Antennas on circular cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, H. L.
1959-01-01
antenna in a circular cylinder. By a procedure similar to the one used by Silver and Saunders, expressions have been derived for the field radiated from an arbitrary surface current distribution on a cylinder surface coaxial with a perfectly conducting cylinder. The cases where the space between the two......On the basis of the results obtained by Silver and Saunders [4] for the field radiated from an arbitrary slot in a perfectly conducting circular cylinder, expressions have been derived for the field radiated by a narrow helical slot, with an arbitrary aperture field distribution, in a circular...... cylindrical surfaces have the sane characteristic constants and different constants are treated separately. Extensive numerical computations of the field radiated from the slot antennas described here are being carried out, but no numerical results are yet available...
Natural convection from circular cylinders
Boetcher, Sandra K S
2014-01-01
This book presents a concise, yet thorough, reference for all heat transfer coefficient correlations and data for all types of cylinders: vertical, horizontal, and inclined. This book covers all natural convection heat transfer laws for vertical and inclined cylinders and is an excellent resource for engineers working in the area of heat transfer engineering.
Progress on LES of Flow Past a Circular Cylinder
Mittal, R.
1996-01-01
The objective of the present research is to assess the usefulness of large-eddy simulation (LES) methodology for flows in complex geometries. Flow past a circular cylinder has been calculated using a central-difference based solver, and the results have been compared to those obtained by a solver that employs higher-order upwind biased schemes (Beaudan & Moin, 1994). This comparison allows us to assess the suitability of these schemes for LES in complex geometry flows.
Electromagnetic Casimir Forces in Elliptic Cylinder Geometries
Graham, Noah
2013-01-01
The scattering theory approach makes it possible to carry out exact calculations of Casimir energies in any geometry for which the scattering T-matrix and a partial wave expansion of the free Green's function are available. We implement this program for the case of a perfectly conducting elliptic cylinder, thereby completing the set of geometries where electromagnetic scattering is separable. Particular emphasis is placed on the case of zero radius, where the elliptic cylinder reduces to a st...
Identification of Plasmonic Modes in Parabolic Cylinder Geometry by Quasi-Separation of Variables
KURIHARA, Kazuyoshi; Otomo, Akira; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; TAKAHARA, Junichi; Tani, Masahiko; Kuwashima, Fumiyoshi
2014-01-01
This paper describes the plasmonic modes in the parabolic cylinder geometry as a theoretical complement to the previous paper (J Phys A 42:185401) that considered the modes in the circular paraboloidal geometry. In order to identify the plasmonic modes in the parabolic cylinder geometry, analytic solutions for surface plasmon polaritons are examined by solving the wave equation for the magnetic field in parabolic cylindrical coordinates using quasi-separation of variables in combination with ...
INTERACTION OF A FLOATING ELLIPTIC CYLINDER WITH A VIBRATING CIRCULAR CYLINDER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Ren; CHWANG Allen T.
2006-01-01
The nonlinear hydrodynamic interaction between a floating elliptic cylinder and a vibrating circular cylinder immersed in an infinite fluid was investigated. By taking the added masses of the two-cylinder system into account, the dynamical equations of motion were formulated from the Lagrange equations of motion. The dynamical behaviors of these two cylinders were analyzed numerically for some typical situations, and the results show that the presence of a vibrating circular cylinder has a significant influence on the planar motion of a floating elliptic cylinder. The hydrodynamic interaction between them results in complicated nonlinear behaviors of the floating cylinder. It is found that oscillatory motion of the elliptic cylinder takes place in response to the vibrating mode of the circular one.
FORCES ON A NEAR-WALL CIRCULAR CYLINDER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAN Jing-xia; WANG Jin-jun; ZHANG Pang-feng
2004-01-01
The pressure distribution around a near-wall smooth circular cylinder in cross-flow was mainly investigated. The experiment was conducted at the sub-critical Reynolds number ranging from 2.24·104 to 8.94·104,at which the regular vortex separation exists on an isolated circular cylinder. The experimental results indicate that the forces on a circular cylinder near a plane wall are different from those on an isolated circular cylinder. Drag and lift coefficients of a near-wall circular cylinder strongly depend on gap ratio. The increase of gap ratio results in the increase of drag coefficient and the declination of lift coefficient, drag coefficient ranges from 0.5 to 1.0, and lift coefficient from 0.25 to 0 when gap ratio gradually increases from 0 to 1.0, and then the forces tend to be nearly constant with the increase of gap ratio. The attraction between a cylinder and a plane wall, i.e., downward force, occurs when gap ratio lies in certain range. The existence of cylinder changes the pressure gradient on the plane wall, and the influence extends to the location where x/D＜-3.0 and x/D＞5.0.
PLANAR MOTION OF A SLIGHTLY DISTORTED CIRCULAR CYLINDER AROUND ANOTHER CIRCULAR ONE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Ren; CHWANG Allen T.
2004-01-01
Accurate prediction of the motion of a body moving around another one in an unbounded fluid and determi-nation of the hydrodynamic interaction between them are im-portant in the coastal and offshore engineering. For two-dimensional cases, most of the previous studies were focused on the interaction between circular cylinders without considering the non-circular situation. To break through the limitation of"circular" bodies, in the present paper the boundary perturbation method was employed to investigate the motion of a slightly distorted circular cylinder around a circular one. An approximate complex velocity potential in terms of double infinite series expanded at two singular points was derived using the method of continued fractions. The hydrodynamic interaction between two cylinders was computed by solving the dynamical equations of motion. In a relative coordinate system moving with the uniform stream, the kinetic energy of the fluid was expressed as a function of fifteen added masses. Approximate analytical solutions of added masses in the series form were obtained and applied to determine the trajectories of the slightly distorted circular cylinder around a fixed circular one. Numerical results show that the presence of the circular cylinder affects the planar motion of the slightly distorted cirular cylinder and the initial configuration of the slightly distorted circular cylinder has a decisive influence on the development of its rotational motion.
Vibrations of Circular Cylinders of a Perfectly Conducting Elastic Material
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. S. Sarma
1972-07-01
Full Text Available The problems of radial vibrations of a long circular solid cylinder with a transverse magnetic field and rotary vibrations of a hollow cylinder with radial magnetic field are solved. The results of the case of an infinite medium with a cylinderical cavity are given. The frequency equation in each case, is solved in particular cases approximately.
Inflation of polymer melts into elliptic and circular cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Christensen, Jens Horslund; Gøttsche, Søren
2000-01-01
A thin sheet (membrane) of the polymeric material is clamped between a Teflon-coated thermostated plate and a thermostated aluminium cylinder. By applying thermostated air through the plate, the polymer membrane deforms into an elliptic or a circular cylinder. The position of the top of the infla...
Numerical Simulations of Viscous Flow Around Stepped Circular Cylinder
Bjørkli, Rune
2012-01-01
A stepped cylinder could be a desired design for an offshore buoy or SPAR platform. The geometry of a stepped cylinder consists of a small diameter cylinder (d) placed on top of a large diameter cylinder (D). This master thesis has investigated numerically the flow around a stepped cylinder with different diameter ratios (d/D) for a Reynolds number, ReD = 150. The commercial software Fluent v13.0 by Ansys was used for the numerical investigation.The aim of the study has been exploring the nea...
Analysis of Aerodynamic Noise Generated from Inclined Circular Cylinder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YasutakeHaramoto; ShoujiYasuda; 等
2000-01-01
Making clear the generation mechanism of fluid dynamic noise is essential to reduce noise deriving from turbomachinery.The analysis of the aerodynamic noise generated from circular cylinder is carried out numerically and experimentally in a low noise wind tunnel.in this study,aerodynamic sound radiated from a circular cylinder in uniform flow is predicted numericaslly by the following two step method,First,the three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is solved using the high order accurate upwind scheme.Next.the sound pressure level at the observed point is calculated from the fluctuating surface pressure on the cylinder.based on modified Lighthill-Curl's equation.It is worth to note that the noise generated from the model is reduced rapidly when it is inclined against the mean flow.In other works,the Peak level of the radiated noise decreases apidly with inclination of the circular cylinder.The simulated SPL for the inclined circular cylinder is compared with the measured value .and good agreement is obtained for the peak spectrum fequency of the sound pressue level and tendency of noise reduction,So we expect that the change of flow structures makes reduction of the aerodynamic noise from the inclined models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper describes an effect of spacing between two adjoining circular cylinders on flow around two-dimensional circular cylinder bundles. The experiment was carried out in an N.P.L blow-down type wind-tunnel with a working section of 500 mm x 500 mm x 2000 mm, and under the Reynolds number 1.3 x 104. The surface-pressure distributions on the circular cylinder were measured and the drag coefficient was determined from these measurements. The flow-pattern around circular cylinders was observed. The power spectrum in the turbulent wake behind circular cylinders was also measured. It was found that the pressure on the rear surface of circular cylinders becomes lower and the drag coefficient increases as the spacing ratio decreases, while the step-change in the drag coefficient occurs at the spacing ratio where the flow pattern around the downstream circular cylinder changes. (author)
Elliptic cylinder geometry for distinguishability analysis in impedance tomography.
Saka, Birsen; Yilmaz, Atila
2004-01-01
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a technique that computes the cross-sectional impedance distribution within the body by using current and voltage measurements made on the body surface. It has been reported that the image reconstruction is distorted considerably when the boundary shape is considered to be more elliptical than circular as a more realistic shape for the measurement boundary. This paper describes an alternative framework for determining the distinguishability region with a finite measurement precision for different conductivity distributions in a body modeled by elliptic cylinder geometry. The distinguishable regions are compared in terms of modeling error for predefined inhomogeneities with elliptical and circular approaches for a noncircular measurement boundary at the body surface. Since most objects investigated by EIT are noncircular in shape, the analytical solution for the forward problem for the elliptical cross section approach is shown to be useful in order to reach a better assessment of the distinguishability region defined in a noncircular boundary. This paper is concentrated on centered elliptic inhomogeneity in the elliptical boundary and an analytic solution for this type of forward problem. The distinguishability performance of elliptical cross section with cosine injected current patterns is examined for different parameters of elliptical geometry. PMID:14723501
Casimir Energy of a Semi-Circular Infinite Cylinder
Nesterenko, V V; Scarpetta, G
2001-01-01
The Casimir energy of a semi-circular cylindrical shell is calculated by making use of the zeta function technique. This shell is obtained by crossing an infinite circular cylindrical shell by a plane passing through the symmetry axes of the cylinder and by considering only a half of this configuration. All the surfaces, including the cutting plane, are assumed to be perfectly conducting. The zeta functions for scalar massless fields obeying the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions on the semi-circular cylinder are constructed exactly. The sum of these zeta functions gives the zeta function for electromagnetic field in question. The relevant plane problem is considered also. In all the cases the final expressions for the corresponding Casimir energies contain the pole contributions. This implies that further renormalization is needed in order for the finite physical values for vacuum energy to be obtained for given boundary conditions.
Casimir energy of a semi-circular infinite cylinder
Nesterenko, V. V.; Lambiase, G.; Scarpetta, G.
2001-05-01
The Casimir energy of a semi-circular cylindrical shell is calculated by making use of the zeta function technique. This shell is obtained by crossing an infinite circular cylindrical shell by a plane passing through the symmetry axes of the cylinder and by considering only half of this configuration. All the surfaces, including the cutting plane, are assumed to be perfectly conducting. The zeta functions for scalar massless fields obeying the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions on the semi-circular cylinder are constructed exactly. The sum of these zeta functions gives the zeta function for the electromagnetic field in question. The relevant plane problem is considered also. In all the cases the final expressions for the corresponding Casimir energies contain the pole contributions which are the consequence of the edges or corners in the boundaries. This implies that further renormalization is needed in order for the finite physical values for vacuum energy to be obtained for given boundary conditions.
Scattering of SH Waves by Fixed-Rigid Nearly Circular Cylinder
Abdul; Ibrahim BAKIRTAS
2001-01-01
A solution for the two-dimensional scattering and diffraction of plane SH waves by fixed-rigid cylinder of arbitrary shape in an elastic infinite medium is presented. The wave field for arbitary geometry in this paper is computed numericaly by the method weighted residues (moment method). Dynamic stress concentration factors around the arbitrary obstacles are obtained with respect to various dimensionless wave numbers. When the cavity is circular, results obtained from the analytical solution...
Design guide for single circular cylinder in turbulent crossflow. [LMFBR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mulcahy, T.M.
1982-03-01
A design procedure is proposed for predicting the dynamic structural response of a circular cylinder in turbulent crossflow. The procedure is based on recently obtained data for a stationary, rigid cylinder and on existing information. The procedure is not applicable to conditions where the wake vortex shedding frequency locks into a structural natural frequency. This report is self-contained in that all the information and structural analysis methods employed in the procedure are reviewed and developed. Also, an example is given to illustrate the use of the method for a typical reactor component. The calculated responses are found to be very small.
Fluid dynamic effects of grooves on circular cylinder surface
Kimura, Takeyoshi; Tsutahara, Michihisa
1991-12-01
It is shown that a groove on the surface of a circular cylinder affects movement of the separation point backward and reduces drag even at Reynolds numbers of about a few thousand. Several types of circular-arc cross-section grooves are studied using flow visualizations and numerical simulations. Whether these grooves are effective depends strongly on their positions, and the most effective positions are about 80 deg, measured from the foremost point. When they are effective, cavity flows are developed inside the grooves. This effect corresponds to that of dimples on golf balls and will explain unique characteristics of the drag curve.
Circular cylinders and pressure vessels stress analysis and design
Vullo, Vincenzo
2014-01-01
This book provides comprehensive coverage of stress and strain analysis of circular cylinders and pressure vessels, one of the classic topics of machine design theory and methodology. Whereas other books offer only a partial treatment of the subject and frequently consider stress analysis solely in the elastic field, Circular Cylinders and Pressure Vessels broadens the design horizons, analyzing theoretically what happens at pressures that stress the material beyond its yield point and at thermal loads that give rise to creep. The consideration of both traditional and advanced topics ensures that the book will be of value for a broad spectrum of readers, including students in postgraduate, and doctoral programs and established researchers and design engineers. The relations provided will serve as a sound basis for the design of products that are safe, technologically sophisticated, and compliant with standards and codes and for the development of innovative applications.
Passive jet control of flow around a circular cylinder
Chen, Wen-Li; Gao, Dong-Lai; Yuan, Wen-Yong; Li, Hui; Hu, Hui
2015-11-01
In the present study, a passive flow control method, which is featured by passive windward suction combined with leeward jet over a circular cylinder for drag reduction and dynamic wind loading suppression, was experimentally investigated to manipulate unsteady wake vortex shedding from a circular cylinder. Four perforated pipe designs with different numbers of suction/jet holes (i.e., from 2 to 24 suction/jet holes) were used to create flow communicating channels between the windward and leeward stagnation points of a cylindrical test model. The experimental study was performed in a wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of Re = 4.16 × 104 based on the cylinder diameter and oncoming airflow speed. In addition to measuring surface pressure distributions to determine the dynamic wind loads acting on the test model, a digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was also used to quantify the wake flow characteristics in order to assess the effectiveness of the passive jet control method with different perforated pipe designs, in comparison with a baseline case without passive jet control. It was found that the passive jet control method is very effective in manipulating the wake vortex shedding process from the circular cylinder. The perforated pipe designs with more suction/jet holes were found to be more effective in reducing drag and suppressing fluctuating amplitude of the dynamic wind loads acting on the test model. With 24 suction/jet holes evenly distributed over the cylindrical test model (i.e., the N13 design of the present study), the passive jet control method was found to be able to achieve up to 33.7 % in drag reduction and 90.6 % in fluctuating wind loading suppression, in comparison with the baseline case. The PIV measurement results revealed clearly that the passive jet control method would cause airflow jets into the cylinder wake and change the shedding modes of the wake vortex structures from the cylindrical test model. Because of the dynamic
Effect of plasma actuator and splitter plate on drag coefficient of a circular cylinder
Akbıyık, Hürrem; Erkan Akansu, Yahya; Yavuz, Hakan; Ertuğrul Bay, Ahmet
2016-03-01
In this paper, an experimental study on flow control around a circular cylinder with splitter plate and plasma actuator is investigated. The study is performed in wind tunnel for Reynolds numbers at 4000 and 8000. The wake region of circular cylinder with a splitter plate is analyzed at different angles between 0 and 180 degrees. In this the study, not only plasma actuators are activated but also splitter plate is placed behind the cylinder. A couple electrodes are mounted on circular cylinder at ±90 degrees. Also, flow visualization is achieved by using smoke wire method. Drag coefficient of the circular cylinder with splitter plate and the plasma actuator are obtained for different angles and compared with the plain circular cylinder. While attack angle is 0 degree, drag coefficient is decreased about 20% by using the splitter plate behind the circular cylinder. However, when the plasma actuators are activated, the improvement of the drag reduction is measured to be 50%.
Effect of plasma actuator and splitter plate on drag coefficient of a circular cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akbıyık Hürrem
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study on flow control around a circular cylinder with splitter plate and plasma actuator is investigated. The study is performed in wind tunnel for Reynolds numbers at 4000 and 8000. The wake region of circular cylinder with a splitter plate is analyzed at different angles between 0 and 180 degrees. In this the study, not only plasma actuators are activated but also splitter plate is placed behind the cylinder. A couple electrodes are mounted on circular cylinder at ±90 degrees. Also, flow visualization is achieved by using smoke wire method. Drag coefficient of the circular cylinder with splitter plate and the plasma actuator are obtained for different angles and compared with the plain circular cylinder. While attack angle is 0 degree, drag coefficient is decreased about 20% by using the splitter plate behind the circular cylinder. However, when the plasma actuators are activated, the improvement of the drag reduction is measured to be 50%.
Visualization and modal decomposition of vortex street behind circular cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Čížek J.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Time resolved particle image velocimetry measurement of vortex street behind circular cylinder was carried out. Vorex street was measured for Reynolds numbers up to few thousands. Obtained results were processed by visualizations of moving particles and by standard evaluation of vector fields from the set of images. Modal decomposition of measured flow field was done using propper orthogonal decomposition where the structure of energetically most important modes was identified for several Reynolds numbers. The values of Strouhal number was analyzed from temporal evolution of dominant modes obtained using proper orthogonal decomposition.
Acoustic band gaps in two-dimensional square arrays of semi-hollow circular cylinders
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
T.; Kim
2009-01-01
Concave surfaces focus sound while convex surfaces disperse sound. It is therefore interesting to know if it is possible to make use of these two opposite characteristics to enhance the band gap performance of periodic arrays of solid cylinders in air. In this paper, the band gap characteristics of a 2-D square array of semi-hollow circular cylinders embedded in air are investigated, both experimentally and theoretically. In comparison with the types of inclusion studied by previous researchers, a semi-hollow circular cylinder is unique in the sense that it has concave inner surfaces and convex outer surfaces. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is employed to study the propagation behavior of sound across the new phononic crystal of finite extent, and the influences of sample size and inclusion orientation on band gap characteristics are quantified in order to obtain the maximum band gap. For reference, the band gap behaviors of solid circular cylinder/air and hollow circular cylinder/air systems are considered and compared with those of semi-hollow circular cylinder/air systems. In addition to semi-hollow circular cylinders, other inclusion topologies such as semi-hollow triangular and square cylinders are also investigated. To validate the theoretical predictions, experimental measurements on square arrays of hollow Al cylinders in air and semi-hollow Al cylinders in air are carried out. The results demonstrate that the semi-hollow circular cylinder/air system has the best overall band gap performance.
Fermionic Casimir interaction in cylinder-plate and cylinder-cylinder geometries
Teo, L P
2015-01-01
In this work, we consider the Casimir effect due to massless fermionic fields in the presence of long cylinders. More precisely, we consider the interaction between a cylinder parallel to a plate, between two parallel cylinders outside each other, and between a cylinder lying parallelly inside another cylinder. We derive the explicit formulas for the Casimir interaction energies and compute the leading and the next-to-leading order terms of the small separation asymptotic expansions. As expected, the leading order terms coincide with the proximity force approximations. We compare the results of the next-to-leading order terms of different quantum fields, and show that our results support the ansatz of derivative expansions.
Standing torsional waves in a fully saturated, porous, circular cylinder
Solorza, S; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02198.x
2004-01-01
For dynamic measurement of the elastic moduli of a porous material saturated with viscous fluid using the resonance-bar technique, one also observes attenuation. In this article we have carried out the solution of the boundary-value problem associated with standing torsional oscillations of a finite, poroelastic, circular cylinder cast in the framework of volume-averaged theory of poroelasticity. Analysing this solution by eigenvalue perturbation approach we are able to develop expressions for torsional resonance and temporal attenuation frequencies in which the dependence upon the material properties are transparent. It shows how the attenuation is controlled by the permeability and the fluid properties, and how the resonance frequency drops over its value for the dry solid-frame due to the drag effect of fluid mass. Based upon this work we have a firm basis to determine solid-frame shear modulus, permeability, and tortuosity factor from torsional oscillation experiments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oki, M. [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, K. [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakayama, Y.
1998-09-25
In the flow around a circular cylinder, the sudden decrease in the drag force occurs at around Reynolds number Re = 3 times 10{sup 5}, but the same phenomenon occurs at a lower Reynolds number in the case where there exist grooves or roughness on the circular cylinder surface. In this paper, in order to make clear the flow characteristics around a circular cylinder with grooves, the unsteady flow was analyzed by applying the RNG (Renormalization Group) {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulent model to a flow around a circular cylinder with grooves each of whose section shapes being as same as that of a dimple an a golf ball, with changing Reynolds number. This result made clear the characteristics of lift and drag, Strouhal number, flow pattern behind the circular cylinder, pressure distribution and separation points. Moreover, the time averages of these values almost agreed with the experimental values. 20 refs., 10 figs.
Dual Circularly Polarized Omnidirectional Antenna with Slot Array on Coaxial Cylinder
Bin Zhou; Junping Geng; Zhe Li; Wenzhi Wang; Xianling Liang; Ronghong Jin
2015-01-01
A dual circularly polarized (CP) omnidirectional antenna based on slot array in coaxial cylinder structure is presented in this paper. It is constructed by perpendicular slot pairs around and along the axis of the coaxial cylinder to realize the omnidirectional CP property, and two ports are assigned in its two sides as left hand circularly polarized (LHCP) port and right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) port, respectively. The proposed antenna achieves a bandwidth of 16.4% ranging from 5.05 ...
Effect of High Porosity Screen on the Near Wake of a Circular Cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sahin B.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The change in flow characteristics downstream of a circular cylinder (inner cylinder surrounded by a permeable cylinder (outer cylinder made of a high porosity screen was investigated in shallow water using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV technique. The diameter of the inner cylinder, outer cylinder and the water height were kept constant during the experiments as d = 50 mm, D = 100 mm and hw = 50 mm, respectively. The depth-averaged free stream velocity was also kept constant as U = 180 mm/s which corresponded to a Reynolds number of Red = 9000 based on the inner cylinder diameter. It was shown that the outer permeable cylinder had a substantialeffect on the vortex formation and consequent vortex shedding downstream of the circular cylinder, especially in the near wake. The time averaged vorticity layers, streamlines and velocity vector field depict that the location of the interaction of vortices considerably changed by the presence of the outer cylinder. Turbulent statistics clearly demonstrated that in comparison to the natural cylinder, turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses decreased remarkably downstream of the inner cylinder. Moreover, spectra of streamwise velocity fluctuations showed that the vortex shedding frequency significantly reduced compared to the natural cylinder case.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
NING Dezhi; TENG Bin; SONG Xiangqun
2005-01-01
In this paper, the principle of mirror image is used to transform the problem of wave diffraction from a circular cylinder in front of orthogonal vertical walls into the problem of diffraction of four symmetric incident waves from four symmetrically arranged circular cylinders, and then the eigenfunction expansion of velocity potential and Grafs addition theorem are used to give the analytical solution to the wave diffraction problem. The relation of the total wave force on cylinder to the distance between the cylinder and orthogonal vertical walls and the incidence angle of wave is also studied by numerical computation.
Transient wall-jet flowing over a circular cylinder
Danon, Ron; Gregory, James W.; Greenblatt, David
2016-09-01
The transient flow of a two-dimensional wall-jet over a circular cylinder, following rapid initiation and termination, was investigated experimentally. Unsteady surface pressures and unsteady pressure-sensitive paint were used to gain a basic understanding of the flow physics. Jet initiation produced a starting vortex, upstream of which the Coandă flow developed, producing a large low-pressure peak. Immediately following jet termination, the pressure increased over the first quarter of the circumference, while the downstream separation region remained virtually unaffected. Simplifying analyses and dimensional arguments were used to show that the timescales characterizing the transient development of the integrated loads depend only on the square of the slot height and the kinematic viscosity and are thus independent of the jet velocity. Following jet initiation, the resulting loads varied according to a linear transient model, while small nonlinearities were observed following jet termination. Unsteady pressure-sensitive paint showed that the starting jet emerges from the slot in a two-dimensional manner and that streamwise streaks, identified as Görtler vortices, form well before the flow reaches steady state. During termination, the streamwise structures dissipate downstream initially, with the dissipation propagating upstream.
Acoustic band gaps in two-dimensional square arrays of semi-hollow circular cylinders
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU TianJian; GAO GuoQin; MA ShouLin; JIN Feng; T.Kim
2009-01-01
Concave surfaces focus sound while convex surfaces disperse sound. It is therefore interesting to know if it is possible to make use of these two opposite characteristics to enhance the band gap per-formance of periodic arrays of solid cylinders in air. In this paper, the band gap characteristics of a 2-D square array of semi-hollow circular cylinders embedded in air are investigated, both experimentally and theoretically. In comparison with the types of inclusion studied by previous researchers, a semi-hollow circular cylinder is unique in the sense that it has concave inner surfaces and convex outer surfaces. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is employed to study the propagation behavior of sound across the new phononic crystal of finite extent, and the influences of sample size and inclusion orientation on band gap characteristics are quantified in order to obtain the maximum band gap. For reference, the band gap behaviors of solid circular cylinder/air and hollow circular cyl-inder/air systems are considered and compared with those of semi-hollow circular cylinder/air systems. In addition to semi-hollow circular cylinders, other inclusion topologies such as semi-hollow triangular and square cylinders are also investigated. To validate the theoretical predictions, experimental meas-urements on square arrays of hollow AI cylinders in air and semi-hollow AI cylinders in air are carried out. The results demonstrate that the semi-hollow circular cylinder/air system has the best overall band gap performance.
Streamwise forced oscillations of circular and square cylinders
Tudball-Smith, Daniel; Leontini, Justin S.; Sheridan, John; Lo Jacono, David
2012-01-01
International audience The modification of a cylinder wake by streamwise oscillation of the cylinder at the vortex shedding frequency of the unperturbed cylinder is reported. Recent numerical simulations [J. S. Leontini, D. Lo Jacono, and M. C. Thompson, "A numerical study of an inline oscillating cylinder in a free stream," J. Fluid Mech. 688, 551-568 (2011)] showed that this forcing results in the primary frequency decreasing proportionally to the square of the forcing amplitude, before ...
Kovalenko, V. M.; Byehkov, N. M.; Kisel, G. A.; Dikovskaia, N. D.
1984-03-01
Measurements have been made of pressure distributions and pulsations in a cross flow past a circular cylinder placed near a plane screen of finite length. The experiments reported here have been carried out under low turbulence conditions over a range of Reynolds numbers that includes the critical values. The boundary layer separation points and the evolution of the front critical point and other characteristic zones with the distance to the screen are determined. The components of the aerodynamic force acting on the cylinder and the Strouhal number are calculated on the basis of the predominant pulsation frequencies on the cylinder.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed W. Mustava
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The effect of a semi-circular cylinders in a two dimensional channel on heat transfer by forced convection from two heat sources with a constant temperature has been studied numerically. Each channel contains two heat sources; one on the upper surface of the channel and the other on the lower surface of the channel. There is semi-circular cylinder under the source in upper surface and there is semi-circular cylinder above the source in lower surface. The location of the second heat source with its semi-cylinder has been changed and keeps the first source with its semi- cylinder at the same location. The flow and temperature field are studied numerically with different values of Reynolds numbers and for different spacing between the centers of the semi-cylinders. The laminar flow field is analyzed numerically by solving the steady forms of the two-dimensional incompressible Navier- Stokes and energy equations. The Cartesian velocity components and pressure on a collocated (non-staggered grid are used as dependent variables in the momentum equations, which discretized by finite volume method, body fitted coordinates are used to represent the complex channel geometry accurately, and grid generation technique based on elliptic partial differential equations is employed. SIMPLE algorithm is used to adjust the velocity field to satisfy the conservation of mass. The range of Reynolds number is (Re= 100 – 800 and the range of the spacing between the semi-cylinders is(1-4 and the Prandtl number is 0.7.The results showed that increasing the spacing between the semi-cylinders increases the average of Nusselt number of the first heat source for all Reynolds numbers. As well as the results show that the best case among the cases studied to enhance the heat transfer is when the second heat source and its semi-cylinder located on at the distance (S=1.5 from the first half of the cylinder and the Reynolds number is greater than (Re ≥ 400 because of the
Water Wave Scattering by a Nearly Circular Cylinder Submerged Beneath an Ice-cover
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rumpa Chakraborty; Birendra Nath Mandal
2015-01-01
Assuming linear theory, the two-dimensional problem of water wave scattering by a horizontal nearly circular cylinder submerged in infinitely deep water with an ice cover modeled as a thin-elastic plate floating on water, is investigated here. The cross-section of the nearly circular cylinder is taken as r=a(1+δC(θ)), wherea is the radius of the corresponding circular cross-section of the cylinder,δ is a measure of small departure of the cross-section of the cylinder from its circularity andC(θ) is the shape function. Using a simplified perturbation technique the problem is reduced to two independent boundary value problems up to first order inδ. The first one corresponds to water wave scattering by a circular cylinder submerged in water with an ice-cover, while the second problem describes wave radiation by a submerged circular cylinder and involves first order correction to the reflection and transmission coefficients. The corrections are obtained in terms of integrals involving the shape function. Assuming a general Fourier expansion of the shape function, these corrections are evaluated approximately. It is well known that normally incident wave trains experience no reflection by a circular cylinder submerged in infinitely deep water with an ice cover. It is shown here that the reflection coefficient also vanishes up to first order for some particular choice of the shape function representing a nearly circular cylinder. For these cases, full transmission occurs, only change is in its phase which is depicted graphically against the wave number in a number of figures and appropriate conclusions are drawn.
Poiseuille flow-induced vibrations of two tandem circular cylinders with different mass ratios
Jiang, Ren-Jie; Lin, Jian-Zhong
2016-06-01
Flow-induced vibrations of two tandem circular cylinders with different mass ratios confined between two parallel walls are numerically studied via a lattice Boltzmann method. With fixed Reynolds number Re = 100 and blockage ratio β = 1/4, the effects of mass ratio m* = [0.0625, 16] and streamwise separation between two cylinders S/D = [1.125, 10] on the cylinder motions and vortex wake modes are investigated. A variety of distinct cylinder motion regimes involving the symmetric periodic vibration, biased quasi-periodic vibration, beating vibration, and steady regimes, with the corresponding wake structures, e.g., two rows of alternately rotating vortices, a single row of same-sign vortices, and steady wake, are observed. For each current case, the cylinder motion type is exclusive and in the binary oscillation regime, both cylinders always vibrate at a common primary frequency. The lighter cylinder usually oscillates at a larger amplitude than the heavier one, while the heavier cylinder undergoes larger lift force than the lighter one. The lift force and cylinder displacement always behave as an out-of-phase state. In the gap-interference region, large-amplitude oscillations could be produced extensively and in the wake-interference region, the cylinder motions and fluid flows are mainly dependent on the upstream cylinder. When the separation is large enough, both cylinders behave as two isolated ones. The mechanisms for the excitations of cylinder vibrations have also been analysed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG; JinJun; FENG; LiHao; XU; ChaoJun
2007-01-01
Circular cylinder separation control and flow structure influenced by the synthetic jet have been experimentally investigated in a water channel. The synthetic jet issues from a slot and ejects toward upstream from the front stagnation point of the cylinder. It has been found that, similar to the traditional synthetic jet which is positioned near the separation point or inside the separation region, the present synthetic jet arrangement constitutes an efficient way to control flow separation of the circular cylinder, but with a different control mechanism. The present synthetic jet leads to an upstream displacement of the front stagnation point and the formation of a vortex pair near both sides of the exit orifice. When ReU based on the synthetic jet average exit orifice velocity is about lower than 43, a closed envelope forms in front of the windward side of the cylinder during the blowing cycle of synthetic jet, which acts as an apparent modification for the cylinder configuration. When ReU is high enough, an open envelope forms upstream of the cylinder, and the flow around the cylinder becomes much energetic. Thus, regardless of ReU, the present synthetic jet can improve separation for flow around a circular cylinder. With regard to the leeward side, as ReU increases, the flow separation region behind the cylinder gradually disappears. The flow over cylinder may be fully attached when the open envelope forms upstream of the cylinder and ReU is greater than 344. Then, the flow past the cylinder will converge near the back stagnation point of the cylinder, where a new vortex pair shedding periodically is generated due to the high shear layer.
Control of mean and fluctuating forces on a circular cylinder at high Reynolds numbers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chuanping Shao; Jianming Wang
2007-01-01
A narrow strip is used to control mean and fluctuating forces on a circular cylinder at Reynolds numbers from 2.0 x 104 to 1.0 x 105. The axes of the strip and cylinder are parallel. The control parameters are strip width ratio and strip position characterized by angle of attack and distance from the cylinder. Wind tunnel tests show that the vortex shedding from both sides of the cylinder can be suppressed, and mean drag and fluctuating lift on the cylinder can be reduced if the strip is installed in an effective zone downstream of the cylinder. A phenomenon of mono-side vortex shedding is found. The strip-induced local changes of velocity profiles in the near wake of the cylinder are measured, and the relation between base suction and peak value in the power spectrum of fluctuating lift is studied. The control mechanism is then discussed from different points of view.
Flow Features of Three Side-by-side Circular Cylinders at Low Reynolds Number
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Junkao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In order to study the fluctuation of kinetic parameter of cylinder matrix in incompressible stationary flow, the flow fluid around three side-by-side circular cylinders are simulated using Immersed Boundary–Lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM. Drag and lift force of the three cylinders are investigated as the interval between each cylinder varied from zero to five times of the cylinder diameter. Five flow patterns are defined according to the vortices structure in the downstream of the cylinders. Power spectrum analysis of lift force is developed to explain the vortex patterns. Through the research, we find the strength and phase of the gap flow play an important role in the vortex formatting process. The vortices shedding from different cylinders neutralize and combine in the near wake, contributing a lot to the variation of forces.
Interaction of oblique waves with an array of long horizontal circular cylinders
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
NG; Chiu-On
2007-01-01
The scattering and radiations of linear oblique waves by multiple long horizontal circular cylinders submerged in water of finite depth are investigated using the multipole expansion method. Analytical expressions for the diffracted and radiated potentials are given as a linear combination of infinite multipoles. The unknown coefficients in the expressions are determined by using the addition theorem of the Bessel function and the cylinder boundary conditions. Also analytical expressions for wave forces, hydrodynamic coefficients and reflection and transmission coeffi-cients are derived. The present analytical solution is verified through the boundary element method and applied to investigate three different cases of the interaction of oblique waves with multiple submerged horizontal circular cylinders. The results show that the number of cylinders, the arrangement and spacing between cylinders play an important role in wave forces, hydrodynamic coefficients and reflection and transmission coefficients. Some interesting and important phenomena are ob-served in numerical experiments.
Interaction of oblique waves with an array of long horizontal circular cylinders
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHEN YongMing; ZHENG YongHong; NG Chiu-On
2007-01-01
The scattering and radiations of linear oblique waves by multiple long horizontal circular cylinders submerged in water of finite depth are investigated using the multipole expansion method. Analytical expressions for the diffracted and radiated potentials are given as a linear combination of infinite multipoles. The unknown coefficients in the expressions are determined by using the addition theorem of the Bessel function and the cylinder boundary conditions. Also analytical expressions for wave forces, hydrodynamic coefficients and reflection and transmission coefficients are derived. The present analytical solution is verified through the boundary element method and applied to investigate three different cases of the interaction of oblique waves with multiple submerged horizontal circular cylinders. The results show that the number of cylinders, the arrangement and spacing between cylinders play an important role in wave forces, hydrodynamic coefficients and reflection and transmission coefficients. Some interesting and important phenomena are observed in numerical experiments.
Numerical analysis of two and three dimensional buoyancy driven water-exit of a circular cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moshari Shahab
2014-06-01
Full Text Available With the development of the technology of underwater moving bodies, the need for developing the knowledge of surface effect interaction of free surface and underwater moving bodies is increased. Hence, the two-phase flow is a subject which is interesting for many researchers all around the world. In this paper, the non-linear free surface deformations which occur during the water-exit of a circular cylinder due to its buoyancy are solved using finite volume discretization based code, and using Volume of Fluid (VOF scheme for solving two phase flow. Dynamic mesh model is used to simulate dynamic motion of the cylinder. In addition, the effect of cylinder mass in presence of an external force is studied. Moreover, the oblique exit and entry of a circular cylinder with two exit angles is simulated. At last, water-exit of a circular cylinder in six degrees of freedom is simulated in 3D using parallel processing. The simulation errors of present work (using VOF method for maximum velocity and height of a circular cylinder are less than the corresponding errors of level set method reported by previous researchers. Oblique exit shows interesting results; formation of waves caused by exit of the cylinder, wave motion in horizontal direction and the air trapped between the waves are observable. In 3D simulation the visualization of water motion on the top surface of the cylinder and the free surface breaking on the front and back faces of the 3D cylinder at the exit phase are observed which cannot be seen in 2D simulation. Comparing the results, 3D simulation shows better agreement with experimental data, specially in the maximum height position of the cylinder.
Prebuckling, Buckling, and Postbuckling Response of Segmented Circular Composite Cylinders
Riddick, Jaret Cleveland
2001-01-01
Discussed is a numerical and experimental characterization of the response of small-scale fiber-reinforced composite cylinders constructed to represent a fuselage design whereby the crown and keel consist of one laminate stacking sequence and the two sides consist of another laminate stacking sequence. This construction is referred to as a segmented cylinder. The response to uniform axial endshortening is discussed. Numerical solutions for the nonlinear prebuckling, buckling, and postbuckling...
Mathematic modelling of circular cylinder deformation under inner grouwth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Siasiev
2009-09-01
Full Text Available A task on the intensive deformed state (IDS of a viscoelastic declivous cylinder, which is grown under the action of inner pressure, is considered. The process of continuous increase takes a place on an internal radius so, that a radius and pressure change on set to the given law. The special case of linear law of creeping is considered, and also numeral results are presented as the graphs of temporal dependence of tensions and moving for different points of cylinder.
Experimental Study on Local Scour Around A Large Circular Cylinder Under Irregular Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周益人; 陈国平
2004-01-01
A series of physical model tests are conducted for local scour around a circular cylinder of a relatively large diameter (0.15 ＜ D/L ＜ 0.5) under the action of irregular waves. The laws of change of the topography around the cylinder are systematically studied. The effects of wave height, wave period, water depth, sediment grain size and cylinder diameter are taken into account. The mechanism of formation of the topography around the cylinder is analyzed. A detailed analysis is given to bed sediment grain size, and it is considered that the depth of scour around the cylinder under wave action is not inversely proportional to the sediment grain diameter. On such a basis, an equation is proposed for calculation of the maximum depth of scour around a cylinder as well as its position under the action of irregular waves.
Direct numerical simulation on the particle flow in the wake of circular cylinder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
The spectral-element approach is used to simulate the gas-solid two-phase flow behind of the circular cylinder. Based on the method of a high accuracy calculation for the gas phase flow, the particle dynamic field is put into practice. Two key influence factors, Stokes number and Reynolds number, are investigated. The simulation results give a clear pattern of the physical characteristics of gas-particle flow. Due to the construction properties of the eddies in the wake of the circular cylinder, the suction is the main dispersion mechanism of particles near to the centric axis. This effect can make the small particle sucted to the near wake of the circular cylinder. The particle dispersion is also induced by the pressure gradient which is caused by the strong velocity gradient of gas phase.
Lift of a rotating circular cylinder in unsteady flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carstensen, Stefan; Mandviwalla, Xerxes; Vita, Luca;
2012-01-01
A cylinder rotating in steady current experiences a lift known as the Magnus effect. In the present study the effect of waves on the Magnus effect has been investigated. This situation is experienced with the novel floating offshore vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) concept called the DEEPWIND co...
Investigation of drag reduction through a flapping mechanism on circular cylinder
Asif, Md. Asafuddoula; Gupta, Avijit Das; Rana, M. D. Juwel; Ahmed, Dewan Hasan
2016-07-01
During flapping wing, a bird develops sufficient lift force as well as counteracts drag and increases its speed through different orientations of feathers on the flapping wings. Differently oriented feathers play a significant role in drag reduction during flying of a bird. With an objective to investigate the effect of installation of such flapping mechanism as a mean of drag reduction in case of flow over circular cylinder, this concept has been implemented through installation of continuous and mini flaps, made of MS sheet metal, where flaps are oriented at different angles as like feathers of flapping wings. The experiments are carried out in a subsonic wind tunnel. After validation and comparison with conventional result of drag analysis of a single cylinder, effects of flapping with Reynolds number variation, implementation of different orientations of mini flaps and variation of different interspacing distance between mini flaps are studied to find the most effective angle of attack of drag reduction on the body of circular cylinder. This research show that, installation of continuous flap reduces value of drag co-efficient, CD up to 66%, where as mini flaps are found more effective by reducing it up to 73%. Mini flaps of L/s=6.25, all angled at 30O, at the 30O angular position on the body of circular cylinder has been found the most effective angle of attack for drag reduction in case of flow over circular cylinder.
Das, Pramode K.; Mathew, Sam; Shaiju, A. J.; Patnaik, B. S. V.
