissymmetry ratios (g = ΔI/I values in the range 0.02-0.03). Experimental evidences provide support, rather than to the usual molecular circular dichroism, to a supramolecular chiral optical response being extrinsic to the site of photon absorption and emission, possibly associated with a helical morphology of s-PS crystallites.

  19. Genealogy and stability of periodic orbit families around uniformly rotating asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiyun; Xin, Xiaosheng; Feng, Jinglang

    2018-03-01

    Resonance orbits around a uniformly rotating asteroid are studied from the approach of periodic orbits in this work. Three periodic families (denoted as I, II, and III in the paper) are fundamental in organizing the resonance families. For the planar case: (1) Genealogy and stability of Families I, II and the prograde resonance families are studied. For extremely irregular asteroids, family genealogy close to the asteroid is greatly distorted from that of the two body-problem (2BP), indicating that it is inappropriate to treat the orbital motions as perturbed Keplerian orbits. (2) Genealogy and stability of Family III are also studied. Stability of this family may be destroyed by the secular resonance between the orbital ascending node's precession and the asteroid's rotation. For the spatial case: (1) Genealogy of the near circular three-dimensional periodic families are studied. The genealogy may be broken apart by families of eccentric frozen orbits whose argument of perigee is ;frozen; in space. (2) The joint effects between the secular resonance and the orbital resonances may cause instability to three-dimensional orbital motion with orbit inclinations close to the critical values. Applying the general methodology to a case study - the asteroid Eros and also considering higher order non-spherical terms, some extraordinary orbits are found, such as the ones with orbital plane co-rotating with the asteroid, and the stable frozen orbits with argument of perigee librating around values different from 0°, 90°, 180°, 270°.

  20. Dynamics of Orbits near 3:1 Resonance in the Earth-Moon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichmann, Donald J.; Lebois, Ryan; Carrico, John P., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) spacecraft is currently in a highly elliptical orbit around Earth with a period near 3:1 resonance with the Moon. Its orbit is oriented so that apogee does not approach the Moon. Simulations show this orbit to be remarkably stable over the next twenty years. This article examines the dynamics of such orbits in the Circular Restricted 3-Body Problem (CR3BP). We look at three types of periodic orbits, each exhibiting a type of symmetry of the CR3BP. For each of the orbit types, we assess the local stability using Floquet analysis. Although not all of the periodic solutions are stable in the mathematical sense, any divergence is so slow as to produce practical stability over several decades. We use Poincare maps with twenty-year propagations to assess the nonlinear stability of the orbits, where the perturbation magnitudes are related to the orbit uncertainty for the IBEX mission. Finally we show that these orbits belong to a family of orbits connected in a bifurcation diagram that exhibits exchange of stability. The analysis of these families of period orbits provides a valuable starting point for a mission orbit trade study.

  1. ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter provides atmospheric data during Aerobraking into its final orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedhem, Hakan; Vago, Jorge L.; Bruinsma, Sean; Müller-Wodarg, Ingo; ExoMars 2016 Team

    2017-10-01

    After the arrival of the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) at Mars on 19 October 2016 a number of initial orbit change manoeuvres were executed and the spacecraft was put in an orbit with a 24 hour period and 74 degrees inclination. The spacecraft and its four instruments were thoroughly checked out after arrival and a few measurements and images were taken in November 2016 and in Feb-March 2017. The solar occultation observations have however not yet been possible due to lack of the proper geometry.On 15 March a long period of aerobraking to reach the final 400km semi-circular frozen orbit (370x430km, with a fixed pericentre latitude). This orbit is optimised for the payload observations and for the communication relay with the ExoMars Rover, due to arrive in 2021.The aerobraking is proceeding well and the final orbit is expected to be reached in April 2018. A large data set is being acquired for the upper atmosphere of Mars, from the limit of the sensitivity of the accelerometer, down to lowest altitude of the aerobraking at about 105km. Initial analysis has shown a highly variable atmosphere with a slightly lower density then predicted by existing models. Until the time of the abstract writing no dust storms have been observed.The ExoMars programme is a joint activity by the European Space Agency(ESA) and ROSCOSMOS, Russia. ESA is providing the TGO spacecraft and Schiaparelli (EDM) and two of the TGO instruments and ROSCOSMOS is providing the Proton launcher and the other two TGO instruments. After the arrival of the ExoMars 2020 mission, consisting of a Rover and a Surface platform also launched by a Proton rocket, the TGO will handle the communication between the Earth and the Rover and Surface Platform through its (NASA provided) UHF communication system.

  2. 'Inca City' is Part of a Circular Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-319, 8 August 2002 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 'Inca City' is the informal name given by Mariner 9 scientists in 1972 to a set of intersecting, rectilinear ridges that are located among the layered materials of the south polar region of Mars. Their origin has never been understood; most investigators thought they might be sand dunes, either modern dunes or, more likely, dunes that were buried, hardened, then exhumed. Others considered them to be dikes formed by injection of molten rock (magma) or soft sediment into subsurface cracks that subsequently hardened and then were exposed at the surface by wind erosion. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has provided new information about the 'Inca City' ridges, though the camera's images still do not solve the mystery. The new information comes in the form of a MOC red wide angle context frame taken in mid-southern spring, shown above left and above right. The original Mariner 9 view of the ridges is seen at the center. The MOC image shows that the 'Inca City' ridges, located at 82oS, 67oW, are part of a larger circular structure that is about 86 km (53 mi) across. It is possible that this pattern reflects an origin related to an ancient, eroded meteor impact crater that was filled-in, buried, then partially exhumed. In this case, the ridges might be the remains of filled-in fractures in the bedrock into which the crater formed, or filled-in cracks within the material that filled the crater. Or both explanations could be wrong. While the new MOC image shows that 'Inca City' has a larger context as part of a circular form, it does not reveal the exact origin of these striking and unusual martian landforms.

  3. Congenital orbital teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyub, Shereen; Chan, Wengonn; Szetu, John; Sullivan, Laurence J; Pater, John; Cooper, Peter; Selva, Dinesh

    2013-12-01

    We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.

  4. Congenital orbital teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Aiyub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.

  5. PS Booster Orbit Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Chanel, M; Rumolo, G; Tomás, R; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    At the end of the 2007 run, orbit measurements were carried out in the 4 rings of the PS Booster (PSB) for different working points and beam energies. The aim of these measurements was to provide the necessary input data for a PSB realignment campaign during the 2007/2008 shutdown. Currently, only very few corrector magnets can be operated reliably in the PSB; therefore the orbit correction has to be achieved by displacing (horizontally and vertically) and/or tilting some of the defocusing quadrupoles (QDs). In this report we first describe the orbit measurements, followed by a detailed explanation of the orbit correction strategy. Results and conclusions are presented in the last section.

  6. Equatorial density depletions observed at 840 km during the great magnetic storm of March 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, M.E.; Rasmussen, C.E.; Burke, W.J.; Abdu, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Early on March 14, 1989, a thermal plasma probe on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F9 spacecraft detected extensive and dramatic decreases in the ion density at 840 km, near 2130 LT, during two consecutive transequatorial passes over South America. The order of magnitude decreases in the ion density extended more than 4,000 km along the satellite track. The depletions were accompanied by upward and westward plasma drifts, both in excess of 100 m/s. Their onsets and terminations were marked by extremely sharp density gradients. A partial depletion was detected over the eastern Pacific during the following orbit. The DMSP F9 ground track passed slightly west of a Brazilian total electron content (TEC) station and two Brazilian ionosondes during the first depletion encounter. The TEC fell far below normal during the night of March 13-14. The ionosonde measurements indicate that, in the hour after sunset, before DMSP passed through the depletions, the F 2 layer rose rapidly and disappeared, but at the time of the first depletion encounter, h m F 2 was decreasing over one of the stations. The authors develop a phenomenological model reconciling DMSP F8, F9 and ground-based measurements. The calculations show that rapid upward drifts sustained for several hours can produce depletions in the equatorial ion density with sharp gradients at their high-latitude boundaries, consistent with the data. They discuss possible contributing mechanisms for generating these upward drifts. These include direct penetration of the magnetospheric electric field to low latitudes, the electric fields generated by the disturbance dynamo, and the effects of conductivity gradients near the dusk terminator and the South Atlantic anomaly

  7. CONVECTIVE BURSTS AND THE COUPLING OF SATURN'S EQUATORIAL STORMS AND INTERIOR ROTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimpel, Moritz; Aurnou, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal variations of Saturn's equatorial jet and magnetic field hint at rich dynamics coupling the atmosphere and the deep interior. However, it has been assumed that rotation of the interior dynamo must be steady over tens of years of modern observations. Here we use a numerical convection model and scaling estimates to show how equatorial convective bursts can transfer angular momentum to the deeper interior. The numerical model allows angular momentum transfer between a fluid outer spherical shell and a rigid inner sphere. Convection drives a prograde equatorial jet exhibiting quasiperiodic bursts that fill the equatorial volume outside the tangent cylinder. For each burst strong changes in the equatorial surface velocity are associated with retrograde torque on the inner sphere. Our results suggest that Saturn's Great White Spot, a giant storm that was observed to fill the equatorial region in 1990, could mobilize a volume of fluid carrying roughly 15% of Saturn's moment of inertia. Conservation of angular momentum then implies that a 20% change in the equatorial jet angular velocity could change the average interior rotation rate by about 0.1%—roughly an order of magnitude less than the apparent rotation rate changes associated with Saturn's kilometric radio (SKR) signal. However, if the SKR signal originates outside the liquid metal core in a 'planetary tachocline' that separates the layer of fast zonal flow from the magnetically controlled and slowly convecting deep interior, then convective bursts can provide a possible mechanism for the observed ∼1% SKR changes.

