WorldWideScience

Sample records for circular equatorial orbits

  1. Gravitational self-force correction to the innermost stable circular equatorial orbit of a Kerr black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoyama, Soichiro; Barack, Leor; Dolan, Sam R; Le Tiec, Alexandre; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Shah, Abhay G; Tanaka, Takahiro; Warburton, Niels

    2014-10-17

    For a self-gravitating particle of mass μ in orbit around a Kerr black hole of mass M ≫ μ, we compute the O(μ/M) shift in the frequency of the innermost stable circular equatorial orbit due to the conservative piece of the gravitational self-force acting on the particle. Our treatment is based on a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics in terms of geodesic motion in a certain locally defined effective smooth spacetime. We recover the same result using the so-called first law of binary black-hole mechanics. We give numerical results for the innermost stable circular equatorial orbit frequency shift as a function of the black hole's spin amplitude, and compare with predictions based on the post-Newtonian approximation and the effective one-body model. Our results provide an accurate strong-field benchmark for spin effects in the general-relativistic two-body problem.

  2. Fast Evolution and Waveform Generator for Extreme-Mass-Ratio Inspirals in Equatorial-Circular Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Wen-Biao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the development of a fast and accurate waveform model for the quasi-circular orbital evolution of extreme-mass-ratio-inspirals (EMRIs). This model simply employs the data of a few numerical Teukoulsky-based energy fluxes and waveforms to fit out a set of polynomials for the entire fluxes and waveforms. These obtained polynomials are accurate enough in the entire evolution domain, and much more accurate than the resummation post-Newtonian (PN) energy fluxes and waveforms, especially when the spin of a black hole becomes large. The dynamical equation we adopted for orbital revolution is the effective-one-body (EOB) formalism. Because of the simplified expressions, the efficiency of calculating the orbital evolution with our polynomials is also better than the traditional method which uses the resummed PN analytical fluxes. Our model should be useful in calculation of waveform templates of EMRIs for the gravitational wave detectors such as the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (...

  3. Asymptotic gravitational wave fluxes from a spinning particle in circular equatorial orbits around a rotating black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Harms, Enno; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Nagar, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We present a new computation of the asymptotic gravitational wave energy fluxes emitted by a {\\it spinning} particle in circular equatorial orbits about a Kerr black hole. The particle dynamics is computed in the pole-dipole approximation, solving the Mathisson-Papapetrou equations with the Tulczyjew spin-supplementary-condition. The fluxes are computed, for the first time, by solving the 2+1 Teukolsky equation in the time-domain using hyperboloidal and horizon-penetrating coordinates. Denoting by $M$ the black hole mass and by $\\mu$ the particle mass, we cover dimensionless background spins $a/M=(0,\\pm0.9)$ and dimensionless particle spins $-0.9\\leq S/\\mu^2 \\leq +0.9$. Our results span orbits of Boyer-Lindquist coordinate radii $4\\leq r/M \\leq 30$; notably, we investigate the strong-field regime, in some cases even beyond the last-stable-orbit. We confirm, numerically, the Tanaka {\\it et al.} [Phys.\\ Rev.\\ D 54, 3762] 2.5th order accurate Post-Newtonian (PN) predictions for the gravitational wave fluxes of a...

  4. Strong-field tidal distortions of rotating black holes: Formalism and results for circular, equatorial orbits

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Tidal coupling between members of a compact binary system can have an interesting and important influence on that binary's dynamical inspiral. Tidal coupling also distorts the binary's members, changing them (at lowest order) from spheres to ellipsoids. At least in the limit of fluid bodies and Newtonian gravity, there are simple connections between the geometry of the distorted ellipsoid and the impact of tides on the orbit's evolution. In this paper, we develop tools for investigating tidal distortions of rapidly rotating black holes using techniques that are good for strong-field, fast-motion binary orbits. We use black hole perturbation theory, so our results assume extreme mass ratios. We develop tools to compute the distortion to a black hole's curvature for any spin parameter, and for tidal fields arising from any bound orbit, in the frequency domain. We also develop tools to visualize the horizon's distortion for black hole spin $a/M \\le \\sqrt{3}/2$ (leaving the more complicated $a/M > \\sqrt{3}/2$ cas...

  5. The effect of J{sub 2} on equatorial and halo orbits around a magnetic planet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inarrea, Manuel [Universidad de la Rioja, Area de Fisica, 26006 Logrono (Spain); Lanchares, Victor [Dpto. de Matematicas y Computacion, CIEMUR: Centro de Investigacion en Informatica, Estadistica y Matematicas, Universidad de la Rioja, 26004 Logrono (Spain)], E-mail: vlancha@unirioja.es; Palacian, Jesus F. [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Departamento de Ingenieria Matematica e Informatica, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Pascual, Ana I. [Dpto. de Matematicas y Computacion, CIEMUR: Centro de Investigacion en Informatica, Estadistica y Matematicas, Universidad de la Rioja, 26004 Logrono (Spain); Pablo Salas, J. [Universidad de la Rioja, Area de Fisica, 26006 Logrono (Spain); Yanguas, Patricia [Universidad Publica de Navarra, Departamento de Ingenieria Matematica e Informatica, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    We calculate equatorial and halo orbits around a non-spherical (both oblate and prolate) magnetic planet. It is known that circular equatorial and halo orbits exist for a dust grain orbiting a spherical magnetic planet. However, the frequency of the orbit is constrained by the charge-mass ratio of the particle. If the non-sphericity of the planet is taken into account this constraint is modified or, in some cases, it disappears.

  6. Fourier Series Approximations to J2-Bounded Equatorial Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper offers a comprehensive dynamical analysis and Fourier series approximations of J2-bounded equatorial orbits. The initial conditions of heterogeneous families of J2-perturbed equatorial orbits are determined first. Then the characteristics of two types of J2-bounded orbits, namely, pseudo-elliptic orbit and critical circular orbit, are studied. Due to the ambiguity of the closed-form solutions which comprise the elliptic integrals and Jacobian elliptic functions, showing little physical insight into the problem, a new scheme, termed Fourier series expansion, is adopted for approximation herein. Based on least-squares fitting to the coefficients, the solutions are expressed with arbitrary high-order Fourier series, since the radius and the flight time vary periodically as a function of the polar angle. As a consequence, the solutions can be written in terms of elementary functions such as cosines, rather than complex mathematical functions. Simulations enhance the proposed approximation method, showing bounded and negligible deviations. The approximation results show a promising prospect in preliminary orbits design, determination, and transfers for low-altitude spacecrafts.

  7. Marginally stable circular orbits in stationary axisymmetric spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Beheshti, Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    We derive a necessary condition for the existence of marginally stable circular orbits of test particles in stationary axisymmetric spacetimes which possess a refection symmetry with respect to the equatorial plane; photon orbits are also addressed. Energy and angular momentum are shown to decouple from metric quantities, rendering a purely geometric characterization of circular orbits for this general class of metrics. The subsequent system is analyzed using resultants, providing an algorithmic approach for finding MSCO conditions. MSCOs are explicitly calculated for concrete examples of physical interest.

  8. Transition from inspiral to plunge for eccentric equatorial Kerr orbits

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shaughnessy, R

    2003-01-01

    Ori and Thorne have discussed the duration and observability (with LISA) of the transition from circular, equatorial inspiral to plunge for stellar-mass objects into supermassive ($10^{5}-10^{8}M_{\\odot}$) Kerr black holes. We extend their computation to eccentric Kerr equatorial orbits. Even with orbital parameters near-exactly determined, we find that there is no universal length for the transition; rather, the length of the transition depends sensitively -- essentially randomly -- on initial conditions. Still, Ori and Thorne's zero-eccentricity results are essentially an upper bound on the length of eccentric transitions involving similar bodies (e.g., $a$ fixed). Hence the implications for observations are no better: if the massive body is $M=10^{6}M_{\\odot}$, the captured body has mass $m$, and the process occurs at distance $d$ from LISA, then $S/N \\lesssim (m/10 M_{\\odot})(1\\text{Gpc}/d)\\times O(1)$, with the precise constant depending on the black hole spin. For low-mass bodies ($m \\lesssim 7 M_\\odot$...

  9. Equations for spinning test particles in equatorial orbits when they are orbiting in a weak rotating field

    CERN Document Server

    Velandia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    This paper formulates, via the Mathisson - Papapetrou - Dixon equations, the system of equations for a test particle with spin when it is orbiting a weak Kerr metric. We shall restrict ourselves to the case of circular orbits with the purpose of comparing our results with the results of the literature. In particular, we solve the set of equations of motion for the case of circular trajectories both spinless and spinning test particles around rotating bodies in equatorial plane. The results obtained are an important guideline for the study of the effects of the particles with spin in rotating gravitational fields such as Gravitomagnetics Effects or gravitational waves.

  10. Circular orbits and related quasi-harmonic oscillatory motion of charged particles around weakly magnetized rotating black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Tursunov, Arman; Kološ, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We study motion of charged particles in the field of a rotating black hole immersed into an external asymptotically uniform magnetic field, focusing on the epicyclic quasi-circular orbits near the equatorial plane. Separating the circular orbits into four qualitatively different classes according to the sign of the canonical angular momentum of the motion and the orientation of the Lorentz force, we analyse the circular orbits using the so called force formalism. We find the analytical solutions for the radial profiles of velocity, specific angular momentum and specific energy of the circular orbits in dependence on the black hole dimensionless spin and the magnetic field strength. The innermost stable circular orbits are determined for all four classes of the circular orbits. The stable circular orbits with outward oriented Lorentz force can extend to radii lower than the radius of the corresponding photon circular geodesic. We calculate the frequencies of the harmonic oscillatory motion of the charged parti...

  11. Tidal invariants for compact binaries on quasi-circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Sam R; Ottewill, Adrian C; Warburton, Niels; Wardell, Barry

    2014-01-01

    We extend the gravitational self-force approach to encompass `self-interaction' tidal effects for a compact body of mass $\\mu$ on a quasi-circular orbit around a black hole of mass $M \\gg \\mu$. Specifically, we define and calculate at $O(\\mu)$ (conservative) shifts in the eigenvalues of the electric- and magnetic-type tidal tensors, and a (dissipative) shift in a scalar product between their eigenbases. This approach yields four gauge-invariant functions, from which one may construct other tidal quantities such as the curvature scalars and the speciality index. First, we analyze the general case of a geodesic in a regular perturbed vacuum spacetime admitting a helical Killing vector and a reflection symmetry. Next, we specialize to focus on circular orbits in the equatorial plane of Kerr spacetime at $O(\\mu)$. We present accurate numerical results for the Schwarzschild case for orbital radii up to the light-ring, calculated via independent implementations in Lorenz and Regge-Wheeler gauges. We show that our r...

  12. The Marginally Stable Circular Orbit of the Fluid Disk around a Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Lei; Li, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The inner boundary of a black hole accretion disk is often set to the marginally stable circular orbit (or the innermost stable circular orbit, ISCO) around the black hole. It is important for the theories of black hole accretion disks and their applications to astrophysical black hole systems. Traditionally, the marginally stable circular orbit is obtained by considering the equatorial motion of a test particle around a black hole. However, in reality the accretion flow around black holes consists of fluid, in which the pressure often plays an important role. Here we consider the influence of fluid pressure on the location of marginally stable circular orbit around black holes. It is found that when the temperature of the fluid is so low that the thermal energy of a particle is much smaller than its rest energy, the location of marginally stable circular orbit is almost the same as that in the test particle case. However, we demonstrate that in some special cases the marginally stable circular orbit can be d...

  13. An analysis of near-circular lunar mapping orbits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R V Ramanan; V Adimurthy

    2005-12-01

    Numerical investigations have been carried out to analyse the evolution of lunar circular orbits and the influence of the higher order harmonics of the lunar gravity field.The aim is to select the appropriate near-circular orbit characteristics,which extend orbit life through passive orbit maintenance.The spherical harmonic terms that make major contributions to the orbital behaviour are identified through many case studies.It is found that for low circular orbits,the 7th and the 9th zonal harmonics have predominant effect in the case of orbits for which the evolution is stable and the life is longer,and also in the case of orbits for which the evolution is unstable and a crash takes place in a short duration.By analysing the contribution of the harmonic terms to the orbit behaviour,the appropriate near-circular orbit characteristics are identified.

  14. Circular orbits, Lyapunov stability and Manev-type forces

    CERN Document Server

    Blaga, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    In this article we study the stability in the sense of Lyapunov of the circular orbits in the generalized Manev two bodies problem. First, we explore the existence of the circular orbits and determine their radius. Then, using the first integrals of motion we build a positive definite function, known as a Lyapunov function. It's existence proves that the circular orbit is stable in the sense of Lyapunov. In the end, we consider several real systems of two bodies and compare the characteristics of the circular orbits in Newtonian and modified Manev gravitational field, arguing about our possibilities to observe the differences between the motion in these two fields.

  15. Modeling a circular equatorial test-particle in a Kerr spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Carré, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals (EMRIs) are one of the main gravitational wave (GW) sources for a future space detector, such as eLISA/NGO, and third generation ground-based detectors, like the Einstein Telescope. These systems present an interest both in astrophysics and fundamental physics. In order to make a high precision determination of their physical parameters, we need very accurate theoretical waveform models or templates. In the case of a circular equatorial orbit, the key stumbling block to the creation of these templates is the flux function of the GW. This function can be modeled either via very expensive numerical simulations, which then make the templates unusable for GW astronomy, or via some analytic approximation method such as a post-Newtonian approximation. This approximation is known to be asymptotically divergent and is only known up to 5.5PN order for the Schwarzschild case and to 4PN order for the Kerr case. A way to improve the convergence of the flux is to use re-summation methods. In t...

  16. Vertical stability of circular orbits in relativistic razor-thin disks

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, Ronaldo S S; Saa, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    During the last few decades, there has been a growing interest in exact solutions of Einstein equations describing razor-thin disks. Despite the progress in the area, the analytical study of geodesic motion crossing the disk plane in these systems is not yet so developed. In the present work, we propose a definite vertical stability criterion for circular equatorial timelike geodesics in static, axially symmetric thin disks, possibly surrounded by other structures preserving axial symmetry. It turns out that the strong energy condition for the disk stress-energy content is sufficient for vertical stability of these orbits. Moreover, adiabatic invariance of the vertical action variable gives us an approximate third integral of motion for oblique orbits which deviate slightly from the equatorial plane. Such new approximate third integral certainly points to a better understanding of the analytical properties of these orbits. The results presented here, derived for static spacetimes, may be a starting point to s...

  17. The Bifurcation of the Equatorial Periodic Orbit of the Planar Polynomial Vector Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin An ZHANG; Lan Sun CHEN; Zhao Jun LIANG

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we have obtained the necessary and sufficient condition for the set of pointsat infinity on the plane R2 to be a periodic orbit which is called an equatorial periodic orbit of a planarvector field X(x), and the formulae about the multiplicity of the equatorial periodic orbit of X(x). Wehave also proved that the main result of [9] is erroneous with regard to the formulae.

  18. Near-horizon circular orbits and extremal limit for dirty rotating black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavskii, O B

    2015-01-01

    We consider generic rotating axially symmetric "dirty" (surrounded by matter) black holes. Near-horizon circular equatorial orbits are examined in two different cases of near-extremal (small surface gravity $\\kappa $) and exactly extremal black holes. This has a number of qualitative distinctions. In the first case, it is shown that such orbits can lie as close to the horizon as one wishes on suitably chosen slices of space-time when $\\kappa \\rightarrow 0$. This generalizes observation of T.\\ Jacobson Class. Quantum Grav. 28 187001 (2011) made for the Kerr metric. If a black hole is extremal ($\\kappa =0$), circular on-horizon orbits are impossible for massive particles but, in general, are possible in its vicinity. The corresponding black hole parameters determine also the rate with which a fine-tuned particle on the noncircular near-horizon orbit asymptotically approaches the horizon. Properties of orbits under discussion are also related to the Ba% \\~{n}ados-Silk-West effect of high energy collisions near b...

  19. Vertical stability of circular orbits in relativistic razor-thin disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ronaldo S. S.; Ramos-Caro, Javier; Saa, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    During the last few decades, there has been a growing interest in exact solutions of Einstein equations describing razor-thin disks. Despite the progress in this area, the analytical study of geodesic motion crossing the disk plane in these systems has not yet been well developed. In the present work, we propose a definite vertical stability criterion for circular equatorial timelike geodesics in static, axially symmetric thin disks, possibly surrounded by other structures preserving axial symmetry. It turns out that the strong energy condition for the disk stress-energy content is sufficient for the vertical stability of these orbits. Moreover, adiabatic invariance of the vertical action variable gives us an approximate third integral of motion for oblique orbits that deviate slightly from the equatorial plane. This new approximate third integral certainly points to a better understanding of the analytical properties of these orbits. The results presented here, derived for static spacetimes, may be a starting point to study the motion around rotating, stationary razor-thin disks. Our results also allow us to conjecture that the strong energy condition should be sufficient to assure transversal stability of periodic orbits for any singular timelike hypersurface, provided it is invariant under the geodesic flow.

  20. The Solar Poynting-Robertson Effect On Particles Orbiting Solar System Bodies: Circular Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The Poynting-Robertson effect from sunlight impinging directly on a particle which orbits a Solar System body (planet, asteroid, comet) is considered from the Sun's rest frame. There appear to be no significant first-order terms in V(sub b)/c for circular orbits, where V(sub b) is the body's speed in its orbit about the Sun and c is the speed of light, when the particle's orbital semimajor axis is much smaller than the body's orbital semimajor axis about the Sun as is mainly the case in the Solar System.

  1. Gyroscope precession along bound equatorial plane orbits around a Kerr black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.

    2016-09-01

    The precession of a test gyroscope along stable bound equatorial plane orbits around a Kerr black hole is analyzed, and the precession angular velocity of the gyro's parallel transported spin vector and the increment in the precession angle after one orbital period is evaluated. The parallel transported Marck frame which enters this discussion is shown to have an elegant geometrical explanation in terms of the electric and magnetic parts of the Killing-Yano 2-form and a Wigner rotation effect.

  2. Gyroscope precession along bound equatorial plane orbits around a Kerr black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Jantzen, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    The precession of a test gyroscope along stable bound equatorial plane orbits around a Kerr black hole is analyzed and the precession angular velocity of the gyro's parallel transported spin vector and the increment in precession angle after one orbital period is evaluated. The parallel transported Marck frame which enters this discussion is shown to have an elegant geometrical explanation in terms of the electric and magnetic parts of the Killing-Yano 2-form and a Wigner rotation effect.

  3. Gyroscope precession along unbound equatorial plane orbits around a Kerr black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Jantzen, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    The precession of a test gyroscope along unbound equatorial plane geodesic orbits around a Kerr black hole is analyzed with respect to a static reference frame whose axes point towards the "fixed stars." The accumulated precession angle after a complete scattering process is evaluated and compared with the corresponding change in the orbital angle. Limiting results for the non-rotating Schwarzschild black hole case are also discussed.

  4. Evaluation of non-circular orbit in thallium-201 myocardial SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Shinya; Meguro, Mitsuhiko; Takeishi, Yasuchika (Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1991-09-01

    A non-circular orbit in thallium-201 myocardial SPECT was evaluated using phantom studies. Spatial resolution, data uniformity, and defect detectability were compared with those obtained by a circular orbit. Spatial resolution in the horizontal direction was better by a non-circular orbit than by a circular orbit; however, there was little or no improvement in the vertical direction. A non-circular orbit was a little inferior to a circular orbit for data uniformity in SPECT with 180deg data acquisition. It had higher ability to detect perfusion defects in the anterior, septal, and lateral walls, corresponding to the areas where spatial resolution was improved. There was no difference in posterior defect between non-circular and circular orbits. (N.K.).

  5. On the co-orbital motion of two planets in quasi-circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Robutel, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We develop an analytical Hamiltonian formalism adapted to the study of the motion of two planets in co-orbital resonance. The Hamiltonian, averaged over one of the planetary mean longitude, is expanded in power series of eccentricities and inclinations. The model, which is valid in the entire co-orbital region, possesses an integrable approximation modeling the planar and quasi-circular motions. First, focusing on the fixed points of this approximation, we highlight relations linking the eigenvectors of the associated linearized differential system and the existence of certain remarkable orbits like the elliptic Eulerian Lagrangian configurations, the Anti-Lagrange (Giuppone et al., 2010) orbits and some second sort orbits discovered by Poincar\\'e. Then, the variational equation is studied in the vicinity of any quasi-circular periodic solution. The fundamental frequencies of the trajectory are deduced and possible occurrence of low order resonances are discussed. Finally, with the help of the construction of...

  6. Circular Orbits in the Taub-NUT and mass-less Taub-NUT Space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the equatorial causal geodesics of the Taub-NUT(TN) space-time in comparison with \\emph{mass-less} TN space-time. We emphasized both on the null circular geodesics and time-like circular geodesics. From the effective potential diagram of null and time-like geodesics, we differentiate the geodesics structure between TN spacetime and mass-less TN space-time. It has been shown that there is a key role of the NUT parameter to changes the shape of pattern of the potential well in the NUT spacetime in comparison with mass-less NUT space-time. We compared the ISCO (innermost stable circular orbit), MBCO (marginally bound circular orbit) and CPO (circular photon orbit) of the said space-time with graphically in comparison with mass-less cases. Moreover, we compute the radius of ISCO, MBCO and CPO for \\emph{extreme} TN black hole. Interestingly, we show that these \\emph{three radii} coincides with the Killing horizon i.e. the null geodesic generators of the horizon. Finally in Appendix, we comput...

  7. Off-equatorial orbits in strong gravitational fields near compact objects -- II: halo motion around magnetic compact stars and magnetized black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kovar, Jiri; Karas, Vladimir; Stuchlik, Zdenek; 10.1088/0264-9381/27/13/135006

    2010-01-01

    Off-equatorial circular orbits with constant latitudes (halo orbits) of electrically charged particles exist near compact objects. In the previous paper, we discussed this kind of motion and demonstrated the existence of minima of the two-dimensional effective potential which correspond to the stable halo orbits. Here, we relax previous assumptions of the pseudo-Newtonian approach for the gravitational field of the central body and study properties of the halo orbits in detail. Within the general relativistic approach, we carry out our calculations in two cases. Firstly, we examine the case of a rotating magnetic compact star. Assuming that the magnetic field axis and the rotation axis are aligned with each other, we study the orientation of motion along the stable halo orbits. In the poloidal plane, we also discuss shapes of the related effective potential halo lobes where the general off-equatorial motion can be bound. Then we focus on the halo orbits near a Kerr black hole immersed in an asymptotically uni...

  8. Orbit classification in the planar circular Pluto-Charon system

    CERN Document Server

    Zotos, Euaggelos E

    2015-01-01

    We numerically investigate the orbital dynamics of a spacecraft, or a comet, or an asteroid in the Pluto-Charon system in a scattering region around Charon using the planar circular restricted three-body problem. The test particle can move in bounded orbits around Charon or escape through the necks around the Lagrangian points $L_1$ and $L_2$ or even collide with the surface of Charon. We explore four of the five possible Hill's regions configurations depending on the value of the Jacobi constant which is of course related with the total orbital energy. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis on the phase space mixing by classifying initial conditions of orbits and distinguishing between three types of motion: (i) bounded, (ii) escaping and (iii) collisional. In particular, we locate the different basins and we relate them with the corresponding spatial distributions of the escape and collision times. Our results reveal the high complexity of this planetary system. Furthermore, the numerical analysis shows a...

  9. Indonesia coverage simulation of SAR satellite at near-equatorial orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septanto, Harry; Utama, Satriya; Heru Triharjanto, Robertus; Suhermanto

    2017-01-01

    Properties of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) that able to penetrate the cloud and does not depend on the sunlight are a number of advantages when utilized for monitoring tropical region like the IMC (Indonesian Maritime Continent). Moreover, since having areas along equatorial belt, the IMC is at a shortcoming from perspective of highly inclined LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite. It would result shorter and infrequent pass times when compared with a near-equatorial LEO satellite whose low inclination. This paper reports on the investigation of a near-equatorial LEO SAR satellite coverage property through simulations. The simulations is run in nine scenarios of orbit parameter that consist of combinations of attitude {500 km, 600 km, 700 km} and inclination {80, 90, 100}. The target area is defined as 50 km x 50 km around Jakarta. Meanwhile, the SAR sensor simulation is run with swath width of 40 km, incidence angle around 250-290 and Stripmap mode. Minimum, Maximum and Mean Access Revisit of the target for each scenarios are resulted.

  10. Innermost Stable Circular Orbits and Epicyclic Frequencies Around a Magnetized Neutron Star

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Ruiz, Andres F; Pachon, Leonardo A

    2013-01-01

    A full-relativistic approach is used to compute the radius of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO), the Keplerian, frame-dragging, precession and oscillation frequencies of the radial and vertical motions of neutral test particles orbiting the equatorial plane of a magnetized neutron star. The space-time around the star is modelled by the six parametric solution derived by Pachon et al. It is shown that the inclusion of an intense magnetic field, such as the one of a neutron star, have non-negligible effects on the above physical quantities, and therefore, its inclusion is necessary in order to obtain a more accurate and realistic description of the physical processes occurring in the neighbourhood of this kind of objects such as the dynamics of accretion disk. The results discussed here also suggest that the consideration of strong magnetic fields may introduce non-negligible corrections in, e.g., the relativistic precession model and therefore on the predictions made on the mass of neutron stars.

  11. Orbital circularization of a planet accreting disk gas: the formation of distant jupiters in circular orbits based on a core accretion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Akihiro; Higuchi, Arika [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Ida, Shigeru, E-mail: kikuchi.a@geo.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: higuchia@geo.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: ida@elsi.jp [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    Recently, gas giant planets in nearly circular orbits with large semimajor axes (a ∼ 30-1000 AU) have been detected by direct imaging. We have investigated orbital evolution in a formation scenario for such planets, based on a core accretion model. (1) Icy cores accrete from planetesimals at ≲ 30 AU, (2) they are scattered outward by an emerging nearby gas giant to acquire highly eccentric orbits, and (3) their orbits are circularized through the accretion of disk gas in outer regions, where they spend most of their time. We analytically derived equations to describe the orbital circularization through gas accretion. Numerical integrations of these equations show that the eccentricity decreases by a factor of more than 5 while the planetary mass increases by a factor of 10. Because runaway gas accretion increases planetary mass by ∼10-300, the orbits are sufficiently circularized. On the other hand, a is reduced at most only by a factor of two, leaving the planets in the outer regions. If the relative velocity damping by shock is considered, the circularization slows down, but is still efficient enough. Therefore, this scenario potentially accounts for the formation of observed distant jupiters in nearly circular orbits. If the apocenter distances of the scattered cores are larger than the disk sizes, their a shrink to a quarter of the disk sizes; the a-distribution of distant giants could reflect the outer edges of the disks in a similar way that those of hot jupiters may reflect inner edges.

  12. THEOS-2 Orbit Design: Formation Flying in Equatorial Orbit and Damage Prevention Technique for the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimnoo, Ammarin

    2016-07-01

    Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA) has initiative THEOS-2 project after the THEOS-1 has been operated for more than 7 years which is over the lifetime already. THEOS-2 project requires not only the development of earth observation satellite(s), but also the development of the area-based decision making solution platform comprising of data, application systems, data processing and production system, IT infrastructure improvement and capacity building through development of satellites, engineering model, and infrastructures capable of supporting research in related fields. The developing satellites in THEOS-2 project are THAICHOTE-2 and THAICHOTE-3. This paper focuses the orbit design of THAICHOTE-2 & 3. It discusses the satellite orbit design for the second and third EOS of Thailand. In this paper, both THAICHOTE will be simulated in an equatorial orbit as a formation flying which will be compared the productive to THAICHOTE-1 (THEOS-1). We also consider a serious issue in equatorial orbit design, namely the issue of the geomagnetic field in the area of the eastern coast of South America, called the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). The high-energy particles of SAMA comprise a radiation environment which can travel through THAICHOTE-2 & 3 material and deposit kinetic energy. This process causes atomic displacement or leaves a stream of charged atoms in the incident particles' wake. It can cause damage to the satellite including reduction of power generated by solar arrays, failure of sensitive electronics, increased background noise in sensors, and exposure of the satellite devices to radiation. This paper demonstrates the loss of ionizing radiation damage and presents a technique to prevent damage from high-energy particles in the SAMA.

  13. Measuring the Innermost Stable Circular Orbits of Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chartas, G; Zalesky, L; Kochanek, C S; Dai, X; Morgan, C W; Mosquera, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a promising new technique, the g-distribution method, for measuring the inclination angle (i), the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO), and the spin of a supermassive black hole. The g-distribution method uses measurements of the energy shifts in the relativistic iron line emitted by the accretion disk of a supermassive black hole due to microlensing by stars in a foreground galaxy relative to the g-distribution shifts predicted from microlensing caustic calculations. We apply the method to the gravitationally lensed quasars RX J1131-1231 (z_s=0.658, z_l=0.295), QJ 0158-4325 (z_s=1.294, z_l=0.317), and SDSS 1004+4112 (z_s=1.734, z_l=0.68). For RX J1131-1231 our initial results indicate that r_ISCO 76 degrees. We detect two shifted Fe lines, in several observations, as predicted in our numerical simulations of caustic crossings. The current DeltaE-distribution of RX J1131-1231 is sparsely sampled but further X-ray monitoring of RX J1131-1231 and other lensed quasars will provide improved constrai...

  14. Measuring the Innermost Stable Circular Orbits of Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartas, G.; Krawczynski, H.; Zalesky, L.; Kochanek, C. S.; Dai, X.; Morgan, C. W.; Mosquera, A.

    2017-03-01

    We present a promising new technique, the g-distribution method, for measuring the inclination angle (i), the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO), and the spin of a supermassive black hole. The g-distribution method uses measurements of the energy shifts in the relativistic iron line emitted by the accretion disk of a supermassive black hole due to microlensing by stars in a foreground galaxy relative to the g-distribution shifts predicted from microlensing caustic calculations. We apply the method to the gravitationally lensed quasars RX J1131–1231 (z s = 0.658, z l = 0.295), QJ 0158–4325 (z s = 1.294, z l = 0.317), and SDSS 1004+4112 (z s = 1.734, z l = 0.68). For RX J1131‑1231, our initial results indicate that r ISCO ≲ 8.5 gravitational radii (r g) and i ≳ 55° (99% confidence level). We detect two shifted Fe lines in several observations, as predicted in our numerical simulations of caustic crossings. The current ΔE distribution of RX J1131–1231 is sparsely sampled, but further X-ray monitoring of RX J1131–1231 and other lensed quasars will provide improved constraints on the inclination angles, ISCO radii, and spins of the black holes of distant quasars.

  15. The curiously circular orbit of Kepler-16b

    CERN Document Server

    Dunhill, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery of a number of circumbinary planets lends a new tool to astrophysicists seeking to understand how and where planet formation takes place. Of the increasingly numerous circumbinary systems, Kepler-16 is arguably the most dynamically interesting: it consists of a planet on an almost perfectly circular orbit (e = 0.0069) around a moderately eccentric binary (e = 0.16). We present high-resolution 3D smoothed-particle hydrodynamics simulations of a Kepler-16 analogue embedded in a circumbinary disc, and show that the planet's eccentricity is damped by its interaction with the protoplanetary disc. We use this to place a lower limit on the gas surface density in the real disc through which Kepler-16b migrated of \\Sigma_min ~ 10 g cm^-2. This suggests that Kepler-16b, and other circumbinary planets, formed and migrated in relatively massive discs. We argue that secular evolution of circumbinary discs requires that these planets likely formed early on in the lifetime of the disc and migrated inwar...

  16. Qualitative Properties of Orbits for Minimum-Fuel Impulsive Transfers between Circular Coplanar Orbits with a Given Launch Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpichnikov, S. N.; Vorobyev, A. Yu.; Teterin, S. N.

    2003-09-01

    The coplanar problem of minimizing propellant consumption in impulsive transfer between circular boundary orbits is investigated. The launch time and the initial configuration of objects on the boundary orbits are specified arbitrarily. The qualitative properties of optimal two-impulse trajectories and their optimality in the class of multi-impulse transfers are studied.

  17. Eclipse intervals for satellites in circular orbit under the effects of Earth’s oblateness and solar radiation pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Ismail

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the circumstances of eclipse for a circular satellites’ orbit are studied. The time of passage of the ingress and egress points is calculated. Finally, the eclipse intervals of satellites’ orbit are calculated. An application was done taken into account the effects of solar radiation pressure and Earth’s oblateness on the orbital elements of circular orbit satellite.

  18. Gravitomagnetic effects of a massive and slow rotating sphere with an equatorial mass current on orbiting test particle

    CERN Document Server

    Castaneda, L; Almonacid, W; Suarez, E; Pinzon, G

    2009-01-01

    Within the framework of linearized Einstein field equations we compute the gravi tomagnetic effects on a test particle orbiting around a slow rotating, spherical body with a bulging ring fixed to the equatorial plane. Our results show that t he effect of the precesion is increased by the presence of the ring.

  19. Circular periodic orbits, resonance capture and inclination excitation during type II migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadou, K. I.; Voyatzis, G.

    2017-03-01

    We consider planetary systems evolving under the effect of a Stokes-type dissipative force mimicking the outcome of a type II migration process. As inward migration proceeds and the planets follow the circular family (they start on circular orbits) and even though they are initially almost coplanar, resonance capture can be realized. Then, at the vertical critical orbits (VCOs), that the circular family possesses, the inclination excitation can abruptly take place. The planets are now guided by the spatial elliptic families, which bifurcate from those critical orbits. We herein, perform a direct link of mutually inclined stable planetary systems on circular orbits trapped in mean-motion resonance (MMR) with the existence of VCOs of high values of multiplicity. It is shown that the more the multiplicity of the periodic orbits of the circular family increases, the more VCOs (corresponding to more MMRs) appear. In this way, we can provide a justification for the existence of resonant planets on circular orbits, which could, even further to that, evolve stably if they were mutually inclined.

  20. Topology of the Relative Motion: Circular and Eccentric Reference Orbit Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    FontdecabaiBaig, Jordi; Metris, Gilles; Exertier, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the topology of the relative trajectories in flight formations. The purpose is to study the different types of relative trajectories, their degrees of freedom, and to give an adapted parameterization. The paper also deals with the research of local circular motions. Even if they exist only when the reference orbit is circular, we extrapolate initial conditions to the eccentric reference orbit case.This alternative approach is complementary with traditional approaches in terms of cartesian coordinates or differences of orbital elements.

  1. Multi-Body Capture to Low-altitude Circular Orbits at Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebow, Daniel J.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Finlayson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    For capture to a 200-km circular orbit around Europa, millions of different points along the orbit are simulated in the Jupiter-Europa Restricted 3-Body Problem. The transfers exist as members of families of trajectories, where certain families consistently outperform the others. The trajectories are not sensitive to changes in inclination for the final circular orbit. The top performing trajectories appear to follow the invariant manifolds of L2 Lyapunov orbits for capture into a retrograde orbit, and in some cases saving up to 40% of the from the patched 2-body problem. Transfers are attached to the current nominal mission for NASA's Jupiter-Europa Orbiter, where the total cost is roughly 100 m/s less than the baseline mission.

  2. Computing Invariant Manifolds and Connecting Orbits in the Circular Restricted Three Body Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Calleja, Renato C; Humphries, Antony R; Lemus, Alexandra; Oldeman, Bart E

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the remarkable effectiveness of boundary value formulations coupled to numerical continuation for the computation of stable and unstable manifolds in systems of ordinary differential equations. Specifically, we consider the Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem (CR3BP), which models the motion of a satellite in an Earth- Moon-like system. The CR3BP has many well-known families of periodic orbits, such as the planar Lyapunov orbits and the non-planar Vertical and Halo orbits. We compute the unstable manifolds of selected Vertical and Halo orbits, which in several cases leads to the detection of heteroclinic connections from such a periodic orbit to invariant tori. Subsequent continuation of these connecting orbits with a suitable end point condition and allowing the energy level to vary, leads to the further detection of apparent homoclinic connections from the base periodic orbit to itself, or the detection of heteroclinic connections from the base periodic orbit to other periodic orbits. Some...

  3. Searching Less Perturbed Circular Orbits for a Spacecraft Travelling around Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. S. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Space missions to visit the natural satellite of Jupiter, Europa, constitute an important topic in space activities today, because missions to this moon are under study now. Several considerations have to be made for these missions. The present paper searches for less perturbed circular orbits around Europa. This search is made based on the total effects of the perturbing forces over the time, evaluated by the integral of those forces over the time. This value depends on the dynamical model and on the orbit of the spacecraft. The perturbing forces considered are the third-body perturbation that comes from Jupiter and the J2, J3, and C22 terms of the gravitational potential of Europa. Several numerical studies are performed and the results show the locations of the less perturbed orbits. Using those results, it is possible to find near-circular frozen orbits with smaller amplitudes of variations of the orbital elements.

  4. Quasi-circular orbits of conformal thin-sandwich puncture binary black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hannam, M D

    2005-01-01

    I construct initial data for equal-mass irrotational binary black holes using the conformal thin-sandwich puncture (CTSP) approach. I locate quasi-circular orbits using the effective-potential method, and estimate the location of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO). The ISCO prediction is consistent with results for conformal thin-sandwich data produced using excision techniques. These results also show that the ISCOs predicted by the effective-potential and ADM-Komar mass-comparison methods agree for CTS data, just as they did for Bowen-York data.

  5. Circular orbit spacecraft control at the L4 point using Lyapunov functions

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Rachana

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the utility of Lyapunov functions in control synthesis for the purpose of maintaining and stabilizing a spacecraft in a circular orbit around the L4 point in the circular restricted three body problem (CRTBP). Incorporating the requirements of a fixed radius orbit and a desired angular momentum, a Lyapunov function is constructed and the requisite analysis is performed to obtain a controller. Asymptotic stability is proved in a defined region around the L4 point using LaSalle's principle.

  6. An Assessment of the Space Radiation Environment in a Near Equatorial Low Earth Orbit Based on Razaksat-1 Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Suparta, Wayan

    2015-01-01

    The Malaysian satellite RazakSAT-1 was designed to operate in a near-equatorial orbit (NEqO) and low earth orbit (LEO). However, after one year of operation in 2010, communication to the satellite was lost. This study attempted to identify whether space radiation sources could have caused the communication loss by comparing RazakSAT-1 with two functional satellites. Data on galactic cosmic rays (GCR), trapped protons, trapped electrons, and solar energetic particles (SEPs) obtained from Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) was analyzed.

  7. Orbital Circularization of Hot and Cool Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Van Eylen, Vincent; Albrecht, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The rate of tidal circularization is predicted to be faster for relatively cool stars with convective outer layers, compared to hotter stars with radiative outer layers. Observing this effect is challenging, because it requires large and well-characterized samples including both hot and cool stars. Here we seek evidence for the predicted dependence of circularization upon stellar type, using a sample of 945 eclipsing binaries observed by Kepler. This sample complements earlier studies of this effect, which employed smaller samples of better-characterized stars. For each Kepler binary we measure $e\\cos\\omega$ based on the relative timing of the primary and secondary eclipses. We examine the distribution of $e\\cos\\omega$ as a function of period for binaries composed of hot stars, cool stars, and mixtures of the two types. At the shortest periods, hot-hot binaries are most likely to be eccentric; for periods shorter than 4 days, significant eccentricities occur frequently for hot-hot binaries, but not for hot-co...

  8. Slow Down or Speed Up? Lowering Periapsis versus Escaping from a Circular Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Paul Hewitt's "Figuring Physics" in the Feb. 2016 issue asked whether it would take a larger velocity change to stop a satellite in a circular orbit or to cause it to escape. An extension of this problem asks: What "minimum" velocity change is required to crash a satellite into the planet, and how does that compare with the…

  9. Topological Phase and Half-Integer Orbital Angular Momenta in Circular Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, V. M.; Mur, V. D.; Narozhny, N. B.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2016-12-01

    We show that there exists a non-trivial topological phase in circular two-dimensional quantum dots with an odd number of electrons. The possible non-zero value of this phase is explained by axial symmetry of two-dimensional quantum systems. The particular value of this phase (π ) is fixed by T-invariance and the Pauli exclusion principle and leads to half-integer values of the angular orbital momentum for ground states of such systems. This conclusion agrees with the experimental data for ground-state energies of few-electron circular quantum dots in perpendicular magnetic field (Schmidt et al. in Phys Rev B 51:5570, 1995). Hence, these data may be considered as the first experimental evidence for the existence of topological phase leading to half-integer quantization of the orbital angular momentum in circular quantum dots with an odd number of electrons.

  10. The interaction of a circularly orbiting electromagnetic harmonic wave with an electron having a constant time independent drift velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashid, M.

    2011-01-01

    A circularly orbiting electromagnetic harmonic wave may appear when a 1S electron encounters a decelerating stopping positively charged hole inside a semiconductor. The circularly orbiting electromagnetic harmonic wave can have an interaction with a conducting electron which has a constant time inde

  11. Eccentricity generation in hierarchical triple systems with non-coplanar and initially circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    In a previous paper, we developed a technique for estimating the inner eccentricity in coplanar hierarchical triple systems on initially circular orbits, with comparable masses and with well separated components, based on an expansion of the rate of change of the Runge-Lenz vector. Now, the same technique is extended to non-coplanar orbits. However, it can only be applied to systems with ${I_{0}140.77^{\\circ}}$, where ${I}$ is the inclination of the two orbits, because of complications arising from the so-called 'Kozai effect'. The theoretical model is tested against results from numerical integrations of the full equations of motion.

  12. Small oscillations of test bodies on circular orbits in Schwarzschild and Kerr metrics (The Shirokov effect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimirov, Yu.S.; Rodichev, S.V. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1981-10-01

    The Shirokov effect has been recalculated and analyzed by the monad method of assignment of systems of reference. The effect consists in the following: if test masses of the system of reference (for example, a satellite without drift) freely rotating along a circular orbit are imparted low velocities in the radial direction or perpendicular to the orbit plane, weak oscillations of a test body appear, periods of these weak oscillations differing. Their difference depends on the radius of the circular orbit and gravitational radius of a central source. It is shown, that difference of oscillation periods has the same nature as phenomenon of drift of Mercury, perigelium. Motion of the test body in the opposite direction angular source velocity increases difference of oscillation periods and motion in the direction of angular source velocity decreases it. Analogously this effect has been calculated in the Kerr metric.

  13. Tidal decay and orbital circularization in close-in two-planet systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, Adrián; Michtchenko, Tatiana A; Beaugé, Cristian; Miloni, Octavio

    2011-01-01

    The motion of two planets around a Sun-like star under the combined effects of mutual interaction and tidal dissipation is investigated. The secular behaviour of the system is analyzed using two different approaches. First, we solve the exact equations of motion through the numerical simulation of the system evolution. In addition to the orbital decay and circularization, we show that the final configuration of the system is affected by the shrink of the inner orbit. Our second approach consist in the analysis of the stationary solutions of mean equations of motion based on a Hamiltonian formalism. We consider the case of a hot super-Earth planet with a more massive outer companion. As a real example, the CoRoT-7 system is analyzed solving the exact and mean equations of motion. The star-planet tidal interaction produces orbital decay and circularization of the orbit of CoRoT-7b. In addition, the long-term tidal evolution is such that the eccentricity of CoRoT-7c is also circularized and a pair of final circu...

  14. Weak and strong field approximations and circular orbits of Kehagias-Sfetsos space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Dwornik, M; Gergely, L Á

    2013-01-01

    The Kehagias-Sfetsos asymptotically flat black hole and naked singularity solutions of Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity are investigated both in the weak-field and strong-field regimes. In the weak-field limit the gravitational field generated by the Kehagias-Sfetsos spherically symmetric solution is weaker then in the case of the Schwarzschild black hole of general relativity. In the strong-field regime naked singularities with $\\omega_{0} \\ll 1 $ display an unusual distance dependence: gravity becomes weaker when approaching the singularity. The stability of circular orbits is also analyzed. While in the black hole case the square of the angular momentum should be larger than a certain finite, non-zero minimal value, in the naked singularity case there are stable circular orbits for any non-zero value of the angular momentum. In this regime we prove the existence of an infimum of the allowed radii of circular orbits (corresponding to vanishing angular momentum).

  15. A Substellar Companion in a 1.3 yr Nearly-circular Orbit of HD 16760

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Bunei; Ida, Shigeru; Harakawa, Hiroki; Omiya, Masashi; Johnson, John A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Toyota, Eri; Hori, Yasunori; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W; Peek, Kathryn M G

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of a substellar companion orbiting the G5 dwarf HD 16760 from the N2K sample. Precise Doppler measurements of the star from Subaru and Keck revealed a Keplerian velocity variation with a period of 466.47+-0.35 d, a semiamplitude of 407.71+-0.84 m/s, and an eccentricity of 0.084+-0.003. Adopting a stellar mass of 0.78+-0.05 M_Sun, we obtain a minimum mass for the companion of 13.13+-0.56 M_JUP, which is close to the planet/brown-dwarf transition, and the semimajor axis of 1.084+-0.023 AU. The nearly circular orbit despite the large mass and intermediate orbital period makes this companion unique among known substellar companions.

  16. Application of Sturm's theorem to marginal stable circular orbits of a test body in spherically symmetric and static spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Toshiaki; Fushimi, Naomasa; Yamada, Kei; Asada, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    In terms of Sturm's theorem, we reexamine a marginal stable circular orbit (MSCO) such as the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) of a timelike geodesic in any spherically symmetric and static spacetime. MSCOs for some of exact solutions to the Einstein's equation are discussed. Strum's theorem is explicitly applied to the Kottler (often called Schwarzschild-de Sitter) spacetime. Moreover, we analyze MSCOs for a spherically symmetric, static and vacuum solution in Weyl conformal gravity.

  17. Orbit and Attitude Control of Asymmetric Satellites in Polar Near-Circular Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the general problem about the orbit and attitude dynamic model is discussed. A feedback linearization control method is introduced for this model. Due to the asymmetric structure, the orbital properties of such satellites are the same as traditional symmetric ones, but the attitude properties are greatly different from the symmetric counterparts. With perturbations accumulate with time, the attitude angles increase periodically with time, but the orbital elements change much slower than the attitude angles. In the attitude dynamic model, chaos could appear. Traditional linear controllers can not compensate enough for asymmetric satellite when the mission is complex, especially in maneuver missions. Thus nonlinear control method is required to solve such problem in large scale. A feedback linearization method, one robust nonlinear control method, is introduced and applied to the asymmetric satellite in this paper. Some simulations are also given and the results show that feedback linearization controller not only stabilizes the system, but also exempt the chaos in the system.

  18. The innermost stable circular orbit and its shifts due to conservative forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favata, Marc

    2011-04-01

    The innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) of a black hole spacetime denotes the boundary between the stable circular orbits of a test-mass and those that plunge into the event horizon. For geodesic orbits the location of the ISCO is well known in the Schwarzschild and Kerr spacetimes. If conservative forces act on the test-mass, they will shift the location (and frequency) of the ISCO. For the conservative piece of the gravitational self-force, this shift has been calculated by Barack and Sago. I will discuss a similar shift in the ISCO caused by the spin-curvature coupling force on a spinning test-mass. I will also discuss a particular condition for the ISCO that, although derived from the unmodified post- Newtonian equations of motion, is able to exactly reproduce the Kerr ISCO and the ISCO shift due to a spinning test-mass. This condition also closely approximates the Barack-Sago conservative self-force ISCO shift. It is not clear why an ISCO condition derived from approximate post-Newtonian equations is able to accurately reproduce strong-field results.

  19. Periodic orbits for space-based reflectors in the circular restricted three-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, F. J. T.; McInnes, C. R.; Winter, O. C.

    2016-11-01

    The use of space-based orbital reflectors to increase the total insolation of the Earth has been considered with potential applications in night-side illumination, electric power generation and climate engineering. Previous studies have demonstrated that families of displaced Earth-centered and artificial halo orbits may be generated using continuous propulsion, e.g. solar sails. In this work, a three-body analysis is performed by using the circular restricted three body problem, such that, the space mirror attitude reflects sunlight in the direction of Earth's center, increasing the total insolation. Using the Lindstedt-Poincaré and differential corrector methods, a family of halo orbits at artificial Sun-Earth L_2 points are found. It is shown that the third order approximation does not yield real solutions after the reflector acceleration exceeds 0.245 mm s^{-2} , i.e. the analytical expressions for the in- and out-of-plane amplitudes yield imaginary values. Thus, a larger solar reflector acceleration is required to obtain periodic orbits closer to the Earth. Derived using a two-body approach and applying the differential corrector method, a family of displaced periodic orbits close to the Earth are therefore found, with a solar reflector acceleration of 2.686 mm s^{-2}.

  20. 2.5PN kick from black-hole binaries in circular orbit: Nonspinning case

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Chandra Kant; Iyer, Bala R

    2013-01-01

    Using the Multipolar post-Minskowskian formalism, we compute the linear momentum flux from black-hole binaries in circular orbits and having no spins. The total linear momentum flux contains various types of instantaneous (which are functions of the retarded time) and hereditary (which depends on the dynamics of the binary in the past) terms both of which are analytically computed. In addition to the inspiral contribution, we use a simple model of plunge to compute the kick or recoil accumulated during this phase.

  1. Eccentricity generation in hierarchical triple systems with coplanar and initially circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    We develop a technique for estimating the inner eccentricity in hierarchical triple systems with well separated components. We investigate systems with initially circular and coplanar orbits and comparable masses. The technique is based on an expansion of the rate of change of the Runge-Lenz vector for calculating short period terms by using first order perturbation theory. The combination of the short period terms with terms arising from octupole level secular theory, results in the derivation of a rather simple formula for the eccentricity of the inner binary. The theoretical results are tested against numerical integrations of the full equations of motion. Comparison is also made with other results on the subject.

  2. Approximate solutions of non-linear circular orbit relative motion in curvilinear coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardelli, Claudio; Gonzalo, Juan Luis; Roa, Javier

    2017-01-01

    A compact, time-explicit, approximate solution of the highly non-linear relative motion in curvilinear coordinates is provided under the assumption of circular orbit for the chief spacecraft. The rather compact, three-dimensional solution is obtained by algebraic manipulation of the individual Keplerian motions in curvilinear, rather than Cartesian coordinates, and provides analytical expressions for the secular, constant and periodic terms of each coordinate as a function of the initial relative motion conditions or relative orbital elements. Numerical test cases are conducted to show that the approximate solution can be effectively employed to extend the classical linear Clohessy-Wiltshire solution to include non-linear relative motion without significant loss of accuracy up to a limit of 0.4-0.45 in eccentricity and 40-45° in relative inclination for the follower. A very simple, quadratic extension of the classical Clohessy-Wiltshire solution in curvilinear coordinates is also presented.

  3. The final spin from binary black holes in quasi-circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Fabian; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the problem of predicting the spin magnitude and direction of the black hole resulting from the merger of two black holes with arbitrary masses and spins inspiralling in quasi-circular orbits. We do this by analyzing a catalog of 641 recent numerical-relativity simulations collected from the literature and spanning a large variety of initial conditions. By combining information from the post-Newtonian approximation, the extreme mass-ratio limit and perturbative calculations, we improve our previously proposed phenomenological formulae for the final remnant spin. In contrast with alternative suggestions in the literature, and in analogy with our previous expressions, the new formula is a simple algebraic function of the initial system parameters and is not restricted to binaries with spins aligned/anti-aligned with the orbital angular momentum, but can be employed for fully generic binaries. The accuracy of the new expression is significantly improved, especially for almost extremal progenitor spins...