2016-02-01
The control of vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder is a precursor to a wide range of external shear flow problems in engineering, in particular the flow-induced vibrations. In the present study, numerical simulation of an energetically efficient active flow control strategy is proposed, for the control of wake vortices behind a circular cylinder at a low Reynolds number of 100. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible and Newtonian with negligible variation in properties. Reflectionally symmetric controllers are designed such that, they are located on a small sector of the cylinder over which, tangential sliding mode control is imparted. In the field of modern controls, proportional (P), integral (I) and differential (D) control strategies and their numerous combinations are extremely popular in industrial practice. To impart suitable control actuation, the vertically varying lift force on the circular cylinder, is synthesised for the construction of an error term. Four different types of controllers considered in the present study are, P, I, PI and PID. These controllers are evaluated for their energetic efficiency and performance. A linear quadratic optimal control problem is formulated, to minimise the cost functional. By performing detailed simulations, it was observed that, the system is energetically efficient, even when the twin eddies are still persisting behind the circular cylinder. To assess the adaptability of the controllers, the actuators were switched on and off to study their dynamic response.
Unsteady flow around two-dimensional circular cylinder bundles in fluid elastic vibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe the unsteady flow around two-dimensional circular cylinder bundles supported by the leaf spring in the fluid-elastic vibration. The experiment was carried out in a circuit-type wind tunnel having a 200 mm x 200 mm working section of 2,000 mm length at the Reynolds number Re of 6,300. Two-dimensional circular cylinders with diameter D = 20 mm were aligned at regular spaces S in the square array of three rows. The spacing ratio between two adjoining circular cylinders was constant as S/D = 1.5. The time-mean velocity, turbulent intensities and Reynolds stress were measured by use of a laser Doppler velocimeter. The unsteady flow pattern around an oscillating cylinder was observed by the flow visualization in a water channel. Consequently, it was found that the occurrence of the fluid-elastic vibration is caused by the phenomenon of wake-switch for the circular cylinder bundles of three rows. (author)
Forcing of a bottom-mounted circular cylinder by steep regular water waves at finite depth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paulsen, Bo Terp; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.;
2014-01-01
with the experimental data was found. Time-domain computations of the normalized inline force history on the cylinder were analysed as a function of dimensionless wave height, water depth and wavelength. Here the dependence on depth was weak, while an increase in wavelength or wave height both lead to the formation......Forcing by steep regular water waves on a vertical circular cylinder at finite depth was investigated numerically by solving the two-phase incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. Consistently with potential flow theory, boundary layer effects were neglected at the sea bed and at the cylinder...... in deep water but start to deviate at decreasing depth....
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF FLOW STRUCTURE BEHIND A CIRCULAR CYLINDER WITH WAVY SURFACE BY PIV
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The wake behind a circular cylinder with wavy surface was investigated using single-frame PIV technique at Re=5200. The mean flow field and spatial distribution of turbulence statistics in the nodal, saddle and middle planes were presented and compared with those of a smooth cylinder. The near wake behind the wavy cylinder shows pronounced spanwise periodicity of flow structures. Compared with a smooth cylinder, the vortex formation region considerably expands in the streamwise direction, particularly reaching maximum in the saddle plane of the wavy cylinder. However, the longitudinal vortices in the nodal plane were noticeably suppressed in the transverse direction. In addition, the wake in the nodal plane contains the peak value of turbulent kinetic energy and the Reynolds shearing stress due to the intensive entrainment of free flow and the momentum exchange in the spanwise direction.
Numerical Simulation of Circular Cylinders in Free-Fall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Richmond, Marshall C.
2016-02-05
In this work, we combined the use of (i) overset meshes, (ii) a 6 degree-of-freedom (6- DOF) motion solver, and (iii) an eddy-resolving flow simulation approach to resolve the drag and secondary movement of large-sized cylinders settling in a quiescent fluid at moderate terminal Reynolds numbers (1,500 < Re < 28,000). These three strategies were implemented in a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions to describe the fluid-structure interactions and the resulting effects on the cylinder motion. Using the drag coefficient, oscillation period, and maximum angular displacement as baselines, the findings show good agreement between the present CFD results and corresponding data of published laboratory experiments. We discussed the computational expense incurred in using the present modeling approach. We also conducted a preceding simulation of flow past a fixed cylinder at Re = 3,900, which tested the influence of the turbulence approach (time-averaging vs eddy-resolving) and the meshing strategy (continuous vs. overset) on the numerical results. The outputs indicated a strong effect of the former and an insignificant influence of the latter. The long-term motivation for the present study is the need to understand the motion of an autonomous sensor of cylindrical shape used to measure the hydraulic conditions occurring in operating hydropower turbines.
THE INTERACTION OF A COLD ATOMISED SPRAY WITH A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. AROUSSI
2010-09-01
Full Text Available The development of non-intrusive diagnostic techniques has significantly increased with the introduction of lasers. Laser based anemometry, such as Laser Doppler (LDA, Phase Doppler (PDA, and Particle Image Velocimetery (PIV can provide an accurate description of flows without interference. This study determines experimentally the fluid motion resulting from the interaction of a liquid spray with a circular cylinder. Two experimental settings were examined: the first is a discharging spray into free air and the second is a spray impinging on a circular cylinder placed 25 cylinder diameters downstream of the nozzle. These sprays were quantified using PIV. A non-intrusive droplet sizing technique was used to characterise the spray. This has shown that, within the spray, the average droplet diameter increases when the circular cylinder is introduced and so does the frequency of occurrence of these large droplets. In the wake behind the cylinder, the smaller droplets were quickly entrained and recirculated, while the larger droplets continued in the general direction of the spray cone.
Experiments on Sphere Cylinder Geometry Dependence in the Electromagnetic Casimir Effect
Mukhopadhyay, Shomeek; Noruzifar, Ehsan; Wagner, Jeffrey; Zandi, Roya; Mohideen, Umar
2013-03-01
We report on ongoing experimental investigations on the geometry dependence of the electromagnetic Casimir force in the sphere-cylinder configuration. A gold coated hollow glass sphere which forms one surface is attached to a Silicon AFM cantilever. The cylinder, which is constructed from tapered optical fiber is also gold coated. The resonance frequency shift of the cantilever is measured as a function of the sphere-cylinder surface separation. The sphere-cylinder electrostatic force is used for alignment of the sphere and the cylinder and also for calibrating the system. The results are compared to numerical simulations in the framework of the Proximity Force Approximation (PFA).
Stabilization of vortices in the wake of a circular cylinder using harmonic forcing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chamoun, George Chaouki; Schilder, Frank; Brøns, Morten
2011-01-01
We explore whether vortex flows in the wake of a fixed circular cylinder can be stabilized using harmonic forcing. We use Fo¨ppl's point vortex model augmented with a harmonic point source-sink mechanism which preserves conservation of mass and leaves the system Hamiltonian. We discover a region...
Scattering from a Buried Circular Cylinder Illuminated by a Three-Dimensional Source
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, T.B.; Meincke, Peter
2002-01-01
We employ plane and cylindrical wave expansions with the fast Fourier transform to solve scattering problems involving a circular cylinder buried in soil. The illumination is provided by a three-dimensional source located in air above ground. Plane wave expansions describe transmitted and reflected...
Modelling the Inflation of Polyisobutylene Into an Elliptic and a Circular Cylinder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Gøttsche, Søren; Kjær, Erik Michael
2000-01-01
The isothermal inflation of a sheet of a Polyisobutylene melt into a circular and an elliptic cylinder is modelled using the 3D Lagrangian Integral Method. The non-linear properties of the Polyisobutylene are modelled with the Factorized K-BKZ constitutive equation, using a potential function bas...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
In the present study, analyzed are the variation of added mass for a circular cylinder in the lock-in (synchronization) range of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) and the relationship between added mass and natural frequency. A theoretical minimum value of the added mass coefficient for a circular cylinder at lock-in is given. Developed are semi-empirical formulas for the added mass of a circular cylinder at lock-in as a function of flow speed and mass ratio. A comparison between experiments and numerical simulations shows that the semi-empirical formulas describing the variation of the added mass for a circular cylinder at lock-in are better than the ideal added mass. In addition, computation models such as the wake oscillator model using the present formulas can predict the amplitude response of a circular cylinder at lock-in more accurately than those using the ideal added mass.
Accelerated micropolar fluid--flow past an uniformly rotating circular cylinder
Siddiqui, Abuzar Abid
2016-01-01
In this paper, we formulated the non-steady flow due to the uniformly accelerated and rotating circular cylinder from rest in a stationary, viscous, incompressible and micropolar fluid. This flow problem is examined numerically by adopting a special scheme comprising the Adams-Bashforth Temporal Fourier Series method and the Runge-Kutta Temporal Special Finite-Difference method. This numerical scheme transforms the governing equation for micropolar fluids for this problem into system of finite-difference equations. This system was further solved numerically by point SOR-method. These results were also further extrapolated by the Richardson extrapolation method. This scheme is valid for all values of the flow and fluid-parameters and for all time. Moreover the boundary conditions of the vorticity and the spin at points far from the cylinder are being imposed and encountered too. The results are compared with existing results (for non-rotating circular cylinder in Newtonian fluids). The comparison is good. The ...
VANISHING OF THREE-DIMENSIONALITY IN THE WAKE BEHIND A ROTATIONALLY OSCILLATING CIRCULAR CYLINDER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The flow behind a three-dimensional rotationally oscillating circular cylinder was studied by a numerical method. The computations were performed at a Reynolds number of 260, which is at a level that the flow wake has developed into a three-dimensional state called Mode-B. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of various rotational amplitudes (0.1-0.7) on the wake instability of the flow, while the oscillation frequency is fixed to the value of that measured in the wake of a stationary cylinder. The results show that the rotation with sufficiently high amplitude brings the flow back to its nominal two-dimensional state. Moreover, it is found that the value of the time-averaged drag and the RMS value of the lift are larger than those of a stationary circular cylinder.
Vortex-Induced Vibration Suppression of a Circular Cylinder with Vortex Generators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shi-bo Tao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The vortex-induced vibration is one of the most important factors to make the engineering failure in wind engineering. This paper focuses on the suppression method of vortex-induced vibration that occurs on a circular cylinder fitted with vortex generators, based on the wind tunnel experiment. The effect of the vortex generators is presented with comparisons including the bare cylinder. The experimental results reveal that the vortex generators can efficiently suppress vortex-induced vibration of the circular cylinder. Vortex generator control can make the boundary layer profile fuller and hence more resistant to separation. The selections of skew angles and the angular position have a significant influence on the vortex generator control effect. By correlation analysis, it can be concluded that the vortex generators can inhibit the communication between the two shear layers and produce streamwise vortices to generate a disturbance in the spanwise direction.
RANS-VOF solver for solitary wave run-up on a circular cylinder
Cao, Hong-jian; Wan, De-cheng
2015-04-01
Simulation of solitary wave run-up on a vertical circular cylinder is carried out in a viscous numerical wave tank developed based on the open source codes OpenFOAM. An incompressible two-phase flow solver naoe-FOAM-SJTU is used to solve the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the SST k- ω turbulence model. The PISO algorithm is utilized for the pressure-velocity coupling. The air-water interface is captured via Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique. The present numerical model is validated by simulating the solitary wave run-up and reflected against a vertical wall, and solitary wave run-up on a vertical circular cylinder. Comparisons between numerical results and available experimental data show satisfactory agreement. Furthermore, simulations are carried out to study the solitary wave run-up on the cylinder with different incident wave height H and different cylinder radius a. The relationships of the wave run-up height with the incident wave height H, cylinder radius a are analyzed. The evolutions of the scattering free surface and vortex shedding are also presented to give a better understanding of the process of nonlinear wave-cylinder interaction.
RANS-VOF Solver for Solitary Wave Run-up on A Circular Cylinder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曹洪建; 万德成
2015-01-01
Simulation of solitary wave run-up on a vertical circular cylinder is carried out in a viscous numerical wave tank developed based on the open source codes OpenFOAM. An incompressible two-phase flow solver naoe-FOAM-SJTU is used to solve the Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations with the SST k-wturbulence model. The PISO algorithm is utilized for the pressure-velocity coupling. The air-water interface is captured via Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique. The present numerical model is validated by simulating the solitary wave run-up and reflected against a vertical wall, and solitary wave run-up on a vertical circular cylinder. Comparisons between numerical results and available experimental data show satisfactory agreement. Furthermore, simulations are carried out to study the solitary wave run-up on the cylinder with different incident wave height H and different cylinder radius a. The relationships of the wave run-up height with the incident wave height H, cylinder radius a are analyzed. The evolutions of the scattering free surface and vortex shedding are also presented to give a better understanding of the process of nonlinear wave-cylinder interaction.
Dual Circularly Polarized Omnidirectional Antenna with Slot Array on Coaxial Cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Zhou
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A dual circularly polarized (CP omnidirectional antenna based on slot array in coaxial cylinder structure is presented in this paper. It is constructed by perpendicular slot pairs around and along the axis of the coaxial cylinder to realize the omnidirectional CP property, and two ports are assigned in its two sides as left hand circularly polarized (LHCP port and right hand circularly polarized (RHCP port, respectively. The proposed antenna achieves a bandwidth of 16.4% ranging from 5.05 to 5.95 GHz with an isolation higher than 15 dB between the two CP ports, and the return loss (RL is higher than 10 dB within the bandwidth in both of the two ports. From the measured results, the average axial ratio (AR of the proposed antenna in omnidirectional plane is lower than 1.5 dB.
Scattering by cavity-backed antennas on a circular cylinder
Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.
1994-01-01
Conformal arrays are popular antennas for aircraft, spacecraft, and land vehicle platforms due to their inherent low weight and drag properties. However, to date there has been a dearth of rigorous analytical or numerical solutions to aid the designer. In fact, it has been common practice to use limited measurements and planar approximations in designing such non-planar antennas. The finite element-boundary integral method is extended to scattering by cavity-backed structures in an infinite, metallic cylinder. In particular, the formulation specifics such as weight functions, dyadic Green's function, implementation details and particular difficulties inherent to cylindrical structures are discussed. Special care is taken to ensure that the resulting computer program has low memory demand and minimal computational requirements. Scattering results are presented and validated as much as possible.
Radiation by cavity-backed antennas on a circular cylinder
Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.; Sliva, Randy
1994-01-01
Conformal antenna arrays are popular antennas for aircraft, spacecraft and land vehicle platforms due to their inherent low weight, cost and drag properties. However, to date there has been a dearth of rigorous analytical or numerical solutions to aid the designer. In fact, it has been common practice to use limited measurements and planar approximations in designing such non-planar antennas. The finite element-boundary integral method is extended to radiation by cavity-backed structures in an infinite, metallic cylinder. The formulation is used to investigate the effect of cavity size on the radiation pattern for typical circumferentially and axially polarized patch antennas. Curvature effect on the gain, pattern shape, and input impedance is also studied. Finally, the accuracy of the FE-BI approach for a microstrip patch array is demonstrated.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIA Yong; LU De-Tang; LIU Yang; XU You-Sheng
2009-01-01
The multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) is implemented to numerically simulate the cross flow over a longitudinal vibrating circular cylinder.This research is carried out on a three-dimensional (3D) finite cantilevered cylinder to investigate the effect of forced vibration on the wake characteristics and the 319 effect of a cantilevered cylinder.To meet the accuracy of this method,the present calculation is carried out at a low Reynolds number Re = 100,as well as to make the vibration obvious,we make the vibration strong enough.The calculation results indicate that the vibration has significant influence on the wake characteristics. When the vibrating is big enough,our early works show that the 2D vortex shedding would be locked up by vibration.Contrarily,this phenomenon would not appear in the present 313 case because of the end effect of the cantilevered cylinder.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Rehimi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Experiments were performed at low Reynolds numbers in the range 75 Re 275 in the wake of a circular cylinder of dc diameter placed symmetrically between two parallel walls of H height. 2D2C particle image velocimetry (PIV was used to investigate the flow downstream the cylinder. In the unsteady flow regime downstream the cylinder, the detached primary vortices (Pi interact with walls generating secondary ones (Pi’ and modify the cylinder wake dynamic. The kinematical properties (advection velocity, circulation, rotation kinetic energy, etc. of the generated secondary vortices are studied and compared with the primary ones in order to show how the walls influence the von Kármán vortex street. The authors propose here a relation between the circulations and kinetic energies of primary and secondary vortices.
Experimental Study of the Flow Field around a Circular Cylinder Using Plasma Actuators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siavash Tabatabaeian
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper different configurations of plasma actuator for controlling the flow around a circular cylinder made of Quartz were experimentally investigated. Three thin plasma actuator electrodes were flush-mounted on the surface of the cylinder and were connected to a DC high voltage power supply for generation of electrical discharge. Different configurations of plasma actuator were used for this study and pressure distribution experiments showed that the existence of the plasma decreases the pressure coefficient of the cylinder and the variation of the pressure coefficient can change the behavior of the lift and drag coefficient of the cylinder for all configurations. According to the pressure distribution data, two configurations of the plasma actuators made the best influence on the aerodynamic performance and also on the drag reduction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yingnan Fu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Viscous flow past an upstream in-line forced oscillating circular cylinder with a stationary cylinder downstream at Reynolds number of 100 is investigated using a CIP model. The model is established in a Cartesian coordinate system using a high-order difference method to discretise the Navier-Stokes equations. The fluid-structure interaction is treated as a multiphase flow with fluid and solid phases solved simultaneously. An immersed boundary method is used to deal with the fluid-body coupling. The CFD model is firstly applied to the computation of flow past a fixed circular cylinder for its validation; then flow over two stationary tandem cylinders is investigated and good agreements are obtained comparing with existing ones. Computations are then performed with flow past two tandem cylinders with an upstream in-line oscillating cylinder with a small spacing L=2D. Considerable attention is paid to the spectrum characteristics and vortex modes.
Oscillation-induced sand ripples in a circular geometry.
Rousseaux, Germain; Kruithof, Joachim; Jenffer, Patrice; Wesfreid, José Eduardo
2008-07-01
This study deals with the observation of sand ripples in a circular geometry under oscillatory flow. We characterize the observed patterns as a function of the excitation parameters. We report the time evolution of the corrugated front invading the flat bed. These experiments reveal unambiguously, because of the gradient of shear stress, the existence of two separated thresholds: one for grain motion and the other for the appearance of ripples. In addition, we display the phase diagram of this instability as a function of the Froude number and a Reynolds number. PMID:18764045
FLOW PAST TWO ROTATING CIRCULAR CYLINDERS IN A SIDE-BY-SIDE ARRANGEMENT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Xiao-hui; LIN Jian-zhong; TU Cheng-xu; WANG Hao-li
2009-01-01
Measurements were performed using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to analyze the modification of flow by the combined effects of the rotation and the Reynolds number on the flow past two rotating circular cylinders in a side-by-side-arrangement at a range of , (α is the rotational speed) at one gap spacing of (T and d are the distance between the centers of two cylinders and the cylinder diameter, respectively). A new Immersed-Lattice Boltzmann Method (ILBM) scheme was used to study the effect of the gap spacing on the flow. The results show that the vortex shedding is suppressed as rotational speed increases. The flow reaches a steady state when the vortex shedding for both cylinders is completely suppressed at critical rotational speed. As the rotational speed further increases, the separation phenomenon in the boundary layers disappears at the attachment rotational speed. The critical rotational speed and attachment rotational speed become small as Reynolds number increases. The absolute rotational speed of cylinders should be large at same critical rotational speed and attachment rotational speed in the case of large Reynolds number. The gap spacing has an important role in changing the pattern of vortex shedding. It is very different in the mechanism of vortex shedding suppression for the flows around two rotating cylinders and single rotating cylinder.
Experiment on smooth, circular cylinders in cross-flow in the critical Reynolds number regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miau, J.J.; Tsai, H.W.; Lin, Y.J.; Tu, J.K.; Fang, C.H.; Chen, M.C. [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Tainan (China)
2011-10-15
Experiments were conducted for 2D circular cylinders at Reynolds numbers in the range of 1.73 x 10{sup 5}-5.86 x 10{sup 5}. In the experiment, two circular cylinder models made of acrylic and stainless steel, respectively, were employed, which have similar dimensions but different surface roughness. Particular attention was paid to the unsteady flow behaviors inferred by the signals obtained from the pressure taps on the cylinder models and by a hot-wire probe in the near-wake region. At Reynolds numbers pertaining to the initial transition from the subcritical to the critical regimes, pronounced pressure fluctuations were measured on the surfaces of both cylinder models, which were attributed to the excursion of unsteady flow separation over a large circumferential region. At the Reynolds numbers almost reaching the one-bubble state, it was noted that the development of separation bubble might switch from one side to the other with time. Wavelet analysis of the pressure signals measured simultaneously at {theta} = {+-}90 further revealed that when no separation bubble was developed, the instantaneous vortex-shedding frequencies could be clearly resolved, about 0.2, in terms of the Strouhal number. The results of oil-film flow visualization on the stainless steel cylinder of the one-bubble and two-bubble states showed that the flow reattachment region downstream of a separation bubble appeared not uniform along the span of the model. Thus, the three dimensionality was quite evident. (orig.)
Şibliyev, Orxan
2012-01-01
ABSTRACT: In this work, a computer program is written for solving the turbulent flow equations on unstructured grids using a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model in C++ language. To test the code, two cases are considered: laminar, periodic flow past a circular cylinder at Reynolds number, ReD = 100 which is based on the diameter of the cylinder and turbulent flow at ReD = 3900. The turbulence or sub-grid scale (SGS) model is chosen as Smagorinsky model due to its simplicity compared with dy...
Large eddy simulation of the subcritical flow over a V grooved circular cylinder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alonzo-García, A. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME Zacatenco, U.P. Adolfo López Mateos Edif. 5, 3er. Piso, LABINTHAP, Av. Instituto Politénicno Nacional s/n, Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, México D.F., México (Mexico); Gutiérrez-Torres, C. del C., E-mail: cgutierrezt@ipn.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME Zacatenco, U.P. Adolfo López Mateos Edif. 5, 3er. Piso, LABINTHAP, Av. Instituto Politénicno Nacional s/n, Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, México D.F., México (Mexico); Jiménez-Bernal, J.A. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME Zacatenco, U.P. Adolfo López Mateos Edif. 5, 3er. Piso, LABINTHAP, Av. Instituto Politénicno Nacional s/n, Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, México D.F., México (Mexico); and others
2015-09-15
Highlights: • We compared numerically the turbulent flow over a smooth circular cylinder and a V grooved cylinder in the subcritical regime. • Turbulence intensities in both streamwise and normal direction suffered attenuations. • The swirls structures on grooves peaks seemed to have a cyclic behavior. • The evolution of the flow inside grooves showed that swirls structures located in peaks suffered elongations in the normal direction. • The secondary vortex structures formed in the grooved cylinder near wake were smaller in comparison of the smooth cylinder flow. - Abstract: In this paper, a comparative numerical study of the subcritical flow over a smooth cylinder and a cylinder with V grooves (Re = 140,000) is presented. The implemented technique was the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), which according to Kolmogorov's theory, resolves directly the most energetic largest eddies and models the smallest and considered universal high frequency ones. The Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations were solved using the commercial software ANSYS FLUENT V.12.1, which applied the finite volume method (FVM) to discretize these equations in their unsteady and incompressible forms. The grid densities were 2.6 million cells and 13.5 million cells for the smooth and V grooved cylinder, respectively. Both meshes were composed of structured hexahedral cells and close to the wall of the cylinders, additional refinements were employed in order to obtain y{sup +<5} values. All cases were simulated during at least 15 vortex shedding cycles with the aim of obtaining significant statistical data. Results: showed that for both cases (smooth and V grooved cylinder flow), the numerical code was capable of reproducing the most important physical quantities of the subcritical regime. Velocity distribution and turbulence intensity in the flow direction suffered a slight attenuation along the wake, as a consequence of grooves perturbation, which also caused an increase in the pressure
Ahmed W. Mustava
2013-01-01
The effect of a semi-circular cylinders in a two dimensional channel on heat transfer by forced convection from two heat sources with a constant temperature has been studied numerically. Each channel contains two heat sources; one on the upper surface of the channel and the other on the lower surface of the channel. There is semi-circular cylinder under the source in upper surface and there is semi-circular cylinder above the source in lower surface. The location of the second heat source wit...
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW OVER TWO SIDE-BY-SIDE CIRCULAR CYLINDERS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SARVGHAD-MOGHADDAM Hesam; NOOREDIN Navid; GHADIRI-DEHKORDI Behzad
2011-01-01
In the present paper,the unsteady,viscous,incompressible and 2-D flow around two side-by-side circular cylinders was simulated using a Cartesian-staggered grid finite volume based method.A great-source term technique was employed to identify the solid bodies (cylinders) located in the flow field and boundary conditions were enforced by applying the ghost-cell technique.Finally,the characteristics of the flow around two side-by-side cylinders were comprehensively obtained through several computational simulations.The computational simulations were performed for different transverse gap ratios (1.5≤T/D≤4) in laminar (Re =100,200 ) and turbulent (Re =104) regimes,where T and D are the distance between the centers of cylinders and the diameter of cylinders,respectively.The Reynolds number is based on the diameter of cylinders,D.The pressure field and vorticity distributions along with the associated streamlines and the time histories of hydrodynamic forces were also calculated and analyzed for different gap ratios.Generally,different flow patterns were observed as the gap ratio and Reynolds number varied.Accordingly,the hydrodynamic forces showed irregular variations for small gaps while they took a regular pattern at higher spacing ratios.
Effect of Mach number on transonic flow past a circular cylinder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU ChangYue; CHEN LiWei; LU XiYun
2009-01-01
The effect of Mach number on transonic flow past a circular cylinder is investigated numerically for the free-stream Mach number M∞from 0.85 to 0.98 and the Reynolds number 2×105 based on the diameter of the cylinder. The work provides an insight into several salient features, including unsteady and quasi-steady flow state, formation of local supersonic zone, and evolution of turbulent shear layer. Results show that there exist two flow states dependent of a critical Mach number Mcr around 0.9. One is an unsteady flow state characterized by moving shock waves interacting with the turbulent flow in the near region of the cylinder for M∞Mcr, and the other is a quasi-steady flow state with nearly sta-tionary shock waves formed in the near wake for M∞>Mcr, suppressing vortex shedding from the cylin-der. Some flow behaviors in the unsteady and quasi-steady flow states are revealed. From time evolu-tion of flow structures, local supersonic zones are identified in the wake and generated by two typical processes, i.e. reverse flow behind the cylinder and shed vortices in the near wake. The convective Mach number Mc of turbulent shear layers shed from the cylinder is identified nearly as Mc 1 in the quasi-steady flow regime, resulting in different evolutions of the shear layers.
Computation of Viscous Uniform and Shear Flow over A Circular Cylinder by A Finite Element Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵明; 滕斌
2004-01-01
The incompressible viscous uniform and shear flow past a circular cylinder is studied. The two-dimensional NavierStokes equations are solved by a finite element method. The governing equations are discretized by a weighted residual method in space. The stable three-step scheme is applied to the momentum equations in the time integration. The numerical model is firstly applied to the computation of the lid-driven cavity flow for its validation. The computed results agree well with the measured data and other numerical results. Then, it is used to simulate the viscous uniform and shear flow over a circular cylinder for Reynolds numbers from 100 to 1000. The transient time interval before the vortex shedding occurs is shortened considerably by introduction of artificial perturbation. The computed Strouhal number, drag and lift coefficients agree well with the experimental data. The computation shows that the finite element model can be successfully applied to the viscous flow problem.
REGIMES OF VORTEX SHEDDING FROM AN IN-LINE OSCILLATING CIRCULAR CYLINDER IN THE UNIFORM FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘松; 符松
2003-01-01
A finite volume method for the time dependent viscous incompressible flow around an in-line oscillating circular cylinder at Reynolds number of 200, 855 is presented in this paper. The Navier-Stokes equations in a finite volume form are solved with a moving grid system, based on a time dependent coordinate transformation. To investigate the vortex-shedding characteristics behind the circular cylinder and the effects of Reynolds number and other non-dimensional parameters such as reduced amplitude and reduced frequency, several numerical schemes have been tested with different amplitude and frequency close to St0 and a harmonic at each Reynolds number. Present numerical results indicate several types of vortex shedding mode which is known mainly depending on the reduced frequency and also the reduced amplitude, which is called synchronization or lock-on.
Nemeth, Michael P.
2014-01-01
Nonlinear and bifurcation buckling equations for elastic, stiffened, geometrically perfect, right-circular cylindrical, anisotropic shells subjected to combined loads are presented that are based on Sanders' shell theory. Based on these equations, a three-parameter approximate Rayleigh-Ritz solution and a classical solution to the buckling problem are presented for cylinders with simply supported edges. Extensive comparisons of results obtained from these solutions with published results are also presented for a wide range of cylinder constructions. These comparisons include laminated-composite cylinders with a wide variety of shell-wall orthotropies and anisotropies. Numerous results are also given that show the discrepancies between the results obtained by using Donnell's equations and variants of Sanders' equations. For some cases, nondimensional parameters are identified and "master" curves are presented that facilitate the concise representation of results.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL FLOW AROUND TWO TANDEM CIRCULAR CYLINDERS WITH VARIOUS SPACING AT Re=220
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The flow around two tandem circular cylinders was studied by a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations at Re=220. The improved virtual boundary method was applied to model the no-slip boundary condition of the cylinders. The results show that as the spacing ratio L/D ≥4, the three dimensionality occurs in the wake. When L/D≤3.5 the wake keeps a two-dimensional state at the Reynolds number Re=220. The critical spacing for the appearance of three-dimensional instability obtained is at the range 3.5＜L/D＜4, similar to the critical spacing found in two-dimensional case. Two sources of instability from upstream and downstream cylinder generate a complicated vortex structures in the wake, investigated by streamlines topology analysis in the streamwise plane. Many other interesting problems were also addressed in this paper.
Unsteady Numerical Simulation of Flow around 2-D Circular Cylinder for High Reynolds Numbers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yanhui Ai; Dakui Feng; Hengkui Ye; Lin Li
2013-01-01
In this paper,2-D computational analyses were conducted for unsteady high Reynolds number flows around a smooth circular cylinder in the supercritical and upper-transition flow regimes,i.e.8.21×104＜Re＜l.54×106.The calculations were performed by means of solving the 2-D Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations with a k-ε turbulence model.The calculated results,produced flow structure drag and lift coefficients,as well as Strouhal numbers.The findings were in good agreement with previous published data,which also supplied us with a good understanding of the flow across cylinders of different high Reynolds numbers.Meanwhile,an effective measure was presented to control the lift force on a cylinder,which points the way to decrease the vortex induced vibration of marine structure in future.
Computational study of subcritical response in flow past a circular cylinder
Cantwell, Christopher D.; Barkley, Dwight
2013-01-01
Flow past a circular cylinder is investigated in the subcritical regime, below the onset of Benard-von Karman vortex shedding at Re_c ~ 47. The transient response of infinitesimal perturbations is computed. The domain requirements for obtaining converged results is discussed at length. It is shown that energy amplification occurs as low as Re=2.2. Throughout much of the subcritical regime the maximum energy amplification increases approximately exponentially in the square of Re reaching 6800 ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Wan-hai; Yu Jian-xing; Du Jie; CHENG An-kang; KANG Hao
2012-01-01
The streamwise flow-induced vibration of a circular cylinder with symmetric vortex shedding in the first instability range is investigated,and a wake oscillator model for the dynamic response prediction is proposed.An approach is applied to calibrate the empirical parameters in the present model; the numerical and experimental results are compared to validate the proposed model.It can be found that the present prediction model is accurate and sufficiently simple to be easily applied in practice.
CALCULATION OF VISCOUS FLOW AROUND CIRCULAR CYLINDER WITH THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL SIMULATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Three-dimensional numerical simulation of a uniform incompressible viscous flow around a stationary circular cylinder was conducted. The CFX-4 software was used to calculate the hydrodynamic characteristics of the flow and the finite volume method for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations was employed in the program. The simulation of the flow was performed for Re=103 and Re=104 respectively within the sub-critical region. In order to overcome numerical instability for the high Reynolds number flows, a quadratic upwind scheme was incorporated for the Navier-Stokes equations. The periodicity boundary condition was used at the ends of the cylinder. It was found that the evolution of the lift and drag coefficients in each plane along the cylinder span is different. Comparison between the predicted results based on the three-dimensional and the two-dimensional analysis was also given. It is concluded that at the high Reynolds number the effect of three-dimensionality of the flow around the circular cylinder is remarkable, and in addition hydrodynamic coefficients with of 3-D simulation are less than those given by 2-D simulation.
Mathematical Modeling of Partial-Porous Circular Cylinders with Water Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min-Su Park
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The interaction of water waves with partially porous-surfaced circular cylinders was investigated. A three-dimensional numerical modeling was developed based on the complete mathematical formulation of the eigenfunction expansion method in the potential flow. Darcy’s law was applied to describe the porous boundary. The partial-porous cylinder is composed of a porous-surfaced body near the free surface, and an impermeable-surfaced body with an end-capped rigid bottom below the porous region. The optimal ratio of the porous portion to the impermeable portion can be adopted to design an effective ocean structure with minimal hydrodynamic impact. To scrutinize the hydrodynamic interactions in N partial-porous circular cylinders, the computational fluid domain is divided into three regions: an exterior region, N inner porous body regions, and N regions beneath the body. Wave excitation forces and wave run-up on multibodied partial-porous cylinders are calculated and compared for various porous-portion ratios and wave conditions, all of which significantly influence the hydrodynamic property.
Numerical simulation of turbulent flow around a forced moving circular cylinder on cut cells
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BAI Wei
2013-01-01
Fixed and forced moving circular cylinders in turbulent flows are studied by using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and two-equation based Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) turbulence models. The Cartesian cut cell approach is adopted to track the body surface across a stationary background grid covering the whole computational domain. A cell-centered finite volume method of second-order accuracy in both time and space is developed to solve the flow field in fluid cells, which is also modified accordingly in cut cells and merged cells. In order to compare different turbulence models, the current flow past a fixed circular cylinder at a mode- rate Reynolds number,Re=3 900, is tested first. The model is also applied to the simulation of a forced oscillating circular cylinder in the turbulent flow, and the influences of different oscillation amplitudes, frequencies and free stream velocities are discussed. The numerical results indicate that the present numerical model based on the Cartesian cut cell approach is capable of solving the turbu- lent flow around a body undergoing motions, which is a foundation for the possible future study on wake induced oscillation and vor- tex induced vibration.
An Approximate Method for Calculation of Fluid Force and Response of A Circular Cylinder at Lock-in
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Yi
2008-01-01
In this paper, equations calculating lift force of a rigid circular cylinder at lock-in in uniform flow are deduced in detail. Besides, equations calculating the lift force on a long flexible circular cylinder at lock-in are deduced based on mode analysis of a multi-degree freedom system. The simplified forms of these equations are also given. Furthermore, an approximate method to predict the forces and response of rigid circular cylinders and long flexible circular cylinders at lock-in is introduced in the case of low mass-damping ratio. A method to eliminate one deficiency of these equations is introduced. Comparison with experimental results shows the effectiveness of this approximate method.
Flow patterns and heat transfer around six in-line circular cylinders at low Reynolds number
Fornarelli, Francesco; Lippolis, Antonio
2014-01-01
The flow field and the heat transfer around six in-line iso-thermal circular cylinders has been studied by mean of numerical simulations. Two values of the center to center spacing ($s=3.6d$ and $4d$, where $d$ is the cylinder diameter) at Reynolds number of $100$ and Prandtl number of $0.7$ has been investigated. Similarly to the in-line two cylinder configuration, in this range a transition in the flow and in the heat transfer occurs. Two different flow patterns have been identified: the stable shear layer (SSL) mode and the shear layer secondary vortices (SLSV) mode, at $3.6$ and $4$ spacing ratio ($s/d$), respectively. At $s/d=3.6$ the flow pattern causes the entrainment of cold fluid on the downstream cylinders enhancing the heat transfer. On the other hand at $s/d=4$ two stable opposite shear layer prevent the cold fluid entrainment over the downstream cylinders reducing their heat exchange. The overall time average heat transfer of the array is enhanced up to 25% decreasing the spacing ratio from $4$ t...
Plane section of cone and cylinder in computer geometry
Obradović Ratko M.; Milojević Zoran
2005-01-01
In this paper a mathematical apparatus for determination of plane section of cone and cylinder was formed. By using the descriptive geometric approach the contour lines of these quadrics were determined. The fact that the tangent lines of a circle could be transformed to the tangent lines of an ellipse using affinity was employed. In that way surfaces are represented by contour lines (tangent lines of basic ellipse in oblique projection) and thus they have a realistic view. Intersecting plane...
Huang, Zhu
2015-03-01
The periodic unsteady natural convection flow and heat transfer in a square enclosure containing a concentric circular cylinder is numerically studied. The temperature of the inner circular cylinder fluctuates periodically with time at higher averaged value while the temperature of the enclosure keeps lower constant, and the natural convection is driven by the temperature difference. The two-dimensional natural convection is simulated with high accuracy temporal spectral method and local radial basis functions method. The Rayleigh number is studied in the range 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106, the temperature pulsating period ranges from 0.01 to 100 and the temperature pulsating amplitudes are a = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. Numerical results reveal that the fluid flow and heat transfer is strongly dependent on the pulsating temperature of inner cylinder. Comparing with the steady state natural convection, the heat transfer is enhanced generally for the time-periodic unsteady natural convection, and the local maximum heat transfer rate is observed for Ra = 105 and 106. Moreover, the phenomenon of backward heat transfer is discussed quantitatively. Also, the influence of pulsating temperature on the unsteady fluid flow and heat transfer are discussed and analyzed.
MULTI-MODE OF VORTEX-INDUCED VIBRATION OF A FLEXIBLE CIRCULAR CYLINDER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIE Fang-fang; DENG Jian; ZHENG Yao
2011-01-01
The vortex-induced vibration of a flexible circular cylinder is investigated at a constant Reynolds number of 1 000.The finite-volume method on moving meshes is applied for the fluid flow,and the Euler-Bemoulli beam theory is used to model the dynamic response of a flexible cylinder.The relationship between the reduced velocity and the amplitude response agrees well with the experimental results.Moreover,five different vibrating modes appear in the simulation.From the comparisons of their vortex structures,the strength of the wake flow is related to the exciting vibrating mode and different vortex patterns arise for different vibrating modes.Only 2P pattern appears in the first vibrating mode while 2S-2P patterns occur in the other vibrating modes if monitoring at different sections along the length of the cylinder.The vibration of the flexible cylinder can also greatly alter the three-dimensionality in the wake,which needs further studies in our future work,especially in the transition region for the Reynolds number from 170 to 300.
Three-Dimensional Instability of Flow Around Two Circular Cylinders in Tandem Arrangement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG Jian; REN An-lu; ZOU Jian-feng
2005-01-01
The spatial evolution of vortices and transition to three-dimensionality in the wake of two circular cylinders in tandem arrangement have been numerically studied. An improved virtual body method developed from the virtual boundary method is used here. A Reynolds number range between 220 and 270 has been considered, and the spacing between two cylinders is selected as L/D=3 and L/D=3.5. When L/D=3, the secondary vortices of Mode-A are seen to appear at Re=240 and persist over the range of the Reynolds number of 240～270. When L/D=3.5, the similar critical Reynolds number has been found at Re=250. No obvious discontinuity has been found in the Strouhal-Reynolds number relationship, and this is different from three-dimensional flow around a single cylinder at the critical Reynolds number. The spanwise wavelength is about four times the diameter of the cylinder, and it is the characteristic wavelength for Mode-A instability. This paper can give some foremost insight into the three-dimensional instability of flow by complicated geometrical configuration.
Study of Flowrate Measurement Characteristics of a Circular Cylinder with a Slit%带狭缝圆柱钝体流量测量特性研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王慧; 黄咏梅
2013-01-01
The flowrate characteristics of vortex flowmeter is closely related to the size and geometry shape of vortex bluff body. A new kind of circular cylinder with a slit structure is proposed and applied to vortex flowmeter. Theoretical analysis shows that the slit can be regarded as a feedback channel, which can effectively accelerate vortex shedding and increase vortex intensity. Experiments were carried out in a water pipe with a diameter of 50 mm. Vortex signals produced by circular cylinder with a slit and trapezoidal cylinder respectively at different flowrate were collected. This paper mainly focuses on analyzing the low flowrate measurement performance of circular cylinder with a slit. Experimental results show that compared with trapezoidal cylinder circular cylinder with a slit possesses following characteristics:vortex signal intensity is stronger, signal-to-noise ratio is higher, the Reynolds number of measurement range can be as low as 9. 5í103 and linearity of Strouhal number is better as well. Theoretical analysis and experimental results manifest that circular cylinder with a slit possesses good flowrate meas-urement features and can be applied to vortex flowmeter successfully.%涡街流量计的流量特性与旋涡发生体的形状和几何尺寸密切相关,提出了一种新型的带狭缝圆柱发生体结构并应用于涡街流量计。理论分析表明狭缝可以看作是一个反馈通道,可有效加快旋涡脱落并增强旋涡强度。在内径为50 mm的管道中进行实验,采集不同流量下带狭缝圆柱与梯形柱绕流产生的涡街信号,重点讨论带狭缝圆柱的小流量测量性能。实验表明,与梯形柱相比,带狭缝圆柱涡街信号更强,信噪比高,雷诺数测量范围可低至9.5×103,斯特劳哈尔数线性度更好。理论分析与实验结果表明,带狭缝圆柱具有较好的流量测量特性,可应用于涡街流量计。
Numerical Simulation of Wave Scour Around A Large-Scale Circular Cylinder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵明; 滕斌; 柳淑学
2002-01-01
A numerical model is developed for estimation of local scour around a large circular cylinder under wave action. The model includes wave diffraction around structures, bed shear stress calculation inside the wave boundary layer and topographical change model. The wave model is based on the improved Boussinesq equations for varying depth. The wave boundary layer is calculated by solving the integrated momentum equation over the boundary layer. The bed shear stress due to streaming, an important factor affecting the sediment transport around a large-scale cylinder, is calculated. The Lagrangian drift velocity is included in calculation of the suspended sediment transport rates. The model is implemented by a finite element method and the results from the present model, which agree well with experimental data, are compared with those from other methods.