  8. The streaming-trapped ion interface in the equatorial inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Horwitz, J. L.; Gallagher, D.; Pollock, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft measurements of core ions on L=4-7 field-lines typically show trapped ion distributions near the magnetic equator, and frequently indicate field-aligned ion streams at higher latitudes. The nature of the transition between them may indicate both the microphysics of hot-cold plasma interactions and overall consequences for core plasma evolution. We have undertaken a statistical analysis and characterization of this interface and its relation to the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. In this analysis, we have characterized such features as the equatorial ion flux anisotropy, the penetration of field-aligned ionospheric streams into the equatorial region, the scale of the transition into trapped ion populations, and the transition latitude. We found that most transition latitudes occur within 13 deg of the equator. The typical values of equatorial ion anisotropies are consistent with bi-Maxwellian temperature ratios of T(sub perpendicular)/T(sub parallel) in the range of 3-5. The latitudinal scales for the edges of the trapped ion populations display a rather strong peak in the 2-3 deg range. We also found that there is a trend for the penetration ratio, the anisotropy half width, and the transition scale length to decrease with a higher equatorial ion anisotropy. We may interpret these features in terms of Liouville mapping of equatorially trapped ions and the reflection of the incoming ionospheric ion streams from the equatorial potential peaks associated with such trapped ions.

  9. Gravitational waveforms from a point particle orbiting a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, Karl

    2004-01-01

    We numerically solve the inhomogeneous Zerilli-Moncrief and Regge-Wheeler equations in the time domain. We obtain the gravitational waveforms produced by a point particle of mass μ traveling around a Schwarzschild black hole of mass M on arbitrary bound and unbound orbits. Fluxes of energy and angular momentum at infinity and the event horizon are also calculated. Results for circular orbits, selected cases of eccentric orbits, and parabolic orbits are presented. The numerical results from the time-domain code indicate that, for all three types of orbital motion, black hole absorption contributes less than 1% of the total flux, so long as the orbital radius r p (t) satisfies r p (t)>5M at all times

  10. Electric sail elliptic displaced orbits with advanced thrust model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolai, Lorenzo; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Mengali, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyzes the performance of an Electric Solar Wind Sail for generating and maintaining an elliptic, heliocentric, displaced non-Keplerian orbit. In this sense, this paper extends and completes recent studies regarding the performances of an Electric Solar Wind Sail that covers a circular, heliocentric, displaced orbit of given characteristics. The paper presents the general equations that describe the elliptic orbit maintenance in terms of both spacecraft attitude and performance requirements, when a refined thrust model (recently proposed for the preliminary mission design) is taken into account. In particular, the paper also discusses some practical applications on particular mission scenarios in which an analytic solution of the governing equations has been found.

  11. Handbook of satellite orbits from Kepler to GPS

    CERN Document Server

    Capderou, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years after Sputnik, artificial satellites have become indispensable monitors in many areas, such as economics, meteorology, telecommunications, navigation and remote sensing. The specific orbits are important for the proper functioning of the satellites. This book discusses the great variety of satellite orbits, both in shape (circular to highly elliptical) and properties (geostationary, Sun-synchronous, etc.). This volume starts with an introduction into geodesy. This is followed by a presentation of the fundamental equations of mechanics to explain and demonstrate the properties for all types of orbits. Numerous examples are included, obtained through IXION software developed by the author. The book also includes an exposition of the historical background that is necessary to help the reader understand the main stages of scientific thought from Kepler to GPS. This book is intended for researchers, teachers and students working in the field of satellite technology. Engineers, geographers and all those...

  12. Antisymmetric Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Klimyk

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, properties of antisymmetric orbit functions are reviewed and further developed. Antisymmetric orbit functions on the Euclidean space $E_n$ are antisymmetrized exponential functions. Antisymmetrization is fulfilled by a Weyl group, corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions are described. These functions are closely related to irreducible characters of a compact semisimple Lie group $G$ of rank $n$. Up to a sign, values of antisymmetric orbit functions are repeated on copies of the fundamental domain $F$ of the affine Weyl group (determined by the initial Weyl group in the entire Euclidean space $E_n$. Antisymmetric orbit functions are solutions of the corresponding Laplace equation in $E_n$, vanishing on the boundary of the fundamental domain $F$. Antisymmetric orbit functions determine a so-called antisymmetrized Fourier transform which is closely related to expansions of central functions in characters of irreducible representations of the group $G$. They also determine a transform on a finite set of points of $F$ (the discrete antisymmetric orbit function transform. Symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential, sine and cosine discrete transforms are given.

  13. Local orbit feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Critically aligned experiments are sensitive to small changes in the electron beam orbit. At the NSLS storage rings, the electron beam and photon beam motions have been monitored over the past several years. In the survey conducted in 1986 by the NSLS Users Executive Committee, experimenters requested the vertical beam position variation and the vertical angle variation, within a given fill, remain within 10 μm and 10 μr, respectively. This requires improvement in the beam stability by about one order of magnitude. At the NSLS and SSRL storage rings, the beam that is originally centered on the position monitor by a dc orbit correction is observed to have two kinds of motion: a dc drift over a storage period of several hours and a beam bounce about its nominal position. These motions are a result of the equilibrium orbit not being held perfectly stable due to time-varying errors introduced into the magnetic guide field by power supplies, mechanical vibration of the magnets, cooling water temperature variations, etc. The approach to orbit stabilization includes (1) identifying and suppressing as many noise sources on the machine as possible, (2) correcting the beam position globally (see Section 6) by controlling a number of correctors around the circumference of the machine, and (3) correcting the beam position and angle at a given source location by position feedback using local detectors and local orbit bumps. The third approach, called Local Orbit Feedback will be discussed in this section

  14. Extension of Earth-Moon libration point orbits with solar sail propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, M.J.; Macdonald, Malcolm; Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents families of libration point orbits in the Earth-Moon system that originate from complementing the classical circular restricted three-body problem with a solar sail. Through the use of a differential correction scheme in combination with a continuation on the solar sail

  15. Circular polarimetry of EXO 033319-2554.2 - a new eclipsing AM Herculis star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, G.; Smith, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    This Letter presents circular polarimetry that unequivocally identifies EXO 033319-2554.2 as only the third eclipsing AM Her star and brings the total number of AM Her stars now identified to 14. The orbital period is 126.4 minutes, as previously reported, and defines a new short-period edge to the period gap seen in all classes of cataclysmic variable stars. EXO 033319-2554.2 shows 2.5 mag deep eclipses of the predominantly accreting magnetic pole on the white dwarf. Before the eclipse, the pole rotates into the line of sight and shows white-light circular polarization, due to cyclotron radiation, that reaches values as high as 10 percent. There is some evidence that the second pole is emitting cyclotron radiation too. How high time resolution photometry, linear polarimetry, and spectroscopy will be of great value in understanding this system. 17 references

  16. Circular polarimetry of EXO 033319-2554.2 - A new eclipsing AM Herculis star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berriman, Graham; Smith, Paul S.

    1988-01-01

    This Letter presents circular polarimetry that unequivocally identifies EXO 033319-2554.2 as only the third eclipsing AM Her star and brings the total number of AM Her stars now identified to 14. The orbital period is 126.4 minutes, as previously reported, and defines a new short-period edge to the period gap seen in all classes of cataclysmic variable stars. EXO 033319-2554.2 shows 2.5 mag deep eclipses of the predominantly accreting magnetic pole on the white dwarf. Before the eclipse, the pole rotates into the line of sight and shows white-light circular polarization, due to cyclotron radiation, that reaches values as high as 10 percent. There is some evidence that the second pole is emitting cyclotron radiation too. How high time resolution photometry, linear polarimetry, and spectroscopy will be of great value in understanding this system.

  17. A New Kind of Shift Operators for Infinite Circular and Spherical Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hua Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of shift operators for infinite circular and spherical wells is identified. These shift operators depend on all spatial variables of quantum systems and connect some eigenstates of confined systems of different radii R sharing energy levels with a common eigenvalue. In circular well, the momentum operators P±=Px±iPy play the role of shift operators. The Px and Py operators, the third projection of the orbital angular momentum operator Lz, and the Hamiltonian H form a complete set of commuting operators with the SO(2 symmetry. In spherical well, the shift operators establish a novel relation between ψlm(r and ψ(l ± 1(m±1(r.