  4. Approximate solutions of non-linear circular orbit relative motion in curvilinear coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardelli, Claudio; Gonzalo, Juan Luis; Roa, Javier

    2016-07-01

    A compact, time-explicit, approximate solution of the highly non-linear relative motion in curvilinear coordinates is provided under the assumption of circular orbit for the chief spacecraft. The rather compact, three-dimensional solution is obtained by algebraic manipulation of the individual Keplerian motions in curvilinear, rather than Cartesian coordinates, and provides analytical expressions for the secular, constant and periodic terms of each coordinate as a function of the initial relative motion conditions or relative orbital elements. Numerical test cases are conducted to show that the approximate solution can be effectively employed to extend the classical linear Clohessy-Wiltshire solution to include non-linear relative motion without significant loss of accuracy up to a limit of 0.4-0.45 in eccentricity and 40-45° in relative inclination for the follower. A very simple, quadratic extension of the classical Clohessy-Wiltshire solution in curvilinear coordinates is also presented.

  5. Analytic model for the long-term evolution of circular Earth satellite orbits including lunar node regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ting-Lei; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Jiang

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to obtain an analytic approximation to the evolution of circular orbits governed by the Earth's J2 and the luni-solar gravitational perturbations. Assuming that the lunar orbital plane coincides with the ecliptic plane, Allan and Cook (Proc. R. Soc. A, Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 280(1380):97, 1964) derived an analytic solution to the orbital plane evolution of circular orbits. Using their result as an intermediate solution, we establish an approximate analytic model with lunar orbital inclination and its node regression be taken into account. Finally, an approximate analytic expression is derived, which is accurate compared to the numerical results except for the resonant cases when the period of the reference orbit approximately equals the integer multiples (especially 1 or 2 times) of lunar node regression period.

  6. Trajectory Design From GTO To Lunar Equatorial Orbit For The Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Genova, Anthony L; Perez, Andres Dono; Galal, Ken F; Faber, Nicolas T; Mitchell, Scott; Landin, Brett; Datta, Abhirup; Burns, Jack O

    2015-01-01

    The trajectory design for the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) mission con-cept involves launching the DARE spacecraft into a geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) as a secondary payload. From GTO, the spacecraft then transfers to a lunar orbit that is stable (i.e., no station-keeping maneuvers are required with minimum perilune altitude always above 40 km) and allows for more than 1,000 cumulative hours for science measurements in the radio-quiet region located on the lunar farside.

  7. Nonlinear Control of Electrodynamic Tether in Equatorial or Somewhat Inclined Orbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Birkelund; Blanke, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    This paper applies different control design methods to a tethered satellite system (TSS) to investigate essential control properties of this under-actuated and nonlinear system. When the tether position in the orbit plane is controlled by the tether current, out of orbit plane motions occur...... as an unwanted side effect, due to nonlinear interaction with the Earth’s magnetic field. This paper focus on the uncontrollable out-of-plane motions and the robustness against B-field uncertainty associated with each of three popular controller design methodologies for nonlinear systems: linear quadratic...

  8. Four-Impulsive Rendezvous Maneuvers for Spacecrafts in Circular Orbits Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denilson Paulo Souza dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spacecraft maneuvers is a very important topic in aerospace engineering activities today. In a more generic way, a spacecraft maneuver has the objective of transferring a spacecraft from one orbit to another, taking into account some restrictions. In the present paper, the problem of rendezvous is considered. In this type of problem, it is necessary to transfer a spacecraft from one orbit to another, but with the extra constraint of meeting another spacecraft when reaching the final orbit. In particular, the present paper aims to analyze rendezvous maneuvers between two coplanar circular orbits, seeking to perform this transfer with lowest possible fuel consumption, assuming that this problem is time-free and using four burns during the process. The assumption of four burns is used to represent a constraint posed by a real mission. Then, a genetic algorithm is used to solve the problem. After that, a study is made for a maneuver that will make a spacecraft to encounter a planet, in order to make a close approach that will change its energy. Several simulations are presented.

  9. Spinning and orbiting motion of particles in vortex beams with circular or radial polarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manman; Yan, Shaohui; Yao, Baoli; Liang, Yansheng; Zhang, Peng

    2016-09-01

    Focusing fields of optical vortex (OV) beams with circular or radial polarizations carry both spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM), and can realize non-axial spinning and orbiting motion of absorptive particles. Using the T-matrix method, we evaluate the optical forces and torques exerted on micro-sized particles induced by the OV beams. Numerical results demonstrate that the particle is trapped on the circle of intensity maxima, and experiences a transverse spin torque along azimuthal direction, a longitudinal spin torque, and an orbital torque, respectively. The direction of spinning motion is not only related to the sign of topological charge of the OV beam, but also to the polarization state. However, the topological charge controls the direction of orbiting motion individually. Optically induced rotations of particles with varying sizes and absorptivity are investigated in OV beams with different topological charges and polarization states. These results may be exploited in practical optical manipulation, especially for optically induced rotations of micro-particles.

  10. Cloud and Wind Variability in Saturn's Equatorial Jet prior to the Cassini orbital tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Hueso, R.; Rojas, J. F.; French, R. G.

    2004-11-01

    We use ground-based observations (going back to 1876), Pioneer-11 data (1979), Voyager 1 and 2 encounter images in 1980 and 1981, and HST 1990-2004 images, to study the changes that occurred in the vertical cloud structure and morphology and motions, in Saturn's Equatorial Region (approximately the band between latitudes 40 deg North and South). We compare ``calm periods" with ``stormy periods" i. e. those that occur during the development of the phenomenon known as the ``Great White Spots." We discuss different interpretations of the mechanisms that can be involved in the observed changes: vertical wind shears, waves, storm - mean flow interaction and changes in atmospheric angular momentum. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MCYT AYA 2003-03216. SPH acknowledges a PhD fellowship from the Spanish MECD and RH a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco. RGF was supported in part by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program NAG5-10197 and STSCI Grant GO-08660.01A.

  11. Scalar self-force for highly eccentric equatorial orbits in Kerr spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    If a small "particle" of mass $\\mu M$ (with $\\mu \\ll 1$) orbits a black hole of mass $M$, the leading-order radiation-reaction effect is an $\\mathcal{O}(\\mu^2)$ "self-force" acting on the particle, with a corresponding $\\mathcal{O}(\\mu)$ "self-acceleration" of the particle away from a geodesic. Such "extreme--mass-ratio inspiral" systems are likely to be important gravitational-wave sources for future space-based gravitational-wave detectors. Here we consider the "toy model" problem of computing the self-force for a scalar-field particle on a bound eccentric orbit in Kerr spacetime. We use the Barack-Golbourn-Vega-Detweiler effective-source regularization with a 4th order puncture field, followed by an $e^{im\\phi}$ ("m-mode") Fourier decomposition and a separate time-domain numerical evolution in $2+1$ dimensions for each $m$. We introduce a finite worldtube that surrounds the particle worldline and define our evolution equations in a piecewise manner so that the effective source is only used within the world...

  12. Spinning test-body orbiting around Schwarzschild black hole: circular dynamics and gravitational-wave fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Harms, Enno; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Nagar, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We consider a spinning test-body in circular motion around a nonrotating black hole and analyze different prescriptions for the body's dynamics. We compare, for the first time, the Mathisson-Papapetrou formalism under the Tulczyjew spin-supplementary-condition (SSC), the Pirani SSC and the Ohashi-Kyrian-Semerak SSC, and the spinning particle limit of the effective-one-body Hamiltonian of [Phys.~Rev.~D.90,~044018(2014)]. We analyze the four different dynamics in terms of the ISCO shifts and in terms of the coordinate invariant binding energies, separating higher-order spin contributions from spin-orbit contributions. The asymptotic gravitational wave fluxes produced by the spinning body are computed by solving the inhomogeneous $(2+1)D$ Teukolsky equation and contrasted for the different cases. For small orbital frequencies $\\Omega$, all the prescriptions reduce to the same dynamics and the same radiation fluxes. For large frequencies, ${x \\equiv (M \\Omega)^{2/3} >0.1 }$, where $M$ is the black hole mass, and ...

  13. HATS-17b: A Transiting Compact Warm Jupiter in a 16.3 Days Circular Orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Brahm, R; Bakos, G Á; Penev, K; Espinoza, N; Rabus, M; Hartman, J D; Bayliss, D; Ciceri, S; Zhou, G; Mancini, L; Tan, T G; de Val-Borro, M; Bhatti, W; Csubry, Z; Bento, J; Henning, T; Schmidt, B; Suc, V; Lázár, J; Papp, I; Sári, P

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of HATS-17b, the first transiting warm Jupiter of the HATSouth network. HATS-17b transits its bright (V=12.4) G-type (M$_{\\star}$=1.131 $\\pm$ 0.030 M$_{\\odot}$, R$_{\\star}$=1.091$^{+0.070}_{-0.046}$ R$_{\\star}$) metal-rich ([Fe/H]=+0.3 dex) host star in a circular orbit with a period of P=16.2546 days. HATS-17b has a very compact radius of 0.777 $\\pm$ 0.056 R$_J$ given its Jupiter-like mass of 1.338 $\\pm$ 0.065 M$_J$. Up to 50% of the mass of HATS-17b may be composed of heavy elements in order to explain its high density with current models of planetary structure. HATS-17b is the longest period transiting planet discovered to date by a ground-based photometric survey, and is one of the brightest transiting warm Jupiter systems known. The brightness of HATS-17b will allow detailed follow-up observations to characterize the orbital geometry of the system and the atmosphere of the planet.

  14. The Final Spin from Binary Black Holes in Quasi-circular Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Fabian; Barausse, Enrico; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2016-07-01

    We revisit the problem of predicting the spin magnitude and direction of the black hole (BH) resulting from the merger of two BHs with arbitrary masses and spins inspiraling in quasi-circular orbits. We do this by analyzing a catalog of 619 recent numerical-relativity simulations collected from the literature and spanning a large variety of initial conditions. By combining information from the post-Newtonian approximation, the extreme mass-ratio limit, and perturbative calculations, we improve our previously proposed phenomenological formulae for the final remnant spin. In contrast with alternative suggestions in the literature, and in analogy with our previous expressions, the new formula is a simple algebraic function of the initial system parameters and is not restricted to binaries with spins aligned/anti-aligned with the orbital angular momentum but can be employed for fully generic binaries. The accuracy of the new expression is significantly improved, especially for almost extremal progenitor spins and for small mass ratios, yielding an rms error σ ≈ 0.002 for aligned/anti-aligned binaries and σ ≈ 0.006 for generic binaries. Our new formula is suitable for cosmological applications and can be employed robustly in the analysis of the gravitational waveforms from advanced interferometric detectors.

  15. Analysis of stability boundaries of satellite's equilibrium attitude in a circular orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    An asymmetric satellite equipped with control momentum gyroscopes (CMGs) with the center of mass of the system moving uniformly in a circular orbit was considered. The stability of a relative equilibrium attitude of the satellite was analyzed using Lyapunov's direct method. The Lyapunov function V is a positive definite integral of the total energy of the perturbed motion of the system. The asymptotic stability analysis of the stationary motion of the conservative system was based on the Barbashin-Krasovskii theorem on the nonexistence of integer trajectories of the set dot V, which was obtained using the differential equations of motion of the satellite with CMGs. By analyzing the sign definiteness of the quadratic part of V, it was found earlier by V.V. Sazonov that the stability region is described by four strict inequalities. The asymptotic stability at the stability boundary was analyzed by sequentially turning these inequalities into equalities with terms of orders higher than the second taken into account in V. The sign definiteness analysis of the inhomogeneous function V at the stability boundary involved a huge amount of computations related to the multiplication, expansion, substitution, and factorization of symbolic expressions. The computations were performed by applying a computer algebra system on a personal computer.

  16. NANOGrav Limits on Gravitational Waves from Individual Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in Circular Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Arzoumanian, Z; Burke-Spolaor, S; Chamberlin, S J; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Demorest, P B; Deng, X; Dolch, T; Ellis, J A; Ferdman, R D; Finn, L S; Garver-Daniels, N; Jenet, F; Jones, G; Kaspi, V M; Koop, M; Lam, M; Lazio, T J W; Lommen, A N; Lorimer, D R; Luo, J; Lynch, R S; Madison, D R; McLaughlin, M; McWilliams, S T; Nice, D J; Palliyaguru, N; Pennucci, T T; Ransom, S M; Sesana, A; Siemens, X; Stairs, I H; Stinebring, D R; Stovall, K; Swiggum, J; Vallisneri, M; van Haasteren, R; Wang, Y; Zhu, W W

    2014-01-01

    The North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) project currently observes 43 pulsars using the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes. In this work we use a subset of 17 pulsars timed for a span of roughly five years (2005--2010). We analyze these data using standard pulsar timing models, with the addition of time-variable dispersion measure and frequency-variable pulse shape terms. Within the timing data, we perform a search for continuous gravitational waves from individual supermassive black hole binaries in circular orbits using robust frequentist and Bayesian techniques. We find that there is no evidence for the presence of a detectable continuous gravitational wave; however, we can use these data to place the most constraining upper limits to date on the strength of such gravitational waves. Using the full 17 pulsar dataset we place a 95% upper limit on the sky-averaged strain amplitude of $h_0\\lesssim 3.8\\times 10^{-14}$ at a frequency of 10 nHz. Furthermore, we place 95% ...

  17. Squeeze Film Dampers Executing Small Amplitude Circular-Centered Orbits in High-Speed Turbomachinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Hamzehlouia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work represents a pressure distribution model for finite length squeeze film dampers (SFDs executing small amplitude circular-centered orbits (CCOs with application in high-speed turbomachinery design. The proposed pressure distribution model only accounts for unsteady (temporal inertia terms, since based on order of magnitude analysis, for small amplitude motions of the journal center, the effect of convective inertia is negligible relative to unsteady (temporal inertia. In this work, the continuity equation and the momentum transport equations for incompressible lubricants are reduced by assuming that the shapes of the fluid velocity profiles are not strongly influenced by the inertia forces, obtaining an extended form of Reynolds equation for the hydrodynamic pressure distribution that accounts for fluid inertia effects. Furthermore, a numerical procedure is represented to discretize the model equations by applying finite difference approximation (FDA and to numerically determine the pressure distribution and fluid film reaction forces in SFDs with significant accuracy. Finally, the proposed model is incorporated into a simulation model and the results are compared against existing SFD models. Based on the simulation results, the pressure distribution and fluid film reaction forces are significantly influenced by fluid inertia effects even at small and moderate Reynolds numbers.

  18. Forbidden Zones for Circular Regular Orbits of the Moons in Solar System, R3BP

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sergey V. Ershkov;

    2017-03-01

    Previously, we have considered the equations of motion of the three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analysing such a system of equations, we considered the case of small-body motion of negligible mass m3 around the second of two giant-bodies $m_1$, $m_2$ (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories), the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. In the current development, we have derived a key parameter $\\eta$ that determines the character of quasi-circular motion of the small third body $m_3$ relative to the second body $m_2$ (planet). Namely, by making several approximations in the equations of motion of the three-body problem, such the system could be reduced to the key governing Riccati-type ordinary differential equations. Under assumptions of R3BP (restricted three-body problem), we additionally note that Riccati-type ODEs above should have the invariant form if the key governing (dimensionless) parameter $\\eta$ remains in the range $10^{−2}$ ∻ $10^{−3}$. Such an amazing fact let us evaluate the forbidden zones for Moon’s orbits in the inner solar system or the zones of distances (between Moon and Planet) for which the motion of small body could be predicted to be unstable according to basic features of the solutions of Riccati-type.

  19. Gravitationally Induced Density Wake of a Circularly Orbiting Object As an Interpretative Framework of Ubiquitous Spirals and Arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyosun

    2011-01-01

    An orbiting object in a gas rich environment creates a gravitational density wake containing information about the object and its orbit. Using linear perturbation theory, we analyze the observable properties of the gravitational wake due to the object circularly moving in a static homogeneous gaseous medium, in order to derive the Bondi accretion radius $r_B$, the orbital distance $r_p$, and the Mach number of the object. Supersonic motion, producing a wake of spiral-onion shell structure, exhibits a single-armed Archimedes spiral and two-centered circular arcs with respect to the line of sight. The pitch angle, arm width, and spacing of the spiral pattern are entirely determined by the orbital distance $r_p$ and Mach number of the object. The arm-interarm density contrast is proportional to the Bondi accretion radius, decreasing as a function of distance with a power index of -1. The background density distribution is globally changed from initially uniform to centrally concentrated. The vertical structure o...

  20. 4f orbital and spin magnetism in cerium intermetallic compounds studied by magnetic circular x-ray dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillé, J. Ph.; Bertran, F.; Finazzi, M.; Brouder, Ch.; Kappler, J. P.; Krill, G.

    1994-08-01

    Magnetic circular x-ray dichroism experiments at the M4,5 absorption edges of cerium in the intermetallic compounds CeCuSi, CeRh3B2, and CeFe2 are reported. By applying general sum rules, it is shown that these experiments are able to yield both the magnitude and the direction of the 4f magnetic moment on Ce. An estimation of the orbital contribution to those 4f moments is given. Our experiments demonstrate the existence of a 4f magnetic moment on Ce in CeFe2 and confirm the extreme sensitivity of the 4f orbital contribution to the degree of localization of the 4f electrons. This 4f orbital contribution is significantly higher than the one predicted from spin-resolved band-structure calculations.

  1. Gravitationally Induced Density Wake of a Circularly Orbiting Object as an Interpretative Framework of Ubiquitous Spirals and Arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosun

    2011-10-01

    An orbiting object in a gas-rich environment creates a gravitational density wake containing information about the object and its orbit. Using linear perturbation theory, we analyze the observable properties of the gravitational wake due to the object circularly moving in a static homogeneous gaseous medium, in order to derive the Bondi accretion radius rB , the orbital distance rp , and the Mach number {M}_p of the object. Supersonic motion, producing a wake of spiral-onion shell structure, exhibits a single-armed Archimedes spiral and two-centered circular arcs with respect to the line of sight. The pitch angle, arm width, and spacing of the spiral pattern are entirely determined by the orbital distance rp and Mach number {M}_p of the object. The arm-interarm density contrast is proportional to rB , decreasing as a function of distance with a power index of -1. The background density distribution is globally changed from initially uniform to centrally concentrated. The vertical structure of the wake is manifested as circular arcs with the center at the object location. The angular extent of the arcs is determined by the Mach number {M}_p of the object motion. Diagnostic probes of nonlinear wakes such as a detached bow shock, the absence of the definite inner arm boundary, the presence of turbulent low-density eddies, and elongated shapes of arcs are explained in the extension of the linear analysis. The density enhancement at the center is always rB /rp independent of the nonlinearity, suggesting that massive objects can substantially modify the background distribution.

  2. Pilot-wave dynamics in a harmonic potential: Quantization and stability of circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Labousse, Matthieu; Perrard, Stéhane; Bush, John W M

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of a droplet walking on a vibrating fluid bath under the influence of a harmonic potential. The walking droplet's horizontal motion is described by an integro-differential trajectory equation, which is found to admit steady orbital solutions. Predictions for the dependence of the orbital radius and frequency on the strength of the radial harmonic force field agree favorably with experimental data. The orbital quantization is rationalized through an analysis of the orbital solutions. The predicted dependence of the orbital stability on system parameters is compared with experimental data and the limitations of the model are discussed.

  3. A Fast Frequency-Domain Algorithm for Gravitational Self-Force: I, Circular Orbits in Schwarzschild Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Akcay, Sarp

    2010-01-01

    Fast, reliable orbital evolutions of compact objects around massive black holes will be needed as input for gravitational wave search algorithms in the data stream generated by the planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Currently, the state of the art is a time-domain code by [Phys. Rev. D{\\bf 81}, 084021, (2010)] that computes the gravitational self-force on a point-particle in an eccentric orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole. Currently, time-domain codes take up to a few days to compute just one point in parameter space. In a series of articles, we advocate the use of a frequency-domain approach to the problem of gravitational self-force (GSF) with the ultimate goal of orbital evolution in mind. Here, we compute the GSF for a particle in a circular orbit in Schwarzschild spacetime. We solve the linearized Einstein equations for the metric perturbation in Lorenz gauge. Our frequency-domain code reproduces the time-domain results for the GSF up to $\\sim 1000$ times faster for small orbital rad...

  4. A vibrational circular dichroism implementation within a Slater-type-orbital based density functional framework and its application to hexa- and hepta-helicenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baerends, Evert; Neugebauer, Johannes; Nicu, Valentin; Wolff, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    We describe the implementation of the rotational strengths for vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) in the Slater-type orbital based Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) package. We show that our implementation, which makes use of analytical derivative techniques and London atomic orbitals, yields o

  5. Self-recovery effect of orbital angular momentum mode of circular beam in weak non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Yi-Dong; Wang, Jiandong; Liu, Pusheng; Yang, Yuanjie

    2016-09-01

    It is generally true that the orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode persistently degenerate when a vortex beam propagates in the atmospheric turbulence. Here, however, we unveil an interesting self-recovery effect of OAM mode of the circular beam (CiB) in weak non-Kolmogorov turbulence. We show that the CiB displays the self-focusing effect and has clear focus in the weak non-Kolmogorov turbulence if we choose proper complex parameters, and the detection probability of the original OAM mode reaches the maximum at the focus. Our study proposes a method to alleviate the turbulent effects on OAM-based communication.

  6. Conservative second-order gravitational self-force on circular orbits and the effective one-body formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato

    2016-01-01

    We consider Detweiler's redshift variable $z$ for a nonspinning mass $m_1$ in circular motion (with orbital frequency $\\Omega$) around a nonspinning mass $m_2$. We show how the combination of effective-one-body (EOB) theory with the first law of binary dynamics allows one to derive a simple, exact expression for the functional dependence of $z$ on the (gauge-invariant) EOB gravitational potential $u=(m_1+m_2)/R$. We then use the recently obtained high-post-Newtonian(PN)-order knowledge of the main EOB radial potential $A(u ; \

  7. Canonical Angles In A Compact Binary Star System With Spinning Components: Approximative Solution Through Next-To-Leading-Order Spin-Orbit Interaction for Circular Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Tessmer, Manuel; Schäfer, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    This publication will deal with an explicit determination of the time evolution of the spin orientation axes and the evolution of the orbital phase in the case of circular orbits under next-to-leading order spin-orbit interactions. We modify the method of Schneider and Cui proposed in ["Theoreme \\"uber Bewegungsintegrale und ihre Anwendungen in Bahntheorien", Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, volume 212, 2005.] to iteratively remove oscillatory terms in the equations of motion for different masses that were not present in the case of equal masses. Our smallness parameter is chosen to be the difference of the symmetric mass ratio to the value 1/4. Before the first Lie transformation, the set of conserved quantities consists of the total angular momentum, the amplitudes of the orbital angular momentum and of the spins, $L, S_1,$ and $S_2$. In contrary, the magnitude of the total spin $S=|S_1+S_2|$ is not conserved and we wish to shift its non-conservation to higher orders of the smallness para...

  8. Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization of current-carrying orbitals of prealigned linear molecules in strong circularly polarized laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kunlong; Barth, Ingo

    2016-10-01

    We derive the analytical formula of the ratio of the ionization rates of degenerate valence π± orbitals of prealigned linear molecules in strong circularly polarized (CP) laser fields. Interestingly, our theory shows that the ionization ratio for molecular orbitals with opposite azimuthal quantum numbers ±|m | (e.g., π±) is identical to that for atomic orbitals with the same ±|m | (e.g., p±). In general, the electron counter-rotating to the CP laser field tunnels more easily, not only for atoms but also for linear molecules. Our theoretical predictions are then verified by numerically solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the ionization of the prealigned nitric oxide (NO) molecule in strong CP laser fields. Due to the spin-orbital coupling in the electronic ground state of NO and the sensitivity of ionization to the sense of electron rotation, the ionization of NO in CP fields can produce spin-polarized photoelectrons with high controllability of spin polarization up to 100 % .

  9. Trajectory Design from GTO to Near-Equatorial Lunar Orbit for the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Yang Yang, Fan; Perez, Andres Dono; Galal, Ken F.; Faber, Nicolas T.; Mitchell, Scott; Landin, Brett; Burns, Jack O.

    2015-01-01

    The trajectory design for the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) mission concept involves launching the DARE spacecraft into a geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) as a secondary payload. From GTO, the spacecraft then transfers to a lunar orbit that is stable (i.e., no station-keeping maneuvers are required with minimum perilune altitude always above 40 km) and allows for more than 1,000 cumulative hours for science measurements in the radio-quiet region located on the lunar farside.

  10. Solar wind, F10.7, and geomagnetic activity relationship to the equatorial plasma mass density at geosynchronous orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veibell, V.; Weigel, R. S.; Denton, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    We consider two types of events, identified by decreases in Dst below a threshold value and increases in the equatorial mass density at geosynchronous altitudes, ρeq, above a threshold value using the Takahashi et al. (2010) data set. From the Dst events and 1 day averages, we find that there is a statistically weak and small-amplitude difference between ρeq on the day of the event and the days before and after. When hourly averages are considered, a significant peak is found to occur 6 h after event onset, and the primary factor that determines the postonset peak amplitude in ρeq is elevated F10.7. In addition, for hourly averages, ρeq following the onset of a Dst event depends on the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field, Bz, after the time of onset, with higher average Bz 4 h after the event onset corresponding to larger ρeq values 7-11 h after onset. From the ρeq events, we find a weak dependence on Bz after the onset of an event, with higher average Bz 4 h after the event onset corresponding to larger ρeq values 24-36 h after onset.

  11. Innermost stable circular orbits around strange stars and kHz QPOs in low-mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Zdunik, J L; Gondek-Rosinska, D; Gourgoulhon, E

    2000-01-01

    Exact calculations of innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) around rotatingstrange stars are performed within the framework of general relativity.Equations of state (EOS) of strange quark matter based on the MIT Bag Modelwith massive strange quarks and lowest order QCD interactions, are used. Thepresence of a solid crust of normal matter on rotating, mass accreting strangestars in LMXBs is taken into account. It is found that, contrary to neutronstars, above some minimum mass a gap always separates the ISCO and stellarsurface, independently of the strange star rotation rate. For a given baryonmass of strange star, we calculate the ISCO frequency as function of stellarrotation frequency, from static to Keplerian configuration. For masses close tothe maximum mass of static configurations the ISCO frequencies for static andKeplerian configurations are similar. However, for masses significantly lowerthan the maximum mass of static configurations, the minimum value of the ISCOfrequency is reached in the Keplerian...

  12. Numerical and Analytical Study of Optimal Low-Thrust Limited-Power Transfers between Close Circular Coplanar Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro da Silva Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical and analytical study of optimal low-thrust limited-power trajectories for simple transfer (no rendezvous between close circular coplanar orbits in an inverse-square force field is presented. The numerical study is carried out by means of an indirect approach of the optimization problem in which the two-point boundary value problem, obtained from the set of necessary conditions describing the optimal solutions, is solved through a neighboring extremal algorithm based on the solution of the linearized two-point boundary value problem through Riccati transformation. The analytical study is provided by a linear theory which is expressed in terms of nonsingular elements and is determined through the canonical transformation theory. The fuel consumption is taken as the performance criterion and the analysis is carried out considering various radius ratios and transfer durations. The results are compared to the ones provided by a numerical method based on gradient techniques.

  13. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism: Orbital and spin moments of iron single-crystal thin film deposited on MgO substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Honghong; WANG Jie; LI Ruipeng; GUO Yuxian; WANG Feng; HU Zhiwei

    2005-01-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in absorption of the single-crystal iron layer deposited epitaxially on MgO substrate is studied. Spin and orbital moment, 0.069 and 2.33 -B, respectively, are calculated in terms of the XMCD sum rules. Our results are accordant to those published. Experiments show that the orbital moment would be decreased to that in bulk materials as iron film is thinned down, but spin moment changes little.

  14. From circular paths to elliptic orbits A geometric approach to Kepler's motion

    CERN Document Server

    González-Villanueva, A; Martínez y Romero, R P; Núñez-Yépez, H N; Salas-Brito, A L

    1998-01-01

    The hodograph, i.e. the path traced by a body in velocity space, was introduced by Hamilton in 1846 as an alternative for studying certain dynamical problems. The hodograph of the Kepler problem was then investigated and shown to be a circle, it was next used to investigate some other properties of the motion. We here propose a new method for tracing the hodograph and the corresponding configuration space orbit in Kepler's problem starting from the initial conditions given and trying to use no more than the methods of synthetic geometry in a sort of Newtonian approach. All of our geometric constructions require straight edge and compass only.

  15. Regular and chaotic orbits near a massive magnetic dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Kovář, Jiří; Karas, Vladimí; Kojima, Yasufumi; 10.1088/0264-9381/30/2/025010

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of Bonnor's exact solution describing a massive magnetic dipole, we study the motion of neutral and electrically charged test particles. In dependence on the Bonnor spacetime parameters, we determine regions enabling the existence of stable circular orbits confined to the equatorial plane and of those levitating above the equatorial plane. Constructing Poincar\\'e surfaces of section and recurrence plots, we also investigate the dynamics of particles moving along general off-equatorial trajectories bound in effective potential wells forming around the stable circular orbits. We demonstrate that the motion in the Bonnor spacetime is not integrable. This extends previous investigations of generalized St\\"ormer's problem into the realm of exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations, where the gravitational and electromagnetic effects play a comparable role on the particle motion.

  16. The evolution of a binary in a retrograde circular orbit embedded in an accretion disk

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, P B; Paardekooper, S -J; Polnarev, A G

    2014-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries may form as a consequence of galaxy mergers. Both prograde and retrograde orbits have been proposed. We study a binary of a small mass ratio, q, in a retrograde orbit immersed in and interacting with a gaseous accretion disk in order to estimate time scales for inward migration leading to coalescence and the accretion rate to the secondary component. We employ both semi-analytic methods and two dimensional numerical simulations, focusing on the case where the binary mass ratio is small but large enough to significantly perturb the disk. We develop the theory of type I migration for this case and determine conditions for gap formation finding that then inward migration occurs on a time scale equal to the time required for one half of the secondary mass to be accreted through the unperturbed disk, with accretion onto the secondary playing only a minor role. The semi-analytic and fully numerical approaches are in good agreement, the former being applicable over long time scales. ...

  17. Appearance of innermost stable circular orbits of accretion discs around rotating neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Torok, G; Adamek, K; Urbancova, G

    2014-01-01

    The innermost stable cicular orbit (ISCO) of an accretion disc orbiting a neutron star (NS) is often assumed a unique prediction of general relativity. However, it has been argued that ISCO also appears around highly elliptic bodies described by Newtonian theory. In this sense, the behaviour of an ISCO around a rotating oblate neutron star is formed by the interplay between relativistic and Newtonian effects. Here we briefly explore the consequences of this interplay using a straightforward analytic approach as well as numerical models that involve modern NS equations of state. We examine the ratio K between the ISCO radius and the radius of the neutron star. We find that, with growing NS spin, the ratio K first decreases, but then starts to increase. This non-monotonic behaviour of K can give rise to a neutron star spin interval in which ISCO appears for two very different ranges of NS mass. This may strongly affect the distribution of neutron stars that have an ISCO (ISCO-NS). When (all) neutron stars are d...

  18. Ionization of oriented targets by intense circularly polarized laser pulses: Imprints of orbital angular nodes in the two-dimensional momentum distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Christian; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    We solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a few-cycle circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulse that interacts with an oriented target exemplified by an argon atom, initially in a 3px or 3py state. The photoelectron momentum distributions show distinct signatures......, we show that ionization by a circularly polarized pulse completely maps out the angular nodal structure of the initial state, thus providing a potential tool for studying orbital symmetry in individual systems or during chemical reactions....

  19. An atomic orbital based real-time time-dependent density functional theory for computing electronic circular dichroism band spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goings, Joshua J; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-06-21

    One of the challenges of interpreting electronic circular dichroism (ECD) band spectra is that different states may have different rotatory strength signs, determined by their absolute configuration. If the states are closely spaced and opposite in sign, observed transitions may be washed out by nearby states, unlike absorption spectra where transitions are always positive additive. To accurately compute ECD bands, it is necessary to compute a large number of excited states, which may be prohibitively costly if one uses the linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework. Here we implement a real-time, atomic-orbital based TDDFT method for computing the entire ECD spectrum simultaneously. The method is advantageous for large systems with a high density of states. In contrast to previous implementations based on real-space grids, the method is variational, independent of nuclear orientation, and does not rely on pseudopotential approximations, making it suitable for computation of chiroptical properties well into the X-ray regime.

  20. Innermost stable circular orbit near dirty black holes in magnetic field and ultra-high energy particle collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavskii, O B

    2014-01-01

    We consider the behavior of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) in the magnetic field $B$ near "dirty" (surrounded by matter) axially-symmetric black holes. The cases of near-extremal, extremal and nonextremal black holes is analyzed. For nonrotating extremal or nonextremal black holes, in the strong magnetic field ISCO approaches the horizon. Rotation destroys this phenomenon. For near-extremal dirty black holes, the ISCO radius depends on $B$ in the main approximation in contrast to the Kerr case where such dependence appears in the next correction with respect to the small surface gravity. In terms of the dimensionless variables, the angular momentum and radius of ISCO look model-independent in the main approximation in $B^{-1}$. We also study the collisions between two particles which result in the ultra-high energy $E_{c.m.}$ in the centre of mass frame. Two scenarios are considered - when one particle moves on the near-horizon ISCO or when collision occurs on the horizon, one particle having the ...

  1. Energy and periastron advance of compact binaries on circular orbits at the fourth post-Newtonian order

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Laura; Bohé, Alejandro; Faye, Guillaume; Marsat, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we complete our preceding work on the Fokker Lagrangian describing the dynamics of compact binary systems at the fourth post-Newtonian (4PN) order in harmonic coordinates. We clarify the impact of the non-local character of the Fokker Lagrangian or the associated Hamiltonian on both the conserved energy and the relativistic periastron precession for circular orbits. We show that the non-locality of the action, due to the presence of the tail effect at the 4PN order, gives rise to an extra contribution to the conserved integral of energy with respect to the Hamiltonian computed on shell, which was not taken into account in our previous work. We also provide a direct derivation of the periastron advance by taking carefully into account this non-locality. We then argue that the infra-red (IR) divergences in the calculation of the gravitational part of the action are problematic, which motivates us to introduce a second ambiguity parameter, in addition to the one already assumed previously. After f...

  2. Cost curves for the navigation between families of low energy Fast Periodic Transfer Orbits in the Earth-Moon planar circular restricted Three Body Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzi, J. P.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    Using characteristic curves of low energy fast periodic transfer orbits in the Earth-Moon planar circular restricted three body problem we constructed cost curves that enable the study of maneuvers between them. In an appropiate surface of section the numerical diagrams show regions where transfer maneuvers involve lower costs and that would allow determine family members which make the propelent minimum for these maneuvers. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH.

  3. Large anisotropic Fe orbital moments in perpendicularly magnetized Co2FeAl Heusler alloy thin films revealed by angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Jun; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Wen, Zhenchao; Inomata, Koichiro; Mitani, Seiji

    2013-09-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in Heusler alloy Co2FeAl thin films sharing an interface with a MgO layer is investigated by angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Orbital and spin magnetic moments are deduced separately for Fe and Co 3d electrons. In addition, the PMA energies are estimated using the orbital magnetic moments parallel and perpendicular to the film surfaces. We found that PMA in Co2FeAl is determined mainly by the contribution of Fe atoms with large orbital magnetic moments, which are enhanced at the interface between Co2FeAl and MgO. Furthermore, element specific magnetization curves of Fe and Co are found to be similar, suggesting the existence of ferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Co PMA directions.

  4. Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Attention in this discussion of Equatorial Guinea is directed to the following: the people, history, geography, government, political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Equatorial Guinea. The population was estimated at 304,000 in 1983 and the annual growth rate was estimated in the range of 1.7-2.5. The infant mortality rate is 142.9/1000 with a life expectancy of 44.4 years for males and 47.6 years for females. The majority of the Equatoguinean people are of Bantu origin. The largest tribe, the Fang, is indigenous to the mainland, although many now also live on Bioko Island. Portuguese explorers found the island of Bioko in 1471, and the Portuguese retained control until 1778, when the island, adjacent islets, and the commercial rights to the mainland between the Niger and Ogooue Rivers were ceded to Spain. Spain lacked the wealth and the interest to develop an extensive economic infrastructure in Equatorial Guinea during the 1st half of this century, but the Spanish did help Equatorial Guinea achieve 1 of the highest literacy rates in Africa. They also founded a good network of health care facilities. In March 1968, under pressure from Guinean nationalists, Spain announced that it would grant independence to Equatorial Guinea as rapidly as possible. A referendum was held on August 11, 1968, and 63% of the electorate voted in favor of the constitution, which provided for a government with a general assembly and presidentially appointed judges in the Supreme Court. After the coup in August 1979, power was placed in the hands of a Supreme Military Council. A new constitution came into effect after a popular vote in August 1982, abolishing the Supreme Military Council. Under the terms of the constitution, the president was given extensive powers. By the end of 1983, a 60-member Chamber of Representatives of the people had been formed. The government, which is credited with restoring greater personal freedom, is regarded

  5. Circular Dichroism in the 3d and 4d Core Photoabsorption for Ferromagnetic Ce Compounds —Interplay of Hybridization, Spin Orbit Interaction and Crystal Field—

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Takeo; Imada, Shin

    1990-04-01

    The Ce 3d- and 4d-core photoabsorption spectra (3d XAS and 4d XAS) of ferromagnetic mixed valent Ce compounds are calculated on the basis of the impurity Anderson model. The model takes into account the Coulomb interaction producing multiplet structures, the spin-orbit interaction, the crystal field effect and the molecular field acting on the 4f spin. The calculation shows a strong circular dichroism even for the Ce magnetic moment of ˜0.5 μB. The dichroism is furthermore shown to be a powerful method to measure the spin and orbital contributions to the 4f moment. On the basis of the calculation, the 4f magnetic state of the ferromagnet CeRh3B2 is discussed.

  6. Evolutionary outcomes for pairs of planets undergoing orbital migration and circularization: second order resonances and observed period ratios in Kepler's planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang-Gruess, M

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the origin of the architectures of low mass planetary systems, we perform numerical surveys of the evolution of pairs of coplanar planets in the mass range $(1-4)\\ \\rmn{M}_{\\oplus}.$ These evolve for up to $2\\times10^7 \\rmn{yr}$ under a range of orbital migration torques and circularization rates assumed to arise through interaction with a protoplanetary disc. Near the inner disc boundary, significant variations of viscosity, interaction with density waves or with the stellar magnetic field could occur and halt migration, but allow ircularization to continue. This was modelled by modifying the migration and circularization rates. Runs terminated without an extended period of circularization in the absence of migration torques gave rise to either a collision, or a system close to a resonance. These were mostly first order with a few $\\%$ terminating in second order resonances. Both planetary eccentricities were small $< 0.1$ and all resonant angles liberated. This type of survey produced o...

  7. 新型圆轨道法的经纱上机设计%Warp looming design of the new circular orbit weaving method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫庆双; 胡吉永; 马颜雪; 张瑞云; 李毓陵; 胡寿丰; 张建

    2016-01-01

    Circular orbit weaving method is a new shaping-method to weave three-dimensional (3D) woven tubular fabrics. The characteristics of three basic 3D woven fabric weaves in forming 3D tubular fabrics were analyzed, and taking a multi-layer stitching weave as an example, different warp looming ways and their respective characteristics when using the circular orbit weaving method were described, to enrich and improve the application of the new weaving method.%圆轨道法是三维筒状织物的新型成型方法。分析三维机织物的三种基本组织在构成三维筒状机织物时的特点,并以一种多层接结组织为例,详细介绍采用圆轨道法进行织造时不同的经纱上机方式,分析其各自的特点,以丰富和完善新型织造方法的应用。

  8. Gravitational Waves from a Particle in Circular Orbits around a Rotating Black Hole to the 11th Post-Newtonian Order

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Ryuichi

    2014-01-01

    We compute the energy flux of the gravitational waves radiated by a particle of mass $\\m$ in circular orbits around a rotating black hole of mass $M$ up to the 11th post-Newtonian order (11PN), i.e. $v^{22}$ beyond the leading Newtonian approximation where $v$ is the orbital velocity of the particle. By comparing the PN results for the energy flux with high precision numerical results in black hole perturbation theory, we find the region of validity in the PN approximation becomes larger with increasing PN orders. If one requires the relative error of the energy flux in the PN approximation to be less than $10^{-5}$, the energy flux at 11PN (4PN) can be used for $v\\lessapprox 0.33$ ($v\\lessapprox 0.13$). The region of validity can be further extended to $v\\lessapprox 0.4$ if one applies a resummation method to the energy flux at 11PN. We then compare the orbital phase during two-year inspiral from the PN results with the high precision numerical results. We find that for late (early) inspirals when $q\\le 0.3$...

  9. Swarm equatorial electric field chain: First results

    OpenAIRE

    Alken, P; Maus, S.; A. Chulliat; Vigneron, P.; Sirol, O.; Hulot, G.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The eastward equatorial electric field (EEF) in the E region ionosphere drives many important phenomena at low latitudes. We developed a method of estimating the EEF from magnetometer measurements of near-polar orbiting satellites as they cross the magnetic equator, by recovering a clean signal of the equatorial electrojet current and modeling the observed current to determine the electric field present during the satellite pass. This algorithm is now implemented as an...

  10. Boundary problem solution of an optimal control transfer between circular orbits for an electric propulsion spacecraft in an irregular gravitational field of an asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shornikov, Andrey; Starinova, Olga

    2017-01-01

    There is a problem to control spacecraft's motion near objects with irregular gravitational fields as asteroids. In this paper we present a mathematical model of spacecraft motion with an electric propulsion engine in an irregular non-spherical gravitational field of the asteroid Eros 433. We propose to use the model of single gravity points for simulation of the motion of a spacecraft in the irregular gravitational field. The equations of spacecraft motion are corresponding equations of the n-body problem. A boundary task of the control spacecraft's transfer between circular orbits from 200 km to 100 km is considered. Authors propose a combination of the Pontryagin's maximum principle and the Newton's step by step approximation as solutions methods for the boundary problem.

  11. Room temperature observation by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism of the orbital momentum enhancement of Co nanoclusters grown on Au(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, Daniel Bretas; Reis, Diogo Duarte; Coelho Neto, Paula Mariel; Simoes, Wendell; Siervo, Abner de; Magalhaes-Paniago, Rogerio [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Increase in magnetic storage capabilities inevitably requires miniaturization of magnetic bits. Two solutions for this problem have been proposed: the assembly of magnetic vortexes, where the competition between exchange and dipolar interactions stabilizes a specific magnetic configuration and the modification of magnetic properties of nanoclusters due to change in structural properties, leading to an enhancement of their orbital momentum, especially in 3D transition metals. Since nanoclusters inevitable exhibit superparamagnetism, the determination of the orbital momentum of nanoclusters suffers from the need of high magnetic fields and extremely low temperatures. Therefore, even the search for enhanced magnetic materials is jeopardized by this limitation. In the present work, we have grown cobalt nanoclusters on Au(110) by electron beam deposition under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction confirmed the preparation of a clean Au surface as well as the formation of pure Co nanoclusters in the range of the equivalent of 1-4 monolayers. The magnetization of Cobalt clusters was confirmed by X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) measured at the new PGM beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (LNLS). A reasonably low magnetic field (1.1 Tesla) was used and the measurements were done at room temperature. By fixing the spin momentum and determining the average angle between the incident X-ray photon and the total magnetic moment, we clearly observe the enhancement of Co orbital momentum as coverage decreases down to approximately 1.5 monolayers. The procedure of determination of the orbital momentum a low magnetic fields will be discussed in detail. (author)

  12. Third-Body Perturbation in the Case of Elliptic Orbits for the Disturbing Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Domingos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a semi-analytical and numerical study of the perturbation caused in a spacecraft by a third-body using a double averaged analytical model with the disturbing function expanded in Legendre polynomials up to the second order. The important reason for this procedure is to eliminate terms due to the short periodic motion of the spacecraft and to show smooth curves for the evolution of the mean orbital elements for a long-time period. The aim of this study is to calculate the effect of lunar perturbations on the orbits of spacecrafts that are traveling around the Earth. An analysis of the stability of near-circular orbits is made, and a study to know under which conditions this orbit remains near circular completes this analysis. A study of the equatorial orbits is also performed.

  13. Perturbative evolution of particle orbits around Kerr black holes time domain calculation

    CERN Document Server

    López-Aleman, R; Pullin, J; Lopez-Aleman, Ramon; Khanna, Gaurav; Pullin, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Treating the Teukolsky perturbation equation numerically as a 2+1 PDE and smearing the singularities in the particle source term by the use of narrow Gaussian distributions, we have been able to reproduce earlier results for equatorial circular orbits that were computed using the frequency domain formalism. A time domain prescription for a more general evolution of nearly geodesic orbits under the effects of radiation reaction is presented. This approach can be useful when tackling the more realistic problem of a stellar-mass black hole moving on a generic orbit around a supermassive black hole under the influence of radiation reaction forces.

  14. Lunar influence on equatorial atmospheric angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouard, C.; Zotov, L.; Sidorenkov, N.

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the equatorial atmospheric angular momentum oscillation in the non-rotating frame and lunar tidal potential. Between 2 and 30 days, the corresponding equatorial component is mostly constituted of prograde circular motions, especially of a harmonic at 13.6 days, and of a weekly broad band variation. A simple equilibrium tide model explains the 13.6-day pressure term as result of the O1 lunar tide; the tidal lunar origin of the whole band from 2 to 30 days is attested by specific features, not occurring for seasonal band dominated by the solar thermal effect.

  15. Effect of Gravitational Frame Dragging on Orbiting Qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the effect of gravitational frame dragging on orbiting qubits. In particular, we consider the Kerr spacetime geometry and spin-1/2 qubits moving in an equatorial radial fall with zero angular momentum and equatorial circular orbits. We ignore the ${\\cal O}(\\hbar)$ order effects due to spin-curvature coupling, which allows us to consider the motion of the spin-1/2 particles as Kerr geometry geodesics. We derive analytical expressions for the infinitesimal Wigner rotation and numerical results for their integration across the length of the particle's trajectory. To this end, we consider the bounds on the finite Wigner rotation imposed by Penrose's cosmic censorship hypothesis.

  16. Do floating orbits in extreme mass ratio binary black holes exist?

    CERN Document Server

    Kapadia, Shasvath J; Glampedakis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility of floating or non-decaying orbits for extreme mass ratio binary black holes. In the adiabatic approximation, valid in the extreme mass ratio case, if the orbital flux lost due to gravitational radiation reaction is compensated for by the orbital flux gained from the spins of the black holes via superradiant scattering (or, equivalently, tidal acceleration) the orbital decay would be stalled, causing the binary to "float". We show that this flux balance is not, in practice, possible for extreme mass ratio binary black holes with circular equatorial orbits; furthermore, adding eccentricity and inclination to the orbits will not significantly change this null result, thus ruling out the possibility of floating orbits for extreme mass ratio binary black holes. We also argue that binaries consisting of material bodies dense and massive enough to generate gravitational waves detectable by any kind of gravitational wave detector are also unlikely to float. Using a multipolar anal...

  17. Administrative Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    Département des Ressources humaines

    2004-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...

  18. Timelike and null equatorial geodesics in the Bonnor-Sackfield relativistic disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. González

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of timelike and null equatorial geodesics in the BonnorSackfield relativistic thin disk is presented. The motion of test particles in the equatorial plane is analyzed, both for the newtonian thin disk model as for the corresponding relativistic disk. The nature of the possible orbits is studied by means of a qualitative analysis of the effective potential and by numerically solving the motion equation for radial and non-radial equatorial trajectories. The existence of stable, unstable and marginally stable circular orbits is analyzed, both for the newtonian and relativistic case. Examples of the numerical results, obtained with some simple values of the parameters, are presented. Resumen. En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de las geodésicas temporales y nulas en el disco delgado relativista y newtoniano de Bonnor-Sackfield. Se analiza el movimiento de las partículas de prueba en el plano ecuatorial, tanto para el modelo newtoniano del disco delgado como para el disco relativista correspondiente. La naturaleza de las órbitas posibles se estudia por medio de un análisis cualitativo del potencial efectivo, y numéricamente mediante la solución de la ecuación de movimiento de las trayectorias ecuatorial radial y no radial: Se analiza la existencia de órbitas estables, circulares inestables y estables marginalmente, tanto para el caso newtoniano, como el relativista. Se presentan ejemplos de los resultados numéricos obtenidos con algunos valores de los parámetros simples.

  19. The third post-Newtonian gravitational wave polarisations and associated spherical harmonic modes for inspiralling compact binaries in quasi-circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, Luc; Iyer, Bala R; Sinha, Siddhartha

    2008-01-01

    The gravitational waveform (GWF) generated by inspiralling compact binaries moving in quasi-circular orbits is computed at the third post-Newtonian (3PN) approximation to general relativity. Our motivation is two-fold: (i) To provide accurate templates for the data analysis of gravitational wave inspiral signals in laser interferometric detectors; (ii) To provide the associated spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition to facilitate comparison and match of the high post-Newtonian prediction for the inspiral waveform to the numerically-generated waveforms for the merger and ringdown. This extension of the GWF by half a PN order (with respect to previous work at 2.5PN order) is based on the algorithm of the multipolar post-Minkowskian formalism, and mandates the computation of the relations between the radiative, canonical and source multipole moments for general sources at 3PN order. We also obtain the 3PN extension of the source multipole moments in the case of compact binaries, and compute the contribut...

  20. A Numerical Study of Low-Thrust Limited Power Trajectories between Coplanar Circular Orbits in an Inverse-Square Force Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro da Silva Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of optimal low-thrust limited power trajectories for simple transfer (no rendezvous between circular coplanar orbits in an inverse-square force field is performed by two different classes of algorithms in optimization of trajectories. This study is carried out by means of a direct method based on gradient techniques and by an indirect method based on the second variation theory. The direct approach of the trajectory optimization problem combines the main positive characteristics of two well-known direct methods in optimization of trajectories: the steepest-descent (first-order gradient method and a direct second variation (second-order gradient method. On the other hand, the indirect approach of the trajectory optimization problem involves two different algorithms of the well-known neighboring extremals method. Several radius ratios and transfer durations are considered, and the fuel consumption is taken as the performance criterion. For small-amplitude transfers, the results are compared to the ones provided by a linear analytical theory.

  1. Towards an Accurate Orbital Calibration of Late Miocene Climate Events: Insights From a High-Resolution Chemo- and Magnetostratigraphy (8-6 Ma) from Equatorial Pacific IODP Sites U1337 and U1338

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, A. J.; Westerhold, T.; Frederichs, T.; Wilkens, R.; Channell, J. E. T.; Evans, H. F.; Hodell, D. A.; John, C. M.; Lyle, M. W.; Roehl, U.; Tian, J.