Stokes ﬂow past a swarm of porous circular cylinders with Happel and Kuwabara boundary conditions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Satya Deo
2004-08-01
The problem of creeping ﬂow past a swarm of porous circular cylinders with Happel and Kuwabara boundary conditions is investigated. The Brinkman equation for the ﬂow inside the porous cylinder and the Stokes equation outside the porous cylinder in their stream function formulations are used. The force experienced by each porous circular cylinder in a cell is evaluated. Explicit expressions of stream functions are obtained for both the inside and outside ﬂow ﬁelds. The earlier results reported by Happel and Kuwabara for ﬂow past a solid cylinder in Happel’s and Kuwabara’s cell model, have been deduced. Analytical expressions for the velocity components, pressure, vorticity and stress- tensor are also obtained.
Reynolds and froude number effect on the flow past an interface-piercing circular cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koo Bonguk
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The two-phase turbulent flow past an interface-piercing circular cylinder is studied using a high-fidelity orthogonal curvilinear grid solver with a Lagrangian dynamic subgrid-scale model for large-eddy simulation and a coupled level set and volume of fluid method for air-water interface tracking. The simulations cover the sub-critical and critical and post critical regimes of the Reynolds and sub and super-critical Froude numbers in order to investigate the effect of both dimensionless parameters on the flow. Significant changes in flow features near the air-water interface were observed as the Reynolds number was increased from the sub-critical to the critical regime. The interface makes the separation point near the interface much delayed for all Reynolds numbers. The separation region at intermediate depths is remarkably reduced for the critical Reynolds number regime. The deep flow resembles the single-phase turbulent flow past a circular cylinder, but includes the effect of the free-surface and the limited span length for sub-critical Reynolds numbers. At different Froude numbers, the air-water interface exhibits significantly changed structures, including breaking bow waves with splashes and bubbles at high Froude numbers. Instantaneous and mean flow features such as interface structures, vortex shedding, Reynolds stresses, and vorticity transport are also analyzed. The results are compared with reference experimental data available in the literature. The deep flow is also compared with the single-phase turbulent flow past a circular cylinder in the similar ranges of Reynolds numbers. Discussion is provided concerning the limitations of the current simulations and available experimental data along with future research
Reynolds and froude number effect on the flow past an interface-piercing circular cylinder
Koo, Bonguk; Yang, Jianming; Yeon, Seong Mo; Stern, Frederick
2014-09-01
The two-phase turbulent flow past an interface-piercing circular cylinder is studied using a high-fidelity orthogonal curvilinear grid solver with a Lagrangian dynamic subgrid-scale model for large-eddy simulation and a coupled level set and volume of fluid method for air-water interface tracking. The simulations cover the sub-critical and critical and post critical regimes of the Reynolds and sub and super-critical Froude numbers in order to investigate the effect of both dimensionless parameters on the flow. Significant changes in flow features near the air-water interface were observed as the Reynolds number was increased from the sub-critical to the critical regime. The interface makes the separation point near the interface much delayed for all Reynolds numbers. The separation region at intermediate depths is remarkably reduced for the critical Reynolds number regime. The deep flow resembles the single-phase turbulent flow past a circular cylinder, but includes the effect of the free-surface and the limited span length for sub-critical Reynolds numbers. At different Froude numbers, the air-water interface exhibits significantly changed structures, including breaking bow waves with splashes and bubbles at high Froude numbers. Instantaneous and mean flow features such as interface structures, vortex shedding, Reynolds stresses, and vorticity transport are also analyzed. The results are compared with reference experimental data available in the literature. The deep flow is also compared with the single-phase turbulent flow past a circular cylinder in the similar ranges of Reynolds numbers. Discussion is provided concerning the limitations of the current simulations and available experimental data along with future research
Numerical Simulation of Polymer Injection in Turbulent Flow Past a Circular Cylinder
Richter, David
2011-01-01
Using a code developed to compute high Reynolds number viscoelastic flows, polymer injection from the upstream stagnation point of a circular cylinder is modeled at Re = 3900. Polymer stresses are represented using the FENE-P constitutive equations. By increasing polymer injection rates within realistic ranges, significant near wake stabilization is observed. Rather than a turbulent detached shear layer giving way to a chaotic primary vortex (as seen in Newtonian flows at high Re), a much more coherent primary vortex is shed, which possesses an increased core pressure as well as a reduced level of turbulent energy. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Acampora, Antonio; Georgakis, Christos T.
2013-01-01
Moderate vibrations continue to be recorded on the Øresund Bridge twin-stay cables. System identification techniques have been applied to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of the cables based on ambient vibration measurements. As might be expected, the measured aerodynamic damping ratios...... vary from those estimated through use of aerodynamic coefficients of single circular cylinders, as reported in literature. To address this issue, wind tunnel tests were performed on a 1:2.3 scale section model of the Øresund Bridge cables, with and without the presence of helical fillets. In this paper...
Numerical Simulation of Uniform Flow past an In-Line Oscillating Circular Cylinder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘松; 符松
2002-01-01
The time-dependent viscous incompressible flow around an in-line oscillating circular cylinder at Reynolds numbers of 200 and 855 was analyzed using a finite volume method. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved on a moving grid system using a time-dependent coordinate transformation. Several numerical schemes were tested to investigate the vortex-shedding characteristics and the effects of Reynolds number and other dimensionless parameters such as the reduced amplitude and the reduced frequency. The numerical results indicate that several types of vortex shedding modes depend on the reduced frequency and the reduced amplitude due to synchronization or lock-on.
Reynolds and froude number effect on the flow past an interface-piercing circular cylinder
Koo Bonguk; Yang Jianming; Yeon Seong Mo; Stern Frederick
2014-01-01
The two-phase turbulent flow past an interface-piercing circular cylinder is studied using a high-fidelity orthogonal curvilinear grid solver with a Lagrangian dynamic subgrid-scale model for large-eddy simulation and a coupled level set and volume of fluid method for air-water interface tracking. The simulations cover the sub-critical and critical and post critical regimes of the Reynolds and sub and super-critical Froude numbers in order to investigate the effect of both dimensionless param...
Plane section of cone and cylinder in computer geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Obradović Ratko M.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper a mathematical apparatus for determination of plane section of cone and cylinder was formed. By using the descriptive geometric approach the contour lines of these quadrics were determined. The fact that the tangent lines of a circle could be transformed to the tangent lines of an ellipse using affinity was employed. In that way surfaces are represented by contour lines (tangent lines of basic ellipse in oblique projection and thus they have a realistic view. Intersecting plane α is a plane normal to a frontal plane. For determination of intersecting points of intersecting curve between the plane α and the quadrics, the lock of auxiliary planes, which contain the vertex of quadrics, was used. Each auxiliary plane from the observed lock intersect the surface in two lines which intersect the given plane α in two points. By using a sufficient number of auxiliary planes the intersecting curve as a set of pairs of points for all auxiliary planes is determined and the intersecting curve was drawn by lightening of these pairs of points on the graphical screen.
LARGE-EDDY AND DETACHED-EDDY SIMULATIONS OF THE SEPARATED FLOW AROUND A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The separated turbulent flow around a circular cylinder is investigated using Large-Eddy Simulation (LES), Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES, or hybrid RANS/LES methods), and Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS). The purpose of this study is to examine some typical simulation approaches for the prediction of complex separated turbulent flow and to clarify the capability of applying these approaches to a typical case of the separated turbulent flow around a circular cylinder. Several turbulence models, I.e. Dynamic Sub-grid Scale (SGS) model in LES, the DES-based Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) and Shear-Stress- Transport (SST) models in DES, and the S-A and SST models in URANS, are used in the calculations. Some typical results, e.g., the mean pressure and drag coefficients, velocity profiles, Strouhal number, and Reynolds stresses, are obtained and compared with previous computational and experimental data. Based on our extensive calculations, we assess the capability and performance of these simulation approaches coupled with the relevant turbulence models to predict the separated turbulent flow.
Prediction Model for Vortex-Induced Vibration of Circular Cylinder with Data of Forced Vibration
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PAN Zhi-yuan; CUI Wei-cheng; LIU Ying-zhong
2007-01-01
A model based on the data from forced vibration experiments is developed for predicting the vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of elastically mounted circular cylinders in flow. The assumptions for free and forced vibration tests are explored briefly. Energy equilibrium is taken into account to set up the relationship between the dynamic response of self-excited oscillations and the force coefficients from forced vibration experiments. The gap between these two cases is bridged straightforwardly with careful treatment of key parameters. Given reduced mass m* and material damping ratio ζ of an elastically mounted circular cylinder in flow, the response characteristics such as amplitude, frequency, lock-in range, added mass coefficient, cross-flow fluid force and the corresponding phase angle can be predicted all at once. Instances with different combination of reduced mass and material damping ratio are compared to investigate their effects on VIV. The hysteresis phenomenon can be interpreted reasonably. The predictions and the results from recent experiments carried out by Williamson's group are in rather good agreement.
RICHTER, DAVID
2010-03-29
The results from a numerical investigation of inertial viscoelastic flow past a circular cylinder are presented which illustrate the significant effect that dilute concentrations of polymer additives have on complex flows. In particular, effects of polymer extensibility are studied as well as the role of viscoelasticity during three-dimensional cylinder wake transition. Simulations at two distinct Reynolds numbers (Re = 100 and Re = 300) revealed dramatic differences based on the choice of the polymer extensibility (L2 in the FENE-P model), as well as a stabilizing tendency of viscoelasticity. For the Re = 100 case, attention was focused on the effects of increasing polymer extensibility, which included a lengthening of the recirculation region immediately behind the cylinder and a sharp increase in average drag when compared to both the low extensibility and Newtonian cases. For Re = 300, a suppression of the three-dimensional Newtonian mode B instability was observed. This effect is more pronounced for higher polymer extensibilities where all three-dimensional structure is eliminated, and mechanisms for this stabilization are described in the context of roll-up instability inhibition in a viscoelastic shear layer. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.
Dynamic response of a clamped/free hollow circular cylinder under travelling torsional impact loads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Impact-induced vibrations in the casing of a gas centriguge due to a sudden failure of the spinning rotor (crash) can cause structural disintegrity of the casing. In order to study the influence of the rotor failure bahaviour and the impact load histories on the dynamic response of the casing, a simple crash model is proposed in this paper to analyse the transient torsional response due to tangential components of the impact loads. The casing is modeled as a linear-elastic hollow circular cylinder, clamped at the lower end and free at the upper end. The rotor is thought to breakup in identical sections in a sequence determined by its fracture behaviour. Each section is assumed to cause an axi-symmetric load distribution at the inner surface of the casing. Therefore the problem is essentially reduced to the analysis of a clamped/free cylinder under travelling torsional impact loads. The problem is solved by representing the impact loads as local pulses acting over the length of the sections. A perturbation method is used to show that the general two-dimensional theory of axi-symmetric torsional wave propagation in circular cylinders, for the problem under consideration, may be approximated by the elementary one-dimensional theory. Solutions are obtained according to the usual modal expansion approach. Measurements of transient torsional responses are shown to be in good agreement with the calculated responses by choosing a suitable shape of the pulses. The effects of travelling velocity and pulse shape are investigated. Finally the transfer of kinetic energy in the rotor to vibrational energy of torsion in the casing is studied. (orig.)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Particle-laden water flows past a circular cylinder were numerically investigated. The discrete vortex method (DVM) was employed to evaluate the unsteady water flow fields and a Lagrangian approach was applied for tracking individual solid particles. A dispersion function was defined to represent the dispersion scale of the particle.The wake vortex patterns, the distributions and the time series of dispersion functions of particles with different Stokes numbers were obtained. Numerical results show that the particle distribution in the wake of the circular cylinder is closely related to the particle's Stokes number and the structure of wake vortices: (1) the intermediate sized particles with Stokes numbers, St, of 0.25, 1.0 and 4.0 can not enter the vortex cores and concentrate near the peripheries of the vortex structures, (2) in the circular cylinder wake, the dispersion intensity of particles decreases as St is increased from 0.25 to 4.0.
On vortex shedding and prediction of vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halse, Karl Henning
1997-12-31
In offshore installations, many crucial components can be classified as slender marine structures: risers, mooring lines, umbilicals and cables, pipelines. This thesis studies the vortex shedding phenomenon and the problem of predicting vortex-induced vibrations of such structures. As the development of hydrocarbons move to deeper waters, the importance of accurately predicting the vortex-induced response has increased and so the need for proper response prediction methods is large. This work presents an extensive review of existing research publications about vortex shedding from circular cylinders and the vortex-induced vibrations of cylinders and the different numerical approaches to modelling the fluid flow. The response predictions from different methods are found to disagree, both in response shapes and in vibration amplitudes. This work presents a prediction method that uses a fully three-dimensional structural finite element model integrated with a laminar two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solution modelling the fluid flow. This solution is used to study the flow both around a fixed cylinder and in a flexibly mounted one-degree-of-freedom system. It is found that the vortex-shedding process (in the low Reynolds number regime) is well described by the computer program, and that the vortex-induced vibration of the flexibly mounted section do reflect the typical dynamic characteristics of lock-in oscillations. However, the exact behaviour of the experimental results found in the literature was not reproduced. The response of the three-dimensional structural model is larger than the expected difference between a mode shape and a flexibly mounted section. This is due to the use of independent hydrodynamic sections along the cylinder. The predicted response is not unrealistic, and the method is considered a powerful tool. 221 refs., 138 figs., 36 tabs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏中磊; 张子强; H.E.Fiedler
1995-01-01
The behavior of synchronization in an open flow dynamical system, especially in an excited wake flow behind a 2-D oscillating circular cylinder with Reynolds number Re ranging from 45 to 200 is presented. The experiment reveals that only under certain conditions can the competition between frequencies of oscillating cylinder and the vortex shedding in the wake flow result in "window of chaos" with the mixed RTN and Feigenbaum scenario in the range of Re<185.
Sobera, M.P.; Kleijn, C.R.
2008-01-01
We study flow and heat transfer to a cylinder in cross flow at Re = 3,900–80,000 by means of three-dimensional transient RANS (T-RANS) simulations, employing an RNG k − ε turbulence model. Both the case of a bare solid cylinder and that of a solid cylinder surrounded at some fixed distance by a thin porous layer have been studied. The latter configuration is a standard test geometry for measuring the insulating and protective performance of garments. In this geometry, the flow in the space be...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maeda, G. (University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan))
1992-09-01
Concerning the pressure distribution around a circular cylinder placed in uniform flow, there is a big difference between theoretical analysis and test results of potential flow. This is because vortex street is formed due to boundary layer separation in real viscous flow. In this study, placing a circular cylinder in the middle of uniform flow between two parallel walls, the potential flow around the cylinder was analyzed in the case where Karman vortex street is formed behind the cyinder. Static pressure on the surface of the cylinder near the positions where vortex is formed is supposed to decrease because of energy transfer to the vortex. Magnitude of the pressure drop is then calculated from the strength of the vortex obtained in the test. The pressure distribution around the circular cylinder without vortex has minimum pressure coefficient of about [minus]3 and occurs at 90[degree]. When Karman vortex street is placed downstream, minimum pressure coefficient is about [minus]2 and its position is around 80[degree]. It is also clarified that the profile of the pressure distribution around the cylinder almost agrees with the test result. 4 refs., 10 figs.
Edge properties of principal fractional quantum Hall states in the cylinder geometry
Soulé, Paul; Jolicoeur, Thierry
2012-01-01
We study fractional quantum Hall states in the cylinder geometry with open boundaries. We focus on principal fermionic 1/3 and bosonic 1/2 fractions in the case of hard-core interactions. The gap behavior as a function of the cylinder radius is analyzed. By adding enough orbitals to allow for edge modes we show that it is possible to measure the Luttinger parameter of the non-chiral liquid formed by the combination of the two counterpropagating edges when we add a small confining potential. W...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
凌国平; 方健雯
2002-01-01
A vorticity-velocity method was used to study the incompressible viscous fluid flow around a circular cylinder with surface suction or blowing. The resulted high order implicit difference equations were effeciently solved by the modified incomplete LUdecomposition conjugate gradient scheme (MILU-CG). The effects of surface suction or blowing' s position and strength on the vortex structures in the cylinder wake, as well as on the drag and lift forces at Reynoldes number Re = 100 were investigated numerically. The results show that the suction on the shoulder of the cylinder or the blowing on the rear of the cylinder can effeciently suppress the asymmetry of the vortex wake in the transverse direction and greatly reduce the lift force; the suction on the shoulder of the cylinder, when its strength is properly chosen, can reduce the drag force significantly, too.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei Shi; Chengchun Zhang; Jing Wang; Luquan Ren
2012-01-01
Flow control can effectively reduce the aerodynamic noise radiated from a circular cylinder.As one of the flow control methods,a bionic method,inspired by the serrations at the leading edge of owls' wing,was proposed in this paper.The effects of bionic serrated structures arranged on the upper and lower sides of a cylinder on the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of the cylinder were numerically investigated.At a free stream speed of 24.5 m·s-1,corresponding to Reynolds number of 1.58 × 104,the simulation results indicate that the bionic serrated structures can decrease the frequency of the vortex shedding and control the fluctuating aerodynamic force acting on the cylinder,thus reduce the aerodynamic noise.A qualitative-view of the vorticity in the wake of the cylinder suggest that the serrated structures reduce aerodynamic sound by suppressing the unsteady motion of vortices.
Limiting Geometries of Two Circular Maldacena-Wilson Loop Operators
Arutyunov, G.; Plefka, J.; Staudacher, M.
2001-01-01
We further analyze a recent perturbative two-loop calculation of the expectation value of two axi-symmetric circular Maldacena-Wilson loops in [Script N] = 4 gauge theory. Firstly, it is demonstrated how to adapt the previous calculation of anti-symmetrically oriented circles to the symmetric case. By shrinking one of the circles to zero size we then explicitly work out the first few terms of the local operator expansion of the loop. Our calculations explicitly demonstrate that circular Mald...
Torsion of Noncircular Composite Cylinders
Rouse, Marshall; Hyer, Michael W.; Haynie, Waddy T.
2005-01-01
The paper presents a brief overview of the predicted deformation and failure characteristics of noncircular composite cylinders subjected to torsion. Using a numerical analysis, elliptical cylinders with a minor-to-major diameter ratio of 0.7 are considered. Counterpart circular cylinders with the same circumference as the elliptical cylinders are included for comparison. The cylinders are constructed of a medium-modulus graphite-epoxy material in a quasi-isotropic lay-up. Imperfections generated from the buckling mode shapes are included in the initial cross-sectional geometry of the cylinders. Deformations until first fiber failure, as predicted using the maximum stress failure criterion and a material degradation scheme, are presented. For increasing levels of torsion, the deformations of the elliptical cylinders, in the form of wrinkling of the cylinder wall, occur primarily in the flatter regions of the cross section. By comparison the wrinkling deformations of the circular cylinders are more uniformly distributed around the circumference. Differences in the initial failure and damage progression and the overall torque vs. twist relationship between the elliptical and circular cylinders are presented. Despite differences in the response as the cylinders are being loaded, at first fiber failure the torque and twist for the elliptical and circular cylinders nearly coincide.
Piezoelectric energy harvesting from vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinder
Mehmood, A.; Abdelkefi, A.; Hajj, M. R.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Akhtar, I.; Nuhait, A. O.
2013-09-01
The concept of harvesting energy from a circular cylinder undergoing vortex-induced vibrations is investigated. The energy is harvested by attaching a piezoelectric transducer to the transverse degree of freedom. Numerical simulations are performed for Reynolds numbers (Re) in the range 96≤Re≤118, which covers the pre-synchronization, synchronization, and post-synchronization regimes. Load resistances (R) in the range 500 Ω≤R≤5 MΩ are considered. The results show that the load resistance has a significant effect on the oscillation amplitude, lift coefficient, voltage output, and harvested power. The results also show that the synchronization region widens when the load resistance increases. It is also found that there is an optimum value of the load resistance for which the harvested power is maximum. This optimum value does not correspond to the case of largest oscillations, which points to the need for a coupled analysis as performed here.
A PIV study of the wake of a circular cylinder subjected to low amplitude flow perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The 'locked-on' vortex shedding patterns resulting from the interaction of a fixed circular cylinder and an approaching flow with low-amplitude perturbations superimposed on it was studied by means of PIV measurements. The forced wake exhibits two different wake modes or states for a perturbation frequency below twice that of the natural vortex shedding frequency; the first one is a Karman-like vortex street formed by shedding of two single vortices per cycle (2S mode), whereas the other is most appropriately characterised by the splitting of the shed vortices into pairs (2P mode). For a perturbation frequency above twice that of the natural shedding frequency only the 2S mode is observed. Proper orthogonal decomposition is employed to further elucidate the existence of the two wake modes. (authors)
Cho, Y. C.
1983-01-01
Rigorous solutions are presented for sound diffraction in a circular cylinder with axial discontinuities of the wall admittance (or impedance). Analytical expressions are derived for the reflection and the transmission coefficients for duct modes. The results are discussed quantitatively in the limits of small admittance shifts (delta) and of low frequencies (ka). One of the results is the low frequency behavior of the reflection coefficient R(o) sub 00 of the fundamental mode. For the mode of a hardwall duct reflected from the junction with a softwall duct, (R(o) sub oo yields - (1-square root of (ka) square root of (2/i delta)); this result is in contrast to the frequency dependence of the reflection from the open end of a hardwall duct, for which R(o) sub oo yields - 1-(ka) squared/2 .
Experimental study of ice accretion on circular cylinders at moderate low temperatures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koss, Holger H.; Gjelstrup, Henrik; Georgakis, Christos T.
2012-01-01
of structures is widely studied, the particular climatic boundary conditions regarding bridge cable vibrations have so far been omitted. The presented study was performed in March 2009 in the Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) in Ottawa with the purpose of establishing...... detailed knowledge on the shape characteristics of ice accretion on circular cylinders under the specific conditions where large amplitude vibration of iced bridge have been observed in nature. Hence, the study shall serve as a reference and the results will be used for validation of numerical......For the assessment of aerodynamic instability of iced bridge cables various calculation models are available. Input for these models are amongst others aerodynamic load coefficients usually determined in wind tunnel tests on generic or simplified models of iced cable sections. Even though icing...
Bouakkaz, R.; Talbi, K.; Khelil, Y.; Salhi, F.; Belghar, N.; Ouazizi, M.
2014-01-01
The heat transfer and air flow around an unconfined heated rotating circular cylinder is investigated numerically for varying rotation rates ( α = 0-6) in the Reynolds number range of 20-200. The numerical calculations are carried out by using a finite volume method based commercial computational fluid dynamics solver FLUENT. The successive changes in the flow pattern are studied as a function of the rotation rate. Suppression of vortex shedding occurs as the rotation rate increases ( α > 2). A second kind of instability appears for higher rotation speed where a series of counter-clockwise vortices is shed in the upper shear layer. The rotation attenuates the secondary instability and increases the critical Reynolds number for the appearance of this instability. Besides, time-averaged (lift and drag coefficients and Nusselt number) results are obtained and compared with the literature data. A good agreement has been obtained for both the local and averaged values.
Flow Around a Slender Circular Cylinder: A Case Study on Distributed Hopf Bifurcation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. A. P. Aranha
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a short overview of the flow around a slender circular cylinder, the purpose being to place it within the frame of the distributed Hopf bifurcation problems described by the Ginzburg-Landau equation (GLE. In particular, the chaotic behavior superposed to a well tuned harmonic oscillation observed in the range Re > 270, with Re being the Reynolds number, is related to the defect-chaos regime of the GLE. Apparently new results, related to a Kolmogorov like length scale and the rms of the response amplitude, are derived in this defect-chaos regime and further related to the experimental rms of the lift coefficient measured in the range Re > 270.
Energy Harvester Based on the Synchronization Phenomenon of a Circular Cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junlei Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A concept of generating power from a circular cylinder undergoing vortex-induced vibration (VIV was investigated. Two lead zirconate titanate (PZT beams which had high power density were installed on the cylinder. A theoretical model has been presented to describe the electromechanical coupling of the open-circuit voltage output and the vibration amplitudes based on a second-order nonlinear Van der pol equation and Gauss law. A numerical computation was applied to measure the capacity of the power generating system. The lift and drag coefficient and the vortex shedding frequency were obtained to verify how the nondimensional parameter reduced velocity Ur affects the fluid field. Meanwhile, a single-degree of freedom system has been added to describe the VIV, presynchronization, and synchronization together with postsynchronization regimes of oscillating frequencies. And the amplitudes of the vibration have been obtained. Finally, the vibrational amplitudes and the voltage output could go up to a high level in the synchronization region. The maximum value of the voltage output and the corresponding reduced velocity Ur were 8.42 V and 5.6, respectively.
Instability of the shear layer in the near wake of a circular cylinder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
The instability of the shear layer separated from a circular cylinder is studied with the Reynolds number (Re) of 3000～104 by numerically solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. In the wake of the cylinder, primary vortex shedding with natural frequency fs occurs, and the instability of the shear layer with frequency ft develops, which leads to mixing layer eddies and interacts with the primary shedding vortices. However, there remains some uncertainties regarding to the variation of the shear layer characteristic frequency with the Reynolds number. Based on the previous experimental work, several relationships of ft/fs with Re has been proposed including ft/fs～Re0.5 by Bloor, ft/fs～Re0.87 by Wei and Smith and ft/fs～Re0.67 by Prasad and Williamson. The objective of this study is to predict reasonably the relation of the shear layer instability frequency with the Reynolds number based on the present accurate calculation with the high-order schemes and high-resolution spectrum analysis. According to our calculated results, a variation for the normalized shear-layer frequency of the form ft/fs～Re0.69 is predicted numerically, which is in good agreement with a recent experimental measurement of Re0.67 and physical prediction of Re0.7.
Buoyancy effect on the flow pattern and the thermal performance of an array of circular cylinders
Fornarelli, Francesco; Oresta, Paolo
2016-01-01
In this paper we found, by means of numerical simulations, a transition in the oscillatory character of the flow field for a particular combination of buoyancy and spacing in an array of six circular cylinders at a Reynolds number of 100 and Prandtl number of 0.7. The cylinders are iso-thermal and they are aligned with the Earth acceleration (g). According to the array orientation, an aiding or an opposing buoyancy is considered. The effect of natural convection with respect to the forced convection is modulated with the Richardson number, Ri, ranging between -1 and 1. Two values of center to center spacing (s=3.6d - 4d) are considered. The effects of buoyancy and spacing on the flow pattern in the near and far field are described. Several transitions in the flow patterns are found and a parametric analysis of the dependence of the force coefficients and Nusselt number with respect to the Richardson number is reported. For Ri=-1, the change of spacing ratio from 3.6 to 4 induces a transition in the standard d...
Limiting geometries of two circular Maldacena-Wilson loop operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We further analyze a recent perturbative two-loop calculation of the expectation value of two axi-symmetric circular Maldacena-Wilson loops in N=4 gauge theory. Firstly, it is demonstrated how to adapt the previous calculation of anti-symmetrically oriented circles to the symmetric case. By shrinking one of the circles to zero size we then explicitly work out the first few terms of the local operator expansion of the loop. Our calculations explicitly demonstrate that circular Maldacena-Wilson loops are non-BPS observables precisely due to the appearance of unprotected local operators. The latter receive anomalous scaling dimensions from non-ladder diagrams. Finally, we present new insights into a recent conjecture claiming that coincident circular Maldacena-Wilson loops are described by a Gaussian matrix model. We report on a novel, supporting two-loop test, but also explain and illustrate why the existing arguments in favor of the conjecture are flawed. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guo-qiang Tang
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Fluid flow past twin circular cylinders in a tandem arrangement placed near a plane wall was investigated by means of numerical simulations. The two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations were solved with a three-step finite element method at a relatively low Reynolds number of Re = 200 for various dimensionless ratios of and , where D is the cylinder diameter, L is the center-to-center distance between the two cylinders, and G is the gap between the lowest surface of the twin cylinders and the plane wall. The influences of and on the hydrodynamic force coefficients, Strouhal numbers, and vortex shedding modes were examined. Three different vortex shedding modes of the near wake were identified according to the numerical results. It was found that the hydrodynamic force coefficients and vortex shedding modes are quite different with respect to various combinations of and . For very small values of , the vortex shedding is completely suppressed, resulting in the root mean square (RMS values of drag and lift coefficients of both cylinders and the Strouhal number for the downstream cylinder being almost zero. The mean drag coefficient of the upstream cylinder is larger than that of the downstream cylinder for the same combination of and . It is also observed that change in the vortex shedding modes leads to a significant increase in the RMS values of drag and lift coefficients.
Continuous dependence on initial geometry in linear elastodynamics on a half cylinder
Knops, R.J.; Quintanilla de Latorre, Ramón
2009-01-01
Continuous dependence on the initial time geometry is established for the mean-square integral of the displacement in a linear inhomogeneous anisotropic elastic semi-infinite cylinder in motion subject to a prescribed time-dependent base displacement and initial data. A bound, newly derived for the total energy, in conjunction with backward continuation in time of the unperturbed and perturbed displacements, is employed to obtain the result. Peer Reviewed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Demartino, C.; Georgakis, Christos T.; Ricciardelli, F.
are produced from HDPE, as used for bridge stays. Variations in the accretion parameters were chosen to generate the most common natural ice formations, which might also be expected to produce bridge cable vibrations. A parallel paper deals with the case of circular cylinders in cross flow....
Control of flow structure in the wake region of circular cylinder with meshy wire in deep water
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burcu Oğuz
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In this study the aim is decreasing the effect and the intensity of the temporary loads resulted from vortex shedding that have an impact on the cylinder (chimneys, high buildings etc. located in deep water and the object or objects in the wake region and definition of the optimum values (wire thickness and porosity β With different thickness and different porosity ratios the effect of meshy wire that surrounded a circular cylinder of D=50 mm diameter was observed at Re_D=5000. The porosity ratios were four different values between a range of β=0.5-0.8 with an interval of 0.1. The thicknesses of wire were 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm. The flow structure in the wake region of circular cylinder was tried to be controlled by meshy wire that surrounded the cylinder. Experiments were carried out by using particle image velocimetry (PIV technique. Comparing with bare cylinder results, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE and Reynolds shear stress values increase with wire thicknesses of b=1 mm, 2 mm for all porosity ratios and decrease with b=3 mm, 4 mm. With porosity ratio of β=0.6 and wire thickness of b=4 mm TKE and Reynolds shear stress results show that meshy wire controls the flow in the wake region of the cylinder. Frequency value results also define that best flow control is obtained with β=0.6 and b=4 mm.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
In our previous study, the effects of the interval between the cylinder and the airfoil on the aerodynamic sound were investigated and compared with the cases of single circular and single airfoil. In this study, the effects of the attack angle of the airfoil located downstream on the characteristics of aerodynamic sound and the wake structure are investigated at a given interval between the cylinder and the airfoil. It is found that the sound pressure level of DFN and the peak frequency decrease with increasing attack angle of airfoil because of the diffusive wake structure due to the increased back pressure of circular cylinder, which is caused by the blocking effect of airfoil. It is shown that the sound sources are corresponded to the attack points of shedding vortex form the upstream circular cylinder to the downstream airfoil. We conclude that the pressure fluctuation at the airfoil surface effects on the sound pressure level, from the flow visualizations and the exploration test of sound source.
Ghazanfarian, Jafar; Saghatchi, Roozbeh; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid
2015-12-01
This paper studies the two-dimensional (2D) water-entry and exit of a rotating circular cylinder using the Sub-Particle Scale (SPS) turbulence model of a Lagrangian particle-based Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations along with the continuity have been solved as the governing equations of the problem. The accuracy of the numerical code is verified using the case of water-entry and exit of a nonrotating circular cylinder. The numerical simulations of water-entry and exit of the rotating circular cylinder are performed at Froude numbers of 2, 5, 8, and specific gravities of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.75, rotating at the dimensionless rates of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75. The effect of governing parameters and vortex shedding behind the cylinder on the trajectory curves, velocity components in the flow field, and the deformation of free surface for both cases have been investigated in detail. It is seen that the rotation has a great effect on the curvature of the trajectory path and velocity components in water-entry and exit cases due to the interaction of imposed lift and drag forces with the inertia force.
Phenomenology of a flow around a circular cylinder at sub-critical and critical Reynolds numbers
Capone, Alessandro; Klein, Christian; Di Felice, Fabio; Miozzi, Massimo
2016-07-01
In this work, the flow around a circular cylinder is investigated at Reynolds numbers ranging from 79 000 up to 238 000 by means of a combined acquisition system based on Temperature Sensitive Paint (TSP) and particle velocimetry. The proposed setup allows simultaneous and time-resolved measurement of absolute temperature and relative skin friction fields onto the cylinder surface and near-wake velocity field. Combination of time-resolved surface measurements and planar near-field velocity data allows the investigation of the profound modifications undergone by the wall shear stress topology and its connections to the near-field structure as the flow regime travels from the sub-critical to the critical regime. Laminar boundary-layer separation, transition, and re-attachment are analyzed in the light of temperature, relative skin friction maps, and Reynolds stress fields bringing about a new perspective on the relationship between boundary layer development and shear layer evolution. The fast-responding TSP employed allows high acquisition frequency and calculation of power spectral density from surface data. Correlation maps of surface and near-wake data provide insight into the relationship between boundary-layer evolution and vortex shedding. We find that as the Reynolds number approaches the critical state, the separation line oscillations feature an increasingly weaker spectrum peak compared to the near-wake velocity spectrum. In the critical regime, separation line oscillations are strongly reduced and the correlation to the local vorticity undergoes an overall decrease giving evidence of modifications in the vortex shedding mechanism.
Flow above the free end of a surface-mounted finite-height circular cylinder: A review
Sumner, D.
2013-11-01
The wake of a surface-mounted finite-height circular cylinder and the associated vortex patterns are strongly dependent on the cylinder aspect ratio and the thickness of the boundary layer on the ground plane relative to the dimensions of the cylinder. Above a critical aspect ratio, the mean wake is characterized by streamwise tip vortex structures and Kármán vortex shedding from the sides of the cylinder. Below a critical aspect ratio, a unique mean wake structure is observed. Recent experimental studies in the literature that used phase-averaged techniques, as well as recent numerical simulations, have led to an improved physical understanding of the near-wake vortex flow patterns. However, the flow above the free end of the finite circular cylinder, and its relationship to the near wake, has not been systematically studied. The effects of aspect ratio and boundary layer thickness on the free-end flow field are also not completely understood, nor has the influence of Reynolds number on the free-end flow field been fully explored. Common features associated with the free end include separation from the leading edge, a mean recirculation zone containing a prominent cross-stream arch (or mushroom) vortex, and reattachment onto the free-surface. Other flow features that remain to be clarified include a separation bubble near the leading edge, one or two cross-stream vortices within this separation bubble, the origins of the streamwise tip or trailing vortices, and various critical points in the near-surface flow topology. This paper reviews the current understanding of the flow above the free end of a surface-mounted finite-height circular cylinder, with a focus on models of the flow field, surface oil flow visualization studies, pressure and heat flux distributions on the free-end surface, measurements of the local velocity field, and numerical simulations, found in the literature.
Todorov, M D
1998-01-01
The classical Helmholtz problem is applied for modelling and numerical investigation of inviscid cusp-ended separated flow around circular cylinder. Two coordinate systems are used: polar for initial calculations and parabolic as topologically most suited for infinite stagnation zone. Scaling by the shape of the unknown free line renders the problem to computational domain with fixed boundaries. Difference schemes and algorithm for Laplace equation and for Bernoulli integral are devised. A separated flow with drag coefficient $C_x=0$ like the so called ``critical'' flow is obtained. The pressure distribution on the surface of cylinder and the detachment point compares quantitatively very well with the predictions of the hodograph method.
Turbulence statistics of flow over scoured cohesive sediment bed around circular cylinder
Debnath, K.; Manik, M. K.; Mazumder, B. S.
2012-06-01
The effect of clay content on the mean flow, turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stress and conditional statistics of the Reynolds shear stress was investigated within and above the equilibrium scour hole around circular cylinder embedded in cohesive sediment bed having clay fractions 0.1 and 0.2. Detailed three dimensional velocity components were measured at three different cross-sections: upstream, sideward and downstream of the pier covering flow regions within and above the scour hole using 3D Micro acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). It is observed that within the scour hole region the sweeping events play a dominant role at both the side and the front of the pier while the ejection events play a dominant role in the outer flow region. At the scour hole surface a thin layer of ejection dominant pocket is seen both at the pier front and the side. This resulted in kolk-boils phenomenon at the interface layer of sweep and ejection dominance which probably instigated the scouring process. In addition, the mean time interval of the turbulent bursting events within and above the scour hole is presented.
Analytical study of heat transfer from circular cylinder in liquid metals
Khan, W. A.; Culham, J. R.; Yovanovich, M. M.
2006-09-01
In this study the influence of a thin hydrodynamic boundary layer on the heat transfer from a single circular cylinder in liquid metals having low Prandtl number (0.004 0.03) is investigated under isothermal and isoflux boundary conditions. Two separate analytical heat transfer models, viscous and inviscid, are developed to clarify the discrepancy between previous results. For both models, integral approach of the boundary layer analysis is employed to derive closed form expressions for the calculation of the average heat transfer coefficients. For an inviscid model, the energy equation is solved using potential flow velocity only whereas for a viscous model, a fourth-order velocity profile is used in the hydrodynamic boundary layer and potential flow velocity is used outside the boundary layer. The third-order temperature profile is used inside the thermal boundary layer for both models. It is shown that the inviscid model gives higher heat transfer coefficients whereas viscous flow model gives heat transfer results in a fairly good agreement with the previous experimental/numerical results.
Analytical study of heat transfer from circular cylinder in liquid metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, W.A.; Culham, J.R.; Yovanovich, M.M. [University of Waterloo, Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada)
2006-09-15
In this study the influence of a thin hydrodynamic boundary layer on the heat transfer from a single circular cylinder in liquid metals having low Prandtl number (0.004-0.03) is investigated under isothermal and isoflux boundary conditions. Two separate analytical heat transfer models, viscous and inviscid, are developed to clarify the discrepancy between previous results. For both models, integral approach of the boundary layer analysis is employed to derive closed form expressions for the calculation of the average heat transfer coefficients. For an inviscid model, the energy equation is solved using potential flow velocity only whereas for a viscous model, a fourth-order velocity profile is used in the hydrodynamic boundary layer and potential flow velocity is used outside the boundary layer. The third-order temperature profile is used inside the thermal boundary layer for both models. It is shown that the inviscid model gives higher heat transfer coefficients whereas viscous flow model gives heat transfer results in a fairly good agreement with the previous experimental/numerical results. (orig.)
A Comparison of Ultrasound Tomography Methods in Circular Geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leach, R R; Azevedo, S G; Berryman, J G; Bertete-Aquirre, H R; Chambers, D H; Mast, J E; Littrup, P; Duric, N; Johnson, S A; Wuebbeling, F
2002-01-24
Extremely high quality data was acquired using an experimental ultrasound scanner developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using a 2D ring geometry with up to 720 transmitter/receiver transducer positions. This unique geometry allows reflection and transmission modes and transmission imaging and quantification of a 3D volume using 2D slice data. Standard image reconstruction methods were applied to the data including straight-ray filtered back projection, reflection tomography, and diffraction tomography. Newer approaches were also tested such as full wave, full wave adjoint method, bent-ray filtered back projection, and full-aperture tomography. A variety of data sets were collected including a formalin-fixed human breast tissue sample, a commercial ultrasound complex breast phantom, and cylindrical objects with and without inclusions. The resulting reconstruction quality of the images ranges from poor to excellent. The method and results of this study are described including like-data reconstructions produced by different algorithms with side-by-side image comparisons. Comparisons to medical B-scan and x-ray CT scan images are also shown. Reconstruction methods with respect to image quality using resolution, noise, and quantitative accuracy, and computational efficiency metrics will also be discussed.
Critical heat flux in circular tube geometries using Freon-12
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental and analytical investigations on critical heat flux have been performed in circular tubes of different diameters ranging from 2 mm to 16 mm. More than 1500 data points have been obtained in a large range of parameters: pressure 1.0 MPa to 3.0 MPa, mass flux 1.0 Mg/m2s to 6.0 Mg/m2s and exit steam quality -0.75 to +0.60. The effect of different parameters on CHF have been discussed. The test data have been compared with different CHF prediction methods. A very good agreement between the test data in the 8 mm diameter tube and the CHF look-up table shows that the test results in Freon-12 can be well transferred to water conditions by using fluid-to-fluid scaling laws available. The experimental data reveal that the effect of the tube diameter on CHF is governed mainly by exit steam quality and tube diameter itself. None of the equations or models available in the literature can reproduce the measured diameter effect with sufficient accuracy. (author)
Zhou Yun Song; Wang Fu He
2003-01-01
We investigate the properties of guide modes localized at the interfaces of photonic crystal (PC) heterostructures which are composed of two semi-infinite two-dimensional PCs consisting of non-circular air cylinders with different rotating angles embedded in a homogeneous host dielectric. Photonic band gap structures are calculated with the use of the plane-wave expansion method in combination with a supercell technique. We consider various configurations, for instance, rectangular (square) lattice-rectangular (square) air cylinders, and different rotating angles of the cylinders in the lattices on either side of the interface of a heterostructure. We find that the absolute gap width and the number of guide modes strongly depend on geometric and physical parameters of the heterostructures. It is anticipated that the guide modes in such heterostructures can be engineered by adjusting parameters.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AN OSCILLATING FLOW PAST A CIRCULAR CYLINDER IN THE VICINITY OF A PLANE WALL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHAH Syed Bilai Hussain; LU Xi-yun
2008-01-01
Oscillating flow around a circular cylinder in the vicinity of a plane wall was investigated by solving the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with a finite element Galarkin residual method. The effect of the gap G/D between the cylinder surface and the wall on the flow behavior was studied. For the case of G/D ≤ 0.25, the periodicity in the flow is attributed to both the outer shear layer instability and the oscillating frequency. As G/D > 0.25, vortex shedding occurs and the periodicity in the flow is mainly due to the competition of the oscillating frequency and the vortex shedding frequency from an isolated stationary cylinder.