  18. An AUTONOMOUS STAR IDENTIFICATION ALGORITHM BASED ON THE DIRECTED CIRCULARITY PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the angular distance may decrease due to lots of factors, such as the parameters of the stellar camera aren't calibrated on-orbit, or the location accuracy of the star image points is low, and so on, which can cause the low success rates of star identification. A robust directed circularity pattern algorithm is proposed in this paper, which is developed on basis of the matching probability algorithm. The improved algorithm retains the matching probability strategy to identify master star, and constructs a directed circularity pattern with the adjacent stars for unitary matching. The candidate matching group which has the longest chain will be selected as the final result. Simulation experiments indicate that the improved algorithm has high successful identification and reliability etc, compared with the original algorithm. The experiments with real data are used to verify it.

  19. Circular arc snakes and kinematic surface generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael; Shi, Ling; Kilian, Martin; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    of circular arcs is well suited for such purposes, and allows us to reduce evolution of curves to the evolution of a control point collection in a certain finite-dimensional shape space. We approach this evolution by a 2-step process: linearized evolution via

  20. Symmetric Circular Matchings and RNA Folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofacker, Ivo L.; Reidys, Christian; Stadler, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    RNA secondary structures can be computed as optimal solutions of certain circular matching problems. An accurate treatment of this energy minimization problem has to account for the small --- but non-negligible --- entropic destabilization of secondary structures with non-trivial automorphisms. S...

  1. Solid angle subtended by two circular discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilly, Louis.

    1978-09-01

    Methods of calculation of solid angles, subtended by two circular discs are analysed. Calculus are methodically classified as follow: series development Legendre polynomes, defined integral, elliptic integrals, Bessel integrals, multiple integrals, Monte Carlo method, electrostatic analogy. Applications in Nuclear Physics are added as examples. List of numeric tables completes bibliography [fr

  2. Stability analysis of cylinders with circular cutouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almroth, B. O.; Brogan, F. A.; Marlowe, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The stability of axially compressed cylinders with circular cutouts is analyzed numerically. An extension of the finite-difference method is used which removes the requirement that displacement components be defined in the directions of the grid lines. The results of this nonlinear analysis are found to be in good agreement with earlier experimental results.

  3. Institutional incentives in circular economy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Aglaia; Pascucci, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to gain insight into how requirements for transitioning to circular economy creates new organizational forms in inter-firm collaborations, and ultimately how they stimulate the emergence of new institutions enhancing sustainability. Two strands of literature, one on

  4. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  5. Shear stresses around circular cylindrical openings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, P.C.J.; Van Weelden, C.; Blom, C.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper stress concentrations are studied around circular cylindrical openings or voids in a linear elastic continuum. The loading is such that a uniform shear stress occurs in the continuum, which is disturbed by the opening. The shear stress is in the direction of the centre axis of the

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic flow past a circular cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarup, S.; Sinha, P.C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper deals with the slow-flow problem of an incompressible, viscous, electrically conducting fluid past a circular cylinder in an alignment magnetic field. The solutions for the velocity and magnetic fields as sought by the method of matched asymptotic expansions under the assumptions R,Rsub(m) 2 ) and O(R/log M), respectively. (Auth.)

  7. Photoexcitation circular dichroism in chiral molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S.; Comby, A.; Descamps, D.; Fabre, B.; Garcia, G. A.; Géneaux, R.; Harvey, A. G.; Légaré, F.; Mašín, Z.; Nahon, L.; Ordonez, A. F.; Petit, S.; Pons, B.; Mairesse, Y.; Smirnova, O.; Blanchet, V.

    2018-05-01

    Chiral effects appear in a wide variety of natural phenomena and are of fundamental importance in science, from particle physics to metamaterials. The standard technique of chiral discrimination—photoabsorption circular dichroism—relies on the magnetic properties of a chiral medium and yields an extremely weak chiral response. Here, we propose and demonstrate an orders of magnitude more sensitive type of circular dichroism in neutral molecules: photoexcitation circular dichroism. This technique does not rely on weak magnetic effects, but takes advantage of the coherent helical motion of bound electrons excited by ultrashort circularly polarized light. It results in an ultrafast chiral response and the efficient excitation of a macroscopic chiral density in an initially isotropic ensemble of randomly oriented chiral molecules. We probe this excitation using linearly polarized laser pulses, without the aid of further chiral interactions. Our time-resolved study of vibronic chiral dynamics opens a way to the efficient initiation, control and monitoring of chiral chemical change in neutral molecules at the level of electrons.

  8. Time can't be circular

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Delivering the Albert Einstein lecture at the Centre for Philosophy and Foundations of Science on Tuesday, Nobel Laureate Professor Gerard Hooft said that any notion of time can not be circular or have loops or multi dimensionality" (1/2 page).

  9. 76 FR 60590 - Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... oral presentations about the two proposed Circulars and allow attendees an opportunity to ask... of the comfort and safety of all attendees and the maximum seating capacity of meeting rooms, FTA... and non-traditional media, as well as digital media. Additional strategies to increase involvement of...

  10. 78 FR 14620 - Joint Development: Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... development. This circular provides guidance to recipients of Federal Transit Administration (FTA) financial... of opportunities for private sector participation in public transportation projects, and includes the... ``value capture'' mechanisms, such as income derived from rental or lease payments, and private sector...

  11. Circular symmetry in topologically massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deser, S; Franklin, J

    2010-01-01

    We re-derive, compactly, a topologically massive gravity (TMG) decoupling theorem: source-free TMG separates into its Einstein and Cotton sectors for spaces with a hypersurface-orthogonal Killing vector, here concretely for circular symmetry. We then generalize the theorem to include matter; surprisingly, the single Killing symmetry also forces conformal invariance, requiring the sources to be null. (note)

  12. NOTE: Circular symmetry in topologically massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deser, S.; Franklin, J.

    2010-05-01

    We re-derive, compactly, a topologically massive gravity (TMG) decoupling theorem: source-free TMG separates into its Einstein and Cotton sectors for spaces with a hypersurface-orthogonal Killing vector, here concretely for circular symmetry. We then generalize the theorem to include matter; surprisingly, the single Killing symmetry also forces conformal invariance, requiring the sources to be null.

  13. Circular symmetry in topologically massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deser, S [Physics Department, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Franklin, J, E-mail: deser@brandeis.ed, E-mail: jfrankli@reed.ed [Reed College, Portland, OR 97202 (United States)

    2010-05-21

    We re-derive, compactly, a topologically massive gravity (TMG) decoupling theorem: source-free TMG separates into its Einstein and Cotton sectors for spaces with a hypersurface-orthogonal Killing vector, here concretely for circular symmetry. We then generalize the theorem to include matter; surprisingly, the single Killing symmetry also forces conformal invariance, requiring the sources to be null. (note)

  14. Periodic Solutions for Circular Restricted -Body Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For circular restricted -body problems, we study the motion of a sufficiently small mass point (called the zero mass point in the plane of equal masses located at the vertices of a regular polygon. By using variational minimizing methods, for some , we prove the existence of the noncollision periodic solution for the zero mass point with some fixed wingding number.

  15. Administrative Circular n° 12

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the Standing Concertation Committee, the Director-General has approved the amounts used for the reimbursements mentioned in Administrative Circular N° 12 as follows : The figures, effective from 1 September 2005, are : § 8a : 16.50 Swiss francs § 9a : 662 Swiss francs § 9b : 33 Swiss francs

  16. the mathematics of ghanaian circular musical drumheads

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    overtones. INTRODUCTION. The mathematics of percussion drums and other musical instruments has been delved into by lots of researchers tackling it from different angles, and especially for circular drumheads with constant tension. Such drums include the conga which usually produces rhythmic sounds. But little or no ...

  17. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  18. Breaking the Barriers to the Circular Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, J.W.; Hekkert, M.P.; Bour, Ruben; Huijbrechtse-Truijens, Anne; Kostense-Smit, Erica; Muller, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, the Netherlands and Deloitte have jointly carried out research on barriers to the Circular Economy (CE) in the European Union. For this research, a survey with 153 businesses, 55 government officials and expert interviews with

  19. Falling aprons at circular piers under currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Sonneville, B.; Van Velzen, G.; Verheij, H.J.; Dorst, K.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional guidelines on rock protection at circular piers predominantly focus on preventing shear failure (by choosing a sufficiently large rock size), winnowing failure (by designing an appropriate filter) and edge failure (by selecting a sufficient extent). In particular areas (e.g. in an

  20. Taub-NUT spinless particles and Schwarzschild spinning particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, D.; La Sapienza Univ., Rome

    2005-01-01

    The effect of a small gravitomagnetic monopole on (accelerated) circular orbits in the equatorial plane of the Taub-NUT space-time is compared to the corresponding (accelerated) orbits pushed slightly off the equatorial plane in the absence of the monopole (Schwarzschild space-time)

  1. Spatial relationship of 1-meter equatorial spread-F irregularities and depletions in total electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, R.T.; Towle, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands to investigate the spatial relationship of 1-m equatorial spread-F irregularities to total electron content (TEC) depletions. A high-power radar was operated (1) in a backscatter scan mode to spatially map the distribution of 1-m irregularities, and (2) in a dual-frequency, satellite-track mode to obtain the longitudinal TEC variations. We show that radar backscatter ''plumes'' found in the disturbed, nighttime equatorial ionosphere are longitudinally coincident with TEC depletions. We suggest that the TEC depletions are probably due to the presence of plasma ''bubbles'' in the equatorial F layer

  2. The physical and theoretical basis of solar-terrestrial relationships 1. Equatorial locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-07-01

    The theory of solar-terrestrial relationships developed earlier by the author is extended to incorporate expressions that represent the non-linear responses of the earth-atmosphere system to incoming solar radiation in a more detailed manner. Application of the extended theory to equatorial locations leads to new and interesting features that are consistent with past observations. It also predicts the existence of new oscillations in the equatorial atmosphere whose causative physical processes are given and explained. Non-equatorial locations are treated along similar lines in Part 2 of the series. (author). 44 refs

  3. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1987-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant.