    2015-12-01

    In the 8-6 Ma interval, the late Miocene is characterised by a long-term -0.3 ‰ reduction in benthic foraminiferal δ18O and distinctive short-term δ18O cycles, possibly related to dynamic Antarctic ice sheet variability. In addition, the late Miocene carbon isotope shift (LMCIS) marks a permanent long-term -1 ‰ shift in oceanic δ13CDIC, which is the largest, long-term perturbation in the global marine carbon cycle since the mid Miocene Monterey excursion. Accurate age control is crucial to investigate the origin of the δ18O cyclicity and determine the precise onset of the LMCIS. The current Geological Time Scale in the 8-6 Ma interval is constructed using astronomical tuning of sedimentary cycles in Mediterranean outcrops. However, outside of the Mediterranean, a comparable high-resolution chemo-, magneto-, and cyclostratigraphy at a single DSDP/ODP/IODP site does not exist. Generating an accurate astronomically-calibrated chemo- and magneto-stratigraphy in the 8-6 Ma interval became possible with retrieval of equatorial Pacific IODP Sites U1337 and U1338, as both sites have sedimentation rates ~2 cm/kyr, high biogenic carbonate content, and magnetic polarity stratigraphies. Here we present high-resolution correlation of Sites U1337 and U1338 using Milankovitch-related cycles in core images and X-ray fluorescence core scanning data. By combining inclination and declination data from ~400 new discrete samples with shipboard measurements, we are able to identify 14 polarity reversals at Site U1337 from the young end of Chron C3An.1n (~6.03 Ma) to the onset of Chron C4n.2n (~8.11 Ma). New high-resolution (<1.5 kyr) stable isotope records from Site U1337 correlate highly with Site U1338 records, enabling construction of a high-resolution stack. Initial orbital tuning of the U1337-U1338 records show that the δ18O cyclicity is obliquity driven, indicating high-latitude climate forcing. The LMCIS starts ~7.55 Ma and is anchored in Chron C4n.1n, which is

  2. Circular Coinduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Grigore; Goguen, Joseph; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Circular coinduction is a technique for behavioral reasoning that extends cobasis coinduction to specifications with circularities. Because behavioral satisfaction is not recursively enumerable, no algorithm can work for every behavioral statement. However. algorithms using circular coinduction can prove every practical behavioral result that we know. This paper proves the correctness of circular coinduction and some consequences.

  3. Pseudo-Newtonian planar circular restricted 3-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubeibe, F. L.; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González, Guillermo A.

    2017-02-01

    We study the dynamics of the planar circular restricted three-body problem in the context of a pseudo-Newtonian approximation. By using the Fodor-Hoenselaers-Perjés procedure, we perform an expansion in the mass potential of a static massive spherical source up to the first non-Newtonian term, giving place to a gravitational potential that includes first-order general relativistic effects. With this result, we model a system composed by two pseudo-Newtonian primaries describing circular orbits around their common center of mass, and a test particle orbiting the system in the equatorial plane. The dynamics of the new system of equations is studied in terms of the Poincaré section method and the Lyapunov exponents, where the introduction of a new parameter ɛ, allows us to observe the transition from the Newtonian to the pseudo-Newtonian regime. We show that when the Jacobian constant is fixed, a chaotic orbit in the Newtonian regime can be either chaotic or regular in the pseudo-Newtonian approach. As a general result, we find that most of the pseudo-Newtonian configurations are less stable than their Newtonian equivalent.

  4. Intermonsoonal equatorial jets

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.

    , respectively. Hydrographic features and transport computations favour a well developed equatorial jet during both seasons. The net surface eastward and subsurface westward flows are well balanced during the premonsoon transition period and appear...

  5. A Colorful Equatorial Wonderland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the least visited countries in the world... a last frontier for international travelers. PNG is a colorful equatorial wonderland as well as a living example of human's culture 1000 years ago.

  6. Electrodynamic-Tether Magnetosphere Interaction From Capture to Low Jovian Orbit of its Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R.; Charro, M.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Bombardelli, C.; Bramanti, C.

    2007-12-01

    An orbiting conductive tether provides a dissipative mechanism in planets that have magnetic field and ionosphere/magnetosphere. The Jovian system is a particularly appropriate place for use of an electrodynamic tether because the magnetic field is intense, the stationary orbit is close to the planet, and moon Io provides a dense plasma torus farther away. The interaction of the tether with the magnetized plasma is analyzed under a variety of conditions, since the spacecraft is captured into an equatorial, highly elliptical orbit with perijove inside the stationary orbit, till the spacecraft reaches a low circular orbit around Jupiter, below the radiation belts. The radiation dose accumulated as the apojove distance is reduced through of sequence of perijove passes, is studied.

  7. Modelling resonances and orbital chaos in disk galaxies. Application to a Milky Way spiral model

    CERN Document Server

    Michtchenko, Tatiana A; Barros, Douglas A; Lépine, Jacques R D

    2016-01-01

    Context: Resonances in the stellar orbital motion under perturbations from spiral arms structure play an important role in the evolution of the disks of spiral galaxies. The epicyclic approximation allows the determination of the corresponding resonant radii on the equatorial plane (for nearly circular orbits), but is not suitable in general. Aims: To expand the study of resonant orbits by analysing stellar motions perturbed by spiral arms with Gaussian-shaped profiles, without any restriction on the stellar orbital configurations, and expand the concept of Lindblad (epicyclic) resonances for orbits with large radial excursions. Methods: We define a representative plane of initial conditions, which covers the whole phase space of the system. Dynamical maps on representative planes are constructed numerically, in order to characterize the phase-space structure and identify the precise location of the resonances. The study is complemented by the construction of dynamical power spectra, which provide the identif...

  8. BeppoSAX equatorial uncontrolled re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, C.

    The X-ray astronomy satellite BeppoSAX (Satellite per Astronomia X, "Beppo" in honor of Giuseppe Occhialini), is a project of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) with participation of the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR). BeppoSAX was launched by an Atlas G Centaur directly into a circular 600 km- orbit at 3.9 degrees inclination on April 30th, 1996. The satellite is a three axis stabilized spacecraft with a total mass of about 1400 kg. The current (May 1, 2002) flight altitude is about 470 km and its uncontrolled re-entry is predicted late in 2002, or in 2003, with a 26 kg of hydrazine on board that could not be vented or used for controlled re-entry due to gyro's package total failure. Due to the relatively high mass of BeppoSAX, it has to be expected that parts of the satellite will survive the re-entry into the earth atmosphere. The Italian Space Agency has committed a study to HTG for the analysis of the destructive phase of the uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry by means of a dedicated European software tool (SCARAB). The expected outputs will be used in order to determine how much of the spacecraft and how many fragments parts of it will reach the ground on the equatorial earth zone. This paper will address the peculiarities of the spacecraft initial status, its risks at end of life and the SCARAB modelling as well as its 6D flight dynamics re-entry analysis results also in terms of the destruction history tree. Consideration will be made on the ground dispersion and casualt y area due to the very restricted equatorial zone impacted. References B. Fritsche, H. Klinkrad, A. Kashkovsky, E.Grinberg; Spacecraft Disintegration during uncontrolled atmospheric entry ; IAA-99-IAA.6.7.02; 50t h IAC 4-8 Oct. 1999

  9. High orbital angular momentum quantum numbers in the electronic ground states of Fe$_2^+$ and Co$_2^+$ as determined by x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Zamudio-Bayer, V; Langenberg, A; Lawicki, A; Terasaki, A; Issendorff, B v; Lau, J T

    2015-01-01

    The $^6\\Delta$ electronic ground state of the Co$_2^+$ diatomic molecular cation has been assigned experimentally by x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap. Three candidates, $^6\\Phi$, $^6\\Gamma$, and $^8\\Gamma$, for the electronic ground state of Fe$_2^+$ have been identified. These states carry sizable ground-state orbital angular momenta that disagree with theoretical predictions from multireference configuration interaction and density functional theory. Our results show that the ground states of neutral and cationic diatomic molecules of $3d$ elements cannot be assumed to be connected by a one-electron process.

  10. Study of equatorial regions of Moon with the help of backscattering coefficient obtained from LRO data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O P N Calla; Shubhra Mathur; Monika Jangid

    2014-03-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has a miniature radio-frequency (Mini-RF) payload, i.e., the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that has provided very fundamental information about the lunar surface and subsurface which was not known inspite of many manned and unmanned missions. Microwave sensors are used for analyzing the equatorial region of the Moon (60°N to 60°S) which is covered with many well-known craters like Kopff, Taylor, Maunder, Descartes, Jackson and Santos Dumont, each having different topography. The LRO data in terms of the scattering coefficient (°LH and °LV) with incidence angle of 49° has been used for computing physical and electrical parameter of lunar surface and to learn more about the impact cratering process. Most of the lunar surface shows small Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR), i.e., the reversal of polarization is normal, but some targets have high CPR. In this paper we have discussed the scattering behaviour of lunar equatorial region where the value of CPR < 1. Studies say that the LV intensity is always greater than LH but from the data obtained from LRO, it is observed that it varies at each pixel depending upon the target properties under radar view.

  11. Detection of gravitational frame dragging using orbiting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Salgado, Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we propose information theoretic and interferometric techniques to detect the effect of gravitational frame dragging on orbiting qubits. In particular, we consider the Kerr spacetime geometry and spin-\\tfrac{1}{2} qubits moving in equatorial circular orbits. We ignore the { O }({\\hslash }) order effects due to spin-curvature coupling, which allows us to consider the motion of the spin-\\tfrac{1}{2} particles as Kerr geometry geodesics. We derive analytical expressions for the infinitesimal Wigner rotation and numerical results for their integration across the length of the particle’s trajectory. To this end, we consider the bounds on the finite Wigner rotation imposed by Penrose’s cosmic censorship hypothesis. Finally we propose how the Wigner rotation strictly due to frame dragging could be observed using interferometry and other quantum metrology techniques.

  12. Stable photon orbits in stationary axisymmetric electrovacuum spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Sam R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the existence and phenomenology of stable photon orbits (SPOs) in stationary axisymmetric electrovacuum spacetimes in four dimensions. First, we classify the equatorial circular photon orbits of Kerr-Newman spacetimes in the charge-spin plane. Second, using a Hamiltonian formulation, we show that Reissner-Nordstr\\"om di-holes (a family encompassing the Majumdar-Papapetrou and Weyl-Bach special cases) admit SPOs, in a certain parameter regime that we investigate. Third, we explore the transition from order to chaos for typical SPOs bounded within a torus around a di-hole, via a selection of Poincar\\'e sections. Finally, for general axisymmetric stationary spacetimes, we show that the Einstein-Maxwell field equations allow for the existence of SPOs in electrovacuum; but not in pure vacuum.

  13. Stable photon orbits in stationary axisymmetric electrovacuum spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Sam R.; Shipley, Jake O.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the existence and phenomenology of stable photon orbits (SPOs) in stationary axisymmetric electrovacuum spacetimes in four dimensions. First, we review the classification of equatorial circular photon orbits on Kerr-Newman spacetimes in the charge-spin plane. Second, using a Hamiltonian formulation, we show that Reissner-Nordström diholes (a family encompassing the Majumdar-Papapetrou and Weyl-Bach special cases) admit SPOs, in a certain parameter regime that we investigate. Third, we explore the transition from order to chaos for typical SPOs bounded within a toroidal region around a dihole, via a selection of Poincaré sections. Finally, for general axisymmetric stationary spacetimes, we show that the Einstein-Maxwell field equations allow for the existence of SPOs in electro vacuum, but not in pure vacuum.

  14. Circular Updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Circular Updates are periodic sequentially numbered instructions to debriefing staff and observers informing them of changes or additions to scientific and specimen...

  15. Operational Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Operational Circular N° 4 - April 2003 Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN - This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 5 - October 2000 Use of CERN computing facilities - Further details on the personal use of CERN computing facilities Operational Circular N° 5 and its Subsidiary Rules http://cern.ch/ComputingRules defines the rules for the use of CERN computing facilities. One of the basic principles governing such use is that it must come within the professional duties of the user concerned, as defined by the user's divisional hierarchy. However, personal use of the computing facilities is tolerated or allowed provided : a) It is in compliance with Operational Circular N° 5 and not detrimental to official duties, including those of other users; b) the frequency and duration is limited and there is a negligible use of CERN resources; c) it does not constitute a political, commercial and/or profit-making activity; d) it is not...

  16. Circular motion in NUT space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Jefremov, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We consider circular motion in the NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) space-time. Among other things, we determine the location of circular time-like geodesic orbits, in particular of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) and of the marginally bound circular orbit. Moreover, we discuss the von Zeipel cylinders with respect to the stationary observers and with respect to the Zero Angular Momentum Observers (ZAMOs). We also investigate the relation of von Zeipel cylinders to inertial forces, in particular in the ultra-relativistic limit. Finally, we generalise the construction of thick accretion tori ("Polish doughnuts") which are well known on the Schwarzschild or Kerr background to the case of the NUT metric. We argue that, in principle, a NUT source could be distinguished from a Schwarzschild or Kerr source by observing the features of circular matter flows in its neighbourhood.

  17. The quantum spectra analysis of the circular billiards in wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yan-Hui; Zhang Li-Qin; Xu Xue-You; Ge Mei-Hua; Lin Sheng-Lu; Du Meng-Li

    2006-01-01

    We use a recently defined quantum spectral function and apply the method of closed-orbit theory to the 2D circular billiard system. The quantum spectra contain rich information of all classical orbits connecting two arbitrary points in the well. We study the correspondence between quantum spectra and classical orbits in the circular, 1/2 circular and 1/4 circular wells using the analytic and numerical methods. We find that the peak positions in the Fourier-transformed quantum spectra match accurately with the lengths of the classical orbits. These examples show evidently that semi-classical method provides a bridge between quantum and classical mechanics.

  18. ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULARS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff membersN° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000Staff members contractsN° 16 (Rev. 2) - January 2000TrainingN° 30 (Rev. 1) - January 2000Indemnities and reimbursements upon taking up appointment and termination of contractN° 32 - February 2000Principles and procedures governing complaints of harassmentThese circular have been amended (No 2, N° 9, N° 16 and N° 30) or drawn up (N° 32).Copies are available in the Divisional Secretariats.Note:\tAdministrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation in the server SRV4_Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word files are available in the folder COM, folder Public, folder ADM.CIRC.docHuman Resources DivisionTel. 74128

  19. Leak detection method for in-orbit spacecraft using circular ultrasonic sensor array%基于圆形超声阵列传感器的在轨泄漏定位方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟冬辉; 闫荣鑫; 郭欣

    2011-01-01

    In view of more and more debris in space, it is an important issue to locate the leak point in manned spacecraft cabin. In this paper, a leak detection method is developed for spacecraft on orbit using circular ultrasonic array sensors. The time difference of the ultrasonic signal reaching different ultrasonic units is calculated by cross correlation, and then the direction of the leak is determined. The leak location can then be identified by triangulation with three ultrasonic array sensors.%随着空间碎片数量的不断增加,载人航天器在轨泄漏定位问题成为一个亟待解决的问题.文章研究了一种基于圆形超声阵列传感器的在轨泄漏定位方法,利用互相关原理计算泄漏超声信号传播到不同测试单元的时间差,从而确定泄漏所在的方向,并根据三角定位方法确定漏孔的具体位置.

  20. The Equatorial Ekman Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Marcotte, Florence; Soward, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The steady incompressible viscous flow in the wide gap between spheres rotating about a common axis at slightly different rates (small Ekman number E) has a long and celebrated history. The problem is relevant to the dynamics of geophysical and planetary core flows, for which, in the case of electrically conducting fluids, the possible operation of a dynamo is of considerable interest. A comprehensive asymptotic study, in the limit E<<1, was undertaken by Stewartson (J. Fluid Mech. 1966, vol. 26, pp. 131-144). The mainstream flow, exterior to the E^{1/2} Ekman layers on the inner/outer boundaries and the shear layer on the inner sphere tangent cylinder C, is geostrophic. Stewartson identified a complicated nested layer structure on C, which comprises relatively thick quasi-geostrophic E^{2/7} (inside C) and E^{1/4} (outside C) layers. They embed a thinner E^{1/3} ageostrophic shear layer (on C), which merges with the inner sphere Ekman layer to form the E^{2/5} Equatorial Ekman layer of axial length E^{...

  1. NEAR-CIRCULAR LOW-EARTH-ORBIT SPACECRAFT FORMATION CONTROL WITH LORENTZ FORCE%近圆参考轨道卫星编队洛仑兹力控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭超; 高扬

    2012-01-01

    Based on the physical law that charged particle experiences Lorentz force in magnetic field, we have analyzed the long-term averaged changes in classical orbital elements with two different charging modes: (1) The spacecraft is charged constantly; (2) The spacecraft is charged in the first half orbital revolution and uncharged in the second half. It is found that, in the first mode, the long-term changes in the longitude of ascending node, argument of periapsis and mean anomaly, can be effectively controlled by Lorentz force, while semi-major axis, eccentricity, and inclination can not be. Meanwhile, the eccentricity can be varied in the second mode. Based on the averaged evolution of the orbital element difference between two spacecrafts in formation - one is charged deputy and the other is uncharged chief, we proposed a new propellantless means for formation control - adjusting the size of fly-around elliptical relative orbit and formation center, when the chief spacecraft's reference orbit is near-circular. The required charge-to-mass ratio for formation control is derived analytically and the effectiveness of Lorentz-force formation control is verified by numerical simulations.%基于运动电荷在磁场中切割磁力线受到洛仑兹力作用的物理规律,分析了两种带电模式对经典轨道根数长期变化的影响:(1)卫星恒定带电模式;(2)前半个轨道周期卫星带电、后半周期不带电的非恒定带电模式.恒定带电模式可以有效地改变轨道升交点赤经、近地点幅角以及平近点角,对轨道半长轴、偏心率和倾角几乎不产生长期影响;而非恒定带电模式则可以有效地改变轨道偏心率.基于洛仑兹力作用下轨道根数长期变化规律以及轨道根数差描述的带电副星相对于不带电主星的运动,提出了利用洛仑兹力以及两种带电模式实现地球低轨近圆参考轨道卫星编队的控制策略,包括编队绕

  2. Circular causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R

    2006-07-01

    The problem of disentangling complex dynamic systems is addressed, especially with a view to identifying those variables that take part in the essential qualitative behaviour of systems. The author presents a series of reflections about the methods of formalisation together with the principles that govern the global operation of systems. In particular, a section on circuits, nuclei, and circular causality and a rather detailed description of the analytic use of the generalised asynchronous logical description, together with a brief description of its synthetic use (OreverseO logic). Some basic rules are recalled, such as the fact that a positive circuit is a necessary condition of multistationarity. Also, the interest of considering as a model, rather than a well-defined set of differential equations, a variety of systems that differ from each other only by the values of constant terms is emphasised. All these systems have a common Jacobian matrix and for all of them phase space has exactly the same structure. It means that all can be partitioned in the same way as regards the signs of the eigenvalues and thus as regards the precise nature of any steady states that might be present. Which steady states are actually present, depends on the values of terms of order zero in the ordinary differential equations (ODEs), and it is easy to find for which values of these terms a given point in phase space is steady. Models can be synthesised first at the level of the circuits involved in the Jacobian matrix (that determines which types and numbers of steady states are consistent with the model), then only at the level of terms of order zero in the ODE's (that determines which of the steady states actually exist), hence the title 'Circular casuality'.

  3. Equatorial Oscillations in Jupiter's and Saturn's Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Guerlet, S.; Fouchet, T.; Schinder, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Equatorial oscillations in the zonal-mean temperatures and zonal winds have been well documented in Earth's middle atmosphere. A growing body of evidence from ground-based and Cassini spacecraft observations indicates that such phenomena also occur in the stratospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. Earth-based midinfrared measurements spanning several decades have established that the equatorial stratospheric temperatures on Jupiter vary with a cycle of 4-5 years and on Saturn with a cycle of approximately 15 years. Spectra obtained by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) during the Cassini swingby at the end of 2000, with much better vertical resolution than the ground-based data, indicated a series of vertically stacked warm and cold anomalics at Jupiter's equator; a similar structurc was seen at Saturn's equator in CIRS limb measurements made in 2005, in the early phase of Cassini's orbital tour. The thermal wind equation implied similar patterns of mean zonal winds increasing and decreasing with altitude. On Saturn the peak-to-pcak amplitude of this variation was nearly 200 meters per second. The alternating vertical pattern of wanner and colder cquatorial tcmperatures and easterly and westerly tendencies of the zonal winds is seen in Earth's equatorial oscillations, where the pattern descends with time, The Cassini Jupiter and early Saturn observations were snapshots within a limited time interval, and they did not show the temporal evolution of the spatial patterns. However, more recent Saturn observations by CIRS (2010) and Cassini radio-occultation soundings (2009-2010) have provided an opportunity to follow the change of the temperature-zonal wind pattern, and they suggest there is descent, at a rate of roughly one scale height over four years. On Earth, the observed descent in the zonal-mean structure is associated with the absorption of a combination of vertically propagating waves with easlerly and westerly phase velocities. The peak-to-peak zonal wind

  4. PMP-2: Equatorial wave dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, I.

    1982-01-01

    After the discovery of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the stratospheric zonal wind, there were, in the last two decades, a large number of observational and theoretical studies on the structure and behavior of the mean zonal wind and waves in the tropical stratosphere. Planetary-scale, vertically propagating equatorial waves play an important role in producing the QBO through the mechanism of wave-mean flow interaction. Concerning the dynamics of the equatorial upper stratosphere and mesosphere, however, little was known about the possible wave motions, except for tides, mainly because of the lack of adequate observations in this region. The main purpose is to provide the nature of various types of equatorial wave modes, with the aid of improved sounding techniques and sophisticated numerical modelings.

  5. Variability In Sloan's Equatorial Stripe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashkov, Valery; Spergel, D.; Strauss, M.; Ivezic, Z.; Sesar, B.

    2007-12-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) equatorial Stripe 82 is located between 22h 24min Branimir Sesar (Sesar et al., 2007) have put together a list of 13051 variable sources, each of which was observed an average of 20 times. I have calculated fits for two variability parameters (amplitude and characteristic timescale) for these objects using maximum likelihood statistics. The list is being probed for violent variability, as from BL Lac Objects and OVVs. Knowledge of these objects' parameters will help separate their contribution in the microwave from that of the CMB when the equatorial Stripe 82 is eventually observed with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope.

  6. Recurring Slope Lineae in Mid-Latitude and Equatorial Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A. S.; Dundas, C. M.; Mattson, S.; Toigo, A. D.; Ojha, L.; Wray, J. J.; Chojnacki, M.; Byrne, S.; Murchie, S. L.; Thomas, N.

    2013-12-01

    A key to potential present-day habitability of Mars is the presence of liquid H2O (water). Recurring slope lineae (RSL) could be evidence for the seasonal flow of water on relatively warm slopes. RSL are narrow (250 K to >300 K. In the past year we have monitored active RSL in equatorial (0°-15°S) regions of Mars, especially in the deep canyons of Valles Marineris. They are especially active on north-facing slopes in northern summer and spring and on south-facing slopes in southern spring and summer, following the most normal solar incidence angles on these steep slopes. However, predicted peak temperatures for north-facing slopes are nearly constant throughout the Martian year because orbital periapse occurs near the southern summer solstice. Although warm temperatures and steep low-albedo slopes are required, some additional effect besides temperature may serve to trigger and stop RSL activity. Seasonal variation in the atmospheric column abundance of water does not match the RSL activity. Although seasonal melting of shallow ice could explain the mid-latitude RSL, the equatorial activity requires a different explanation, perhaps migration of briny groundwater. To explain RSL flow lengths, exceeding 1 km in Valles Marineris, the water is likely to be salty. Several RSL attributes are not yet understood: (1) the relation between apparent RSL activity and dustiness of the atmosphere; (2) salt composition and concentration; (3) variability in RSL activity from year to year; (4) seasonal activity on north-facing equatorial slopes in spite of little change in temperature; and (5) temporal changes in the color properties of fans where RSL terminate. Continued orbital monitoring, laboratory experiments, and future orbital and landed exploration with new measurement types are needed. Equatorial water activity, if confirmed, creates new exploration opportunities and challenges. RSL >1 km long near boundary between Eos and Capri Chasmata of Valles Marineris, Mars.

  7. Tailoring Very-High-n Circular Wavepackets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhold, Carlos O [ORNL; Yoshida, S. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Burgdorfer, J. [Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Mestayer, J. J. [Rice University; Wyker, B. [Rice University; Lancaster, J. C. [Rice University; Dunning, F. B. [Rice University

    2008-01-01

    We describe a protocol to generate transiently localized circular wavepackets in very-high-n Rydberg states. These are created from strongly-polarized quasi-one-dimensional Rydberg states by applying a transverse pulsed electric field. The resulting wavepacket becomes transiently localized as the result of focusing and travels in a nearly circular Bohr-like orbit around the nucleus for several orbital periods. The localization properties can be controlled by carefully choosing the shape of the field pulse, in particular, its rise and fall times. Remarkably, the wavepackets exhibit classical revivals after the initial dephasing on time scales shorter than those expected for quantum revivals.

  8. Multiple-Orbit Simulations of Binary Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, InSaeng; Haywood, J Reese; Lan, N Q

    2016-01-01

    We study the general relativistic hydrodynamic evolution of neutron stars in binary orbits and analyze the equation of state dependence of the orbits as the stars approach the inner most last stable circular orbit. We show that by employing a conformally flat condition on the metric, one can stably numerically evolve ~100 quasi-circular orbits and could straightforwardly extend the calculation to the ~10,000 orbits needed to follow stars through the LIGO frequency band. We apply this code to orbiting neutron stars in the quasi-circular orbit approximation to both demonstrate the stability of this approach and explore the equation of state dependence of the orbital properties. We employ variety of available realistic neutron star equations of state as well as a Gamma=2 polytrope. We confirm that both the orbital and emergent gravity wave frequency evolve more slowly for a softer equation of state as the stars approach the innermost stable circular orbit.

  9. Equatorial Spread F Fossil Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Satyanarayana , P., and Ossakow, S. L.: The morphology of a multi-bubble system in the ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 5528–5536, 1983. de La Beaujardiere...Haerendel, G.: Theory of equatorial spread F , preprint, Max Planck Inst. Extraterr. Phys., Munich, Germany, 1974. Haerendel, G., Eccles, J. V ., and...weather issues, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 58, 1527–1574, 1996. Sekar, R., Chakrabarty, D., Sarkhel, S., Patra, A. K., Devasia, C. V ., and Kelley, M. C

  10. LLOFX earth orbit to lunar orbit delta V estimation program user and technical documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The LLOFX computer program calculates in-plane trajectories from an Earth-orbiting space station to Lunar orbit in such a way that the journey requires only two delta V burns (one to leave Earth circular orbit and one to circularize into Lunar orbit). The program requires the user to supply the Space Station altitude and Lunar orbit altitude (in km above the surface), and the desired time of flight for the transfer (in hours). It then determines and displays the trans-Lunar injection (TLI) delta V required to achieve the transfer, the Lunar orbit insertion (LOI) delta V required to circularize the orbit around the Moon, the actual time of flight, and whether the transfer orbit is elliptical or hyperbolic. Return information is also displayed. Finally, a plot of the transfer orbit is displayed.

  11. Relative equilibria of full dynamics of a rigid body with gravitational orbit-attitude coupling in a uniformly rotating second degree and order gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie

    2014-12-01

    The motion of a rigid body in a uniformly rotating second degree and order gravity field is a good model for the gravitationally coupled orbit-attitude motion of a spacecraft in the close proximity of an asteroid. The relative equilibria of this full dynamics model are investigated using geometric mechanics from a global point of view. Two types of relative equilibria are found based on the equilibrium conditions: one is the Lagrangian relative equilibria, at which the circular orbit of the rigid body is in the equatorial plane of the central body; the other is the non-Lagrangian relative equilibria, at which the circular orbit is parallel to but not in the equatorial plane of central body. The existences of the Lagrangian and non-Lagrangian relative equilibria are discussed numerically with respect to the parameters of the gravity field and the rigid body. The effect of the gravitational orbit-attitude coupling is especially assessed. The existence region of the Lagrangian relative equilibria is given on the plane of the system parameters. Numerical results suggest that the negative C 20 with a small absolute value and a negative C 22 with a large absolute value favor the existence of the non-Lagrangian relative equilibria. The effect of the gravitational orbit-attitude coupling of the rigid body on the existence of the non-Lagrangian relative equilibria can be positive or negative, which depends on the harmonics C 20 and C 22, and the angular velocity of the rotation of the gravity field.

  12. Zonal winds in the equatorial upper thermosphere: Decomposing the solar flux, geomagnetic activity, and seasonal dependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, H.; Lühr, H.; Watanabe, S.; Köhler, W.; Henize, V.; Visser, P.N.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Using 3 years (2002–2004), over 16,400 orbits of measurements from the accelerometer on board the CHAMP satellite, we have studied the climatology of the equatorial zonal wind in the upper thermosphere. Several main features are noticed. The most prominent one is that the solar flux significantly in

  13. Circular polarisation in AGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macquart, JP

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the constraints that recent observations place on circular polarisation in AGN. In many sources the circular polarisation is variable on short timescales, indicating that it originates in compact regions of the sources. The best prospects for gleaning further information about circular po

  14. Optimal Broadcasting of Mixed Equatorial Qubits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zong-Wen

    2009-01-01

    We derive an optimal 2→M phase-covariant quantum broadcasting of mixed equatorial qubits.This quantum broadcasting is optimal in the sense that the shrinking factor between the input and the output single qubit achieves the upper bound.The result shows that we can copy two identical mixed equatorial qubits with the same quality as those of two identical pure equatorial states.

  15. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  16. Completion of metric reconstruction for a particle orbiting a Kerr black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Cesar; Ori, Amos; Barack, Leor; Pound, Adam; van de Meent, Maarten

    2016-11-01

    Vacuum perturbations of the Kerr metric can be reconstructed from the corresponding perturbation in either of the two Weyl scalars ψ0 or ψ4, using a procedure described by Chrzanowski and others in the 1970s. More recent work, motivated within the context of self-force physics, extends the procedure to metric perturbations sourced by a particle in a bound geodesic orbit. However, the existing procedure leaves undetermined a certain stationary, axially symmetric piece of the metric perturbation. In the vacuum region away from the particle, this "completion" piece corresponds simply to mass and angular-momentum perturbations of the Kerr background, with amplitudes that are, however, a priori unknown. Here, we present and implement a rigorous method for finding the completion piece. The key idea is to impose continuity, off the particle, of certain gauge-invariant fields constructed from the full (completed) perturbation, in order to determine the unknown amplitude parameters of the completion piece. We implement this method in full for bound (eccentric) geodesic orbits in the equatorial plane of the Kerr black hole. Our results provide a rigorous underpinning of recent results by Friedman et al. for circular orbits and extend them to noncircular orbits.

  17. Strong Trinucleotide Circular Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Michel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we identified a hierarchy relation between trinucleotide comma-free codes and trinucleotide circular codes (see our previous works. Here, we extend our hierarchy with two new classes of codes, called DLD and LDL codes, which are stronger than the comma-free codes. We also prove that no circular code with 20 trinucleotides is a DLD code and that a circular code with 20 trinucleotides is comma-free if and only if it is a LDL code. Finally, we point out the possible role of the symmetric group ∑4 in the mathematical study of trinucleotide circular codes.

  18. Publication of administrative circular

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee on 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in Departmental Secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  19. PUBLICATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  20. Fitting Planetary Orbits with a Spreadsheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Describes how to fit binocular observations of the planets to a theoretical model of circular orbits using a modern computer spreadsheet, from which fundamental data about the solar system may be deduced. (AIM)

  1. On the modelling of equatorial waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, A.

    2012-03-01

    The present theory of geophysical waves that either raise or lower the equatorial thermocline, based on the reduced-gravity shallow-water equations on the β-plane, ignores vertical variations of the flow. In particular, the vertical structure of the Equatorial Undercurrent is absent. As a remedy we propose a simple approach by modeling this geophysical process as a wave-current interaction in the f-plane approximation, the underlying current being of positive constant vorticity. The explicit dispersion relation allows us to conclude that, despite its simplicity, the proposed model captures to a reasonable extent essential features of equatorial waves.

  2. Circularity and Lambda Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Thiemann, Peter; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    circular unknowns as dead variables, and we apply the functions to them. The result is a lazy circular program a la Bird. We illustrate the two transformations by mapping an algebraic construct to an isomorphic one with new leaves, reading a binary number as sug- gested by Knuth, and backpatching...

  3. Circularly symmetric light scattering from nanoplasmonic spirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Jacob; Cao, Hui; Dal Negro, Luca

    2011-05-11

    In this paper, we combine experimental dark-field imaging, scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy with rigorous electrodynamics calculations in order to investigate light scattering from planar arrays of Au nanoparticles arranged in aperiodic spirals with diffuse, circularly symmetric Fourier space. In particular, by studying the three main types of Vogel's spirals fabricated by electron-beam lithography on quartz substrates, we demonstrate polarization-insensitive planar light diffraction in the visible spectral range. Moreover, by combining dark-field imaging with analytical multiparticle calculations in the framework of the generalized Mie theory, we show that plasmonic spirals support distinctive structural resonances with circular symmetry carrying orbital angular momentum. The engineering of light scattering phenomena in deterministic structures with circular Fourier space provides a novel strategy for the realization of optical devices that fully leverage on enhanced, polarization-insensitive light-matter coupling over planar surfaces, such as thin-film plasmonic solar cells, plasmonic polarization devices, and optical biosensors.

  4. Perfect Circular Dichroic Metamirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zuojia; Liu, Yongmin

    2015-01-01

    In nature, the beetle Chrysina gloriosa derives its iridescence by selectively reflecting left-handed circularly polarized light only. Here, for the first time, we introduce and demonstrate the optical analogue based on an ultrathin metamaterial, which we term circular dichroic metamirror. A general method to design the circular dichroic metasmirror is presented under the framework of Jones calculus. It is analytically shown that the metamirror can be realized by two layers of anisotropic metamaterial structures, in order to satisfy the required simultaneous breakings of n-fold rotational (n>2) and mirror symmetries. We design an infrared metamirror, which shows perfect reflectance for left-handed circularly polarized light without reversing its handedness, while almost completely absorbs right-handed circularly polarized light. These findings offer new methodology to realize novel chiral optical devices for a variety of applications, including polarimetric imaging, molecular spectroscopy, as well as quantum ...

  5. Lux in obscuro: Photon Orbits of Extremal Black Holes Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Khoo, Fech Scen

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown in the literature that the event horizon of an asymptotically flat extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is also a stable photon sphere. We further clarify this statement and give a general proof that this holds for a large class of static spherically symmetric black hole spacetimes with an extremal horizon. In contrast, an asymptotically flat extremal Kerr black hole has an unstable photon orbit on the equatorial plane of its horizon. In addition, we show that an asymptotically flat extremal Kerr-Newman black hole exhibits two equatorial photon orbits if $a M/2$, there is only one equatorial photon orbit, located on the extremal horizon, and it is unstable. There can be no photon orbit on the horizon of a non-extremal Kerr-Newman black hole.

  6. Responses in the polar and equatorial ionosphere to the March 2015 St. Patrick Day storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Marc; Coley, W. R.; Stoneback, Russell

    2016-11-01

    The St. Patrick Day storm of 2015 (17 March 2015) occurred at a unique time when there were multiple spacecraft observing the Earth's ionosphere between 350 and 885 km. Observations of the plasma flows and densities from the five operational polar-orbiting DMSP spacecraft combined with those from the equatorial-orbiting C/NOFS spacecraft provided a comprehensive global record of the both the polar and equatorial ionosphere regions' responses to the storm. This paper presents an overview of the data from this suite of spacecraft focusing on the following aspects: (1) the polar cap ionosphere's reaction to the storm, (2) the change in the penetration electric field in the midlatitude region as a function of time and the solar local time during the storm, (3) the equatorial ionosphere's response of the meridional (vertical) flows to the penetration electric field and the disturbance dynamo during the storm, and (4) the creation of a predawn ionospheric bubble system near the equator during the storm's main phase that was observed at low altitudes by C/NOFS and later at high altitudes by several DMSP. Examining these phenomenon enable us to trace the dynamic flow of energy from the solar wind input in the polar ionosphere all the way to the equatorial ionosphere.

  7. Circular-Arc Cartograms

    CERN Document Server

    Kämper, Jan-Hinrich; Nöllenburg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We present a new circular-arc cartogram model in which countries are drawn with circular arcs instead of straight-line segments. Given a geographic map and values associated with each country in the map, the cartogram is a new map in which the areas of the countries represent the corresponding values. In the circular-arc cartogram model straight-line segments can be replaced with circular arcs in order to achieve the desired areas, while the corners of the polygons defining each country remain fixed. The countries in circular-arc cartograms have the aesthetically pleasing appearance of clouds or snowflakes, depending on whether their edges are bent outwards or inwards. This makes is easy to determine whether a country has grown or shrunk, just by its overall shape. We show that determining whether a given map and area-values can be realized with a circular-arc cartogram is an NP-hard problem. Next we describe a heuristic method for constructing circular-arc cartograms, which uses a max-flow computation on the...

  8. Building a Circular Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Heidi; Guldager Jensen, Kasper; Sommer, John

    2016-01-01

    of the circular strategies is not only in the future. Increased flexibility, optimized operation and maintenance, as well as a healthier building, is low-hanging fruit that can be harvested today. The project’s principles can be implemented in industrialized construction in a large scale today. That is proven......Natural resources are scarce and construction accounts for 40 percent of the material and energy consumption in Europe. This means that a switch to a circular future is necessary. ’Building a Circular Future’ maps out where we are, where we are going, and what is needed for this conversion to take...

  9. Circular statistics in R

    CERN Document Server

    Pewsey, Arthur; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2013-01-01

    Circular Statistics in R provides the most comprehensive guide to the analysis of circular data in over a decade. Circular data arise in many scientific contexts whether it be angular directions such as: observed compass directions of departure of radio-collared migratory birds from a release point; bond angles measured in different molecules; wind directions at different times of year at a wind farm; direction of stress-fractures in concretebridge supports; longitudes of earthquake epicentres or seasonal and daily activity patterns, for example: data on the times of day at which animals are c

  10. Orbital cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hemolytic streptococci may also cause orbital cellulitis. Orbital cellulitis infections in children may get worse very quickly and ... in the space around the eye. An orbital cellulitis infection can get worse very quickly. A person with ...

  11. Recurring slope lineae in equatorial regions of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Alfred S.; Dundas, Colin M.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Ojha, Lujendra; Wray, James J.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Byrne, Shane; Murchie, Scott L.; Thomas, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The presence of liquid water is a requirement of habitability on a planet. Possible indicators of liquid surface water on Mars include intermittent flow-like features observed on sloping terrains. These recurring slope lineae are narrow, dark markings on steep slopes that appear and incrementally lengthen during warm seasons on low-albedo surfaces. The lineae fade in cooler seasons and recur over multiple Mars years. Recurring slope lineae were initially reported to appear and lengthen at mid-latitudes in the late southern spring and summer and are more common on equator-facing slopes where and when the peak surface temperatures are higher. Here we report extensive activity of recurring slope lineae in equatorial regions of Mars, particularly in the deep canyons of Valles Marineris, from analysis of data acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. We observe the lineae to be most active in seasons when the slopes often face the sun. Expected peak temperatures suggest that activity may not depend solely on temperature. Although the origin of the recurring slope lineae remains an open question, our observations are consistent with intermittent flow of briny water. Such an origin suggests surprisingly abundant liquid water in some near-surface equatorial regions of Mars.

  12. Administrative & Operational Circulars - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    All Administrative and Operational Circulars are available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp Department Head Office  

  13. Circular words and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Rittaud

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We define the notion of circular words, then consider on such words a constraint derived from the Fibonacci condition. We give several results on the structure of these circular words, then mention possible applications to various situations: periodic expansion of numbers in numeration systems, "gcd-property" of integer sequences, partition of the prefix of the fixed point of the Fibonacci substitution, spanning trees of a wheel. Eventually, we mention some open questions.

  14. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... such as the circular camera movement. Keywords: embodied perception, embodied style, explicit narration, interpretation, style pattern, television style...

  15. The orbit and size of (87) Sylvia's Romulus from the 2015 apparition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Reynolds, Odell R.; Buckman, Miles D.

    2016-09-01

    Using the US Air Force's Starfire Optical Range 3.5 meter telescope with adaptive optics and a laser guidestar, we obtained 68 images of asteroid (87) Sylvia and its satellite Romulus over 6 nights in March and May of 2015. Adding an additional 3 images from earlier observations on one night in November 2012, we are able to derive a circular (but not an eccentric) orbit for Romulus, leading to a density for Sylvia of 1.37 ± 0.04 gm/cm3. Extending the time base to 14 years by combining our data with previous observations from Keck, HST, and the VLT reported in the literature, we can fit for a new circular orbit and change the density estimate slightly to 1.35 ± 0.04 gm/cm3. By fitting a ratio of two Fourier series to the measured magnitude difference between Sylvia (V=12.5) and Romulus, which ranged from 4.1 to 5.0 in the J-band (λ = 1.2 μ m), and modeling both as triaxial ellipsoids, we are able to derive prolate spheroid equatorial diameters for Romulus of 41(±27) × 30(±16) km. This assumes that Romulus is rotating synchronously with its 3.64 d orbital period. However, decomposing the differential lightcurve between Sylvia and Romulus reveals a much shorter 7.96 hr rotational period, leading to more elongated prolate spheroid diameters of 82(±7) × 21(±2) km. As far as we know, our 3.5 m telescope is the smallest ground-based telescope to ever image any asteroid's moon.

  16. The orbital evolution of binary galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R.; Junqueira, S.

    2001-02-01

    We present the results of self-consistent numerical simulations performed to study the orbital circularization of binary galaxies. We have generalized a previous model (Junqueira & de Freitas Pacheco 1994) and confirmed partially their results. The orbital evolution of pairs of galaxies is faster when we consider interacting pairs with contacting ``live'' galaxy halos but the circularization time remains larger than the Hubble time. Besides, the time behavior of the orbits has changed in comparison with previous work because of tidal forces and dynamical friction acting on the halos.

  17. Compact waveguide circular polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawi, Sami G.

    2016-08-16

    A multi-port waveguide is provided having a rectangular waveguide that includes a Y-shape structure with first top arm having a first rectangular waveguide port, a second top arm with second rectangular waveguide port, and a base arm with a third rectangular waveguide port for supporting a TE.sub.10 mode and a TE.sub.20 mode, where the end of the third rectangular waveguide port includes rounded edges that are parallel to a z-axis of the waveguide, a circular waveguide having a circular waveguide port for supporting a left hand and a right hand circular polarization TE.sub.11 mode and is coupled to a base arm broad wall, and a matching feature disposed on the base arm broad wall opposite of the circular waveguide for terminating the third rectangular waveguide port, where the first rectangular waveguide port, the second rectangular waveguide port and the circular waveguide port are capable of supporting 4-modes of operation.

  18. A comprehensive analysis of ion cyclotron waves in the equatorial magnetosphere of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Zachary; Simon, Sven; Kabanovic, Slawa

    2016-09-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of ion cyclotron waves in the equatorial magnetosphere of Saturn, considering all magnetic field data collected during the Cassini era (totaling to over 4 years of data from the equatorial plane). This dataset includes eight targeted flybys of Enceladus, three targeted flybys of Dione, and three targeted flybys of Rhea. Because all remaining orbits of Cassini are high-inclination, our study provides the complete map of ion cyclotron waves in Saturn's equatorial magnetosphere during the Cassini era. We provide catalogs of the radial and longitudinal dependencies of the occurrence rate and amplitude of the ion cyclotron fundamental and first harmonic wave modes. The fundamental wave mode is omnipresent between the orbits of Enceladus and Dione and evenly distributed across all Local Times. The occurrence rate of the fundamental mode displays a Fermi-Dirac-like profile with respect to radial distance from Saturn. Detection of the first harmonic mode is a rare event occurring in only 0.49% of measurements taken and always in conjunction with the fundamental mode. We also search for a dependency of the ion cyclotron wave field on the orbital positions of the icy moons Enceladus, Dione, and Rhea. On magnetospheric length scales, the wave field is independent of the moons' orbital positions. For Enceladus, we analyze wave amplitude profiles of seven close flybys (E9, E12, E13, E14, E17, E18, and E19), which occurred during the studied trajectory segments, to look for any local effects of Enceladan plume variability on the wave field. We find that even in the close vicinity of Enceladus, the wave amplitudes display no discernible dependency on Enceladus' angular distance to its orbital apocenter. Thus, the correlation between plume activity and angular distance to apocenter proposed by Hedman et al. (2013) does not leave a clearly distinguishable imprint in the ion cyclotron wave field.

  19. Circular Fibonacci gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Zhang, Yuchao; Xie, Changqing

    2011-11-01

    We introduce circular Fibonacci gratings (CFGs) that combine the concept of circular gratings and Fibonacci structures. Theoretical analysis shows that the diffraction pattern of CFGs is composed of fractal distributions of impulse rings. Numerical simulations are performed with two-dimensional fast Fourier transform to reveal the fractal behavior of the diffraction rings. Experimental results are also presented and agree well with the numerical results. The fractal nature of the diffraction field should be of great theoretical interest, and shows potential to be further developed into practical applications, such as in laser measurement with wideband illumination.

  20. PMP-2 Report: Equatorial Wave Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, I.

    1982-01-01

    The activities of the pre-MAP project 2 (PMP-2) from 1978 through 1981 are described. The following topics relating to the equatorial middle atmosphere are discussed briefly: (1) the semi-annual oscillation and Kelvin waves; (2) planetary Rossby waves; (3) upper mesospheric waves; and (4) gravity waves.

  1. Coccolithophores in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinkel, Hanno; Baumann, K.-H.; Cepek, M.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was initiated to ascertain the significance of coccolithophores as a proxy for paleoceanographic and paleoproductivity studies in the equatorial Atlantic. Data from a range of different samples, from the plankton, surface sediments as well as sediment cores are shown and compare...

  2. Around the circular law

    CERN Document Server

    Bordenave, Charles

    2011-01-01

    These expository notes are centered around the circular law theorem, which states that the empirical spectral distribution of a n \\times n random matrix with i.i.d. entries of variance 1/n tends to the uniform law on the unit disc of the complex plane as the dimension n tends to infinity. This phenomenon is the non-Hermitian counterpart of the semi circular limit for Wigner random Hermitian matrices, and the quarter circular limit for Marchenko-Pastur random covariance matrices. We present a proof in a Gaussian case, due to Silverstein, based on a formula by Ginibre, and a proof of the universal case by revisiting the approach of Tao and Vu, based on the Hermitization of Girko, the logarithmic potential, and the control of the small singular values. Beyond the finite variance model, we also consider the case where the entries have heavy tails, by using the objective method of Aldous and Steele borrowed from randomized combinatorial optimization. The limiting law is then no longer the circular law and is relat...

  3. Radical Circular Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Mohammadi, S.; Slob, N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently the Circular Economy (CE) concept has gained momentum in the Netherlands, propounding that environmental impact reduction can provide a significant positive economical impulse. The government, larger parts of the industry as a whole, as well as the construction industry, has warmly received

  4. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  5. Transposable elements and circular DNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Mourier, Tobias

    2016-09-26

    Circular DNAs are extra-chromosomal fragments that become circularized by genomic recombination events. We have recently shown that yeast LTR elements generate circular DNAs through recombination events between their flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs). Similarly, circular DNAs can be generated by recombination between LTRs residing at different genomic loci, in which case the circular DNA will contain the intervening sequence. In yeast, this can result in gene copy number variations when circles contain genes and origins of replication. Here, I speculate on the potential and implications of circular DNAs generated through recombination between human transposable elements.

  6. Stormtime dynamics of the global thermosphere and equatorial ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Burke

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During magnetic storms the development of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs and distributions of thermospheric densities are strongly influenced by the histories of imposed magnetospheric electric (εM fields. Periods of intense EPB activity driven by penetration εM fields in the main phase are followed by their worldwide absence during recovery. A new method is applied to estimate global thermospheric energy (Eth budgets from orbit-averaged densities measured by accelerometers on polar-orbiting satellites. During the main phase of storms Eth increases as long as the stormtime εM operates, then exponentially decays toward quiet-time values during early recovery. Some fraction of the energy deposited at high magnetic latitudes during the main phase propagates into the subauroral ionosphere-thermosphere where it affects chemical and azimuthal-wind dynamics well into recovery. We suggest a scenario wherein fossils of main phase activity inhibit full restoration of quiet-time dayside dynamos and pre-reversal enhancements of upward plasma drifts near dusk denying bottomside irregularities sufficient time to grow into EPBs.

  7. Periodicity in the occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Kim, Y.; Kil, H.; Kwak, Y.; Lee, W.

    2013-12-01

    The observations of equatorial plasma bubbles by low-inclination orbit satellites show periodic occurrence of bubbles along satellite orbits. The periodicity in the bubble occurrence provides a useful tool for identifying the role of gravity waves in the creation of bubbles. In this study, we investigate the variability of the periodicity in the bubble occurrence by analyzing the observations of Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) and the first Republic of China satellite (ROCSAT-1). Here the periodicity indicates spatial periodicity and is derived by applying a Fourier analysis to the electron densities projected onto the magnetic apex height. Our preliminary results show an occurrence of significant amplitudes of periodicity peaks on the spatial scale range of 50-1000 km. The periodicity on small scales may be associated with the bifurcation of bubbles or to the creation of multiple bubbles for one wave seeding. The periodicity on larger scales is considered to be related with the scale size of a seeding mechanism. We present statistics of the periodicity and the coincident satellite observations of periodic bubbles with ground observations.

  8. Eastward traverse of equatorial plasma plumes observed with the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fukao; Yokoyama, T.; Tayama, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Maruyama, T.; Saito, S.

    2006-01-01

    The zonal structure of radar backscatter plumes associated with Equatorial Spread F (ESF), probably modulated by atmospheric gravity waves, has been investigated with the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) in West Sumatra, Indonesia (0.20° S, 100.32° E; dip latitude 10.1° S) and the FM-CW ionospheric sounders on the same magnetic meridian as the EAR. The occurrence locations and zonal distances of the ESF plumes were determined with multi-beam obs...

  9. Circular Dichroism and Superdiffusive Transport at the Surface of BiTeI

    OpenAIRE

    Mauchain, J; Kokh, K. A.; Tereshchenko, O. E.; Eremeev, S. V.; Chulkov, Eugene V.; Perfetti, L

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We investigate the electronic states of BiTeI after the optical pumping with circularly polarized photons. Our data show that photoexcited electrons reach an internal thermalization within 300 fs from the arrival of the pump pulse. Instead, the dichroic contrast generated by the circularly polarized light relaxes on a timescale shorter than 80 fs. This result implies that orbital and spin polarization created by the circular pump pulse rapidly decays via manybody inter...

  10. OH Airglow and Equatorial Variations Observed by ISUAL Instrument on Board the FORMOSAT 2 Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Bai Nee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OH airglow observed by the ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning instrument on board the FORMOSAT 2 satellite is reported in this paper. The satellite is sun-synchronous and it returns to the same orbit at the same local time daily. By using this property, we can study the upper atmosphere in detail. With a CCD camera, ISUAL has measured the emission layers of OH Meinel band at 630 nm for several two-week periods in 2004 and 2007 in equatorial regions. ISUAL images are snapshots of the atmosphere 250 km (height _ 1200 km (horizontal distance. These images of OH airglow are analyzed to derive its peak height and latitudinal variations. ISUAL observation is unique in its capability of continuous observation of the upper atmosphere as the satellite travels from south to north along a specific orbit. However, 630 nm filter also measured O(1D at 200 km, and there are interferences between O(1D and OH airglows as as observed from a distance in space. We have studied the overlap of two airglows by simulations, and our final analyses show that OH airglow can be correctly derived with its average peak height of 89 _ 2.1 km usually lying within _ latitude about the equator. ISUAL data reveal detailed structures of equatorial OH airglow such as the existences of a few secondary maxima within the equatorial regions, and the oscillations of the peak latitudes. These results are discussed and compared with previous reports.