SOME OBSERVATIONS OF TWO INTERFERING VIV CIRCULAR CYLINDERS OF UNEQUAL DIAMETERS IN TANDEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Shan; SWORN Andy
2011-01-01
Analysis of model test results was carried out to investigate the hydrodynamic interaction between a pair of elastically-supported rigid cylinders of dissimilar diameters in a water flume.The two cylinders are placed in tandem with one situated in the wake of the other.The diameter of the upstream cylinder is twice as large as that of the downstream cylinder.The spacing between the two cylinders ranges from 1 to 10 times the larger cylinder diameter.The Reynolds numbers are within the sub-critical range.The cylinders are free to oscillate in both the in-line and the cross-flow directions.The reduced velocity ranges from 1 to 10 and the low damping ratio of the model test set-up at 0.006 gives a combined m.ass-damping parameter of 0.02.It is found that the lift on and the cross-flow motion of the downstream cylinder have the frequency components derived from the upstream cylinder's vortex shedding as well as from its own vortex shedding,and the relative importance of the two sources of excitation is influenced by the spacing between the two cylinders.The downstream cylinder's VIV response appears to be largely dependent upon the actual reduced velocity of the cylinder.
García Aguilar, Andrés; Sipus, Zvonimir; Sierra Pérez, Manuel
2012-01-01
A novel formulation for the surface impedance characterization is introduced for the canonical problem of surface fields on a perfect electric conductor (PEC) circular cylinder with a dielectric coating due to a electric current source using the Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD) with an Impedance Boundary Condition (IBC). The approach is based on a TE/TM assumption of the surface fields from the original problem. Where this surface impedance fails, an optimization is performed to minimize t...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GHOZLANI Belgacem; HAFSIA Zouhaier; MAALEL Khlifa
2012-01-01
In order to identify the influence of shape comers on the instantaneous forces in the case of oscillating bodies,the simulated flow field is compared for two kinds of cross sections:diamond prism and circular cylinder.For these two flow configurations,the same Reynolds number and a Keulegan-Carpenter are considered.To compute the dynamic flow field surrounding the body,the Navier-Stokes transport equationsin a non-inertial reference frame attached to the body are considered.Hence,a source term is added locally to the momentum equation to take into account the body acceleration.The proposed model is solved using the PHOENICS code.For the oscillating circular cylinder,the simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental data available in the litterature.After validation of this proposed model,flow field for diamond prism is determined.For both bodies,the process of the vortex formation is similar,with the formation of a recirculation zone in the near-wake containing a symmetric pair of vortices of equal strength and opposite rotation.The length of recirculation zone varies approximately linearly with time.However,the in-line force coefficient of the oscillating diamond prism is found to be greatest,since the recirculation zone is longer compared with that of the oscillating circular cylinder.
Numerical investigation of flow and scour around a vertical circular cylinder.
Baykal, C; Sumer, B M; Fuhrman, D R; Jacobsen, N G; Fredsøe, J
2015-01-28
Flow and scour around a vertical cylinder exposed to current are investigated by using a three-dimensional numerical model based on incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The model incorporates (i) k-ω turbulence closure, (ii) vortex-shedding processes, (iii) sediment transport (both bed and suspended load), as well as (iv) bed morphology. The influence of vortex shedding and suspended load on the scour are specifically investigated. For the selected geometry and flow conditions, it is found that the equilibrium scour depth is decreased by 50% when the suspended sediment transport is not accounted for. Alternatively, the effects of vortex shedding are found to be limited to the very early stage of the scour process. Flow features such as the horseshoe vortex, as well as lee-wake vortices, including their vertical frequency variation, are discussed. Large-scale counter-rotating streamwise phase-averaged vortices in the lee wake are likewise demonstrated via numerical flow visualization. These features are linked to scour around a vertical pile in a steady current. PMID:25512595
Interaction theory of hypersonic laminar near-wake flow behind an adiabatic circular cylinder
Hinman, W. Schuyler; Johansen, C. T.
2015-12-01
The separation and shock wave formation on the aft-body of a hypersonic adiabatic circular cylinder were studied numerically using the open source software OpenFOAM. The simulations of laminar flow were performed over a range of Reynolds numbers (8× 10^3 < Re < 8× 10^4 ) at a free-stream Mach number of 5.9. Off-body viscous forces were isolated by controlling the wall boundary condition. It was observed that the off-body viscous forces play a dominant role compared to the boundary layer in displacement of the interaction onset in response to a change in Reynolds number. A modified free-interaction equation and correlation parameter has been presented which accounts for wall curvature effects on the interaction. The free-interaction equation was manipulated to isolate the contribution of the viscous-inviscid interaction to the overall pressure rise and shock formation. Using these equations coupled with high-quality simulation data, the underlying mechanisms resulting in Reynolds number dependence of the lip-shock formation were investigated. A constant value for the interaction parameter representing the part of the pressure rise due to viscous-inviscid interaction has been observed at separation over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The effect of curvature has been shown to be the primary contributor to the Reynolds number dependence of the free-interaction mechanism at separation. The observations in this work have been discussed here to create a thorough analysis of the Reynolds number-dependent nature of the lip-shock.
Jordan, Stephen A.
2016-05-01
Long thin circular cylinders commonly serve as towed sonar tracking devices, where the radius-of-curvature along the longitudinal axis is quite low [ρr = O(10-4)]. Because no understanding presently exists about the direct impact of longitudinal curvature on the turbulent statistics, the long cylinder is simply viewed as a chain of straight segments at various (increasing then decreasing) small inclinations to the freestream direction. Realistically, even our statistical evidence along straight thin cylinders at low incidence angles is inadequate to build solid evidence towards forming reliable empirical models. In the present study, we address these shortcomings by executing Large-Eddy Simulations (LESs) of straight and longitudinally curved thin cylinders at low to moderate turbulent radius-based Reynolds numbers (500 ≤ Rea ≤ 3500) and small angles-of-incidence (α = 0° → 9°). Coupled with the previous experimental measurements and numerical results, the new expanded database (311 ≤ Rea ≤ 56 500) delivered sufficient means to propose power-law expressions for the longitudinal evolution of the skin friction, normal drag, and turbulent boundary layer (TBL) length scales. Surprisingly, the LES computations of the curved cylinders at analogous geometric and kinematic conditions as the straight cylinder showed similar character in terms of the longitudinal skin friction. Beyond incidence 1°-3° (upper end corresponds to the highest simulated Rea), the skin friction was directly proportional to the yaw angle and monotonically shifted downward with higher Rea. Conversely, the flow structure, normal drag, TBL length scales, Reynolds stresses, and the separation state of the transverse shear layers towards regular vortex shedding for the curved cylinder were highly dissimilar than the straight one at equivalent incidence angles.
Machynia, Adam
Analytic solutions to the static and stationary boundary value field problems relative to an arbitrary configuration of parallel cylinders are obtained by using translational addition theorems for scalar Laplacian polar functions, to express the field due to one cylinder in terms of the polar coordinates of the other cylinders such that the boundary conditions can be imposed at all the cylinder surfaces. The constants of integration in the field expressions of all the cylinders are obtained from a truncated infinite matrix equation. Translational addition theorems are available for scalar cylindrical and spherical wave functions but such theorems are not directly available for the general solution of the Laplace equation in polar coordinates. The purpose of deriving these addition theorems and applying them to field problems involving systems of cylinders is to obtain exact analytic solutions with controllable accuracies, thereby, yielding benchmark solutions to validate other approximate numerical methods.
Suppression of Flow Separation Around A Circular Cylinder by Utilizing Lorentz Force
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Hui; FAN Bao-chun; CHEN Zhi-hua; ZHOU Ben-mou
2008-01-01
Both experimental and numerical investigations on the flow past a cylinder under the influence of Lorentz force (electromagnetic force) were conducted in an electrically low-conducting fluid. The Lorentz force is applied both locally, wholly and periodically on the surface of the cylinder, and their control effects for flow separation were investigated Both experimental and numerical results show that Lorentz force can suppress the flow separation with Lorentz force applied on both local and whole surface of the cylinder. However, when the periodic and opposite Lorentz force adopted, the cylinder wake cannot be stabilized.
Singha, Sintu; Nagarajan, Kaushik Kumar; Sinhamahapatra, K. P.
2016-05-01
Incompressible flows at low Reynolds numbers over two identical side-by-side circular cylinders have been investigated numerically using unstructured finite volume method. The gap between the cylinders (g) and Reynolds number (Re) considered in the study lies respectively in the range of 0.2 ≤ g/D ≤ 4.0 (D being the diameter of the cylinder) and 20 ≤ Re ≤ 160. Low Reynolds number steady flows are given considerable importance. Two types of wakes are observed in the steady flow regime; the first type is characterized by attached vortices as in the case of an isolated cylinder and the other type is identified by detached standing vortices in the downstream. Reynolds number at which flow turns unsteady is quantified for each gap width. Five different types of wake patterns are observed in the unsteady flow regime: single bluff body wake, deflected wake, flip-flopping wake, in-phase synchronized, and anti-phase synchronized wakes. Present simulations of the evolution of single bluff-body wake demonstrate presence of vortices in the gap side too. The very long time simulations show that below a limiting Re depending on the gap, there is a transition of fully developed initial anti-phase flow to the in-phase flow at a later time. The limiting Reynolds number for this phase bifurcation phenomenon is evaluated in the (Re, g/D) space. A properly calibrated reduced order model based stability analysis is carried out to investigate the phase transition.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Lin-cong; ZHANG Guan-min; PAN Ji-hong; TIAN Mao-cheng
2013-01-01
This paper presents a two-dimensional CFD study of the falling film evaporation of horizontal tubes with different shapes applied in the seawater desalination.The flow and heat transfer characteristics of the falling water film on one circular tube and two non-circular shaped tubes,a drop-shaped tube and an oval-shaped tube,are analyzed,respectively.The Volume Of Fluid (VOF)method is employed to investigate the influence of the mass flow rate and the feeder height on the distribution of the film thickness and the heat transfer performance.The numerical results show that the minimum value of the film thickness appears approximately at the angular positions of 125°,160° and 170° for the smooth circular,oval-and drop-shaped tubes,respectively.The film thickness grows with the increase of the mass flow rate and the decrease of the feeder height,while the variation pattern varies for different tubes.Moreover,compared with the circular tube,the drop-and oval-shaped tubes have a lower dimensionless temperature and a thinner thermal boundary layer,which means a better heat transfer performance.Finally,the numerical results correlate well with the experimental and predicted data in literature.
Gunnoo, Hans; Abcha, Nizar; Ezersky, Alexander
2016-02-01
The influence of harmonic surface wave on non-regular Karman Vortex Street is investigated. In our experiments, Karman Street arises behind a vertical circular cylinder in a water flow and harmonic surface waves propagating upstream. It is found that surface waves can modify regimes of shedding in Karman Street: frequency lock-in and synchronization of vortex shedding can arise. Intensive surface waves can excite symmetric vortex street instead of chess-like street, and completely suppress shedding behind the cylinder. It is shown experimentally that such effects occur if frequency of harmonic surface wave is approximately twice higher than the frequency of vortex shedding. Region of frequency lock-in is found on the plane amplitude-frequency of surface wave.
Mansour, M A; El-Kabeir, S M
2000-01-01
Steady laminar boundary layer analysis of heat and mass transfer characteristics in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a micropolar fluid on a circular cylinder maintained at uniform heat and mass flux has been conducted. The solution of the energy equation inside the boundary layer is obtained as a power series of the distance measured along the surface from the front stagnation point of the cylinder. The results of dimensionless temperature, Nusselt number, wall shear stress, wall couple stress and Sherwood number have been presented graphically for various values of the material parameters. The results indicate that the micropolar fluids display a reduction in drag as well as heat transfer rate when compared with Newtonian fluids.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
A flow past two side-by-side identical circular cylinders was numerically investigated with the unstructured spectral element method. From the computational results at various non-dimensional distances between cylinder centers T/D and the Reynolds number Re, a total of nine kinds of wake patterns were observed: four steady wake patterns, including single bluff-body steady pattern, separated double-body steady pattern and transition steady pattern for sub-critical Reynolds numbers and biased steady pattern for super-critical Reynolds numbers, and five unsteady wake patterns, including single bluff-body periodic pattern, biased quasi-steady pattern, quasi-periodic (flip-flopping) pattern, in-phase-synchronized pattern and anti-phase-synchronized pattern. Time evolution of lift and drag coefficients corresponding to each unsteady wake pattern was given.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nemati Hasan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical investigation of the two-dimensional laminar flow and heat transfer a rotating circular cylinder with uniform planar shear, where the free-stream velocity varies linearly across the cylinder using Multi-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann method is conducted. The effects of variation of Reynolds number, rotational speed ratio at shear rate 0.1, blockage ratio 0.1 and Prandtl number 0.71 are studied. The Reynolds number changing from 50 to 160 for three rotational speed ratios of 0, 0.5, 1 is investigated. Results show that flow and heat transfer depends significantly on the rotational speed ratio as well as the Reynolds number. The effect of Reynolds number on the vortex-shedding frequency and period-surface Nusselt numbers is overall very strong compared with rotational speed ratio. Flow and heat conditions characteristics such as lift and drag coefficients, Strouhal number and Nusselt numbers are studied.
Guo, Li; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei
2016-02-01
The flows past a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 3900 are simulated using large-eddy simulation (LES) and the far-field sound is calculated from the LES results. A low dissipation energy-conserving finite volume scheme is used to discretize the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The dynamic global coefficient version of the Vreman's subgrid scale (SGS) model is used to compute the sub-grid stresses. Curle's integral of Lighthill's acoustic analogy is used to extract the sound radiated from the cylinder. The profiles of mean velocity and turbulent fluctuations obtained are consistent with the previous experimental and computational results. The sound radiation at far field exhibits the characteristic of a dipole and directivity. The sound spectra display the -5/3 power law. It is shown that Vreman's SGS model in company with dynamic procedure is suitable for LES of turbulence generated noise.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Ye-Long
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A direct forcing method for the simulation of particulate flows based on immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method is used to study the flow of power-law fluid through an infinite array of circular cylinders with cylinder separations of 20a (a is the cylinder radius with laminar shedding behind cylinders. Time averaged drag coefficient, maximum of lift coefficient and Strouhal number are given out with the power-law index in the range of 0.4 ≤ n ≤ 1.8 and Re in the range of 50 ≤ Re ≤ 140.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a study of the bistable phenomenon which occurs in the turbulent flow impinging on circular cylinders placed side-by-side. Time series of axial and transversal velocity obtained with the constant temperature hot wire anemometry technique in an aerodynamic channel are used as input data in a finite mixture model, to classify the observed data according to a family of probability density functions. Wavelet transforms are applied to analyze the unsteady turbulent signals. Results of flow visualization show a predominantly two-dimensional behavior. A double-well energy model is suggested to describe the behavior of the bistable phenomenon in this case. (author)
B. Harshavardhan; Mallikarjuna, J. M.
2013-01-01
In this investigation, a CFD analysis has been carried out on in-cylinder fluid flows and air-fuel interaction in Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine by changing combustion chamber geometry during intake and compression stroke at an engine speed of 1500 rpm for four different types of piston profiles viz., flat piston, flat piston with centre bowl, dome piston with centre bowl and pentroof offset bowl piston. A polyhedral trimmed cell has been taken for meshing of the geometries usi...
Study Report of Design Guide for Single Circular Cylinder in Axial Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
The vibration of a flexible cylinder in axial flow is random, so the quantities of interests are the root-mean-square value of the response and the amplitude distribution. This design guideline presents a relationship for calculating the
Electromagnetic Casimir Forces of Parabolic Cylinder and Knife-Edge Geometries
Graham, Noah; Emig, Thorsten; Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Jaffe, Robert L; Kardar, Mehran
2011-01-01
An exact calculation of electromagnetic scattering from a perfectly conducting parabolic cylinder is employed to compute Casimir forces in several configurations. These include interactions between a parabolic cylinder and a plane, two parabolic cylinders, and a parabolic cylinder and an ordinary cylinder. To elucidate the effect of boundaries, special attention is focused on the "knife-edge" limit in which the parabolic cylinder becomes a half-plane. Geometrical effects are illustrated by considering arbitrary rotations of a parabolic cylinder around its focal axis, and arbitrary translations perpendicular to this axis. A quite different geometrical arrangement is explored for the case of an ordinary cylinder placed in the interior of a parabolic cylinder. All of these results extend simply to nonzero temperatures.
Control of flow past a circular cylinder via a spanwise surface wire: effect of the wire scale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ekmekci, Alis [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rockwell, Donald [Lehigh University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bethlehem, PA (United States)
2011-09-15
Flow phenomena induced by a single spanwise wire on the surface of a circular cylinder are investigated via a cinema technique of particle image velocimetry (PIV). The primary aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of the wire scale. To this end, consideration is given to wires with different diameters that are 0.5, 1.2, and 2.9% of the cylinder diameter. The Reynolds number has a subcritical value of 10,000. Compared to the thickness of the unperturbed boundary layer developing around the cylinder between 5 and 75 from the forward stagnation point, the former two wires have smaller scales and the latter has a larger scale. Two angular locations of the wire, defined with respect to the forward stagnation point of the cylinder, are found to be critical. When the wire is located at these critical angles, either the most significant extension or the contraction of the time-mean separation bubble occurs in the near wake. These critical angles depend on the wire scale: the smaller the wire, the larger the critical angle. The small-scale and large-scale wires that have diameters of 1.2 and 2.9% of the cylinder diameter induce bistable shear-layer oscillations between different separation modes when placed at their respective critical angles corresponding to maximum extension of the near-wake bubble. These oscillations have irregular time intervals that are much longer than the time scale associated with the classical Karman instability. Moreover, the large-scale wire can either significantly attenuate or intensify the Karman mode of vortex shedding at the critical states; in contrast, the small-scale wires do not notably alter the strength of the Karman instability. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pankaj Thakur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal stress and strain rates in a thick walled rotating cylinder under steady state temperature has been derived by using Seth’s transition theory. For elastic-plastic stage, it is seen that with the increase of temperature, the cylinder having smaller radii ratios requires lesser angular velocity to become fully plastic as compared to cylinder having higher radii ratios The circumferential stress becomes larger and larger with the increase in temperature. With increase in thickness ratio stresses must be decrease. For the creep stage, it is seen that circumferential stresses for incompressible materials maximum at the internal surface as compared to compressible material, which increase with the increase in temperature and measure n.
Numerical investigation of flow and scour around a vertical circular cylinder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baykal, Cüneyt; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fuhrman, David R.;
2015-01-01
Flow and scour around a vertical cylinder exposed to current are investigated by using a three-dimensional numerical model based on incompressible Reynoldsaveraged Navier–Stokes equations. The model incorporates (i) k-ω turbulence closure, (ii) vortexshedding processes, (iii) sediment transport...
Bifurcation of Vortex Breakdown Patterns in a Circular Cylinder with two Rotating Covers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brøns, Morten; Bisgaard, Anders
2006-01-01
We analyse the topology of vortex breakdown in a closed cylindrical container in the steady domain under variation of three parameters, the aspect ratio of the cylinder, the Reynolds number, and the ratio of the angular velocities of the covers. We develop a general post-processing method to obtain...
Heat transfer in non-Newtonian falling liquid film on a horizontal circular cylinder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ouldhadda, D.; Idrissi, A.Il [Laboratoire d' Energetique, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik, Sidi Othmane Casablanca (Morocco); Asbik, M. [G.M.M.T.N., Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Boutalamine Errachidia (Morocco)
2002-08-01
This study aims to investigate numerically the laminar flow and heat transfer in a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian falling liquid film on a horizontal cylinder for the constant heat flux and isothermal boundary conditions. The inertia terms are taken into account. An implicit finite difference method is carried out to solve the governing boundary layer equations. The effects of operational parameters on the hydrodynamic and heat transfer characteristics are examined and discussed in detail. The results presented show that the local and average Nusselt numbers varies significantly as a function of the concentration of aqueous carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solutions and the cylinder diameter. Higher concentration of aqueous CMC solutions generate larger heat transfer coefficients. Finally, a comparison with the experimental and numerical results available in the literature for Newtonian fluids shows clearly that the present analysis is reasonably accurate. (orig.)
Optimal non-circular fiber geometries for image scrambling in high-resolution spectrographs
Stürmer, Julian; Grimm, Stephan; Kalide, Andre; Sutherland, Adam P; Seifahrt, Andreas; Schuster, Kay; Bean, Jacob L; Quirrenbach, Andreas
2016-01-01
Optical fibers are a key component for high-resolution spectrographs to attain high precision in radial velocity measurements. We present a custom fiber with a novel core geometry - a 'D'-shape. From a theoretical standpoint, such a fiber should provide superior scrambling and modal noise mitigation, since unlike the commonly used circular and polygonal fiber cross sections, it shows chaotic scrambling. We report on the fabrication process of a test fiber and compare the optical properties, scrambling performance, and modal noise behavior of the D-fiber with those of common polygonal fibers.
The Flow Field Downstream of a Dynamic Low Aspect Ratio Circular Cylinder: A Parametric Study
Gildersleeve, Samantha; Dan, Clingman; Amitay, Michael
2015-11-01
Flow past a static, low aspect ratio cylinder (pin) has shown the formation of vortical structures, namely the horseshoe and arch-type vortex. These vortical structures may have substantial effects in controlling flow separation over airfoils. In the present experiments, the flow field associated with a low aspect ratio cylinder as it interacts with a laminar boundary layer under static and dynamic conditions was investigated through a parametric study over a flat plate. As a result of the pin being actuated in the wall-normal direction, the structures formed in the wake of the pin were seen to be a strong function of actuation amplitude, driving frequency, and aspect ratio of the cylinder. The study was conducted at a Reynolds number of 1875, based on the local boundary layer thickness, with a free stream velocity of 10 m/s. SPIV data were collected for two aspect ratios of 0.75 and 1.125, actuation amplitudes of 6.7% and 16.7%, and driving frequencies of 175 Hz and 350 Hz. Results indicate that the presence and interactions between vortical structures are altered in comparison to the static case and suggest increased large-scale mixing when the pin is driven at the shedding frequency (350 Hz). Supported by the Boeing Company.
Mechanism of Tonal Noise Generation from Circular Cylinder with Spiral Fin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ryo Yamashita; Hidechito Hayashi; Tetsuya Okumura; Hiromitsu Hamakawa
2014-01-01
The pitch of the spiral finned tube influences seriously to the acoustic resonance in the heat exchanger.In this research,the flow characteristics in relating to the aeolian tone from the finned cylinder are studied by the numerical simulation.It is observed that the tonal noise generated from the finned tube at two pitch spaces.The ratio of the fin pitch to the cylinder diameter is changed at 0.11 and 0.27.The tone level increases and the frequency decreases with the pitch shorter.The separation flow from the cylinder generates the span-wise vortices,Karman vortices,and the separation flow from the fin generates the stream-wise vortices.When the fin pitch ratio is small,the stream-wise vortices line up to span-wise and become weak rapidly.Only the Karman vortices are remained and integrate in span.So the Karman vortex became large.This causes the low frequency and the large aeolian tone.
Geometry effects on magnetization dynamics in circular cross-section wires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sturma, M. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, I. Neel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, I. Neel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Toussaint, J.-C., E-mail: jean-christophe.toussaint@neel.cnrs.fr, E-mail: daria.gusakova@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, I. Neel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, I. Neel, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Gusakova, D., E-mail: jean-christophe.toussaint@neel.cnrs.fr, E-mail: daria.gusakova@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France)
2015-06-28
Three-dimensional magnetic memory design based on circular-cross section nanowires with modulated diameter is the emerging field of spintronics. The consequences of the mutual interaction between electron spins and local magnetic moments in such non-trivial geometries are still open to debate. This paper describes the theoretical study of domain wall dynamics within such wires subjected to spin polarized current. We used our home-made finite element software to characterize the variety of domain wall dynamical regimes observed for different constriction to wire diameter ratios d/D. Also, we studied how sizeable geometry irregularities modify the internal micromagnetic configuration and the electron spin spatial distribution in the system, the geometrical reasons underlying the additional contribution to the system's nonadiabaticity, and the specific domain wall width oscillations inherent to fully three-dimensional systems.
Geometry effects on magnetization dynamics in circular cross-section wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Three-dimensional magnetic memory design based on circular-cross section nanowires with modulated diameter is the emerging field of spintronics. The consequences of the mutual interaction between electron spins and local magnetic moments in such non-trivial geometries are still open to debate. This paper describes the theoretical study of domain wall dynamics within such wires subjected to spin polarized current. We used our home-made finite element software to characterize the variety of domain wall dynamical regimes observed for different constriction to wire diameter ratios d/D. Also, we studied how sizeable geometry irregularities modify the internal micromagnetic configuration and the electron spin spatial distribution in the system, the geometrical reasons underlying the additional contribution to the system's nonadiabaticity, and the specific domain wall width oscillations inherent to fully three-dimensional systems
Nemati, Hasan; Sedighi, Kurosh; Farhadi, Mousa; Pirouz, Mohammad Mohammadi; Fattahi, Ehsan
2010-03-01
A numerical investigation of the two-dimensional laminar flow around side-by-side rotating circular cylinders using Lattice Boltzmann method is conducted. The effects of variation of rotational speed ratio β and different gap spacings g* at Reynolds number of 100 are studied. A various range of rotational speed ratio 0 ≤ β ≤ 2 for four different gap spacings of 3, 1.5, 0.7 and 0.2 are investigated. Flow conditions and its characteristics, such as lift and drag coefficients and Strouhal number, is studied. The results indicated that as β increases, the flow changes its condition from periodic to steady after a critical rotational speed. Results also indicated that variation of the gap spacing and rotational speed has significant effect on wake pattern. Wake pattern in turn has significant effect on the Strouhal number. Finally, the result is compared with experimental and other numerical data.
Vortex Structures and Behavior of a Flow Past Two Rotating Circular Cylinders Arranged Side-by-Side
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Xiao-Hui; LIN Jian-Zhong; NIE De-Ming
2009-01-01
We present a study on the vortex structures and behavior of a Sow past two rotating circular cylinders arranged side-by-side at a range of absolute rotational speeds (|a| ≤ 2) for two different gap spacings g* = 1.5 and 0.7 at Reynolds numbers Re = 160 and 200. The results show that the flow becomes stabilized and finally steady beyond the critical rotational speed as|a| increases, regardless of the variation in Re and g". The value of critical rotational speed increases with increasing Re. The wake patterns change in the unsteady regimes for g* = 1.5 and 0.7. With increasing|a|, the time-averaged drag coefficient Cd decreases and the lift coefficient Cl increases, respectively. Cp at Re = 160 and g* = 0.7 decreases rapidly, resulting in the smallest value at the same |a| for 1 ≤ |a|≤ 2. Cd augments with increasing g* at the same|a|. For g* = 1.5, Cd has a little disparity between the cases of Re = 160 and 200. For the How past two still cyhnders, (C)L is inversely proportional to g* of two cylinders for a fixed |a|, and is not dependent on Re.
The drag-adjoint field of a circular cylinder wake at Reynolds numbers 20, 100 and 500
Wang, Qiqi
2012-01-01
This paper analyzes the adjoint solution of the Navier-Stokes equation. We focus on flow across a circular cylinder at three Reynolds numbers, ReD = 20, 100 and 500. The objective function in the adjoint formulation is the drag on the cylinder. We use classical fluid mechanics approaches to analyze the adjoint solution, which is a vector field similar to a flow field. Production and dissipation of kinetic energy of the adjoint field is discussed. We also derive the evolution of circulation of the adjoint field along a closed material contour. These analytical results are used to explain three numerical solutions of the adjoint equations presented in this paper: The adjoint solution at ReD = 20, a viscous steady state flow, exhibits a downstream suction and an upstream jet, opposite of expected behavior of a flow field. The adjoint solution at ReD = 100, a periodic 2D unsteady flow, exhibits periodic, bean shaped circulation the near wake region. The adjoint solution at ReD = 500, a turbulent 3D unsteady flow,...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Raeesi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Wind-induced cable vibration is a contemporary issue in cable-stayed bridges, which potentially threats the safety and durability of the structure. A thorough understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these phenomena is a priori for developing effective remedies to resolve the issue. In the present paper, possible mechanisms associated with two different types of wind-induced cable vibration phenomena have been studied based on a set of wind tunnel experimental data on a rigid circular cylinder. A number of analyses were applied to the unsteady surface pressure data sampled on the cylinder model to elucidate the possible mechanisms of these phenomena. Negative aerodynamic damping ratios were identified in the ranges of Reynolds number and cylinder orientation where divergent galloping type of response is expected to occur. A breakdown range of wind-cable relative angle was detected in which the regular Karman vortex shedding was suppressed within the subcritical Reynolds number range. In the critical Reynolds number range, however, the symmetry of surrounding flow field beyond this breakdown range could be altered drastically, leading to considerable changes in the lift force which is responsible for the negative aerodynamic damping ratio values. Significant increase of correlation length of sectional aerodynamic forces was also detected within this breakdown range in the critical regime. This, combined with the negative aerodynamic damping, is proposed to be a possible necessary onset condition for the galloping of dry inclined cables. The limited-amplitude instability, which occurred in the subcritical Re range, on the other hand, was found to be caused by the mitigation of regular Karman vortex shedding in the breakdown range while the spatial flow field was strongly correlated. In addition, the decay in correlation of aerodynamic forces in the critical Re range was believed to be key to the suppression of this
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav
2006-01-01
This work investigates the properties of an antenna-like configuration with an electric line source radiating in the presence of a double-negative circular cylinder. First, the analytical eigenfunction-series solution is derived. Second, this solution is employed in numerical calculations to study...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
We analyze thickness-shear vibration of an axially poled circular cylindrical tube with unattached electrodes and air gaps. Both free and electrically forced vibrations are studied. Exact solutions are obtained from the equations of linear piezoelectricity. Resonant frequencies and the impedance of the transducer are calculated from the solution. Results show that the resonant frequencies are sensitive to the dimensions of the air gaps when the gaps are thin. The impedance depends strongly on the air gaps.
Lockwood, Vernard E.; McKinney, Linwood W.
1960-01-01
A two-dimensional lifting circular cylinder has been tested over a Mach number range from 0.011 to 0.32 and a Reynolds number range from 135,000 to 1,580,000 to determine the force and pressure distribution characteristics. Two flaps having chords of 0.37 and 6 percent of the cylinder diameter, respectively, and attached normal to the surface were used to generate lift. A third configuration which had 6-percent flaps 1800 apart was also investigated. All flaps were tested through a range of angular positions. The investigation also included tests of a plain cylinder without flaps. The lift coefficient showed a wide variation with Reynolds number for the 6-percent flap mounted on the bottom surface at the 50-percent-diameter station, varying from a low of about 0.2 at a Reynolds number of 165,000 to a high of 1.54 at a Reynolds number of 350,000 and then decreasing almost linearly to a value of 1.0 at a Reynolds number of 1,580,000. The pressure distribution showed that the loss of lift with Reynolds number above the critical was the result of the separation point moving forward on the upper surface. Pressure distributions on a plain cylinder also showed similar trends with respect to the separation point. The variation of drag coefficient with Reynolds number was in direct contrast to the lift coefficient with the minimum drag coefficient of 0.6 occurring at a Reynolds number of 360,000. At this point the lift-drag ratios were a maximum at a value of 2.54. Tests of a flap with a chord of 0.0037 diameter gave a lift coefficient of 0.85 at a Reynolds number of 520,000 with the same lift-drag ratio as the larger flap but the position of the flap for maximum lift was considerably farther forward than on the larger flap. Tests of two 6-percent flaps spaced 180 deg apart showed a change in the sign of the lift developed for angular positions of the flap greater than 132 deg at subcriti- cal Reynolds numbers. These results may find use in application to air- craft using
A finite element-boundary integral method for cavities in a circular cylinder
Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.
1992-01-01
Conformal antenna arrays offer many cost and weight advantages over conventional antenna systems. However, due to a lack of rigorous mathematical models for conformal antenna arrays, antenna designers resort to measurement and planar antenna concepts for designing non-planar conformal antennas. Recently, we have found the finite element-boundary integral method to be very successful in modeling large planar arrays of arbitrary composition in a metallic plane. We extend this formulation to conformal arrays on large metallic cylinders. In this report, we develop the mathematical formulation. In particular, we discuss the shape functions, the resulting finite elements and the boundary integral equations, and the solution of the conformal finite element-boundary integral system. Some validation results are presented and we further show how this formulation can be applied with minimal computational and memory resources.
Radiation and scattering by cavity-backed antennas on a circular cylinder
Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.
1993-01-01
Conformal arrays are popular antennas for aircraft and missile platforms due to their inherent low weight and drag properties. However, to date there has been a dearth of rigorous analytical or numerical solutions to aid the designer. In fact, it has been common practice to use limited measurements and planar approximations in designing such non-planar antennas. The finite element-boundary integral method is extended to scattering and radiation by cavity-backed structures in an infinite, metallic cylinder. In particular, the formulation specifics such as weight functions, dyadic Green's function, implementation details, and particular difficulties inherent to cylindrical structures are discussed. Special care is taken to ensure that the resulting computer program has low memory demand and minimal computational requirements. Both scattering and radiation parameters are computed and validated as much as possible.
A finite element-boundary integral method for conformal antenna arrays on a circular cylinder
Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.
1992-01-01
Conformal antenna arrays offer many cost and weight advantages over conventional antenna systems. In the past, antenna designers have had to resort to expensive measurements in order to develop a conformal array design. This was due to the lack of rigorous mathematical models for conformal antenna arrays. As a result, the design of conformal arrays was primarily based on planar antenna design concepts. Recently, we have found the finite element-boundary integral method to be very successful in modeling large planar arrays of arbitrary composition in a metallic plane. We are extending this formulation to conformal arrays on large metallic cylinders. In doing so, we will develop a mathematical formulation. In particular, we discuss the finite element equations, the shape elements, and the boundary integral evaluation. It is shown how this formulation can be applied with minimal computation and memory requirements.
Gao, Shaoyan; Li, Pengbo; Li, Fuli
2013-03-01
The plasmon resonance-induced near electric field focusing and enhancement of three-layered silver nano-cylinder has been studied by quasi-static electricity. A field enhancement factor of more than 102 times can be obtained in the middle dielectric wall between the inner silver wire and outer tube around the resonance wavelengths of 400-500 nm. Because of the anti-symmetric coupling between the bonding tube plasmon and the wire plasmon, the incident electric field could be fine focused between the two metallic surfaces by decreasing the middle wall thickness. As a result of the curvature-dependent surface charge concentration, thinner dielectric wall with small diameter provides stronger local field enhancement. It provides the potential applications of plamonic nano-structures for high-density and high-contrast optical data storage under the diffraction limit.
Experimental Study of Wave Forces on Vertical Circular Cylinders in Long and Short Crested Sea
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høgedal, Michael
The three-dimensional structure of ocean waves is generally ignored in favour of two-dimensional waves, which are easier to handle from a theoretical and computational point of view. For design fixed structures where horizontal in-line and resultant wave forces are important, this is normally...... on the safe side, as the directional spreading of the wave field Ieads to reduced horizontal velocities and acceleration; in the fluid and hence a reduction of the resultant and in-line wave forces on the structure. The directional spreading of the horizontal velocity field generally causes an increase...... in the transverse wave forces on the structure, whereas the vertical forces generally are unaffected. In this study the effect from wave directionality on the horizontal wave forces on a slender vertical cylinder in a laboratory environment is investigated. In addition wave forces from regular waves on a slender...
2-D Urans Simulations of Vortex Induced Vibrations of Circular Cylinder at Trsl3 Flow Regime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omer Kemal Kinaci
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Research on vortex-induced vibrations (VIV mainly involves experimental science but building laboratory setups to investigate the flow are expensive and time consuming. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD methods may offer a faster and a cheaper way to understand this phenomenon depending on the solution approach to the problem. The context of this paper is to present the author’s computational approach to solve for vortex-induced vibrations which cover extensive explanations on the mathematical background, the grid structure and the turbulence models implemented. Current computational research on VIV for smooth cylinders is currently restricted to flows that have Reynolds numbers below 10,000. This paper describes the method to approach the problem with URANS and achieves to return satisfactory results for higher Reynolds numbers.The computational approach is first validated with a benchmark experimental study for rather low Reynolds number which falls into TrSL2 flow regime. Then, some numerical results up to Re=130,000, which falls into TrSL3 flow regime,are given at the end of the paper to reveal the validity of the approach for even higher Reynolds numbers.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Flow around a Circular Cylinder Controlled Using Plasma Actuators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taichi Igarashi
2014-01-01
by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS. The Reynolds number based on the freestream velocity and the cylinder diameter is set at ReD=1000. The plasma actuators are placed at ±90° from the front stagnation point. Two types of forcing, that is, two-dimensional forcing and three-dimensional forcing, are examined and the effects of the forcing amplitude and the arrangement of plasma actuators are studied. The simulation results suggest that the two-dimensional forcing is primarily effective in drag reduction. When the forcing amplitude is higher, the mean drag and the lift fluctuations are suppressed more significantly. In contrast, the three-dimensional forcing is found to be quite effective in reduction of the lift fluctuations too. This is mainly due to a desynchronization of vortex shedding. Although the drag reduction rate of the three-dimensional forcing is slightly lower than that of the two-dimensional forcing, considering the power required for the forcing, the three-dimensional forcing is about twice more efficient.
Wang, Chenglei; Tang, Hui; Yu, Simon C. M.; Duan, Fei
2016-05-01
This paper studies the control of two-dimensional vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs) of a single circular cylinder at a Reynolds number of 100 using a novel windward-suction-leeward-blowing (WSLB) concept. A lattice Boltzmann method based numerical framework is adopted for this study. Both open-loop and closed-loop controls are implemented. In the open-loop control, three types of actuation arrangements, including the pure suction on the windward side of the cylinder, the pure blowing on the leeward side, and the general WSLB on both sides, are implemented and compared. It is found that the general WSLB is the most effective, whereas the pure suction is the least effective. In the closed-loop control, the proportional (P), integral (I), and proportional-integral (PI) control schemes are applied to adjust the WSLB velocities according to the flow information obtained from a sensor. The effects of four key control parameters including the proportional gain constant, the integral gain constant, the length of data history used for the feedback, and the location of the sensor are investigated. It is found that the use of only P control fails to completely suppress the VIV, the use of only I control can achieve the complete suppression, and the PI control performs the best in terms of both the control effectiveness and efficiency. In the PI control, there exists an optimal length of data history for the feedback, at which the VIV control is the most efficient. There also exist the minimum required WSLB velocities for the VIV suppression, independent of the control schemes. Moreover, it is found that the VIV control is independent of the sensor location.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Premnath, Kannan N [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, 1200 Larimer Street, Denver, CO 80217 (United States); Pattison, Martin J [HyPerComp Inc., 2629 Townsgate Road, Suite 105, Westlake Village, CA 91361 (United States); Banerjee, Sanjoy, E-mail: kannan.premnath@ucdenver.edu, E-mail: kannan.np@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, City College of New York, City University of New York, New York, NY 10031 (United States)
2013-10-15
Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a kinetic based numerical scheme for the simulation of fluid flow. While the approach has attracted considerable attention during the last two decades, there is a need for systematic investigation of its applicability for complex canonical turbulent flow problems of engineering interest, where the nature of the numerical properties of the underlying scheme plays an important role for their accurate solution. In this paper, we discuss and evaluate a LBM based on a multiblock approach for efficient large eddy simulation of three-dimensional external flow past a circular cylinder in the transitional regime characterized by the presence of multiple scales. For enhanced numerical stability at higher Reynolds numbers, a multiple relaxation time formulation is considered. The effect of subgrid scales is represented by means of a Smagorinsky eddy-viscosity model, where the model coefficient is computed locally by means of a dynamic procedure, providing better representation of flow physics with reduced empiricism. Simulations are performed for a Reynolds number of 3900 based on the free stream velocity and cylinder diameter for which prior data is available for comparison. The presence of laminar boundary layer which separates into a pair of shear layers that evolve into turbulent wakes impose particular challenge for numerical methods for this condition. The relatively low numerical dissipation introduced by the inherently parallel and second-order accurate LBM is an important computational asset in this regard. Computations using five different grid levels, where the various blocks are suitably aligned to resolve multiscale flow features show that the structure of the recirculation region is well reproduced and the statistics of the mean flow and turbulent fluctuations are in satisfactory agreement with prior data. (paper)
Premnath, Kannan N.; Pattison, Martin J.; Banerjee, Sanjoy
2013-10-01
Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a kinetic based numerical scheme for the simulation of fluid flow. While the approach has attracted considerable attention during the last two decades, there is a need for systematic investigation of its applicability for complex canonical turbulent flow problems of engineering interest, where the nature of the numerical properties of the underlying scheme plays an important role for their accurate solution. In this paper, we discuss and evaluate a LBM based on a multiblock approach for efficient large eddy simulation of three-dimensional external flow past a circular cylinder in the transitional regime characterized by the presence of multiple scales. For enhanced numerical stability at higher Reynolds numbers, a multiple relaxation time formulation is considered. The effect of subgrid scales is represented by means of a Smagorinsky eddy-viscosity model, where the model coefficient is computed locally by means of a dynamic procedure, providing better representation of flow physics with reduced empiricism. Simulations are performed for a Reynolds number of 3900 based on the free stream velocity and cylinder diameter for which prior data is available for comparison. The presence of laminar boundary layer which separates into a pair of shear layers that evolve into turbulent wakes impose particular challenge for numerical methods for this condition. The relatively low numerical dissipation introduced by the inherently parallel and second-order accurate LBM is an important computational asset in this regard. Computations using five different grid levels, where the various blocks are suitably aligned to resolve multiscale flow features show that the structure of the recirculation region is well reproduced and the statistics of the mean flow and turbulent fluctuations are in satisfactory agreement with prior data.
Asymmetrical boundary layer separation at the base of a two cylinder geometry
Boyle, M. T.; Langston, L. S.
1989-01-01
This paper reports on the experimental description of the three-dimensional horseshoe vortex system occurring at the base of two cylinder mounted side by side on an endwall. The spacing between the two cylinders is adjusted to generate a family of viscous flows. Flow visualization performed in a water tunnel provides a qualitative understanding of the flow over a range of flow variables. A detailed wind tunnel experiment provides a quantitative description of the flow at a single test condition. At Re(D) = 2.5 x 10 to the 5th the measurements show an asymmetrical primary vortex with a wide flat cross section. A small counterrotating vortex is found between the primary vortex and the cylinder leading edge.