  4. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.

    1987-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low Earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to Earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant

  5. The K-1 Active Dispenser for Orbit Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, G.; Cochran, D.; Curtis, R.

    2002-01-01

    Kistler Aerospace Corporation is building the K-1, the world's first fully reusable launch vehicle. The two-stage K- 1 is designed primarily to service the market for low-earth orbit (LEO) missions, due to Kistler's need to recover both stages. For customers requiring payload delivery to high-energy orbits, Kistler can outfit the payload with a K- 1 Active Dispenser (an expendable third stage). The K-1 second stage will deploy the Active Dispenser mated with its payload into a 200 km circular LEO parking orbit. From this orbit, the Active Dispenser would use its own propulsion to place its payload into the final desired drop-off orbit or earth-escape trajectory. This approach allows Kistler to combine the low-cost launch services offered by the reusable two-stage K-1 with the versatility of a restartable, expendable upper stage. Enhanced with an Active Dispenser, the K-1 will be capable of delivering 1,500 kg to a geosynchronous transfer orbit or up to approximately 1,000 kg into a Mars rendezvous trajectory. The list price of a K-1 Active Dispenser launch is 25 million (plus the price of mission unique integration services) significantly less than the price of any launch vehicle service in the world with comparable capability.

  6. Linear and nonlinear stability of periodic orbits in annular billiards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmann, Carl P.; Fain, Vitaly

    2017-04-01

    An annular billiard is a dynamical system in which a particle moves freely in a disk except for elastic collisions with the boundary and also a circular scatterer in the interior of the disk. We investigate the stability properties of some periodic orbits in annular billiards in which the scatterer is touching or close to the boundary. We analytically show that there exist linearly stable periodic orbits of an arbitrary period for scatterers with decreasing radii that are located near the boundary of the disk. As the position of the scatterer moves away from a symmetry line of a periodic orbit, the stability of periodic orbits changes from elliptic to hyperbolic, corresponding to a saddle-center bifurcation. When the scatterer is tangent to the boundary, the periodic orbit is parabolic. We prove that slightly changing the reflection angle of the orbit in the tangential situation leads to the existence of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser islands. Thus, we show that there exists a decreasing to zero sequence of open intervals of scatterer radii, along which the billiard table is not ergodic.

  7. An Analysis of Unseasonal Equatorial Plasma Bubbles in July 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. A.; Currie, J. L.; Pradipta, R.; Groves, K. M.; Caton, R. G.; Yokoyama, T.

    2017-12-01

    In the equatorial ionosphere, the Raleigh-Taylor (RT) plasma instability in the post sunset region is known to cause plasma depletions, known as equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs). These EPBs can have adverse effects on satellite-reliant technologies by causing scintillations in the phase and amplitude of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals. The effect of EPBs on satellite-reliant technologies highlights a need for reliable forecasting of EPBs in the low-latitude regions, which requires a solid understanding of their climatology and daily variability. The climatology of EPB occurrence is known to correlate with the angle between the magnetic field and solar terminator. This angle controls the longitudinal E-region conductivity gradient across the day-night terminator, which influences the strength of the pre-reversal enhancement in the upward plasma drift, a dominant term in the linear RT growth rate. This relationship is well established from ground-based GNSS and satellite-based studies. However, reliable forecasts have not been developed by space weather forecasting agencies due to the lack of understanding of EPB daily variability. During July, EPB occurrence is small in the South-East Asia longitude sector due to the relatively large angle between the magnetic field and solar terminator. As a result, the pre-reversal enhancement in the upward plasma drift is typically low during this period, creating less favourable conditions for EPB growth. However, despite the typically low pre-reversal enhancement strength, this analysis reveals that July 2014 is not devoid of EPB events above South-East Asia. These unseasonal EPB events during July 2014 are studied in the context of the prevalently low solar and geomagnetic activity conditions. Given the lack of solar and geomagnetic control, the influence of the lower atmosphere on EPB generation (e.g., via atmospheric gravity wave seeding) is explored. These events provide a unique opportunity to investigate

  8. Priority areas for large mammal conservation in Equatorial Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuki Murai

    Full Text Available Hunting is one of the main driving forces behind large mammal density distribution in many regions of the world. In tropical Africa, urban demand for bushmeat has been shown to dominate over subsistence hunting and its impact often overrides spatial-ecological species characteristics. To effectively protect remaining mammal populations the main factors that influence their distribution need to be integrated into conservation area prioritisation and management plans. This information has been lacking for Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea, as prior studies have been outdated or have not systematically covered the continental region of the country. In this study we evaluated: 1 the relative importance of local vs. commercial hunting; 2 wildlife density of protected vs. non-protected areas; and 3 the importance of ecological factors vs. human influence in driving mammal density distribution in Río Muni. We adopted a systematic countrywide line transect approach with particular focus on apes and elephants, but also including other mammal species. For analysis of field data we used generalised linear models with a set of predictor variables representing ecological conditions, anthropogenic pressure and protected areas. We estimate that there are currently 884 (437-1,789 elephants and 11,097 (8,719-13,592 chimpanzees and gorillas remaining in Río Muni. The results indicate strong hunting pressures on both local and commercial levels, with roads demonstrating a negative impact on elephants and overall mammal body mass. Protected areas played no role in determining any of the mammal species distributions and significant human hunting signs were found inside these protected areas, illustrating the lack of environmental law enforcement throughout the country. Río Muni is currently under-represented in conservation efforts in Western Equatorial Africa, and we recommend a focus on cross-boundary conservation, in particular in the Monte Alén-Monts de Cristal

  9. Snowball Earth termination by destabilization of equatorial permafrost methane clathrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Martin; Mrofka, David; von der Borch, Chris

    2008-05-29

    The start of the Ediacaran period is defined by one of the most severe climate change events recorded in Earth history--the recovery from the Marinoan 'snowball' ice age, approximately 635 Myr ago (ref. 1). Marinoan glacial-marine deposits occur at equatorial palaeolatitudes, and are sharply overlain by a thin interval of carbonate that preserves marine carbon and sulphur isotopic excursions of about -5 and +15 parts per thousand, respectively; these deposits are thought to record widespread oceanic carbonate precipitation during postglacial sea level rise. This abrupt transition records a climate system in profound disequilibrium and contrasts sharply with the cyclical stratigraphic signal imparted by the balanced feedbacks modulating Phanerozoic deglaciation. Hypotheses accounting for the abruptness of deglaciation include ice albedo feedback, deep-ocean out-gassing during post-glacial oceanic overturn or methane hydrate destabilization. Here we report the broadest range of oxygen isotope values yet measured in marine sediments (-25 per thousand to +12 per thousand) in methane seeps in Marinoan deglacial sediments underlying the cap carbonate. This range of values is likely to be the result of mixing between ice-sheet-derived meteoric waters and clathrate-derived fluids during the flushing and destabilization of a clathrate field by glacial meltwater. The equatorial palaeolatitude implies a highly volatile shelf permafrost pool that is an order of magnitude larger than that of the present day. A pool of this size could have provided a massive biogeochemical feedback capable of triggering deglaciation and accounting for the global postglacial marine carbon and sulphur isotopic excursions, abrupt unidirectional warming, cap carbonate deposition, and a marine oxygen crisis. Our findings suggest that methane released from low-latitude permafrost clathrates therefore acted as a trigger and/or strong positive feedback for deglaciation and warming. Methane hydrate

  10. Solid Angle Computations for a Circular Radiator and a Circular Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konijn, J; Tollander, B

    1963-02-15

    The problem of particle detection, when using an isotropic neutron point source at different distances from a circular target or a radioactive source as seen by a circular detector, e. g. a solid state counter, is dealt with. Tables are given for different distances of the source when the reaction at the target has an isotropic or a cosine angular distribution in the laboratory system.