  11. Kappa Coefficients for Circular Classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.; Pratiwi, Bunga C.

    2016-01-01

    Circular classifications are classification scales with categories that exhibit a certain periodicity. Since linear scales have endpoints, the standard weighted kappas used for linear scales are not appropriate for analyzing agreement between two circular classifications. A family of kappa coefficie

  12. Seasonal-longitudinal variability of equatorial plasma bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Burke

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We compare seasonal and longitudinal distributions of more than 8300 equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs observed during a full solar cycle from 1989-2000 with predictions of two simple models. Both models are based on considerations of parameters that influence the linear growth rate, γRT, of the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the context of finite windows of opportunity available during the prereversal enhancement near sunset. These parameters are the strength of the equatorial magnetic field, Beq, and the angle, α, it makes with the dusk terminator line. The independence of α and Beq from the solar cycle phase justifies our comparisons.

    We have sorted data acquired during more than 75000 equatorial evening-sector passes of polar-orbiting Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites into 24 longitude and 12 one-month bins, each containing ~250 samples. We show that: (1 in 44 out of 48 month-longitude bins EPB rates are largest within 30 days of when α=0°; (2 unpredicted phase shifts and asymmetries appear in occurrence rates at the two times per year when α≈0°; (3 While EPB occurrence rates vary inversely with Beq, the relationships are very different in regions where Beq is increasing and decreasing with longitude. Results (2 and (3 indicate that systematic forces not considered by the two models can become important. Damping by interhemispheric winds appears to be responsible for phase shifts in maximum rates of EPB occurrence from days when α=0°. Low EPB occurrence rates found at eastern Pacific longitudes suggest that radiation belt electrons in the drift loss cone reduce γRT by enhancing E-layer Pedersen conductances. Finally, we analyze an EPB event observed during a magnetic storm at a time and place where α≈-27°, to illustrate how electric-field penetration from

  13. Circular arc structures

    KAUST Repository

    Bo, Pengbo

    2011-07-01

    The most important guiding principle in computational methods for freeform architecture is the balance between cost efficiency on the one hand, and adherence to the design intent on the other. Key issues are the simplicity of supporting and connecting elements as well as repetition of costly parts. This paper proposes so-called circular arc structures as a means to faithfully realize freeform designs without giving up smooth appearance. In contrast to non-smooth meshes with straight edges where geometric complexity is concentrated in the nodes, we stay with smooth surfaces and rather distribute complexity in a uniform way by allowing edges in the shape of circular arcs. We are able to achieve the simplest possible shape of nodes without interfering with known panel optimization algorithms. We study remarkable special cases of circular arc structures which possess simple supporting elements or repetitive edges, we present the first global approximation method for principal patches, and we show an extension to volumetric structures for truly threedimensional designs. © 2011 ACM.

  14. Moon influence on equatorial atmospheric angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouard, Christian; Zotov, Leonid; Sidorenkov, Nikolay

    2014-05-01

    The variation of the equatorial atmospheric angular momentum function, coordinated with respect to a star-fixed system, is investigated in relation with the lunar tide. We isolate the rapid fluctuations, below 30 days, where Moon motion has a possible influence. First we notice that pressure term and wind term are almost proportional, by contrast to celestial seasonal band (S1). This would mean that, in this frequency band, the torque of the atmosphere on the solid Earth mostly results from the equatorial bulge. Spectrum reveals sharp lunar tidal peaks at 13.66 days (O1 diurnal tide in the terrestrial frame) and 13.63 days, reflecting the Moon influence on meridional circulation. We also observe powerful episodic fluctuations between 5 and 8 days (up to 10 mas), possibly resulting from non linear effect of the O1 tide, or tidal waves 2Q1 (6.86 days) and σ1 (7.095 days).

  15. Fitting Orbits to Jupiter's Moons with a Spreadsheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Describes how a spreadsheet is used to fit a circular orbit model to observations of Jupiter's moons made with a small telescope. Kepler's Third Law and the inverse square law of gravity are observed. (AIM)

  16. Understanding the Unique Equatorial Density Irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    HF Coherent Backscatter Radar (Blue Nile Radar) at Bahir Dar University in collaboration with AFRL in November 2014. Ionospheric empirical models such...equatorial plasma bubbles, Africa 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18, NUMBER OF PAGES 12 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...satellite signal receivers, VLF, VHF and so on in collaborating with institutions found outside Ethiopia. As a continua- tion of hosting instruments, HF

  17. Whirling orbits around twirling black holes from conformal symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hadar, Shahar

    2016-01-01

    Dynamics in the throat of rapidly rotating Kerr black holes is governed by an emergent near-horizon conformal symmetry. The throat contains unstable circular orbits at radii extending from the ISCO down to the light ring. We show that they are related by conformal transformations to physical plunges and osculating trajectories. These orbits have angular momentum arbitrarily higher than that of ISCO. Using the conformal symmetry we compute analytically the radiation produced by the physical orbits. We also present a simple formula for the full self-force on such trajectories in terms of the self-force on circular orbits.

  18. Orbit and spin evolution of synchronous binary stars on the main sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Sen Li

    2012-01-01

    A set of synchronous equations are derived from a set of non-synchronous equations.The analytical solutions are given by solving the set of differential equations.The results of the evolutionary trend of the spin-orbit interaction are that the semi-major axis gradually shrinks with time; the orbital eccentricity gradually decreases with time until orbital circularization occurs; the orbital period gradually shortens with time and the rotational angular velocity of the primary component gradually speeds up with time before the orbit achieves circularization.The theoretical results are applied to evolution of the orbit and spin of synchronous binary stars Algol A and B that are on the main sequence.The circularization time,lifetime and the evolutionary numerical solutions of orbit and spin when circularization time occurs are estimated for Algol A and B.

  19. Anomalous opening of the Equatorial Atlantic due to an equatorial mantle thermal minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatti, Enrico

    1996-09-01

    The geology of the Equatorial Atlantic is dominated by a broad east-west megashear belt where a cluster of large fracture zones offsets anomalously deep segments of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The origin and evolution of this megashear region may lie ultimately in an equatorial mantle thermal minimum. The notion of a mantle thermal minimum in the Equatorial Atlantic is supported by an equatorial minimum of zero-age topography, a maximum in mantle shear waves seismic velocity and a minimum in the degree of melting, indicated by the chemistry of MAR basalts and peridotites. This thermal minimum has probably been a stable feature since before the Cretaceous separation of Africa from South America; it caused a pre-opening equatorial continental lithosphere thicker and colder than normal. The Cretaceous Benue Trough in western Africa and the Amazon depression in South America are interpreted as morphostructural depressions created or rejuvenated by strike-slip, transpressional and transtensional tectonics ducing extension of the cold/thick equatorial lithosphere. The oceanic rift propagating northward from the South Atlantic impinged against the equatorial thicker, colder and, therefore, stronger than normal continental, lithosphere that consequently acted as a 'locked zone'. This, and a low magmatic budget due to the cold upper mantle, caused a lower than normal rate of propagation of the oceanic rift into the equatorial belt, with diffuse deformation during mostly amagmatic extension. The thick/cold lithosphere prevented major Cretaceous igneous activity from the St. Helena plume. Eventually initial 'weak' isolated nuclei oceanic lithosphere were emplaced, separated by E-W continent/continent transforms. Opening occurred largely by strike-slip motion along these initial transforms. The consequences were that the Equatorial Atlantic opened prevalently along an E-W direction, in contrast to the N-S opening of the North and South Atlantic, and that sheared continental

  20. Antennas on circular cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, H. L.

    1959-01-01

    antenna in a circular cylinder. By a procedure similar to the one used by Silver and Saunders, expressions have been derived for the field radiated from an arbitrary surface current distribution on a cylinder surface coaxial with a perfectly conducting cylinder. The cases where the space between the two...... cylindrical surfaces have the sane characteristic constants and different constants are treated separately. Extensive numerical computations of the field radiated from the slot antennas described here are being carried out, but no numerical results are yet available...

  1. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  2. Modelling resonances and orbital chaos in disk galaxies. Application to a Milky Way spiral model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michtchenko, T. A.; Vieira, R. S. S.; Barros, D. A.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Resonances in the stellar orbital motion under perturbations from the spiral arm structure can play an important role in the evolution of the disks of spiral galaxies. The epicyclic approximation allows the determination of the corresponding resonant radii on the equatorial plane (in the context of nearly circular orbits), but is not suitable in general. Aims: We expand the study of resonant orbits by analysing stellar motions perturbed by spiral arms with Gaussian-shaped groove profiles without any restriction on the stellar orbital configurations, and we expand the concept of Lindblad (epicyclic) resonances for orbits with large radial excursions. Methods: We define a representative plane of initial conditions, which covers the whole phase space of the system. Dynamical maps on representative planes of initial conditions are constructed numerically in order to characterize the phase-space structure and identify the precise location of the co-rotation and Lindblad resonances. The study is complemented by the construction of dynamical power spectra, which provide the identification of fundamental oscillatory patterns in the stellar motion. Results: Our approach allows a precise description of the resonance chains in the whole phase space, giving a broader view of the dynamics of the system when compared to the classical epicyclic approach. We generalize the concept of Lindblad resonances and extend it to cases of resonant orbits with large radial excursions, even for objects in retrograde motion. The analysis of the solar neighbourhood shows that, depending on the current azimuthal phase of the Sun with respect to the spiral arms, a star with solar kinematic parameters (SSP) may evolve in dynamically distinct regions, either inside the stable co-rotation resonance or in a chaotic zone. Conclusions: Our approach contributes to quantifying the domains of resonant orbits and the degree of chaos in the whole Galactic phase-space structure. It may serve as a

  3. Circularization of tidally disrupted stars around spinning supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Stone, Nicholas; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-10-01

    We study the circularization of tidally disrupted stars on bound orbits around spinning supermassive black holes by performing 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations with post-Newtonian corrections. Our simulations reveal that debris circularization depends sensitively on the efficiency of radiative cooling. There are two stages in debris circularization if radiative cooling is inefficient: first, the stellar debris streams self-intersect due to relativistic apsidal precession; shocks at the intersection points thermalize orbital energy and the debris forms a geometrically thick, ring-like structure around the black hole. The ring rapidly spreads via viscous diffusion, leading to the formation of a geometrically thick accretion disc. In contrast, if radiative cooling is efficient, the stellar debris circularizes due to self-intersection shocks and forms a geometrically thin ring-like structure. In this case, the dissipated energy can be emitted during debris circularization as a precursor to the subsequent tidal disruption flare. The circularization time-scale is remarkably long in the radiatively efficient cooling case, and is also sensitive to black hole spin. Specifically, Lense-Thirring torques cause dynamically important nodal precession, which significantly delays debris circularization. On the other hand, nodal precession is too slow to produce observable signatures in the radiatively inefficient case. Since the stellar debris is optically thick and its photon diffusion time is likely longer than the time-scale of shock heating, our inefficient cooling scenario is more generally applicable in eccentric tidal disruption events (TDEs). However, in parabolic TDEs for MBH ≳ 2 × 106 M⊙, the spin-sensitive behaviour associated with efficient cooling may be realized.

  4. Nonminimal global monopoles and bound orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Nucamendi, U; Sudarsky, D; Nucamendi, Ulises; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    We perform a numerical analysis of the gravitational field of a global monopole coupled nonminimally to gravity, and find that, for some given nonminimal couplings (in constrast with the minimal coupling case), there is an attractive region where bound orbits exist. We exhibit the behavior of the frequency shifts that would be associated with `rotation curves' of stars in circular orbits in the spacetimes of such global monopoles.

  5. Testing a class of non-Kerr metrics with hot spots orbiting SgrA*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: danliu12@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: zilongli@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China)

    2015-01-01

    SgrA*, the supermassive black hole candidate at the Galactic Center, exhibits flares in the X-ray, NIR, and sub-mm bands that may be interpreted within a hot spot model. Light curves and images of hot spots orbiting a black hole are affected by a number of special and general relativistic effects, and they can be potentially used to check whether the object is a Kerr black hole of general relativity. However, in a previous study we have shown that the relativistic features are usually subdominant with respect to the background noise and the model-dependent properties of the hot spot, and eventually it is at most possible to estimate the frequency of the innermost stable circular orbit. In this case, tests of the Kerr metric are only possible in combination with other measurements. In the present work, we consider a class of non-Kerr spacetimes in which the hot spot orbit may be outside the equatorial plane. These metrics are difficult to constrain from the study of accretion disks and indeed current X-ray observations of stellar-mass and supermassive black hole candidates cannot put interesting bounds. Here we show that near future observations of SgrA* may do it. If the hot spot is sufficiently close to the massive object, the image affected by Doppler blueshift is brighter than the other one and this provides a specific observational signature in the hot spot's centroid track. We conclude that accurate astrometric observations of SgrA* with an instrument like GRAVITY should be able to test this class of metrics, except in the more unlikely case of a small viewing angle.

  6. Analytical representations of precise orbit predictions for Earth orbiting space objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jizhang; Li, Bin; Chen, Junyu; Zhang, Pin; Ning, Jinsheng

    2017-01-01

    Accurate orbits of Earth orbiting space objects are usually generated from an orbit determination/prediction process using numerical integrators, and presented to users in a tabulated form or a state vector including force model parameters. When dealing with hundreds of thousands of space objects such as in the space conjunction assessment, the memory required for the tabulated orbits or the computing time for propagating orbits using the state vector are both confronting to users. This paper presents two methods of analytically representing numerical orbits considering the accuracy, computing efficiency and memory. The first one is a two-step TLE-based method in which the numerical orbits are first fitted into a TLE set and then correction functions are applied to improve the position accuracy. In the second method, the orbit states are represented in equinoctial elements first, and then again correction functions are applied to reduce the position errors. Experiments using six satellite laser ranging (SLR) satellites and 12 debris objects with accurate orbits show that both methods can represent the accurate orbits over 5 days in an accuracy of a few dozens of meters for the circular orbits and several hundred meters for the eccentric orbits. The computing time is similar to that using the NORAD TLE/SGP4 algorithm, and storage for the orbit elements and function coefficients is about 3-5 KB. These features could make the two methods beneficial for the maintenance of orbit catalog of large numbers of space objects.

  7. FLUID EXCHANGE ACROSS THE EQUATORIAL FRONT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the cusp-shaped wave pattern (Legeckis wave) along the Equatorial Front (EF) is modeled by a meandering jet, and the motion of fluid parcels in a two-dimensional kinematic model of the meandering jet along EF is studied using Melnikov's method. Results indicated that the velocity field of the cusp-shaped wave pattern can indeed be modeled by a meandering jet; that the EF will act as a barrier to fluid exchange if there is no variability, but that it is just the variability that moves the buoy across the EF.

  8. FLUID EXCHANGE ACROSS THE EQUATORIAL FRONT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜传丽; 吕建; 吴德星

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the cusp-shaped wave pattern (Legeckis wave) along the Equatorial Front (EF) is modeled by a meandering jet, and the motion of fluid parcels in a two-dimensional kine-matic model of the meandering jet along EF is studied using Melnikov's method. Results indicated that the velocity field of the cusp-shaped wave pattern can indeed be modeled by a meandering jet; that the EF will act as a barrier to fluid exchange if there is no variability, but that it is just the variability that moves the buoy across the EF.

  9. Republic of Equatorial Guinea; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This report discusses the IMF estimates and projections of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea's central government financial operations, 2001–06; the tax system as of march 2007; public investment program during 2004–06 (execution) and 2007–08 (budgeted); monetary survey during 2001–06; details of central bank and commercial bank assets during 2001–06; fiscal indicators during 2001–06; and estimates on public debts during 2001–06, etc.

  10. The equatorial F-layer: progress and puzzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rishbeth

    Full Text Available This work reviews some aspects of the ionospheric F-layer in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator. Starting with a historical introduction, brief summaries are given of the physics that makes the equatorial ionosphere so interesting, concentrating on the large-scale structure rather than the smaller-scale instability phenomena. Several individual topics are then discussed, including eclipse effects, the asymmetries of the `equatorial trough', variations with longitude, the semiannual variation, the effects of the global thermospheric circulation, and finally the equatorial neutral thermosphere, including `superrotation' and possible topographic influences.

    Keyword: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere

  11. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  12. Operational circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) – Operational circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Operational Circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) is applicable to members of the personnel and other persons concerned. Operational Circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) entitled "Operational circulars", approved following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 4 May 2011, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: https://hr-docs.web.cern.ch/hr-docs/opcirc/opcirc.asp It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 1 entitled "Operational Circulars” of December 1996. This new version clarifies, in particular, that operational circulars do not necessarily arise from the Staff Rules and Regulations, and the functional titles have been updated to bring them into line with the current CERN organigram. Department Head Office  

  13. Circularly Polarized MHOHG with Bichromatic Circularly Polarized Laser Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, Andre D.; Mauger, Francois; Uzer, Turgay

    2016-05-01

    Circularly polarized MHOHG-Molecular High Order Harmonic Generation is shown to occur efficiently with intense ultrashort bichromatic circularly polarized pulses due to frequent electron-parent -ion recollision with co-or counter-rotating incident circular pulses as predicted in 1995. We show in this context that molecules offer a very robust and efficient frameworkfor the production of circularly polarized harmonics for the generation of single circularly polarized ``attosecond'' pulses. The efficiency of such new MHOHG is shown to depend on the compatibility of the symmetry of the molecular medium with the net electric field generated by the combination of the laser pulses.Using a time-dependent symmetry analysis with concrete examples such as H 2 + vs H 3 + we show how all the features(harmonic order and ∧ polarization) of MHOHG can be explained and predicted.

  14. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). Design document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Earth`s climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27{degree}C, but never 31{degree}C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  15. Observational features of equatorial coronal hole jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zimbardo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Collimated ejections of plasma called "coronal hole jets" are commonly observed in polar coronal holes. However, such coronal jets are not only a specific features of polar coronal holes but they can also be found in coronal holes appearing at lower heliographic latitudes. In this paper we present some observations of "equatorial coronal hole jets" made up with data provided by the STEREO/SECCHI instruments during a period comprising March 2007 and December 2007. The jet events are selected by requiring at least some visibility in both COR1 and EUVI instruments. We report 15 jet events, and we discuss their main features. For one event, the uplift velocity has been determined as about 200 km s−1, while the deceleration rate appears to be about 0.11 km s−2, less than solar gravity. The average jet visibility time is about 30 min, consistent with jet observed in polar regions. On the basis of the present dataset, we provisionally conclude that there are not substantial physical differences between polar and equatorial coronal hole jets.

  16. Midday reversal of equatorial ionospheric electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the geomagnetic and ionospheric data at equatorial and low-latitude stations in India over the 20 year period 1956–1975 is described. The reversal of the electric field in the ionosphere over the magnetic equator during the midday hours indicated by the disappearance of the equatorial sporadic E region echoes on the ionograms is a rare phenomenon occurring on about 1% of time. Most of these events are associated with geomagnetically active periods. By comparing the simultaneous geomagnetic H field at Kodaikanal and at Alibag during the geomagnetic storms it is shown that ring current decreases are observed at both stations. However, an additional westward electric field is superimposed in the ionosphere during the main phase of the storm which can be strong enough to temporarily reverse the normally eastward electric field in the dayside ionosphere. It is suggested that these electric fields associated with the V×Bz electric fields originate at the magnetopause due to the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field.

  17. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma

    2011-01-01

    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  18. Iapetus' Geophysics: Rotation Rate, Shape, and Equatorial Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Matson, D. L.; Sotin, C.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; Thomas, P. C.

    2007-01-01

    Iapetus has preserved evidence that constrains the modeling of its geophysical history from the time of its accretion until now. The evidence is (a) its present 79.33-day rotation or spin rate, (b) its shape that corresponds to the equilibrium figure for a hydrostatic body rotating with a period of approximately 16 h, and (c) its high, equatorial ridge, which is unique in the Solar System. This paper reports the results of an investigation into the coupling between Iapetus' thermal and orbital evolution for a wide range of conditions including the spatial distributions with time of composition, porosity, short-lived radioactive isotopes (SLRI), and temperature. The thermal model uses conductive heat transfer with temperature-dependent conductivity. Only models with a thick lithosphere and an interior viscosity in the range of about the water ice melting point can explain the observed shape. Short-lived radioactive isotopes provide the heat needed to decrease porosity in Iapetus? early history. This increases thermal conductivity and allows the development of the strong lithosphere that is required to preserve the 16-h rotational shape and the high vertical relief of the topography. Long-lived radioactive isotopes and SLRI raise internal temperatures high enough that significant tidal dissipation can start, and despin Iapetus to synchronous rotation. This occurred several hundred million years after Iapetus formed. The models also constrain the time when Iapetus formed because the successful models are critically dependent upon having just the right amount of heat added by SLRI decay in this early period. The amount of heat available from short-lived radioactivity is not a free parameter but is fixed by the time when Iapetus accreted, by the canonical concentration of Al-26, and, to a lesser extent, by the concentration of Fe-60. The needed amount of heat is available only if Iapetus accreted between 2.5 and 5.0Myr after the formation of the calcium aluminum

  19. On the hierarchy of processes contributing to equatorial spread F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysell, David Lee

    Unstable plasma stratification in the twilight equatorial F region ionosphere is subject to plasma instabilities known collectively as equatorial spread F. Small-scale irregularities in electron density give rise to coherent VHF and UHF radio scatter during spread F while in situ spacecraft detect intermediate- and large-scale plasma structures. We present data from observations made over three years at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory and from the summer 1990 CRRES/EQUIS campaign which involved the Cornell 50 MHz radar interferometer (CUPRI) and the Altair UHF radar at Kwajalein, MI. Radar findings are correlated with spread F data from sounding rockets launched during the EQUIS project and from the Atmospheric Explorer E satellite. A review of fundamental fluid theory for the ionospheric interchange instability emphasizes dissipative and non-local effects that restrict linear instability to intermediate-scale wavelengths. A nonlinear fluid theory incorporating three wave interactions extends the range of instability to transitional and small scales, and renormalization group analysis offers a way to evaluate enhanced transport due to these nonlinearly excited modes. At large scales, circumstantial evidence suggests that internal gravity waves seed plasma upwellings and initiate topside spread F. Density and electric field spectra measured by the spread F sounding rockets exhibit inertial-convective and inertial-diffusive subranges. A model of quasi one-dimensional plasma turbulence reproduces the spectral indices and breaking scales observed by the rockets. Density power spectra from 30 AE-E orbits also possess convective and diffusive subranges, but their characteristic scale sizes are about 10 times larger than the rocket's. One-dimensional rocket and satellite power spectra combine to form a two-dimensional spectral model of F region irregularities which predicts VHF radar scattering cross-sections. Seeking predictions for bottomside spread F coherent scatter

  20. O the Hierarchy of Processes Contributing to Equatorial Spread F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysell, David Lee

    Unstable plasma stratification in the twilight equatorial F region ionosphere is subject to plasma instabilities known collectively as equatorial spread F. Small-scale irregularities in electron density give rise to coherent VHF and UHF radio scatter during spread F while in situ spacecraft detect intermediate- and large-scale plasma structures. We present data from observations made over three years at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory and from the summer 1990 CRRES/EQUIS campaign which involved the Cornell 50 Mhz radar interferometer (CUPRI) and the Altair UHF radar at Kwajalein, MI. Radar findings are correlated with spread F data from sounding rockets launched during the EQUIS project and from the Atmospheric Explorer E satellite. A review of fundamental fluid theory for the ionospheric interchange instability emphasizes dissipative and non -local effects that restrict linear instability to intermediate -scale wavelengths. A nonlinear fluid theory incorporating three wave interactions extends the range of instability to transitional and small scales, and renormalization group analysis offers a way to evaluate enhanced transport due to these nonlinearly excited modes. At large scales, circumstantial evidence suggests that internal gravity waves seed plasma upwellings and initiate topside spread F. Density and electric field spectra measured by the spread F sounding rockets exhibit inertial-convective and inertial-diffusive subranges. A model of quasi one -dimensional plasma turbulence reproduces the spectral indices and breaking scales observed by the rockets. Density power spectra from 30 AE-E orbits also possess convective and diffusive subranges, but their characteristic scale sizes are about 10 times larger than the rocket's. One-dimensional rocket and satellite power spectra combine to form a two -dimensional spectral model of F region irregularities which predicts VHF radar scattering cross-sections. Seeking predictions for bottomside spread F coherent

  1. Projectile Motion in the "Language" of Orbital Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurcher, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    We consider the orbit of projectiles launched with arbitrary speeds from the Earth's surface. This is a generalization of Newton's discussion about the transition from parabolic to circular orbits, when the launch speed approaches the value [image omitted]. We find the range for arbitrary launch speeds and angles, and calculate the eccentricity of…

  2. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  3. A Campaign to Study Equatorial Ionospheric Phenomena over Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash Krause, L.; Balthazor, R.; Dearborn, M.; Enloe, L.; Lawrence, T.; McHarg, M.; Petrash, D.; Reinisch, B. W.; Stuart, T.

    2007-05-01

    With the development of a series of ground-based and space-based experiments, the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) is in the process of planning a campaign to investigate the relationship between equatorial ionospheric plasma dynamics and a variety of space weather effects, including: 1) ionospheric plasma turbulence in the F region, and 2) scintillation of radio signals at low latitudes. A Digisonde Portable Sounder DPS-4 will operate from the island of Guam (with a magnetic latitude of 5.6° N) and will provide measurements of ionospheric total electron content (TEC), vertical drifts of the bulk ionospheric plasma, and electron density profiles. Additionally, a dual-frequency GPS TEC/scintillation monitor will be located along the Guam magnetic meridian at a magnetic latitude of approximately 15° N. In campaign mode, we will combine these ground-based observations with those collected from space during USAFA's FalconSAT-3 and FalconSAT-5 low-earth orbit satellite missions, the first of which is scheduled to be active over a period of several months beginning in the 2007 calendar year. The satellite experiments are designed to characterize in situ irregularities in plasma density, and include measurements of bulk ion density and temperature, minority-to- majority ion mixing ratios, small scale (10 cm to 1 m) plasma turbulence, and ion distribution spectra in energy with sufficient resolution for observations of non-thermalized distributions that may be associated with velocity- space instabilities. Specific targets of investigation include: a) a comparison of plasma turbulence observed on- orbit with spread F on ionograms as measured with the Digisonde, b) a correlation between the vertical lifting of the ionospheric layer over Guam and the onset of radio scintillation activity along the Guam meridian at 15° N magnetic latitude, and c) a correlation between on-orbit turbulence and ionospheric scintillation at 15° N magnetic latitude. These relationships

  4. Orbital Eccentricity and the Stability of Planets in the Alpha Centauri System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Planets on initially circular orbits are typically more dynamically stable than planets initially having nonzero eccentricities. However, the presence of a major perturber that forces periodic oscillations of planetary eccentricity can alter this situation. We investigate the dependance of system lifetime on initial eccentricity for planets orbiting one star within the alpha Centauri system. Our results show that initial conditions chosen to minimize free eccentricity can substantially increase stability compared to planets on circular orbits.

  5. Circular chemiresistors for microchemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-03-13

    A circular chemiresistor for use in microchemical sensors. A pair of electrodes is fabricated on an electrically insulating substrate. The pattern of electrodes is arranged in a circle-filling geometry, such as a concentric, dual-track spiral design, or a circular interdigitated design. A drop of a chemically sensitive polymer (i.e., chemiresistive ink) is deposited on the insulating substrate on the electrodes, which spreads out into a thin, circular disk contacting the pair of electrodes. This circularly-shaped electrode geometry maximizes the contact area between the pair of electrodes and the polymer deposit, which provides a lower and more stable baseline resistance than with linear-trace designs. The circularly-shaped electrode pattern also serves to minimize batch-to-batch variations in the baseline resistance due to non-uniform distributions of conductive particles in the chemiresistive polymer film.

  6. Photodetachment of hydrogen negative ion inside a circular microcavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang De-Hua; Liu Sheng; Li Shao-Sheng; Wang Yi-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The photodetachment of a hydrogen negative ion inside a circular microcavity is studied based on the semiclassical closed orbit theory.The closed orbit of the photo-detached electron in a circular microcavity is investigated and the photodetachment cross section of this system is calculated.The calculation result suggests that oscillating structure appears in the photodetachment cross section,which is caused by the interference effects of the returning electron waves with the outgoing waves traveling along the closed orbits.Besides,our study suggests that the photodetachment cross section of the negative ions depends on the laser polarization sensitively.In order to show the correspondence between the cross section and the closed orbits of the detached electron clearly,we calculate the Fourier transformation of the cross section and find that each peak corresponds to the length of one closed orbit.We hope that our results will be useful for understanding the photodetachment process of negative ions or the electron transport in a microcavity.

  7. OH Airglow and Equatorial Variations Observed by ISUAL Instrument on Board the FORMOSAT 2 Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Bai Nee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OH airglow observed by the ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning instrument on board the FORMOSAT 2 satellite is reported in this paper. The satellite is sun-synchronous and it returns to the same orbit at the same local time daily. By using this property, we can study the upper atmosphere in detail. With a CCD camera, ISUAL has measured the emission layers of OH Meinel band at 630 nm for several two-week periods in 2004 and 2007 in equatorial regions. ISUAL images are snapshots of the atmosphere 250 km (height ¡_ 1200 km (horizontal distance. These images of OH airglow are analyzed to derive its peak height and latitudinal variations. ISUAL observation is unique in its capability of continuous observation of the upper atmosphere as the satellite travels from south to north along a specific orbit. However, 630 nm filter also measured O(1D at 200 km, and there are interferences between O(1D and OH airglows as as observed from a distance in space. We have studied the overlap of two airglows by simulations, and our final analyses show that OH airglow can be correctly derived with its average peak height of 89 ¡_ 2.1 km usually lying within ¡_10¢X latitude about the equator. ISUAL data reveal detailed structures of equatorial OH airglow such as the existences of a few secondary maxima within the equatorial regions, and the oscillations of the peak latitudes. These results are discussed and compared with previous reports.

  8. Be discs in binary systems I. Coplanar orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Panoglou, Despina; Vieira, Rodrigo G; Cyr, Isabelle H; Jones, Carol E; Okazaki, Atsuo T; Rivinius, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Be stars are surrounded by outflowing circumstellar matter structured in the form of decretion discs. They are often members of binary systems, where it is expected that the decretion disc interacts both radiatively and gravitationally with the companion. In this work we study how various orbital (period, mass ratio, eccentricity) and disc (viscosity) parameters affect the disc structure in coplanar systems. We simulate such binaries with the use of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. The main effects of the secondary on the disc are its truncation and the accumulation of material inwards of truncation. In circular or nearly circular prograde orbits, the disc maintains a rotating, constant in shape, configuration, which is locked to the orbital phase. The disc is smaller in size, more elongated and more massive for low viscosity parameter, small orbital separation and/or high mass ratio. Highly eccentric orbits are more complex, with the disc structure and total mass strongly dependent on the orbital phas...

  9. Phytochelatin concentrations in the equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahner, Beth A.; Lee, Jennifer G.; Price, Neil M.; Morel, François M. M.

    1998-11-01

    Phytochelatin, an intracellular metal-binding polypeptide synthesized in eucaryotic algae in response to metals such as Cd and Cu, was measured in particulate samples collected from the equatorial Pacific. The concentrations in these samples (normalized to total particulate chl a) were unexpectedly high compared to laboratory culture data and were on average slightly more than in coastal areas where the metal concentrations are typically much greater. In part, the high field concentrations can be explained by the low cellular concentrations of chlorophyll a resulting from very low ambient Fe, but laboratory experiments provide a possible explanation for the rest of the difference. At low concentrations of inorganic Cd (Cd'=3 pM), increasing amounts of phytochelatin were induced by decreasing Zn concentrations in the culture medium of two diatoms: Thalassiosira weissflogii, a coastal species, and T. parthenaia, an isolate from the equatorial Pacific. In all previous studies, phytochelatin production has been directly correlated with increasing metal concentrations. Decreasing Co also resulted in higher phytochelatin concentrations in T. weissflogii and Emiliania huxleyi. Replicating the field concentrations of Zn, Co, and Cd in the laboratory results in cellular concentrations (amol -1 cell) that are very similar to those estimated for the field. Contrary to the expectation that high metal concentrations in the equatorial upwelling would cause elevated phytochelatin concentrations, there was no increase in phytochelatin concentrations from 20° S to 10° N—near surface samples were roughly the same at all stations. Also, most of the depth profiles had a distinct subsurface maximum. Neither of these features is readily explained by the available Zn and Cd data. Incubations with additions of Cd and Cu performed on water sampled at four separate stations induced significantly higher concentrations of phytochelatins than those in controls in a majority of the samples

  10. Towards Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN presently provides proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics programme will extend through the second half of the 2030’s. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ∼100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on $Nb_3Sn$ superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton c...

  11. Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In response to a request from the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is preparing the foundation for a next-generation large-scale accelerator infrastructure in the heart of Europe. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh), to be accommodated in a new ∼100 km tunnel near Geneva. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), which could be installed in the same tunnel as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3Sn superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. The interna...

  12. Future Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In response to a request from the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is preparing the foundation for a next-generation large-scale accelerator infrastructure in the heart of Europe. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh), to be accommodated in a new ∼100 km tunnel near Geneva. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), which could be installed in the same tunnel as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detector, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3Sn superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. The internat...

  13. Investigation of TEC variations over the magnetic equatorial and equatorial anomaly regions of the African sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryema, B.; Jurua, E.; D'ujanga, F. M.; Ssebiyonga, N.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the annual, seasonal and diurnal variations in ionospheric TEC along the African equatorial region. The study also investigated the effects of a geomagnetic storm on ionospheric TEC values. Dual-frequency GPS derived TEC data obtained from four stations within the African equatorial region for the high solar activity year 2012 were used in this study. Annual variations showed TEC having two peaks in the equinoctial months, while minima values were observed in the summer and winter solstices. The diurnal pattern showed a pre-dawn minimum, a steady increase from about sunrise to an afternoon maximum and then a gradual fall after sunset to attain a minimum just before sunrise. Nighttime enhancements of TEC were observed mostly in the equinoctial months. There was comparably higher percentage TEC variability during nighttime than daytime and highest during equinoxes, moderate in winter and least during summer solstice. TEC was observed to exhibit a good correlation with geomagnetic storm indices.

  14. Alkylmercury species in the equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. P.; Fitzgerald, W. F.

    1990-10-01

    HIGH levels of mercury in piscivorous fish constitute a long-standing health hazard1-6. Monomethyl mercury, the main form of mercury in fish, is more toxic than inorganic mercury. But although something is known of the ability of organisms to methylate mercury7,8, the sources, synthesis and fate of methyl mercury in aquatic waters are not well understood. Inorganic and alkylated mercury has been studied in natural waters9-11, precipitation and the atmosphere12,13. We now report evidence of monomethyl and dimethyl mercury in the low-oxygen waters of the equatorial Pacific. The presence of these species has important implications for our understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of mercury in the marine environment. Although the source of monomethyl mercury in open-ocean fish is still unknown, our data show that a pathway exists for the accumulation of methylated mercury in marine pelagic fish.

  15. Dynamical variability in Saturn Equatorial Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Hueso, R.; Rojas, J. F.; French, R. G.; Grupo Ciencias Planetarias Team

    2003-05-01

    Historical ground-based and recent HST observations show that Saturn's Equatorial Atmosphere is the region where the most intense large-scale dynamical variability took place at cloud level in the planet. Large-scale convective storms (nicknamed the ``Great White Spots") occurred in 1876, 1933 and 1990. The best studied case (the 1990 storm), produced a dramatic change in the cloud aspect in the years following the outburst of September 1990. Subsequently, a new large storm formed in 1994 and from 1996 to 2002 our HST observations showed periods of unusual cloud activity in the southern part of the Equator. This contrast with the aspect observed during the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters in 1980 and 1981 when the Equator was calm, except for some mid-scale plume-like features seen in 1981. Cloud-tracking of the features have revealed a dramatic slow down in the equatorial winds from maximum velocities of ˜ 475 m/s in 1980-1981 to ˜ 275 m/s during 1996-2002, as we have recently reported in Nature, Vol. 423, 623 (2003). We discuss the possibility that seasonal and ring-shadowing effects are involved in generating this activity and variability. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MCYT PNAYA 2000-0932. SPH acknowledges a PhD fellowship from the Spanish MECD and RH a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco. RGF was supported in part by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program NAG5-10197 and STSCI Grant GO-08660.01A.

  16. Inflammation of the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Boomers Additional Content Medical News Inflammation of the Orbit (Inflammatory Orbital Pseudotumor) By James Garrity, MD, Mayo ... Socket Disorders Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Inflammation of the Orbit Orbital Cellulitis Preseptal Cellulitis Tumors of the Orbit ...

  17. Pilot-wave hydrodynamics in a rotating frame: Exotic orbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oza, Anand U.; Wind-Willassen, Øistein; Harris, Daniel M.;

    2014-01-01

    , stable circular orbits give way to wobbling orbits, which are succeeded in turn by instabilities of the orbital center characterized by steady drifting then discrete leaping. In the limit of large vibrational forcing, the walker’s trajectory becomes chaotic, but its statistical behavior reflects...... the influence of the unstable orbital solutions. The study results in a complete regime diagram that summarizes the dependence of the walker’s behavior on the system parameters. Our predictions compare favorably to the experimental observations of Harris and Bush [“Droplets walking in a rotating frame: from...... quantized orbits to multi-modal statistics,” J. Fluid Mech. 739, 444–464 (2014)]....

  18. Digitalizing the Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus A.

    2016-12-01

    Metallurgy is a key enabler of a circular economy (CE), its digitalization is the metallurgical Internet of Things (m-IoT). In short: Metallurgy is at the heart of a CE, as metals all have strong intrinsic recycling potentials. Process metallurgy, as a key enabler for a CE, will help much to deliver its goals. The first-principles models of process engineering help quantify the resource efficiency (RE) of the CE system, connecting all stakeholders via digitalization. This provides well-argued and first-principles environmental information to empower a tax paying consumer society, policy, legislators, and environmentalists. It provides the details of capital expenditure and operational expenditure estimates. Through this path, the opportunities and limits of a CE, recycling, and its technology can be estimated. The true boundaries of sustainability can be determined in addition to the techno-economic evaluation of RE. The integration of metallurgical reactor technology and systems digitally, not only on one site but linking different sites globally via hardware, is the basis for describing CE systems as dynamic feedback control loops, i.e., the m-IoT. It is the linkage of the global carrier metallurgical processing system infrastructure that maximizes the recovery of all minor and technology elements in its associated refining metallurgical infrastructure. This will be illustrated through the following: (1) System optimization models for multimetal metallurgical processing. These map large-scale m-IoT systems linked to computer-aided design tools of the original equipment manufacturers and then establish a recycling index through the quantification of RE. (2) Reactor optimization and industrial system solutions to realize the "CE (within a) Corporation—CEC," realizing the CE of society. (3) Real-time measurement of ore and scrap properties in intelligent plant structures, linked to the modeling, simulation, and optimization of industrial extractive process

  19. The statistical mechanics of planet orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Tremaine, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The final "giant-impact" phase of terrestrial planet formation is believed to begin with a large number of planetary "embryos" on nearly circular, coplanar orbits. Mutual gravitational interactions gradually excite their eccentricities until their orbits cross and they collide and merge; through this process the number of surviving bodies declines until the system contains a small number of planets on well-separated, stable orbits. In this paper we explore a simple statistical model for the orbit distribution of planets formed by this process, based on the sheared-sheet approximation and the ansatz that the planets explore uniformly all of the stable region of phase space. The model provides analytic predictions for the distribution of eccentricities and semimajor axis differences, correlations between orbital elements of nearby planets, and the complete N-planet distribution function, in terms of a single parameter that is determined by the planetary masses. The predicted properties are generally consistent ...

  20. Towards future circular colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikt, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) presently provides proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics program will extend through the second half of the 2030's. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ˜100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCCee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3 S n superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly-efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. Following the FCC concept, the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in Beijing has initiated a parallel design study for an e + e - Higgs factory in China (CEPC), which is to be succeeded by a high-energy hadron collider (SPPC). At present a tunnel circumference of 54 km and a hadron collider c.m. energy of about 70 TeV are being considered. After a brief look at the LHC, this article reports the motivation and the present status of the FCC study, some of the primary design challenges and R&D subjects, as well as the emerging global collaboration.

  1. Lidar Observation of Tropopause Ozone Profiles in the Equatorial Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yasukuni; Nagasawa, Chikao; Abo, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Tropospheric ozone in the tropics zone is significant in terms of the oxidizing efficiency and greenhouse effect. However, in the upper troposphere, the ozone budget in the tropics has not been fully understood yet because of the sparsity of the range-resolved observations of vertical ozone concentration profiles. A DIAL (differential absorption lidar) system for vertical ozone profiles have been installed in the equatorial tropopause region over Kototabang, Indonesia (100.3E, 0.2S). We have observed large ozone enhancement in the upper troposphere, altitude of 13 - 17 km, concurring with a zonal wind oscillation associated with the equatorial Kelvin wave around the tropopause at equatorial region.

  2. Equatorial Rossby Solitary Wave Under the External Forcing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Kuo; LIU Shi-Da

    2005-01-01

    A simple shallow-water model with influence of external forcing on a β-plane is applied to investigate the nonlinear equatorial Rossby waves in a shear flow. By the perturbation method, the extended variable-coefficient KdV equation under an external forcing is derived for large amplitude equatorial Rossby wave in a shear flow. And then various periodic-like structures for these equatorial Rossby waves are obtained with the help of Jacobi elliptic functions.It is shown that the external forcing plays an important role in various periodic-like structures.

  3. Geometric orbit datum and orbit covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁科; 侯自新

    2001-01-01

    Vogan conjectured that the parabolic induction of orbit data is independent of the choice of the parabolic subgroup. In this paper we first give the parabolic induction of orbit covers, whose relationship with geometric orbit datum is also induced. Hence we show a geometric interpretation of orbit data and finally prove the conjugation for geometric orbit datum using geometric method.

  4. Circular dichroism and superdiffusive transport at the surface of BiTeI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauchain, J; Ohtsubo, Y; Hajlaoui, M; Papalazarou, E; Marsi, M; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A; Faure, J; Kokh, K A; Tereshchenko, O E; Eremeev, S V; Chulkov, E V; Perfetti, L

    2013-09-20

    We investigate the electronic states of BiTeI after the optical pumping with circularly polarized photons. Our data show that photoexcited electrons reach an internal thermalization within 300 fs of the arrival of the pump pulse. Instead, the dichroic contrast generated by the circularly polarized light relaxes on a time scale shorter than 80 fs. This result implies that orbital and spin polarization created by the circular pump pulse rapidly decays via manybody interaction. The persistent dichroism at longer delay times is due to the helicity dependence of superdiffussive transport. We ascribe it to the lack of inversion symmetry in an electronic system far from equilibrium conditions.

  5. Equatorial cloud level convection on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon Joo; Imamura, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Sato, Takao M.; Maejima, Yasumitsu

    2016-10-01

    In the equatorial region on Venus, a clear cloud top morphology difference depending on solar local time has been observed through UV images. Laminar flow shaped clouds are shown on the morning side, and convective-like cells on the afternoon side (Titov et al. 2012). Baker et al. (1998) suggested that deep convective motions in the low-to-middle cloud layers at the 40–60 km range can explain cellular shapes. Imamura et al. (2014), however argued that this cannot be a reason, as convection in the low-to-middle cloud layers can be suppressed near sub solar regions due to a stabilizing effect by strong solar heating. We suggest that the observed feature may be related to strong solar heating at local noon time (Lee et al. 2015). Horizontal uneven distribution of an unknown UV absorber and/or cloud top structure may trigger horizontal convection (Toigo et al. 1994). In order to examine these possibilities, we processed 1-D radiative transfer model calculations from surface to 100 km altitude (SHDOM, Evans 1998), which includes clouds at 48-71 km altitudes (Crisp et al. 1986). The results on the equatorial thermal cooling and solar heating profiles were employed in a 2D fluid dynamic model calculation (CReSS, Tsuboki and Sakakibara 2007). The calculation covered an altitude range of 40-80 km and a 100-km horizontal distance. We compared three conditions; an 'effective' global circulation condition that cancels out unbalanced net radiative energy at equator, a condition without such global circulation effect, and the last condition assumed horizontally inhomogeneous unknown UV absorber distribution. Our results show that the local time dependence of lower level cloud convection is consistent with Imamura et al.'s result, and suggest a possible cloud top level convection caused by locally unbalanced net energy and/or horizontally uneven solar heating. This may be related to the observed cloud morphology in UV images. The effective global circulation condition, however

  6. Sun-synchronous satellite orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Der-Ming; Zhai, Shen-You

    2004-02-01

    The linearized dynamic equations used for on-board orbit determination of Sun-synchronous satellite are derived. Sun-synchronous orbits are orbits with the secular rate of the right ascension of the ascending node equal to the right ascension rate of the mean sun. Therefore the orbit is no more a closed circle but a tight helix about the Earth. In the paper, instead of treating the orbit as a closed circle, the actual helix orbit is taken as nominal trajectory. The details of the linearized equations of motion for the satellite in the Sun-synchronous orbit are derived. The linearized equations are obtained by perturbing the Keplerian motion with the J2 correction and the effect of sun's attraction being neglected. Combined with the GPS navigation equations, the Kalman filter formulation is given. The particular application considered is the circular Sun-synchronous orbit with the altitude of 800 km and inclination of 98.6°. The numerical example simulated by MATLAB® shows that only the pseudo-range data used in the algorithm still gives acceptable results. Based on the simulation results, we can use the on-board GPS receivers' signal only as an alternative to determine the orbit of Sun-Synchronous satellite and therefore circumvents the need for extensive ground support.

  7. Equatorial airglow depletions induced by thermospheric winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meriwether, J.W.; Biondi, M.A.; Anderson, D.N.

    1985-08-01

    Interferometric observations on the 630.0 nm nightglow brightness at the equatorial station at Arequipa, Peru (16.2 S, 71.4 W geographic, 3.2 S dip latitude) have revealed widespread areas of airglow depletion, with reductions in intensity as large as factors of 3 or 4. These depletions correlated closely with large increases of the equatorward (northward) wind and the 630.0 nm kinetic temperature. On occasion, the usually small meridional wind reached a velocity of 100 m/s near 22h LT lasting for 1 to 2 hours. The temperature increases of 100K or more existed only in the poleware (southward) direction. Comparisons with modeling calculations suggest that this effect results from an upward movement of the ionosphere along the inclined magnetic field lines, driven by the equatorward neutral wind. The airglow column integrated emission rate is consequently decreased by the slower rate of formation and subsequent dissociative recombination of molecular oxygen ions within the higher F-layer. We conclude that the transient period of equatorward wind is a result of the passage of the midnight pressure bulge. (Author)

  8. Equatorial airglow depletions induced by thermospheric winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meriwether J.W. Jr.; Biondi, M.A.; Anderson, D.N.

    1985-08-01

    Interferometric observations of the 630.0 nm nightglow brightness at the equatorial station of Arequipa. Peru (16.2/sup 0/S, 71.4/sup 0/W geographic, 3.2/sup 0/S dip latitude) have revealed widespread areas of airglow depletion, with reductions in intensity as large as factors of 3 or 4. These depletions correlated closely with large increases of the equatorward (northward) wind and the 630.0 nm kinetic temperature. On occasion, the usually small meridonal wind reached a velocity of 100 m/s near 22/sup h/ LT lasting for 1 or 2 hours. The temperature increases of 10 K or more existed only in the poleward (southward) direction. Comparisons with modeling calculations suggest that this effect results from an upward movement of the ionosphere along the inclined magnetic field lines, driven by the equatorward neutral wind. The airglow column integrated emission rate is consequently decreased by the slower rate of formation and subsequent dissociative recombination of molecular oxygen ions within the higher F-layer. We conclude that the transient period of equatorward wind is a result of the passage of the midnight pressure bulge.

  9. Observational features of equatorial coronal hole jets

    CERN Document Server

    Nistico', G; Patsourakos, S; Zimbardo, G

    2010-01-01

    Collimated ejections of plasma called "coronal hole jets" are commonly observed in polar coronal holes. However, such coronal jets are not only a specific features of polar coronal holes but they can also be found in coronal holes appearing at lower heliographic latitudes. In this paper we present some observations of "equatorial coronal hole jets" made up with data provided by the STEREO/SECCHI instruments during a period comprising March 2007 and December 2007. The jet events are selected by requiring at least some visibility in both COR1 and EUVI instruments. We report 15 jet events, and we discuss their main features. For one event, the uplift velocity has been determined as about 200 km/s, while the deceleration rate appears to be about 0.11 km/s2, less than solar gravity. The average jet visibility time is about 30 minutes, consistent with jet observed in polar regions. On the basis of the present dataset, we provisionally conclude that there are not substantial physical differences between polar and eq...

  10. Equatorial Kelvin waves: A UARS MLS view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canziani, P.O.; Holton, J.R.; Fishbein, E.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    Data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are used to compare two periods of Kelvin wave activity during different stages of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation. The analysis is carried out using an asynoptic mapping technique. A wide bandpass filter is used to isolate the frequency bands where Kelvin waves have been identified in previous studies. Time-height and time-latitude plots of the bandpassed data are used to identify Kelvin wave activity in the temperature and ozone fields. Frequency spectra of temperature and ozone amplitudes are constructed to further analyze the latitudinal and meridional distribution of Kelvin wave activity in zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2. The characteristics identified in these plots agree well with theoretical predictions and previous observations of middle atmosphere Kelvin waves. The time-height and time-latitude plots support the existence of Kelvin waves in discrete frequency bands; the slow, fast, and ultrafast Kelvin modes are all identified in the data. The characteristics of these modes do not vary much despite different mean flow conditions in the two periods examined. For the Kelvin wave-induced perturbations in ozone, the change from a transport-dominated regime below 10 hPa to a photochemically controlled regime above 10 hPa is clearly apparent in the height dependence of the phase difference between temperature and ozone.

  11. Equatorial electrojet in east Brazil longitudes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R G Rastogi; H Chandra; K Yumuto

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the morphology of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) along 45°W longitude in east Brazil, where the ground magnetic (dip) equator is associated with the largest declination in the world. Daily range of the horizontal field ( ), as expected, was largest at the station in the chain closest to the dip equator, Sao Luiz (inclination −0.25°S). was largest positive at Eusebio (inclination 9.34°S) and largest negative at Belem (inclination 7.06°N); both near the fringe of EEJ belt. at Sao Luiz during the daytime was unexpectedly large negative in-spite of a small dip and also located south of the dip equator where should be positive. Center of EEJ was found to be shifted southward of the dip equator by about 1° in latitude. During southern summer, started decreasing from 00 h and reached a minimum value in the afternoon, an abnormal feature not discussed for any station so far. The mid-day value of the direction of vector was 22°-24°W compared to the declination of 19°–21°W in the region.

  12. The formation of an equatorial coronal hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liheng; Jiang, Yunchun; Zhang, Jun

    2010-02-01

    The formation of an equatorial coronal hole (CH) from 2006 January 9 to 12 was simultaneously observed by GOES-12/SXI, SOHO/EIT and SOHO/MDI instruments. The varieties of soft X-ray and EUV brightness, coronal temperature, and total magnetic flux in the CH were examined and compared with that of a quiet-sun (QS) region nearby. The following results are obtained. (1) A preexisting dark lane appeared on the location of the followed CH and was reinforced by three enhanced networks. (2) The CH gradually formed in about 81 hours and was predominated by positive magnetic flux. (3) During the formation, the soft X-ray and EUV brightness, coronal temperature, and total magnetic flux obviously decreased in the CH, but were almost no change in the QS region. The decrease of the total magnetic flux may be the result of magnetic reconnection between the open and closed magnetic lines, probably indicating the physical mechanism for the birth of the CH.