Influence of the Geometry of Beveled Edges on the Stress-Strain State of Hydraulic Cylinders
Buyalich, G. B.; Anuchin, A. V.; Serikov, K. P.
2016-04-01
The studies were carried out to determine the influence of forms obtained when preparing edges for welding a cylinder for hydraulic legs; the maximum stresses were defined at the location of weld roots, depending on variable parameters. The stress-strain states were calculated using finite element method.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The structure of double diffusive convection in a circular cylinder cavity has been numerically studied. The numerical results exhibit some new characters of non-horizontal stratifications of thermal and solutal fields: in the stratification state, the isothermal lines near the sidewall are higher than that near the symmetry axis, while the isoconcentration lines near the symmetry axis are relatively high. The mechanism of these non-horizontal stratifications is illustrated by comparing double-diffusive convection with natural convection driven by thermal buoyancy or solutal buoyancy alone. The effects of Lewis number Le and buoyancy ratio N on the non-hor- izontal stratifications of thermal and solutal fields are also investigated. The results show that: at a given time (t = 0.2), with an increase in Le (Le = 0-15), the area influenced by solute diffusion decreases; for isothermal line, the gradients of it initially increase, but it tends to be horizontal at the top of the cavity when the Lewis number is higher than 10. When N varies from 0 to 2, the isoconcentration lines tend to be horizontal while the gradients of isothermal line increase.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dinarvand Saeed
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This article deals with the study of the steady axisymmetric mixed convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid over a vertical circular cylinder with prescribed external flow and surface temperature. By means of similarity transformation, the governing partial differential equations are reduced into highly non-linear ordinary differential equations. The resulting non-linear system has been solved analytically using an efficient technique namely homotopy analysis method (HAM. Expressions for velocity and temperature fields are developed in series form. In this study, three different types of nanoparticles are considered, namely alumina (, titania (, and copper ( with water as the base fluid. For copper-water nanofluid, graphical results are presented to describe the influence of the nanoparticle volume fraction on the velocity and temperature fields for the forced and mixed convection flows. Moreover, the features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed and discussed for foregoing nanofluids. It is found that the skin friction coefficient and the heat transfer rate at the surface are highest for copper-water nanofluid compared to the alumina-water and titania-water nanofluids.
Hussain Ahmad; Tariq Javed; Abuzar Ghaffari
2016-01-01
In the present article, radiation effect on mixed convection boundary layer flow of a viscoelastic fluid over a horizontal circular cylinder with constant heat flux has been numerically analyzed. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed to dimensionless nonlinear partial differential equations. The equations are solved numerically by using Keller-box method. The computed results are in excellent agreement with the previous studies. Skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number ar...
Towards a precision measurement of the Casimir force in a cylinder-plane geometry
Brown-Hayes, Michael; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.; Kim, Woo-Joong; Onofrio, Roberto
2005-01-01
We report on a proposal aimed at measuring the Casimir force in a cylinder-plane configuration. The Casimir force is evaluated including corrections due to finite parallelism, conductivity, and temperature. The range of validity of the proximity force approximation is also discussed. An apparatus to test the feasibility of a precision measurement in this configuration has been developed, and we describe both a procedure to control the parallelism and the results of the electrostatic calibrati...
Scattering of guided SH_wave by a partly debonded circular cylinder in a traction free plate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG; Xiaomin
2001-01-01
Techniques, 1969, MTT_17(3): 148.［14］Wang, X.M.C., Ying, F., Li, M.X., Scattering of antiplane shear wave by a circular cylinder in a traction free plate, submitted to J.Acoust.Soc.Am.［15］Auld, B.A., Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids, Vol Ⅱ, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1973, 73-160.［16］Bostrom, A., Elastic wave scattering from an interface crack: antiplane strain, J.Appl.Mech., 1987, 54(2): 503.
Lockwood, Vernard E.
1961-01-01
A wind-tunnel investigation has been made to determine the ground effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of a lifting circular cylinder using tangential blowing from surface slots to generate high lift coefficients. The tests were made on a semispan model having a length 4 times the cylinder diameter and an end plate of 2.5 diameters. The tests were made at low speeds at a Reynolds number of approximately 290,000, over a range of momentum coefficients from 0.14 to 4.60, and over a range of groundboard heights from 1.5 to 10 cylinder diameters. The investigation showed an earlier stall angle and a large loss of lift coefficient as the groundboard was brought close to the cylinder when large lift coefficients were being generated. For example, at a momentum coefficient of 4.60 the maximum lift coefficient was reduced from a value of 20.3 at a groundboard height of 10 cylinder diameters to a value of 8.7 at a groundboard height of 1.5 cylinder diameters. In contrast to this there was little effect on the lift characteristics of changes in groundboard height when lift coefficients of about 4.5 were being generated. At a height of 1.5 cylinder diameters the drag coefficients generally increased rapidly when the slot position angle for maximum lift was exceeded. Slightly below the slot position angle for maximum lift, the groundboard had a beneficial effect, that is, the drag for a given lift was less near the groundboard than away from the groundboard. The variation of maximum circulation lift coefficient (maximum lift coefficient minus momentum coefficient) obtained in this investigation is in general agreement with a theory developed for a jet-flap wing which assumes that the loss in circulation is the result of blockage of the main stream beneath the wing.
Sobera, M.P.; Kleijn, C.R.
2008-01-01
We study flow and heat transfer to a cylinder in cross flow at Re = 3,900–80,000 by means of three-dimensional transient RANS (T-RANS) simulations, employing an RNG k − ε turbulence model. Both the case of a bare solid cylinder and that of a solid cylinder surrounded at some fixed distance by a thin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, B.R. [Dibrugarh University, Department of Mathematics, Dibrugarh, Assam (India); Singh, R.N. [Marwari Hindi High School, Dibrugarh (India)
2010-08-15
The effect of a radial magnetic field on separation of a binary mixture of incompressible viscous thermally and electrically conducting fluids confined between two concentric rotating circular cylinders with different angular velocity is examined. The equations governing the motion, temperature and concentration in cylindrical polar coordinate are solved analytically. The solution obtained in closed form for concentration distribution is plotted against the radial distances from the surface of the inner circular cylinder for various values of non-dimensional parameters. It is found that the non-dimensional parameters viz. the Hartmann number, thermal diffusion number, baro diffusion number, rotational Reynolds number, the product of Prandtl number and Eckert number, magnetic Prandtl number and the ratio of the angular velocities of inner and outer cylinders affects the species separation of rarer and lighter component significantly. The problem discussed here derives its application in the basic fluid dynamics separation processes to separate the rarer component of the different isotopes of heavier molecules where electromagnetic method of separation does not work. (orig.)
Uzol, Oguz
Short cylindrical pin fins with circular cross-sections are one of the most common types of cooling devices used in turbine blades. However it is by no means clear that the circular shape is the most efficient geometry in terms of heat transfer enhancement and pressure loss minimization. Therefore, novel pin fin concepts and geometries are developed and introduced as alternatives to conventional circular pin fins. The idea of using fluidic oscillators as turbulent heat transfer enhancement devices led to the novel concept of "oscillator fin". Also the idea of using more elliptical fin shapes resulted in the development of the SEF (Standard Elliptical Fin), the N fin (Derived from NACA four-digit series of airfoils) and the Egg fin (A hybrid circular-elliptical fin). Detailed experimental and computational investigations are performed in order to determine the heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of these new concepts and the results are compared to the characteristics of conventional circular pin fins. The experimental analysis included endwall convective heat transfer coefficient measurements, wake total pressure surveys and wake flow field measurements and visualizations using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The isolated single fin measurements revealed that the oscillator fin concept is not working as expected and does not provide any advantage over circular fins. The SEFs and the N fins were found to be the most effective cooling devices in terms of both heat transfer enhancement and pressure loss minimization. The characteristics of the SEF and N fins are also determined for a 2 row staggered array configuration. It is observed that the endwall heat transfer enhancement capability of the SEFs and the N fins is about 25% less than the circular fins. However these elliptical fins caused tremendous reduction in loss levels from 100% to 200%. The main reason of this high levels of pressure loss in circular fin arrays is determined to be the huge low
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawamura, T.; Nakao, T.; Takahashi, M.; Hayashi, M.; Goto, N. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1999-07-25
Vortex-induced vibrations were measured for a circular cylinder subjected to a water cross flow at supercritical Reynolds numbers for a wide range of reduced velocities. Turbulence intensities were changed from 1% to 13% in order to investigate the effect of the Strouhal number on the region of synchronization by symmetrical and Karman vortex shedding. The reduced damping of the test cylinder was about 0.1 in water. The surface roughness of the cylinder was a mirror-polished surface. Strouhal number decreased from about 0.48 to 0.29 with increasing turbulence intensity. Synchronized vibrations were observed even at supercritical Reynolds numbers where fluctuating fluid force was small. Reduced velocities at which drag and lift direction lock-in by Karman vortex shedding were initiated decreased with increasing Strouhal number. When Strouhal number was about 0.29, the self-excited vibration in drag direction by symmetrical vortex shedding began at which the frequency ratio of Karman vortex shedding frequency to the natural frequency of cylinder was 0.32. (author)
Supramolecular Chemistry: Induced Circular Dichroism to Study Host-Guest Geometry
Mendicuti, Francisco; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Maria Jose
2010-01-01
In this laboratory experiment, students obtain information about the structure of a host-guest complex from the interpretation of circular dichroism measurements. The value and sign of the induced circular dichroism (ICD) on an achiral chromophore guest when it complexes with a cyclodextrin can be related to the guest penetration and its…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ALONZO-GARCA A; GUTIRREZ-TORRES C del C; JIMNEZ BERNAL J A; MOLLINEDO-PONCE de LEN H R; MARTINEZ-DELGADILLO S A; BARBOSA-SALDAA J G
2015-01-01
This paper presents a CFD study about the effect of the V and U grooves in the flow over four cylinders in diamond shape configuration at subcritical flow conditions(Re=41000). Thek-ε Realizable turbulence model was implemented to fully structured hexahedral grids with near-wall refinements. Results showed that the numerical model was able to reproduce the impinging flow pattern and the repulsive forces present in the lateral cylinders of the smooth cylinder array. As a consequence of the flow alignment induced by the grooves, a jet-flow is formed between the lateral cylinders, which could cause an important vortex induced vibration effect especially in the rear cylinder. The magnitudes of the shear stresses at the valleys and peaks for the V grooved cylinders were lower than those of the U grooved cylinders, but the separation points were delayed due the U grooves presence. It is discussed the presence of a blowing effect caused by counter-rotating eddies located near the grooves peaks that cause a decrease of the shear stresses in the valleys, and promote them at the peaks.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈瑞志; 黄华; 詹杰民; 朱梦华; 郭宗晓
2015-01-01
基于 Biot 渗流固结理论和水波绕射理论，应用特征函数展开法，推导了对应透空复合圆柱的绕射波势和波浪引起的海床内渗流压力分布的解析解式，由此计算了作用于固立透空复合圆柱底部上由波浪渗流压力所导致的浮托力和倾覆力矩，并与水平和垂直绕射波浪力和力矩进行了相应比较。计算结果表明，复合柱上部圆柱侧表面的透空性对水平方向的波浪直接作用有明显的减弱效应，对波浪渗流倾覆力矩也有一定的减弱效应，而对垂直方向的波浪直接作用及波浪渗流浮托力影响较小。海况条件和复合圆柱几何条件等因素的相对变化对波浪渗流作用均存在一定的影响，其中对渗流倾覆力矩的影响更为明显。在一定条件下，波浪渗流作用与绕射波浪作用可以具有相同的量级。%Based on Biot seepage consolidation theory and wave diffraction theory,the analytical solu-tions to the diffracted water wave potentials and the wave-induced seepage pressures referring to porous compound vertical circular cylinder resting on permeable elastic seabed are derived by applying the eigen-function expansion approach,and then the wave-induced lift force and overturn moment caused by the seepage pressure on the bottom of compound vertical circular cylinder are accordingly evaluated and are compared with direct diffracted wave force and moment.The results demonstrate that the porosity of the lateral surface of the circular column resting on a circular base will lead an obvious reduction in direct horizontal wave loads on compound cylinder and certain reduction in seepage overturn moment on the bot-tom of compound cylinder,and having slight influence on direct vertical wave loads and wave-induced seepage uplift force on compound cylinder .The variation of ocean condition and structure geometry con-dition may have some influence on wave-induced seepage loads,especially on seepage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansson, Jens; Christensen, Silas Sverre
2016-01-01
% for strakes of circular cross section. The present paper argues that this height can be reduced for structures where the critical wind velocity for vortex shedding is in the Supercritical Reynolds number regime. The investigations are aimed for suppressing VIV on offshore wind turbine towers during...... transportation. Wind tunnel experiments have been conducted with a tapered cylinder section model representing these towers, and static tests have been performed up to Re = 7.2x10^5. Dynamic tests have been performed for a setup with a critical wind velocity for vortex shedding corresponding to Re = 4.96 x10...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J. B. Briggs (INEEL POC); R. E. Rothe
1999-06-14
About three dozen previously unreported critical configurations are presented for very complex geometries filled with high concentration enriched uranyl nitrate solution. These geometries resemble a tall, thin Central Column (or trunk of a ''tree'') having long, thin arms (or ''branches'') extending up to four directions off the column. Arms are equally spaced from one another in vertical planes, and that spacing ranges from arms in contact to quite wide spacings. Both the Central Column and the many different arms are critically safe by themselves with each, alone, is filled with fissile solution; but, in combination, criticality occurs due to the interactions between arms and the column. Such neutronic interactions formed the principal focus of this study. While these results are fresh to the nuclear criticality safety industry and to those seeking novel experiments against which to validate computer codes, the experiments, themselves, are not recent. Over 100 experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory between September, 1967, and February of the following year.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pankaj Thakur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The non-homogeneity is assumed due to variation of modulus of compression. It has seen that in the presence of temperature, a cylinder made of non-homogeneous material k<0 (Non-homogeneity is less at internal surface than at outer surface require high pressure to become fully plastic as is required for initial yielding and this pressure goes on increasing with the increases in temperature, showing that a cylinder made of non-homogeneous material k<0 is on the safer side of design. For homogeneous case, it has been observed that the circumferential stress has maximum value at the external surface of the cylinder made of incompressible material as compared to compressible material. For Homogeneous case, with effects of temperature reduces the stresses at the external surface of the cylinder in comparison to pressure effects only. Strain rates are found to be maximum at the internal surface of the cylinder made of compressible material and they decrease with the radius. With the introduction of temperature effect, the creep rates have higher values at the internal surface but lesser values at the external surface as compare to a cylinder subjected to pressure only.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramin Kamali-Moghadam
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Three-dimensional unsteady flow field around a finite circular cylinder standing in a flat-plate boundary layer is studied. For this purpose, two different numerical turbulence approaches as wall adapted local eddyviscosity LES (LES-WALE and the zonal hybrid RANS-LES approach of Detached-Eddy Simulation (Zonal-DES are used. Analysis is carried out for a finite circular cylinder with diameter of D = 3 mm and length-to-diameter ratio of L/D=6 which leads to the Reynolds number 2×104. Numerical simulation has been performed based on the LES-WALE and Zonal-DES turbulence models using coarse and fine grids. Ability and accuracy of two models in capturing the complex physics of present phenomenon are investigated by comparing their results with each other and validated experimental results. Also, effect of several important parameters such as time-averaged pressure coefficient, velocity, vortex shedding frequency and performance of the LES-WALE and Zonal-DES turbulence models are studied.
Numerical Simulation of Flow-induced Vibration of Tandem Circular Cylinders%串列双圆柱流致振动数值模拟
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
及春宁; 杨立红; 黄继露; 刘爽
2014-01-01
基于开源程序OpenFOAM和动网格技术，利用切应力平衡法建立水流作用下的海上风电基础局部冲刷数学模型。通过模拟结果与实验数据的对比发现，所建立的冲刷数学模型能够合理反映圆柱型单桩基础周围的水流结构，冲刷深度与实验结果吻合较好。%Numerical simulation is carried out for the flow-induced vibrations(FIV)of the elastically-mounted tandem cylinders in laminar flow by using immersed boundary method in the process of harvesting VIVACE ocean current energy (Vortex Induced Vibration Aquatic Clean Energy). The research results show the crosscurrent displacement of the upstream and downstream cylinders,vortex shedding frequency,lift-drag coefficient and the curve of the phase difference between lift force and displacement being affected by reduced flow velocity. In addition,analysis is made for the influence of cylinder’s spacing ratio on the hydrodynamic and FIV response characteristics of the tandem circular cylinders.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongsheng Chen
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Coupled heat transfer and chemical reaction of fluid flow in complex boundaries are explored by introducing two additional properties, i.e. particle type and energy state into the Lattice gas automata (LGA Frisch–Hasslacher–Pomeau (FHP-II model. A mix-redistribute of energy and type of particles is also applied on top of collision rules to ensure randomness while maintaining the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Simulations of heat transfer and heterogeneous reaction of gas flow passing a circular porous cylinder in a channel are presented. The effects of porosity of cylinder, gas inlet velocity, and reaction probability on the reaction process are further analyzed with respect to the characteristics of solid morphology, product concentration, and temperature profile. Numerical results indicate that the reaction rate increases with increasing reaction probability as well as gas inlet velocity. Cylinders with a higher value of porosity and more homogeneous structure also react with gas particles faster. These results agree well with the basic theories of gas–solid reactions, indicating the present model provides a method for describing gas–solid reactions in complex boundaries at mesoscopic level.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This note describes the development of a short program for a personal computer to calculate the solid angle subtended by a right cylinder detector to a circular or rectangular, plane or thick source at any position and orientation to the cylinder. The program also calculates the number of hits on the cylinder side and on each end, and the average path-length through the detector volume (assuming no scattering or absorption). The current performance of personal computers makes it realistic to model the order of 109 simulations of radiation emission and achieve accuracies of solid angle estimates typically better than 0.03%. (authors)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨锦文; 何意; 鲍锋
2014-01-01
The flow around cylinder is one of the classic research issues of fluid mechanics.The modifica-tion of the cylindrical geometry will affect the cylinder’s pressure distribution and near wake flow structures. The present study on slotted cylinder has some certain values in engineering applications such as vortex gen-erator in flow meters and heat convection.Large eddy stimulation based on 3-D Fluent code was carried out for cylinders with slit,with respect to test model of ratio of slit width to diameter s/d =0.15 on five different Reynolds numbers (Re =1500、3000、4400、5837、7200).By the means of qualitative flow visualization and quantitative PIV experiments,the flow patterns between the slit and the shedding vortex of the baseline and slotted cylinder were carefully investigated,measuring and predicting of the shedding vortex frequency were included.The results of numerical simulation agreed well with the experimental measurement.The experi-mental and computational results show that the flow in the slit demonstrated periodic motion,this oscillating vent-flow has greatly altered the near wake flow features.The periodic oscillation in the slit has enhanced the periodicity of the flow around circular cylinder;consequently,the slotted cylinder exhibited an increase in shedding vortex frequency and Strouhal number compared with their baseline case at the same Reynolds numbers.Meanwhile,The wake of the slotted cylinder presented obvious three dimensional features.%基于 Fluent 软件平台采用大涡模拟（LES）的方法对开缝圆柱绕流进行了三维数值仿真，计算了五组不同雷诺数（Re ＝1500、3000、4400、5837、7200）情况下缝宽比 s/d ＝0．15的开缝圆柱绕流流场。通过定性的流动显示和定量的 PIV 实验，对 s/d ＝0．15情况下开缝圆柱内部缝隙流动以及旋涡脱落情况进行了细致研究，并测量了基准圆柱与开缝圆柱的脱落涡频率。数值模拟与实验测量结果符合
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Yuan-dong; ZHANG Hong-wu; WU Wen-quan
2005-01-01
Particle-laden gas flows past a circular cylinder at the Reynolds number of 2×105 were numerically investigated. The Discrete Vortex Method (DVM) was employed to evaluate the unsteady gas flow fields and a Lagrangian approach was applied for tracking individual solid particles. The vortex patterns and the distributions of particles with different Stokes numbers were obtained. Numerical results show that: (1) at small Stokes number (St=0.01) the particles move with the fluid and could be found evenly throughout the flow, (2) the regions around the vortex cores, where few particles exist, become wider as the stokes number of particles increases from 0.01 to 1.0, (3) at middle Stokes number (St=1.0, 10) centrifugal forces throw the particles out of the wake vortices, (4) at high Stokes number (St=100, 1000) the particles are not affected by the vortices,and their motion is determined by their inertia effects.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
AHMED N A
2006-01-01
A comprehensive hot wire investigation of the flow around a circular cylinder is carried out in an 18" × 18" wind tunnel to look into the dominant frequencies at the stagnation, separation and separated shear layers in the transition Reynolds number range. The majority of the experiments are carried out at Reynolds number of 4.5 × 104, with additional transition frequency tests at Reynolds numbers of 2.9 × 104, 3.3 × 104 and 9.7 × 104 respectively. The results are analysed in terms of power spectral density. While the frequency associated with stagnation is found to be essentially due to vortex shedding, frequency doubling of vortex shedding is also evident in the separated shear layers.Two peaks associated with transition frequencies are detected and their possible implications are presented.
Wang, Kun
2012-01-01
Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT), also known as optoacoustic tomography, is an emerging imaging modality that has great potential for a wide range of biomedical imaging applications. In this Note, we derive a hybrid reconstruction formula that is mathematically exact and operates on a data function that is expressed in the temporal frequency and spatial domains. This formula explicitly reveals new insights into how the spatial frequency components of the sought-after object function are determined by the temporal frequency components of the data function measured with a circular or spherical measurement geometry in two- and three-dimensional implementations of PACT, respectively. The structure of the reconstruction formula is surprisingly simple compared with existing Fourier-domain reconstruction formulae. It also yields a straightforward numerical implementation that is robust and two orders of magnitude more computationally efficient than filtered backprojection algorithms.
CFD Simulation of In-Cylinder Flow on Different Piston Bowl Geometries in a DI Diesel Engine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. K. Gugulothu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The combustion process in the diesel engine should be controlled to avoid both excessive maximum cylinder pressure and an excessive rate of pressure rise, in terms of crank angle. At the same time, the process should be so rapid that substantially all the fuel is burned early in the expansion stroke. In this direction, piston configuration plays a crucial role. Four configurations i.e., flat, inclined, central bowl, and inclined offset bowl piston have been studied. This study is concerned with the CFD analysis has been carried out on two valve four stroke diesel engine to analyze the in-cylinder air motion during suction stroke, pressure and temperature variation inside the cylinder during the compression stroke for various configurations. The engine specifications are considered from the literature. For numerical analysis, Ansys15 CFD software has been used, for meshing polyhedral trimmed cells were adopted. In-cylinder flows were analyzed by solving mass, momentum and energy equation. From this study, it is concluded that analysis has been carried out for each crank angle degree during suction and compression stroke for all the piston configurations, tumble ratio varies mainly with crank angle position. At the end of the compression stroke fuel is injected and the performance of different piston bowls are analyzed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nepal C. Roy
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Unsteady mixed convection boundary-layer flow of an electrically conducting micropolar fluid past a circular cylinder is investigated taking into account the effect of thermal radiation and heat generation or absorption. The reduced non-similar boundary-layer equations are solved using the finite difference method. It is found that the magnitude of the friction factor and the couple stress significantly increases due to the increase of the mixed convection parameter, the conduction-radiation parameter, the surface temperature parameter, the heat absorption parameter and the frequency parameter. However the magnitude of the heat transfer rate decreases with these parameters. The converse characteristics are observed for the Prandtl number. The magnitude of the couple stress and the heat transfer rate is seen to decrease whereas the magnitude of the skin factor increases with increasing the vortex viscosity parameter. The magnetic field parameter reduces the skin factor, couple stress and heat transfer rate. The amplitude of oscillation of the transient skin factor and couple stress gradually increases owing to an increase of $\\xi$. But the transient heat transfer rate is found to be oscillating with almost the same amplitude for any value of $\\xi$. The amplitude of oscillation of the transient skin factor and couple stress increases with an increase of $S$ and $\\xi$ while the amplitude of the transient heat transfer rate increases with increasing Pr and $S$.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hussain Ahmad
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the present article, radiation effect on mixed convection boundary layer flow of a viscoelastic fluid over a horizontal circular cylinder with constant heat flux has been numerically analyzed. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed to dimensionless nonlinear partial differential equations. The equations are solved numerically by using Keller-box method. The computed results are in excellent agreement with the previous studies. Skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are emphasized specifically. These quantities are displayed against the curvature parameter. The effects of pertinent parameters involved in the problem namely effective Prandtl number and mixed convection parameter on skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are shown through graphs and table. Boundary layer separation points are also calculated with and without radiation and a comparison is shown. The presence of radiation helps to decrease or increase the skin friction coefficient for the negative or positive values of the mixed convection parameter accordingly. The decrease in value of effective Prandtl number helps to increase the value of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number for viscoelastic fluids.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QI E-rong; LI Guo-ya; LI Wei; WU Jian; ZHANG Xin
2006-01-01
In the gap-ratio range of 0.0≤G≤7.0, a particle image velocimetry PIV is applied to conduct a systematic experimental research of the flow around a horizontal circular cylinder in the cross-flow of shallow water. The velocity distribution of transient flow field at various gap-ratios is obtained. Based on these data, the phenomena and rules of the vortex and its course of generation, development and evolvement at various gap-ratios are analyzed, and it is found that there are similar unshedding vortex structures at G = 0.0 and G = 7.0, and others are structures of shedding vortex. The figures of typical vortex movements are given. Based on this, the differences between the transient flow field and the time-averaged flow field and the characteristics of the vortex structures are analyzed. In addition when the Strouhal number keeps constant (about 0.2) concerning vortex shedding have been discussed. The findings of this paper are of guiding significance for engineering issues with similar flowing features.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsutsui, T.; Igarashi, T. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan); Kamemoto, K. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-02-25
Experimental investigations and numerical analysis were carried out to clarify the behavior of an interactive flow around two circular cylinders with different diameters, in particular, the phenomenon that the shear layer separated from the main cylinder reattaches to the rear surface due to the Coanda effect. Numerical analysis was simplified by applying a vortex method and a boundary element method. The results obtained were as follows. The reattachment due to the Coanda effect appeared intermittently and could simulated. Negative lift acted on the main cylinder, and the calculated lift and drag coefficient showed good agreement with those of experiments. The calculated Strouhal numbers were 20-30% higher than the experimental ones. 17 refs., 17 figs.
Chen, Wen-Li; Li, Hui; Hu, Hui
2014-04-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a suction flow control method for vortex-induced vibration (VIV) suppression. The flow control method uses a limited number of isolated suction holes to manipulate the vortex shedding in the wake behind a circular cylinder in order to reduce the unsteadiness of the dynamic wind loads acting on the cylinder. The experimental study was performed at Re ≈ 3.0 × 104, i.e., in the typical Reynolds number range of VIV for the cables of cable-stayed bridges. In addition to measuring the surface pressure distributions to determine the resultant dynamic wind loads acting on the test model, a digital particle image velocimetry system was used to conduct detailed flow field measurements to reveal the changes in the shedding process of the unsteady wake vortex structures from the test model with and without the suction flow control. The effects of important controlling parameters (i.e., the azimuthal locations of the suction holes in respect to the oncoming airflow, the spanwise spacing between the suction holes, and the suction flow rate through the suction holes) on the wake flow characteristics, the surface pressure distributions, and the resultant dynamic wind loads were assessed quantitatively. While a higher suction flow rate and smaller spanwise spacing between the suction holes were beneficial to the effectiveness of the suction flow control, the azimuthal locations of the suction holes were found to be very critical for reducing the fluctuating amplitudes of the dynamic wind loads acting on the test model using the suction flow control method. With the suction holes located at the proper azimuthal locations on the test model (i.e., at the azimuthal angle of θ = 90° and 270° for the present study), the characteristics of the wake flow behind the test model were found to change significantly along the entire span of the test model, even though only a limited number of the isolated suction
Pedoe, Dan
1988-01-01
""A lucid and masterly survey."" - Mathematics Gazette Professor Pedoe is widely known as a fine teacher and a fine geometer. His abilities in both areas are clearly evident in this self-contained, well-written, and lucid introduction to the scope and methods of elementary geometry. It covers the geometry usually included in undergraduate courses in mathematics, except for the theory of convex sets. Based on a course given by the author for several years at the University of Minnesota, the main purpose of the book is to increase geometrical, and therefore mathematical, understanding and to he
Dooner, David B
2012-01-01
Building on the first edition published in 1995 this new edition of Kinematic Geometry of Gearing has been extensively revised and updated with new and original material. This includes the methodology for general tooth forms, radius of torsure', cylinder of osculation, and cylindroid of torsure; the author has also completely reworked the '3 laws of gearing', the first law re-written to better parallel the existing 'Law of Gearing" as pioneered by Leonard Euler, expanded from Euler's original law to encompass non-circular gears and hypoid gears, the 2nd law of gearing describing a unique relat
Litvin, Faydor L.; Tsay, Chung-Biau
1987-01-01
The authors have proposed a method for the generation of circular arc helical gears which is based on the application of standard equipment, worked out all aspects of the geometry of the gears, proposed methods for the computer aided simulation of conditions of meshing and bearing contact, investigated the influence of manufacturing and assembly errors, and proposed methods for the adjustment of gears to these errors. The results of computer aided solutions are illustrated with computer graphics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Byg din egen boomerang, kast den, se den flyve, forstå hvorfor og hvordan den vender tilbage, og grib den. Det handler om opdriften på vingerne når du flyver, men det handler også og allermest om den mærkværdige gyroskop-effekt, du bruger til at holde balancen, når du kører på cykel. Vi vil bruge...... matematik, geometri, og fysik til at forstå, hvad det er, der foregår....
Dropwise Condensation on Hydrophobic Cylinders
Park, Kyoo-Chul; Hoang, Michelle; McManus, Brendan; Aizenberg, Joanna
2016-01-01
In this work, we studied the effect of the diameter of horizontal hydrophobic cylinders on droplet growth. We postulate that the concentration gradient created by natural convection around a horizontal circular cylinder is related to the droplet growth on the cylinder by condensation. We derive a simple scaling law of droplet growth and compare it with experimental results. The predicted negative exponent of drop diameter (d) as a function of cylinder diameter (D) at different time points is similar to the general trend of experimental data. Further, this effect of cylinder diameter on droplet growth is observed to be stronger than the supersaturation conditions created by different surface temperatures.
Scattering by a nihility cylinder
Lakhtakia, A
2006-01-01
The total scattering and the extinction efficiencies of a nihility cylinder of infinite length and circular cross--section are identical and independent of the polarization state of a normally incident plane wave.
Almendros, J.; University of Granada, Spain; Ibanez, J.; University of Granada, Spain; Alguacil, G.; University of Granada, Spain; Del Pezzo, E.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia
1999-01-01
The zero-lag cross-correlation technique, used for array analysis in the hypothesis of plane waves, has been modified to allow the wave front to be circular. Synthetic tests have been performed to check the capability of the method
Park, Yun Soo; Lee, Hwan Gi; Yang, Chung-Mo; Kim, Dong-Seok; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Cho, Seongjae; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kang, In Man
2013-01-01
GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on circular mesa structure are fabricated and their electrical and optical characterizations are performed. The uniform current flow in the circular LED (C-LED) was conducted in the radial direction, from the n-type GaN island electrode at the center to the p-type GaN ring electrode around the perimeter. The symmetric electrode structuring substantially improved the electrical and optical performances. The operating voltage for C-LED at a reference current (100 mA) was 20.9% lower than that of a conventionally structured LED (CV-LED). Also, C-LED showed 19.4% higher optical output power than CV-LED.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kano, I. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
2000-01-25
The flow around a rotating circular cylinder that is close to a moving plate has been investigated numerically and experimentally for the high Reynolds number (Re=3.3 x 10{sup 4}-5 x 10{sup 4}). Two different flow patterns were observed under the same conditions by changing peripheral velocity of the circular cylinder. The transition of the flow pattern occurs when the jet through a small gap (H/D =0.1) switches from the moving plate to the cylinder wall. This phenomenon is known as some kind of the Coanda effect. Furthermore the Coanda effect was accompanied by hysteretic effect. Computation of the two-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations was also conducted. The numerical results qualitatively agreed with the experimental ones. It was found that the Coanda effect and the hysteretic phenomenon were greatly related to the standing vortex that exists behind the cylinder. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周强; 曹曙阳; 王通; 周志勇
2012-01-01
Three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) were performed to investigate aerodynamic forces on a circular cylinder in linear shear flow at Reynolds number of Re =60 ~1 000. The shear parameter β, which is based on the velocity gradient, cylinder diameter and upstream mean velocity at the center plane of the cylinder, varies from 0 to 0. 30. The changes of the stagnation point, separation points, and lift coefficients with the variation of shear parameter were studied. The results show that the stagnation point moves to the high-velocity side almost linearly with shear parameter, which mainly influences the aerodynamic forces acting on a circular cylinder in shear flow. Both the Reynolds number and shear parameter influence the movement of the stagnation point and separation point. The lift force increases with the increase of shear parameter and at the same time from the high-velocity side to the low-velocity side.%采用由速度梯度、圆柱半径以及圆柱中心平面上的来流平均速度定义的无量纲剪切参数β来描述速度剪切的强度.在雷诺数Re =60～1000范围内,运用三维直接数值模拟(DNS)和大涡模拟(LES)两种方法对速度剪切流中的圆柱体的绕流特性进行了数值模拟.研究了驻点、高速和低速两侧分离点、圆柱表面压力分布以及不稳定尾流结构随剪切参数的变化及其对雷诺数的依赖性,从而得到了剪切流中圆柱体的气动力以及脱落特性,并对其机理进行了详细探讨.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姜旭; 张量
2016-01-01
本文用微分几何的方法求解出椭球面上圆截线所在平面的一般方程。%This paper uses differential geometry method to obtain the general equations of the planes which contain the circular cross sections on an ellipsoid.
Electromagnetic Wave Scattering By the Coated Impedance Cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.I. Vyunnik
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this work the boundary conditions for the impedance circular cylinder coated by a low contrast dielectric thin layer are derived. Expression for the reduced impedance of the cylinder is obtained. Conditions and applicability limits of the proposed approach are defined. Influence of the coating impedance on the reduced impedance of the cylinder is investigated.
Département des Ressources humaines
2004-01-01
Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...
Oscillatory motion of a viscous fluid in a gap between vibrating cylinders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chechko, G.A.; Khodakovskii, N.I.; Sklepovoi, V.N. [Cybernetics Institute, Kiev (Ukraine)
1994-06-05
We investigate the achievement of intensive periodic vortical motion between two quasiconcentric cylinders of circular cross section, undergoing periodic oscillations with integral frequencies about a motionless axis parallel to the axes of the cylinders. 3 refs., 2 figs.
Flow-induced vibration of circular cylindrical structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, S.S.
1985-06-01
This report summarizes the flow-induced vibration of circular cylinders in quiescent fluid, axial flow, and crossflow, and applications of the analytical methods and experimental data in design evaluation of various system components consisting of circular cylinders. 219 figs., 30 tabs. (JDB)
Flow-induced vibration of circular cylindrical structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report summarizes the flow-induced vibration of circular cylinders in quiescent fluid, axial flow, and crossflow, and applications of the analytical methods and experimental data in design evaluation of various system components consisting of circular cylinders. 219 figs., 30 tabs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张月婷; 陈红珍; 丁赤飚; 王宏琦
2012-01-01
结合多径散射理论和雷达成像原理,针对圆柱型固定顶油罐和浮动顶油罐的SAR图像的多径散射提出了一种预测模型,该预测模型建立了多径散射机制引起的图像上的近似聚焦位置、强度与油罐、雷达相关参数的关系.同时,结合仿真实验和Terra-SAR图像验证了该模型的有效性,分析了油罐目标的多径特征,并针对Terra-SAR图像利用基于模型的方法有效提取了油罐目标的几何参数.结果和分析表明,该方法比传统的方法在精度、稳定性上均有所提高.%Combining scattering theory and principle of SAR, a novel prediction model is proposed based on the multi-path scattering characteristics in the SAR image of cylinder tanks, for both the fixed and the floating top styles. The model can provide the relationship between the geometry parameters of the tank, the SAR parameters, the approximated position, and the scatting strength of the bright region in the SAR image. The validity of this model is proved by analyzing the Terra-SAR data and simulation experiments. Furthermore, geometry extraction is successfully implemented on the Terra-SAR data. The results show that the model is better than traditional methods in precision and stability.
Geometry essentials for dummies
Ryan, Mark
2011-01-01
Just the critical concepts you need to score high in geometry This practical, friendly guide focuses on critical concepts taught in a typical geometry course, from the properties of triangles, parallelograms, circles, and cylinders, to the skills and strategies you need to write geometry proofs. Geometry Essentials For Dummies is perfect for cramming or doing homework, or as a reference for parents helping kids study for exams. Get down to the basics - get a handle on the basics of geometry, from lines, segments, and angles, to vertices, altitudes, and diagonals Conque
Effect of Surface Coatings on Cylinders Exposed to Underwater Shock
Kwon, Y.W.; J.K. Bergersen; Shin, Y.S.
1994-01-01
The response of a coated cylinder (metallic cylinder coated with a rubber material) subjected to an underwater explosion is analyzed numerically. The dynamic response of the coated cylinder appears to be adversely affected when impacted by an underwater shock wave under certain conditions of geometry and material properties of the coating. When adversely affected, significant deviations in values of axial stress, hoop stress, and strain are observed. The coated cylinder exhibits a larger defo...
Effect of surface coating on cylinders subjected to underwater shock
Bergersen, John K.
1992-01-01
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The response of a composite cylinder (metallic cylinder coated with a rubber material) subjected to an underwater explosion was analyzed numerically. Qualitative differences between coated and uncoated cylinders were investigated. The dynamic response of the coated cylinder was found to be adversely affected when impacted by an underwater shock wave under certain conditions of geometry and material properties of the coating. When adversel...
WAKE SHIELDING EFFECTS OF THREE CYLINDERS IN CURRENTS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Shan; BOLSTAD Jarle
2004-01-01
A large amount of experimental work has been carried out in the past to understand mean and fluctuating forces on a single circular cylinder in cross flows. In comparison substantially less work can be found on the interference between multiple cylinders and the number of publications available becomes drastically smaller as the number of cylinders involved increases. The current experimental work systematically examines the wake shielding effects of three cylinders in a towing tank. Though staggered, the three cylinders are arranged mainly along the flow direction with the downstream cylinders situating in the wakes of the upstream cylinders. The tests are mainly carried out in the sub-critical Reynolds number regime with the upper end close to the critical Reynolds number regime. Significant drag reduction on downstream cylinders is identified.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kano, I.; Yagita, M.; Jia, W. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Iwata, M. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)
2000-01-25
The flow around a rotating circular cylinder placed at various heights above a moving plate has been investigated numerically and experimentally for the high Reynolds number (Re=3.3 x 10{sup 4}-6.6 x 10{sup 4}). The flow was affected considerably by the boundary layer on the moving plate and the initial conditions of the experiment. Starting from different initial conditions, two different flow patterns were observed for small gaps (0.03{<=}H/D{<=}0.12) under the same experimental conditions. The transition of the flow pattern occurs when the jet through the gap switches from the moving plate to the cylinder wall. This phenomenon is known as some kind of the Coanda effect. Computation of the two-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations was also conducted. The numerical results qualitatively agreed with the experimental ones. The standing vortex was found at 2.5 diameters behind the cylinder in the case of Coanda effect. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王通; 曹曙阳; 周强
2011-01-01
Aerodynamic lift of a circular cylinder in linear shear flows with its axis normal to the plane of the velocity shear profile is investigated at subcritical Reynolds number numerically and experimentally. The shear parameter β, which is based on the velocity gradient, cylinder diameter and upstream mean ve-locity at the center plane of the cylinder, is defined to represent intensity of shear flow. Linear shear flows are easily generated in actively controlled wind tunnels for model experiments. Large eddy simula-tion with dynamic Smagorinsky subgrid model is performed to supply physical explanations of the flow phenomenon. It is found that the stagnation point shifts to the high velocity side in linear shear flows at subcritical Reynolds number and it influences the aerodynamic force acting on a circular cylinder greatly. A mean lift occurs due to the asymmetrical distribution of pressure around the cylinder, and it acts from the high velocity side to low velocity side at subcritical Reynolds number.%通过风洞模型试验和数值模拟研究亚临界雷诺数范围内线性剪切流场中圆柱的气动升力特性.剪切流强度采用由速度梯度、圆柱半径及圆柱中心前方来流的平均速度所定义的无量纲剪切参数β来表示.在风洞模型试验中使用主动控制风洞来方便地生成线性剪切流.在数值模拟中采用基于动态Smagorinsky亚格子模型的大涡模拟方法.研究发现,在亚临界雷诺数线性剪切流中,驻点向高速侧漂移,驻点移动对圆柱气动力有明显的影响；圆柱周围的压力分布不对称,产生一个由高速侧向低速侧作用的升力.
Flow-induced vibrations of a rotating cylinder
Bourguet, Rémi; Lo Jacono, David
2014-01-01
International audience The flow-induced vibrations of a circular cylinder, free to oscillate in the cross-flow direction and subjected to a forced rotation about its axis, are analysed by means of two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations. The impact of the symmetry breaking caused by the forced rotation on the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) mechanisms is investigated for a Reynolds number equal to 100, based on the cylinder diameter and inflow velocity. The cylinder is found to osc...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We measured circular dichroism in resonant x-ray scattering 3dn→2p53dn+1→3s13dn+1 with incidence perpendicular to the magnetization where the absorption dichroism vanishes. The advantages of photon scattering over other techniques make it possible to study a wide range of materials. The Ni L3 dichroism in NiFe2O 4 is (28±5)% in agreement with a localized model. In the metal Co the dichroism is reduced to (10.4±1)% (L3) and (6.8±1.5)% (7.5 eV above L3 ), indicating a large sensitivity to the nature of the valence states despite the fact that this spectroscopy is based on inner shell transitions. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡志栋; 姜继海
2011-01-01
The power chuck is an important component for a machine tool. In order to solve the existing problem of oil allocation for the rotating hydraulic cylinders of power chucks, a new kind of rotating hydraulic cylinder based on hydraulic slip-ring oil allocation was suggested. The deep circular groove oil film face seal technology was applied in the hydraulic slip-ting. Taking into account various viscosities, the leakage property of the seal face was simulated in detail. The experiment data proves the precision of the theoretical analysis. The rotating speed of the rotating hydraulic cylinder can be improved to 10 000 r/min. These theories provide reference for the practical application of the rotating hydraulic cylinder.%动力卡盘是机床夹具的重要部件,针对现有动力卡盘用液压回转油缸的配油问题,提出一种用液压滑环配油的新型液压回转油缸方案,将圆弧深槽端面油膜密封技术应用到液压滑环中,并在考虑粘度变化情况下对密封端面处的泄漏特性进行理论分析.通过实验证明,理论分析是正确的,并可以将液压回转油缸的转速提高到10 000 r/m,为液压回转油缸的实际应用提供了参考.