  11. Characterizing the Survey Strategy and Initial Orbit Determination Abilities of the NASA MCAT Telescope for Geosynchronous Orbital Debris Environmental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, J.; Barker, E.; Cowardin, H.; Buckalew, B.; Anz-Meador, P.; Lederer, S.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) recently commissioned the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island with the primary goal of obtaining population statistics of the geosynchronous (GEO) orbital debris environment. To help facilitate this, studies have been conducted using MCAT’s known and projected capabilities to estimate the accuracy and timeliness in which it can survey the GEO environment, including collected weather data and the proposed observational data collection cadence. To optimize observing cadences and probability of detection, on-going work using a simulated GEO debris population sampled at various cadences are run through the Constrained Admissible Region Multi Hypotheses Filter (CAR-MHF). The orbits computed from the results are then compared to the simulated data to assess MCAT’s ability to determine accurately the orbits of debris at various sample rates. The goal of this work is to discriminate GEO and near-GEO objects from GEO transfer orbit objects that can appear as GEO objects in the environmental models due to the short arc observation and an assumed circular orbit. The specific methods and results are presented here.

  12. E-Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Patera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We review and further develop the theory of $E$-orbit functions. They are functions on the Euclidean space $E_n$ obtained from the multivariate exponential function by symmetrization by means of an even part $W_{e}$ of a Weyl group $W$, corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions are described. They are closely related to symmetric and antisymmetric orbit functions which are received from exponential functions by symmetrization and antisymmetrization procedure by means of a Weyl group $W$. The $E$-orbit functions, determined by integral parameters, are invariant withrespect to even part $W^{aff}_{e}$ of the affine Weyl group corresponding to $W$. The $E$-orbit functions determine a symmetrized Fourier transform, where these functions serve as a kernel of the transform. They also determine a transform on a finite set of points of the fundamental domain $F^{e}$ of the group $W^{aff}_{e}$ (the discrete $E$-orbit function transform.

  13. Advisory Circular checklist and status of other FAA publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-15

    This 1997 circular transmits the revised checklist of the Federal Aviation : Administration's (FAA) Advisory Circulars (AC's). It also lists certain other : FAA publications sold by the Superintendent of Documents.

  14. 10Be/230Th ratios as proxy for particle flux in the equatorial Pacific ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.F.; Fleisher, M.Q.; Kubik, P.W.; Suter, M.

    1997-01-01

    Particulate 10 Be/ 230 Th ratios collected by sediment traps in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean exhibit a positive correlation with particle flux, but little or no correlation with particle composition. (author) 1 fig., 4 refs

  15. Determination of vertical velocities in the equatorial part of the western Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bahulayan, N.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    Using steady state two-dimensional turbulent diffusion equations of salt and heat some important characteristics of vertical circulation in the equatorial part of the Indian Ocean have been evaluated and discussed. Upwelling and sinking velocities...

  16. Bacterial Diversity in Deep-Sea Sediments from Afanasy Nikitin Seamount, Equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Meena, R.M.; Deobagkar, D.D.

    Deep-sea sediments can reveal much about the last 200 million years of Earth history, including the history of ocean life and climate. Microbial diversity in Afanasy Nikitin seamount located at Equatorial East Indian Ocean (EEIO) was investigated...

  17. Surface currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean during spring and fall - An altimetry based analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    This communication presents the results of a study aimed at investigating the nature and variability of surface currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean between 5 degrees N and 5 degrees S during spring and fall seasons. Geostrophic surface currents...

  18. Observational evidence of lower-frequency Yanai waves in the central equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    David, D.T.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Byju, P.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Suryanarayana, A.; Murty, V.S.N.

    created by the northward shifting and strengthening of the westward flowing south equatorial current associated with positive IOD and the eastward flowing southwest monsoon current provides energy for the generation of lower-frequency Yanai waves. Vertical...

  19. Weight Percentage of Calcium Carbonate for 17 Equatorial Pacific Cores from Brown University

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weight percentages of calcium carbonate in this file were compiled by J. Farrell and W. L. Prell of Brown University for 17 equatorial Pacific Ocean sediment cores....

  20. Detection and Characterization of Equatorial Scintillation for Real-Time Operational Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McNeil, W

    1997-01-01

    The Phillips Laboratory Scintillation Network Decision Aid (PL-SCINDA) is a software tool which uses real-time data from remote sites to model ionospheric plasma depletions in the equatorial region...

  1. Development pattern of circular economy in Jiangsu coastland

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Circular economy is an effective development pattern to balance economic growth, social development and environmental protection. Based on apprehending the connotation of circular economy, this paper fully considers and studies on the future trends in this area according to the theory of circular economy and the empirical circumstances of Jiangsu Coastland. This paper also discusses the circular economy development pattern adopted by Jiangsu coastland during economic and social development fr...

  2. Collisional redistribution of circularly polarized light in barium perturbed by argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, W.J.; Andersen, N.; Belsley, M.; Cooper, J.; Warrington, D.M.; Burnett, K.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the orientation of the Ba 6p 1 P level produced by collision-induced excitation from the ground state by circularly polarized light. The detuning dependence of the far-wing excited state orientation can be interpreted in terms of reorientation of molecular orbitals which occur during the collision. Effects due to rotational coupling are seen to occure at large blue wing detunings. We have also determined the collisional rate for destruction of orientation by measuring the pressure dependence of the excited state orientation. (orig.)

  3. Linear and circular dichroism in angle resolved Fe 3p photomission. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, E.; Waddill, G.D.; Tobin, J.G.; Sterne, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Using a recently developed spin-polarized, fully relativistic, multiple scattering approach based on the layer KKR Green function method, we have reproduced the Fe 3p angle-resolved soft x-ray photoemission spectra and analyzed the associated large magnetic dichroism effects for excitation with both linearly and circularly polarized light. Comparison between theory and experiment yields a spin-orbit splitting of 1.0--1.2 eV and an exchange splitting of 0.9-- 1.0 eV for Fe 3p. These values are 50--100% larger than those hitherto obtained experimentally

  4. [Secondary orbital lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, I; Sevillano, C; Álvarez, M D

    2015-09-01

    A case is presented of an 85 year-old Caucasian female with lymphoma that recurred in the orbit (secondary ocular adnexal lymphoma). The orbital tumour was a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to the REAL classification (Revised European-American Lymphoma Classification). Orbital lymphomas are predominantly B-cell proliferations of a variety of histological types, and most are low-grade tumours. Patients are usually middle-aged or elderly, and it is slightly more common in women. A palpable mass, proptosis and blepharoptosis are the most common signs of presentation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Large orbit neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Neoclassical transport in the presence of large ion orbits is investigated. The study is motivated by the recent experimental results that ion thermal transport levels in enhanced confinement tokamak plasmas fall below the open-quotes irreducible minimum levelclose quotes predicted by standard neoclassical theory. This apparent contradiction is resolved in the present analysis by relaxing the basic neoclassical assumption that the ions orbital excursions are much smaller than the local toroidal minor radius and the equilibrium scale lengths of the system. Analytical and simulation results are in agreement with trends from experiments. The development of a general formalism for neoclassical transport theory with finite orbit width is also discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Investigations of equatorial ionosphere nighttime mode conversion at VLF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verne

    1993-05-01

    VLF Radiowave propagation provides one of the few viable tools for exploring the properties of the lower D-region ionosphere. Conversely, VLF communications coverage analysis and prediction is directly dependent on the quality of models for the D-region ionosphere. The VLF Omega navigation signals are an excellent and under-utilized resource for conducting D-region research in direct support of VLF communications. Stations are well placed for investigating polar, mid latitude, and equatorial phenomena. Much can be learned by fully utilizing the very stable signals radiated at five frequencies, available from each of the eight transmitters, and taking full advantage of modal structure. While the Omega signals, 10.2 to 13.6 kHz, are well below the VLF communications band, we contend that much of the knowledge gained on D-region characteristics can be directly applied at the higher frequencies. The opportunity offered by Omega needs to be exploited. With the Global Positioning System (GPS) coming onboard as the prime means for global navigation, pressure is mounting to phase out Omega. In this paper we describe how we are using Omega along with computer codes of full wave VLF propagation, provided to us by the U.S. Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC), for ionosphere research and by example illustrate the potential for other investigations.

  7. Equatorial segment of the mid-atlantic ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Equatorial Segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a part of this mid-oceanic ridge limited by a cluster of fracture zones - Cape Verde, Marathon, Mercury, Vema, Doldrums, Vernadsky and Sierra Leone - in the North, and a similar cluster of fracture zones - St Paul, Romanche and Chain - in the South. During recent decades, following the publication of the 5. edition of the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO), there has been a great deal of geological-geophysical research and mapping of the World Ocean. The results have led to the development of a number of theories concerning the essential heterogeneity of the structure of the ocean floor and, in particular, the heterogeneity of the structure and segmentation of mid-oceanic ridges. Research on the nature of such segmentation is of great importance for an understanding of the processes of development of such ridges and oceanic basins as a whole. Chapter 20 is dedicated to the study of the atlantic ocean mantle by using (Th.U)Th, (Th/U)pb and K/Ti systematics 380 refs.