  13. Tilts of the Master Equatorial Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, H. G., Jr.; Gawronski, W.; Girdner, D.; Noskoff, E.; Sommerville, J. N.

    2000-07-01

    At the center of the DSS-14 antenna, a tower reaches to the focal point of the antenna dish. The master equatorial (ME) instrument is located at the top of the tower. This instrument precisely (with an accuracy that exceeds that of the antenna) follows the commanded trajectory. Through the optical coupling, the antenna focal point follows the ME. One factor of the antenna pointing precision is the movement of the ME base, i.e., the top of the tower. For this reason, measurements of the ME tower tilts have been taken in order to quantify the tilts, to determine possible causes of the tilting, and to update the antenna pointing budget. They were conducted under three antenna operating modes: during tracking, slewing, and antenna stowing. The measurements indicate that the ME tower tilts introduce significant pointing errors that exceed the required 32-GHz (Ka-band) pointing precision (estimated as 0.8 mdeg for a 0.1-dB gain loss). Four different sources of tilt were identified and require verification.

  14. Geomagnetic storm and equatorial spread-F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Becker-Guedes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In August 2000, a new ionospheric sounding station was established at Sao Jose dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W; dip latitude 17.6° S, Brazil, by the University of Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP. Another ionospheric sounding station was established at Palmas (10.2° S, 48.2° W; dip latitude 5.5° S, Brazil, in April 2002, by UNIVAP in collaboration with the Lutheran University Center of Palmas (CEULP, Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA. Both the stations are equipped with digital ionosonde of the type known as Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI. In order to study the effects of geomagnetic storms on equatorial spread-F, we present and discuss three case studies, two from the ionospheric sounding observations at Sao Jose dos Campos (September and November 2000 and one from the simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations at Sao Jose dos Campos and Palmas (July 2003. Salient features from these ionospheric observations are presented and discussed in this paper. It has been observed that sometimes (e.g. 4-5 November 2000 the geomagnetic storm acts as an inhibitor (high strong spread-F season, whereas at other times (e.g. 11-12 July 2003 they act as an initiator (low strong spread-F season, possibly due to corresponding changes in the quiet and disturbed drift patterns during different seasons.

  15. Multiple equilibria of cross-equatorial Inertial jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO JiPing; LIU Fei

    2007-01-01

    Based on the developed Anderson and Moore's theory about cross-equatorial inertial jets and a nonlinear equivalence shallow water model, new universal functions are determined by the characters of the vortical large-scale air flow (atmosphere) or ocean current (ocean) related to the jet, then the potential vorticity and energy conservation equations along the streamline in the cross-equatorial inertial jets can be obtained. Because the governing equations are nonlinear, some limited multiple equilibria of cross-equatorial inertial jets may exist. According to the character of large-scale air flow or ocean current outside the jets, the existent criterion for multiple eqnilibria in cross-equatorial inertial jets is discussed, and two examples for multiple equilibia of nonlinear governing equations are given.

  16. Multiple equilibria of cross-equatorial Inertial jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the developed Anderson and Moore’s theory about cross-equatorial inertial jets and a nonlinear equivalence shallow water model, new universal functions are determined by the characters of the vortical large-scale air flow (atmosphere) or ocean current (ocean) related to the jet, then the potential vorticity and energy conservation equations along the streamline in the cross-equatorial in-ertial jets can be obtained. Because the governing equations are nonlinear, some limited multiple equi-libria of cross-equatorial inertial jets may exist. According to the character of large-scale air flow or ocean current outside the jets, the existent criterion for multiple eqnilibria in cross-equatorial inertial jets is discussed, and two examples for multiple equilibia of nonlinear governing equations are given.

  17. Modelling the development of mixing height in near equatorial region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samah, A.A. [Univ. of Malaya, Air Pollution Research Unit, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1997-10-01

    Most current air pollution models were developed for mid-latitude conditions and as such many of the empirical parameters used were based on observations taken in the mid-latitude boundary layer which is physically different from that of the equatorial boundary layer. In the equatorial boundary layer the Coriolis parameter f is small or zero and moisture plays a more important role in the control of stability and the surface energy balance. Therefore air pollution models such as the OMLMULTI or the ADMS which were basically developed for mid-latitude conditions must be applied with some caution and would need some adaptation to properly simulate the properties of equatorial boundary layer. This work elucidates some of the problems of modelling the evolution of mixing height in the equatorial region. The mixing height estimates were compared with routine observations taken during a severe air pollution episodes in Malaysia. (au)

  18. Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sea Level Pressure (1949-present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It contains standardized sea level pressure anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific region...

  19. Periodic equatorial water flows from a Hamiltonian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu-Kruse, Delia; Martin, Calin Iulian

    2017-04-01

    The main result of this paper is a Hamiltonian formulation of the nonlinear governing equations for geophysical periodic stratified water flows in the equatorial f-plane approximation allowing for piecewise constant vorticity.

  20. Climate Prediction Center Equatorial Southern Oscillation Index (1949-present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It contains Equatorial Southern Oscillation Index (standardized sea level pressure differences between...

  1. On Irrotational Flows Beneath Periodic Traveling Equatorial Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirchmayr, Ronald

    2016-08-01

    We discuss some aspects of the velocity field and particle trajectories beneath periodic traveling equatorial surface waves over a flat bed in a flow with uniform underlying currents. The system under study consists of the governing equations for equatorial ocean waves within a non-inertial frame of reference, where Euler's equation of motion has to be suitably adjusted, in order to account for the influence of the earth's rotation.

  2. Republic of Equatorial Guinea; Staff Report 2006 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea’s macroeconomic performance in the recent period has been broadly satisfactory. Despite the macroeconomic environment, however, progress in alleviating poverty and meeting the MDGs has been slow. Executive Directors welcome the government’s intention to prepare a National Poverty Reduction Strategy. In the meantime, the budget process needs to be modified. The pegged exchange rate regime has served Equatorial Guinea well, providing an anchor to hold down inflation and a ...

  3. Meridional equatorial electrojet current in the American sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    Full Text Available Huancayo is the only equatorial electrojet station where the daytime increase of horizontal geomagnetic field (H is associated with a simultaneous increase of eastward geomagnetic field (Y. It is shown that during the counter electrojet period when ∆H is negative, ∆Y also becomes negative. Thus, the diurnal variation of ∆Y at equatorial latitudes is suggested to be a constituent part of the equatorial electrojet current system. Solar flares are known to increase the H field at an equatorial station during normal electrojet conditions (nej. At Huancayo, situated north of the magnetic equator, the solar flare effect, during nej, consists of positive impulses in H and Y and negative impulse in Z field. During counter electrojet periods (cej, a solar flare produces a negative impulse in H and Y and a positive impulse in Z at Huancayo. It is concluded that both the zonal and meridional components of the equatorial electrojet in American longitudes, as in Indian longitudes, flows in the same, E region of the ionosphere.

    Key words. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (dynamo theories · Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere disturbances

  4. Photoelectron circular dichroism of isopropanolamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catone, D.; Turchini, S.; Contini, G.; Prosperi, T.; Stener, M.; Decleva, P.; Zema, N.

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopies based on circular polarized light are sensitive to the electronic and structural properties of chiral molecules. Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) is a powerful technique that combines the chiral sensitivity of the circular polarized light and the electronic information obtained by photoelectron spectroscopy. An experimental and theoretical PECD study of the outer valence and C 1s core states of 1-amino-2-propanol in the gas phase is presented. The experimental dichroic dispersions in the photoelectron kinetic energy are compared with theoretical calculations employing a multicentric basis set of B-spline functions and a Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. In order to understand analogies and differences in the dichroism of structural isomers bearing the same functional groups, a comparison with previous PECD study of valence band of 2-amino-1-propanol is carried out.

  5. Space-based visible observation strategy for beyond-LEO objects based on an equatorial LEO satellite with multi-sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun-peng; Huang, Jian-yu; Chen, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Many space-based visible observation strategies based on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites for observing Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) objects were proposed previously. However, there were few studies about other beyond-LEO objects (Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) objects, Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) objects, and Molniya objects). In this paper, a space-based visible observation strategy is proposed for observing GEO objects, GTO objects, MEO objects (especially global navigation satellites), and Molniya objects simultaneously to get more orbital data, using an earth-oriented equatorial LEO satellite with three sensors. This work is focused on the pointing geometry. Brightness of observed objects and sensitivity of sensors are assumed under the relative ideal conditions. First, the distribution characteristics of these beyond-LEO objects are discussed. And in order to observe global navigation satellites efficiently, joint regions formed by the track superposition of two adjacent orbits in a constellation are proposed. To offset the influence of the earth shadow and constraint of sun-target-observer angle, two sensors pointing inside of the equatorial plane are used to observe GEO and GTO objects. The installation angle of the third sensor is optimized to obtain a relative high coverage rate for observing global navigation satellites and Molniya objects based on joint regions. Finally, the coverage rate, the number of observations, and observation duration under different sensors with different field of views (FOVs) are compared and analyzed respectively.

  6. Orbit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.

  7. Eastward traverse of equatorial plasma plumes observed with the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fukao

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The zonal structure of radar backscatter plumes associated with Equatorial Spread F (ESF, probably modulated by atmospheric gravity waves, has been investigated with the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR in West Sumatra, Indonesia (0.20° S, 100.32° E; dip latitude 10.1° S and the FM-CW ionospheric sounders on the same magnetic meridian as the EAR. The occurrence locations and zonal distances of the ESF plumes were determined with multi-beam observations with the EAR. The ESF plumes drifted eastward while keeping distances of several hundred to a thousand kilometers. Comparing the occurrence of the plumes and the F-layer uplift measured by the FM-CW sounders, plumes were initiated within the scanned area around sunset only, when the F-layer altitude rapidly increased. Therefore, the PreReversal Enhancement (PRE is considered as having a zonal variation with the scales mentioned above, and this variation causes day-to-day variability, which has been studied for a long time. Modulation of the underlying E-region conductivity by gravity waves, which causes inhomogeneous sporadic-E layers, for example, is a likely mechanism to determine the scale of the PRE.

  8. Eastward traverse of equatorial plasma plumes observed with the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukao, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Tayama, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Maruyama, T.; Saito, S.

    2006-07-01

    The zonal structure of radar backscatter plumes associated with Equatorial Spread F (ESF), probably modulated by atmospheric gravity waves, has been investigated with the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) in West Sumatra, Indonesia (0.20° S, 100.32° E; dip latitude 10.1° S) and the FM-CW ionospheric sounders on the same magnetic meridian as the EAR. The occurrence locations and zonal distances of the ESF plumes were determined with multi-beam observations with the EAR. The ESF plumes drifted eastward while keeping distances of several hundred to a thousand kilometers. Comparing the occurrence of the plumes and the F-layer uplift measured by the FM-CW sounders, plumes were initiated within the scanned area around sunset only, when the F-layer altitude rapidly increased. Therefore, the PreReversal Enhancement (PRE) is considered as having a zonal variation with the scales mentioned above, and this variation causes day-to-day variability, which has been studied for a long time. Modulation of the underlying E-region conductivity by gravity waves, which causes inhomogeneous sporadic-E layers, for example, is a likely mechanism to determine the scale of the PRE.

  9. Imaging of Orbital Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-01-01

    Preseptal and orbital cellulitis occur more commonly in children than adults. The history and physical examination are crucial in distinguishing between preseptal and orbital cellulitis. The orbital septum delineates the anterior eyelid soft tissues from the orbital soft tissue. Infections anterior to the orbital septum are classified as preseptal cellulitis and those posterior to the orbital septum are termed orbital cellulitis. "nRecognition of orbital involvement is important not only...

  10. Authigenic Uranium in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantonio, F.; Lyle, M. W.; Loveley, M. R.; Ibrahim, R.

    2014-12-01

    Authigenic U concentrations have been used as an indicator of redox state in marine sediments. Soluble U(VI) in porewaters is reduced to insoluble U(IV) under suboxic conditions setting up a diffusion gradient through which U in bottom waters is supplied to reducing sediments. Researchers have used sedimentary redox enrichment of U as a tool to identify past redox changes, which may be caused by changes in organic carbon rain rates and/or bottom water oxygen levels. Differentiating between these two explanations is important, as the former is tied to the use of authigenic U as a paleoproductivity proxy. We examined sediments from 4 sediment cores retrieved from two different localities in the Panama Basin in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Two cores were retrieved from the northern Panama basin at the Cocos Ridge, (4JC at 5° 44.7'N 85° 45.5' W, 1730 m depth; 8JC at 6° 14.0'N 86° 2.6' W, 1993 m depth), and two were retrieved from the south at the Carnegie Ridge, (11JC at 0° 41.6'S 85° 20.0' W, 2452 m depth; 17JC at 0° 10.8'S 85° 52.0' W, 2846 m depth). Using 230Th systematics and seismic profiling at each of the sites, we've identified significant sediment winnowing (4JC and 11JC) and focusing (8JC and 17JC). At all sites, we believe that changes in age-model-derived sand (i.e., >63µm) mass accumulation rates (MAR) best represent changes in rain rates. Glacial rain rates are higher than those in the Holocene by a factor of 2-3 at both sites. Peak Mn levels (>1%), the brown-to-green color transition (which likely represents the oxic/post-oxic boundary), and peak U concentrations all appear in the same order with increasing depth down core. At the Carnegie sites, where MARs are greater than those at the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 4 ppm) occur during the mid- to late Holocene at depths of 10-15 cm. At the Cocos sites, increases in authigenic U (up to 12 ppm) occur lower in the sediment column (25-30 cm) during the late glacial. The decrease

  11. Time-dependent density functional theory for strong-field ionization by circularly polarized pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirilă, Ciprian C.; Lein, Manfred

    2017-03-01

    By applying time-dependent density functional theory to a two-dimensional multielectron atom subject to strong circularly polarized light pulses, we confirm that the ionization of p orbitals with defined angular momentum depends on the sense of rotation of the applied field. A simple ad-hoc modification of the adiabatic local-density exchange-correlation functional is proposed to remedy its unphysical behavior under orbital depletion.

  12. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in Co2FeGa: First-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusta, D. A.; Antonov, V. N.; Yaresko, A. N.

    2011-08-01

    The electronic structure and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra of the Heusler alloy Co2FeGa were investigated theoretically from first principles, using the fully relativistic Dirac linear MT-orbital (LMTO) band structure method. Densities of valence states, orbital and spin magnetic moments are analyzed and discussed. The origin of the XMCD spectra in the Co2FeGa compound is examined. The calculated results are compared with available experimental data.

  13. Exotic orbits due to spin-spin coupling around Kerr black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Wen-Bias

    2016-01-01

    We report exotic orbital phenomena for the case of spinning particles orbiting around a Kerr black hole, i.e., some orbits of spinning particles are asymmetrical about the equatorial plane. When a test particle orbits around a Kerr black hole in strong field region, due to the relativistic orbital precessions, the trajectories of this particle are symmetrical about the equatorial plane of the Kerr black hole. However, in some certain orbital configurations and artificially large spins, the trajectories of the spinning particle are no longer symmetrical about the equatorial plane. These asymmetrical motions come from the spin-spin interactions (Papapetrou force) between the spins of particle and black hole. By analyzing a spinning particle locating initially at the polar direction (i.e., z axis) of the Kerr black hole, we find that the spin-spin coupling with the certain spin orientation can produce a repulsive effect comparing with the one produced by mass. In generic orbits, the direction of Papapetrou force...

  14. "Circularization" vs. Accretion -- What Powers Tidal Disruption Events?

    CERN Document Server

    Piran, Tsvi; Krolik, Julian; Cheng, Roseanne M; Shiokawa, Hotaka

    2015-01-01

    A tidal disruption event (TDE) takes place when a star passes near enough to a massive black hole to be disrupted. About half the star's matter is given elliptical trajectories with large apocenter distances, the other half is unbound. To "circularize", i.e., to form an accretion flow, the bound matter must lose a significant amount of energy, with the actual amount depending on the characteristic scale of the flow measured in units of the black hole's gravitational radius (~ 10^{51} (R/1000R_g)^{-1} erg). Recent numerical simulations (Shiokawa et al., 2015) have revealed that the circularization scale is close to the scale of the most-bound initial orbits, ~ 10^3 M_{BH,6.5}^{-2/3} R_g ~ 10^{15} M_{BH,6.5}^{1/3} cm from the black hole, and the corresponding circularization energy dissipation rate is $\\sim 10^{44} M_{BH,6.5}^{-1/6}$~erg/s. We suggest that the energy liberated during circularization, rather then energy liberated by accretion onto the black hole, powers the observed optical TDE candidates (e.g.A...

  15. Implementing circularity using partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2001-01-01

    of an imperative C-like language, by extending the language with a new construct, persistent variables. We show that an extension of partial evaluation can eliminate persistent variables, producing a staged C program. This approach has been implemented in the Tempo specializer for C programs, and has proven useful......Complex data dependencies can often be expressed concisely by defining a variable in terms of part of its own value. Such a circular reference can be naturally expressed in a lazy functional language or in an attribute grammar. In this paper, we consider circular references in the context...

  16. Circular threshold quantum secret sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yu-Guang; Wen Qiao-Yan

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a circular threshold quantum secret sharing (TQSS) scheme with polarized single photons.A polarized single photon sequence runs circularly among any t or more of n parties and any t or more of n parties can reconstruct the secret key when they collaborate.It shows that entanglement is not necessary for quantum secret sharing.Moreover,the theoretic efficiency is improved to approach 100% as the single photons carrying the secret key are deterministically forwarded among any t or more of n parties,and each photon can carry one bit of information without quantum storage.This protocol is feasible with current technology.

  17. Jumping Jupiter can explain Mercury's orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Roig, Fernando; DeSouza, Sandro Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The orbit of Mercury has large values of eccentricity and inclination that cannot be easily explained if this planet formed on a circular and coplanar orbit. Here, we study the evolution of Mercury's orbit during the instability related to the migration of the giant planets in the framework of the jumping Jupiter model. We found that some instability models are able to produce the correct values of Mercury's eccentricity and inclination, provided that relativistic effects are included in the precession of Mercury's perihelion. The orbital excitation is driven by the fast change of the normal oscillation modes of the system corresponding to the perihelion precession of Jupiter (for the eccentricity), and the nodal regression of Uranus (for the inclination).

  18. Neotectonics in the northern equatorial Brazilian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Souza, Lena S. B.; Prado, Renato; Elis, Vagner R.

    2012-08-01

    An increasing volume of publications has addressed the role of tectonics in inland areas of northern Brazil during the Neogene and Quaternary, despite its location in a passive margin. Hence, northern South America plate in this time interval might have not been as passive as usually regarded. This proposal needs further support, particularly including field data. In this work, we applied an integrated approach to reveal tectonic structures in Miocene and late Quaternary strata in a coastal area of the Amazonas lowland. The investigation, undertaken in Marajó Island, mouth of the Amazonas River, consisted of shallow sub-surface geophysical data including vertical electric sounding and ground penetrating radar. These methods were combined with morphostructural analysis and sedimentological/stratigraphic data from shallow cores and a few outcrops. The results revealed two stratigraphic units, a lower one with Miocene age, and an upper one of Late Pleistocene-Holocene age. An abundance of faults and folds were recorded in the Miocene deposits and, to a minor extent, in overlying Late Pleistocene-Holocene strata. In addition to characterize these structures, we discuss their origin, considering three potential mechanisms: Andean tectonics, gravity tectonics related to sediment loading in the Amazon Fan, and rifting at the continental margin. Amongst these hypotheses, the most likely is that the faults and folds recorded in Marajó Island reflect tectonics associated with the history of continental rifting that gave rise to the South Atlantic Ocean. This study supports sediment deposition influenced by transpression and transtension associated with strike-slip divergence along the northern Equatorial Brazilian margin in the Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene. This work records tectonic evidence only for the uppermost few ten of meters of this sedimentary succession. However, available geological data indicate a thickness of up to 6 km, which is remarkably thick for

  19. Orbit/CLASP is required for myosin accumulation at the cleavage furrow in Drosophila male meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daishi Kitazawa

    Full Text Available Peripheral microtubules (MTs near the cell cortex are essential for the positioning and continuous constriction of the contractile ring (CR in cytokinesis. Time-lapse observations of Drosophila male meiosis showed that myosin II was first recruited along the cell cortex independent of MTs. Then, shortly after peripheral MTs made contact with the equatorial cortex, myosin II was concentrated there in a narrow band. After MT contact, anillin and F-actin abruptly appeared on the equatorial cortex, simultaneously with myosin accumulation. We found that the accumulation of myosin did not require centralspindlin, but was instead dependent on Orbit, a Drosophila ortholog of the MT plus-end tracking protein CLASP. This protein is required for stabilization of central spindle MTs, which are essential for cytokinesis. Orbit was also localized in a mid-zone of peripheral MTs, and was concentrated in a ring at the equatorial cortex during late anaphase. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments indicated that Orbit is closely associated with F-actin in the CR. We also showed that the myosin heavy chain was in close proximity with Orbit in the cleavage furrow region. Centralspindlin was dispensable in Orbit ring formation. Instead, the Polo-KLP3A/Feo complex was required for the Orbit accumulation independently of the Orbit MT-binding domain. However, orbit mutations of consensus sites for the phosphorylation of Cdk1 or Polo did not influence the Orbit accumulation, suggesting an indirect regulatory role of these protein kinases in Orbit localization. Orbit was also necessary for the maintenance of the CR. Our data suggest that Orbit plays an essential role as a connector between MTs and the CR in Drosophila male meiosis.

  20. Ligand induced circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence in CdSe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohgha, Urice; Deol, Kirandeep K; Porter, Ashlin G; Bartko, Samuel G; Choi, Jung Kyu; Leonard, Brian M; Varga, Krisztina; Kubelka, Jan; Muller, Gilles; Balaz, Milan

    2013-12-23

    Chiral thiol capping ligands L- and D-cysteines induced modular chiroptical properties in achiral cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs). Cys-CdSe prepared from achiral oleic acid capped CdSe by postsynthetic ligand exchange displayed size-dependent electronic circular dichroism (CD) and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). Opposite CPL signals were measured for the CdSe QDs capped with D- and L-cysteine. The CD profile and CD anisotropy varied with size of CdSe nanocrystals with largest anisotropy observed for CdSe nanoparticles of 4.4 nm. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR (MAS ssNMR) experiments suggested bidentate interaction between cysteine and the surface of CdSe. Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) calculations verified that attachment of L- and D-cysteine to the surface of model (CdSe)13 nanoclusters induces measurable opposite CD signals for the exitonic band of the nanocluster. The origin of the induced chirality is consistent with the hybridization of highest occupied CdSe molecular orbitals with those of the chiral ligand.

  1. Lunar ring dikes from orbiter I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'keefe, J A; Lowman, P D; Cameron, W S

    1967-01-01

    Orbiter photographs of the wall of a large circular formation on the moon show that the wall is a convex body resembling a flow of viscous lava. The slopes are less than the angle of repose of dry rock; hence an explanation in terms of mass wastage is hard to support. The viscosity is approximately 10(13) centimeter-gram- second units, indicating an acid lava.

  2. Circular polarization observed in bioluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnberg, Hans; Meijer, E.W.; Hummelen, J.C.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.; Schippers, P.H.; Carlson, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    While investigating circular polarization in luminescence, and having found it in chemiluminescence, we have studied bioluminescence because it is such a widespread and dramatic natural phenomenon. We report here that left and right lanterns of live larvae of the fireflies, Photuris lucicrescens and

  3. Circular polarization in relativistic jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macquart, JP

    2003-01-01

    Circular polarization is observed in some relativistic jet sources at radio wavelengths. It is largely associated with activity in the cores of the radio sources, is highly variable, and is strongest during ejection episodes. VLBI imaging and interstellar scintillation arguments show that the degree

  4. Class IIc or Circular Bacteriocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Visscher, Leah A.; van Belkum, Marco J.; Vederas, John C.

    The circular bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria represent a diverse class of antimicrobial peptides. These bacteriocins display enhanced stability compared to linear bacteriocins, which arises from their characteristic circular backbone. Currently, eight unique circular bacteriocins have been identified, and analysis of their gene clusters indicates that they likely utilize complex mechanisms for maturation and secretion, as well as for immunity. These bacteriocins target the cytoplasmic membrane of sensitive cells, leading to pore formation that results in loss of ions, dissipation of membrane potential, and ultimately, cell death. Structural studies suggest that despite variation in their sequences, most of these bacteriocins likely adopt a common three-dimensional architecture, consisting of four or five tightly packed helices encompassing a hydrophobic core. There are many mysteries surrounding the biosynthesis of these peptides, particularly in regard to the mechanism by which they are cyclized. Elucidation of such a mechanism may provide exciting new approaches to the bioengineering of new, stable, and antimicrobially active circular peptides.

  5. Characteristics of equatorial electrojet derived from Swarm satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neethal; Vichare, Geeta; Sinha, A. K.

    2017-03-01

    The vector magnetic field measurements from three satellite constellation, Swarm mission (Alpha 'Swarm-A', Bravo 'Swarm-B', and Charlie 'Swarm-C') during the quiet days (daily ∑Kp ⩽ 10) of the years 2014-2015 are used to study the characteristic features of equatorial electrojet (EEJ). A program is developed to identify the EEJ signature in the X (northward) component of the magnetic field recorded by the satellite. An empirical model is fitted into the observed EEJ signatures separately for both the hemispheres, to obtain the parameters of electrojet current such as peak current density, total eastward current, the width of EEJ, position of the electrojet axis, etc. The magnetic field signatures of EEJ at different altitudes are then estimated. Swarm B and C are orbiting at different heights (separation ∼50 km) and during the month of April 2014, both the satellites were moving almost simultaneously over nearby longitudes. Therefore, we used those satellite passes to validate the methodology used in the present study. The magnetic field estimates at the location of Swarm-C obtained using the observations of Swarm B are compared with the actual observations of Swarm-C. A good correlation between the actual and the computed values (correlation coefficient = 0.98) authenticates the method of analysis. The altitudinal variation of the amplitude and the width of the EEJ signatures are also depicted. The ratio of the total eastward flowing forward to westward return currents is found to vary between 0.1 and 1.0. The forward and return current values in the northern hemisphere are found to be ∼0.5 to 2 times of those in the southern hemisphere, thereby indicating the hemispheric asymmetry. The latitudinal extents of the forward and return currents are found to have longitudinal dependence similar to that of the amplitude and the width of EEJ showing four peak structures. Local time dependence of EEJ parameters has also been investigated. In general, the results

  6. Development of a campaign to study equatorial ionospheric phenomena over Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash Krause, L.; Balthazor, R.; McHarg, M. G.; Reinisch, B. W.

    2008-08-01

    The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) is in the process of developing a series of ground-based and space-based experiments to investigate the equatorial ionosphere over Guam and the southern crest of the Equatorial Appleton Anomaly over New Guinea. On the ground the Digital Ionospheric Sounder (University of Massachusetts, Lowell DPS-4 unit) and a dual-frequency GPS TEC/scintillation monitor will be used to investigate ionospheric phenomena in both campaign and long-term survey modes. In campaign mode, we will combine these observations with those collected from space during USAFA's FalconSAT-3 and FalconSAT-5 low Earth orbit satellite missions, which will be active over a period of several years beginning in the first quarter of the 2007 calendar year. Additionally, we will investigate the long-term morphology of key ionospheric characteristics useful for driving the International Reference Ionosphere, such as critical frequencies (f oE, f oF1, f oF2, etc.), the M(3000) F2 parameter (the maximum useable frequency for a signal refracted within the F2 layer and received on the ground at a distance of 3000 km away), and a variety of other characteristics. Specific targets of investigation include: (a) a comparison of TEC observed by the GPS receiver with those calculated by IRI driven by DPS-4 observations, (b) a comparison of plasma turbulence observed on-orbit with ionospheric conditions as measured from the ground, and (c) a comparison between topside ionospheric satellite in situ measurements of plasma density during an overpass of a Digisonde versus the calculated value based on extrapolation of the electron density profiles using Digisonde data and a topside α-Chapman function. This last area of investigation is discussed in detail in this paper.

  7. Research on the Propagation Acting of the Equatorial Planetary Waves on the Western Equatorial Pacific Warm Pool Heat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Qiang; Xu Jianping; Zhu Bokang

    2003-01-01

    Based on the long-term buoy data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean ( TAO ) array during the TOGA ( Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere) Program (1980-1996), the propagation acting of the Equatorial planetary waves on the Western Equatorial Pacific warm pool heat is analyzed. Results show that the zonal heat transmission in the Western Equatorial Pacific takes palace mainly in the subsurface water and spreads eastwards along the thermocline; while the seasonal westward-spreading heat change structure occurs in the mixed layers in the middle and western Pacific. The standing-form transmission in the western Pacific appears in the thermocline layer, while in the eastern pacific, it exists in the mixed layer as well as in the thermocline layer. The standing-form and eastward-spreading sign of zonal heat transmitting in the upper water is predominant and strong, and the westward sign is weak.The component force of Kelvin Equatorial wave pressure runs through the western and eastern Equatorial pacific, and transmits heat energy eastwards. And the heat transmitted by zonal current component occurs mostly in the western Pacific; The heat transmitted by the component force of Rossby wave pressure mainly appears in the eastern and middle areas of the Pacific, while the zonal current component transmitting occurs mainly in the western Pacific; Mixed-Rossby gravity wave's action on the zonal current is stronger than that of the thermocline layer. In the mean state, the standing wave model of Equatorial Pacific up layer ocean temperature confines the transport of western Pacific warm pool heat to the eastern Pacific. Under abnormal conditions, the standing wave model of Equatorial Pacific up layer ocean temperature weakens, the eastwardly transmitting model enhances, and subsequently the El Ni n o event occurs.

  8. Equatorial particle precipitation during magnetic storms and relationship to equatorial thermospheric heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinsley, B.A.; Sahai, Y.; Biondi, M.A.; Meriwether J.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    We compare optical observations of ring current particle precipitation from a near equatorial site in Brazil with variations in the AE and Dst indices. Precipitation occurs during ring current injection when AE is large, but for AE large without ring current injection, little precipitation is seen. Comparisons are also made with 630-nm observations of thermospheric heating made simultaneously in Peru. The thermospheric temperatures have been corrected for instrumental drift and temperature enhancements of several hundred kelvins are present. It is not possible to associate clearly the heating with direct precipitation nor in the short term with transport of heat from higher latitudes. On a longer time scale it is likely that both mid-latitude ring current sources and high-latitude Joule heating sources are involved. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  9. Effects of solar radiation on the orbits of small particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    A modification of the Robertson (1937) equations of particle motion in the presence of solar radiation is developed which allows for partial reflection of sunlight as a result of rapid and varying particle rotations caused by interaction with the solar wind. The coefficients and forces in earlier forms of the equations are compared with those in the present equations, and secular rates of change of particle orbital elements are determined. Orbital dimensions are calculated in terms of time, probable sizes and densities of meteoric and cometary particles are estimated, and times of infall to the sun are computed for a particle moving in an almost circular orbit and a particle moving in an elliptical orbit of high eccentricity. Changes in orbital elements are also determined for particles from a long-period sun-grazing comet. The results show that the time of infall to the sun from a highly eccentric orbit is substantially shorter than from a circular orbit with a radius equal to the mean distance in the eccentric orbit. The possibility is considered that the free orbital kinetic energy of particles drawn into the sun may be the energy source for the solar corona.

  10. Controlled and uncontrolled motion in the circular, restricted three-body problem: Dynamically natural spacecraft formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilio, Ralph Ramos

    Spacecraft formation flying involves operating multiple spacecraft in a pre-determined geometrical shape such that the configuration yields both individual and system benefits. One example is an over-flight of the same spatial position by spacecraft in geocentric orbit with the intent to create a complementary data set of remotely sensed observables. Another example is controlling to a high degree of accuracy the distance between spacecraft in heliocentric orbit to create a virtual, large-diameter interferometer telescope. Although Keplerian orbits provide the basic framework for general and precision spacecraft formation flying they also present limitations. Spacecraft are generally constrained to operate only in circular and elliptical orbits, parabolic paths, or hyperbolic trajectories around celestial bodies. Applying continuation methods and bifurcation theory techniques to the circular, restricted three-body problem - where stable and unstable periodic orbits exist around equilibrium points - creates an environment that is more orbit rich. After surmounting a similar challenge with test particles in the circular, restricted three-vortex problem in fluid mechanics as a proof-of-concept, it was shown that spacecraft traveling in uncontrolled motion along separate and distinct planar or three-dimensional periodic orbits could be placed in controlled motion, i.e. a controller is enabled and later disabled at precisely the proper positions, to have them phase-locked on a single periodic orbit. Although it was possible to use this controller in a resonant frequency/orbit approach to establish a formation, it was clearly shown that a separate controller could be used in conjunction with the first to expedite the formation establishment process. Creation of these dynamically natural spacecraft formations or multi-spacecraft platforms will enable the 'loiter, synchronize/coordinate, and observe' approach for future engineering and scientific missions where flexibility

  11. THE STATISTICAL MECHANICS OF PLANET ORBITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremaine, Scott, E-mail: tremaine@ias.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2015-07-10

    The final “giant-impact” phase of terrestrial planet formation is believed to begin with a large number of planetary “embryos” on nearly circular, coplanar orbits. Mutual gravitational interactions gradually excite their eccentricities until their orbits cross and they collide and merge; through this process the number of surviving bodies declines until the system contains a small number of planets on well-separated, stable orbits. In this paper we explore a simple statistical model for the orbit distribution of planets formed by this process, based on the sheared-sheet approximation and the ansatz that the planets explore uniformly all of the stable region of phase space. The model provides analytic predictions for the distribution of eccentricities and semimajor axis differences, correlations between orbital elements of nearby planets, and the complete N-planet distribution function, in terms of a single parameter, the “dynamical temperature,” that is determined by the planetary masses. The predicted properties are generally consistent with N-body simulations of the giant-impact phase and with the distribution of semimajor axis differences in the Kepler catalog of extrasolar planets. A similar model may apply to the orbits of giant planets if these orbits are determined mainly by dynamical evolution after the planets have formed and the gas disk has disappeared.

  12. Impact of Orbital Eccentricity on the Detection of Transiting Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, Christopher J

    2008-01-01

    For extrasolar planets with orbital periods, P>10 days, radial velocity surveys find non-circular orbital eccentricities are common, ~0.3. Future surveys for extrasolar planets using the transit technique will also have sensitivity to detect these longer period planets. Orbital eccentricity affects the detection of extrasolar planets using the transit technique in two opposing ways: an enhancement in the probability for the planet to transit near pericenter and a reduction in the detectability of the transit due to a shorter transit duration. For an eccentricity distribution matching the currently known extrasolar planets with P>10 day, the probability for the planet to transit is ~1.25 times higher than the equivalent circular orbit and the average transit duration is ~0.88 times shorter than the equivalent circular orbit. These two opposing effects nearly cancel for an idealized field transit survey with independent photometric measurements that are dominated by Poisson noise. The net effect is a modest ~4%...

  13. Formation of Jets and Equatorial Superrotation on Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Tapio

    2008-01-01

    The zonal flow in Jupiter's upper troposphere is organized into alternating retrograde and prograde jets, with a prograde (superrotating) jet at the equator. Existing models posit as the driver of the flow either differential radiative heating of the atmosphere or intrinsic heat fluxes emanating from the deep interior; however, they do not reproduce all large-scale features of Jupiter's jets and thermal structure. Here it is shown that the difficulties in accounting for Jupiter's jets and thermal structure resolve if the effects of differential radiative heating and intrinsic heat fluxes are considered together, and if upper-tropospheric dynamics are linked to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) drag that acts deep in the atmosphere. Baroclinic eddies generated by differential radiative heating can account for the off-equatorial jets; meridionally propagating equatorial Rossby waves generated by intrinsic convective heat fluxes can account for the equatorial superrotation. The zonal flow extends deeply into the atmos...

  14. Occurrence of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles during Intense Magnetic Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Song Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An important issue in low-latitude ionospheric space weather is how magnetic storms affect the generation of equatorial plasma bubbles. In this study, we present the measurements of the ion density and velocity in the evening equatorial ionosphere by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites during 22 intense magnetic storms. The DMSP measurements show that deep ion density depletions (plasma bubbles are generated after the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF turns southward. The time delay between the IMF southward turning and the first DMSP detection of plasma depletions decreases with the minimum value of the IMF Bz, the maximum value of the interplanetary electric field (IEF Ey, and the magnitude of the Dst index. The results of this study provide strong evidence that penetration electric field associated with southward IMF during the main phase of magnetic storms increases the generation of equatorial plasma bubbles in the evening sector.

  15. Bistability between equatorial and axial dipoles during magnetic field reversals

    CERN Document Server

    Gissinger, Christophe; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the geodynamo in presence of an heterogeneous heating are presented. We study the dynamics and the structure of the magnetic field when the equatorial symmetry of the flow is broken. If the symmetry breaking is sufficiently strong, the m = 0 axial dipolar field is replaced by an hemispherical magnetic field, dominated by an oscillating m = 1 magnetic field. Moreover, for moderate symmetry breaking, a bistability between the axial and the equatorial dipole is observed. In this bistable regime, the axial magnetic field exhibits chaotic switches of its polarity, involving the equatorial dipole during the transition period. This new scenario for magnetic field reversals is discussed within the framework of the Earth's dynamo.

  16. Bistability between equatorial and axial dipoles during magnetic field reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissinger, Christophe; Petitdemange, Ludovic; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel

    2012-06-08

    Numerical simulations of the geodynamo in the presence of heterogeneous heating are presented. We study the dynamics and the structure of the magnetic field when the equatorial symmetry of the flow is broken. If the symmetry breaking is sufficiently strong, the m=0 axial dipolar field is replaced by a hemispherical magnetic field, dominated by an oscillating m=1 magnetic field. Moreover, for moderate symmetry breaking, a bistability between the axial and the equatorial dipole is observed. In this bistable regime, the axial magnetic field exhibits chaotic switches of its polarity, involving the equatorial dipole during the transition period. This new scenario for magnetic field reversals is discussed within the framework of Earth's dynamo.

  17. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, David S; Vasavada, Ashwin R; Simon-Miller, Amy A

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are quasi-stable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact...

  18. Dynamics of a drop trapped inside a horizontal circular hydraulic jump

    CERN Document Server

    Duchesne, Alexis; Lebon, Luc; Pirat, Christophe; Limat, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    A drop of moderate size deposited inside a horizontal circular hydraulic jump of the same liquid remains trapped at the shock front and does not coalesce. In this situation the drop is moving along the jump and one observes two different motions: a periodic one (it orbitates at constant speed) and an irregular one involving reversals of the orbital motion. Modeling the drop as a rigid sphere exchanging friction with liquid across a thin film of air, we recover the orbital motion and the internal rotation of the drop. This internal rotation is experimentally observed.

  19. A Simple Analytical Formulation for Periodic Orbits in Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, Erick

    2007-01-01

    An analytical approximation to periodic orbits in the circular restricted three-body problem is provided. The formulation given in this work is based in calculations known from classical mechanics, but with the addition of the necessary terms to give a fairly good approximation that we compare with simulations, resulting in a simple set of analytical expressions that solve periodic orbits on discs of binary systems without the need of solving the motion equations by numerical integrations.

  20. Updates in Orbital Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nila; F.Moeloek

    1993-01-01

    Orbital anatomy, the clinical features of orbital tumors, the recent development of the diagnosis and management of orbital tumors were described. The incidence of orbital tumors in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in the past years were introduced. The principle of management of orbital tumors and their prognosis were discussed.

  1. Small Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Borsten, L; Ferrara, S; Marrani, A; Rubens, W

    2012-01-01

    We study both the "large" and "small" U-duality charge orbits of extremal black holes appearing in D = 5 and D = 4 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories with symmetric scalar manifolds. We exploit a formalism based on cubic Jordan algebras and their associated Freudenthal triple systems, in order to derive the minimal charge representatives, their stabilizers and the associated "moduli spaces". After recalling N = 8 maximal supergravity, we consider N = 2 and N = 4 theories coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets, as well as N = 2 magic, STU, ST^2 and T^3 models. While the STU model may be considered as part of the general N = 2 sequence, albeit with an additional triality symmetry, the ST^2 and T^3 models demand a separate treatment, since their representative Jordan algebras are Euclidean or only admit non-zero elements of rank 3, respectively. Finally, we also consider minimally coupled N = 2, matter coupled N = 3, and "pure" N = 5 theories.

  2. Control of a Circular Jet

    CERN Document Server

    Gohil, Trushar B; Muralidhar, K

    2010-01-01

    The present study report direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a circular jet and the effect of a large scale perturbation at the jet inlet. The perturbation is used to control the jet for increased spreading. Dual-mode perturbation is obtained by combining an axisymmetric excitation with the helical. In the fluid dynamics videos, an active control of the circular jet at a Reynolds number of 2000 for various frequency ratios (both integer and non-integer) has been demonstrated. When the frequency ratio is fixed to 2, bifurcation of the jet on a plane is evident. However, for a non-integer frequency ratio, the axisymmetric jet is seen to bloom in all directions.

  3. Insights into circular RNA biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Karoline K; Hansen, Thomas B; Kjems, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of non-coding RNA characterized by a covalently closed-loop structure generated through a special type of alternative splicing termed backsplicing. CircRNAs are emerging as a heterogeneous class of molecules involved in modulating gene expression by regu...... and lastly, an outlook with a focus on unanswered questions regarding circRNA biology will be included....

  4. Granger causality for circular variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, Leonardo; Pellicoro, Mario [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Bari (Italy); Stramaglia, Sebastiano, E-mail: sebastiano.stramaglia@ba.infn.i [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Bari (Italy)

    2009-06-29

    In this Letter we discuss the use of Granger causality to the analyze systems of coupled circular variables, by modifying a recently proposed method for multivariate analysis of causality. We show the application of the proposed approach on several Kuramoto systems, in particular one living on networks built by preferential attachment and a model for the transition from deeply to lightly anaesthetized states. Granger causalities describe the flow of information among variables.

  5. Capacitance of circular patch resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miano, G.; Verolino, L. [Dip. di Ingegneria Elettrica, Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Panariello, G. [Dip. di Ingegneria Elettronica, Naples (Italy); Vaccaro, V.G. [Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche

    1995-11-01

    In this paper the capacitance of the circular microstrip patch resonator is computed. It is shown that the electrostatic problem can be formulated as a system of dual integral equations, and the most interesting techniques of solutions of these systems are reviewed. Some useful approximated formulas for the capacitance are derived and plots of the capacitance are finally given in a wide range of dielectric constants.

  6. Longitudinal Variation and Waves in Jupiter's South Equatorial Wind Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, A. A.; Rogers, John H.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Choi, David; Allison, Michael; Adamoli, Gianluigi; Mettig, Hans-Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed study of the cloud features in the strong southern equatorial wind jet near 7.5 S planetographic latitude. To understand the apparent variations in average zonal wind jet velocity at this latitude [e.g.. 1,2,3], we have searched for variations iIi both feature latitude and velocity with longitude and time. In particular, we focused on the repetitive chevron-shaped dark spots visible on most dates and the more transient large anticyclonic system known as the South Equatorial Disturbance (SED). These small dark spots are interpreted as cloud holes, and are often used as material tracers of the wind field.

  7. Longitudinal variability of equatorial plasma bubbles observed by DMSP and ROCSAT-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, W. J.; Gentile, L. C.; Huang, C. Y.; Valladares, C. E.; Su, S. Y.

    2004-12-01

    We compare observations of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) by polar-orbiting satellites of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) with plasma density measurements from the Republic of China Satellite (ROCSAT-1) in a low-inclination orbit. DMSP data were acquired in the evening sector at low magnetic latitudes between 1989 and 2002. ROCSAT-1 plasma densities were measured in March and April of 2000 and 2002. Observations of individual EPBs detected by both ROCSAT-1 and DMSP were well correlated when satellite orbital paths crossed the same longitude within approximately ±15 min. We compiled a statistical database of ROCSAT-1 EPB occurrence rates sorted by magnetic local time (MLT), magnetic latitude, and geographic longitude. The rate of ROCSAT-1 EPB encounters at topside altitudes rose rapidly after 1930 MLT and peaked between 2000 and 2200 MLT, close to the orbital planes of DMSP F12, F14, and F15. EPB encounter rates have Gaussian distributions centered on the magnetic equator with half widths of ˜8°. Longitudinal distributions observed by ROCSAT-1 and DMSP are qualitatively similar, with both showing significantly fewer occurrences than expected near the west coast of South America. A chain of GPS receivers extending from Colombia to Chile measured a west-to-east gradient in S4 indices that independently confirms the existence of a steep longitudinal gradient in EPB occurrence rates. We suggest that precipitation of energetic particles from the inner radiation belt causes the dearth of EPBs. Enhancements in the postsunset ionospheric conductance near the South Atlantic Anomaly cause a decrease in growth rate for the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Results indicate substantial agreement between ROCSAT-1 and DMSP observations and provide new insights on EPB phenomenology.

  8. Imaging of Orbital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Preseptal and orbital cellulitis occur more commonly in children than adults. The history and physical examination are crucial in distinguishing between preseptal and orbital cellulitis. The orbital septum delineates the anterior eyelid soft tissues from the orbital soft tissue. Infections anterior to the orbital septum are classified as preseptal cellulitis and those posterior to the orbital septum are termed orbital cellulitis. "nRecognition of orbital involvement is important not only because of the threatened vision loss associated with orbital cellulitis but also because of the potential for central nervous system complications including cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, and death. "nOrbital imaging should be obtained in all patients suspected of having orbital cellulitis. CT is preferred to MR imaging, as the orbital tissues have high con-trast and the bone can be well visualized. Orbital CT scanning allows localization of the disease process to the preseptal area, the extraconal or intraconal fat, or the subperiosteal space. Axial CT views allow evaluation of the medial orbit and ethmoid sinuses, whereas coronal scans image the orbital roof and floor and the frontal and maxillary sinuses. If direct coronal imaging is not possible, reconstruction of thin axial cuts may help the assessment of the orbital roof and floor. Potential sources of orbital cellulitis such as sinusitis, dental infection, and facial cellulitis are often detectable on CT imaging. "nIn this presentation, the imaging considerations of the orbital infections; including imaging differentiation criteria of all types of orbital infections are reviewed.

  9. Preseptal Cellulitis, Orbital Cellulitis, Orbital Abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Altan Yaycıoğlu

    2012-01-01

    Patients with orbital infections present to our clinic usually with unilateral pain, hyperemia, and edema of the eyelids. The differentiation between preseptal and orbital cellulitis is utmost important in that the second requires hospitalization. Since in orbital cellulitis, the tissues posterior to the orbital septum are involved, signs such as conjunctival chemosis, limited eye movement, decreased vision, as well as afferent pupil defect secondary to optic nerve involvement may al...

  10. Bilateral orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, P D; Char, D. H.

    1988-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral orbital lesions are rare. The differential diagnosis includes orbital pseudotumour, metastasis, leukaemia, lymphoma, Wegener's granulomatosis, and neurofibromatosis. We report what we believe to be the first case of bilateral orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

  11. Circular Polarization in Pulsar Integrated Profiles: Updates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We update the systematic studies of circular polarization in integrated pulse profiles by Han et al. Data of circular polarization profiles are compiled. Sense reversals can occur in core or cone components, or near the intersection between components. The correlation between the sense of circular polarization and the sense of position angle variation for conal-double pulsars is confirmed with a much large database. Circular polarization of some pulsars has clear changes with frequency.Circular polarization of millisecond pulsars is marginally different from that of normal pulsars.

  12. Orbital stability zones about asteroids. II - The destabilizing effects of eccentric orbits and of solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.; Burns, Joseph A.

    1992-03-01

    Recently, Hamilton and Burns (1991) characterized the size and shape of a stability zone around an asteroid on a circular heliocentric orbit within which asteroid material could remain bound for an extended period of time. The present paper considers two additional effects: the asteroid's nonzero heliocentric eccentricity and solar radiation pressure. Results of numerical analyses show that, for an asteroid on an eccentric orbit, the stability zone scales roughly as the size of the Hill sphere calculated at the asteroid's pericenter. It was also found that solar radiation pressure is a very efficient mechanism for removing small (on the order of 0.1 mm) particles from circular asteroidal zone. Particles larger than a few centimeters are only slightly affected by radiation pressure. The results are applied to the Gaspra 951 asteroid.

  13. Upper ocean circulation modulation by phytoplankton concentration in the Equatorial Pacific and the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Sammarco, P.; Muneyama, K.; Sato, T.; AjoyKumar, A.; Frouin, R.

    brings nutrient-rich subsurface waters to the euphotic zone, thus the ocean currents supports perinnial phytoplankton bloom. The phytoplankton inhibits downward solar radiation penetration in the equatorial Pacific, resulting in cross equatorial density...

  14. On Robe's Circular Restricted Problem of Three Variable Mass Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the motion of a test particle around the equilibrium points under the setup of the Robe’s circular restricted three-body problem in which the masses of the three bodies vary arbitrarily with time at the same rate. The first primary is assumed to be a fluid in the shape of a sphere whose density also varies with time. The nonautonomous equations are derived and transformed to the autonomized form. Two collinear equilibrium points exist, with one positioned at the center of the fluid while the other exists for the mass ratio and density parameter provided the density parameter assumes value greater than one. Further, circular equilibrium points exist and pairs of out-of-plane equilibrium points forming triangles with the centers of the primaries are found. The out-of-plane points depend on the arbitrary constant , of the motion of the primaries, density ratio, and mass parameter. The linear stability of the equilibrium points is studied and it is seen that the circular and out-of-plane equilibrium points are unstable while the collinear equilibrium points are stable under some conditions. A numerical example regarding out-of-plane points is given in the case of the Earth, Moon, and submarine system. This study may be useful in the investigations of dynamic problem of the “ocean planets” Kepler-62e and Kepler-62f orbiting the star Kepler-62.

  15. A biweekly mode in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, D.; Senan, R.; Murty, V.S.N.; Fernando, V.

    propagating biweekly waves with zonal wavelength in the range 2100 to 6100 km. An ocean model forced by high-resolution scatterometer wind stress is used to show that the observed biweekly variability is due to equatorially trapped mixed Rossby-gravity waves...

  16. The equatorial electrojet current modelling from SWARM satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaissa, Mahfoud

    2016-07-01

    Equatorial ElectroJet (EEJ) is an intense eastward electric current circulating in the ionospheric magnetic equator band between 100 and 130 km of altitude in E region. These currents vary by day, by season, by solar activity, and also with the main magnetic field of internal origin. The irregularity of the ionosphere has a major impact on the performance of communication systems and navigation (GPS), industry.... Then it becomes necessary study the characteristics of EEJ. In this paper, we present a study of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) phenomenon along one year (2014) period. In addition, the satellite data used in this study are obtained with SWARM satellite scalar magnetometer data respecting magnetically quiet days with KP < 2. In this paper, we process to separate and extract the electrojet intensity signal from other recorded signal-sources interfering with the main signal and reduce considerably the signal to noise ratio during the SWARM measurements. This pre-processing step allows removing all external contributions in regard to EEJ intensity value. Key words: Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere; Electric fields and currents; Equatorial electrojet (EEJ)); SWARM.

  17. Equatorial ionospheric electrodynamic perturbations during Southern Hemisphere stratospheric warming events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, M. E.; Fejer, B. G.; Stolle, Claudia;

    2013-01-01

    We use ground-based and satellite measurements to examine, for the first time, the characteristics of equatorial electrodynamic perturbations measured during the 2002 major and 2010 minor Southern Hemisphere sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. Our data suggest the occurrence of enhanced qu...