Davies, J. A.; Perry, C. H.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Harrison, R. A.; Lugaz, N.; Möstl, C.; Liu, Y. D.; Steed, K.
2013-11-01
The twin-spacecraft STEREO mission has enabled simultaneous white-light imaging of the solar corona and inner heliosphere from multiple vantage points. This has led to the development of numerous stereoscopic techniques to investigate the three-dimensional structure and kinematics of solar wind transients such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Two such methods—triangulation and the tangent to a sphere—can be used to determine time profiles of the propagation direction and radial distance (and thereby radial speed) of a solar wind transient as it travels through the inner heliosphere, based on its time-elongation profile viewed by two observers. These techniques are founded on the assumption that the transient can be characterized as a point source (fixed phi, FP, approximation) or a circle attached to Sun-center (harmonic mean, HM, approximation), respectively. These geometries constitute extreme descriptions of solar wind transients, in terms of their cross-sectional extent. Here, we present the stereoscopic expressions necessary to derive propagation direction and radial distance/speed profiles of such transients based on the more generalized self-similar expansion (SSE) geometry, for which the FP and HM geometries form the limiting cases; our implementation of these equations is termed the stereoscopic SSE method. We apply the technique to two Earth-directed CMEs from different phases of the STEREO mission, the well-studied event of 2008 December and a more recent event from 2012 March. The latter CME was fast, with an initial speed exceeding 2000 km s-1, and highly geoeffective, in stark contrast to the slow and ineffectual 2008 December CME.
Circular chemiresistors for microchemical sensors
Ho, Clifford K.
2007-03-13
A circular chemiresistor for use in microchemical sensors. A pair of electrodes is fabricated on an electrically insulating substrate. The pattern of electrodes is arranged in a circle-filling geometry, such as a concentric, dual-track spiral design, or a circular interdigitated design. A drop of a chemically sensitive polymer (i.e., chemiresistive ink) is deposited on the insulating substrate on the electrodes, which spreads out into a thin, circular disk contacting the pair of electrodes. This circularly-shaped electrode geometry maximizes the contact area between the pair of electrodes and the polymer deposit, which provides a lower and more stable baseline resistance than with linear-trace designs. The circularly-shaped electrode pattern also serves to minimize batch-to-batch variations in the baseline resistance due to non-uniform distributions of conductive particles in the chemiresistive polymer film.
Circular motion in NUT space-time
Jefremov, Paul
2016-01-01
We consider circular motion in the NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) space-time. Among other things, we determine the location of circular time-like geodesic orbits, in particular of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) and of the marginally bound circular orbit. Moreover, we discuss the von Zeipel cylinders with respect to the stationary observers and with respect to the Zero Angular Momentum Observers (ZAMOs). We also investigate the relation of von Zeipel cylinders to inertial forces, in particular in the ultra-relativistic limit. Finally, we generalise the construction of thick accretion tori ("Polish doughnuts") which are well known on the Schwarzschild or Kerr background to the case of the NUT metric. We argue that, in principle, a NUT source could be distinguished from a Schwarzschild or Kerr source by observing the features of circular matter flows in its neighbourhood.
A numerical investigation of sub-wavelength resonances in polygonal metamaterial cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav
2009-01-01
of polygonal cylinders excited by a nearby electric line current is analyzed numerically and it is shown, through detailed analysis of the near-field distribution and radiation resistance, that these polygonal cylinders do indeed support sub-wavelength resonances similar to those of the circular cylinders...
Optical absorption for parallel cylinder arrays
Robles, P; Rojas, R.; Claro, F.
2001-01-01
We study the long wavelength electromagnetic resonances of interacting cylinder arrays. By using a normal modes expansion where the effects of geometry and material are separated, it is shown that two parallel cylinders with different radii have electromagnetic modes distributed symmetrically about depolarization factor 1/2. Both sets couple to longitudinal and transverse components of the external field, but amplitudes of symmetric depolarization factors become exchanged when considering lon...
Mitri, F. G.
2016-07-01
This paper presents two key contributions; the first concerns the development of analytical expressions for the axial and transverse acoustic radiation forces exerted on a 2D rigid elliptical cylinder placed in the field of plane progressive, quasi-standing, or standing waves with arbitrary incidence. The second emphasis is on the acoustic radiation torque per length. The rigid elliptical cylinder case is important to be considered as a first-order approximation of the behavior of a cylindrical fluid column trapped in air because of the significant acoustic impedance mismatch at the particle boundary. Based on the rigorous partial-wave series expansion method in cylindrical coordinates, non-dimensional acoustic radiation force and torque functions are derived and defined in terms of the scattering coefficients of the elliptic cylinder. A coupled system of linear equations is obtained after applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface in a non-viscous fluid and solved numerically by matrix inversion after performing a single numerical integration procedure. Computational results for the non-dimensional force components and torque, showing the transition from the progressive to the (equi-amplitude) standing wave behavior, are performed with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the semi-axes of the ellipse, the dimensionless size parameter, as well as the angle of incidence ranging from end-on to broadside incidence. The results show that the elliptical geometry has a direct influence on the radiation force and torque, so that the standard theory for circular cylinders (at normal incidence) leads to significant miscalculations when the cylinder cross section becomes non-circular. Moreover, the elliptical cylinder experiences, in addition to the acoustic radiation force, a radiation torque that vanishes for the circular cylinder case. The application of the formalism presented here may be extended to other 2D surfaces of
Numerical Investigation of 3D Flow Around Two Tandem Cylinders
Kalvig, Ragnhild Birgitte Hidle
2015-01-01
Circular cylinders in tandem arrangement are used in many marine applications like dual pipelines and dual risers. Turbulent flow in 3D around two tandem cylinders is simulated numerically using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. The Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter of 1 meter and free stream velocity of $U=1.31$ m/s is 13100, which is in the subcritical flow regime. The center-to-center spacing between the cylinders is $S/D=5$. The software used...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1994. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1992. A complete numerical lift of Information Circulars with their titles is reproduced in an Annex
Flow characteristics of the two tandem wavy cylinders and drag reduction phe-nomenon
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邹琳; 郭丛波; 熊灿
2013-01-01
This paper presents an extensive numerical study of 3-D laminar flow around two wavy cylinders in the tandem arrangement for spacing ratios (L/Dm ) ranging from 1.5 to 5.5 at a low Reynolds number of 100. The investigation focuses on the effects of spacing ratio (L/Dm ) and wavy surface on the 3-D near wake flow patterns, the force and pressure coefficients and the vortex shedding frequency for the two tandem wavy cylinders. Flows around the two tandem circular cylinders are also obtained for comparison. With the spacing ratio in the range of L/Dm=1.5-5.5 , unlike two tandem circular cylinders, the wavy cylinders in the tandem arrangement do not have the wake interference behaviour of three basic types. The vortex shedding behind the upstream wavy cylinder occurs at a further downstream position as compared with that of the upstream circular cylinder. This leads to the weakening of the effect of the vibration of the cylinders as well as a distinct drag reduction. The effects of the drag reduction and the control of the vibration of the two wavy cylinders in tandem become more and more evident when L/Dm³4.0, with a distinct vortex shedding in the upstream cylinder regime for the two circular cylinders in tandem.
Modelling functional effects of muscle geometry.
van der Linden, B J; Koopman, H F; Grootenboer, H J; Huijing, P A
1998-04-01
Muscle architecture is an important aspect of muscle functioning. Hence, geometry and material properties of muscle have great influence on the force-length characteristics of muscle. We compared experimental results for the gastrocnemius medialis muscle (GM) of the rat to model results of simple geometric models such as a planimetric model and three-dimensional versions of this model. The capabilities of such models to adequately calculate muscle geometry and force-length characteristics were investigated. The planimetric model with elastic aponeurosis predicted GM muscle geometry well: maximal differences are 6, 1, 4 and 6% for fiber length, aponeurosis length, fiber angle and aponeurosis angle respectively. A slanted cylinder model with circular fiber cross-section did not predict muscle geometry as well as the planimetric model, whereas the geometry results of a second slanted cylinder model were identical to the planimetric model. It is concluded that the planimetric model is capable of adequately calculating the muscle geometry over the muscle length range studied. However, for modelling of force-length characteristics more complex models are needed, as none of the models yielded results sufficiently close to experimental data. Modelled force-length characteristics showed an overestimation of muscle optimum length by 2 mm with respect to experimental data, and the force at the ascending limb of the length force curve was underestimated. The models presented neglect important aspects such as non-linear geometry of muscle, certain passive material properties and mechanical interactions of fibers. These aspects may be responsible for short-comings in the modelling. It is argued that, considering the inability to adequately model muscle length-force characteristics for an isolated maximally activated (in situ) muscle, it is to be expected that prediction will fail for muscle properties in conditions of complex movement with many interacting factors. Therefore
A Forced System of Two Cylinders with Various Spacings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邹建锋; 任安禄; 邓见
2004-01-01
The spectrum characteristics and wake structures for a circular cylinder oscillating in a wake are investigated by use of the currently modified virtual boundary method. A forced system of two cylinders with a small spacing (the downstream one is made to oscillate in the transverse direction) is studied and interesting flow characteristics are observed. A vortex switch and the change of vortex modes (between 2S mode and 2P mode) are observed in the "lock-in" region. Vortex bands are formed and lost with the increasing excitation frequency. Information concerning saddle points in the flow field is obtained for different excitation frequencies. For a forced system of two cylinders with a large spacing, the upstream cylinder sheds vortexes because there is no downstream cylinder oscillating in the wake. No distinct "lock-in" response is found for the downstream cylinder.
Analysis of fatigue life for tube trailer cylinders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinqi YU
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Risk of fatigue failure exists in the tube trailer cylinders under the condition of internal pressure variation and inertial load caused through road transport. In order to estimate the safety state of the cylinders under the action of alternating load, the model of certain geometry sizes is built based on the widely used tube trailer cylinders. The fatigue analysis of tube trailer gas cylinders is made aiming at the action of the internal pressure and the inertial load. The fatigue life distribution of cylinders is obtained under the condition of different loads through the numerical simulation by ANSYS Workbench. The analysis results show that under internal pressure, gas cylinders have limited fatigue life, but can satisfy the requirements; when the inertial load exceeds a certain value, natural gas cylinders of tube trailer is under finite life state, which does not meet the requirements of strength, therefore the inertial load should be controlled.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Circular Updates are periodic sequentially numbered instructions to debriefing staff and observers informing them of changes or additions to scientific and specimen...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The document summarizes the information circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. In the main body of the document only those documents which are regarded as likely to be of current interest are listed. A complete numerical list of information circulars with their titles is reproduced in the Annex
Modeling Heat and Mass Transfer from Fabric-Covered Cylinders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phillip Gibson
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Fabric-covered cylinders are convenient analogs forclothing systems. The geometry is well defined andincludes many of the effects that are important ingarments. Fabric-covered cylinder models are usedin conjunction with laboratory measurements ofmaterial properties to calculate heat and mass transferproperties of clothing under specific conditions ofenvironmental wind speed, temperature, and relativehumidity.
Evaluation of Cylinder Volume Estimation Methods for In–Cylinder Pressure Trace Analysis
Adrian Irimescu
2012-01-01
In–cylinder pressure trace analysis is an important investigation tool frequently employed in the study of internal combustion engines. While technical data is usually available for experimental engines, in some cases measurements are performed on automotive engines for which only the most basic geometry features are available. Therefore, several authors aimed to determine the cylinder volume and length of the connecting rod by other methods than direct measurement. This stu...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prasenjit Dey
2016-01-01
Full Text Available An unsteady two-dimensional forced convection over a square cylinder with sharp and rounded corner edge is numerically analyzed for the low Reynolds number laminar flow regime. In this study, the analysis is carried out for Reynolds number (Re in the range of 80 to 180 with Prandtl number (Pr variation from 0.01 to 1000 for various corner radius (r=0.50, 0.51, 0.54, 0.59, 0.64 and 0.71. The lateral sides of the computational domain are kept constant to maintain the blockage as 5%. Heat transfer due to unsteady forced convection has been predicted by Artificial Neural network (ANN. The present ANN is trained by the input and output data which has been acquired from the numerical simulation, performed in finite volume based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD commercial software FLUENT. The heat transfer characteristics over the sharp and rounded corner square cylinder are evaluated by analyzing the local Nusselt number (Nulocal, average Nusselt number (Nuavg at various Reynolds number, Prandtl numbers and for various corner radii. It is found that the heat transfer rate of a circular cylinder can be enhanced by 12% when Re is varying and 14% when Prandtl number is varying by introducing a new cylinder geometry of corner radius r=0.51. It is found that the unsteady forced convection heat transfer over a cylinder can be predicted appropriately by ANN. It is also observed that the back propagation ANN can predict the heat transfer characteristics of forced convection very quickly compared to a standard CFD method.
Age-related changes in chest geometry during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Dean, J M; Koehler, R C; Schleien, C L; Michael, J R; Chantarojanasiri, T; Rogers, M C; Traystman, R J
1987-06-01
We studied alterations of chest geometry during conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in anesthetized immature swine. Pulsatile force was applied to the sternum in increments to determine the effects of increasing compression on chest geometry and intrathoracic vascular pressures. In 2-wk- and 1-mo-old piglets, permanent changes in chest shape developed due to incomplete recoil of the chest along the anteroposterior axis, and large intrathoracic vascular pressures were generated. In 3-mo-old animals, permanent chest deformity did not develop, and large intrathoracic vascular pressures were not produced. We propose a theoretical model of the chest as an elliptic cylinder. Pulsatile displacement along the minor axis of an ellipse produces a greater decrease in cross-sectional area than displacement of a circular cross section. As thoracic cross section became less circular due to deformity, greater changes in thoracic volume, and hence pressure, were produced. With extreme deformity at high force, pulsatile displacement became limited, diminishing pressure generation. We conclude that changes in chest geometry are important in producing intrathoracic intravascular pressure during conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in piglets. PMID:3610916
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daichin, Sang Joon Lee [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-Dong, 790-784, Nam-gu, Pohang (Korea)
2004-05-01
The flow fields behind elliptic cylinders adjacent to a free surface were investigated experimentally in a circulating water channel. A range of cylinder aspect ratios (AR=2, 3, 4) were considered, while the cross-sectional area of the elliptical cylinder was kept constant. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cylinder aspect ratio and a free surface on the flow structure in the near-wake behind elliptic cylinders. For each elliptic cylinder, the flow structure was analyzed for various values of the submergence depth of the cylinder beneath the free surface. The flow fields were measured using a single-frame double-exposure PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) system. For each experimental condition, 350 instantaneous velocity fields were obtained and ensemble-averaged to obtain the mean velocity field and spatial distribution of the mean vorticity statistics. The results show that near-wake can be classified into three typical flow patterns: formation of a Coanda flow, generation of substantial jet-like flow, and attachment of this jet flow to the free surface. The general flow structure observed behind the elliptic cylinders resembles the structure previously reported for a circular cylinder submerged near a free surface. However, the wake width and the angle of downward deflection of the shear layer developed from the lower surface of the elliptic cylinder differ from those observed for a circular cylinder. These trends are enhanced as cylinder aspect ratio is increased. In addition, the free surface distortion is also discussed in the paper. (orig.)
Daichin, K. V.; Lee, Sang Joon
The flow fields behind elliptic cylinders adjacent to a free surface were investigated experimentally in a circulating water channel. A range of cylinder aspect ratios (AR=2, 3, 4) were considered, while the cross-sectional area of the elliptical cylinder was kept constant. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cylinder aspect ratio and a free surface on the flow structure in the near-wake behind elliptic cylinders. For each elliptic cylinder, the flow structure was analyzed for various values of the submergence depth of the cylinder beneath the free surface. The flow fields were measured using a single-frame double-exposure PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) system. For each experimental condition, 350 instantaneous velocity fields were obtained and ensemble-averaged to obtain the mean velocity field and spatial distribution of the mean vorticity statistics. The results show that near-wake can be classified into three typical flow patterns: formation of a Coanda flow, generation of substantial jet-like flow, and attachment of this jet flow to the free surface. The general flow structure observed behind the elliptic cylinders resembles the structure previously reported for a circular cylinder submerged near a free surface. However, the wake width and the angle of downward deflection of the shear layer developed from the lower surface of the elliptic cylinder differ from those observed for a circular cylinder. These trends are enhanced as cylinder aspect ratio is increased. In addition, the free surface distortion is also discussed in the paper.
2003-01-01
Operational Circular N° 4 - April 2003 Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN - This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 5 - October 2000 Use of CERN computing facilities - Further details on the personal use of CERN computing facilities Operational Circular N° 5 and its Subsidiary Rules http://cern.ch/ComputingRules defines the rules for the use of CERN computing facilities. One of the basic principles governing such use is that it must come within the professional duties of the user concerned, as defined by the user's divisional hierarchy. However, personal use of the computing facilities is tolerated or allowed provided : a) It is in compliance with Operational Circular N° 5 and not detrimental to official duties, including those of other users; b) the frequency and duration is limited and there is a negligible use of CERN resources; c) it does not constitute a political, commercial and/or profit-making activity; d) it is not...
Convective heat transfer from a heated elliptic cylinder at uniform wall temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaprawi, S.; Santoso, Dyos [Mechanical Department of Sriwijaya University, Jl. Raya Palembang-Prabumulih Km. 32 Inderalaya 50062 Ogan Ilir (Indonesia)
2013-07-01
This study is carried out to analyse the convective heat transfer from a circular and an elliptic cylinders to air. Both circular and elliptic cylinders have the same cross section. The aspect ratio of cylinders range 0-1 are studied. The implicit scheme of the finite difference is applied to obtain the discretized equations of hydrodynamic and thermal problem. The Choleski method is used to solve the discretized hydrodynamic equation and the iteration method is applied to solve the discretized thermal equation. The circular cylinder has the aspect ratio equal to unity while the elliptical cylinder has the aspect ratio less than unity by reducing the minor axis and increasing the major axis to obtain the same cross section as circular cylinder. The results of the calculations show that the skin friction change significantly, but in contrast with the elliptical cylinders have greater convection heat transfer than that of circular cylinder. Some results of calculations are compared to the analytical solutions given by the previous authors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA under the symbol INFCIRC/ for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A complete list of INFCIRCs in numerical order with their titles is given in the Annex
Stability of the charged radiating cylinder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk; Zaeem Ul Haq Bhatti, M., E-mail: mzaeem.math@gmail.com
2014-01-24
We discuss the dynamical instability of cylindrically symmetric isotropic geometry under the effect of electromagnetic field. The interior geometry of the dynamical collapse is matched with an exterior geometry through Darmois junction conditions. The perturbation scheme is used to describe the collapse equation and categorize the Newtonian and post-Newtonian regions in radiating as well as non-radiating eras. It is concluded that energy density, pressure, radiation density and electromagnetic field control the stability of the cylinder leading to more unstable configuration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alderson, J.H. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)
1991-12-31
Cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in storage at the Department of Energy (DOE) gaseous diffusion plants, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are being evaluated to determine their expected storage life. Cylinders evaluated recently have been in storage service for 30 to 40 years. In the present environment, the remaining life for these storage cylinders is estimated to be 30 years or greater. The group of cylinders involved in recent tests will continue to be monitored on a periodic basis, and other storage cylinders will be observed as on a statistical sample population. The program has been extended to all types of large capacity UF{sub 6} cylinders.
Oscillatory flow about a cylinder pair with unequal radii
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coenen, W, E-mail: wcoenen@ing.uc3m.es [Área de Mecánica de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida Universidad 30, E-28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain)
2013-10-15
We consider the oscillating flow about a pair of circular cylinders of unequal diameter. In addition to the relative size of the cylinders, the distance between them can be varied, as can the angle that the undisturbed oscillatory flow makes with the line joining the cylinder centres. For small-amplitude vibrations a time-independent, or steady streaming, motion develops that persists beyond the Stokes layer that forms at the solid boundary. This persistent streaming is considered for large values of a suitably defined streaming Reynolds number. (paper)
Oscillations of elastically mounted cylinders in regular waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
苏炜; 詹杰民; 李毓湘
2014-01-01
Under the assumption of potential flow and linear wave theory, a semi-analytic method based on eigenfunciton expansion is proposed to predict the hydrody-namic forces on an array of three bottom-mounted, surface-piercing circular cylinders. The responses of the cylinders induced by wave excitation are determined by the equa-tions of motion coupled with the solutions of the wave radiation and diffraction problems. Experiments for three-cylinder cases are then designed and performed in a wave flume to determine the accuracy of this method for regular waves.
Imperfection effects on the buckling of hydrostatically loaded cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pinna, Rodney; Madsen, Søren
2015-01-01
in design has also increased. Practical guidance on how to do this is fairly limited, in particular for geometries or load conditions other than the standard cases. The effect of imperfections on the collapse load of cylinders under axial load has been studied extensively, as such cylinders show the......The presence of geometric and other imperfections in cylinders has been known to result in collapse loads well below those predicted from eigenvalue analysis for a long time. As the designer's ability to routinely employ non-linear FEA has increased, the importance of modelling such imperfections...... largest imperfection sensitivity. Work on cylinders with other loading conditions, such as hydrostatic loading, is more limited. Similarly, there is limited work on cylinders with boundary conditions other than simply-supported ends. This paper looks at the case of cylinders under hydrostatic load, which...
Effect of Surface Coatings on Cylinders Exposed to Underwater Shock
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y.W. Kwon
1994-01-01
Full Text Available The response of a coated cylinder (metallic cylinder coated with a rubber material subjected to an underwater explosion is analyzed numerically. The dynamic response of the coated cylinder appears to be adversely affected when impacted by an underwater shock wave under certain conditions of geometry and material properties of the coating. When adversely affected, significant deviations in values of axial stress, hoop stress, and strain are observed. The coated cylinder exhibits a larger deformation and higher internal energy in the metallic material. Rubber coatings appeared to inhibit energy dissipation from the metallic material to the surrounding water medium. A parametric study of various coatings was performed on both aluminum and steel cylinders. The adverse effect of the coating decreased when the stiffness of the rubber layer increased, indicating the existence of a threshold value. The results of this study indicate that the stiffness of the coating is a critical factor to the shock hardening of the coated cylinder.
FORCE REDUCTION OF FLOW AROUND A SINUSOIDAL WAVY CYLINDER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZOU Lin; LIN Yu-feng
2009-01-01
A large eddy simulation of cross-flow around a sinusoidal wavy cylinder at Re=3000 was performed and the load cell measurement was introduced for the validation test. The mean flow field and the near wake flow structures were presented and compared with those for a circular cylinder at the same Reynolds number. The mean drag coefficient for the wavy cylinder is smaller than that for a corresponding circular cylinder due to the formation of a longer wake vortex generated by the wavy cylinder. The fluctuating lift coefficient of the wavy cylinder is also greatly reduced. This kind of wavy surface leads to the formation of 3-D free shear layers which are more stable than purely 2-D free shear layers. Such free shear layers only roll up into mature vortices at further downstream position and significantly modify the near wake structures and the pressure distributions around the wavy cylinder. Moreover, the simulations in laminar flow condition were also performed to investigate the effect of Reynolds number on force reduction control.
Fagnard, Jean-François; Elschner, S.; Hobl, A.; Bock, J.; Vanderheyden, Benoît; Vanderbemden, Philippe
2012-01-01
This paper deals with the magnetic properties of bulk high temperature superconducting cylinders used as magnetic shields. We investigate, both numerically and experimentally, the magnetic properties of a hollow cylinder with two axial slits which cut the cylinder in equal halves. Finite element method modelling has been used with a three-dimensional geometry to help us in understanding how the superconducting currents flow in such a cut cylinder and therefore how the magnetic shielding prope...
Delamination of Composite Cylinders
Davies, Peter; Carlsson, Leif A.
The delamination resistance of filament wound glass/epoxy cylinders has been characterized for a range of winding angles and fracture mode ratios using beam fracture specimens. The results reveal that the delamination fracture resistance increases with increasing winding angle and mode II (shear) fraction (GΠ/G). It was also found that interlaced fiber bundles in the filament wound cylinder wall acted as effective crack arresters in mode I loading. To examine the sensitivity of delamina-tion damage on the strength of the cylinders, external pressure tests were performed on filament-wound glass/epoxy composite cylinders with artificial defects and impact damage. The results revealed that the cylinder strength was insensitive to the presence of single delaminations but impact damage caused reductions in failure pressure. The insensitivity of the failure pressure to a single delamination is attributed to the absence of buckling of the delaminated sublaminates before the cylinder wall collapsed. The impacted cylinders contained multiple delaminations, which caused local reduction in the compressive load capability and reduction in failure pressure. The response of glass/epoxy cylinders was compared to impacted carbon reinforced cylinders. Carbon/epoxy is more sensitive to damage but retains higher implosion resistance while carbon/PEEK shows the opposite trend.
Optimization of autofrettage in thick-walled cylinders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Ghomi
2006-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is optimization of the weight of compound cylinder for a specific pressure. The variables are shrinkage radius and shrinkage tolerance.Design/methodology/approach: SEQ technique for optimization, the finite element code, ANSYS for numerical simulation are employed to predict the optimized conditions. The results are verified by testing a number of closed end cylinders with various geometries, materials and internal pressures.Findings: The weight of a compound cylinder could reduce by 60% with respect to a single steel cylinder. The reduction is more significant at higher working pressures. While the reduction of weight is negligible for k<2.5, it increases markedly for 2.5
Division des ressources humaines
2000-01-01
N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff membersN° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000Staff members contractsN° 16 (Rev. 2) - January 2000TrainingN° 30 (Rev. 1) - January 2000Indemnities and reimbursements upon taking up appointment and termination of contractN° 32 - February 2000Principles and procedures governing complaints of harassmentThese circular have been amended (No 2, N° 9, N° 16 and N° 30) or drawn up (N° 32).Copies are available in the Divisional Secretariats.Note:\tAdministrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation in the server SRV4_Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word files are available in the folder COM, folder Public, folder ADM.CIRC.docHuman Resources DivisionTel. 74128
Evaluation of Cylinder Volume Estimation Methods for In–Cylinder Pressure Trace Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian Irimescu
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In–cylinder pressure trace analysis is an important investigation tool frequently employed in the study of internal combustion engines. While technical data is usually available for experimental engines, in some cases measurements are performed on automotive engines for which only the most basic geometry features are available. Therefore, several authors aimed to determine the cylinder volume and length of the connecting rod by other methods than direct measurement. This study performs an evaluation of two such methods. The most appropriate way was found to be the estimation of connecting rod length based on general engine category as opposed to the use of an equation that predicts cylinder volume with good accuracy around top dead centre for most geometries.
Cylinder light concentrator and absorber: theoretical description
Kildishev, Alexander V.; Prokopeva, Ludmila J.; Narimanov, Evgenii
2010-01-01
We present a detailed theoretical description of a broadband omnidirectional light concentrator and absorber with cylinder geometry. The proposed optical "trap" captures nearly all the incident light within its geometric cross-section, leading to a broad range of possible applications from solar energy harvesting to thermal light emitters and optoelectronic components. We have demonstrated that an approximate lamellar black-hole with a moderate number of homogeneous layers, while giving the d...
Miniaturised cylinder head production by rapid prototyping
Melo, Rodrigo; Monteiro, A. Caetano; Martins, Jorge; Coene, Stijn; Puga, Hélder; Barbosa, J
2009-01-01
This work shows the development of the design and manufacturing of a very small engine, namely its head. The engine works under the 4-stroke cycle, therefore having a very complex cylinder head, housing the camshaft, valves and its auxiliaries (seats, guides, springs), spark plug, inlet and exhaust passages and a coolant chamber. The geometries, both inner and outer are highly intricate which makes the production of such a part a very difficult job. In addition, when the engine is...
Cylinder Flow Control Using Plasma Actuators
Kozlov, Alexey; Thomas, Flint
2007-11-01
In this study the results of flow control experiments utilizing single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators to control flow separation and unsteady vortex shedding from a circular cylinder in cross-flow are reported. Two optimized quartz dielectric plasma actuators mounted on the cylinder surface utilizing an improved saw-tooth waveform high-voltage generator allowed flow control at Reynolds number approaching supercritical. Using either steady or unsteady actuation, it is demonstrated that the plasma-induced surface blowing gives rise to a local Coanda effect that promotes the maintenance of flow attachment. PIV based flow fields and wake velocity profiles obtained with hot-wire anemometry show large reductions in vortex shedding, wake width and turbulence intensity.
Transient thermal stress problem for a circumferentially cracked hollow cylinder
Nied, H. F.; Erdogan, F.
1982-01-01
The transient thermal stress problem for a hollow elasticity cylinder containing an internal circumferential edge crack is considered. It is assumed that the problem is axisymmetric with regard to the crack geometry and the loading, and that the inertia effects are negligible. The problem is solved for a cylinder which is suddenly cooled from inside. First the transient temperature and stress distributions in an uncracked cylinder are calculated. By using the equal and opposite of this thermal stress as the crack surface traction in the isothermal cylinder the crack problem is then solved and the stress intensity factor is calculated. The numerical results are obtained as a function of the Fourier number tD/b(2) representing the time for various inner-to-outer radius ratios and relative crack depths, where D and b are respectively the coefficient of diffusivity and the outer radius of the cylinder.
Radiation dose rates from UF{sub 6} cylinders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friend, P.J. [Urenco, Capenhurst (United Kingdom)
1991-12-31
This paper describes the results of many studies, both theoretical and experimental, which have been carried out by Urenco over the last 15 years into radiation dose rates from uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The contents of the cylinder, its history, and the geometry all affect the radiation dose rate. These factors are all examined in detail. Actual and predicted dose rates are compared with levels permitted by IAEA transport regulations.
Longitudinal Weld Land Buckling in Compression-Loaded Orthogrid Cylinders
Thornburgh, Robert P.; Hilburger, Mark W.
2010-01-01
Large stiffened cylinders used in launch vehicles (LV), such as the Space Shuttle External Tank, are manufactured by welding multiple curved panel sections into complete cylinders. The effects of the axial weld lands between the panel sections on the buckling load were studied, along with the interaction between the acreage stiffener arrangement and the weld land geometry. This document contains the results of the studies.
Elastic and viscoelastic solutions to rotating functionally graded hollow and solid cylinders
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
Analytical solutions to rotating functionally graded hollow and solid long cylinders are developed. Young's modulus and material density of the cylinder are as* sumed to vary exponentially in the radial direction, and Poisson's ratio is assumed to be constant. A unified governing equation is derived from the equilibrium equations, compat-ibility equation, deformation theory of elasticity and the stress-strain relationship. The governing second-order differential equation is solved in terms of a hypergeometric func-tion for the elastic deformation of rotating functionally graded cylinders. Dependence of stresses in the cylinder on the inhomogeneous parameters, geometry and boundary conditions is examined and discussed. The proposed solution is validated by comparing the results for rotating functionally graded hollow and solid cylinders with the results for rotating homogeneous isotropic cylinders. In addition, a viscoelastic solution to the rotating viscoelastic cylinder is presented, and dependence of stresses in hollow and solid cylinders on the time parameter is examined.
NONLINEAR FREE SURFACE ACTION WITH AN ARRAY OF VERTICAL CYLINDERS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG J. B.
2004-01-01
Nonlinear diffraction of regular waves by an array of bottom-seated circular cylinders is investigated in frequency domain, based on a Stokes expansion approach. A complete semi-analytical solution is developed which allows an efficient evaluation of the second-order potentials in the entire fluid domain, and the wave forces on the structure. Expressions are derived for the second-order potential in the vicinity of individual cylinders. These expressions have a simple form, thus providing an effective means for investigating the wave enhancement due to nonlinear interactions with multiple cylinders. Based on the present method, the wave run-up and free-surface elevations around an array of two, three and four cylinders are investigated numerically.
Casimir interaction between a plate and a cylinder
Emig, T.; Jaffe, R. L.; Kardar, M.; Scardicchio, A.
2006-01-01
We find the exact Casimir force between a plate and a cylinder, a geometry intermediate between parallel plates, where the force is known exactly, and the plate--sphere, where it is known at large separations. The force has an unexpectedly weak decay \\sim L/(H^3 \\ln(H/R)) at large plate--cylinder separations H (L and R are the cylinder length and radius), due to transverse magnetic modes. Path integral quantization with a partial wave expansion additionally gives a qualitative difference for ...
Omnidirectional, circularly polarized, cylindrical microstrip antenna
Stanton, Philip H. (Inventor)
1985-01-01
A microstrip cylindrical antenna comprised of two concentric subelements on a ground cylinder, a vertically polarized (E-field parallel to the axis of the antenna cylinder) subelement on the inside and a horizontally polarized (E-field perpendicular to the axis) subelement on the outside. The vertical subelement is a wraparound microstrip radiator. A Y-shaped microstrip patch configuration is used for the horizontally polarized radiator that is wrapped 1.5 times to provide radiating edges on opposite sides of the cylindrical antenna for improved azimuthal pattern uniformity. When these subelements are so fed that their far fields are equal in amplitude and phased 90.degree. from each other, a circularly polarized EM wave results. By stacking a plurality of like antenna elements on the ground cylinder, a linear phased array antenna is provided that can be beam steered to the desired elevation angle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dalvit, Diego A1 [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Alejandro W [MASS INST OF TECH; Munday, J N [HARVARD UNIV; Joannopoulos, J D [MASS INST OF TECH
2008-01-01
Using accurate numerical methods for finite-size nonplanar objects, we demonstrate a stable mechanical suspension of a silica cylinder within a metallic cylinder separated by ethanol, via a repulsive Casimir force between the silica and the metal. We investigate cylinders with both circular and square cross sections, and show that the latter exhibit a stable orientation as well as a stable position, employing a new method to accurately compute Casimir torques for finite objects. Furthermore, the stable orientation of the square cylinder is shown to undergo an unusual 45 transition as a function of the separation lengthscale, and this transition is explained as a consequence of material dispersion.
Acoustic radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane (quasi)standing waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitri, F. G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org [Chevron, Area 52 Technology–ETC, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87508 (United States)
2015-12-07
The acoustic radiation force on a 2D elliptical (non-circular) cylinder centered on the axis of wave propagation of plane quasi-standing and standing waves is derived, based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates. A non-dimensional acoustic radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, is defined in terms of the scattering coefficients that are determined by applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface. A system of linear equations involving a single numerical integration procedure is solved by matrix inversion. Numerical simulations showing the transition from the quasi-standing to the (equi-amplitude) standing wave behaviour are performed with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the ellipse semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb (where k is the wavenumber), without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. It is found that at high kb values > 1, the radiation force per length with broadside incidence is larger, whereas the opposite situation occurs in the long-wavelength limit (i.e., kb < 1). The results are particularly relevant in acoustic levitation of elliptical cylinders, the acoustic stabilization of liquid columns in a host medium, acousto-fluidics devices, and other particle dynamics applications to name a few. Moreover, the formalism presented here may be effectively applied to compute the acoustic radiation force on other 2D surfaces of arbitrary shape such as super-ellipses, Chebyshev cylindrical particles, or other non-circular geometries.
Acoustic radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane (quasi)standing waves
Mitri, F. G.
2015-12-01
The acoustic radiation force on a 2D elliptical (non-circular) cylinder centered on the axis of wave propagation of plane quasi-standing and standing waves is derived, based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates. A non-dimensional acoustic radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, is defined in terms of the scattering coefficients that are determined by applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface. A system of linear equations involving a single numerical integration procedure is solved by matrix inversion. Numerical simulations showing the transition from the quasi-standing to the (equi-amplitude) standing wave behaviour are performed with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the ellipse semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb (where k is the wavenumber), without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. It is found that at high kb values > 1, the radiation force per length with broadside incidence is larger, whereas the opposite situation occurs in the long-wavelength limit (i.e., kb cylinders, the acoustic stabilization of liquid columns in a host medium, acousto-fluidics devices, and other particle dynamics applications to name a few. Moreover, the formalism presented here may be effectively applied to compute the acoustic radiation force on other 2D surfaces of arbitrary shape such as super-ellipses, Chebyshev cylindrical particles, or other non-circular geometries.
Acoustic radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane (quasi)standing waves
Mitri, F. G.
2015-12-01
The acoustic radiation force on a 2D elliptical (non-circular) cylinder centered on the axis of wave propagation of plane quasi-standing and standing waves is derived, based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates. A non-dimensional acoustic radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, is defined in terms of the scattering coefficients that are determined by applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface. A system of linear equations involving a single numerical integration procedure is solved by matrix inversion. Numerical simulations showing the transition from the quasi-standing to the (equi-amplitude) standing wave behaviour are performed with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the ellipse semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb (where k is the wavenumber), without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. It is found that at high kb values > 1, the radiation force per length with broadside incidence is larger, whereas the opposite situation occurs in the long-wavelength limit (i.e., kb acoustic levitation of elliptical cylinders, the acoustic stabilization of liquid columns in a host medium, acousto-fluidics devices, and other particle dynamics applications to name a few. Moreover, the formalism presented here may be effectively applied to compute the acoustic radiation force on other 2D surfaces of arbitrary shape such as super-ellipses, Chebyshev cylindrical particles, or other non-circular geometries.
Theoretical and experimental stress analyses of ORNL thin-shell cylinder-to-cylinder model 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The third in a series of four thin-shell cylinder-to-cylinder models was tested, and the experimentally determined elastic stress distributions were compared with theoretical predictions obtained from a thin-shell finite-element analysis. The models are idealized thin-shell structures consisting of two circular cylindrical shells that intersect at right angles. There are no transitions, reinforcements, or fillets in the junction region. This series of model tests serves two basic purposes: the experimental data provide design information directly applicable to nozzles in cylindrical vessels; and the idealized models provide test results for use in developing and evaluating theoretical analyses applicable to nozzles in cylindrical vessels and to thin piping tees. The cylinder of model 3 had a 10 in. OD and the nozzle had a 1.29 in. OD, giving a d0/D0 ratio of 0.129. The OD/thickness ratios for the cylinder and the nozzle were 50 and 7.68 respectively. Thirteen separate loading cases were analyzed. In each, one end of the cylinder was rigidly held. In addition to an internal pressure loading, three mutually perpendicular force components and three mutually perpendicular moment components were individually applied at the free end of the cylinder and at the end of the nozzle. The experimental stress distributions for all the loadings were obtained using 158 three-gage strain rosettes located on the inner and outer surfaces. The loading cases were also analyzed theoretically using a finite-element shell analysis developed at the University of California, Berkeley. The analysis used flat-plate elements and considered five degrees of freedom per node in the final assembled equations. The comparisons between theory and experiment show reasonably good agreement for this model. (U.S.)
Oscillations and translation of a free cylinder in a confined flow
D'Angelo, Maria Veronica; Hulin, Jean-Pierre; Auradou, Harold
2013-01-01
An oscillatory instability has been observed experimentally on an horizontal cylinder free to move and rotate between two parallel vertical walls of distance H; its characteristics differ both from vortex shedding driven oscillations and from those of tethered cylinders in the same geometry. The vertical motion of the cylinder, its rotation about its axis and its transverse motion across the gap have been investigated as a function of its diameter D, its density s, of the mean vertical veloci...
Tailoring Effective Media by Mie Resonances of Radially-Anisotropic Cylinders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henrik Kettunen
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This paper studies constructing advanced effective materials using arrays of circular radially-anisotropic (RA cylinders. Homogenization of such cylinders is considered in an electrodynamic case based on Mie scattering theory. The homogenization procedure consists of two steps. First, we present an effectively isotropic model for individual cylinders, and second, we discuss the modeling of a lattice of RA cylinders. Radial anisotropy brings us extra parameters, which makes it possible to adjust the desired effective response for a fixed frequency. The analysis still remains simple enough, enabling a derivation of analytical design equations. The considered applications include generating artificial magnetism using all-dielectric cylinders, which is currently a very sought-after phenomenon in optical frequencies. We also study how negative refraction is achieved using magnetodielectric RA cylinders.
Farrokhabadi, Amin; Abadian, Naeime; Rach, Randolph; Abadyan, Mohamadreza
2014-09-01
The Casimir force can induce instability and adhesion in freestanding nanostructures. Previous research efforts in this area have exclusively focused on modeling the instability in structures with planar or rectangular cross-section, while, to the best knowledge of the authors, no attention has been paid to investigate this phenomenon for nanowires with circular cross-section. In this study, effects of the Casimir force on the instability and adhesion of freestanding Cylinder-Plate and Cylinder-Cylinder geometries are investigated, which are commonly encountered in real nanodevices. To compute the Casimir force, two approaches, i.e. the proximity force approximation (PFA) for small separations and Dirichlet asymptotic approximation (scattering theory) for large separations, are considered. A continuum mechanics theory is employed, in conjunction with the Euler-beam model, to obtain constitutive equations of the systems. The governing nonlinear constitutive equations of the nanostructures are solved using two different approaches, i.e. the analytical modified Adomian decomposition (MAD) and the numerical finite difference method (FDM). The detachment length and minimum gap, both of which prevent the Casimir force-induced adhesion, are computed for both configurations.
Equivariant harmonic cylinders
Burstall, F. E.; Kilian, M.