  8. Equatorial segment of the mid-atlantic ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Equatorial Segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a part of this mid-oceanic ridge limited by a cluster of fracture zones - Cape Verde, Marathon, Mercury, Vema, Doldrums, Vernadsky and Sierra Leone - in the North, and a similar cluster of fracture zones - St Paul, Romanche and Chain - in the South. During recent decades, following the publication of the 5. edition of the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO), there has been a great deal of geological-geophysical research and mapping of the World Ocean. The results have led to the development of a number of theories concerning the essential heterogeneity of the structure of the ocean floor and, in particular, the heterogeneity of the structure and segmentation of mid-oceanic ridges. Research on the nature of such segmentation is of great importance for an understanding of the processes of development of such ridges and oceanic basins as a whole. Chapter 20 is dedicated to the study of the atlantic ocean mantle by using (Th.U)Th, (Th/U)pb and K/Ti systematics

  9. A Cenozoic record of the equatorial Pacific carbonate compensation depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pälike, Heiko; Lyle, Mitchell W; Nishi, Hiroshi; Raffi, Isabella; Ridgwell, Andy; Gamage, Kusali; Klaus, Adam; Acton, Gary; Anderson, Louise; Backman, Jan; Baldauf, Jack; Beltran, Catherine; Bohaty, Steven M; Bown, Paul; Busch, William; Channell, Jim E T; Chun, Cecily O J; Delaney, Margaret; Dewangan, Pawan; Dunkley Jones, Tom; Edgar, Kirsty M; Evans, Helen; Fitch, Peter; Foster, Gavin L; Gussone, Nikolaus; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Hathorne, Ed C; Hayashi, Hiroki; Herrle, Jens O; Holbourn, Ann; Hovan, Steve; Hyeong, Kiseong; Iijima, Koichi; Ito, Takashi; Kamikuri, Shin-ichi; Kimoto, Katsunori; Kuroda, Junichiro; Leon-Rodriguez, Lizette; Malinverno, Alberto; Moore, Ted C; Murphy, Brandon H; Murphy, Daniel P; Nakamura, Hideto; Ogane, Kaoru; Ohneiser, Christian; Richter, Carl; Robinson, Rebecca; Rohling, Eelco J; Romero, Oscar; Sawada, Ken; Scher, Howie; Schneider, Leah; Sluijs, Appy; Takata, Hiroyuki; Tian, Jun; Tsujimoto, Akira; Wade, Bridget S; Westerhold, Thomas; Wilkens, Roy; Williams, Trevor; Wilson, Paul A; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Zeebe, Richard E

    2012-08-30

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate are regulated on geological timescales by the balance between carbon input from volcanic and metamorphic outgassing and its removal by weathering feedbacks; these feedbacks involve the erosion of silicate rocks and organic-carbon-bearing rocks. The integrated effect of these processes is reflected in the calcium carbonate compensation depth, which is the oceanic depth at which calcium carbonate is dissolved. Here we present a carbonate accumulation record that covers the past 53 million years from a depth transect in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The carbonate compensation depth tracks long-term ocean cooling, deepening from 3.0-3.5 kilometres during the early Cenozoic (approximately 55 million years ago) to 4.6 kilometres at present, consistent with an overall Cenozoic increase in weathering. We find large superimposed fluctuations in carbonate compensation depth during the middle and late Eocene. Using Earth system models, we identify changes in weathering and the mode of organic-carbon delivery as two key processes to explain these large-scale Eocene fluctuations of the carbonate compensation depth.

  10. A mantle plume model for the Equatorial Highlands of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Hager, Bradford H.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility that the Equatorial Highlands are the surface expressions of hot upwelling mantle plumes is considered via a series of mantle plume models developed using a cylindrical axisymmetric finite element code and depth-dependent Newtonian rheology. The results are scaled by assuming whole mantle convection and that Venus and the earth have similar mantle heat flows. The best model fits are for Beta and Atla. The common feature of the allowed viscosity models is that they lack a pronounced low-viscosity zone in the upper mantle. The shape of Venus's long-wavelength admittance spectrum and the slope of its geoid spectrum are also consistent with the lack of a low-viscosity zone. It is argued that the lack of an asthenosphere on Venus is due to the mantle of Venus being drier than the earth's mantle. Mantle plumes may also have contributed to the formation of some smaller highland swells, such as the Bell and Eistla regions and the Hathor/Innini/Ushas region.

  11. Improved design of an ITER equatorial EC launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Kajiwara, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Kasugai, A.; Sakamoto, K.

    2008-01-01

    New design improvements for an ITER equatorial EC launcher are described. A design of the front shield modules was evaluated analytically. The results indicate that these modules can withstand the electromagnetic forces induced by plasma disruption and vertical plasma motion. The steering mirror mock-up including the spiral cooling tubes was fabricated based on the present design with application of the hot isostatic pressing technique to bond the copper alloy mirror body and the embedded stainless steel cooling tubes. The test of water flow was carried out and the expected flow rate was successfully obtained. A quasi-optical (QO) transmission layout has been proposed instead of the waveguide lines. The advantage of this option is possibly to increase the reliability in terms of fabrication and refurbishment. According to the beam propagation analysis, it is verified that transmission loss at the QO region is 1.1%-2.2%, which is comparable to the reference design. The peak heat load on the steering mirror surface could be reduced by 55%, which relaxes the mirror design

  12. Mismo field experiment in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Masumoto, Y.; Kuroda, Y.; Katsumata, M.; Mizuno, K.; Takayabu, Y.N.; Yoshizaki, M.; Shareef, A.; Fujiyoshi, Y.; McPhaden, M.J.; Murty, V.S.N.; Shirooka, R; Yasunaga, K.; Yamada, H.; Sato, N.; Ushiyama, T.; Moteki, Q.; Seiki, A.; Fujita, M.; Ando, K.; Hase, H.; Ueki, I; Horii, T.; Yokoyama, C.; Miyakawa, T.

    MISMO FIELD EXPERIMENT IN THE EQUATORIAL INDIAN OCEAN * b y Ku n i o yo n e y a m a , yu K i o ma s u m o t o , yo s h i f u m i Ku r o d a , ma s a K i Ka t s u m a t a , Ke i s u K e mi z u n o , yu K a r i n. ta K a y a b u , ma s a n o r i... yo s h i z a K i , al i sh a r e e f, ya s u s h i fu j i y o s h i , mi c h a e l j. mcPh a d e n , V. s. n. mu r t y , ry u i c h i sh i r o o K a , Ka z u a K i ya s u n a g a , hi r o y u K i ya m a d a , na o K i sa t o , to m o K i us...

  13. Bottom-type scattering layers and equatorial spread F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Jicamarca radar observations of bottom-type coherent scattering layers in the post-sunset bottomside F-region ionosphere are presented and analyzed. The morphology of the primary waves seen in radar images of the layers supports the hypothesis of kudeki+bhattacharyya-1999 that wind-driven gradient drift instabilities are operating. In one layer event when topside spread F did not occur, irregularities were distributed uniformly in space throughout the layers. In another event when topside spread F did eventually occur, the irregularities within the pre-existing bottom-type layers were horizontally clustered, with clusters separated by about 30km. The same horizontal periodicity was evident in the radar plumes and large-scale irregularities that emerged later in the event. We surmise that horizontal periodicity in bottom-type layer irregularity distribution is indicative of large-scale horizontal waves in the bottomside F-region that may serve as seed waves for large-scale Rayleigh Taylor instabilities. Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularties; plasma waves and instabilities

  14. Asymptotic approach for the nonlinear equatorial long wave interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Gutierrez, Enver; Silva Dias, Pedro L; Raupp, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we use an asymptotic approach to obtain the long wave equations. The shallow water equation is put as a function of an external parameter that is a measure of both the spatial scales anisotropy and the fast to slow time ratio. The values given to the external parameters are consistent with those computed using typical values of the perturbations in tropical dynamics. Asymptotically, the model converge toward the long wave model. Thus, it is possible to go toward the long wave approximation through intermediate realizable states. With this approach, the resonant nonlinear wave interactions are studied. To simplify, the reduced dynamics of a single resonant triad is used for some selected equatorial trios. It was verified by both theoretical and numerical results that the nonlinear energy exchange period increases smoothly as we move toward the long wave approach. The magnitude of the energy exchanges is also modified, but in this case depends on the particular triad used and also on the initial energy partition among the triad components. Some implications of the results for the tropical dynamics are discussed. In particular, we discuss the implications of the results for El Nino and the Madden-Julian in connection with other scales of time and spatial variability.

  15. Equatorial spread F: a review of recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the authors review an intense research effort aimed at understanding the large scale disruption of the equatorial F layer which often commences just after sunset, and lasts for most of the night. A very attractive explanation for the phenomena, although one not universally accepted, is that the F layer is unstable to the classic Rayleigh-Taylor condition in which a heavy fluid, the plasma, is supported against gravity by a light 'fluid', the Earth's magnetic field. It is concluded that a reasonable case has been made for this explanation provided that the concept is extended to include nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor like buoyancy effects above the F peak where linear process is stable. Internal gravity waves in neutral atmosphere seem to play an important role in seeding the Rayleigh-Taylor process with large scale finite amplitude perturbations. One of the remarkable features of this phenomena is the nearly simultaneous generation of structure with scale sizes spanning five orders of magnitude. These results may have applications in astrophysical processes where the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is thought to play a role. (Auth.)