  18. Observations of ULF wave related equatorial electrojet and density fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Biouele, C. M.; Moldwin, M. B.; Boudouridis, A.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Anad, F.; Pfaff, R. F.; Hartinger, M.

    2013-10-01

    We report on Pc5 wave related electric field and vertical drift velocity oscillations at the equator as observed by ground magnetometers for an extended period on 9 August 2008. We show that the magnetometer-estimated equatorial E×B drift oscillates with the same frequency as ULF Pc5 waves, creating significant ionospheric density fluctuations. We also show ionospheric density fluctuations during the period when we observed ULF wave activity. At the same time, we detect the ULF activity on the ground using ground-based magnetometer data from the African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and the South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA). From space, we use magnetic field observations from the GOES 12 and the Communication/Navigation Outage and Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellites. Upstream solar wind conditions are provided by the ACE spacecraft. We find that the wave power observed on the ground also occurs in the upstream solar wind and in the magnetosphere. All these observations demonstrate that Pc5 waves with a likely driver in the solar wind can penetrate to the equatorial ionosphere and modulate the equatorial electrodynamics. While no direct drift measurements from equatorial radars exist for the 9 August 2008 event, we used JULIA 150 km radar drift velocities observed on 2 May 2010 and found similar fluctuations with the period of 5-8 min, as a means of an independent confirmation of our magnetometer derived drift dynamics.

  19. Clean advice for oily money : Consulting for Equatorial Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lachotzki, F.W.I.; Karssing, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea is one of the most extraordinary countries in the world, if also one of the most obscure. Its tremendous yearly revenue from the oil concessions it grants in its Gulf of Guinea territorial waters is little known, but so too is its abysmal record on human rights. The deep-rooted cor

  20. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Dempewolf, J.; Trigg, S. N.; Randerson, J. T.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Giglio, L.; Murdiyarso, D.; Peters, W.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Dolman, A. J.; Defries, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire

  1. Exact Nonlinear Internal Equatorial Waves in the f-plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hung-Chu

    2016-07-01

    We present an explicit exact solution of the nonlinear governing equations for internal geophysical water waves propagating westward above the thermocline in the f-plane approximation near the equator. Moreover, the mass transport velocity induced by this internal equatorial wave is eastward and a westward current occurs in the transition zone between the great depth where the water is still and the thermocline.

  2. Understanding the equatorial ocean : theoretical and observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabitti, A.

    2016-01-01

    By means of a variety of approaches, the present study points out the challenges in understanding equatorial ocean dynamics (±2.5º). Standard theory, in fact, fails in accurately describing such a big portion of our ocean. This is mainly because at the equator rotation and density stratification com

  3. Relation Between Equatorial Oceanic Activities and LOD Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑大伟; 陈刚

    1994-01-01

    The time series of the length of day (LOD) and the observational Pacific sea level during l962.0-1990.0 are used to study the relation between Earth rotation and equatorial oceanic activities.The results show that (i) the sea level is apparently rising at an average rate of about 1.75±.01mm/a during the past 30 years,(ii) there are large-scale eastward and westward water motions in the upper equatorial Pacific zone,which,according to the dynamical analysis of the angular momentum of the large-scale sea water motion in Pacific Ocean related to the Earth rotation axis accounts for about 30% of the change in ititerannual Eatlh rotation rate; (iii) the interannual changes in Earth rotation also cause changes in the distribution of the water mass in equatorial Pacific,and affect the formation of ENSO events.Based on these results,we give a new model for the interaction between equatorial ocean and Earth rotation.

  4. The Orbits of Saturn's Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitale, J. N.; Jacobson, R. A.; Porco, C. C.; Owen, W. M.; Charnoz, S.

    2005-05-01

    We report on the orbits of the small, inner Saturnian satellites, either recovered or newly-discovered in recent Cassini imaging observations (excluding Helene, Telesto and Calypso, which will be discussed by another group). Using combined Cassini and Voyager observations, the mean motions of Pan and Atlas have been refined by several orders of magnitude. The Atlas orbit is based on a numerical integration perturbed by all of the massive Saturnian satellites including Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, and Epimetheus. We find that the dominant perturber is Prometheus. Cassini, Voyager, HST, and Earth-based data have been used to refine the orbits of Janus, Epimetheus, Prometheus and Pandora. The orbits of the co-orbitals, Janus and Epimetheus, remain stable; their orbital swap does not occur until Februrary, 2006. The orbits of Prometheus and Pandora remain close to recent values (Jacobson and French 2004, Icarus, 172, 382). Six new objects have been discovered to date -- three (S/2004 S3, S4, S6) in close proximity to the F ring, two (S/2004 S1(Methone), S/2004 S2(Pallene)) between the orbits of Mimas and Enceladus, and one (S/2004 S5(Polydeuces)) co-orbital with Dione, trailing by ˜60 deg (Porco et al., Science 307, 25 Feb 2005). One of the F-ring objects -- S/2004 S3 -- was seen over a 118-day interval, but none of those objects, including S/2004 S3, were subsequently recovered in an F-ring movie acquired on 15 November 2004 (29 days after the last sighting of S/2004 S3) with an image scale of 4 km/pixel, in which all were expected to appear. Consequently, we are confident only that Methone, Pallene and Polydeuces are solid satellites; S/2004 S3, S4 and S6 may be transient clumps. Our orbital fits, both precessing ellipse models and orbital integrations, suggest that Pallene is the same object as S/1981 S14, imaged by Voyager 2 on 23 August 1981, contrary to our initial reports (IAU circular 8389). The orbital inclination and eccentricity of Methone are considerably

  5. A global climatology for equatorial plasma bubbles in the topside ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Gentile

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a global climatology of equatorial plasma bubble (EPB occurrence based on evening sector plasma density measurements from polar-orbiting Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP spacecraft during 1989-2004. EPBs are irregular plasma density depletions in the post-sunset ionosphere that degrade communication and navigation signals. More than 14400 EPBs were identified in ~134000 DMSP orbits. DMSP observations basically agree with Tsunoda's (1985 hypothesis that EPB rates peak when the terminator is aligned with the Earth's magnetic field, but there are also unpredicted offsets in many longitude sectors. We present an updated climatology for the full database from 1989-2004 along with new plots for specific phases of the solar cycle: maximum 1989-1992 and 1999-2002, minimum 1994-1997, and transition years 1993, 1998, and 2003. As expected, there are significant differences between the climatologies for solar maximum and minimum and between the two solar maximum phases as well. We also compare DMSP F12, F14, F15, and F16 observations at slightly different local times during 2000-2004 to examine local time effects on EPB rates. The global climatologies developed using the DMSP EPB database provide an environmental context for the long-range prediction tools under development for the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS mission.

  6. Physical and Orbital Properties of Some of Saturn's Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porco, C. C.; Thomas, P.; Spitale, J.; Jacobson, R. A.; Denk, T.; Charnoz, S.; Richardson, D. C.; Dones, L.; Baker, E.; Weiss, J. W.

    2005-08-01

    We present Cassini imaging results on the orbits and physical properties for the small ring-region moons Pan, Atlas, and the Cassini-discovered Keeler gap moon, S/2005 S1 (1), as well as the newly discovered/recovered moons orbiting among the major satellites, Methone (S/2004 S1), Pallene (S/2004 S2), and the Dione co-orbital S/2004 S5 Polydeuces (2,3,4). We find that Atlas is undergoing a 700-km amplitude longitudinal perturbation by Prometheus, Methone is undergoing a 30,000-km amplitude longitudinal perturbation by Mimas, and Pallene is undergoing a long-term 75-km amplitude longitudinal perturbation by Enceladus. Orbital integrations involving Atlas return a mass of GMAtlas = (0.43 ± 0.18) X 10-3 km3/sec2, three times larger than previously reported (4). Reasonably high resolution images have also allowed refinement of physical dimensions and spectral properties of these small moons. Results will be presented. At the time of writing, we find that Atlas has polar and equatorial diameters of 19 km, 38 km and 46 km, respectively. Its volume is (1.5 ± 0.4) X 104 km3, yielding a density of 0.43 ± 0.20 gm/cm3. Pan's polar diameter is 23 km, and differences in its equatorial axes are not well constrained; they both appear to be ˜ 35 km. Pan's volume is (1.4 ± 0.7) X 104 km3. Using the most currently reliable mass, GMPan = (0.33 ± 0.05) × 10-3 km3/sec2 (4), Pan's density is roughly 0.4 ± 0.2 gm/cm3. Both Pan and Atlas appear to be synchronous rotators, but libration cannot be ruled out yet. Given its shape, it is possible that Atlas is in a secondary spin-orbit resonance that could force a libration. Preliminary idealized rubble pile simulations have been performed which show that, at the orbits of Atlas and Pan, a simple self-gravitating ice-particle aggregate, with equal equatorial dimensions, would be stable against tides; a body with sufficiently unequal equatorial dimensions would not. [1] IAUC 8524. [2] IAUC 8389. [Correction: Pallene (S/2004 S2) is the

  7. Post-midnight occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, K. K.; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Tulasiram, S.

    2016-07-01

    The equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs)/equatorial spread F (ESF) irregularities are an important topic of space weather interest because of their impact on transionospheric radio communications, satellite-based navigation and augmentation systems. This local plasma depleted structures develop at the bottom side F layer through Rayleigh-Taylor instability and rapidly grow to topside ionosphere via polarization electric fields within them. The steep vertical gradients due to quick loss of bottom side ionization and rapid uplift of equatorial F layer via prereversal enhancement (PRE) of zonal electric field makes the post-sunset hours as the most preferred local time for the formation of EPBs. However, there is a different class of irregularities that occurs during the post-midnight hours of June solstice reported by the previous studies. The occurrence of these post-midnight EPBs maximize during the low solar activity periods. The growth characteristics and the responsible mechanism for the formation of these post-midnight EPBs are not yet understood. Using the rapid beam steering ability of 47 MHz Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) at Kototabang (0.2°S geographic latitude, 100.3°E geographic longitude, and 10.4°S geomagnetic latitude), Indonesia, the spatial and temporal evolution of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were examined to classify the evolutionary-type EPBs from those which formed elsewhere and drifted into the field of view of radar. The responsible mechanism for the genesis of summer time post-midnight EPBs were discussed in light of growth rate of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using SAMI2 model.

  8. Boxicity of Circular Arc Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmick, Diptendu; Chandran, L. Sunil

    2008-01-01

    A $k$-dimensional box is the cartesian product $R_1 \\times R_2 \\times ... \\times R_k$ where each $R_i$ is a closed interval on the real line. The {\\it boxicity} of a graph $G$, denoted as $box(G)$, is the minimum integer $k$ such that $G$ can be represented as the intersection graph of a collection of $k$-dimensional boxes: that is two vertices are adjacent if and only if their corresponding boxes intersect. A circular arc graph is a graph that can be represented as the intersection graph of ...

  9. Deterministic Circular Self Test Path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Ke; HU Yu; LI Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    Circular self test path (CSTP) is an attractive technique for testing digital integrated circuits(IC) in the nanometer era, because it can easily provide at-speed test with small test data volume and short test application time. However, CSTP cannot reliably attain high fault coverage because of difficulty of testing random-pattern-resistant faults. This paper presents a deterministic CSTP (DCSTP) structure that consists of a DCSTP chain and jumping logic, to attain high fault coverage with low area overhead. Experimental results on ISCAS'89 benchmarks show that 100% fault coverage can be obtained with low area overhead and CPU time, especially for large circuits.

  10. Encryption using circular harmonic key

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Enrique Rueda-Parada

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo presento un estudio sobre la varianza a la rota ción de la llave del procesador de encriptación basado en la tr ansformada de Fourier. Determiné que la llave en coordenadas rectangulares pe rmite un nivel de tolerancia inferior a 0.2 grados de rotación de la llave en el proceso de decriptación. Entonces la solución es construir la llave en coordenadas polares, por medio de una expansión en armónicos circulares. De esta manera, el umbral de tolerancia a um...

  11. Accelerated orbits in black hole fields: the static case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Donato; de Felice, Fernando; Geralico, Andrea

    2011-11-01

    We study non-geodesic orbits of test particles endowed with a structure, assuming the Schwarzschild spacetime as background. We develop a formalism which allows one to recognize the geometrical characterization of those orbits in terms of their Frenet-Serret parameters and apply it to explicit cases as those of spatially circular orbits which witness the equilibrium under conflicting types of interactions. In our general analysis, we solve the equations of motion offering a detailed picture of the dynamics having in mind a check with a possible astronomical setup. We focus on certain ambiguities which plague the interpretation of the measurements preventing one from identifying the particular structure carried by the particle.

  12. Generation and detection of orbital angular momentum via metasurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jinjin; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Xiaohu; Gao, Hui; Li, Xiong; Pu, Mingbo; Gao, Ping; Zhao, Zeyu; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-04-07

    Beams carrying orbital angular momentum possess a significant potential for modern optical technologies ranging from classical and quantum communication to optical manipulation. In this paper, we theoretically design and experimentally demonstrate an ultracompact array of elliptical nanoholes, which could convert the circularly polarized light into the cross-polarized vortex beam. To measure the topological charges of orbital angular momentum in a simple manner, another elliptical nanoholes array is designed to generate reference beam as a reference light. This approach may provide a new way for the generation and detection of orbital angular momentum in a compact device.

  13. Tidal heating of Earth-like exoplanets around M stars: Thermal, magnetic, and orbital evolutions

    CERN Document Server

    Driscoll, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The internal thermal and magnetic evolution of rocky exoplanets is critical to their habitability. We focus on the thermal-orbital evolution of Earth-mass planets around low mass M stars whose radiative habitable zone overlaps with the "tidal zone". We develop a thermal-orbital evolution model calibrated to Earth that couples tidal dissipation, with a temperature-dependent Maxwell rheology, to orbital circularization and migration. We illustrate thermal-orbital steady states where surface heat flow is balanced by tidal dissipation and cooling can be stalled for billions of years until circularization occurs. Orbital energy dissipated as tidal heat in the interior drives both inward migration and circularization, with a circularization time that is inversely proportional to the dissipation rate. We identify a peak in the internal dissipation rate as the mantle passes through a visco-elastic state at mantle temperatures near 1800 K. Planets orbiting a 0.1 solar-mass star within $0.07$ AU circularize before 10 G...

  14. Orbital dystopia due to orbital roof defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Eun Young; Joo, Hong Sil; Byeon, Jun Hee

    2013-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of patients who presented with delayed dystopia as a consequence of an orbital roof defect due to fractures and nontraumatic causes to search for a correlation between orbital roof defect size and surgical indications for the treatment thereof. Retrospective analyses were performed in 7 patients, all of whom presented with delayed dystopia due to orbital roof defects, between January 2001 and June 2011. The causes of orbital roof defects were displaced orbital roof fractures (5 cases), tumor (1 case), and congenital sphenoid dysplasia (1 case). All 7 patients had initially been treated conservatively and later presented with significant dystopia. The sizes of the defects were calculated on computed tomographic scans. Among the 7 patients, aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid, which caused ocular symptoms, in 1 patient with minimal displaced orbital roof and reconstruction with calvarial bone, titanium micromesh, or Medpor in 6 other patients were performed. The minimal size of the orbital roof in patients who underwent orbital roof reconstruction was 1.2 cm (defect height) x 1.0 cm (defect length), 0.94 cm(2). For all patients with orbital dystopia, displacement of the globe was corrected without any complications, regardless of whether the patient was evaluated grossly or by radiology. In this retrospective study, continuous monitoring of clinical signs and active surgical management should be considered for cases in which an orbital roof defect is detected, even if no definite symptoms are noted, to prevent delayed sequelae.

  15. Paleoceanography and the diachrony of radiolarian events in the eastern equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. C.; Skackleton, N. J.; Pisias, N. G.

    1993-10-01

    The development of an orbitally tuned time scale for the ODP leg 138 sites provides biostratigraphers a very high resolution chronostratigraphic framework. With this framework we are better able to define which of the first and last appearances of species appear to be synchronous. In addition, the geographic distribution of sites provides the means with which the detailed spatial patterns of invasion of new species and the extinction of older species can be mapped. These maps not only provide information on the process of evolution, migration, and extinction, they can also be related to water mass distributions and near-surface circulation of the ocean. Of 39 radiolarian events studied at 11 sites in the eastern equatorial Pacific, 28 were found to have a minimum range in their estimated age that exceeded 0.15 m.y. The temporal pattern of first and last appearances of these diachronous events have coherent spatial patterns that indicate shifts in the areas of high oceanographic gradients over the past 10 Ma. These changes in the locations of high gradient regions suggest that the South Equatorial Current (SEC) was north of its present position prior to approximately 7 Ma. There was a southward shift in the northern boundary of this current between approximately 6 and 7 Ma, and the development of a relatively strong gradient between the northeastern and northwestern sites. Between approximately 3.7 and 3.4 Ma, there was a very slight northward shift in the northern boundary of the SEC and the steep gradients between the northeastern and northwestern sites may have disappeared. This change is thought to be associated with the closing of the Isthmus of Panama. The temporal-spatial patterns of diachronous events younger than 3.4 Ma are consistent with patterns of circulation in the modern ocean.

  16. Polarization measurement and vertical aperture optimization for obtaining circularly polarized bend-magnet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.; Hussain, Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Growing interest in utilizing circular polarization prompted the design of bend-magnet beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, covering the 30-1500 eV spectral region, to include vertical aperturing capabilities for optimizing the collection of circular polarization above and below the orbit plane. After commissioning and early use of the beamline, a multilayer polarimeter was used to characterize the polarization state of the beam as a function of vertical aperture position. This report partially summarizes the polarimetry measurements and compares results with theoretical calculations intended to simulate experimental conditions.

  17. Attenuation in Superconducting Circular Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yeap

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis on wave propagation in superconducting circular waveguides. In order to account for the presence of quasiparticles in the intragap states of a superconductor, we employ the characteristic equation derived from the extended Mattis-Bardeen theory to compute the values of the complex conductivity. To calculate the attenuation in a circular waveguide, the tangential fields at the boundary of the wall are first matched with the electrical properties (which includes the complex conductivity of the wall material. The matching of fields with the electrical properties results in a set of transcendental equations which is able to accurately describe the propagation constant of the fields. Our results show that although the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide above cutoff (but below the gap frequency is finite, it is considerably lower than that in a normal waveguide. Above the gap frequency, however, the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide increases sharply. The attenuation eventually surpasses that in a normal waveguide. As frequency increases above the gap frequency, Cooper pairs break into quasiparticles. Hence, we attribute the sharp rise in attenuation to the increase in random collision of the quasiparticles with the lattice structure.

  18. The Transit Ingress and the Tilted Orbit of the Extraordinarily Eccentric Exoplanet HD 80606b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Joshua N.; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Gazak, J. Zachary; Starkey, Donn; Ford, Eric B.; Colon, Knicole D.; Reyes, Francisco; Nortmann, Lisa; Dreizler, Stefan; Odewahn, Stephen; Welsh, William F.; Kadakia, Shimonee; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Lockhart, Matthew; Crossfield, Ian J.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Dantowitz, Ronald; Carter, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    We reported the first detection of the transit ingress, revealing the transit duration to be 11.64 plus or minus 0.25 hr and allowing more robust determinations of the system parameters. Keck spectra obtained at midtransit exhibited an anomalous blueshift, giving definitive evidence that the stellar spin axis and planetary orbital axis are misaligned. Thus, the orbit of this planet is not only highly eccentric but is also tilted away from the equatorial plane of its parent star. A large tilt had been predicted, based on the idea that the planet's eccentric orbit was caused by the Kozai mechanism.

  19. Interacting Binaries with Eccentric Orbits. Secular Orbital Evolution Due To Conservative Mass Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Sepinsky, J F; Kalogera, V; Rasio, F A

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the secular evolution of the orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity due to mass transfer in eccentric binaries, assuming conservation of total system mass and orbital angular momentum. Assuming a delta function mass transfer rate centered at periastron, we find rates of secular change of the orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity which are linearly proportional to the magnitude of the mass transfer rate at periastron. The rates can be positive as well as negative, so that the semi-major axis and eccentricity can increase as well as decrease in time. Adopting a delta-function mass-transfer rate of $10^{-9} M_\\sun {\\rm yr}^{-1}$ at periastron yields orbital evolution timescales ranging from a few Myr to a Hubble time or more, depending on the binary mass ratio and orbital eccentricity. Comparison with orbital evolution timescales due to dissipative tides furthermore shows that tides cannot, in all cases, circularize the orbit rapidly enough to justify the often adopted assumption of instantan...

  20. Total positive curvature of circular DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Olsen, Kasper Wibeck

    2013-01-01

    molecules, e.g., plasmids, it is shown to have implications for the total positive curvature integral. For small circular micro-DNAs it follows as a consequence of Fenchel's inequality that there must exist a minimum length for the circular plasmids to be double stranded. It also follows that all circular...... micro-DNAs longer than the minimum length must be concave, a result that is consistent with typical atomic force microscopy images of plasmids. Predictions for the total positive curvature of circular micro-DNAs are given as a function of length, and comparisons with circular DNAs from the literature......The properties of double-stranded DNA and other chiral molecules depend on the local geometry, i.e., on curvature and torsion, yet the paths of closed chain molecules are globally restricted by topology. When both of these characteristics are to be incorporated in the description of circular chain...

  1. Thematic Minireview Series on Circular Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Craik, David J.; Allewell, Norma M.

    2012-01-01

    Circular proteins have now been discovered in all kingdoms of life and are characterized by their exceptional stability and the diversity of their biological activities, primarily in the realm of host defense functions. This thematic minireview series provides an overview of the distribution, evolution, activities, and biological synthesis of circular proteins. It also reviews approaches that biological chemists are taking to develop synthetic methods for making circular proteins in the labor...

  2. Pilot-wave hydrodynamics in a rotating frame: Exotic orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oza, Anand U.; Harris, Daniel M.; Rosales, Rodolfo R.; Bush, John W. M., E-mail: bush@math.mit.edu [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Wind-Willassen, Øistein [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-08-15

    We present the results of a numerical investigation of droplets walking on a rotating vibrating fluid bath. The drop's trajectory is described by an integro-differential equation, which is simulated numerically in various parameter regimes. As the forcing acceleration is progressively increased, stable circular orbits give way to wobbling orbits, which are succeeded in turn by instabilities of the orbital center characterized by steady drifting then discrete leaping. In the limit of large vibrational forcing, the walker's trajectory becomes chaotic, but its statistical behavior reflects the influence of the unstable orbital solutions. The study results in a complete regime diagram that summarizes the dependence of the walker's behavior on the system parameters. Our predictions compare favorably to the experimental observations of Harris and Bush [“Droplets walking in a rotating frame: from quantized orbits to multimodal statistics,” J. Fluid Mech. 739, 444–464 (2014)].

  3. Is the magnetic anisotropy proportional to the orbital moment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skomski, R; Kashyap, A; Enders, A

    2011-04-01

    The relation between orbital moment and magnetic anisotropy is investigated by model calculations, which show that only a part of the spin-orbit coupling contributes to the anisotropy. A large part of the anisotropy energy, about 50% for iron series elements and nearly 100% for rare-earths, is stored in the nonrelativistic part of the Hamiltonian. A feature important for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism is that the orbital moment of heavy atoms rotates with the spin moment, whereas in light atoms, the orbital moment is recreated in each different direction. In the discussion, we consider three examples of current interest in different areas of magnetism, namely, spin-orbit coupling in Gd3+ and Eu2+, surface anisotropy of Nd2Fe14B, and multiferroic magnetization switching using rare-earths. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3562445

  4. Industrial concessions, fires and air pollution in Equatorial Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Reddington, C. L.; Gaveau, D. L. A.

    2015-09-01

    Forest and peatland fires in Indonesia emit large quantities of smoke leading to poor air quality across Equatorial Asia. Marlier et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 085005) explore the contribution of fires occurring on oil palm, timber (wood pulp and paper) and natural forest logging concessions to smoke emissions and exposure of human populations to the resulting air pollution. They find that one third of the population exposure to smoke across Equatorial Asia is caused by fires in oil palm and timber concessions in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Logging concessions have substantially lower fire emissions, and contribute less to air quality degradation. This represents a compelling justification to prevent reclassification of logging concessions into oil palm or timber concessions after logging. This can be achieved by including logged forests in the Indonesian moratorium on new plantations in forested areas.

  5. Westward propagating twin gyres in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. Rahul Chand; Salvekar, P. S.; Deo, A. A.; Ganer, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    A reduced-gravity (1$\\frac{1}{2-layer) model forced by daily climatological winds simulates twin, anticyclonic gyres, which propagate westward on either side of the equator. The gyres form at the beginning of both the Southwest Monsoon and the Northeast monsoon in the equatorial eastern Indian Ocean, and subsequently propagate across the basin. Their existence is supported by velocity observations taken during WOCE in 1995 and by TOPEX/Poseidon sea-level observations during 1993. They are also present in the ECCO model/data product. They form at the front of a Rossby-wave packet generated by the reflection of the equatorial jet (EJ) from the eastern boundary of the basin. They are likely either Rossby solitons or result from the nonlinear interaction between the EJ and the Rossby-wave front.

  6. Ongoing Analysis of Jupiter's Equatorial Hotspots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, D. S.; Showmwn, A. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present updated results from our ongoing analysis of Cassini observations of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach of the planet, the ISS instrument onboard Cassini regularly imaged the atmosphere of Jupiter. We created time-lapse movies from this period that show the complex activity and interactions of the equatorial atmosphere. During this period, hot spots exhibited significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes appear to be a result of interactions with passing vortex systems in adjacent latitudes. Strong anticyclonic gyres to the southeast of the dark areas converge with flow from the west and appear to circulate into a hot spot at its southwestern corner.

  7. Altitude and latitude dependence of the equatorial electrojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Cole, K. D.

    1988-07-01

    A self-consistent and high-resolution dynamo model is used to investigate the effects of day-to-day or seasonal variation of altitude and latitude profiles of the E-plasma density in the equatorial ionosphere on equatorial electrojet (EEJ) structure. Variations in the E-layer peak altitude and amplitude are shown to significantly affect EEJ structure. The results indicate that, for any shape, the EEJ peak appears at or below the E-layer peak altitude. Distinct double peaks occur in the EEJ structure if the E-layer peak is above 105 km or if the gradient is large. The effect of the latitudinal variation of the integrated conductivities of ionospheric field lines upon the amplitude and altitude of the EEJ peak is discussed.

  8. The effect of subtropical aerosol loading on equatorial precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, G.; Chemke, R.

    2016-10-01

    Cloud-aerosol interactions are considered as one of the largest sources of uncertainties in the study of climate change. Here another possible cloud-aerosol effect on climate is proposed. A series of large eddy simulations (LES) with bin microphysics reveal a sensitivity of the total atmospheric water vapor amount to aerosol concentration. Under polluted conditions the rain is suppressed and the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere increases with time compared to clean precipitating conditions. Theoretical examination of this aerosol effect on water vapor transport from the subtropics to the tropics, and hence on the equatorial rain and Hadley circulation, is conducted using an idealized general circulation model (GCM). It is shown that a reduction in the subtropical rain amount results in increased water vapor advection to the tropics and enhanced equatorial rain and Hadley circulation. This joins previously proposed mechanisms on the radiative aerosol effect on the general circulation.

  9. Distribution and activity of diazotrophs in the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Rachel A.; Subramaniam, Ajit; Jonathan P Zehr

    2009-01-01

    The gene abundance and gene expression of six diazotroph populations from the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic in June 2007 were examined using nifH gene quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q PCR) methods. Of all the diazotrophs, Trichodesmium spp. was the most abundant with the highest number of gene copies in the Gulf of Guinea. Trichodesmium also had the highest nitrogenase gene transcript abundance overall with the maximum in samples collected at the equator and in waters influenced by the...

  10. Saturn's equatorial jet structure from Cassini/ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Melendo, Enrique; Legarreta, Jon; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín.; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Hueso, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Detailed wind observations of the equatorial regions of the gaseous giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, are crucial for understanding the basic problem of the global circulation and obtaining new detailed information on atmospheric phenomena. In this work we present high resolution data of Saturn's equatorial region wind profile from Cassini/ISS images. To retrieve wind measurements we applied an automatic cross correlator to image pairs taken by Cassini/ISS with the MT1, MT2, MT3 filters centred at the respective three methane absorbing bands of 619nm, 727nm, and 889nm, and with the adjacent continuum CB1, CB2, and CB3 filters. We obtained a complete high resolution coverage of Saturn's wind profile in the equatorial region. The equatorial jet displays an overall symmetric structure similar to that shown the by same region in Jupiter. This result suggests that, in accordance to some of the latest compressible atmosphere computer models, probably global winds in gaseous giants are deeply rooted in the molecular hydrogen layer. Wind profiles in the methane absorbing bands show the effect of strong vertical shear, ~40m/s per scale height, confirming previous results and an important decay in the wind intensity since the Voyager era (~100 m/s in the continuum and ~200 m/s in the methane absorbing band). We also report the discovery of a new feature, a very strong and narrow jet on the equator, about only 5 degrees wide, that despite the vertical shear maintains its intensity (~420 m/s) in both, the continuum and methane absorbing band filters. Acknowledgements: Work supported by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  11. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  12. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia

    OpenAIRE

    van der Werf, G. R.; Dempewolf, J.; Trigg, S.N.; Randerson, J. T.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; De Giglio, L.; D. Murdiyarso; W. Peters; Morton, D. C.; COLLATZ, G.J.; DOLMAN, A.J.; DeFries, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire emissions from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea during 2000–2006. We found that average fire emissions from this region [128 ± 51 (1σ) Tg carbon (C) year−1, T = 1012] were comparable to fo...

  13. Fast-PPP assessment in European and equatorial region near the solar cycle maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira-Garcia, Adria; Juan, José Miguel; Sanz, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    The Fast Precise Point Positioning (Fast-PPP) is a technique to provide quick high-accuracy navigation with ambiguity fixing capability, thanks to an accurate modelling of the ionosphere. Indeed, once the availability of real-time precise satellite orbits and clocks is granted to users, the next challenge is the accuracy of real-time ionospheric corrections. Several steps had been taken by gAGE/UPC to develop such global system for precise navigation. First Wide-Area Real-Time Kinematics (WARTK) feasibility studies enabled precise relative continental navigation using a few tens of reference stations. Later multi-frequency and multi-constellation assessments in different ionospheric scenarios, including maximum solar-cycle conditions, were focussed on user-domain performance. Recently, a mature evolution of the technique consists on a dual service scheme; a global Precise Point Positioning (PPP) service, together with a continental enhancement to shorten convergence. A end to end performance assessment of the Fast-PPP technique is presented in this work, focussed in Europe and in the equatorial region of South East Asia (SEA), both near the solar cycle maximum. The accuracy of the Central Processing Facility (CPF) real-time precise satellite orbits and clocks is respectively, 4 centimetres and 0.2 nanoseconds, in line with the accuracy of the International GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centres. This global PPP service is enhanced by the Fast-PPP by adding the capability of global undifferenced ambiguity fixing thanks to the fractional part of the ambiguities determination. The core of the Fast-PPP is the capability to compute real-time ionospheric determinations with accuracies at the level or better than 1 Total Electron Content Unit (TECU), improving the widely-accepted Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM), with declared accuracies of 2-8 TECU. This large improvement in the modelling accuracy is achieved thanks to a two-layer description of the ionosphere combined with

  14. Tropical Cyclone - Equatorial Ionosphere Coupling: A Statistical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavathiammal, G. J.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the equatorial ionosphere response to tropical cyclone events which was observed over the Indian Ocean. This statistical study tries to reveal the possible Tropical Cyclone (TC) - Ionosphere coupling. Tropical cyclone track and data can be obtained from the India Meteorological Department, New Delhi. Digisonde/Ionosonde data for the equatorial latitudes can be obtained from Global Ionospheric Radio Observatory. It is believed that TC induced convection as the driving agent for the increased gravity wave activity in the lower atmosphere and these propagating gravity waves deposit their energy and momentum into the upper atmosphere as Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs). The convective regions are identified with the help of Outgoing Long wave radiation (OLR) data from NOAA Climate Data Center/ Precipitation data from TRMM Statellite. The variability of ionospheric parameter like Total Electron Content (TEC), foF2, h'F2 and Drift velocity are examined during TC periods. This study will report the possibility of TC-Ionosphere Coupling in equatorial atmosphere.

  15. Preseptal Cellulitis, Orbital Cellulitis, Orbital Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Altan Yaycıoğlu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with orbital infections present to our clinic usually with unilateral pain, hyperemia, and edema of the eyelids. The differentiation between preseptal and orbital cellulitis is utmost important in that the second requires hospitalization. Since in orbital cellulitis, the tissues posterior to the orbital septum are involved, signs such as conjunctival chemosis, limited eye movement, decreased vision, as well as afferent pupil defect secondary to optic nerve involvement may also be observed. Prompt intravenous antibiotic treatment should be started, and surgical drainage may be performed if patient shows failure to improve in 48 hours despite optimal management. Without treatment, the clinical course may progress to subperiosteal or orbital abscess, and even to cavernous sinus thrombosis. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 52-6

  16. Nanofocusing in circular sector-like nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Volodymyr; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Han, Zhanghua;

    2014-01-01

    a concentric circular line of phase contrast, demonstrating resonant excitation of a standing wave of counter-propagating surface plasmons, travelling between a tip and opposite circular edge of the antenna. Transmission spectra obtained in the range 900 - 2100 nm are in good agreement with numerical...

  17. Exon circularization in mammalian nuclear extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasman, Z; Been, M D; Garcia-Blanco, M A

    1996-06-01

    Correct ligation of exons in pre-mRNA splicing requires splice site juxtaposition (splice site pairing), usually involving a 5' splice site and a downstream 3' splice site. Splicing of a 5' splice site to an upstream 3' splice site, however, is predicted to result in a circular RNA. This mode of splice site pairing across the axon has been hypothesized to account for rare RNAs containing scrambled exons (Nigro JM et al., 1991, Celt 64:607-613; Cocquerelle C et al., 1992, EMBO J 11:1 095-1098). Additionally, this mode of splice site pairing has been postulated to explain the formation of SRY circular transcripts in mouse testis (Capel B et al., 1993, Celt 73:1019- 1030). Here we show that splice site pairing across the exon can result in exon circularization in vitro. These results indicate that spliceosome-mediated axon circularization indeed can account for the formation of scrambled exons and circular RNAs. Exon circularization efficiency decreased dramatically as the length of the exon was increased from 95 nt to 274 nt. Circularization of this longer exon was restored, however, when intronic complementary sequences were included in the RNA substrate. These complementary sequences could form a stem that served to bring the splice sites into proximity and thereby promote splice site pairing. Therefore, the splicing of this structured RNA recapitulated SRY-like exon circularization in vitro.

  18. 21 CFR 606.122 - Instruction circular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Instruction circular. 606.122 Section 606.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Finished Product Control § 606.122 Instruction circular. An instruction...

  19. Circular polarization of light by planet Mercury and enantiomorphism of its surface minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Thiemann, Wolfram H P; Barbier, Bernard; Brack, André; Alcaraz, Christian; Nahon, Laurent; Wolstencroft, Ray

    2002-04-01

    Different mechanisms for the generation of circular polarization by the surface of planets and satellites are described. The observed values for Venus, the Moon, Mars, and Jupiter obtained by photo-polarimetric measurements with Earth based telescopes, showed accordance with theory. However, for planet Mercury asymmetric parameters in the circular polarization were measured that do not fit with calculations. For BepiColombo, the ESA cornerstone mission 5 to Mercury, we propose to investigate this phenomenon using a concept which includes two instruments. The first instrument is a high-resolution optical polarimeter, capable to determine and map the circular polarization by remote scanning of Mercury's surface from the Mercury Planetary Orbiter MPO. The second instrument is an in situ sensor for the detection of the enantiomorphism of surface crystals and minerals, proposed to be included in the Mercury Lander MSE.

  20. CIRCULAR ECONOMY IN ROMANIA WITHIN EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Marcela Danu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we have approached some conceptual and coordinated marks of the societal reality connected to the circular economy. Generated by „the limits of certainty” regarding the future of the world business, the operationalization of the circular economy has become a part of the EU strategies and started the various stages of implementation as an active process in all countries. We have highlighted the opportunities and the risks related to the circular economy, the European dimension and, in particular, the Romanian one of this process, the role of the triad: consumer-company-natural environment, while implementing the circular economy. Circular economy is both a new approach of the societal life, based on changing the mentalities of the individuals having the role of decision makers at the company level and public administration and the decision makers – consumers, as well as a policy meant to be made operational across all entities: governmental, entrepreneurial, individually – human.

  1. Interacting Binaries with Eccentric Orbits. III. Orbital Evolution due to Direct Impact and Self-Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Sepinsky, J F; Kalogera, V; Rasio, F A

    2010-01-01

    The rapid circularization and synchronization of the stellar components in an eccentric binary system at the onset of mass transfer is a fundamental assumption common to all binary stellar evolution and population synthesis codes, even though the validity of this assumption is questionable both theoretically and observationally. Here we calculate the evolution of the orbital elements of an eccentric binary through the direct three-body integration of a massive particle ejected through the inner Lagrangian point of the donor star at periastron. The trajectory of this particle leads to three possible outcomes: direct accretion onto the companion star within a single orbit, self-accretion back onto the donor star within a single orbit, or a quasi-periodic orbit around the companion star, possibly leading to the formation of a disk. We calculate the secular evolution of the binary orbit in the first two cases and conclude that direct impact accretion can increase as well as decrease the orbital semi-major axis an...

  2. Extension of Earth-Moon libration point orbits with solar sail propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiligers, Jeannette; Macdonald, Malcolm; Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents families of libration point orbits in the Earth-Moon system that originate from complementing the classical circular restricted three-body problem with a solar sail. Through the use of a differential correction scheme in combination with a continuation on the solar sail induced acceleration, families of Lyapunov, halo, vertical Lyapunov, Earth-centred, and distant retrograde orbits are created. As the solar sail circular restricted three-body problem is non-autonomous, a constraint defined within the differential correction scheme ensures that all orbits are periodic with the Sun's motion around the Earth-Moon system. The continuation method then starts from a classical libration point orbit with a suitable period and increases the solar sail acceleration magnitude to obtain families of orbits that are parametrised by this acceleration. Furthermore, different solar sail steering laws are considered (both in-plane and out-of-plane, and either fixed in the synodic frame or fixed with respect to the direction of Sunlight), adding to the wealth of families of solar sail enabled libration point orbits presented. Finally, the linear stability properties of the generated orbits are investigated to assess the need for active orbital control. It is shown that the solar sail induced acceleration can have a positive effect on the stability of some orbit families, especially those at the L2 point, but that it most often (further) destabilises the orbit. Active control will therefore be needed to ensure long-term survivability of these orbits.

  3. Particle swarm optimization applied to impulsive orbital transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontani, Mauro; Conway, Bruce A.

    2012-05-01

    The particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique is a population-based stochastic method developed in recent years and successfully applied in several fields of research. It mimics the unpredictable motion of bird flocks while searching for food, with the intent of determining the optimal values of the unknown parameters of the problem under consideration. At the end of the process, the best particle (i.e. the best solution with reference to the objective function) is expected to contain the globally optimal values of the unknown parameters. The central idea underlying the method is contained in the formula for velocity updating. This formula includes three terms with stochastic weights. This research applies the particle swarm optimization algorithm to the problem of optimizing impulsive orbital transfers. More specifically, the following problems are considered and solved with the PSO algorithm: (i) determination of the globally optimal two- and three-impulse transfer trajectories between two coplanar circular orbits; (ii) determination of the optimal transfer between two coplanar, elliptic orbits with arbitrary orientation; (iii) determination of the optimal two-impulse transfer between two circular, non-coplanar orbits; (iv) determination of the globally optimal two-impulse transfer between two non-coplanar elliptic orbits. Despite its intuitiveness and simplicity, the particle swarm optimization method proves to be capable of effectively solving the orbital transfer problems of interest with great numerical accuracy.

  4. ASC Champ Orbit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Jørgensen, John Leif

    1999-01-01

    This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite.......This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite....

  5. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  6. Vesta: its shape and deformed equatorial belt predicted by the wave planetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    At EPSC2011 we stated: "Expected detailed images of Vesta sent by DAWN spacecraft certainly will show a prominent tectonic (must be also compositional) dichotomy of this large asteroid. The assuredness is based on some mainly the HST photos and the wave planetology fundamental conception: Theorem 1 - " Ce lestial bodies are dichotomous""[1]. Now a convexo-concave shape of Vesta is well known but the huge deep depression of the south hemisphere is assigned to two random large impacts almost at one place [2, 3]. This supposition has a very small probability, besides the largest asteroid Ceres also has a large depression at one side (the Piazzi basin). The theorem 1 of the wave planetology explains that all celestial bodies (not only small ones) are subjected to a warping action of the fundamental wave1 uplifting one side and subsiding (pressing in) the opposite one. This is a manifestation of the orbital energy acting in any body moving in keplerian noncircular orbit with changing acceleration (a). Arising inertia-gravity force F= (a1 - a2) x m is very important because of large planetary masses (m) and large cosmic speeds. Increase and decrease of accelerations were much larger in the beginning of planetary formation when orbits were more elliptical. Thus, pressing in of the subsiding hemisphere-segment is so strong that it often squeezes out some mantle material appearing as elevation-mound (compare to the Hawaii in the Pacific basin and look at Hyperion with a large basin and a mound at its center, Fig, 1, 2). Vesta's prominent subsiding equatorial belt with graben systems [4] (Fig. 4, 5) is a manifestation of another general planetary rule : " Rotating celestial body tends to even angular momenta of tropics and extra-tropics by regulating mass distribution and distance to the rotation axis " [5-7]. Often observed a sensible difference in appearance and structure between tropical and extra-tropical zones of various heavenly bodies including rocky and gas planets

  7. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra and distortions at Fe2+ L(2,3) edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; de Groot, F.M.F.; Cramer, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    We have shown from ligand field multiplet calculations that the shape of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra changes drastically with the distortion parameter Ds. The temperature dependence study of XMCD makes it possible to determine both Ds and spin-orbit coupling.

  8. Traumatic transconjunctival orbital emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Stroh, E M; Finger, P T

    1990-01-01

    Orbital emphysema can be produced by trans-conjunctival migration of air from a high pressure airgun. In an industrial accident an 8 mm conjunctival laceration was produced in the superior fornix which acted as a portal of entry for air into the subconjunctival, subcutaneous, and retrobulbar spaces. Computed tomography revealed no evidence of orbital fracture and showed that traumatic orbital emphysema occurred without a broken orbital bone.

  9. Martian clouds observed by Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huiqun; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    We have made daily global maps that cover both polar and equatorial regions of Mars for Ls 135°–360° and 0°–111° using the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) red and blue wide-angle swaths taken from May 1999 to January 2001. We study the seasonal distribution of condensate clouds and dust clouds during roughly 1 Martian year using these daily global maps. We present the development and decay of the tropical cloud belt and the polar hoods, the spatial and temporal distributi...

  10. Figure "8" Type Solutions for Planar Circular Restricted 3-body Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世清

    2004-01-01

    @@ We study planar restricted 3-body problems[1]. Suppose point masses m1 and m2 move around their center of mass in circular orbits. Choose units of length, time and mass so that the angular velocity of rotation, the sum of masses of mi and m2, and the gravitational constant are all equal to one. Then for this choice the distance between m1 and m2 is also equal to 1.

  11. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  12. Loops in the Sun’s orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanov Milutin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides translation, spin around its axis and rotation around center of the Milky Way, the Sun performs relative motion in the solar system Laplacian plane, also. This motion was anticipated by Newton himself, in his Principia. The form of the Sun’s orbit is substantially different from the other solar system bodies’ orbits. Namely, the Sun moves along the path composed of the chain of large and small loops [1, 2, 6, 9]. This chain is situated within the circular outline with the diameter approximately twice as large as the Sun’s is. Under supposition that the solar system is stable, the Sun is going to move along it, in the same region, for eternity, never reitereiting the same path. It was also shown in this work that velocity and acceleration of the Sun’s center of mass are completely defined by the relative velocities and accelerations of the planets with respect to the Sun.

  13. Long-Term Stability of Horseshoe Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Ćuk, Matija; Holman, Matthew J

    2012-01-01

    Unlike Trojans, horseshoe coorbitals are not generally considered to be long-term stable (Dermott and Murray, 1981; Murray and Dermott, 1999). As the lifetime of Earth's and Venus's horseshoe coorbitals is expected to be about a Gyr, we investigated the possible contribution of late-escaping inner planet coorbitals to the lunar Late Heavy Bombardment. Contrary to analytical estimates, we do not find many horseshoe objects escaping after first 100 Myr. In order to understand this behaviour, we ran a second set of simulations featuring idealized planets on circular orbits with a range of masses. We find that horseshoe coorbitals are generally long lived (and potentially stable) for systems with primary-to-secondary mass ratios larger than about 1200. This is consistent with results of Laughlin and Chambers (2002) for equal-mass pairs or coorbital planets and the instability of Jupiter's horseshoe companions (Stacey and Connors, 2008). Horseshoe orbits at smaller mass ratios are unstable because they must approa...

  14. Orbital magnetization in dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa, Cezary; Dietl, Tomasz

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between the modern and classical Landau's approach to carrier orbital magnetization is studied theoretically within the envelope function approximation, taking ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As as an example. It is shown that while the evaluation of hole magnetization within the modern theory does not require information on the band structure in a magnetic field, the number of basis wave functions must be much larger than in the Landau approach to achieve the same quantitative accuracy. A numerically efficient method is proposed, which takes advantages of these two theoretical schemes. The computed magnitude of orbital magnetization is in accord with experimental values obtained by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in (III,Mn)V compounds. The direct effect of the magnetic field on the hole spectrum is studied too, and employed to interpret a dependence of the Coulomb blockade maxima on the magnetic field in a single electron transistor with a (Ga,Mn)As gate.

  15. Encryption using circular harmonic key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Rueda-Parada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presento un estudio sobre la varianza a la rota ción de la llave del procesador de encriptación basado en la tr ansformada de Fourier. Determiné que la llave en coordenadas rectangulares pe rmite un nivel de tolerancia inferior a 0.2 grados de rotación de la llave en el proceso de decriptación. Entonces la solución es construir la llave en coordenadas polares, por medio de una expansión en armónicos circulares. De esta manera, el umbral de tolerancia a umenta aproximadamente hasta 40 grados de rotación de la llave en el proceso de decriptación. Esta solución es un valor agregado par a el procesador de encriptación óptico. He desarrollado una her ramienta computacional para las simulaciones y resultados obtenidos en e ste estudio.

  16. Process engineering in circular economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lothar Reh

    2013-01-01

    Driven by increasing global population and by growing demand for individual wealth,the consumption of energy and raw materials as well as the steadily growing CO2 concentration in atmosphere pose great challenges to process engineering.This complex multi-scale discipline deals with the transformation of mass by energy to manifold products in different industrial fields under economical and ecological sustainable conditions.In growing circular economy,process engineering increasingly plays an important role in recovering valuable components from very diffuse material flows leaving the user stocks following widely variable time periods of use.As well it is engaged in thermal recovery of energy therefrom and in environmentally safe disposal of residual solid wastes whose recovery economically is not feasible.An efficient recovery of materials and energy following the laws of entropy is a must.A complex network of mass,energy,transportation and information flows has to be regarded with growing traded quantities of used goods even on global level.Important constraints in time,however,exist for a necessary realization of innovative new processes and communal mobility and industrial infrastructure on medium and large scale.Based on reasonable long term and highly reliable statistics from industrial organizations representing steel and paper industry,some limits and trends of possible developments in processing of those industries with long recycling experience will be discussed.

  17. Accurate characterization of the stellar and orbital parameters of the exoplanetary system WASP-33 b from orbital dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    By using the most recently published Doppler tomography measurements and accurate theoretical modeling of the oblateness-driven orbital precessions, we tightly constrain some of the physical and orbital parameters of the planetary system hosted by the fast rotating star WASP-33. In particular, the measurements of the orbital inclination $i_{\\rm p}$ to the plane of the sky and of the sky-projected spin-orbit misalignment $\\lambda$ at two epochs six years apart allowed for the determination of the longitude of the ascending node $\\Omega$ and of the orbital inclination $I$ to the apparent equatorial plane at the same epochs. As a consequence, average rates of change $\\dot\\Omega_{\\rm exp},~\\dot I_{\\rm exp}$ of this two orbital elements, accurate to a $\\approx 10^{-2}~\\textrm{deg}~\\textrm{yr}^{-1}$ level, were calculated as well. By comparing them to general theoretical expressions $\\dot\\Omega_{J_2},~\\dot I_{J_2}$ for their precessions induced by an arbitrarily oriented quadrupole mass moment, we were able to dete...

  18. Electron Interference in Molecular Circular Polarization Attosecond XUV Photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jun Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-center electron interference in molecular attosecond photoionization processes is investigated from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Both symmetric H\\(_2^+\\ and nonsymmetric HHe\\(^{2+}\\ one electron diatomic systems are ionized by intense attosecond circularly polarized XUV laser pulses. Photoionization of these molecular ions shows signature of interference with double peaks (minima in molecular attosecond photoelectron energy spectra (MAPES at critical angles \\(\\vartheta_c\\ between the molecular \\(\\textbf{R}\\ axis and the photoelectron momentum \\(\\textbf{p}\\. The interferences are shown to be a function of the symmetry of electronic states and the interference patterns are sensitive to the molecular orientation and pulse polarization. Such sensitivity offers possibility for imaging of molecular structure and orbitals.

  19. Polarimetric investigation of materials with both linear and circular anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenova, I.; Nikolova, L.; Todorov, T.;

    1997-01-01

    We investigate light propagation through materials with both linear and circular anisotropy and find the relation of the amplitude and polarization transfer functions to the four anisotropic characteristics: linear circular birefringence, and linear and circular dichroism. We determine these four...

  20. Uniformity Tests in Circular Data: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet DOGAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Circular data are a large class of directional data, which are interest in many fields. Examples include phenomena that are periodic in time, including those dependent on hours of the day (hospital visits, times of birth, etc. or days of the year (unemployment or sales variations. The elementary but also fundamental property of circular data is that the beginning and end of the scale coincide: for example, 0° = 360°. An immediate implication is that the arithmetic mean is likely to be a poor summary: the mean of 1° and 359° cannot sensibly be 180°. The solution is use the vector mean direction as circular mean. The statistical analysis of angular or circular data differs from the analysis of linear data. Unlike linear distributions, which are often two-tailed and infinite, circular distributions exhibit finite closure because a circular data set comes back on itself, and therefore, 0° and 360° are actually the same point on a circle. Circular statistics is concerned mainly with observations which are unit vectors in the plane. Thus the sample space is typically a circle or a sphere, so that standart methods for analysing univariate or multivariate measurement data can?t be used. Special circular methods are required take into account the structure of these sample spaces. In most circular statistical analyses, the null hypothesis is a uniform distribution in which all directions occur with equal probability. In this study, eight different testing methods improved for uniformity in angular data have been introduced and these methods were compared with each other by using the information obtained from the literature.

  1. C/NOFS satellite observations of equatorial ionospheric plasma structures supported by multiple ground-based diagnostics in October 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, M.; Basu, Su.; Basu, S.; Valladares, C. E.; Sheehan, R. E.; Roddy, P. A.; Groves, K. M.