2005-01-01
We prove that a primitive harmonic map is equivariant if and only if it admits a holomorphic potential of degree one. We investigate when the equivariant harmonic map is periodic, and as an application discuss constant mean curvature cylinders with screw motion symmetries.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanjeev Sharma
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Elastic-plastic stresses for a transversely isotropic thick-walled rotating cylinder under internal pressure have been obtained by using Seth’s transition theory. It has been observed that a thick-walled circular cylinder made of isotropic material yields at the internal surface at a high pressure as compared to cylinder made of transversely isotropic material. With the increase in angular speed, much less pressure is required for initial yielding at the internal surface for transversely isotropic material as compared to isotropic material. For fullyplastic state, circumferential stress is maximum at the external surface. Thick-walled circular cylinder made of transversely isotropic material requires high percentage increase in pressure to become fully plastic as compared to isotropic cylinder. Therefore, circular cylinder made of transversely isotropic material is on the safer side of the design as compared to cylinder made of isotropic material.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(3, pp.260-264, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1519
Three-dimensional clustering of Janus cylinders by convex curvature and hydrophobic interactions.
Kim, Jongmin; Oh, Myung Seok; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Kang, Sung-Min; Kwak, Moo Jin; You, Jae Bem; Im, Sung Gap; Lee, Chang-Soo
2015-06-28
The three-dimensional (3D) clustering of Janus cylinders is controlled by simply tuning the cylinder geometry and hydrophobic interactions. Janus cylinders were prepared by combining two approaches: micromolding and initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). Hydrophilic cylinders with a flat- or convex-top curvature were prepared by micromolding based on surface tension-induced flow. The iCVD process then provides a hydrophobic domain through the simple and precise deposition of a polymer film on the top surface, forming monodisperse Janus microcylinders. We use these Janus cylinders as building blocks to form 2D or 3D clusters via hydrophobic interactions in methanol. We investigate how cylinder geometry or degree of hydrophobic interaction affects the resulting cluster geometries. The convex-top Janus cylinders lead to 3D clustering through tip-to-tip interactions, and the flat-top Janus cylinders lead to 2D clustering through face-to-face attraction. The number of Janus cylinders in 3D clusters is tuned by controlling the degree of hydrophobic (or hydrophilic) interaction. PMID:26008176
The amplitude of fluid-induced vibration of cylinders in axial flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report describes a new empirical expression of the amplitude of transverse vibration of cylindrical beams and clusters of cylinders in axial flow, for application to reactor fuel. The expression is based on reported experimental observations covering a variety of geometries, cylinder materials and types of support in water, superheated steam and two-phase mixture flows. (author)
'Buffeting of single cylinders'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The fluctuating lift and drag induced on a rigid cylinder immersed in a turbulent flow in the range of Reynolds numbers straddling the transition from subcritical to supercritical regime is examined. The buffeting forces are induced in response to turbulence generated by grids. In the present experiments, the integral scales of turbulence, l, for the grids used are less than the cylinder diameter (l/d < 1). Interpretation of these and other published data strongly suggest that the free stream disturbances (turbulence) affect the force response in two ways. In the absence of grid turbulence below a certain threshold level, it appears to simply modulate the spanwise spatial coherence of vortex shedding. In this situation, the spectral character retains the discrete or monochromatic Strouhal nature, while the RMS force levels decrease with increase in the measured free stream disturbance. On the other hand, the cylinder response to broad band excitation by the high intensity grid generated turbulence is no longer discrete although the spectral character still retains a 'humped' shape of a band pass filter. Centre band frequency of this band pass is very nearly, although not quite, the Strouhal frequency in the 'clean' flow. In any event, the RMS amplitudes continue to decline as the turbulent intensity is increased. While the evidence is suggestive, it is not as yet complete. The data on hand strongly suggest the domination of the cylinder buffeting phenomenon by the shed wake, at the lease for l/d < 1. A principle can also be extracted from the data. The persistence of the Strouhal frequency into the buffeting response spectrum suggests that the time scale so represented is inherent to flow/cylinder interactions even when the upstream flow is highly turbulent (and l/d < 1). (author)
Regimes of flow induced vibration for tandem, tethered cylinders
Nave, Gary; Stremler, Mark
2015-11-01
In the wake of a bluff body, there are a number of dynamic response regimes that exist for a trailing bluff body depending on spacing, structural restoring forces, and the mass-damping parameter m* ζ . For tandem cylinders with low values of m* ζ , two such regimes of motion are Gap Flow Switching and Wake Induced Vibration. In this study, we consider the dynamics of a single degree-of-freedom rigid cylinder in the wake of another in these regimes for a variety of center-to-center cylinder spacings (3-5 diameters) and Reynolds numbers (4,000-11,000). The system consists of a trailing cylinder constrained to a circular arc around a fixed leading cylinder, which, for small angle displacements, bears a close resemblance to the transversely oscillating cylinders found more commonly in existing literature. From experiments on this system, we compare and contrast the dynamic response within these two regimes. Our results show sustained oscillations in the absence of a structural restoring force in all cases, providing experimental support for the wake stiffness assumption, which is based on the mean lift toward the center line of flow.
The Interaction Vortex Flow Around Two Bluff Cylinders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hirao K.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In this study, the interaction vortex flow features around a pair of parallel arranged bluff cylinders were observed by visualizing water flow experiment at the range of the gap ratio G/d=0~3. It was obtained that the result of established wind tunnel test and the result of this water tank test agreed about the characteristics of vortex shedding when varying the distance of circular cylinder gap. The flow pattern and vortex shedding frequency of another type bluff cylinder (triangular and square cylinder were also investigated. As a result of the experiment, it was shown that the flow pattern of wake flow was divided into three kinds (coupled vortex streets, biased gap flow and single vortex street regardless of the cylinder section shape and cylinder size. Then, the region of the appearance of flow pattern was shown about each case. In the case where two each other independent vortex streets were formed, three typical flow patterns of vortex formation (in-phase coupled vortex streets, out-of-phase coupled vortex streets and complication coupled vortex streets were observed. It was known that three configuration of vortex formation appear intermittently and alternatively.
Properties of Sub-wavelength Resonances in Metamaterial Cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arslanagic, Samel; Clausen, N.C.J.; Pedersen, R.R.;
2008-01-01
The analytical solution for the canonical configuration with electric line source illumination of concentric metamaterial cylinders is employed to study the properties of the observed sub-wavelength resonances. The near- and far-field distributions, the frequency and geometry bandwidths, and the...
Effect of free surface on near-wake flow of elliptic cylinders with different aspect ratios
Lee, Sang Joon; Daichin, -
2003-04-01
The flow fields behind elliptic cylinders with different aspect ratios adjacent to a free surface were investigated experimentally in a circulating water channel. The elliptic cylinders tested in this study have same cross section area. For each elliptic cylinder, the experiments were carried out under different conditions by varying the submergence depth of the cylinder beneath the free surface. The flow fields were measured using a single-frame double-exposure PIV system. For each experimental condition, 350 instantaneous velocity fields were captured and ensemble-averaged to obtain the mean flow field information and spatial distribution of turbulent statistics. The near-wakes can be basically classified into three typical patterns, which are formation of Coanda effect, generation of substantial jet-like flow, and attachment of jet flow to the free surface. The general flow structures behind the elliptic cylinder are similar to previous results for a circular submerged near to a free surface. However, the wake width and the angle of downward deflection of the shear layer developed from the lower surface of the elliptic cylinder are smaller than those for the circular cylinder. These trends are enhance with increasing of the cylinder aspect ratios.
The magic of the gravity-defying cylinder
De, Subhranil
2016-03-01
The motion of an eccentrically loaded circular hoop is analysed when it rolls without slipping in such a way that its centre of mass stays at the same vertical height, ensuring the conservation of kinetic energy of the hoop. The equation of the required path for such rolling is derived. Although the kinetic energy of the rolling hoop remains constant, its distribution into the rotational mode and the translational mode keeps varying. As a result, it turns out that the hoop’s geometric centre actually speeds up while the hoop rolls up its path, and slows down on its way down. This presents the idea of demonstrating an apparently gravity-defying situation where a closed right circular cylinder that is actually eccentrically loaded on the inside is utilised. Since its centre must speed up as it gains vertical height, and vice versa, the cylinder would look as if going against gravity.
Rotating fermions inside a cylinder
Ambrus, Victor E
2015-01-01
We study rotating thermal states of a quantum fermion field inside a cylinder in Minkowski space-time. Two possible boundary conditions for the fermion field on the cylinder are considered: the spectral and MIT bag boundary conditions. If the radius of the cylinder is sufficiently small, rotating thermal expectation values are finite everywhere inside the cylinder. We also study the Casimir divergences on the boundary. The rotating thermal expectation values and the Casimir divergences have different properties depending on the boundary conditions applied at the cylinder. This is due to the local nature of the MIT bag boundary condition, while the spectral boundary condition is nonlocal.
Cylinder light concentrator and absorber: theoretical description.
Kildishev, Alexander V; Prokopeva, Ludmila J; Narimanov, Evgenii E
2010-08-01
We present a detailed theoretical description of a broadband omnidirectional light concentrator and absorber with cylinder geometry. The proposed optical "trap" captures nearly all the incident light within its geometric cross-section, leading to a broad range of possible applications--from solar energy harvesting to thermal light emitters and optoelectronic components. We have demonstrated that an approximate lamellar black-hole with a moderate number of homogeneous layers, while giving the desired ray-optical performance, can provide absorption efficiencies comparable to those of ideal devices with a smooth gradient in index. PMID:20721056
An experimental study of sound generated by flows around cylinders of different cross-section
King, W. F.; Pfizenmaier, E.
2009-12-01
The sound radiated by rigid cylinders placed transversely in a uniform stream has been measured in an anechoic wind tunnel over a range of Mach numbers ( M=0.09-0.2). The cylinders have different cross-sections, e.g., circular, square, rectangular, elliptic, and circular with lateral ribs or knurled surfaces. Different length to diameter ratios of the cylinders are also investigated. Results are presented as narrow band spectra, measured in the far field (acoustic as well as geometric). All spectra are presented with dimensionless (scaled) axes, as well as the original dimensional scales. It is shown that elliptic cross-sections are less noisy, compared to all other cylinders, but noise abatement techniques such as lateral ribs and knurled surfaces can also reduce tonal radiated noise. Two practical applications of these experiments are the reduction of radiated noise from pantographs of high-speed railway trains, and from the landing gear of modern passenger aircraft.
Guggenheimer, Heinrich W
1977-01-01
This is a text of local differential geometry considered as an application of advanced calculus and linear algebra. The discussion is designed for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate study, and presumes of readers only a fair knowledge of matrix algebra and of advanced calculus of functions of several real variables. The author, who is a Professor of Mathematics at the Polytechnic Institute of New York, begins with a discussion of plane geometry and then treats the local theory of Lie groups and transformation groups, solid differential geometry, and Riemannian geometry, leading to a
Circularity and Lambda Abstraction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Thiemann, Peter; Zerny, Ian
2013-01-01
In this tribute to Doaitse Swierstra, we present the rst transformation between lazy circular programs a la Bird and strict cir- cular programs a la Pettorossi. Circular programs a la Bird rely on lazy recursive binding: they involve circular unknowns and make sense equa- tionally. Circular...... unknowns from what is done to them, which we lambda-abstract with functions. The circular unknowns then become dead variables, which we eliminate. The result is a strict circu- lar program a la Pettorossi. This transformation is reversible: given a strict circular program a la Pettorossi, we introduce...
Microstrip-fed Wideband Circularly Polarized Printed Antenna
Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max; McEvoy, Patrick
2010-01-01
A wideband circularly-polarized printed antenna is proposed, which employs an asymmetrical dipole and a slit in the ground plane which are fed by an L-shaped microstrip feedline using a via. The proposed antenna geometry is arranged so that the orthogonal surface currents, which are generated in the dipole, feedline and ground plane, have the appropriate phase to provide circular polarization. A parametric study of the key parameters is made and the mechanism for circular polarization is desc...
Fertelli, Ahmet; Günhan, Gökhan; Buyruk, Ertan
2016-06-01
In the present study, it is aimed to calculate the effect of ice formation on different cylinder geometries placed in a rectangular cavity filled with water. For this aim Fluent package program was used to solve the flow domain numerically and temperature distribution and ice formation depending on time were illustrated. Water temperature in the cavity and cylinder surface temperature were assumed as 4, 8 and -10 °C respectively and firstly temperature distribution, velocity vector, liquid fraction and ratio of Ai/Ac (formed ice area/cross sectional area of cylinder) were determined for cylinders with different placement in fixed volume.
Lee, Jeongseog; Safdi, Benjamin R
2014-01-01
Entanglement entropy in even dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) contains well-known universal terms arising from the conformal anomaly. Renyi entropies are natural generalizations of the entanglement entropy that are much less understood. Above two spacetime dimensions, the universal terms in the Renyi entropies are unknown for general entangling geometries. We conjecture a new structure in the dependence of the four-dimensional Renyi entropies on the intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of the entangling surface. We provide evidence for this conjecture by direct numerical computations in the free scalar and fermion field theories. The computation involves relating the four-dimensional free massless Renyi entropies across cylindrical entangling surfaces to corresponding three-dimensional massive Renyi entropies across circular entangling surfaces. Our numerical technique also allows us to directly probe other interesting aspects of three-dimensional Renyi entropy, including the massless renormalized Reny...
Numerical Study of Flow Over a Cylinder Using an Immersed Boundary Finite Volume Method
Ranjith Maniyeri
2014-01-01
Immersed boundary (IB) method has proved its efficacy in handling complex fluid-structure interaction problems in the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). We present a two–dimensional computational model based on an immersed boundary finite volume method to study flow over a stationary circular cylinder. Lagrangian coordinates are used to describe the cylinder and Eulerian coordinates are employed to describe the fluid flow. The Navier-Stokes equations ...
Low-Re flow past an isolated cylinder with rounded corners
Zhang, Wei
2016-06-29
Direct numerical simulation is performed for flow past an isolated cylinder at Re=1,000. The corners of the cylinder are rounded at different radii, with the non-dimensional radius of curvature varying from R+=R/D=0.000 (square cylinder with sharp corners) to 0.500 (circular cylinder), in which R is the corner radius and D is the cylinder diameter. Our objective is to investigate the effect of the rounded corners on the development of the separated and transitional flow past the cylinder in terms of time-averaged statistics, time-dependent behavior, turbulent statistics and three-dimensional flow patterns. Numerical results reveal that the rounding of the corners significantly reduces the time-averaged drag and the force fluctuations. The wake flow downstream of the square cylinder recovers the slowest and has the largest wake width. However, the statistical quantities do not monotonically vary with the corner radius, but exhibit drastic variations between the cases of square cylinder and partially rounded cylinders, and between the latter and the circular cylinder. The free shear layer separated from the R+=0.125 cylinder is the most stable in which the first roll up of the wake vortex occurs furthest from the cylinder and results in the largest recirculation bubble, whose size reduces as R+ further increases. The coherent and incoherent Reynolds stresses are most pronounced in the near-wake close to the reattachment point, while also being noticeable in the shear layer for the square and R+=0.125 cylinders. The wake vortices translate in the streamwise direction with a convection velocity that is almost constant at approximately 80% of the incoming flow velocity. These vortices exhibit nearly the same trajectory for the rounded cylinders and are furthest away from the wake centerline for the square one. The flow past the square cylinder is strongly three-dimensional as indicated by the significant primary and secondary enstrophy, while it is dominated by the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHEN Guo-quan; XIAO Yuan-chun
2003-01-01
@@ "Mo" literally means "rubbing between two things"and "eliminating". Circular-rubbing is one of the earliest manipulations used in clinical practice. Circular-rubbing differs from pressing actually. Pressing is a static manipulation and acts to inhibit motion; circular-rubbing is a movable manipulation and serves to eliminate stationary. Circular-rubbing can be performed by either the palm or the finger.
Detecting a subsurface cylinder by a Time Reversal MUSIC like method
Solimene, Raffaele; Dell'Aversano, Angela; Leone, Giovanni
2014-05-01
In this contribution the problem of imaging a buried homogeneous circular cylinder is dealt with for a two-dimensional scalar geometry. Though the addressed geometry is extremely simple as compared to real world scenarios, it can be considered of interest for a classical GPR civil engineering applicative context: that is the subsurface prospecting of urban area in order to detect and locate buried utilities. A large body of methods for subsurface imaging have been presented in literature [1], ranging from migration algorithms to non-linear inverse scattering approaches. More recently, also spectral estimation methods, which benefit from sub-array data arrangement, have been proposed and compared in [2].Here a Time Reversal MUSIC (TRM) like method is employed. TRM has been initially conceived to detect point-like scatterers and then generalized to the case of extended scatterers [3]. In the latter case, no a priori information about the scatterers is exploited. However, utilities often can be schematized as circular cylinders. Here, we develop a TRM variant which use this information to properly tailor the steering vector while implementing TRM. Accordingly, instead of a spatial map [3], the imaging procedure returns the scatterer's parameters such as its center position, radius and dielectric permittivity. The study is developed by numerical simulations. First the free-space case is considered in order to more easily introduce the idea and the problem mathematical structure. Then the analysis is extended to the half-space case. In both situations a FDTD forward solver is used to generate the synthetic data. As usual in TRM, a multi-view/multi-static single-frequency configuration is considered and emphasis is put on the role played by the number of available sensors. Acknowledgement This work benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." [1] A. Randazzo and R
Macquart, JP
2002-01-01
We discuss the constraints that recent observations place on circular polarisation in AGN. In many sources the circular polarisation is variable on short timescales, indicating that it originates in compact regions of the sources. The best prospects for gleaning further information about circular po
Pottmann, Helmut
2014-11-26
Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.
Vortex-induced vibration of a square-section cylinder with incidence angle variation
Zhao, Jisheng; Nemes, Andras; Lo Jacono, David; Sheridan, John
2010-01-01
Vortex-induced vibration (VIV) occurs when vortex shedding from a body results in fluctuating forces that, in turn, cause the body to vibrate. This can result in undesired large-amplitude vibrations leading to structural damage or catastrophic failure. While much has been done on the VIV of a circular cylinder less has been done on other canonical bluff bodies, such as rectangular cylinders. The present experimental work studied the VIV of a square cross-section cylinder in a water channel, w...
Jones, G. S.; Horvath, T. J.; Stainback, P. C.; Beasley, W. D.; Mcghee, R. J.
1987-01-01
The NASA Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel has been used to conduct an experimental study of the flow around a series of circular cylinders; the models used consisted of a baseline, smooth cylinder together with a cylinder that could be reconfigured with six different arrangements of two types of surface irregularity. Mean lift and drag forces were measured on all seven model configurations, and correlations were made between unsteady pressure in the wake region and fluctuating lift forces, in order to identify coherent structures.
Current collection by a long conducting cylinder in a flowing magnetized plasma
Singh, Nagendra; Vashi, Bharat I.
1990-01-01
The numerical techniques, the definitions, and the normalizations used in the simulations of plasma flow past a long conducting cylinder with a magnetic field along the cylinder axis are described. The effect of cross-field plasma transport on the current collection without any contribution to the current from the field-aligned motion of the plasma particles is highlighted. The electric fields in the structure create a two-cell circulation of the electrons near the cylinder. The cell in the wake region has negative potentials. A fan-shaped circulation cell forms around the cylinder and in this cell the potential is generally positive. The geometry and the size of this positive cell affect the current collection. The potential structure around the cylinder is examined, along with its effect on the current collection and its oscillatory behavior. The variation of the time-average current as a function of the relative motion between the plasma and the cylinder is also investigated.
Geometry of Periodic Monopoles
Maldonado, Rafael
2013-01-01
BPS monopoles on $\\mathbb{R}^2\\timesS^1$ correspond, via the generalized Nahm transform, to certain solutions of the Hitchin equations on the cylinder $\\mathbb{R}\\times S^1$. The moduli space M of two monopoles with their centre-of-mass fixed is a 4-dimensional manifold with a natural hyperk\\"ahler metric, and its geodesics correspond to slow-motion monopole scattering. The purpose of this paper is to study the geometry of M in terms of the Nahm/Hitchin data, i.e. in terms of structures on $\\mathbb{R}\\times S^1$. In particular, we identify the moduli, derive the asymptotic metric on M, and discuss several geodesic surfaces and geodesics on M. The latter include novel examples of monopole dynamics.
Maor, Eli
2014-01-01
If you've ever thought that mathematics and art don't mix, this stunning visual history of geometry will change your mind. As much a work of art as a book about mathematics, Beautiful Geometry presents more than sixty exquisite color plates illustrating a wide range of geometric patterns and theorems, accompanied by brief accounts of the fascinating history and people behind each. With artwork by Swiss artist Eugen Jost and text by acclaimed math historian Eli Maor, this unique celebration of geometry covers numerous subjects, from straightedge-and-compass constructions to intriguing configur
Adaptronic tools for superfinishing of cylinder bores
Roscher, Hans-Jürgen; Hochmuth, Carsten; Hoffmann, Michael; Praedicow, Michael
2012-04-01
Today in the production of internal combustion engines it is possible to make pistons as well as cylinders, for all practical purposes, perfectly round. The negative consequences of the subsequent assembly processes and operation of the engine is that the cylinders and pistons are deformed, resulting in a loss of power and an increase in fuel consumption. This problem can be solved by using an adaptronic tool, which can machine the cylinder to a predetermined nonround geometry, which will deform to the required geometry during assembly and operation of the engine. The article describes the actuatory effect of the tool in conjunction with its measuring and controlling algorithms. The adaptronic tool consists out the basic tool body and three axially-staggered floating cutter groups, these cutter groups consist out of guides, actuators and honing stones. The selective expansion of the tool is realised by 3 piezoelectric multilayer-actuators deployed in a series - parallel arrangement. It is also possible to superimpose actuator expansion on the conventional expansion. A process matrix is created during the processing of the required and actual contour data in a technology module. This is then transferred over an interface to the machine controller where it is finally processed and the setting values for the piezoelectric actuators are derived, after which an amplifier generates the appropriate actuator voltages. A slip ring system on the driveshaft is used to transfer the electricity to the actuators in the machining head. The functioning of the adaptronic form-honing tool and process were demonstrated with numerous experiments. The tool provides the required degrees of freedom to generate a contour that correspond to the inverse compound contour of assembled and operational engines.
Black holes on cylinders are not algebraically special
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We give a Petrov classification for five-dimensional metrics. We give an almost complete classification of Ricci-flat metrics that are static, have an SO(3) isometry group and have Petrov type 22. We use this classification to look for the metric of a black hole on a cylinder, i.e., a black hole with asymptotic geometry four-dimensional Minkowski space times a circle. Although a black string wrapped around the S1 and the five-dimensional black hole are both algebraically special, it turns out that the black hole on a cylinder is not
Approximation of Surfaces by Cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Randrup, Thomas
1998-01-01
We present a new method for approximation of a given surface by a cylinder surface. It is a constructive geometric method, leading to a monorail representation of the cylinder surface. By use of a weighted Gaussian image of the given surface, we determine a projection plane. In the orthogonal...... projection of the surface onto this plane, a reference curve is determined by use of methods for thinning of binary images. Finally, the cylinder surface is constructed as follows: the directrix of the cylinder surface is determined by a least squares method minimizing the distance to the points...
Lefschetz, Solomon
2012-01-01
An introduction to algebraic geometry and a bridge between its analytical-topological and algebraical aspects, this text for advanced undergraduate students is particularly relevant to those more familiar with analysis than algebra. 1953 edition.
Non-invasive determination of external forces in vortex-pair-cylinder interactions
Hartmann, D.; Schröder, W.; Shashikanth, B. N.
2012-06-01
Expressions for the conserved linear and angular momenta of a dynamically coupled fluid + solid system are derived. Based on the knowledge of the flow velocity field, these expressions allow the determination of the external forces exerted on a body moving in the fluid such as, e.g., swimming fish. The verification of the derived conserved quantities is done numerically. The interaction of a vortex pair with a circular cylinder in various configurations of motions representing a generic test case for a dynamically coupled fluid + solid system is investigated in a weakly compressible Navier-Stokes setting using a Cartesian cut-cell method, i.e., the moving circular cylinder is represented by cut cells on a moving mesh. The objectives of this study are twofold. The first objective is to show the robustness of the derived expressions for the conserved linear and angular momenta with respect to bounded and discrete data sets. The second objective is to study the coupled dynamics of the vortex pair and a neutrally buoyant cylinder free to move in response to the fluid stresses exerted on its surface. A comparison of the vortex-body interaction with the case of a fixed circular cylinder evidences significant differences in the vortex dynamics. When the cylinder is fixed strong secondary vorticity is generated resulting in a repeating process between the primary vortex pair and the cylinder. In the neutrally buoyant cylinder case, a stable structure consisting of the primary vortex pair and secondary vorticity shear layers stays attached to the moving cylinder. In addition to these fundamental cases, the vortex-pair-cylinder interaction is studied for locomotion at constant speed and locomotion at constant thrust. It is shown that a similar vortex structure like in the neutrally buoyant cylinder case is obtained when the cylinder moves away from the approaching vortex pair at a constant speed smaller than the vortex pair translational velocity. Finally, the idealized
Embedding problems in symplectic geometry
Schlenk, Felix
2005-01-01
Symplectic geometry is the geometry underlying Hamiltonian dynamics, and symplectic mappings arise as time-1-maps of Hamiltonian flows. The spectacular rigidity phenomena for symplectic mappings discovered in the last two decades show that certain things cannot be done by a symplectic mapping. For instance, Gromov''s famous "non-squeezing'''' theorem states that one cannot map a ball into a thinner cylinder by a symplectic embedding. The aim of this book is to show that certain other things can be done by symplectic mappings. This is achieved by various elementary and explicit symplectic embedding constructions, such as "folding", "wrapping'''', and "lifting''''. These constructions are carried out in detail and are used to solve some specific symplectic embedding problems. The exposition is self-contained and addressed to students and researchers interested in geometry or dynamics.
The capillary interaction between two vertical cylinders
Cooray, Himantha
2012-06-27
Particles floating at the surface of a liquid generally deform the liquid surface. Minimizing the energetic cost of these deformations results in an inter-particle force which is usually attractive and causes floating particles to aggregate and form surface clusters. Here we present a numerical method for determining the three-dimensional meniscus around a pair of vertical circular cylinders. This involves the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear Laplace-Young equation using a mesh-free finite difference method. Inter-particle force-separation curves for pairs of vertical cylinders are then calculated for different radii and contact angles. These results are compared with previously published asymptotic and experimental results. For large inter-particle separations and conditions such that the meniscus slope remains small everywhere, good agreement is found between all three approaches (numerical, asymptotic and experimental). This is as expected since the asymptotic results were derived using the linearized Laplace-Young equation. For steeper menisci and smaller inter-particle separations, however, the numerical simulation resolves discrepancies between existing asymptotic and experimental results, demonstrating that this discrepancy was due to the nonlinearity of the Laplace-Young equation. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Chakraborty, B.
size. The present study of the mutual interaction effect between the array elements reveals that the interaction effects are relatively less for a 120 degrees segmented circular array. Furthermore, the 120 degrees segmented circular array geometry...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This article has dealt with the development and modeling of various contact theories for biological nanoparticles shaped as cylinders and circular crowned rollers for application in the manipulation of different biological micro/nanoparticles based on Atomic Force Microscope. First, the effective contact forces were simulated, and their impact on contact mechanics simulation was investigated. In the next step, the Hertz contact model was simulated and compared for gold and DNA nanoparticles with the three types of spherical, cylindrical, and circular crowned roller type contact geometries. Then by reducing the length of the cylindrical section in the circular crowned roller geometry, the geometry of the body was made to approach that of a sphere, and the results were compared for DNA nanoparticles. To anticipatory validate the developed theories, the results of the cylindrical and the circular crowned roller contacts were compared with the results of the existing spherical contact simulations. Following the development of these contact models for the manipulation of various biological micro/nanoparticles, the cylindrical and the circular crowned roller type contact theories were modeled based on the theories of Lundberg, Dowson, Nikpur, Heoprich, and Hertz for the manipulation of biological micro/nanoparticles. Then, for a more accurate validation, the results obtained from the simulations were compared with those obtained by the finite element method and with the experimental results available in previous articles. The previous research works on the simulation of nanomanipulation have mainly investigated the contact theories used in the manipulation of spherical micro/nanoparticles. However since in real biomanipulation situations, biological micro/nanoparticles of more complex shapes need to be displaced in biological environments, this article therefore has modeled and compared, for the first time, different contact theories for use in the biomanipulation of
Keskinen, Jukka-Pekka; Vuorinen, Ville; Kaario, Ossi; Larmi, Martti
2015-01-01
Julkaisun kokoteksti on luettavissa vain Aalto-tunnuksilla. Please note that access to the fulltext is limited to Aalto staff and students. Large eddy simulation (LES) in an axisymmetric piston-cylinder geometry was carried out using three LES approaches: 1) Smagorinsky subgrid scale model, 2) implicit LES, and 3) scale selective discretisation (SSD). In addition to the LES subgrid scale model sensitivity study, two additional simulations were carried out in order to understand the role...
Kirillova O.I.
2012-01-01
The problem of determining the stress state near the thin rigid inclusions in an infinite cylinder of arbitrary cross-section under oscillations of longitudinal shear. We propose an approach to satisfy the conditions separately on the surface of inclusions and on the boundary of the cylinder. The approximate formulas for calculating stress intensity factors are obtained to investigate the influence of frequency oscillations, geometry of the cylinder and location of the inclusions on their val...
Gordienko, S.; Baeva, T.; Pukhov, A.
2005-01-01
It is shown that plasma-based optics can be used to guide and focus highly divergent laser-generated ion beams. A hollow cylinder is considered, which initially contains a hot electron population. Plasma streaming toward the cylinder axis maintains a focusing electrostatic field due to the positive radial pressure gradient. The cylinder works as thick lens, whose parameters are obtained from similarity theory for freely expanding plasma in cylindrical geometry. Because the lens parameters are...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kirillova O.I.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The problem of determining the stress state near the thin rigid inclusions in an infinite cylinder of arbitrary cross-section under oscillations of longitudinal shear. We propose an approach to satisfy the conditions separately on the surface of inclusions and on the boundary of the cylinder. The approximate formulas for calculating stress intensity factors are obtained to investigate the influence of frequency oscillations, geometry of the cylinder and location of the inclusions on their values.
'PRIZE': A program for calculating collision probabilities in R-Z geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
PRIZE is an IBM7090 program which computes collision probabilities for systems with axial symmetry and outputs them on cards in suitable format for the PIP1 program. Its method of working, data requirements, output, running time and accuracy are described. The program has been used to compute non-escape (self-collision) probabilities of finite circular cylinders, and a table is given by which non-escape probabilities of slabs, finite and infinite circular cylinders, infinite square cylinders, cubes, spheres and hemispheres may quickly be calculated to 1/2% or better. (author)
Robinson, Gilbert de B
2011-01-01
This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom
Connes, Alain
1994-01-01
This English version of the path-breaking French book on this subject gives the definitive treatment of the revolutionary approach to measure theory, geometry, and mathematical physics developed by Alain Connes. Profusely illustrated and invitingly written, this book is ideal for anyone who wants to know what noncommutative geometry is, what it can do, or how it can be used in various areas of mathematics, quantization, and elementary particles and fields.Key Features* First full treatment of the subject and its applications* Written by the pioneer of this field* Broad applications in mathemat
Berger, Marcel
2010-01-01
Both classical geometry and modern differential geometry have been active subjects of research throughout the 20th century and lie at the heart of many recent advances in mathematics and physics. The underlying motivating concept for the present book is that it offers readers the elements of a modern geometric culture by means of a whole series of visually appealing unsolved (or recently solved) problems that require the creation of concepts and tools of varying abstraction. Starting with such natural, classical objects as lines, planes, circles, spheres, polygons, polyhedra, curves, surfaces,
Raybould, T. A.; Fedotov, V. A.; Papasimakis, N.; Kuprov, I.; Youngs, I. J.; Chen, W. T.; Tsai, D. P.; Zheludev, N. I.
2016-07-01
We demonstrate that the induced toroidal dipole, represented by currents flowing on the surface of a torus, makes a distinct and indispensable contribution to circular dichroism. We show that toroidal circular dichroism supplements the well-known mechanism involving electric dipole and magnetic dipole transitions. We illustrate this with rigorous analysis of the experimentally measured polarization-sensitive transmission spectra of an artificial metamaterial, constructed from elements of toroidal symmetry. We argue that toroidal circular dichroism will be found in large biomolecules with elements of toroidal symmetry and should be taken into account in the interpretation of circular dichroism spectra of organics.
Strong Trinucleotide Circular Codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian J. Michel
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, we identified a hierarchy relation between trinucleotide comma-free codes and trinucleotide circular codes (see our previous works. Here, we extend our hierarchy with two new classes of codes, called DLD and LDL codes, which are stronger than the comma-free codes. We also prove that no circular code with 20 trinucleotides is a DLD code and that a circular code with 20 trinucleotides is comma-free if and only if it is a LDL code. Finally, we point out the possible role of the symmetric group ∑4 in the mathematical study of trinucleotide circular codes.
Publication of administrative circular
HR Department
2009-01-01
ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee on 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in Departmental Secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003
PUBLICATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR
HR Department
2008-01-01
ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003
Experimental vortex breakdown topology in a cylinder with a free surface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lo Jacono, D.; Nazarinia, M.; Brøns, Morten
2009-01-01
The free SLII-face, flow in it circular cylinder driven by a rotating bottom disk IS Studied experimentally using particle image velocimetry. Results are compared With computational,11 results assuming I stress-free surface A dye visualization Study by Spohn et al ["Observations of vortex breakdown...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rusch, W.; Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Klein, C;
1976-01-01
constraint points. An experimental technique using a forward-scattering range is used to measure the IFR's of square and circular cylinders in an anechoic chamber. These experimental results are compared with the theory, and their implications on aperture blocking losses and boresight cross polarization...
Desseyn, H. O.; And Others
1985-01-01
Compares linear-nonlinear and planar-nonplanar geometry through the valence-shell electron pairs repulsion (V.S.E.P.R.), Mulliken-Walsh, and electrostatic force theories. Indicates that although the V.S.E.P.R. theory has more advantages for elementary courses, an explanation of the best features of the different theories offers students a better…
Pottmann, Helmut; Eigensatz, Michael; Vaxman, A.; Wallner, Johannes
2015-01-01
Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural
Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics and Plasticity of the Split Cylinder Test
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olesen, John Forbes; Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik
2006-01-01
The split cylinder testis subjected to an analysis combining nonlinear fracture mechanics and plasticity. The fictitious crack model is applied for the analysis of splitting tensile fracture, and the Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion is adopted for modelling the compressive crushing/sliding failure. Two...... models are presented, a simple semi-analytical model based on analytical solutions for the crack propagation in a rectangular prismatic body, and a finite element model including plasticity in bulk material as well as crack propagation in interface elements. A numerical study applying these models...... demonstrates the influence of varying geometry or constitutive properties. For a split cylinder test in load control it is shown how the ultimate load is either plasticity dominated or fracture mechanics dominated. The transition between the two modes is related to changes in geometry or constitutive...
The effects of axis ratio on laminar fluid flow around an elliptical cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An elliptical cylinder is a generic shape which represents a flat plate at its minor to major axis ratio (AR) limits of zero and infinity, and a circular cylinder at AR of unity. While incompressible flows over a streamwise flat plate (AR = 0), a cross-stream flat plate (AR = ∞), and a circular cylinder have been studied extensively, the role of AR on the detailed flow structure is still not well understood. Therefore, a numerical study was conducted to examine the flow field around an elliptical cylinder over a range of ARs from 0.3 to 1, with the major axis parallel to the free-stream, at a Reynolds number of 40 based on the hydraulic diameter. The control volume approach of FLUENT was used to solve the fluid flow equations, assuming the flow over the cylinder is unbounded, steady, incompressible and two-dimensional. It has been found that a pair of steady vortices forms when AR reaches a critical value of 0.34; below this value no vortices are formed behind the elliptical cylinder. Various wake parameters, drag coefficient, pressure and velocity distributions, have been characterized as functions of AR. The wake size and the drag coefficient are found to increase with the increase of AR. Quadratic correlations have been obtained to describe the relations of wake length and drag coefficient with axis ratio
Circular object recognition based on shape parameters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Aijun; Li Jinzong; Zhu Bing
2007-01-01
To recognize circular objects rapidly in satellite remote sensing imagery, an approach using their geometry properties is presented.The original image is segmented to be a binary one by one dimension maximum entropy threshold algorithm and the binary image is labeled with an algorithm based on recursion technique.Then, shape parameters of all labeled regions are calculated and those regions with shape parameters satisfying certain conditions are recognized as circular objects.The algorithm is described in detail, and comparison experiments with the randomized Hough transformation (RHT) are also provided.The experimental results on synthetic images and real images show that the proposed method has the merits of fast recognition rate, high recognition efficiency and the ability of anti-noise and anti-jamming.In addition, the method performs well when some circular objects are little deformed and partly misshapen.
Bounds on Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Gradient and Void Fraction in Circular Pipes
Awad, M M; Muzychka, Y. S.
2014-01-01
Simple rules are developed for obtaining rational bounds for two-phase frictional pressure gradient and void fraction in circular pipes. The bounds are based on turbulent-turbulent flow assumption. Both the lower and upper bounds for frictional pressure gradient are based on the separate cylinders formulation. For frictional pressure gradient, the lower bound is based on the separate cylinders formulation that uses the Blasius equation to represent the Fanning friction factor while the upper ...
Perfect Circular Dichroic Metamirrors
Wang, Zuojia; Liu, Yongmin
2015-01-01
In nature, the beetle Chrysina gloriosa derives its iridescence by selectively reflecting left-handed circularly polarized light only. Here, for the first time, we introduce and demonstrate the optical analogue based on an ultrathin metamaterial, which we term circular dichroic metamirror. A general method to design the circular dichroic metasmirror is presented under the framework of Jones calculus. It is analytically shown that the metamirror can be realized by two layers of anisotropic metamaterial structures, in order to satisfy the required simultaneous breakings of n-fold rotational (n>2) and mirror symmetries. We design an infrared metamirror, which shows perfect reflectance for left-handed circularly polarized light without reversing its handedness, while almost completely absorbs right-handed circularly polarized light. These findings offer new methodology to realize novel chiral optical devices for a variety of applications, including polarimetric imaging, molecular spectroscopy, as well as quantum ...
Scalar cylinder-plate and cylinder-cylinder Casimir interaction in higher dimensional spacetime
Teo, L P
2015-01-01
We study the cylinder-plate and the cylinder-cylinder Casimir interaction in the $(D+1)$-dimensional Minkowski spacetime due to the vacuum fluctuations of massless scalar fields. Different combinations of Dirichlet (D) and Neumann (N) boundary conditions are imposed on the two interacting objects. For the cylinder-cylinder interaction, we consider the case where one cylinder is inside the other, and the case where the two cylinders are outside each other. By computing the transition matrices of the objects and the translation matrices that relate different coordinate systems, the explicit formulas for the Casimir interaction energies are derived. Using perturbation technique, we compute the small separation asymptotic expansions of the Casimir interaction energies up to the next-to-leading order terms. The leading terms coincide with the respective results obtained using proximity force approximation, which is of order $d^{-D+1/2}$, where $d$ is the distance between the two objects. The results on the next-to...
Stability of the expansion-free charged cylinder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharif, M.; Bhatti, M. Zaeem Ul Haq, E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk, E-mail: mzaeem.math@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)
2013-10-01
We study the instability of cylindrically symmetric expansion-free anisotropic geometry in the presence of electromagnetic field. For smooth matching of the interior geometry with the exterior, junction conditions are formulated. The perturbation scheme is taken into account to describe the dynamical equation and categorize the Newtonian, post-Newtonian as well as post-post Newtonian regime. It is concluded that physical parameters, i.e., energy density, principal stresses of the fluid and electric charge control the stability of the cylinder.
Petersen, Peter
2016-01-01
Intended for a one year course, this text serves as a single source, introducing readers to the important techniques and theorems, while also containing enough background on advanced topics to appeal to those students wishing to specialize in Riemannian geometry. This is one of the few Works to combine both the geometric parts of Riemannian geometry and the analytic aspects of the theory. The book will appeal to a readership that have a basic knowledge of standard manifold theory, including tensors, forms, and Lie groups. Important revisions to the third edition include: a substantial addition of unique and enriching exercises scattered throughout the text; inclusion of an increased number of coordinate calculations of connection and curvature; addition of general formulas for curvature on Lie Groups and submersions; integration of variational calculus into the text allowing for an early treatment of the Sphere theorem using a proof by Berger; incorporation of several recent results about manifolds with posit...
Spatio-temporal spectral analysis of a forced cylinder wake
D'Adamo, Juan; Wesfreid, José Eduardo
2011-01-01
The wake of a circular cylinder performing rotary oscillations is studied using hydrodynamic tunnel experiments at $Re=100$. Two-dimensional particle image velocimetry on the mid-plane perpendicular to the axis of cylinder is used to characterize the spatial development of the flow and its stability properties. The lock-in phenomenon that determines the boundaries between regions of the forcing parameter space were the wake is globally unstable or convectively unstable is scrutinized using the experimental data. A novel method based on the analysis of power density spectra of the flow allows us to give a detailed description of the forced wake, shedding light on the energy distribution in the different frequency components and in particular on a cascade-like mechanism evidenced for a high amplitude of the forcing oscillation. In addition, a calculation of the drag from the velocity field is performed, allowing us to relate the resulting force on the body to the wake properties.
Rotating Cylinder Treatment System Demonstration
In August 2008, a rotating cylinder treatment system (RCTSTM) demonstration was conducted near Gladstone, CO. The RCTSTM is a novel technology developed to replace the aeration/oxidation and mixing components of a conventional lime precipitation treatment s...
Plasmonic corrugated cylinder-cone terahertz probe.