  16. Equatorial insolation: from precession harmonics to eccentricity frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the paper by Hays et al. (1976, spectral analyses of climate proxy records provide substantial evidence that a fraction of the climatic variance is driven by insolation changes in the frequency ranges of obliquity and precession variations. However, it is the variance components centered near 100 kyr which dominate most Upper Pleistocene climatic records, although the amount of insolation perturbation at the eccentricity driven periods close to 100-kyr (mainly the 95 kyr- and 123 kyr-periods is much too small to cause directly a climate change of ice-age amplitude. Many attempts to find an explanation to this 100-kyr cycle in climatic records have been made over the last decades. Here we show that the double maximum which characterizes the daily irradiation received in tropical latitudes over the course of the year is at the origin in equatorial insolation of not only strong 95 kyr and 123 kyr periods related to eccentricity, but also of a 11-kyr and a 5.5-kyr periods related to precession.

  17. Equatorial segment of the mid-atlantic ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Equatorial Segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a part of this mid-oceanic ridge limited by a cluster of fracture zones - Cape Verde, Marathon, Mercury, Vema, Doldrums, Vernadsky and Sierra Leone - in the North, and a similar cluster of fracture zones - St Paul, Romanche and Chain - in the South. During recent decades, following the publication of the 5. edition of the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO), there has been a great deal of geological-geophysical research and mapping of the World Ocean. The results have led to the development of a number of theories concerning the essential heterogeneity of the structure of the ocean floor and, in particular, the heterogeneity of the structure and segmentation of mid-oceanic ridges. Research on the nature of such segmentation is of great importance for an understanding of the processes of development of such ridges and oceanic basins as a whole. Chapter 20 is dedicated to the study of the atlantic ocean mantle by using (Th.U)Th, (Th/U)pb and K/Ti systematics 380 refs.

  18. Tree rings and rainfall in the equatorial Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato-Souza, Daniela; Stahle, David W.; Barbosa, Ana Carolina; Feng, Song; Torbenson, Max C. A.; de Assis Pereira, Gabriel; Schöngart, Jochen; Barbosa, Joao Paulo; Griffin, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The Amazon basin is a global center of hydroclimatic variability and biodiversity, but there are only eight instrumental rainfall stations with continuous records longer than 80 years in the entire basin, an area nearly the size of the coterminous US. The first long moisture-sensitive tree-ring chronology has been developed in the eastern equatorial Amazon of Brazil based on dendrochronological analysis of Cedrela cross sections cut during sustainable logging operations near the Rio Paru. The Rio Paru chronology dates from 1786 to 2016 and is significantly correlated with instrumental precipitation observations from 1939 to 2016. The strength and spatial scale of the precipitation signal vary during the instrumental period, but the Rio Paru chronology has been used to develop a preliminary reconstruction of February to November rainfall totals from 1786 to 2016. The reconstruction is related to SSTs in the Atlantic and especially the tropical Pacific, similar to the stronger pattern of association computed for the instrumental rainfall data from the eastern Amazon. The tree-ring data estimate extended drought and wet episodes in the mid- to late-nineteenth century, providing a valuable, long-term perspective on the moisture changes expected to emerge over the Amazon in the coming century due to deforestation and anthropogenic climate change.

  19. Modeling Global Ocean Biogeochemistry With Physical Data Assimilation: A Pragmatic Solution to the Equatorial Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Stock, Charles A.; Yang, Xiaosong; Dunne, John P.; Rosati, Anthony; John, Jasmin; Zhang, Shaoqing

    2018-03-01

    Reliable estimates of historical and current biogeochemistry are essential for understanding past ecosystem variability and predicting future changes. Efforts to translate improved physical ocean state estimates into improved biogeochemical estimates, however, are hindered by high biogeochemical sensitivity to transient momentum imbalances that arise during physical data assimilation. Most notably, the breakdown of geostrophic constraints on data assimilation in equatorial regions can lead to spurious upwelling, resulting in excessive equatorial productivity and biogeochemical fluxes. This hampers efforts to understand and predict the biogeochemical consequences of El Niño and La Niña. We develop a strategy to robustly integrate an ocean biogeochemical model with an ensemble coupled-climate data assimilation system used for seasonal to decadal global climate prediction. Addressing spurious vertical velocities requires two steps. First, we find that tightening constraints on atmospheric data assimilation maintains a better equatorial wind stress and pressure gradient balance. This reduces spurious vertical velocities, but those remaining still produce substantial biogeochemical biases. The remainder is addressed by imposing stricter fidelity to model dynamics over data constraints near the equator. We determine an optimal choice of model-data weights that removed spurious biogeochemical signals while benefitting from off-equatorial constraints that still substantially improve equatorial physical ocean simulations. Compared to the unconstrained control run, the optimally constrained model reduces equatorial biogeochemical biases and markedly improves the equatorial subsurface nitrate concentrations and hypoxic area. The pragmatic approach described herein offers a means of advancing earth system prediction in parallel with continued data assimilation advances aimed at fully considering equatorial data constraints.

  20. Biogeochemical impact of a model western iron source in the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent

    OpenAIRE

    Slemons, L.; Gorgues, T.; Aumont, Olivier; Menkès, Christophe; Murray, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Trace element distributions in the source waters of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) show the existence of elevated total acid-soluble iron concentrations. This region has been suggested to contribute enough bioavailable iron to regulate interannual and interglacial variability in biological productivity downstream in the high-nitrate low-chlorophyll upwelling zone of the eastern equatorial Pacific. We investigated the advection and first-order biogeochemical impact of an imposed, da...

  1. Understanding the Longitudinal Variability of Equatorial Electrodynamics using integrated Ground- and Space-based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M.; Zesta, E.

    2015-12-01

    The currently funded African Meridian B-Field Education and Research (AMBER) magnetometer array comprises more than thirteen magnetometers stationed globally in the vicinity of geomagnetic equator. One of the main objectives of AMBER network is to understand the longitudinal variability of equatorial electrodynamics as function of local time, magnetic activity, and season. While providing complete meridian observation in the region and filling the largest land-based gap in global magnetometer coverage, the AMBER array addresses two fundamental areas of space physics: first, the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude (or L-shell), local time, longitude, magnetic activity, and season, and second, ULF pulsation strength at low/mid-latitude regions and its connection with equatorial electrojet and density fluctuation. The global AMBER network can also be used to augment observations from space-based instruments, such us the triplet SWARM mission and the upcoming ICON missions. Thus, in coordination with space-based and other ground-based observations, the AMBER magnetometer network provides a great opportunity to understand the electrodynamics that governs equatorial ionosphere motions. In this paper we present the longitudinal variability of the equatorial electrodynamics using the combination of instruments onboard SWARM and C/NOFS satellites and ground-based AMBER network. Both ground- and pace-based observations show stronger dayside and evening sector equatorial electrodynamics in the American and Asian sectors compared to the African sector. On the other hand, the African sector is home to stronger and year-round ionospheric bubbles/irregularities compared to the American and Asian sectors. This raises the question if the evening sector equatorial electrodynamics (vertical drift), which is believed to be the main cause for the enhancement of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate, is stronger in the

  2. Impact of convection over the equatorial trough on the summer monsoon activity over India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Schulz, J.

    . There have been studies (Cadet and Olory Togbe, 1981; Sadhuram and Sastry, 1987) on the role of Equatorial Trough (ET) as well as Southern Hemispheric Equatorial Trough (SHET) on the rainfall over central India. Most of these studies are related... the ET, WET and EET behave in a similar fashion during different monsoon and El Nino conditions ? c) What role do the synoptic systems play during the BM over the Indian subcontinent? 2. Data and Methodology The pentad precipitation data used...

  3. Orbital Angular Momentum Generation Using Circular Ring Resonators in Radio Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fu-Chun; Huang, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Li, Ting-Hua; Zhang, Jia-Lin; Chen, Si-Yu

    2018-02-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No 61461052, the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education under Grant No 20135301110003, the Seventh of Yunnan University Graduate Student Scientific Research Project under Grant No ynuy201443, and the Doctoral Award for the Academic Newcomers (2014) of Yunnan Province under Grant No C6155501.

  4. Spinning test body orbiting around a Kerr black hole: Circular dynamics and gravitational-wave fluxes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukes-Gerakopoulos, Georgios; Harms, E.; Bernuzzi, S.; Nagar, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 6 (2017), 064051/1-064051/13 ISSN 2470-0010 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-06962Y Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : general-relativity * test particles * conserved quantities Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 4.568, year: 2016

  5. Forbidden Zones for Circular Regular Orbits of the Moons in Solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analysing such a system of equations, we considered the case of small-body motion of negligible mass m3 around the ...

  6. A product design framework for a circular economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.R.; Bakker, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides a circular economy framework from a product design perspective with tools to aid product designers in applying circular product design in practice. Design research for circular economy has so far mainly been limited to referring to existing fields of research such as design for

  7. 12 CFR 563g.8 - Use of the offering circular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the offering circular. 563g.8 Section 563g.8 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.8 Use of the offering circular. (a) An offering circular or amendment declared effective by the...

  8. Photoinduced Circular Anisotropy in Side-Chain Azobenzene Polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Todorov, T.; Ivanov, M.