    2011-10-01

    In early October 2008, the C/NOFS satellite orbited near the magnetic equator at its perigee altitude of ˜400 km at dusk in the Peruvian sector. This provided an ideal opportunity for a comparison, under the current very low solar flux condition, of equatorial ionospheric disturbances observed with the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) in situ measurements and ground-based observations available near Jicamarca Observatory. The primary objective was the comparison of plasma density disturbances measured by a Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP) instrument on the C/NOFS satellite with VHF scintillation activity at Ancon near Jicamarca for this period. Here we discuss in detail two extreme cases: one in which severe in situ disturbances were accompanied by mild scintillation on a particular day, namely, 10 October while there was little in situ disturbance with strong scintillation on 5 October. This apparent contradiction was diagnosed further by a latitudinal ground-based GPS network at Peruvian longitudes, a Digisonde, and the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) at Jicamarca. The crucial distinction was provided by the behavior of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). The EIA was well-developed on the day having severe in situ disturbances (10 Oct). This led to lower equatorial plasma density and total electron content (TEC) at the equator and consequently reduced the scintillations detected at Ancon. On the other hand, on the day with severe scintillations (5 Oct), the EIA was not so well developed as on 10 October, leading to relatively higher equatorial plasma density and TEC. Consequently the severe scintillations at Ancon were likely caused by ionospheric structure located below the altitude of C/NOFS. The NRL SAMI2 model was utilized to gain a greater understanding of the role of neutral winds and electric fields in reproducing the TEC as a function of latitude for both classes of irregularities. Spectral studies with high resolution in situ

  2. Orbital fractures: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey M Joseph, Ioannis P GlavasDivision of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA; Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1 to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2 to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3 to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training.Keywords: orbit, trauma, fracture, orbital floor, medial wall, zygomatic, zygomatic complex, zmc fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures 

  3. Painless orbital myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul T Chakor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital inflammation is the third most common orbital disease, following Graves orbitopathy and lymphoproliferative diseases. We present a 11 year old girl with 15 days history of painless diplopia. There was no history of fluctuation of symptoms, drooping of eye lids or diminished vision. She had near total restricted extra-ocular movements and mild proptosis of the right eye. There was no conjunctival injection, chemosis, or bulb pain. There was no eyelid retraction or lid lag. Rest of the neurological examination was unremarkable.Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was raised with eosinophilia. Antinuclear antibodies were positive. Liver, renal and thyroid functions were normal. Antithyroid, double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid and acetylcholine receptor antibodies were negative. Repetitive nerve stimulation was negative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the orbit was typical of orbital myositis. The patient responded to oral steroids. Orbital myositis can present as painless diplopia. MRI of orbit is diagnostic in orbital myositis.

  4. Circular polarization memory in polydisperse scattering media

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Callum M; Meglinski, Igor

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the survival of circularly polarized light in random scattering media. The surprising persistence of this form of polarization has a known dependence on the size and refractive index of scattering particles, however a general description regarding polydisperse media is lacking. Through analysis of Mie theory, we present a means of calculating the magnitude of circular polarization memory in complex media, with total generality in the distribution of particle sizes and refractive indices. Quantification of this memory effect enables an alternate pathway towards recovering particle size distribution, based on measurements of diffusing circularly polarized light.

  5. Structures of Equatorial Envelope Rossby Wave Under a Generalized External Forcing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FUZun-Tao; LIUShi-Da; LIUShi-Kuo

    2004-01-01

    The cubic nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS for short) equation with a generalized external heating source is derived for large amplitude equatorial envelope Rossby wave in a shear flow. And then various periodic structures for these equatorial cnvelope Rossby waves are obtained with the help of a new transformation, Jacobi elliptic functions,and elliptic equation. It is shown that different types of resonant phase-locked diabatic heating play different roles in structures of equatorial envelope Rossby wave.

  6. Structures of Equatorial Envelope Rossby Wave Under a Generalized External Forcing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Zun-Tao; LIU Shi-Da; LIU Shi-Kuo

    2004-01-01

    The cubic nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS for short) equation with a generalized external heating source is derived for large amplitude equatorial envelope Rossby wave in a shear flow. And then various periodic structures for these equatorial envelope Rossby waves are obtained with the help of a new transformation, Jacobi elliptic functions,and elliptic equation. It is shown that different types of resonant phase-locked diabatic heating play different roles in structures of equatorial envelope Rossby wave.

  7. New Measurements Of Jupiter's Equatorial Region In Visible Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jose; Arregi, J.; García-Melendo, E.; Barrado-Izagirre, N.; Hueso, R.; Gómez-Forrellad, J. M.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Sanz-Requena, J. F.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2010-10-01

    We have studied the equatorial region of Jupiter, between 15ºS and 15ºN, on Cassini ISS images obtained during the Jupiter flyby at the end of 2000 and on HST images acquired in May and July 2008. We have found significant longitudinal variations in the intensity of the 6ºN eastward jet, up to 60 m s-1 in Cassini and HST observations. In the HST case we found that these longitudinal variations are associated to different cloud morphology. Photometric and radiative transfer analysis of the cloud features used as tracers in HST images shows that there is only a small height difference, no larger than 0.5 - 1 scale heights at most, between the slow ( 100 m s-1) and fast ( 150 m s-1) moving features. This suggests that speed variability at 6ºN is not dominated by vertical wind shears and we propose that Rossby wave activity is the responsible for the zonal variability. After removing this variability we found that Jupiter's equatorial jet is actually symmetric relative to the equator with two peaks of 140 - 150 m s-1 located at latitudes 6ºN and 6ºS and at a similar pressure level. We also studied a large, long-lived feature called the White Spot (WS) located at 6ºS that turns to form and desapear. The internal flow field in the White Spot indicates that it is a weakly rotating quasi-equatorial anticyclone relative to the ambient meridionally sheared flow. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  8. Jovian Equatorial H Lyman-alpha and the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Gilda E.

    An excess of H Ly alpha emission has been a persistent feature in Jupiter's equatorial upper atmosphere since its discovery in 1978. This Ly alpha 'bulge' was found by high-resolution IUE observations to be due to broadening of the Jovian line increasing the resonant scattering of the solar Ly alpha, rather than from a local enhancement in the H density. The line broadening implies that the H column at the bulge is disturbed by a localized, non-thermal process, and two mechanisms have been proposed to explain this: one by the generation of turbulence from strong thermospheric winds or jets meeting at the bulge region and originating in the active Jovian auroral zones, the other involving a superthermal population of H atoms produced by a process analogous to the equatorial anomaly and tropical arcs on the Earth. Some line broadening was also observed in the off-bulge region while modelling of the usual bulge profile does not predict this behavior, but these observations may have been performed at a time of an unusually large extension of the bulge. We propose to make a series of high-dispersion observations (of improved S/N) for a detailed longitudinal study of the line profile which would be of benefit independently of the particular bulge conditions (to be determined with low-dispersion exposures). In addition, new insight will be gained with simultaneous ground-based observations of the newly discovered global ionospheric H3+ emissions. These emissions are diagnostic of the ionospheric temperature and ion density, and have already shown very particular characteristics in the H Ly alpha bulge region. Coordinated observations of the whole longitudinal range should therefore set new constraints on the mechanisms operating in the Jovian equatorial upper atmosphere.

  9. Discovery Of A Rossby Wave In Jupiter's South Equatorial Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Choi, D. S.; Rogers, J. H.; Gierasch, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed study of the chevron-shaped dark spots on the strong southern equatorial wind jet near 7.5 deg S planetographic latitude shows variations in velocity with longitude and time. The chevrons move with velocities near the maximum wind jet velocity of approx.140 m/s, as deduced by the history of velocities at this latitude and the magnitude of the symmetric wind jet near 7 deg N latitude. Their repetitive nature is consistent with an inertia-gravity wave (n = 75-100) with phase speed up to 25 m/s, relative to the local flow, but the identity of this wave mode is not well constrained. However, high spatial resolution movies from Cassini images show that the chevrons oscillate in latitude with a approx.7-day period. This oscillating motion has a wavelength of approx.20 deg and a speed of approx.100 m/s, following a pattern similar to that seen in the Rossby wave plumes of the North Equatorial Zone, and possibly reinforced by it, though they are not perfectly in phase. The transient anticyclonic South Equatorial Disturbance (SED) may be a similar wave feature, but moves at slower velocity. All data show chevron latitude variability, but it is unclear if this Rossby wave is present during other epochs, without time series movies that fully delineate it. In the presence of multiple wave modes, the difference in dominant cloud appearance between 7 deg N and 7.5 deg S may be due to the presence of the Great Red Spot, either through changes in stratification and stability or by acting as a wave boundary.

  10. Ocean atmosphere thermal decoupling in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sudheer; Ravichandran, M.; Kumar, B. Praveen; Jampana, Raju V.; Han, Weiqing

    2016-09-01

    Eastern equatorial Indian ocean (EEIO) is one of the most climatically sensitive regions in the global ocean, which plays a vital role in modulating Indian ocean dipole (IOD) and El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO). Here we present evidences for a paradoxical and perpetual lower co-variability between sea-surface temperature (SST) and air-temperature (Tair) indicating instantaneous thermal decoupling in the same region, where signals of the strongly coupled variability of SST anomalies and zonal winds associated with IOD originate at inter-annual time scale. The correlation minimum between anomalies of Tair and SST occurs in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean warm pool region (≈70°E-100°E, 5°S-5°N), associated with lower wind speeds and lower sensible heat fluxes. At sub-monthly and Madden-Julian oscillation time scales, correlation of both variables becomes very low. In above frequencies, precipitation positively contributes to the low correlation by dropping Tair considerably while leaving SST without any substantial instant impact. Precipitation is led by positive build up of SST and post-facto drop in it. The strong semi-annual response of SST to mixed layer variability and equatorial waves, with the absence of the same in the Tair, contributes further to the weak correlation at the sub-annual scale. The limited correlation found in the EEIO is mainly related to the annual warming of the region and ENSO which is hard to segregate from the impacts of IOD.

  11. A Tropical Ocean Recharge Mechanism for Climate Variability. Part I: Equatorial Heat Content Changes Induced by the Off-Equatorial Wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochun; Jin, Fei-Fei; Wang, Yuqing

    2003-11-01

    A reduced-gravity shallow-water model, an oceanic general circulation model for the Pacific region, and the analytical model of the equatorial β plane bounded in the zonal direction are used to investigate the equatorial thermocline response to tropical and subtropical wind stress forcing. The results show that the wind stress forcing in the tropical and subtropical region can generate a nearly zonal uniform thermocline depth change in the equatorial region. The response timescale is longer when the wind stress is placed farther away from the equator. There exist latitude bands around 10° 15°N and 10° 15°S where the forcing can cause a relatively large equatorial response. When the forcing is located in the eastern basin, the response timescale is longer and its magnitude is larger than the case when the forcing is located in the western basin. Thus the eastern tropical to subtropical region is a relatively effective area for off-equatorial wind stress to generate an equatorial thermocline response. When the wind stress forcing has a longer period, the response of the equatorial thermocline has a larger magnitude. The results from this study's numerical experiments and the analytical solution are consistent. The present study has implications for the broad-scale ocean atmosphere interaction in the tropical region.

  12. Provisional hourly values of equatorial Dst for 1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, M.; Poros, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    Tables and plots of provisional hourly values of the equatorial Dst index for 1971 are given, a table of daily mean Dst values for 1971 is also provided. The base line values for the four observatories, Hermanus, Kakioka, Honolulu, and San Juan, were obtained from extrapolations using the coefficients for the secular variations determined for the previous years. Examining the Dst values for quiet days, the base lines so determined appear to be slightly low, so that the Dst index for quiet periods tends to be high.

  13. Seasonal variability of the bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Qiang-chang; JIANG Song; TIAN Ji-wei; KONG Ling-hai; NI Guo-xi

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variability of the bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current (NEC) is studied by constructing the analytic solution for the time-dependent horizontal linear shallow water quasi-geostrophic equations.Using the Florida State University wind data from 1961 through 1992,we find that the bifurcation latitude of the NEC changes with seasons.Furthermore,it is shown that the NEC bifurcation is at its southernmost latitude (12.7°N) in June and the northernmost latitude (14.4° N) in November.

  14. Origin of the Spin-Orbit Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Spavieri, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    We consider a semi-classical model to describe the origin of the spin-orbit interaction in a simple system such as the hydrogen atom. The interaction energy U is calculated in the rest-frame of the nucleus, around which an electron, having linear velocity v and magnetic dipole-moment mu, travels in a circular orbit. The interaction energy U is due to the coupling of the induced electric dipole p=(v/c)x mu with the electric field En of the nucleus. Assuming the radius of the electron's orbit remains constant during a spin-flip transition, our model predicts that the energy of the system changes by Delta_E = U/2, the factor 1/2 emerging naturally as a consequence of equilibrium and the change of the kinetic energy of the electron. The correct 1/2 factor for the spin-orbit coupling energy is thus derived without the need to invoke the well-known Thomas precession in the rest-frame of the electron.

  15. GOCK-2003 catalogue of positions and orbital elements of the geosynchronous space objects observed in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizyun, L. M.

    2004-10-01

    We describe the GOCK-2003 Catalogue (Geosynchronous Objects Catalogue: Kyiv 2003) containing topocentric equatorial coordinates and orbital elements of geosynchronous satellites obtained by photographic method at the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in 2003.(http://www/mao.kiev.ua/ast/astrom.htm). Our results of the identification of 26 objects on the basis of 116 observations from among the total 173 observations of 57 objects are presented.

  16. Exoplanet orbital eccentricities derived from LAMOST-Kepler analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ji-Wei; Dong, Subo; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Huber, Daniel; Zheng, Zheng; De Cat, Peter; Fu, Jianning; Liu, Hui-Gen; Luo, Ali; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Haotong; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Cao, Zihuang; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-10-01

    The nearly circular (mean eccentricity e¯≈0.06) and coplanar (mean mutual inclination i¯≈3°) orbits of the solar system planets motivated Kant and Laplace to hypothesize that planets are formed in disks, which has developed into the widely accepted theory of planet formation. The first several hundred extrasolar planets (mostly Jovian) discovered using the radial velocity (RV) technique are commonly on eccentric orbits (e¯≈0.3). This raises a fundamental question: Are the solar system and its formation special? The Kepler mission has found thousands of transiting planets dominated by sub-Neptunes, but most of their orbital eccentricities remain unknown. By using the precise spectroscopic host star parameters from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) observations, we measure the eccentricity distributions for a large (698) and homogeneous Kepler planet sample with transit duration statistics. Nearly half of the planets are in systems with single transiting planets (singles), whereas the other half are multiple transiting planets (multiples). We find an eccentricity dichotomy: on average, Kepler singles are on eccentric orbits with e¯≈0.3, whereas the multiples are on nearly circular (e¯=0.04-0.04+0.03) and coplanar (i¯=1.4-1.1+0.8 degree) orbits similar to those of the solar system planets. Our results are consistent with previous studies of smaller samples and individual systems. We also show that Kepler multiples and solar system objects follow a common relation [×i¯] between mean eccentricities and mutual inclinations. The prevalence of circular orbits and the common relation may imply that the solar system is not so atypical in the galaxy after all.

  17. Applications Study of Aero-Maneuvering Orbit-to-Orbit Shuttle (AMOOS), Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary designs and the supporting analysis for both the Aeromaneuvering Orbit-to-Orbit Shuttle (AMOOS) and the Aeromaneuvering Recovery System (AMRS) are presented. The AMOOS design is shown to yield from twice to almost three times the high energy, round-trip payloads as a purely propulsive vehicle of the same weight. Typically AMOOS can perform a crew rotation mission to equatorial geosynchronous orbit in one space shuttle launch. The flight test program analysis modeled parameters such as maximum dynamic pressure, heating rates, guidance, stability and recovery. Two model flight schedules were developed, one consisting of four flights and the other of two flights. The former is considered a very low risk, high information return program whereas the latter is a minimal cost program consistent with reasonable data returns and chance of success. The AMOOS and AMRS guidance scheme developed using linear regulator theory proved a precise and accurate guidance scheme. Both it and a classical linear system's based scheme were evaluated using 65 simulated trajectories in which the position in the entry corridor and the atmospheric density were varied randomly.

  18. 3D periodic orbits in the restricted four body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltagiannis, A.; Papadakis, K.

    2013-09-01

    One big body (Sun) of mass m1 and two other small bodies of masses m2 and m3 correspondingly, move in circular orbits keeping an equilateral triangle configuration, about the center of mass of the system fixed at the origin of the coordinate system. A massless particle is moving under the Newtonian gravitational attraction of the primaries and does not affect the motion of the three bodies. Using the vertical-critical orbits of planar families of symmetric periodic orbits as starting points, we determine and present in this paper, families of three-dimensional periodic solutions of the problem. Characteristic curves of the 3D-families which emanate from the plane are presented. The stability of every three-dimensional periodic orbit which numerically calculated is also studied.

  19. Simulations of accretion flows crossing the last stable orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Armitage, P J; Chiang, J; Armitage, Philip J.; Reynolds, Christopher S; Chiang, James

    2001-01-01

    We use three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, in a pseudo-Newtonian potential, to study geometrically thin accretion disc flows crossing the marginally stable circular orbit around black holes. We concentrate on vertically unstratified and isothermal disk models, but also consider a model that includes stratification. In all cases, we find that the sonic point lies just inside the last stable orbit, with modest magnetic field amplification observed interior to this radius. The gradient of the specific angular momentum of the flow, (dl/dr), is close to zero within the last stable orbit, despite the presence of continuing magnetic stress in the plunging region. These results are in general agreement with expectations based on traditional disk models, but differ from recent results obtained from simulations of geometrically thick disks. For thin disks, we find that the use of a zero-torque boundary condition, at the last stable orbit, provides a reasonable approximation to the numerical results.

  20. Valley-contrasting orbital angular momentum in photonic valley crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodong; Dong, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    Valley, as a degree of freedom, has been exploited to realize valley-selective Hall transport and circular dichroism in two-dimensional layered materials. On the other hand, orbital angular momentum of light with helical phase distribution has attracted great attention for its unprecedented opportunity to optical communicagtions, atom trapping, and even nontrivial topology engineering. Here, we reveal valley-contrasting orbital angular momentum in all-dielectric photonic valley crystals. Selective excitation of valley chiral bulk states is realized by sources carrying orbital angular momentum with proper chirality. Valley dependent edge states, predictable by nonzero valley Chern number, enable to suppress the inter-valley scattering along zigzag boundary, leading to broadband robust transmission in Z-shape bend without corner morphological optimization. Our work may open up a new door towards the discovery of novel quantum states and the manipulation of spin-orbit interaction of light in nanophotonics.

  1. Characterizing Spinning Black Hole Binaries in Eccentric Orbits with LISA

    CERN Document Server

    Key, Joey Shapiro

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is designed to detect gravitational wave signals from astrophysical sources, including those from coalescing binary systems of compact objects such as black holes. Colliding galaxies have central black holes that sink to the center of the merged galaxy and begin to orbit one another and emit gravitational waves. Some galaxy evolution models predict that the binary black hole system will enter the LISA band with significant orbital eccentricity, while other models suggest that the orbits will already have circularized. Using a full seventeen parameter waveform model that includes the effects of orbital eccentricity, spin precession and higher harmonics, we investigate how well the source parameters can be inferred from simulated LISA data. Defining the reference eccentricity as the value one year before merger, we find that for typical LISA sources, it will be possible to measure the eccentricity to an accuracy of parts in a thousand. The accuracy with which the ec...

  2. Polarisation vision: beetles see circularly polarised light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J

    2010-07-27

    It has long been known that the iridescent cuticle of many scarab beetles reflects circularly polarised light. It now turns out that scarabs can also see this light, potentially using it as a covert visual signal.

  3. NMFS Scientific Publications Office: Legacy Series: Circulars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research related to the case for abstention, ... The Colorado River-Matagorda Bay study, by Charles H. Koski, p. 70-74; Movement of water masses ... Circular 191. Extent of acid mine pollution ...

  4. Unleashing the Power of the Circular Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, L.; Wurpel, G.; Ten Wolde, A. [IMSA Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The concept of circular economy is an economic and industrial system that focuses on the reusability of products and raw materials, reduces value destruction in the overall system and aims at value creation within each tier of the system. This report for Circle Economy (CE) outlines the general direction and concrete steps that must be taken to accomplish a breakthrough to a circular economy. It also provides a knowledge base behind the concept, connecting it to sustainability.

  5. A Conceptual Framework for Circular Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariale Moreno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Design has been recognised in the literature as a catalyst to move away from the traditional model of take-make-dispose to achieve a more restorative, regenerative and circular economy. As such, for a circular economy to thrive, products need to be designed for closed loops, as well as be adapted to generate revenues. This should not only be at the point of purchase, but also during use, and be supported by low-cost return chains and reprocessing structures, as well as effective policy and regulation. To date, most academic and grey literature on the circular economy has focused primarily on the development of new business models, with some of the latter studies addressing design strategies for a circular economy, specifically in the area of resource cycles and design for product life extension. However, these studies primarily consider a limited spectrum of the technical and biological cycles where materials are recovered and restored and nutrients (e.g., materials, energy, water are regenerated. This provides little guidance or clarity for designers wishing to design for new circular business models in practice. As such, this paper aims to address this gap by systematically analysing previous literature on Design for Sustainability (DfX (e.g., design for resource conservation, design for slowing resource loops and whole systems design and links these approaches to the current literature on circular business models. A conceptual framework is developed for circular economy design strategies. From this conceptual framework, recommendations are made to enable designers to fully consider the holistic implications for design within a circular economy.

  6. Construction of Circular Economy Industrial System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Man; Ye Wenhu

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to realize the transformation from traditional economy industrial system to circular economy industrial system.Regarding primary raw materials as the indicators,the industrial system has been specified according to the divergence among the indicators and the circular utilization modes.In comparison with the association among industrial systems,the relationship among industrial sub-systems is named as industrial cross-linking in this paper.The industrial system which could completely utilize and recycle the indicators should be increased and strengthened,and the circular economy industrial system with complete industrial association and industrial cross-linking should also be constructed.Taking the development of circular agricultural system basing on the traditional agricultural system as an example,the traditional agricultural products are regarded as the indicators which have been divided into foodstuff and crop straws which are used to produce food and articlesfor use,like fertilizer,energy and papers etc.The way to construct the circular agricultural industrial system is to increase the industrial systems that could utilize the products generated from crop straws,feces and other castoffs and transform the wastewater and other trucks into environmental friendly products.It has also been pointed out that the construction of circular economy industrial system is conducive to the foundation of circular industrial economics and the establishment of the construction layout of circular economy and the application schemes.Suggestions to the theoretical and practical work of the next step have also been brought forward in this paper.

  7. A three-dimensional solution for the orbit of Capella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, D. J.; Fekel, F. C.; Scarfe, C. D.

    1993-01-01

    We have combined new radial velocities of both components of Capella, obtained at McDonald and Kitt Peak, with those recently published by Batten et al. (1991), and with interferometric observations, to derive a new 3D orbit of the Capella system. Our results agree well with those of Bagnuolo and Hartkopf (1989), and yield masses accurate to +/- 3 percent. The cooler component, which is the fainter star visually but the more luminous one bolometrically, is the more massive. The mass ratio differs from unity by more than four times its uncertainty, and this lends strong support to the hypothesis that the cool component has begun to consume its core helium. If so, it may be possible to reconcile, qualitatively at least, the orbit's circularity and the stars' rotational velocities with theories of synchronization and circularization, such as that of the Tassouls (1992).

  8. Interacting Binaries with Eccentric Orbits II. Secular Orbital Evolution Due To Non-Conservative Mass Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Sepinsky, J F; Kalogera, V; Rasio, F A

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the secular evolution of the orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity due to mass transfer in eccentric binaries, allowing for both mass and angular momentum loss from the system. Adopting a delta function mass transfer rate at the periastron of the binary orbit, we find that, depending on the initial binary properties at the onset of mass transfer, the orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity can either increase or decrease at a rate linearly proportional to the magnitude of the mass transfer rate at periastron. The range of initial binary mass ratios and eccentricities that leads to increasing orbital semi-major axes and eccentricities broadens with increasing degrees of mass loss from the system and narrows with increasing orbital angular momentum loss from the binary. Comparison with tidal evolution timescales shows that the usual assumption of rapid circularization at the onset of mass transfer in eccentric binaries is not justified, irrespective of the degree of systemic mass and angular ...

  9. Investigating the effect of geomagnetic storm and equatorial electrojet on equatorial ionospheric irregularity over East African sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seba, Ephrem Beshir; Nigussie, Melessew

    2016-11-01

    The variability of the equatorial ionosphere is still a big challenge for ionospheric dependent radio wave technology users. To mitigate the effect of equatorial ionospheric irregularity on trans-ionospheric radio waves considerable efforts are being done to understand and model the equatorial electrodynamics and its connection to the creation of ionospheric irregularity. However, the effect of the East-African ionospheric electrodynamics on ionospheric irregularity is not yet well studied due to lack of multiple ground based instruments. But, as a result of International Heliophysical Year (IHY) initiative, which was launched in 2007, some facilities are being deployed in Africa since then. Therefore, recently deployed instruments, in the Ethiopian sector, such as SCINDA-GPS receiver (2.64°N dip angle) for TEC and amplitude scintillation index (S4) data and two magnetometers, which are deployed on and off the magnetic equator, data collected in the March equinoctial months of the years 2011, 2012, and 2015 have been used for this study in conjunction with geomagnetic storm data obtained from high resolution OMNI WEB data center. We have investigated the triggering and inhibition mechanisms for ionospheric irregularities using, scintillation index (S4), equatorial electrojet (EEJ), interplanetary electric field (IEFy), symH index, AE index and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz on five selected storm and two storm free days. We have found that when the eastward EEJ fluctuates in magnitude due to storm time induced electric fields at around noontime, the post-sunset scintillation is inhibited. All observed post-sunset scintillations in equinox season are resulted when the daytime EEJ is non fluctuating. The strength of noontime EEJ magnitude has shown direct relation with the strength of the post-sunset scintillations. This indicates that non-fluctuating EEJ stronger than 20 nT, can be precursor for the occurrence of the evening time ionospheric irregularities

  10. Laminar circular hydraulic jumps without separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Ratul; Tomar, Gaurav; Govindarajan, Rama

    2009-11-01

    The traditional inviscid criterion for the occurrence of a planar, standing hydraulic jump is to have the Froude number decrease downstream and go through a value of 1 at some location. Here, upstream propagating, small-amplitude, long, non-dispersive gravity waves are trapped, and non-linear steepening is said to result in a near-discontinuous height profile, but it is not clear how. Such a condition on the Froude number is shown in the present axisymmetric Navier-Stokes computations to hold for a circular jump as well. The relevance of non-linear steepening to a circular jump is therefore a question we wish to answer. In circular jumps, moreover, a region of recirculation is usually observed underneath the jump, underlining the importance of viscosity in this process. This led Tani (J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1949) to hypothesise that boundary-layer separation was the cause of the circular jump. This hypothesis has been debated extensively and the possibility of circular jumps without separation hinted at. In our simulations, we are able to obtain circular hydraulic jumps without any flow separation. This, and the necessity or otherwise of viscosity in jump formation will be discussed.

  11. Satellite Orbital Precessions Caused by the Octupolar Mass Moment of a Non-Spherical Body Arbitrarily Oriented in Space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. Renzetti

    2013-12-01

    I consider a satellite moving around a non-spherical body of mass and equatorial radius , and calculate its orbital precessions caused by the body’s octupolar mass moment 4. I consider only the effects averaged over one orbital period of the satellite. I give exact formulas, not restricted to any special values of either the eccentricity or the inclination of the satellite’s orbit. I do not assume any preferential orientation for the body’s spin axis $\\hat{\\mathbf{k}}$ because in many cases of potential interest (exoplanets, neutron stars, black holes) it is poorly known or unknown at all.

  12. Artesunate/amodiaquine malaria treatment for Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charle, Pilar; Berzosa, Pedro; de Lucio, Aida; Raso, José; Nseng Nchama, Gloria; Benito, Agustín

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination artesunate (AS)/amodiaquine (AQ) therapy, and 2) to determine the difference between recrudescence and resistance. An in vivo efficacy study was conducted in Equatorial Guinea. A total of 122 children 6-59 months of age from two regional hospitals were randomized and subjected to a 28-day clinical and parasitological follow-up. A blood sample on Whatman paper was taken on Days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 or on any day in cases of treatment failure, with the parasite DNA then being extracted for molecular analysis purposes. A total of 4 children were excluded, and 9 cases were lost to follow-up. There were 17 cases of late parasitological failure, 3 cases of late clinical failure, and 89 cases of adequate clinical and parasitological response. The parasitological failure rate was 18.3% (20 of 109) and the success rate 81.70% (95% confidence interval [72.5-87.9%]). After molecular correction, real treatment efficacy stood at 97.3%. Our study showed the good efficacy of combination AS/AQ therapy. This finding enabled this treatment to be recommended to Equatorial Guinea's National Malaria Control Program to change the official treatment policy as of March 2008.

  13. Check list of the Melastomataceae of Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geerinck, Daniel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A chec klist of the Melastomataceae of Equatorial Guinea is presented with 57 taxa. Three species were accepted based only on literature records, their distribution área strongly suggests their presence in Equatorial Guinea. Six species are known from Annobón, 23 from Bioko and 49 from Río Muni. Best-represented genera are Memecylon (10, Calvoa (10 and Tristemma (7. Twenty-six taxa are newly recorded for the country. Heterotis obamae Lejoly & Lisowski is set in synonymy with the previously described Heterotis arenaria Jacq.-Fél.Se presenta el catálogo florístico de la familia Melastomataceae en Guinea Ecuatorial. Se recogen un total de 57 táxones. Tres especies fueron aceptadas teniendo en cuenta solamente la literatura. Su distribución sugiere que su presencia en Guinea Ecuatorial es muy probable. En Annobón están presentes 6 especies, 23 en Bioko y 49 en Río Muni. Los géneros mejor representados son Memecylon (10 especies, Calvoa (10 y Tristemma (7.Veintiséis táxones son citados por primera vez en Guinea Ecuatorial. Se propone Heterotis obamae Lejoly & Lisowski como sinónimo de Heterotis arenaria Jacq.-Fél.

  14. New observations of ionospheric instabilities in the equatorial electrojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alken, P.; Maus, S.

    2009-12-01

    The equatorial electrojet (EEJ) is an intense current system flowing along the magnetic equator in the ionospheric E-region on the day-side. Early attempts to model the EEJ found that ionospheric instabilities led to significant changes in the current which had to be accounted for. Early modelers used ad-hoc empirical correction factors in the relevant ionospheric parameters to attempt to account for instability effects. Modern EEJ models continue to use these correction factors, which are still not well understood theoretically. In the last decade, a wealth of new data has been recorded by both satellites and ground radars which allows us to revisit the issue of modeling these ionospheric instabilities. In this work, we use radar and magnetic field measurements at Jicamarca in addition to magnetometer measurements from the CHAMP satellite to study the effects of ionospheric instabilities on the EEJ. We find that the effects of ionospheric instabilities lead to non-linear behavior between the eastward electric field strength and the resulting electrojet current. As predicted, the ratio of current to electric field is highest for westward and weak eastward electric fields, and the ratio decreases with stronger eastward electric fields. Quantifying this non-linearity should help improve the accuracy of equatorial electrodynamic models.

  15. Steepened structures in equatorial spread F. 2: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysell, D. L; Seyler, C. E.; Kelley, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper investigates the properties of a one-dimensional fluid model of plasma convection in the equatorial F region ionosphere. The model equations are similar in form to Burgers equation except for additional higher-order spatial derivatives. Like Burgers equation, solution to the model have the form of propagating, shocklike structures. Numerical simulations of the model closely resemble the steepened structures observed by sounding rocket plasma density probes within equatorial spread F. Simulated denstiy power spectra, like the spectra computed from in situ data, seem to possess power law forms with a break at wavelengths of about 100 m. The precise wavenumber of the spectral break is determined by the ambipolar diffusion coefficient. The model predicts that electric field fluctuations perpendicular to the direction of plasma steepening should be proportional to the plasma density fluctuations. Electric field fluctuations parallel to the steepening will be due primarily to the ambipolar field and have a Boltzmann relationship with density (square of the absolute value of delta E) approximately equal to (K(exp 2))(square of the absolute value of (delta n/n)). At wavelengths less than about 300 m, the ambipolar field should be the dominant component of the total field intensity.

  16. Climatology characterization of equatorial plasma bubbles using GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaleno, Sergio; Herraiz, Miguel; Altadill, David; de la Morena, Benito A.

    2017-01-01

    The climatology of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) for the period 1998-2008 was studied using slant total electron content (sTEC) derived from global positioning system (GPS) data. The sTEC values were calculated from data measured at 67 International GNSS Service (IGS) stations distributed worldwide around the geomagnetic equator and embracing the region of the ionospheric equatorial anomaly (IEA). EPBs and their characteristics were obtained using the Ionospheric Bubble Seeker (IBS) application, which detects and distinguishes sTEC depletions associated with EPBs. This technique bases its analysis on the time variation of the sTEC and on the population variance of this time variation. IBS finds an EPB by default when an sTEC depletion is greater than 5 TEC units (TECu). The analysis of the spatial behavior shows that the largest rate of EPB takes place at the equator and in the South America-Africa sector, while their occurrence decreases as the distance from the magnetic equator increases. The depth and duration of the sTEC depletions also maximize at the equator and in the South America-Africa sector and weaken departing from the equator. The results of the temporal analysis for the data of the IGS stations located in AREQ, NKLG, IISC, and GUAM indicate that the greatest rate of EPB occurrence is observed for high solar activity.

  17. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Timlin, John D; Richards, Gordon T; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L; Stone, Robert B; Bauer, Franz E; Brandt, W N; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Haggard, Daryl; Jiang, Linhua; LaMassa, Stephanie M; Lin, Yen-Ting; Makler, Martin; McGehee, Peregrine; Myers, Adam D; Schneider, Donald P; Urry, C Megan; Wollack, Edward J; Zakamska, Nadia L

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of 115 deg^2 in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its 'warm' mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z > 3 to test various models for "feedback" from active galactic nuclei (AGN). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z > 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5{\\sigma} depths of 6.13 {\\mu}Jy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 {\\mu}Jy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, respectively - depths significantly fainter than WISE. We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically-confirmed quasars (98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z > 3.5), where SpIES reco...

  18. Climatology characterization of equatorial plasma bubbles using GPS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaleno Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatology of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs for the period 1998–2008 was studied using slant total electron content (sTEC derived from global positioning system (GPS data. The sTEC values were calculated from data measured at 67 International GNSS Service (IGS stations distributed worldwide around the geomagnetic equator and embracing the region of the ionospheric equatorial anomaly (IEA. EPBs and their characteristics were obtained using the Ionospheric Bubble Seeker (IBS application, which detects and distinguishes sTEC depletions associated with EPBs. This technique bases its analysis on the time variation of the sTEC and on the population variance of this time variation. IBS finds an EPB by default when an sTEC depletion is greater than 5 TEC units (TECu. The analysis of the spatial behavior shows that the largest rate of EPB takes place at the equator and in the South America-Africa sector, while their occurrence decreases as the distance from the magnetic equator increases. The depth and duration of the sTEC depletions also maximize at the equator and in the South America-Africa sector and weaken departing from the equator. The results of the temporal analysis for the data of the IGS stations located in AREQ, NKLG, IISC, and GUAM indicate that the greatest rate of EPB occurrence is observed for high solar activity.

  19. Spin-orbit coupling for tidally evolving super-Earths

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, Adrián; Michtchenko, Tatiana A; Hussmann, Hauke

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the spin behavior of close-in rocky planets and the implications for their orbital evolution. Considering that the planet rotation evolves under simultaneous actions of the torque due to the equatorial deformation and the tidal torque, both raised by the central star, we analyze the possibility of temporary captures in spin-orbit resonances. The results of the numerical simulations of the exact equations of motions indicate that, whenever the planet rotation is trapped in a resonant motion, the orbital decay and the eccentricity damping are faster than the ones in which the rotation follows the so-called pseudo-synchronization. Analytical results obtained through the averaged equations of the spin-orbit problem show a good agreement with the numerical simulations. We apply the analysis to the cases of the recently discovered hot super-Earths Kepler-10 b, GJ 3634 b and 55 Cnc e. The simulated dynamical history of these systems indicates the possibility of capture in several spin-orbit resonances...

  20. PLANAR MOTION OF A SLIGHTLY DISTORTED CIRCULAR CYLINDER AROUND ANOTHER CIRCULAR ONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ren; CHWANG Allen T.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the motion of a body moving around another one in an unbounded fluid and determi-nation of the hydrodynamic interaction between them are im-portant in the coastal and offshore engineering. For two-dimensional cases, most of the previous studies were focused on the interaction between circular cylinders without considering the non-circular situation. To break through the limitation of"circular" bodies, in the present paper the boundary perturbation method was employed to investigate the motion of a slightly distorted circular cylinder around a circular one. An approximate complex velocity potential in terms of double infinite series expanded at two singular points was derived using the method of continued fractions. The hydrodynamic interaction between two cylinders was computed by solving the dynamical equations of motion. In a relative coordinate system moving with the uniform stream, the kinetic energy of the fluid was expressed as a function of fifteen added masses. Approximate analytical solutions of added masses in the series form were obtained and applied to determine the trajectories of the slightly distorted circular cylinder around a fixed circular one. Numerical results show that the presence of the circular cylinder affects the planar motion of the slightly distorted cirular cylinder and the initial configuration of the slightly distorted circular cylinder has a decisive influence on the development of its rotational motion.

  1. The Exoplanet Orbit Database

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Jason T; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Han, Eunkyu; Feng, Ying; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W; Valenti, Jeff A; Anderson, Jay; Piskunov, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    We present a database of well determined orbital parameters of exoplanets. This database comprises spectroscopic orbital elements measured for 421 planets orbiting 357 stars from radial velocity and transit measurements as reported in the literature. We have also compiled fundamental transit parameters, stellar parameters, and the method used for the planets discovery. This Exoplanet Orbit Database includes all planets with robust, well measured orbital parameters reported in peer-reviewed articles. The database is available in a searchable, filterable, and sortable form on the Web at http://exoplanets.org through the Exoplanets Data Explorer Table, and the data can be plotted and explored through the Exoplanets Data Explorer Plotter. We use the Data Explorer to generate publication-ready plots giving three examples of the signatures of exoplanet migration and dynamical evolution: We illustrate the character of the apparent correlation between mass and period in exoplanet orbits, the selection different biase...

  2. Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies, El Niño, and Equatorial Westerly Wind Events*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Harrison, D. E.

    2000-06-01

    The authors examine global statistical relationships between westerly wind events (WWEs) and sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) variability, using a compositing technique for the period 1986-98. The authors describe the extent to which equatorial WWEs are associated with central and eastern equatorial Pacific waveguide warming and with local SSTA changes under the WWE. Their goal is to quantify the extent to which equatorial WWEs are fundamental to the onset and maintenance of warm El Niño-Southern Oscillation conditions. In order to understand the effect of WWEs on SSTA evolution, they begin by examining how SSTA changes in the absence of equatorial WWEs. They find that SSTA tends toward mean climate values in the absence of equatorial WWEs, whether the eastern equatorial Pacific has close to normal SSTA or warmer than normal SSTA.The two equatorial WWE types whose main surface wind anomalies are west of the date line are associated with weak local surface cooling. The equatorial WWE type that has equatorial westerly wind anomalies east of the date line is associated with weak warming under those anomalies, when the eastern equatorial Pacific SSTA is close to normal.When the tropical Pacific has near-normal eastern equatorial Pacific SST, each of the equatorial WWE types is followed by substantial equatorial waveguide warming in the central and eastern Pacific (composite warming as large as 1.0°C); also more than 50% of the large-amplitude WWEs were followed by Niño-3 SSTA warming in excess of 0.5°C. These changes are of similar amplitude and spatial structure as those seen in the onset of El Niño and are consistent with the predicted oceanic response to WWE forcing. When the eastern equatorial Pacific is initially warmer than usual, the two westernmost equatorial WWE types are associated with the maintenance of warm El Niño eastern and central Pacific SSTA; these warm anomalies tend to disappear in the absence of those WWE types. WWEs, or some mechanism

  3. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the interface between ultrathin Fe film and MgO studied by angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, J. [Research Center for Spectrochemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Koo, J. W.; Mitani, S. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Sukegawa, H. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Takagi, Y.; Yokoyama, T. [Institute of Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan)

    2014-09-22

    Interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in ultrathin Fe/MgO (001) has been investigated using angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We found that anisotropic orbital magnetic moments deduced from the analysis of XMCD contribute to the large PMA energies, whose values depend on the annealing temperature. The large PMA energies determined from magnetization measurements are related to those estimated from the XMCD and the anisotropic orbital magnetic moments through the spin-orbit interaction. The enhancement of anisotropic orbital magnetic moments can be explained mainly by the hybridization between the Fe 3d{sub z}{sup 2} and O 2p{sub z} states.

  4. Expected first-order effects of a notional equatorial ring on Earth's night sky: a geometric consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, L. O.

    2013-12-01

    G. Jones (1856) was first to suggest that the Earth might have its own ring, noting that an Earth ring in the ecliptic plane would account for the latitude dependence of the zodiacal light. Jones's proposal was not accepted: it is difficult to see why the ecliptic would accumulate mass within the Earth-Moon system. Very recently, however, this objection has been mitigated by the discovery of Saturn's Phoebe ring: evidently, the plane of a planetary moon's orbit has now been observed as the site of mass accumulation. An adjustment of just a few degrees from ecliptic to the plane of the lunar orbit gives Jones's proposal the boost of an existing Solar System analogue, mysterious though the analogue is. J. O'Keefe (1980) was first to suggest that an Earth ring system could drive climate: a ring in the equatorial plane, waxing and waning in optical depth, could drive the alternation of Ice Age and interglacial climates. This driver would account for the observation that the Ice Age climate was mainly a difference in winter only. Could Earth have a ring system with one or both elements? Even if light and unstable, it would be important to assess, as it could drive climate change. Dust assessments have not discovered a ring system, but they do not cover low orbits well, nor rule out very small particles stringently. Yet tiny particles can be optically important. There are many difficulties with this hypothesis: Why have ground-based observers never identified an equatorial ring, which after all should be the brightest element of a ring system? Why should a ring system be made of very small particles only? The material must be constantly falling to Earth - where is it? Finally, can we believe in the level of lunar geological activity needed to sustain an Earth ring system? This presentation addresses only one issue: Could ground-based observers have seen but misidentified an equatorial ring? To support consideration of that question, herewith a simple geometric exercise

  5. Orbital inflammation: Corticosteroids first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagi Glass, Lora R; Freitag, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    Orbital inflammation is common, and may affect all ages and both genders. By combining a thorough history and physical examination, targeted ancillary laboratory testing and imaging, a presumptive diagnosis can often be made. Nearly all orbital inflammatory pathology can be empirically treated with corticosteroids, thus obviating the need for histopathologic diagnosis prior to initiation of therapy. In addition, corticosteroids may be effective in treating concurrent systemic disease. Unless orbital inflammation responds atypically or incompletely, patients can be spared biopsy.

  6. Preseptal and orbital cellulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Akçay; Gamze Dereli Can; Nurullah Çağıl

    2014-01-01

    Preseptal cellulitis (PC) is defined as an inflammation of the eyelid and surrounding skin, whereas orbital cellulitis (OC) is an inflammation of the posterior septum of the eyelid affecting the orbit and its contents. Periorbital tissues may become infected as a result of trauma (including insect bites) or primary bacteremia. Orbital cellulitis generally occurs as a complication of sinusitis. The most commonly isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. epid...

  7. Equatorial Cross-Cutting Ripples on Titan - Regularly Warped Subsiding Methane Plains, not Eolian Dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2008-09-01

    Widely circulating opinion that titanian methane lowlands in a broad equatorial region are covered with eolian formations needs to be carefully checked. Of coarse, all three solid bodies with atmospheres in the inner solar system have dunes. Why do not have them on Titan? Most probably they do exist but discovered by radar up to now cross-cutting rippling features cannot be taken for them. For this there are several reasons. How it can be that prevailing "dune" strike coincides with prevailing wind direction? Normally (with some African exceptions) one sees real terrestrial dunes stretching across winds. And this is understandable from a point of view eolian dunes formation. This formation gives particular cross profile to dunes. Asymmetric profile - one slope is long and gentle and another one short and abrupt. But titanian "dunes" are mostly uniform and symmetric. And this characteristic is preserved for many hundreds of kilometers of very straight features. Then, the finest solid particles precipitation from the thick atmosphere of Titan should be distributed on the satellite surface more uniformly and cover dark lowlands and light icy highlands of the wide equatorial belt more or less evenly. But "dunes" are strictly associated with dark lowlands and tend to turn round light icy obstacles. Cindering smoggy particles to produce sands for making dunes is a pure imagination. Then, radar preferably sees one direction but nevertheless one or more crossing directions of rippling are distinguished (Fig.3, 4) They mean two wind directions at the same time or another wind direction at another time? If so, the earlier "dunes" should be more or less obliterated by the later ones. Nothing of the kind! Both crossing ripples directions are fresh. Then, eolian action is not seen at the higher latitudes (Fig. 5). There are no winds there? Probably it is not so. Only a liquid state of methane can help (but liquid should be disturbed by winds). Solid methane there is also

  8. Geometric orbit datum and orbit covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Ke(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Vogan, D. , Dixmier algebras, sheets and representation theory (in Actes du colloque en I' honneur de Jacques Dixmier),Progress in Math. 92, Boston: Birkhauser Verlag, 1990, 333-397.[2]McGovern, W., Dixmier Algebras and Orbit Method, Operator Algebras, Unitary Representations and Invariant Theory,Boston: Birkhauser, 1990, 397-416.[3]Liang, K. , Parabolic inductions of nilpotent geometric orbit datum, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese) , 1996, 41 (23):2116-2118.[4]Vogan, D., Representations of Real Reductive Lie Groups, Boston-Basel-Stuttgart: Birkhauser, 1981.[5]Lustig, G., Spaltenstein, N., Induced unipotent class, J. London Math. Soc., 1997, 19. 41-52.[6]Collingwood, D. H. , McGovern, W. M. , Nilpotent Orbits in Semisimple Lie Algebras, New York: Van Nostremt Reinhold,1993.

  9. Family of Orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the paths of three spacecraft currently in orbit around Mars, as well as the path by which NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will approach and land on the planet. The t-shaped crosses show where the orbiters will be when Phoenix enters the atmosphere, while the x-shaped crosses show their location at landing time. All three orbiters, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Mars Odyssey and the European Space Agency's Mars Express, will be monitoring Phoenix during the final steps of its journey to the Red Planet. Phoenix will land just south of Mars's north polar ice cap.

  10. Angles-Only Initial Relative Orbit Determination Performance Analysis using Cylindrical Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, David K.; Lovell, T. Alan

    2016-09-01

    The solution of the initial relative orbit determination problem using angles-only measurements is important for orbital proximity operations, satellite inspection and servicing, and the identification of unknown space objects in similar orbits. In this paper, a preliminary relative orbit determination performance analysis is conducted utilizing the linearized relative orbital equations of motion in cylindrical coordinates. The relative orbital equations of motion in cylindrical coordinates are rigorously derived in several forms included the exact nonlinear two-body differential equations of motion, the linear-time-varying differential equations of motion for an elliptical orbit chief, and the linear-time-invariant differential equations of motion for a circular orbit chief. Using the nonlinear angles-only measurement equation in cylindrical coordinates, evidence of full-relative-state observability is found, contrary to the range observability problem exhibited in Cartesian coordinates. Based on these results, a geometric approach to assess initial relative orbit determination performance is formulated. To facilitate a better understanding of the problem, the focus is on the 2-dimensional initial orbit determination problem. The results clearly show the dependence of the relative orbit determination performance on the geometry of the relative motion and on the time-interval between observations. Analysis is conducted for leader-follower orbits and flyby orbits where the deputy passes directly above or below the chief.

  11. Spectral modeling of circular massive binary systems: Towards an understanding of the Struve--Sahade effect?

    CERN Document Server

    Palate, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    Context: Some secondary effects are known to introduce variations in spectra of massive binaries. These phenomena (such as the Struve--Sahade effect, difficulties to determine properly the spectral type,...) have been reported and documented in the literature. Aims: We simulate the spectra of circular massive binaries at different phases of the orbital cycle and accounting for the gravitational influence of the companion star on the shape and physical properties of the stellar surface. Methods: We use the Roche potential to compute the stellar surface, von Zeipel theorem and reflection effects to compute the surface temperature. We then interpolate in a grid of NLTE plan-parallel atmosphere model spectra to obtain the local spectrum at each surface point. We finally sum all the contributions (accounting for the Doppler shift, limb-darkening, ...) to obtain the total spectrum. The computation is done for different orbital phases and for different sets of physical and orbital parameters. Results: Our first mode...

  12. Parallel plate capacitor analogy of equatorial plasma bubble and associated fringe fields with implications to equatorial valley region irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.; Patra, A. K.

    2014-08-01

    VHF radar echoes from the valley region plasma irregularities, displaying ascending pattern, are often observed during the active phase of equatorial plasma bubble in the close vicinity of the geomagnetic equator and have been attributed to bubble-related fringe field effect. These irregularities however are not observed at a few degrees away from the equator. In this paper, we attempt to understand this contrasting observational result by comparing fringe field at the geomagnetic equator and low latitudes. We use parallel plate capacitor analogy of equatorial plasma bubble and choose a few capacitor configurations, consistent with commonly observed dimension and magnetic field-aligned property of plasma bubble, for computing fringe field. Results show that fringe field decreases significantly with decreasing altitude as expected. Further, fringe field decreases remarkably with latitude, which clearly indicates the role of magnetic field-aligned property of plasma bubble in reducing the magnitude of fringe field at low latitudes compared to that at the geomagnetic equator. The results are presented and discussed in the light of current understanding of plasma bubble-associated fringe field-induced plasma irregularities in the valley region.

  13. OPERATIONAL CIRCULAR NO 6 - JUNE 2001 'CERN SCIENTIFIC DOCUMENTS'

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    This new operational circular has been drawn up. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 29 entitled "Principles and procedures governing CERN publications and reports and other publications arising from CERN work". Copies are available from Divisional Secretariats. Note : Administrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation on WWW : ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULARSOPERATIONAL CIRCULARS

  14. The Nonlinear Response of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean-Atmosphere System to Periodic Variations in Insolation and its Association with the Abrupt Climate Transitions during the Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    The evidences of climate changes during the Quaternary are abundant but the physical mechanisms behind the climate transitions are controversial. The theory of Milankovitch takes into account the periodic orbital variations and the solar radiation received by the Earth as the main explanation for the glacial-interglacial cycles. However, some gaps in the theory still remain. In this study, we propose elucidating some of these gaps by approaching the Equatorial Pacific Ocean as a large oscillator, capable of triggering climate changes in different temporal scales. A mathematical model representing El Ninõ-like phenomena, based on Duffing equation and modulated by the astronomical cycle of 100 ka, was used to simulate the variability of the equatorial Pacific climate system over the last 2 Ma. The physical configuration of the Pacific Ocean, expressed in the equation, explains the temporal limit of the glacial-interglacial cycles. According to the simulation results, consistent with paleoclimate records, the amplification of the effects of the gradual variation of the Earth's orbit eccentricity - another unclear question - is due to the feedback mechanism of the Pacific ocean-atmosphere system, which responds non-linearly to small variations in insolation forcing and determines the ENSO-like phase (warm or cold) at different time scales and different intensities. The approach proposed here takes into account that the abrupt transitions between the ENSO-like phases, and the consequent changes in the sea surface temperature (SST) along the Equatorial Pacific Ocean, produce reactions that act as secondary causes of the temperature fluctuations that result in a glaciation (or deglaciation) - as the drastic change on the rate of evaporation/precipitation around the globe, and the increase (or decrease) of the atmospheric CO2 absorption by the phytoplankton. The transitional behavior between the warm and the cold phases, according to the presented model, is enhanced as

  15. Study of zonal large scale wave structure (LSWS) and equatorial scintillation with low-latitude GRBR network over Southeast Asia and African sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Sudarsanam, Tulasi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Gurubaran, Subramanian; Tsunoda, Roland

    2012-07-01

    The day-to-day variability of Equatorial Spread-F, when and where the equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) may initiate, were the challenging problems that puzzling the space weather researchers for several decades. The zonal large scale wave structure (LSWS) at the base of F-layer is the earliest manifestation of seed perturbation for the evolution of EPBs by R-T instability processes, hence, found to play deterministic role on the development of ESF. Yet, only a little is known about LSWS with lack of sufficient observations, primarily because of inability to detect the LSWS with the currently existing instruments except with steerable incoherent scatter radar such as ALTAIR radar. This situation, however, was recently changed with launch of C/NOFS in a unique low-inclination (13 ^{o}) orbit. With the availability of CERTO beacon transmissions from C/NOFS in a near equatorial orbit, it is now possible to detect and resolve the roles by LSWS on a regular basis. A ground based low-latitude GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) Network has been recently established that provide coverage of Southeast Asia, Pacific and African low-latitude regions. Recent observations suggest that these wave structures with zonal wave lengths varying between 200 and 800 km can be earliest detected even before E-region sunset and found to grow significantly after sunset, probably, aided by the polarization electric fields. Further, these zonal structures consistently found to be aligned with field lines for several hundreds of kilometers and EPBs were found to grow from the westward walls of upwellings. The characteristic differences on the strength of LSWS between the Asian and African longitudes were identified during the recent increasing solar activity and discussed in this paper.

  16. Re-imaging the Modernity of Sierra Leone and Equatorial Guinea: Africa past and Africa present

    OpenAIRE

    Codling, Rosetta

    2011-01-01

    This paper engages the concept of the imposed Modernity of Europe upon the African republics of Sierra Leone and Equatorial Guinea. Evidence of the encroachment of a ‘false’ Modernity upon Africa’s Sierra Leone and Equatorial Guinea are chronicled in the works of Donato Ndongo (Shadows of Your Black Memory) and Syl Cheney Coker (The Last Harmattan of Alusine Dunbar).

  17. Odd gravitational harmonics of Jupiter: Effects of spherical versus nonspherical geometry and mathematical smoothing of the equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds across the equatorial plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2016-10-01

    Unlike the even gravitational coefficients of Jupiter that are caused by both the rotational distortion and the equatorially symmetric zonal winds, the odd jovian gravitational coefficients are directly linked to the depth of the equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds. Accurate estimation of the wind-induced odd coefficients and comparison with measurements of those coefficients would be key to understanding the structure of the zonal winds in the deep interior of Jupiter. We consider two problems in connection with the jovian odd gravitational coefficients. In the first problem, we show, by solving the governing equations for the northern hemisphere of Jupiter subject to an appropriate condition at the equatorial plane, that the effect of non-spherical geometry makes an insignificant contribution to the lowermost-order odd gravitational coefficients. In the second problem, we investigate the effect of the equatorial smoothing used to avoid the discontinuity in the winds across the equatorial plane when the thermal wind equation is adopted to compute the odd gravitational coefficients. We reveal that, because of the dominant effect of the equatorial smoothing, the odd gravitational coefficients so obtained for deep zonal winds do not reflect physically realistic dynamics taking place in the deep interior of Jupiter.

  18. Variations in Titan's dune orientations as a result of orbital forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, George D.; Hayes, Alexander G.; Ewing, Ryan C.; Lora, Juan M.; Newman, Claire E.; Tokano, Tetsuya; Lucas, Antoine; Soto, Alejandro; Chen, Gang

    2016-05-01

    Wind-blown dunes are a record of the climatic history in Titan's equatorial region. Through modeling of the climatic conditions associated with Titan's historical orbital configurations (arising from apsidal precessions of Saturn's orbit), we present evidence that the orientations of the dunes are influenced by orbital forcing. Analysis of 3 Titan general circulation models (GCMs) in conjunction with a sediment transport model provides the first direct intercomparison of results from different Titan GCMs. We report variability in the dune orientations predicted for different orbital epochs of up to 70°. Although the response of the GCMs to orbital forcing varies, the orbital influence on the dune orientations is found to be significant across all models. Furthermore, there is near agreement among the two models run with surface topography, with 3 out of the 5 dune fields matching observation for the most recent orbital cycle. Through comparison with observations by Cassini, we find situations in which the observed dune orientations are in best agreement with those modeled for previous orbital configurations or combinations thereof, representing a larger portion of the cycle. We conclude that orbital forcing could be an important factor in governing the present-day dune orientations observed on Titan and should be considered when modeling dune evolution.

  19. Orbital phase resolved spectroscopy of GX 301-2 with MAXI

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Nazma

    2014-01-01

    GX 301-2, a bright HMXB with an orbital period of 41.5 days, exhibits stable periodic orbital intensity modulations with a strong pre-periastron X-ray flare. Several models have been proposed to explain the accretion at different orbital phases, invoking accretion via stellar wind, equatorial disk, and accretion stream from the companion star. We present results from exhaustive orbital phase resolved spectroscopic measurements of GX 301-2 using data from the Gas Slit Camera onboard MAXI. Using spectroscopic analysis of the MAXI data with unprecendented orbital coverage for many orbits continuously, we have found a strong orbital dependence of the absorption column density and equivalent width of the iron emission line. A very large equivalent width of the iron line along with a small value of the column density in the orbital phase range 0.10-0.30 after the periastron passage indicates presence of high density absorbing matter behind the neutron star in these orbital phase range. A low energy excess is also f...

  20. Researches on Relationship between Circular Agriculture and Industrial Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    First, this paper establishes the conceptual model of circular agriculture, conducts systematic analysis on the circular agriculture on the basis of conceptual model, and discusses the characteristics of closeness and openness of circular agriculture and relationship between closeness and openness of circular agriculture. Second, this paper introduces the industrial diversity related to circular agriculture, defines the concept of industry and the concept of industries related to agriculture, and illustrates the related industries that are conducive to circular agriculture and the related industries that are not conducive to circular agriculture. Finally, this paper analyzes the mutual relationship between circular agriculture and industrial diversity as follows: in the system of circular agriculture, the industrial diversity can transform the wastes in upstream industries into resources in downstream industries; the industrial diversity creates possibility for recycling of agricultural byproducts; the industrial diversity is conducive to the diversification of industries related to circular agriculture.

  1. Circular motion of particles suspended in a Gaussian beam with circular polarization validates the spin part of the internal energy flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya.; Maksimyak, P. P.;

    2012-01-01

    switching to the right (left) circular polarization, the particles performed spinning motion in agreement with the angular momentum imparted by the field, but they were involved in an orbital rotation around the beam axis as well, which in previous works [Y. Zhao et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007......Non-spherical dielectric microparticles were suspended in a water-filled cell and exposed to a coherent Gaussian light beam with controlled state of polarization. When the beam polarization is linear, the particles were trapped at certain off-axial position within the beam cross section. After...

  2. Congenital orbital encephalocele, orbital dystopia, and exophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Han Joon

    2012-07-01

    We present here an exceedingly rare variant of a nonmidline basal encephalocele of the spheno-orbital type, and this was accompanied with orbital dystopia in a 56-year-old man. On examination, his left eye was located more inferolaterally than his right eye, and the patient said this had been this way since his birth. The protrusion of his left eye was aggravated when he is tired. His naked visual acuity was 0.7/0.3, and the ocular pressure was 14/12 mm Hg. The exophthalmometry was 10/14 to 16 mm. His eyeball motion was not restricted, yet diplopia was present in all directions. The distance from the midline to the medial canthus was 20/15 mm. The distance from the midline to the midpupillary line was 35/22 mm. The vertical dimension of the palpebral fissure was 12/9 mm. The height difference of the upper eyelid margin was 11 mm, and the height difference of the lower eyelid margin was 8 mm. Facial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed left sphenoid wing hypoplasia and herniation of the left anterior temporal pole and dura mater into the orbit, and this resulted into left exophthalmos and encephalomalacia in the left anterior temporal pole. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the second case of basal encephalocele and orbital dystopia.

  3. Circular design - A manual on how to integrate circular design in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mac-lean, M.; Van Splunter, M.; Sun, X.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability Circular design is based on two sustainability concepts: Cradle to Cradle® and circular economy. The former is more dogmatic and specific for the manufacturing and design industry, while the latter presents

  4. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2015-11-17

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.

  5. Reticulohistiocytoma of the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Heather M.; Hayek, Brent R.; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2015-01-01

    Reticulohistiocytoma is a rare, benign histiocytic proliferation of the skin or soft tissue. While ocular involvement has been documented in the past, there have been no previously reported cases of reticulohistiocytoma of the orbit. In this report, the authors describe a reticulohistiocytoma of the orbit in a middle-aged woman. PMID:24807799

  6. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  7. A COMPACT CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jebaraj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Slot antennas are often used at UHF and microwave frequencies. In slot antenna for RFID reader applications the frequency ranges from 902-923MHz to achieve circular polarization. The shapes and size of the slot, as well as the driving frequency, determine the radiation distribution pattern. The proposed compact size circularly polarized slotted microstrip antenna are summarized with design rules. The circularly polarized radiation in square patch antenna can be obtained by perturbation technique with different shapes of slot in the orthogonal direction. A single feed configuration based symmetric slotted microstrip antenna is adapted to realize the compact circularly polarized microstrip antennas. Based on the perimeter, the size of the slot on microstrip slot antenna are studied and compared. The Operating frequency of the antenna is 912MHz that can be tuned by varying the perimeter of the slot while the keeping the circularly polarized radiation unchanged. The schematic and layout are configured by using Advanced Design System (ADS. Return loss, Resonant Frequency, Axial Ratio (AR, and Gain were determined for the proposed system using ADS. A measured 3dB Axial Ratio (AR bandwidth around 6MHz with 16MHz impedance bandwidth has been achieved for the antenna on a RO3004C substrate with dielectric constant 3.38.

  8. Circular and Elliptic Submerged Impinging Water Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudey, Eric; Benedicto, Olivier; Ravier, Emmanuel; Gutmark, Ephraim

    1999-11-01

    Experiments and CFD have been performed to study circular and elliptic jets in a submerged water jet facility. The tests included discharge coefficient measurement to evaluate pressure losses encountered in noncircular nozzles compared to circular ones. Three-dimensional pressure mappings on the impingement surface and PIV measurement of the jet mean and turbulent velocity have been performed at different compound impingement angles relative to the impingement surface and at different stand-off distances. The objective was to investigate the effect of the non-circular geometry on the flow field and on the impact region. The tests were performed in a close loop system in which the water was pumped through the nozzles into a clear Plexiglas tank. The Reynolds numbers were typically in the range of 250000. Discharge coefficients of the elliptic nozzle was somewhat lower than that of the circular jet but spreading rate and turbulence level were higher. Pressure mapping showed that the nozzle exit geometry had an effect on the pressure distribution in the impact region and that high-pressure zones were generated at specific impact points. PIV measurements showed that for a same total exit area, the elliptic jets affected a surface area that is 8the equivalent circular. The turbulence level in the elliptic jet tripled due to the nozzle design. Results of the CFD model were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  9. A broadband, circular-polarization selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni Hasan Abadi, Seyed Mohamad Amin; Behdad, Nader

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a new technique for designing wideband circular-polarization selective surfaces (CPSSs) based on anisotropic miniaturized element frequency selective surfaces. The proposed structure is a combination of two linear-to-circular polarization converters sandwiching a linear polarizer. This CPSS consists of a number of metallic layers separated from each other by thin dielectric substrates. The metallic layers are in the form of two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength capacitive patches and inductive wire grids with asymmetric dimensions and a wire grid polarizer with sub-wavelength period. The proposed device is designed to offer a wideband circular-polarization selection capability allowing waves with left-hand circular polarization to pass through while rejecting those having right-hand circular polarization. A synthesis procedure is developed that can be used to design the proposed CPSS based on its desired band of operation. Using this procedure, a prototype of the proposed CPSS operating in the 12-18 GHz is designed. Full-wave electromagnetic simulations are used to predict the response of this structure. These simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed design concept and synthesis procedure and show that proposed CPSS operates within a fractional bandwidth of 40% with a co-polarization transmission discrimination of more than 15 dB. Furthermore, the proposed design is shown to be capable of providing an extremely wide field of view of ±60°.

  10. Nearly horizon skimming orbits of Kerr black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, S A

    2001-01-01

    An unusual set of orbits about extreme Kerr black holes resides at the Boyer-Lindquist radius $r = M$, the coordinate of the hole's event horizon. These ``horizon skimming'' orbits have the property that their angular momentum $L_z$ {\\it increases} with inclination angle, opposite to the familiar behavior one encounters at larger radius. In this paper, I show that this behavior is characteristic of a larger family of orbits, the ``nearly horizon skimming'' (NHS) orbits. NHS orbits exist in the very strong field of any black hole with spin $a\\agt 0.952412M$. Their unusual behavior is due to the locking of particle motion near the event horizon to the hole's spin, and is therefore a signature of the Kerr metric's extreme strong field. An observational hallmark of NHS orbits is that a small body spiraling into a Kerr black hole due to gravitational-wave emission will be driven into orbits of progressively smaller inclination angle, toward the equator. This is in contrast to the ``normal'' behavior. For circular ...

  11. Orbital Plots Using Gnuplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian G.

    2000-06-01

    The plotting program Gnuplot is freely available, general purpose, easy to use, and available on a variety of platforms. Complex three-dimensional surfaces, including the familiar angular parts of the hydrogen atom orbitals, are easily represented using Gnuplot. Contour plots allow viewing the radial and angular variation of the probability density in an orbital. Examples are given of how Gnuplot is used in an undergraduate physical chemistry class to view familiar atomic orbitals in new ways or to generate views of orbital functions that the student may have not seen before. Gnuplot may also be easily integrated into the environment of a Web page; an example of this is discussed (and is available at http://onsager.bd.psu.edu/~moore/orbitals_gnuplot). The plotting commands are entered with a form and a CGI script is used to run Gnuplot and display the result back to the browser.

  12. Arnold's mechanism of diffusion in the spatial circular restricted three-body problem: A semi-analytical argument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delshams, Amadeu; Gidea, Marian; Roldan, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    We consider the spatial circular restricted three-body problem, on the motion of an infinitesimal body under the gravity of Sun and Earth. This can be described by a 3-degree of freedom Hamiltonian system. We fix an energy level close to that of the collinear libration point L1, located between Sun and Earth. Near L1 there exists a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold, diffeomorphic to a 3-sphere. For an orbit confined to this 3-sphere, the amplitude of the motion relative to the ecliptic (the plane of the orbits of Sun and Earth) can vary only slightly. We show that we can obtain new orbits whose amplitude of motion relative to the ecliptic changes significantly, by following orbits of the flow restricted to the 3-sphere alternatively with homoclinic orbits that turn around the Earth. We provide an abstract theorem for the existence of such 'diffusing' orbits, and numerical evidence that the premises of the theorem are satisfied in the three-body problem considered here. We provide an explicit construction of diffusing orbits. The geometric mechanism underlying this construction is reminiscent of the Arnold diffusion problem for Hamiltonian systems. Our argument, however, does not involve transition chains of tori as in the classical example of Arnold. We exploit mostly the 'outer dynamics' along homoclinic orbits, and use very little information on the 'inner dynamics' restricted to the 3-sphere. As a possible application to astrodynamics, diffusing orbits as above can be used to design low cost maneuvers to change the inclination of an orbit of a satellite near L1 from a nearly-planar orbit to a tilted orbit with respect to the ecliptic. We explore different energy levels, and estimate the largest orbital inclination that can be achieved through our construction.

  13. Origin of HIV type 1 in colonial French Equatorial Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, A; Rawls, D; Moore, J

    2000-01-01

    Sociocultural factors during the postcolonial period have been implicated as paramount in generating conditions that promoted both the origin and subsequent epidemic spread of HIV-1 in Africa. We suggest, however, that the origin of the disease may lie in the interaction between colonial practices (e.g., labor camps, nonsterile vaccination campaigns) and traditional bushmeat hunting in French Equatorial Africa. Both the epidemiology of HIV-2 and the colonial history of West Africa appear more complex, but similar conditions existed there and may have contributed to the origin of HIV-2. Focusing the search for the origins of HIV-1 and HIV-2 on this earlier time period may contribute to understanding the evolution of the HIV viruses and the dynamics of emerging diseases.

  14. Numerical Study on the Bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yulong; WANG Qi; SONG Jun; ZHU Xiande; GONG Xiaoqing; WU Fang

    2011-01-01

    A 1.5-layer reduced-gravity model forced by wind stress is used to study the bifurcations of the North Equatorial Current (NEC).The authors found that after removing the Ekman drift,the modelled circulations can serve well as a proxy of the SODA circulations on the σθ=25.0kgm-3 potential density surface based on available long-term reanalysis wind stress data.The modelled results show that the location of the western boundary bifurcation of the NEC depends on both zonal averaged and local zero wind stress curl latitude.The effects of the anomalous wind stress curl added in different areas are also investigated and it is found that they can change the strength of the Mindanao Eddy (ME),and then influence the interior pathway.

  15. Unstable density distribution associated with equatorial plasma bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kherani, E. A.; Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S.; Lakhina, G. S.; de Meneses, F. Carlos

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present a simulation study of equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) in the evening time ionosphere. The fluid simulation is performed with a high grid resolution, enabling us to probe the steepened updrafting density structures inside EPB. Inside the density depletion that eventually evolves as EPB, both density and updraft are functions of space from which the density as implicit function of updraft velocity or the density distribution function is constructed. In the present study, this distribution function and the corresponding probability distribution function are found to evolve from Maxwellian to non-Maxwellian as the initial small depletion grows to EPB. This non-Maxwellian distribution is of a gentle-bump type, in confirmation with the recently reported distribution within EPB from space-borne measurements that offer favorable condition for small scale kinetic instabilities.

  16. Solar Wind Associated with Near Equatorial Coronal Hole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Hegde; K. M. Hiremath; Vijayakumar H. Doddamani; Shashanka R. Gurumath

    2015-09-01

    Present study probes temporal changes in the area and radiative flux of near equatorial coronal hole associated with solar wind parameters such as wind speed, density, magnetic field and temperature. Using high temporal resolution data from SDO/AIA for the two wave-lengths 193 Å and 211 Å, area and radiative flux of coronal holes are extracted and are examined for the association with high speed solar wind parameters. We find a strong association between different parameters of coronal hole and solar wind. For both the wavelength bands, we also compute coronal hole radiative energy near the earth and it is found to be of similar order as that of solar wind energy. However, for the wavelength 193 Å, owing to almost similar magnitudes of energy emitted by coronal hole and energy due to solar wind, it is conjectured that solar wind might have originated around the same height where 193 Å line is formed in the corona.

  17. Equatorially trapped convection in a rapidly rotating spherical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Benjamin; Julien, Keith; Knobloch, Edgar

    2016-11-01

    Convection plays a preponderant role in driving geophysical flows. Unfortunately, these flows are often characterized by rapid rotation (i.e. small Ekman number E) which renders the equations stiff and introduces a scale separation in the system: for example the wavelength of the marginal mode at the onset of convection in a rapidly rotating sphere scales like E 1 / 3 and is modulated by a E 1 / 6 envelope. These scalings keep the fully nonlinear dynamics of the internal convection in Earth's core (E 1015) out of reach from direct numerical simulations, analytical work and experiments on one hand, but advocate for the development of reduced models on the other hand. We present a reduced model derived in a shallow gap spherical shell geometry. As the Rayleigh number is increased, the flow is first destabilized in the equatorial region where the dynamics remains trapped. The linear stability is analyzed and the fully nonlinear dynamics is presented.

  18. The earth's equatorial principal axes and moments of inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. S.; Chao, B. F.

    1991-01-01

    The earth's equatorial principal moments of inertia are given as A and B, where A is less than B, and the corresponding principal axes are given as a and b. Explicit formulas are derived for determining the orientation of a and b axes and the difference B - A using C(22) and S(22), the two gravitational harmonic coefficients of degree 2 and order 2. For the earth, the a axis lies along the (14.93 deg W, 165.07 deg E) diameter, and the b axis lies perpendicular to it along the (75.07 deg E, 104.93 deg W) diameter. The difference B - A is 7.260 x 10 to the -6th MR2. These quantities for other planets are contrasted, and geophysical implications are discussed.

  19. Combined radar observations of equatorial electrojet irregularities at Jicamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Daytime equatorial electrojet plasma irregularities were investigated using five distinct radar diagnostics at Jicamarca including range-time-intensity (RTI mapping, Faraday rotation, radar imaging, oblique scattering, and multiple-frequency scattering using the new AMISR prototype UHF radar. Data suggest the existence of plasma density striations separated by 3–5 km and propagating slowly downward. The striations may be caused by neutral atmospheric turbulence, and a possible scenario for their formation is discussed. The Doppler shifts of type 1 echoes observed at VHF and UHF frequencies are compared and interpreted in light of a model of Farley Buneman waves based on kinetic ions and fluid electrons with thermal effects included. Finally, the up-down and east-west asymmetries evident in the radar observations are described and quantified.

  20. Subwave spikes of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex beams in a uniaxial crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyeva, T.; Alexeyev, C.; Rubass, A.; Zinov'Ev, A.; Konovalenko, V.; Volyar, A.

    2011-11-01

    We have theoretically predicted the gigantic spikes of the orbital angular momentum caused by the conversion processes of the centered optical vortex in the circularly polarized components of the elliptic vortex beam propagating perpendicular to the crystal optical axis. We have experimentally observed the conversion process inside the subwave deviations of the crystal length. We have found that the total orbital angular momentum of the wave beam is conserved.

  1. Subwave spikes of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex-beams in a uniaxial crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Fadeyeva, T; Rubass, A; Zinov'ev, A; Konovalenko, V; Volyar, A

    2011-01-01

    We have theoretically predicted the gigantic spikes of the orbital angular momentum caused by the conversion processes of the centered optical vortex in the circularly polarized components of the elliptic vortex beam propagating perpendicular to the crystal optical axis. We have experimentally observed the conversion process inside the subwave deviations of the crystal length. We have found that the total orbital angular momentum of the wave beam is conserved.

  2. Longitudinal and geomagnetic activity modulation of the equatorial thermosphere anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jiuhou; Thayer, Jeffrey P.; Forbes, Jeffrey M.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we examine the detailed similarities and differences between the equatorial thermosphere anomaly (ETA) and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) from 20 March to 6 April 2002, when both the ETA and the EIA are distinct in the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) observations. The characteristics of the ETA and the EIA are obtained from the CHAMP accelerometer, in situ electron density measurements, and total electron content (TEC) above the CHAMP satellite. Our results show that the trough locations of the ETA and the EIA in latitude show a good agreement, and both correspond well with the dip magnetic equator, while the ETA crests are usually located poleward of the EIA. Meanwhile, the latitudinal locations of the ETA crests exhibit strong hemispheric asymmetry and large variability during our study interval. The longitudinal variations between the EIA and the ETA show significant differences. The EIA crests from the CHAMP observations show strong wave 4 structures, but the primary component in the ETA is wave 1. Moreover, the ETA densities show strong variations in response to geomagnetic activity, whereas CHAMP in situ electron densities and TEC at the EIA do not reflect such large day-to-day variability. Therefore, a simple EIA-ETA relationship cannot explain the dependence of the longitudinal and geomagnetic activity modulation of the ETA and the EIA. The meridional ion drag, which is significantly modulated by enhanced equatorward winds during elevated geomagnetic activity, is probably responsible for some of the observed features in the ETA, although no unambiguous explanation for ETA formation yet exists.

  3. Ternary fission of {sup 260}No in equatorial configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, M.; Seif, W.M.; Hashem, A.S. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2016-10-15

    Spontaneous ternary fission is one of the observed decay modes of heavy nuclei. We systematically investigate the equatorial ternary fission of the {sup 260}No isotope. In the framework of the three-cluster model, the three-body interaction potential is calculated in terms of the folded M3Y-Reid nucleon-nucleon force and the Coulomb one. The relative orientations of the deformed heavy nuclei participating in the fragmentation process are taken into account. All possible emitted light particles with even mass numbers A = 4-52 are considered. The favored fragmentation channels are estimated as the ones characterized with peaks in the Q-value and local minima in the fragmentation potential. In the absence of nuclear deformations, the closed shell effects are found to play the key role in determining the channels of minimum fragmentation potential and the involved two heavier fragments tend to be of comparable sizes. Inclusion of nuclear deformations manifest the participation of highly deformed prolate nuclei, with large mass asymmetry, as heavy fragment partners in the estimated favored fragmentation channels. The results indicate that the equatorial ternary fission of {sup 260}No is most favored with the light emitted nuclei {sup 4,6,8}{sub 2}He and {sup 10}{sub 4}Be through the fragmentation channels {sup 155}{sub 60}Nd + {sup 4}{sub 2}He + {sup 101}{sub 40}Zr, {sup 153}{sub 60}Nd + {sup 6}{sub 2}He + {sup 101}{sub 40}Zr, {sup 152}{sub 60}Nd + {sup 8}{sub 2}He + {sup 100}{sub 40}Zr, and {sup 152}{sub 60}Nd + {sup 10}{sub 4}Be + {sup 98}{sub 38}Sr, respectively. (orig.)

  4. Best Practice Examples of Circular Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldmann, Eva

    are tightly closed, whereas in other cases they are more open due to initiatives being voluntary, experimental or small scale, covering only part of the market. The study indicates that the ability of companies to apply life cycle thinking, which involves the entire value chain from sourcing to disposal...... are different, circular business models can be found in both. These models operate in both young and mature firms, small and large, which points to the fact that circular business models can be successfully implemented in a wide range of business settings as long as they are individually tailored to each...... companies are found to apply a step-by-step or experimental strategy, where they test the resilience of a circular business model within a limited number of product lines or in one business unit at a time. This allows for a corresponding step-by-step organisational learning and for leveraging the risk...

  5. Analytical Optimization of Piezoelectric Circular Diaphragm Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study of the piezoelectric circular diaphragm microgenerator using strain energy method. Piezoelectrics are the intelligent materials that can be used as transducer to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. The aim of this paper is to optimize produced electrical energy from mechanical pressure. Therefore, the circular metal plate equipped with piezoelectric circular patch has been considered with simply and clamped supports. A comprehensive modeling, parametrical study and the effect of the boundary conditions on the performance of the microgenerator have been investigated. The system is under variable pressure from an oscillating pressure source. Results are presented for PZT and PMN-PT piezoelectric materials with steel and aluminum substrates. An optimal value for the radius and thickness of the piezoelectric layer with a special support condition has been obtained.

  6. Experimental evidence for circular inference in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardri, Renaud; Duverne, Sandrine; Litvinova, Alexandra S.; Denève, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder that may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions and disorganized thinking. Here SCZ patients and healthy controls (CTLs) report their level of confidence on a forced-choice task that manipulated the strength of sensory evidence and prior information. Neither group's responses can be explained by simple Bayesian inference. Rather, individual responses are best captured by a model with different degrees of circular inference. Circular inference refers to a corruption of sensory data by prior information and vice versa, leading us to `see what we expect' (through descending loops), to `expect what we see' (through ascending loops) or both. Ascending loops are stronger for SCZ than CTLs and correlate with the severity of positive symptoms. Descending loops correlate with the severity of negative symptoms. Both loops correlate with disorganized symptoms. The findings suggest that circular inference might mediate the clinical manifestations of SCZ.

  7. Chaotic Motion of Corrugated Circular Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Large deflection theory of thin anisotropic circular plates was used to analyze the bifurcation behavior and chaotic phenomena of a corrugated thin circular plate with combined transverse periodic excitation and an in-plane static boundary load. The nonlinear dynamic equation for the corrugated plate was derived by employing Galerkin's technique. The critical conditions for occurrence of the homoclinic and subharmonic bifurcations as well as chaos were studied theoretically using the Melnikov function method. The chaotic motion was also simulated numerically using Maple, with the Poincaré map and phase curve used to evaluate when chaotic motion appears. The results indicate some chaotic motion in the corrugated plate. The method is directly applicable to chaotic analysis of an isotropic circular plate.

  8. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-26

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 120 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at 2 percent level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of circular Higgs factory. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in circular Higgs factory, emphasizing on the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most important, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable

  9. Circular object recognition based on shape parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Aijun; Li Jinzong; Zhu Bing

    2007-01-01

    To recognize circular objects rapidly in satellite remote sensing imagery, an approach using their geometry properties is presented.The original image is segmented to be a binary one by one dimension maximum entropy threshold algorithm and the binary image is labeled with an algorithm based on recursion technique.Then, shape parameters of all labeled regions are calculated and those regions with shape parameters satisfying certain conditions are recognized as circular objects.The algorithm is described in detail, and comparison experiments with the randomized Hough transformation (RHT) are also provided.The experimental results on synthetic images and real images show that the proposed method has the merits of fast recognition rate, high recognition efficiency and the ability of anti-noise and anti-jamming.In addition, the method performs well when some circular objects are little deformed and partly misshapen.

  10. Wood Crosscutting Process Analysis for Circular Saws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Krilek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the influence of some cutting parameters (geometry of cutting edge, wood species, and circular saw type and cutting conditions on the wood crosscutting process carried out with circular saws. The establishment of torque values and feeding power for the crosswise wood cutting process has significant implications for designers of crosscutting lines. The conditions of the experiments are similar to the working conditions of real machines, and the results of individual experiments can be compared with the results obtained via similar experimental workstations. Knowledge of the wood crosscutting process, as well as the choice of suitable cutting conditions and tools could decrease wood production costs and save energy. Changing circular saw type was found to have the biggest influence on cutting power of all factors tested.

  11. Circular bacteriocins: biosynthesis and mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsen, Christina; Brede, Dag A; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2014-11-01

    Circular bacteriocins are a group of N-to-C-terminally linked antimicrobial peptides, produced by Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. Circular bacteriocins generally exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, including against common food-borne pathogens, such as Clostridium and Listeria spp. These peptides are further known for their high pH and thermal stability, as well as for resistance to many proteolytic enzymes, properties which make this group of bacteriocins highly promising for potential industrial applications and their biosynthesis of particular interest as a possible model system for the synthesis of highly stable bioactive peptides. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on this group of bacteriocins, with emphasis on the recent progress in understanding circular bacteriocin genetics, biosynthesis, and mode of action; in addition, we highlight the current challenges and future perspectives for the application of these peptides.

  12. Structure and genetics of circular bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belkum, Marco J; Martin-Visscher, Leah A; Vederas, John C

    2011-08-01

    Circular bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by a variety of Gram-positive bacteria. They are part of a growing family of ribosomally synthesized peptides with a head-to-tail cyclization of their backbone that are found in mammals, plants, fungi and bacteria and are exceptionally stable. These bacteriocins permeabilize the membrane of sensitive bacteria, causing loss of ions and dissipation of the membrane potential. Most circular bacteriocins probably adopt a common 3D structure consisting of four or five α-helices encompassing a hydrophobic core. This review compares the various structures, as well as the gene clusters that encode circular bacteriocins, and discusses the biogenesis of this unique class of bacteriocins.

  13. Response-Adaptive Allocation for Circular Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Atanu; Dutta, Somak; Laha, Arnab Kumar; Bakshi, Partho K

    2015-01-01

    Response-adaptive designs are used in phase III clinical trials to allocate a larger proportion of patients to the better treatment. Circular data is a natural outcome in many clinical trial setup, e.g., some measurements in opthalmologic studies, degrees of rotation of hand or waist, etc. There is no available work on response-adaptive designs for circular data. With reference to a dataset on cataract surgery we provide some response-adaptive designs where the responses are of circular nature and propose some test statistics for treatment comparison under adaptive data allocation procedure. Detailed simulation study and the analysis of the dataset, including redesigning the cataract surgery data, are carried out.

  14. Orbital perturbations due to massive rings

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    We analytically work out the long-term orbital perturbations induced by a homogeneous circular ring of radius Rr and mass mr on the motion of a test particle in the cases (I): r > R_r and (II): r < R_r. In order to extend the validity of our analysis to the orbital con?gurations of, e.g., some proposed spacecraftbased mission for fundamental physics like LISA and ASTROD, of possible annuli around the supermassive black hole in Sgr A* coming from tidal disruptions of incoming gas clouds, and to the e?ect of arti?cial space debris belts around the Earth, we do not restrict ourselves to the case in which the ring and the orbit of the perturbed particle lie just in the same plane. From the corrections to the standard secular perihelion precessions, recently determined by a team of astronomers for some planets of the Solar System, we infer upper bounds on mr for various putative and known annular matter distributions of natural origin (close circumsolar ring with R_r = 0.02-0.13 au, dust ring with R_r = 1 au, m...

  15. Free vibrations of circular cylindrical shells

    CERN Document Server

    Armenàkas, Anthony E; Herrmann, George

    1969-01-01

    Free Vibrations of Circular Cylindrical Shells deals with thin-walled structures that undergo dynamic loads application, thereby resulting in some vibrations. Part I discusses the treatment of problems associated with the propagation of plane harmonic waves in a hollow circular cylinder. In such search for solutions, the text employs the framework of the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The text explains the use of tables of natural frequencies and graphs of representative mode shapes of harmonic elastic waves bounding in an infinitely long isotropic hollow cylinder. The tables are

  16. Circular economy in China and recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Hongchun

    2006-01-01

    @@ It is an overall, urgent and long-term strategic task for China to vigorously develop the circular economy and build a resource-saving and environmental-friendly society. China is now at the accelerating stage of industrialization and urbanization.Lower per-capita resource amount and tendency of environmental deterioration has not been fundamentally averted. Therefore a circular economy development is an inevitable choice to realize the goal of building a well-off society, ensure sustainable development of national economy, and coordinate the relationship between mankind and nature.

  17. Rectangular-to-circular groove waveguide junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI; Licheng; (崔立成); YANG; Hongsheng; (杨鸿生)

    2003-01-01

    Mode matching method is used to analyze the scattering characteristics of the rectangular-to-circular groove waveguide junction. Firstly, the scattering matrix equation is obtained by matching the electromagnetic fields at the boundary of the junction. The scattering coefficients can be obtained from the equation. Secondly the scattering characteristics of the iris with rectangular window positioned in circular groove waveguide are briefly analyzed. Thirdly, the convergent problem is discussed and the numerical results are given. At last experiment is made and good agreement is found between the calculated results and the measured results.

  18. Orbit Stabilization of Nanosat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON,DAVID J.

    1999-12-01

    An algorithm is developed to control a pulsed {Delta}V thruster on a small satellite to allow it to fly in formation with a host satellite undergoing time dependent atmospheric drag deceleration. The algorithm uses four short thrusts per orbit to correct for differences in the average radii of the satellites due to differences in drag and one thrust to symmetrize the orbits. The radial difference between the orbits is the only input to the algorithm. The algorithm automatically stabilizes the orbits after ejection and includes provisions to allow azimuthal positional changes by modifying the drag compensation pulses. The algorithm gives radial and azimuthal deadbands of 50 cm and 3 m for a radial measurement accuracy of {+-} 5 cm and {+-} 60% period variation in the drag coefficient of the host. Approaches to further reduce the deadbands are described. The methodology of establishing a stable orbit after ejection is illustrated in an appendix. The results show the optimum ejection angle to minimize stabilization thrust is upward at 86{sup o} from the orbital velocity. At this angle the stabilization velocity that must be supplied by the thruster is half the ejection velocity. An ejection velocity of 0.02 m/sat 86{sup o} gives an azimuthal separation after ejection and orbit stabilization of 187 m. A description of liquid based gas thrusters suitable for the satellite control is included in an appendix.

  19. 'Inca City' is Part of a Circular Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-319, 8 August 2002 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 'Inca City' is the informal name given by Mariner 9 scientists in 1972 to a set of intersecting, rectilinear ridges that are located among the layered materials of the south polar region of Mars. Their origin has never been understood; most investigators thought they might be sand dunes, either modern dunes or, more likely, dunes that were buried, hardened, then exhumed. Others considered them to be dikes formed by injection of molten rock (magma) or soft sediment into subsurface cracks that subsequently hardened and then were exposed at the surface by wind erosion. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has provided new information about the 'Inca City' ridges, though the camera's images still do not solve the mystery. The new information comes in the form of a MOC red wide angle context frame taken in mid-southern spring, shown above left and above right. The original Mariner 9 view of the ridges is seen at the center. The MOC image shows that the 'Inca City' ridges, located at 82oS, 67oW, are part of a larger circular structure that is about 86 km (53 mi) across. It is possible that this pattern reflects an origin related to an ancient, eroded meteor impact crater that was filled-in, buried, then partially exhumed. In this case, the ridges might be the remains of filled-in fractures in the bedrock into which the crater formed, or filled-in cracks within the material that filled the crater. Or both explanations could be wrong. While the new MOC image shows that 'Inca City' has a larger context as part of a circular form, it does not reveal the exact origin of these striking and unusual martian landforms.

  20. Day-to-day variability of Equatorial Ionization Anomaly over the Indian and Brazilian sectors - the role of Equatorial Electrojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavutarapu, Venkatesh; Gende, Mauricio; Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; De Jesus, Rodolfo; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; De Abreu, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    The equatorial electrojet (EEJ) is a narrow band of current flowing eastward at the ionospheric E-region altitudes along the dayside dip equator. Mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic fields over the equator results in the formation of Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) which in turn generates large electron density variabilities. Simultaneous study on the characteristics of EEJ and EIA is necessary to understand the role of EEJ on the EIA variabilities. Present study reports simultaneous variations of EEJ and GPS-TEC over Indian and Brazilian sectors to understand the role of EEJ on the day-to-day characteristics of the EIA. Magnetometer measurements during the low solar activity year 2004 are used to derive the EEJ values over the two different sectors. The characteristics of EIA are studied using two different chains of GPS receivers along the common meridian of 770E (India) and 450W (Brazil). The diurnal, seasonal and day-to-day variations of EEJ and TEC are described simultaneously. Variations of EIA during different seasons are presented along with the variations of the EEJ in the two hemispheres. The role of EEJ variations on the characteristic features of the EIA such as the strength and temporal extent of the EIA crest etc., have also been reported. Further, the time delay between the occurrences of the day maximum EEJ and the well-developed EIA are studied and corresponding results are presented in this paper. Further, the results from a study on the noon time bite-outs at the anomaly crest locations with their absence over the equator in the Indian and Brazilian sector are also discussed in this paper.

  1. PLANECHG: Earth orbit to lunar orbit delta V estimation program. User and technical documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The PLANECNG computer program calculates velocities for Earth-to-Mooon and Moon-to-Earth trajectories. The flight to be analyzed originates in a circular orbit of any inclination and altitude about one of the bodies, and culminates in a circular orbit of any inclination and altitude about the other body. An intermedate delta V and plane change occurs at the Lunar Sphere of Influence (SOI), the region where the vehicle is near its lowest velocity in the trajectory, and therefore where it is able to make the plane change with the lowest delta V. A given flight may penetrate the SOI at a number of points. Each point has associated with it a unique set of delta V's and total velocity. The program displays the velocities, in matrix form, for a representative set of SOI penetration points. An SOI point is identified by projecting Lunar latitude and longitude onto the SOI. The points recorded for a given flight are defined by the user, who provides a starting longitude and latitude, and an increment for each. A matrix is built with 10 longitudes forming the columns and 19 latitudes forming the rows. This matrix is presented in six reports, each containing different velocity or node information in the body of the matrix.

  2. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  3. Dynamics of extended bodies with spin-induced quadrupole in Kerr spacetime: generic orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Wen-Biao

    2016-01-01

    We discuss motions of extended bodies in Kerr spacetime by using Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations. We firstly solve the conditions for circular orbits, and calculate the orbital frequency shift due to the mass quadrupoles. The results show that we need not consider the spin-induced quadrupoles in extreme-mass-ratio inspirals for spatial gravitational wave detectors. We quantitatively investigate the temporal variation of rotational velocity of the extended body due to the coupling of quadrupole and background gravitational field. For generic orbits, we numerically integrate the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations for evolving the motion of an extended body orbiting a Kerr black hole. By comparing with the monopole-dipole approximation, we reveal the influences of quadrupole moments of extended bodies on the orbital motion and chaotic dynamics of extreme-mass-ratio systems. We do not find any chaotic orbits for the extended bodies with physical spins and spin-induced quadrupoles. Possible implications for...

  4. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity.

  5. A multi-model approach to the Atlantic Equatorial mode: impact on the West African monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losada, T.; Rodriguez-Fonseca, B. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Janicot, S.; Gervois, S. [LOCEAN/IPSL, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Chauvin, F. [GAME/CNRM, Meteo-France/CNRS, Toulouse (France); Ruti, P. [Progetto Speciale Clima Globale, Ente Nazionale per le NuoveTecnologie, Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    This paper is focused on the West African anomalous precipitation response to an Atlantic Equatorial mode whose origin, development and damping resembles the observed one during the last decades of the XXth century. In the framework of the AMMA-EU project, this paper analyses the atmospheric response to the Equatorial mode using a multimodel approach with an ensemble of integrations from 4 AGCMs under a time varying Equatorial SST mode. The Guinean Gulf precipitation, which together with the Sahelian mode accounts for most of the summer West African rainfall variability, is highly coupled to this Equatorial Atlantic SST mode or Atlantic Nino. In a previous study, done with the same models under 1958-1997 observed prescribed SSTs, most of the models identify the Equatorial Atlantic SST mode as the one most related to the Guinean Gulf precipitation. The models response to the positive phase of equatorial Atlantic mode (warm SSTs) depicts a direct impact in the equatorial Atlantic, leading to a decrease of the local surface temperature gradient, weakening the West African Monsoon flow and the surface convergence over the Sahel. (orig.)

  6. The streaming-trapped ion interface in the equatorial inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Horwitz, J. L.; Gallagher, D.; Pollock, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft measurements of core ions on L=4-7 field-lines typically show trapped ion distributions near the magnetic equator, and frequently indicate field-aligned ion streams at higher latitudes. The nature of the transition between them may indicate both the microphysics of hot-cold plasma interactions and overall consequences for core plasma evolution. We have undertaken a statistical analysis and characterization of this interface and its relation to the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. In this analysis, we have characterized such features as the equatorial ion flux anisotropy, the penetration of field-aligned ionospheric streams into the equatorial region, the scale of the transition into trapped ion populations, and the transition latitude. We found that most transition latitudes occur within 13 deg of the equator. The typical values of equatorial ion anisotropies are consistent with bi-Maxwellian temperature ratios of T(sub perpendicular)/T(sub parallel) in the range of 3-5. The latitudinal scales for the edges of the trapped ion populations display a rather strong peak in the 2-3 deg range. We also found that there is a trend for the penetration ratio, the anisotropy half width, and the transition scale length to decrease with a higher equatorial ion anisotropy. We may interpret these features in terms of Liouville mapping of equatorially trapped ions and the reflection of the incoming ionospheric ion streams from the equatorial potential peaks associated with such trapped ions.

  7. Decisive Thaw: The Changing Pattern of Relations between Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea, 1980-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aworawo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the nature and changing pattern of relations between Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea from 1980-2005. It states that relations between the countries improved tremendously in the quarter century covered in this study compared to the two decades preceding that time frame (1960-1980 due to of a number of domesticpolitical and economic changes that occurred in both countries, as well as the transformation of the international system in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The paper explores the specific changes that took place in Nigerian-Equatorial Guinean relations from1980 onwards and the factors that influenced them. The termination of the brutal and violent rule of President Macias Nguema in Equatorial Guinea opened the way for improved relations between Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea. The shift from dependence on cocoa to petroleum exports in Equatorial Guinea also helped to promote cordial relations since the ill-treatment of Nigerian workers in Equatorial Guinea’s cocoa plantations had been a thorny issue in Nigerian-Equatorial Guinean relations in previous decades. The end of the Cold War and apartheid between 1989 and 1994 were also important factors that shaped relations. All these were issues that had previously negatively affected cordial relations between the countries. Thisarticle therefore discusses relations between Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea within the context of the post-Cold War international system and intra-African relations. It also argues that although improvements were recorded in Nigerian-Equatorial Guinean relations between 1980 and 2005, there remain numerous avenues that could be explored for yet better relations.

  8. A New Kind of Shift Operators for Infinite Circular and Spherical Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hua Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of shift operators for infinite circular and spherical wells is identified. These shift operators depend on all spatial variables of quantum systems and connect some eigenstates of confined systems of different radii R sharing energy levels with a common eigenvalue. In circular well, the momentum operators P±=Px±iPy play the role of shift operators. The Px and Py operators, the third projection of the orbital angular momentum operator Lz, and the Hamiltonian H form a complete set of commuting operators with the SO(2 symmetry. In spherical well, the shift operators establish a novel relation between ψlm(r and ψ(l ± 1(m±1(r.

  9. Accelerated orbits in black hole fields: the static case

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We study non-geodesic orbits of test particles endowed with a structure, assuming the Schwarzschild spacetime as background. We develop a formalism which allows one to recognize the geometrical characterization of those orbits in terms of their Frenet-Serret parameters and apply it to explicit cases as those of spatially circular orbits which witness the equilibrium under conflicting types of interactions. In our general analysis we solve the equations of motion offering a detailed picture of the dynamics having in mind a check with a possible astronomical set up. We focus on certain ambiguities which plague the interpretation of the measurements preventing one from identifying the particular structure carried by the particle.

  10. Exoplanet Orbital Eccentricities Derived From LAMOST-Kepler Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Ji-Wei; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Huber, Daniel; Zheng, Zheng; De Cat, P; Fu, J N; Liu, Hui-Gen; Luo, Ali; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Haotong; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Cao, Zihuang; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The nearly circular (mean eccentricity ~0.06) and coplanar (mean mutual inclination ~3 deg) orbits of the Solar System planets motivated Kant and Laplace to put forth the hypothesis that planets are formed in disks, which has developed into the widely accepted theory of planet formation. Surprisingly, the first several hundred extrasolar planets (mostly Jovian) discovered using the Radial Velocity (RV) technique are commonly on eccentric orbits ( ~ 0.3). This raises a fundamental question: Are the Solar System and its formation special? The Kepler mission has found thousands of transiting planets dominated by sub-Neptunes, but most of their orbital eccentricities remain unknown. By using the precise spectroscopic host star parameters from the LAMOST observations, we measure the eccentricity distributions for a large (698) and homogeneous Kepler planet sample with transit duration statistics. Nearly half of the planets are in systems with single transiting planets (singles), while the other half are multiple-t...

  11. Transfer of orbital angular momentum through sub-wavelength waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqin; Ma, Xiaoliang; Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Zhao, Bo; Cui, Jianhua; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-02-01

    Data capacity of optical communication is achieving its limit owing to the non-linear effect of optical fiber. As an effective alternative, light carrying orbital angular momentum can greatly increase the capacity for its unprecedented degree of freedom. We demonstrate the propagation of orbital angular momentum with topological charge of 1 and 2 in plasmonic circular waveguide with sub-wavelength diameter with little propagation loss of 2.73 dB/μm, which has never been observed in optical fibers with sub-wavelength diameter. We also confirm that lights carrying orbital angular momentum can be maintained in sharp bended sub-wavelength waveguide. This plasmonic waveguide may serve as a key component in on-chip systems involving OAM.

  12. Handbook of satellite orbits from Kepler to GPS

    CERN Document Server

    Capderou, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years after Sputnik, artificial satellites have become indispensable monitors in many areas, such as economics, meteorology, telecommunications, navigation and remote sensing. The specific orbits are important for the proper functioning of the satellites. This book discusses the great variety of satellite orbits, both in shape (circular to highly elliptical) and properties (geostationary, Sun-synchronous, etc.). This volume starts with an introduction into geodesy. This is followed by a presentation of the fundamental equations of mechanics to explain and demonstrate the properties for all types of orbits. Numerous examples are included, obtained through IXION software developed by the author. The book also includes an exposition of the historical background that is necessary to help the reader understand the main stages of scientific thought from Kepler to GPS. This book is intended for researchers, teachers and students working in the field of satellite technology. Engineers, geographers and all those...

  13. Accurate Evolutions of Orbiting Black-Hole Binaries Without Excision

    CERN Document Server

    Campanelli, M; Marronetti, P; Zlochower, Y

    2006-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for evolving orbiting black-hole binaries that does not require excision or a corotating shift. Our algorithm is based on a novel technique to handle the singular puncture conformal factor. This system, based on the BSSN formulation of Einstein's equations, when used with a `pre-collapsed' initial lapse, is non-singular at the start of the evolution, and remains non-singular and stable provided that a good choice is made for the gauge. As a test case, we use this technique to fully evolve orbiting black-hole binaries from near the Innermost Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO) regime. We show fourth order convergence of waveforms and compute the radiated gravitational energy and angular momentum from the plunge. These results are in good agreement with those predicted by the Lazarus approach.

  14. Libration of arguments of circumbinary-planet orbits at resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubart, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    The paper refers to fictitious resonant orbits of planet type that surround both components of a binary system. In case of 16 studied examples a suitable choice of the starting values leads to a process of libration of special angular arguments and to an evolution with an at least temporary stay of the planet in the resonant orbit. The ratio of the periods of revolution of the binary and a planet is equal to 1:5. Eight orbits depend on the ratio 1:5 of the masses of the binary components, but two other ratios appear as well. The basis of this study is the planar, elliptic or circular restricted problem of three bodies, but remarks at the end of the text refer to a four-body problem.

  15. Congenital orbital teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Aiyub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.

  16. The Bohr Correspondence Principle: Kepler Orbits of the Electron in a Hydrogen Atom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-01

    We consider the quantum-mechanical non-relativistichydrogen atom. We show that for boundstates with size much larger than the Bohr radius,one can construct a wave packet that is localizedin space corresponding to a classical particlemoving in a circular orbit.

  17. Discrete Fresnel Transform and Its Circular Convolution

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, Xing; Gunning, Fatima; Zhang, Hongyu; Guan, Yong Liang

    2015-01-01

    Discrete trigonometric transformations, such as the discrete Fourier and cosine/sine transforms, are important in a variety of applications due to their useful properties. For example, one well-known property is the convolution theorem for Fourier transform. In this letter, we derive a discrete Fresnel transform (DFnT) from the infinitely periodic optical gratings, as a linear trigonometric transform. Compared to the previous formulations of DFnT, the DFnT in this letter has no degeneracy, which hinders its mathematic applications, due to destructive interferences. The circular convolution property of the DFnT is studied for the first time. It is proved that the DFnT of a circular convolution of two sequences equals either one circularly convolving with the DFnT of the other. As circular convolution is a fundamental process in discrete systems, the DFnT not only gives the coefficients of the Talbot image, but can also be useful for optical and digital signal processing and numerical evaluation of the Fresnel ...

  18. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  19. Circular Thermodynamics of Organisms and Sustainable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae-Wan Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A circular thermodynamics of organisms and sustainable systems is presented based on dynamic closures in nested space-time domains that enable the system to approach the ideal of zero entropy production simultaneously at equilibrium and far from equilibrium conditions.

  20. Institutional incentives in circular economy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Aglaia; Pascucci, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to gain insight into how requirements for transitioning to circular economy creates new organizational forms in inter-firm collaborations, and ultimately how they stimulate the emergence of new institutions enhancing sustainability. Two strands of literature, one on circu