    1997-01-01

    We report for the first time the inducing of large circular anisotropy in previously unoriented films of side-chain azobenzene polyesters on illumination with circularly polarized light at a wavelength of 488 nm. The circular dichroism and optical activity are measured simultaneously in real time...

  9. The Circular Economy: In Practice-focused Undergraduate Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudby, Torben; Larsen, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    The growth of the planet’s population makes the traditional industrial model of “take, make and waste” unsustainable. The circular economy, in which resources are continuously reused, offers a solution. For manufacturers of durable goods the circular economy requires a well-functioning circular...

  10. Orbital welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeschen, W.

    2003-01-01

    The TIG (Tungsten-inert gas) orbital welding technique is applied in all areas of pipe welding. The process is mainly used for austenitic and ferritic materials but also for materials like aluminium, nickel, and titanium alloys are commonly welded according to this technique. Thin-walled as well as thick-walled pipes are welded economically. The application of orbital welding is of particular interest in the area of maintenance of thick-walled pipes that is described in this article. (orig.) [de

  11. CSR Interaction for a 2D Energy-Chirped Bunch on a General Orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rui

    2009-01-01

    When an electron bunch with initial linear energy chirp traverses a bunch compression chicane, the bunch interacts with itself via coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and space charge force. The effective longitudinal CSR force for such kind of 2D bunch on a circular orbit has been analyzed earlier (1). In this paper, we present the analytical results of the effective longitudinal CSR force for a 2D energy-chirped bunch going through a general orbit, which includes the entrance and exit of a circular orbit. In particular, we will show the behavior of the force in the last bend of a chicane when the bunch is under extreme compression. This is the condition when bifurcation of bunch phase space occurs in many CSR measurements. (1) R. Li, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 024401 (2008)

  12. Detecting a Subsurface Ocean From Periodic Orbits at Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casotto, S.; Padovan, S.; Russell, R. P.; Lara, M.

    2008-12-01

    Enceladus is a small icy satellite of Saturn which has been observed by the Cassini orbiter to eject plumes mainly consisting of water vapor from the "tiger stripes" located near its South pole. While tidal heating has been ruled out as an inadequate energy source to drive these eruptions, tidally induced shear stress both along and across the stripes appears to be sufficiently powerful. The internal constitution of Enceladus that fits this model is likely to entail a thin crust and a subcrustal water layer above an undifferentiated interior. Apart from the lack of a core/mantle boundary, the situation is similar to the current hypothetical models of Europa's interior. The determination of the existence of a subsurface fluid layer can therefore be pursued with similar methods, including the study of the gravitational perturbations of tidal origin on an Enceladus orbiter, and the use of altimeter measurements to the tidally deformed surface. The dynamical environment of an Enceladus orbiter is made very unstable by the overwhelming presence of nearby Saturn. The Enceladus sphere of influence is roughly twice its radius. This makes it considerably more difficult to orbit than Europa, whose sphere of influence is ~six times its radius. While low-altitude, near-polar Enceladus orbits suffer extreme instability, recent works have extended the inclination envelope for long-term stable orbits at Enceladus. Several independent methods suggest that ~65 degrees inclination is the maximum attainable for stable, perturbed Keplerian motion. These orbits are non-circular and exist with altitude variations from ~200 to ~300 km. We propose a nominal reference orbit that enjoys long term stability and is favorable for long-term mapping and other scientific experiments. A brief excursion to a lower altitude, slightly higher inclined, yet highly unstable orbit is proposed to improve gravity signatures and enable high resolution, nadir-pointing experiments on the geysers emanating

  13. Mean Orbital Elements for Geosynchronous Orbit - II - Orbital inclination, longitude of ascending node, mean longitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Hong Choi

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The osculating orbital elements include the mean, secular, long period, and short period terms. The iterative algorithm used for conversion of osculating orbital elements to mean orbital elements is described. The mean orbital elements of Wc, Ws, and L are obtained.

  14. Simulation of car movement along circular path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Tikhov-Tinnikov, D. A.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Lysenko, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    Under operating conditions, suspension system performance changes which negatively affects vehicle stability and handling. The paper aims to simulate the impact of changes in suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling. Methods. The paper describes monitoring of suspension system performance, testing of vehicle stability and handling, analyzes methods of suspension system performance monitoring under operating conditions. The mathematical model of a car movement along a circular path was developed. Mathematical tools describing a circular movement of a vehicle along a horizontal road were developed. Turning car movements were simulated. Calculation and experiment results were compared. Simulation proves the applicability of a mathematical model for assessment of the impact of suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling.

  15. Behaviour of a stiffened circular slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.G.; Subramanian, K.V.

    1975-01-01

    Configuration of intake structure for cooling water system for Madras Atomic Power Project was studied on a hydraulic model and it was recommended to provide a circular slab in the structure to give directional property to the inflow and reduce air entrainment. This slab, as indicated by hydraulic model tests was required to withstand hydrodynamic pressures of the order of 10T/m 2 due to breaking waves of about 6 m height. Analysis of this circular cover slab, Stiffened by radial and circumferential beams, carried with the help of an analysis based on grid idealisation is presented. Results of approximate design analysis to assess behaviour of radial stiffener have been compared. Actual design is based on judgement of actual degree of fixity possessed by the supports or restraints. (author)

  16. Design of circular differential microphone arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Cohen, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we proposed a completely novel and efficient way to design differential beamforming algorithms for linear microphone arrays. Thanks to this very flexible approach, any order of differential arrays can be designed. Moreover, they can be made robust against white noise amplification, which is the main inconvenience in these types of arrays. The other well-known problem with linear arrays is that electronic steering is not really feasible.  In this book, we extend all these fundamental ideas to circular microphone arrays and show that we can design small and compact differential arrays of any order that can be electronically steered in many different directions and offer a good degree of control of the white noise amplification problem, high directional gain, and frequency-independent response. We also present a number of practical examples, demonstrating that differential beamforming with circular microphone arrays is likely one of the best candidates for applications involving speech enhancement (i....

  17. Equatorial electrojet as part of the global circuit: a case-study from the IEEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kobea

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic storm-time variations often occur coherently at high latitude and the day-side dip equator where they affect the normal eastward Sq field. This paper presents an analysis of ground magnetic field and ionospheric electrodynamic data related to the geomagnetic storm which occured on 27 May 1993 during the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY experiment. This storm-signature analysis on the auroral, mid-latitude and equatorial ground field and ionospheric electrodynamic data leads to the identification of a sensitive response of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ to large-scale auroral return current: this response consists in a change of the eastward electric field during the pre-sunrise hours (0400-0600 UT coherently to the high-, mid-, and equatorial-latitude H decrease and the disappearance of the EEJ irregularities between the time-interval 0800-0950 UT. Subsequent to the change in h'F during pre-sunrise hours, the observed foF2 increase revealed an enhancement of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA caused by the high-latitude penetrating electric field. The strengthening of these irregularities attested by the Doppler frequency increase tracks the H component at the equator which undergoes a rapid increase around 0800 UT. The ∆H variations observed at the equator are the sum of the following components: SR, DP, DR, DCF and DT.Keywords. Equatorial electrojet · Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions · Electric fields and currents · Auroral ionosphere · Ionospheric disturbances

  18. Proto-jet configurations in RADs orbiting a Kerr SMBH: symmetries and limiting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Ringed accretion disks (RADs) are agglomerations of perfect-fluid tori orbiting around a single central attractor that could arise during complex matter inflows in active galactic nuclei. We focus our analysis to axi-symmetric accretion tori orbiting in the equatorial plane of a supermassive Kerr black hole; equilibrium configurations, possible instabilities, and evolutionary sequences of RADs were discussed in our previous works. In the present work we discuss special instabilities related to open equipotential surfaces governing the material funnels emerging at various regions of the RADs, being located between two or more individual toroidal configurations of the agglomerate. These open structures could be associated to proto-jets. Boundary limiting surfaces are highlighted, connecting the emergency of the jet-like instabilities with the black hole dimensionless spin. These instabilities are observationally significant for active galactic nuclei, being related to outflows of matter in jets emerging from more than one torus of RADs orbiting around supermassive black holes.

  19. Introduction to transfer lines and circular machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    This course was given in the 1983-84 Academic Training Programme. It is designed as an elementary introduction to both the theory and the hardware for transfer lines and circular machines. The course is limited to linear problems and treates the topics of single particle motion in the transverse and longitudinal planes, emittance ellipses, parameterisation, optical properties of some specific modules, stabilities in the transverse and longitudinal planes, field and gradient errors, and scattering in thin windows. (orig.)

  20. Notas sobre una escuela circular prefabricada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1961-09-01

    Full Text Available En 1930, la idea de una planta circular para escuela, abarcando un espacio exterior frente a un edificio de usos varios, era ya antigua por lo menos en diez años. El Museo de Arte Moderno de Nueva York, que por aquellos tiempos instaló y preparó en sus nuevas dependencias la primera exposición masiva de Arquitectura moderna, dispuso una magnífica maqueta de este proyecto de Richard J. Neutra.