Yao, Haizi; Zhong, Shuncong
2014-08-01
The spoof surface plasmon polariton (SPP) effect on the electromagnetic field distribution near the tip of a periodically corrugated metal cylinder-cone probe working at the terahertz regime was studied. We found that radially polarized terahertz radiation could be coupled effectively through a spoof SPP into a surface wave and propagated along the corrugated surface, resulting in more than 20× electric field enhancement near the tip of probe. Multiple resonances caused by the antenna effect were discussed in detail by finite element computation and theoretical analysis of dispersion relation for spoof SPP modes. Moreover, the key figures of merit such as the resonance frequency of the SPP can be flexibly tuned by modifying the geometry of the probe structure, making it attractive for application in an apertureless background-free terahertz near-field microscope. PMID:25121543
CONTACT STRESSES IN A TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC SOLID CYLINDER LATERALLY COMPRESSED BY AN INDENTER
YAPICI, Ahmet; Avci, Ahmet; Uyaner, Mesut
2004-01-01
In this study, an elastostatic contact problem for a laterally compressed transversely isotropic cylinder subjected to radial compression through a circumferential rigid indenter is considered. The extent of the contact region and the stress distribution are sought. It is assumed that the contact between the cylinder and the rigid indenter is frictionless and only compressive normal tractions can be transmitted through the interface. Due to the geometry of the configuration, Fourier transform...
Heat transfer to a horizontal cylinder in a shallow bubble column
Tow, Emily W.; Lienhard, John H.
2014-01-01
Heat transfer coefficient correlations for tall bubble columns are unable to predict heat transfer in shallow bubble columns, which have unique geometry and fluid dynamics. In this work, the heat transfer coefficient is measured on the surface of a horizontal cylinder immersed in a shallow air–water bubble column. Superficial velocity, liquid depth, and cylinder height and horizontal position with respect to the sparger orifices are varied. The heat transfer coefficient is found to increase w...
Scalar cylinder-plate and cylinder-cylinder Casimir interaction in higher dimensional spacetime
Teo, Lee-Peng
2015-07-01
We study the cylinder-plate and the cylinder-cylinder Casimir interaction in the (D +1 )-dimensional Minkowski spacetime due to the vacuum fluctuations of massless scalar fields. Different combinations of Dirichlet (D) and Neumann (N) boundary conditions are imposed on the two interacting objects. For the cylinder-cylinder interaction, we consider the case where one cylinder is inside the other and the case where the two cylinders are outside each other. By computing the transition matrices of the objects and the translation matrices that relate different coordinate systems, the explicit formulas for the Casimir interaction energies are derived. From these formulas, we compute the large separation and small separation asymptotic behaviors of the Casimir interaction. For the cylinder-plate interaction with R ≪L , where R is the radius of the cylinder and L is the distance from the center of the cylinder to the plate, the order of decay of the Casimir interaction only depends on the boundary conditions imposed on the cylinder. The orders are L-D +1/ln (L ) and L-D -1/ln L , respectively, for the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions on the cylinder. For two cylinders with radii R1 and R2 lying parallelly outside each other, the orders of decay of the Casimir interaction energies when R1+R2≪L are L-D +1/(ln L )2, L-D -1/ln L , and L-D -3, respectively, for DD, DN/ND, and NN boundary conditions, where L is the distance between the centers of the cylinders. The more interesting and important characteristic of Casimir interaction appears at small separation. Using the perturbation technique, we compute the small separation asymptotic expansions of the Casimir interaction energies up to the next-to-leading-order terms. The leading terms coincide with the respective results obtained using the proximity force approximation, which is of order d-D +1 /2 , where d is the distance between the two objects. The results on the next-to-leading-order terms are more
Convective Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Elliptic Cylinder with Axis Ratio 4 : 1 in Crossflow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QI Shou-liang; LI Qing-ling; WANG Ru-zhu
2005-01-01
The heat transfer features around the elliptic cylinder of axis ratio 4: 1 in crossflow were investigated experimentally within a wide range of Reynolds number. By means of heat-mass transfer analogy and the naphthalene sublimation technique, the local heat transfer distribution and the mean heat transfer coefficient are clarified.The result shows that the mean heat transfer coefficient is higher than that of a circular cylinder in most Reynolds number range regarded, and this superiority turns to be more significant with the increase of flow speed. Moreover, the effect of axis ratio on mean heat transfer coefficient was investigated tentatively. The oil-lampblack technique was employed to enable visualization of the flow pattern around the cylinder and on the cylinder wall.
Water Entry and Exit of Horizontal Cylinder in Free Surface Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper describes two-dimensional numerical simulations of the water entry and exit of horizontal circular cylinder at constant velocity. The deformation of free surface is described by Navier-Stokes (N S) equations of incompressible and viscous fluid with additional transport equation of the volume-of-fluid (VOF). The motion of the cylinder is modeled by the associated momentum source term implemented in the Phoenicis (Parabolic Hyperbolic Or Elliptic Numerical Integration Code Series) code. The domain is discretized by a fixed Cartesian grid using a finite volume method and the cylinder is represented and cut cell method. The simulated results are compared with the numerical results of Lin (2007). This comparison shows good agreement in terms of free surface evolution for water exit and sinking. However, for water entry, the jet flow simulated by Lin is not reproduced. The free surface deformation around the cylinder in downward direction is accurately predicted
Modeling of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Freely Oscillating Cylinders in Water Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A concept of energy harvesting from vortex-induced vibrations of a rigid circular cylinder with two piezoelectric beams attached is investigated. The variations of the power levels with the free stream velocity are determined. A mathematical approach including the coupled cylinder motion and harvested voltage is presented. The effects of the load resistance, piezoelectric materials, and circuit combined on the natural frequency and damping of the vibratory system are determined by performing a linear analysis. The dynamic response of the cylinder and harvested energy are investigated. The results show that the harvested level in SS and SP&PS modes is the same with different values of load resistance. For four different system parameters, the results show that the bigger size of cylinder with PZT beams can obtain the higher harvested power.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Amir Mahmood; Saima Parveen; Najeeb Alam Khan
2011-01-01
The velocity field and the associated shear stress corresponding to the torsional oscillatory flow of a second grade fluid, between two infinite coaxial circular cylinders,are determined by means of the Laplace and Hankel transforms. At time t = 0, the fluid and both the cylinders are at rest and at t = 0+, cylinders suddenly begin to oscillate around their common axis in a simple harmonic way having angular frequencies ωl and ω2. The obtained solutions satisfy the governing differential equation and all imposed initial and boundary conditions. The solutions for the motion between the cylinders, when one of them is at rest, can be obtained from our general solutions. Furthermore, the corresponding solutions for Newtonian fluid are also obtained as limiting cases of our general solutions.
J-holomorphic curves with boundary in bounded geometry
Groman, Yoel; Solomon, Jake P.
2013-01-01
The fundamental properties of $J$-holomorphic maps depend on two inequalities: The gradient inequality gives a pointwise bound on the differential of a $J$-holomorphic map in terms of its energy. The cylinder inequality stipulates and quantifies the exponential decay of energy along cylinders of small total energy. We show these inequalities hold uniformly if the geometry of the target symplectic manifold and Lagrangian boundary condition is appropriately bounded.
General Geometry and Geometry of Electromagnetism
Shahverdiyev, Shervgi S.
2002-01-01
It is shown that Electromagnetism creates geometry different from Riemannian geometry. General geometry including Riemannian geometry as a special case is constructed. It is proven that the most simplest special case of General Geometry is geometry underlying Electromagnetism. Action for electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations are derived from curvature function of geometry underlying Electromagnetism. And it is shown that equation of motion for a particle interacting with electromagnetic...
Finite Element Models and Properties of a Stiffened Floor-Equipped Composite Cylinder
Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.
2010-01-01
Finite element models were developed of a floor-equipped, frame and stringer stiffened composite cylinder including a coarse finite element model of the structural components, a coarse finite element model of the acoustic cavities above and below the beam-supported plywood floor, and two dense models consisting of only the structural components. The report summarizes the geometry, the element properties, the material and mechanical properties, the beam cross-section characteristics, the beam element representations and the boundary conditions of the composite cylinder models. The expressions used to calculate the group speeds for the cylinder components are presented.
Pewsey, Arthur; Ruxton, Graeme D
2013-01-01
Circular Statistics in R provides the most comprehensive guide to the analysis of circular data in over a decade. Circular data arise in many scientific contexts whether it be angular directions such as: observed compass directions of departure of radio-collared migratory birds from a release point; bond angles measured in different molecules; wind directions at different times of year at a wind farm; direction of stress-fractures in concretebridge supports; longitudes of earthquake epicentres or seasonal and daily activity patterns, for example: data on the times of day at which animals are c
Administrative & Operational Circulars - Reminder
HR Department
2011-01-01
All Administrative and Operational Circulars are available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp Department Head Office
Circular words and applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benoît Rittaud
2011-08-01
Full Text Available We define the notion of circular words, then consider on such words a constraint derived from the Fibonacci condition. We give several results on the structure of these circular words, then mention possible applications to various situations: periodic expansion of numbers in numeration systems, "gcd-property" of integer sequences, partition of the prefix of the fixed point of the Fibonacci substitution, spanning trees of a wheel. Eventually, we mention some open questions.
Process designing for laser forming of circular sheet metal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Q. Nadeem; W. J. Seong; S. J. Na
2012-01-01
Laser forming is a new type of flexible manufacturing process that has become viable for the shaping of metallic components.Process designing of laser forming involves finding a set of process parameters,including laser power,laser scanning paths,and scanning speed,given a prescribed shape.To date,research has focused on process designing for rectangular plates,and only a few studies are presented for axis-symmetric geometries like circular plates.In the present study,process designing for axis-symmetric geometries-with focus on class of shapes--is handled using a formerly proposed distance-based approach.A prescribed shape is achieved for geometries such as quarter-circular and half-circular ring plates.Experimental results verify the applicability of the proposed method for a class of shapes.%Laser forming is a new type of flexible manufacturing process that has become viable for the shaping of metallic components. Process designing of laser forming involves finding a set of process parameters, including laser power, laser scanning paths, and scanning speed, given a prescribed shape. To date, research has focused on process designing for rectangular plates, and only a few studies are presented for axis-symmetric geometries like circular plates. In the present study, process designing for axis-symmetric geometries-with focus on class of shapes-is handled using a formerly proposed distance-based approach. A prescribed shape is achieved for geometries such as quarter-circular and half-circular ring plates. Experimental results verify the applicability of the proposed method for a class of shapes.
Effect of particle geometry and micro-structure on fast pyrolysis of beech wood
Westerhof, R.J.M.; Nygard, H.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Brilman, D.W.F.
2012-01-01
The influence of particle geometry and microstructure in fast pyrolysis of beech wood has been investigated. Milled wood particles (<0.08–2.4 mm) and natural wood cylinders (2–14 mm) with different lengths (10–50 mm) and artificial wood cylinders (Dp = 0.5–14 mm) made of steel walls, filled with sma
Orientifolds of Matrix theory and Noncommutative Geometry
Kim, Nakwoo(Department of Physics and Research Institute of Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedaero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 130-701, Korea)
1999-01-01
We study explicit solutions for orientifolds of Matrix theory compactified on noncommutative torus. As quotients of torus, cylinder, Klein bottle and M\\"obius strip are applicable as orientifolds. We calculate the solutions using Connes, Douglas and Schwarz's projective module solution, and investigate twisted gauge bundle on quotient spaces as well. They are Yang-Mills theory on noncommutative torus with proper boundary conditions which define the geometry of the dual space.
Khirevich, Siarhei; Höltzel, Alexandra; Tallarek, Ulrich
2011-06-28
We study the time and length scales of hydrodynamic dispersion in confined monodisperse sphere packings as a function of the conduit geometry. By a modified Jodrey-Tory algorithm, we generated packings at a bed porosity (interstitial void fraction) of ε=0.40 in conduits with circular, rectangular, or semicircular cross section of area 100πd(p)(2) (where d(p) is the sphere diameter) and dimensions of about 20d(p) (cylinder diameter) by 6553.6d(p) (length), 25d(p) by 12.5d(p) (rectangle sides) by 8192d(p) or 14.1d(p) (radius of semicircle) by 8192d(p), respectively. The fluid-flow velocity field in the generated packings was calculated by the lattice Boltzmann method for Péclet numbers of up to 500, and convective-diffusive mass transport of 4×10(6) inert tracers was modelled with a random-walk particle-tracking technique. We present lateral porosity and velocity distributions for all packings and monitor the time evolution of longitudinal dispersion up to the asymptotic (long-time) limit. The characteristic length scales for asymptotic behaviour are explained from the symmetry of each conduit's velocity field. Finally, we quantify the influence of the confinement and of a specific conduit geometry on the velocity dependence of the asymptotic dispersion coefficients. PMID:21576163
Small black holes on cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We find the metric of small black holes on cylinders, i.e. neutral and static black holes with a small mass in d-dimensional Minkowski space times a circle. The metric is found using an ansatz for black holes on cylinders proposed in J. High Energy Phys. 05, 032 (2002). We use the new metric to compute corrections to the thermodynamics which is seen to deviate from that of the (d+1)-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. Moreover, we compute the leading correction to the relative binding energy which is found to be non-zero. We discuss the consequences of these results for the general understanding of black holes and we connect the results to the phase structure of black holes and strings on cylinders
Optimization and improvement of Halbach cylinder design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders;
2008-01-01
possible volume of magnets with a given mean flux density in the cylinder bore. The volume of the cylinder bore could also be significantly increased by only slightly increasing the volume of the magnets, for a fixed mean flux density. Placing additional blocks of magnets on the end faces of the Halbach...... cylinder also improved the mean flux density in the cylinder bore, especially so for short Halbach cylinders with large rex. Moreover, magnetic cooling as an application for Halbach cylinders was considered. A magnetic cooling quality parameter, Lambdacool, was introduced and results showed...
Interacting delayed critical 38.1-cm-diam uranium (93.2) metal cylinders at large distance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A delayed critical experiment was performed with two 38.10-cm-diam, ∼7.62-cm-thick unmoderated and unreflected uranium metal cylinders to study the interaction of two loosely coupled large flat cylinders. Previously tightly coupled, two component uranium metal assemblies of 27.93-cm-diam cylinders had been assembled to delayed criticality and the results reported. For this experiment, the uranium metal density was 18.75 g U/cm3, and the enrichment was 93.15 wt% 235U. The two right circular cylinders were coaxial and separated 1.3 m; thus the fractional solid angle subtended by one cylinder as seen from the other is ∼5 X 10-3. This delayed critical configuration is a useful experiment for assessing the convergence of Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron multiplication factor because it is a very loosely coupled system, a problem that has been designated as open-quotes keff of the worldclose quotes. The neutron multiplication factor of one of the interacting cylinders is 0.994, and the solid angle seen by the other cylinder is such that very few neutrons starting in one cylinder reach the other cylinder. This assembly was configured on a vertical assembly machine in the east cell of the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility in 1965 and was unreported until this paper. The east cell of this facility is a 10.6- x 10.6- x 9.1-m room with thick concrete walls. The lower cylinder of this assembly was located 3.5 m from the 1.5-m-thick west wall, 3.9 m from the 0.61-m-thick north wall, and 2.8 m above the concrete floor. The calculation of two such loosely coupled cylinders by Monte Carlo methods can be a problem because the interaction between cylinders is so small
PERCOLATION OF RANDOM CYLINDER AGGREGATES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dominique Jeulin
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The percolation threshold ρc of Boolean models of cylinders with their axis parallel to a given direction is studied by means of simulations. An efficient method of construction of percolating connected components was developed, and is applied to one or two scales Boolean model, in order to simulate the presence of aggregates. The invariance of the percolation threshold with respect to affine transformations in the common direction of the axis of cylinders is approximately satisfied on simulations. The prediction of the model (ρc close to 0.16 is consistent with experimental measurements on plasma spray coatings, which motivated this study.
Compact waveguide circular polarizer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tantawi, Sami G.
2016-08-16
A multi-port waveguide is provided having a rectangular waveguide that includes a Y-shape structure with first top arm having a first rectangular waveguide port, a second top arm with second rectangular waveguide port, and a base arm with a third rectangular waveguide port for supporting a TE.sub.10 mode and a TE.sub.20 mode, where the end of the third rectangular waveguide port includes rounded edges that are parallel to a z-axis of the waveguide, a circular waveguide having a circular waveguide port for supporting a left hand and a right hand circular polarization TE.sub.11 mode and is coupled to a base arm broad wall, and a matching feature disposed on the base arm broad wall opposite of the circular waveguide for terminating the third rectangular waveguide port, where the first rectangular waveguide port, the second rectangular waveguide port and the circular waveguide port are capable of supporting 4-modes of operation.
Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Corner Radius on Forced Oscillating Square Cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sajjad Miran
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to numerically visualize the flow past forced oscillating square cylinder and investigate the effect of corner radius on flow induced forces. The finite volume code was applied to simulate the two dimensional flow past forced oscillating square cylinder with different radius to diameter ratios, (R/D = 0 referring to a square cylinder with sharp edges and R/D = 0.5 as a circular cylinder. The near wake of a square section cylinder with an increment of R/D = 0.1 was studied as the body undergoes a complete oscillatory cycle at lock-in condition, F = fe / fs = 1 (where fe is the excitation frequency and fs is the vortex shedding frequency for the stationary cylinder. The computational model was validated for flow past oscillating cylinder with R/D = 0.5 at frequency ratios F = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.50, using as the lock-in and lock-out limits and the results shown good agreement. It was observed that computed value of Strouhal Number is nearly same for both stationary and oscillation case and a similar trend was observed, as R/D ratio increases. However, the results obtained from oscillation cylinder cases show the significant increase in root mean square value of lift coefficient (CL,RMS and mean drag coefficient (CD as compared to the stationary cylinder. Finally, It was found that the percentage increase of CL,RMS is higher than CD in force oscillating condition for R/D = 0, whereas both values decreases with the increase of R/D.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jae Won Kim
1999-01-01
Full Text Available A study is made of steady state flow of a viscous fluid, driven by a rotating endwall disk having radial blades in a finite geometry. Numerical solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations are obtained for the flows in the cylindrical cavity. The bottom endwall disk of the vessel is impulsively rotating at a constant rotating speed ft with respect to the longitudinal axis of it. Details of the three components velocity field are examined at high Reynolds number for its engineering application. The main parameter for this study is the number of the radial blades of a rotating pulsator. The numerical results for the fluid flows and pressure distribution, for both an odd and an even number of the blades are procured. The present output offers an optimal number of the blades for rotating machinery such as agitator. The grid-net for the numerical computation is constructed on a body-fitted coordinate system transformed from physical coordinates. It is also flexible to suit any number of blades attached on the rotating bottom disk. The algorithm for the numerical computation is based on the SIMPLE release by Patankar, and the results are validated with prior published data. In addition, a characteristic model is prepared for the pressure measurement. The pressure measurements performed for the present model are consistent with this computational work. The explicit effect of the blade on the overall flow character is scrutinized. The numerical data are processed to describe the behavior of the meridional velocities under different blade conditions. Also, the traces of particles are plotted to assess the effects. Pronounced differences are noted and these results supply comprehensive data for practical application.
Zhou, Tianci; Faulkner, Thomas; Fradkin, Eduardo
2016-01-01
We investigate the entanglement entropy (EE) of circular entangling cuts in the 2+1-dimensional quantum Lifshitz model, whose ground state wave function is a spatially conformal invariant state of the Rokhsar-Kivelson type, whose weight is the Gibbs weight of 2D Euclidean free boson. We show that the finite subleading corrections of EE to the area-law term as well as the mutual information are conformal invariants and calculate them for cylinder, disk-like and spherical manifolds with various spatial cuts. The subtlety due to the boson compactification in the replica trick is carefully addressed. We find that in the geometry of a punctured plane with many small holes, the constant piece of EE is proportional to the number of holes, indicating the ability of entanglement to detect topological information of the configuration. Finally, we compare the mutual information of two small distant disks with Cardy's relativistic CFT scaling proposal. We find that in the quantum Lifshitz model, the mutual information al...
Inertial rise of a meniscus on a vertical cylinder
O’Kiely, Doireann
2015-03-03
© © 2015 Cambridge University PressA. We consider the inertia-dominated rise of a meniscus around a vertical circular cylinder. Previous experiments and scaling analysis suggest that the height of the meniscus, h-{m}, grows with the time following the initiation of rise, t, like h-{m}\\\\propto t^{1/2}. This is in contrast to the rise on a vertical plate, which obeys the classic capillary-inertia scaling h-{m}\\\\propto t^{2/3}. We highlight a subtlety in the scaling analysis that yielded h-{m}\\\\propto t^{1/2} and investigate the consequences of this subtlety. We develop a potential flow model of the dynamic problem, which we solve using the finite element method. Our numerical results agree well with previous experiments but suggest that the correct early time behaviour is, in fact, h-{m}\\\\propto t^{2/3}. Furthermore, we show that at intermediate times the dynamic rise of the meniscus is governed by two parameters: the contact angle and the cylinder radius measured relative to the capillary length scale, t^{2/3}. This result allows us to collapse previous experimental results with different cylinder radii (but similar static contact angles) onto a single master curve.
Anisotropic Poisson Processes of Cylinders
Spiess, Malte
2010-01-01
Main characteristics of stationary anisotropic Poisson processes of cylinders (dilated k-dimensional flats) in d-dimensional Euclidean space are studied. Explicit formulae for the capacity functional, the covariance function, the contact distribution function, the volume fraction, and the intensity of the surface area measure are given which can be used directly in applications.
Nonideal ultrathin mantle cloak for electrically large conducting cylinders.
Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Hao Chi; Xu, He-Xiu; Cui, Tie Jun
2014-09-01
Based on the concept of the scattering cancellation technique, we propose a nonideal ultrathin mantle cloak that can efficiently suppress the total scattering cross sections of an electrically large conducting cylinder (over one free-space wavelength). The cloaking mechanism is investigated in depth based on the Mie scattering theory and is simultaneously interpreted from the perspective of far-field bistatic scattering and near-field distributions. We remark that, unlike the perfect transformation-optics-based cloak, this nonideal cloaking technique is mainly designed to minimize simultaneously several scattering multipoles of a relatively large geometry around considerably broad bandwidth. Numerical simulations and experimental results show that the antiscattering ability of the metasurface gives rise to excellent total scattering reduction of the electrically large cylinder and remarkable electric-field restoration around the cloak. The outstanding cloaking performance together with the good features of and ultralow profile, flexibility, and easy fabrication predict promising applications in the microwave frequencies. PMID:25401449
Natural convective heat transfer from square cylinder
Novomestský, Marcel; Smatanová, Helena; Kapjor, Andrej
2016-06-01
This article is concerned with natural convective heat transfer from square cylinder mounted on a plane adiabatic base, the cylinders having an exposed cylinder surface according to different horizontal angle. The cylinder receives heat from a radiating heater which results in a buoyant flow. There are many industrial applications, including refrigeration, ventilation and the cooling of electrical components, for which the present study may be applicable
Modelling of Flow around Two Aligned Cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Ronnie; Leth, Søren
2009-01-01
Flow around two cylinders is considered, where closed form solutions are compared to numerical results in order to justify the practical use of the theoretical solutions when the flow in front of the cylinders is analysed. For a relatively highly mutual distance between the cylinders the numerica...... and analytical results are comparable. Opposite, when the cylinders are closely placed the potential flow solutions become inadequate compared to the numerical findings....
Shock structure in non-circular jets
Morris, Philip J.; Bhat, Thonse R. S.
1989-01-01
The shock-cell structure of supersonic jets with non-circular exit geometry is modeled using a linearized analysis. The model takes into account the finite thickness of the jet shear layer using realistic velocity and density profiles. The effects of the shear layer turbulence are included by incorporating eddy-viscosity terms. A finite-difference numerical method is used to solve the steady linearized equations of motion. A body-fitted coordinate system is used to describe the shear layer. The variation of the pressure fluctuation with downstream distance is given for circular jets and for an elliptic jet of aspect ratio 2.0. Comparisons with experimental data are made. Difficulties with the numerical technique are also discussed.
Wake-induced vibrations in Tandem Cylinders
Mysa, Ravi Chaithanya; Jaiman, Rajeev Kumar
2015-11-01
The upstream cylinder is fixed in the tandem cylinders arrangement. The downstream cylinder is placed at a distance of four diameters from the upstream cylinder in the free stream direction and is mounted on a spring. The dynamic response of the downstream cylinder is studied at Reynolds number of 10,000. The transverse displacement amplitude of the downstream cylinder is larger compared to that of single cylinder in the post-lock-in region. The transverse dynamic response of the downstream cylinder in the post-lock-in region is characterized by a dominant low frequency component compared to shed frequency, which is nearer to the structural natural frequency. The interaction of upstream wake with the downstream cylinder is carefully analyzed to understand the introduction of low frequency component in the transverse load along with the shed frequency. We found that the stagnation point moves in proportional to the velocity of the cylinder and is in-phase with the velocity. The low frequency component in the stagnation point movement on the downstream cylinder is sustained by the interaction of upstream wake. The frequencies in the movement of the stagnation point is reflected in the transverse load resulting in large deformation of the cylinder. The authors wish to acknowledge support from A*STAR- SERC and Singapore Maritime Institute.
Yonushonis, T. M.; Wiczynski, P. D.; Myers, M. R.; Anderson, D. D.; McDonald, A. C.; Weber, H. G.; Richardson, D. E.; Stafford, R. J.; Naylor, M. G.
1999-01-01
In-cylinder components and tribological system concepts were designed, fabricated and tested at conditions anticipated for a 55% thermal efficiency heavy duty diesel engine for the year 2000 and beyond. A Cummins L10 single cylinder research engine was used to evaluate a spherical joint piston and connecting rod with 19.3 MPa (2800 psi) peak cylinder pressure capability, a thermal fatigue resistant insulated cylinder head, radial combustion seal cylinder liners, a highly compliant steel top compression ring, a variable geometry turbocharger, and a microwave heated particulate trap. Components successfully demonstrated in the final test included spherical joint connecting rod with a fiber reinforced piston, high conformability steel top rings with wear resistant coatings, ceramic exhaust ports with strategic oil cooling and radial combustion seal cylinder liner with cooling jacket transfer fins. A Cummins 6B diesel was used to develop the analytical methods, materials, manufacturing technology and engine components for lighter weight diesel engines without sacrificing performance or durability. A 6B diesel engine was built and tested to calibrate analytical models for the aluminum cylinder head and aluminum block.
Bordenave, Charles
2011-01-01
These expository notes are centered around the circular law theorem, which states that the empirical spectral distribution of a n \\times n random matrix with i.i.d. entries of variance 1/n tends to the uniform law on the unit disc of the complex plane as the dimension n tends to infinity. This phenomenon is the non-Hermitian counterpart of the semi circular limit for Wigner random Hermitian matrices, and the quarter circular limit for Marchenko-Pastur random covariance matrices. We present a proof in a Gaussian case, due to Silverstein, based on a formula by Ginibre, and a proof of the universal case by revisiting the approach of Tao and Vu, based on the Hermitization of Girko, the logarithmic potential, and the control of the small singular values. Beyond the finite variance model, we also consider the case where the entries have heavy tails, by using the objective method of Aldous and Steele borrowed from randomized combinatorial optimization. The limiting law is then no longer the circular law and is relat...
Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion
Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary
2013-01-01
The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…
Polarizability of nanowires at surfaces: Exact solution for general geometry
Jung, Jesper; Pedersen, Thomas G.
2012-01-01
The polarizability of a nanostructure is an important parameter that determines the optical properties. An exact semi-analytical solution of the electrostatic polarizability of a general geometry consisting of two segments forming a cylinder that can be arbitrarily buried in a substrate is derived using bipolar coordinates, cosine-, and sine-transformations. Based on the presented expressions, we analyze the polarizability of several metal nanowire geometries that are important within plasmon...
Investigating the transitional state between circular plates and shallow spherical shells
Moayyad Al-Nasra; Mohamad Daoud
2015-01-01
The stiffness of circular plates can be increased by inducing a rise at the center of these plates; this rise converts the circular plates from two-dimensional stiffness elements into three-dimensional stiffness elements. This slight change in the geometry shifts the state of stresses from mainly bending stresses to tensilecompressive stresses. The rise at the center of a circular plate is increased gradually to the point where a shell element is formed. This paper focuses on this particul...
Planar Circularly Symmetric EBG Structures for Reducing Surface Waves in Printed Antennas
Llombart, N.; Neto, A.; Gerini, G.; Maagt, P. de
2005-01-01
This paper discusses the design and analysis of planar circularly symmetric (PCS) electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures for reducing the surface waves excited by printed antennas on dense dielectric substrates. The key advantage of the circularly symmetric geometries is that a surface wave gener
A circular aperture array for ultrasonic tomography and quantitative NDE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nielsen, S.A.
1998-08-01
The main topics of this thesis are ultrasonic tomography and ultrasonic determination of elastic stiffness constants. Both issues are based on a synthetic array with transducer elements distributed uniformly along a circular aperture, i.e., a circular aperture array. The issues are treated both theoretically and experimentally by broadband pulse techniques. Ultrasonic tomography, UCT, from a circular aperture is a relatively new imaging technique in Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) to acquire cross sectional images in bulk materials. A filtered back-projection algorithm is used to reconstruct images in four different experiments and results of attenuation, velocity and reflection tomograms in Plexiglas of AlSi-alloy cylinders are presented. Two kinds of ultrasonic tomography are introduced: bistatic and monostatic imaging. Both techniques are verified experimentally by Plexiglas cylinders. Different reconstruction artifacts are discussed and theoretical resolution constraints are discussed for various configurations of the circular aperture array. The monostatic technique is used in volumetric imaging. In the experimental verification artificial and real discontinuities in a cylindrical AlSi-alloy are compared with similar discontinuities in a Plexiglas specimen. Finally, some limitations to UCT are discussed. The circular aperture array is used to determine five independent elastic stiffness constants of a unidirectional glass/PET (Poly Ethylene Teraphtalate) laminate. Energy flux propagation and attenuation of ultrasonic waves are considered and velocity surfaces are calculated for different planes of interest. Relations between elastic stiffness constants and engineering constants (i.e., Young`s moduli, shear moduli and Poisson`s ratios) are discussed for an orthotropic composite. Six micromechanical theories are reviewed, and expressions predicting the elastic engineering constants are evaluated. The micromechanical predicted elastic stiffness constants for the
Massless rotating fermions inside a cylinder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ambruş, Victor E., E-mail: victor.ambrus@gmail.com [Center for Fundamental and Advanced Technical Research, Romanian Academy Bd. Mihai Viteazul 24, 300223 Timişoara (Romania); Winstanley, Elizabeth [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom)
2015-12-07
We study rotating thermal states of a massless quantum fermion field inside a cylinder in Minkowski space-time. Two possible boundary conditions for the fermion field on the cylinder are considered: the spectral and MIT bag boundary conditions. If the radius of the cylinder is sufficiently small, rotating thermal expectation values are finite everywhere inside the cylinder. We also study the Casimir divergences on the boundary. The rotating thermal expectation values and the Casimir divergences have different properties depending on the boundary conditions applied at the cylinder. This is due to the local nature of the MIT bag boundary condition, while the spectral boundary condition is nonlocal.
Instantaneous flow field above the free end of finite-height cylinders and prisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • PIV measurements of the flow above the free end of finite-height bodies. • Effect of cross-sectional shape of the models on the instantaneous flow. • Small-scale structures generated by the separated shear layer were revealed. • Effect of aspect ratio on the reattachment of the separated flow on the free end. -- Abstract: The flow above the free ends of surface-mounted finite-height circular cylinders and square prisms was studied experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Cylinders and prisms with aspect ratios of AR = 9, 7, 5, and 3 were tested at a Reynolds number of Re = 4.2 × 104. The bodies were mounted normal to a ground plane and were partially immersed in a turbulent zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer, where the boundary layer thickness relative to the body width was δ/D = 1.6. PIV measurements were made above the free ends of the bodies in a vertical plane aligned with the flow centreline. The present PIV results provide insight into the effects of aspect ratio and body shape on the instantaneous flow field. The recirculation zone under the separated shear layer is larger for the square prism of AR = 3 compared to the more slender prism of AR = 9. Also, for a square prism with low aspect ratio (AR = 3), the influence of the reverse flow over the free end surface becomes more significant compared to that for a higher aspect ratio (AR = 9). For the circular cylinder, a cross-stream vortex forms within the recirculation zone. As the aspect ratio of the cylinder decreases, the reattachment point of the separated flow on the free end surface moves closer to the trailing edge. For both the square prism and circular cylinder cases, the instantaneous velocity vector field and associated in-plane vorticity field revealed small-scale structures mostly generated by the separated shear layer
Qualitative Changes in Flow Pattern in the Coating Flow inside a Rotating Cylinder.
Thoroddsen, S. T.
1996-11-01
We describe experimental work on the flow patterns in coating flow inside a partially-filled circular cylinder, which is rotated about its horizontally placed axis of symmetry. A prominent front forms at the bottom of the cylinder, associated with a recirculating region. This front is initially straight along the span. For a limited range of parameters, the front develops robust spanwise undulations, named shark teeth (S. T. Thoroddsen & L. Mahadevan, ``Experimental study of coating flows in a partially-filled horizontally rotating cylinder''), Experiments in Fluids (in press).. An intricate three-dimensional flow field is associated with these patterns. We study here the qualitative changes in the flow field associated with the transition of these shark teeth into waves traveling spanwise along the front. The wavelength and speed of these waves is investigated.
Multi-directional random wave interaction with an array of cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ji, Xinran; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.;
2015-01-01
. The biggest transverse force is found to occur on the rear cylinder rather than the front one. This is quite different from the results in unidirectional waves and should be paid much more attention in the design of offshore structures. At last, the possibility of the near-trapping under the multi......Based on the linear theory of wave interaction with an array of circular bottom-mounted vertical cylinders, systematic calculations are made to investigate the effects of the wave directionality on wave loads in short-crested seas. The multi-directional waves are specified using a discrete form...... of the Mitsuyasu-type spreading function. The time series of multi-directional wave loads, including both the wave run-up and wave force, can be simulated. The effect of wave directionality on the wave run-up and wave loading on the cylinders is investigated. For multi-directional waves, as the distribution...
Cylinder components properties, applications, materials
2016-01-01
Owing to the ever-increasing requirements to be met by gasoline and diesel engines in terms of CO2 reduction, emission behavior, weight, and service life, a comprehensive understanding of combustion engine components is essential today. It is no longer possible for professionals in automotive engineering to manage without the corresponding expertise, whether they work in the field of design, development, testing, or maintenance. This technical book provides in-depth answers to questions about design, production, and machining of cylinder components. In this second edition, every section has been revised and expanded to include the latest developments in the combustion engine. Content Piston rings Piston pins and piston pin circlips Bearings Connecting rods Crankcase and cylinder liners Target audience Engineers in the field of engine development and maintenanceLecturers and students in the areas of mechanical engineering, engine technology, and vehicle constructionAnyone interested in technology Publisher MAH...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Margheritini, Lucia
This report has been prepared under the contract agreement between Aalborg Universitet and Storper Innovation ApS. The report has been written by Lucia Margheritini (lm@civil.aau.dk) who is also responsible for the data analysis. This report is the continuation of the previous report “Rolling...... Cylinder Phase 1: proof of concept and first optimization”, DCE report 115, ISSN 1901-726X, and it is recommended that the two are consulted together as they were firstly agreed to be in one document. The present report aims at estimate the efficiency of the Rolling Cylinder long model (previously...... optimized), by mean of physical tests in irregular waves. Several difficulties have been encountered during the testing, the biggest of witch being the extremely unfriendly torque measuring system....
Transitions to three-dimensional flows in a cylinder driven by oscillations of the sidewall
Panadès Guinart, Carles; Marqués Truyol, Francisco; Lopez, Juan M.
2010-01-01
The transition from two-dimensional to three-dimensional flows in a finite circular cylinder driven by an axially oscillating sidewall is explored in detail. The complete symmetry group of this flow, including a spatio-temporal symmetry related to the oscillating sidewall, is Z2xO(2). Previous studies in flows with the same symmetries, such as symmetric bluff-body wakes and periodically forced rectangular cavities, were unable to obtain the theoretically predicted bifurcation t...
Circular orbits in extremal Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pradhan, Parthapratim, E-mail: pppradhan77@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Vivekananda Satabarshiki Mahavidyalaya, Manikpara, Paschim Medinipur, WestBengal 721513 (India); Majumdar, Parthasarathi, E-mail: parthasarathi.majumdar@saha.ac.i [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700 064 (India)
2011-01-17
Circular null geodesic orbits, in extremal Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime, are examined with regard to their stability, and compared with similar orbits in the near-extremal situation. Extremization of the effective potential for null circular orbits shows the existence of a stable circular geodesic in the extremal spacetime, precisely on the event horizon which coincides with the null geodesic generator. Such a null orbit on the horizon is also indicated by the global minimum of the effective potential for circular timelike orbits. This type of geodesic is of course absent in the corresponding near-extremal spacetime, as we show here, testifying to differences between the extremal limit of a generic RN spacetime and the exactly extremal geometry.
Black holes on cylinders are not algebraically special
De Smet, Pieter-Jan
2002-01-01
We give a Petrov classification for five-dimensional metrics. We classify Ricci-flat metrics that are static, have an SO(3) isometry group and have Petrov type 22. We use this classification to look for the metric of a black hole on a cylinder, i.e. a black hole with asymptotic geometry four-dimensional Minkowski space times a circle. Although a black string wrapped around the circle and the five-dimensional black hole are both algebraically special, it turns out that the black hole on a cyli...
Inversion of the circular averages transform using the Funk transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The integral of a function defined on the half-plane along the semi-circles centered on the boundary of the half-plane is known as the circular averages transform. Circular averages transform arises in many tomographic image reconstruction problems. In particular, in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) when the transmitting and receiving antennas are colocated, the received signal is modeled as the integral of the ground reflectivity function of the illuminated scene over the intersection of spheres centered at the antenna location and the surface topography. When the surface topography is flat the received signal becomes the circular averages transform of the ground reflectivity function. Thus, SAR image formation requires inversion of the circular averages transform. Apart from SAR, circular averages transform also arises in thermo-acoustic tomography and sonar inverse problems. In this paper, we present a new inversion method for the circular averages transform using the Funk transform. For a function defined on the unit sphere, its Funk transform is given by the integrals of the function along the great circles. We used hyperbolic geometry to establish a diffeomorphism between the circular averages transform, hyperbolic x-ray and Funk transforms. The method is exact and numerically efficient when fast Fourier transforms over the sphere are used. We present numerical simulations to demonstrate the performance of the inversion method. Dedicated to Dennis Healy, a friend of Applied Mathematics and Engineering
Bo, Pengbo
2011-07-01
The most important guiding principle in computational methods for freeform architecture is the balance between cost efficiency on the one hand, and adherence to the design intent on the other. Key issues are the simplicity of supporting and connecting elements as well as repetition of costly parts. This paper proposes so-called circular arc structures as a means to faithfully realize freeform designs without giving up smooth appearance. In contrast to non-smooth meshes with straight edges where geometric complexity is concentrated in the nodes, we stay with smooth surfaces and rather distribute complexity in a uniform way by allowing edges in the shape of circular arcs. We are able to achieve the simplest possible shape of nodes without interfering with known panel optimization algorithms. We study remarkable special cases of circular arc structures which possess simple supporting elements or repetitive edges, we present the first global approximation method for principal patches, and we show an extension to volumetric structures for truly threedimensional designs. © 2011 ACM.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The method of reactivity determination using noise analysis correlation measurements with 252Cf was used to determine the reactivity for subcritical 17.77-cm-dia uranium (93.2 wt percent 235U) metal cylinders with reactivities as low as 25 dollars. Far subcritical tests were performed with right circular cylinders of uranium metal for which the subcritical reactivity was known from other inverse kinetics and prompt neutron decay constant measurements
Miles, P. C.; Green, R. M.; Witze, P. O.
1994-01-01
The in-cylinder flow field of a Schnuerle (loop) scavenged two-stroke engine has been examined under conditions simulating both blower and crankcase driven scavenging. Measurements of the radial component of velocity were obtained along the cylinder centerline during fired operation at delivery ratios of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8. Both mean velocity profiles and root mean square velocity fluctuations near top center show a strong dependence on the scavenging method. Complementary in-cylinder pressure measurements indicate that combustion performance is better under blower driven scavenging for the engine geometry studied.
Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
1991-12-31
In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} x 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover, the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining 6 cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.
Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Rige, TN (United States)
1991-12-31
In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
This paper investigates the vibration characteristics of diesel engine cylinder heads by means of the time series method.With the concept of "Assumed System", the vibration transfer function of real cylinder head structures is established using the autoregressive-moving average models (ARMA models) of cylinder head surface vibration signals.Then this transfer function is successfully used to reconstruct the gas pressure trace inside the cylinder from measured cylinder head vibration signals.This offers an effective means for diesel engine cylinder pressure detection and condition monitoring.
Oxygen transfer in circular surface aeration tanks.
Rao, Achanta Ramakrishna; Patel, Ajey Kumar; Kumar, Bimlesh
2009-06-01
Surface aeration systems employed in activated sludge plants are the most energy-intensive units of the plants and typically account for a higher percentage of the treatment facility's total energy use. The geometry of the aeration tank imparts a major effect on the system efficiency. It is said that at optimal geometric conditions, systems exhibits the maximum efficiency. Thus the quantification of the optimal geometric conditions in surface aeration tanks is needed. Optimal geometric conditions are also needed to scale up the laboratory result to the field installation. In the present work, experimental studies have been carried out on baffled and unbaffled circular surface aeration tanks to ascertain the optimal geometric conditions. It is found that no optimal geometric conditions exist for the liquid/water depth in circular surface aeration tanks; however, for design purposes, a standard value has been assumed. Based on the optimal geometric conditions, a scale-up equation has been developed for the baffled circular surface aeration tanks.
Minimal multi-vortex configurations on a flat torus and cylinder
Ariad, Daniel; Segal, Avner; Avishai, Yshai; Grosfeld, Eytan
2016-01-01
We derive an expression for the phase $\\theta(\\bf r)$ of the order parameter of a superfluid placed on a flat two-dimensional object (either cylinder or torus) in the presence of vortex defects. The function $\\theta(\\bf r)$ is fully compatible with constraints imposed by the superfluid, by the vortices, and by the object's geometry. Most efforts are focused on the torus geometry. It is demonstrated that while any compact geometry requires a vortex defect to be accompanied by an anti-vortex de...
Architectural Surfaces and Structures from Circular Arcs
Shi, Ling
2013-12-01
In recent decades, the popularity of freeform shapes in contemporary architecture poses new challenges to digital design. One of them is the process of rationalization, i.e. to make freeform skins or structures affordable to manufacture, which draws the most attention from geometry researchers. In this thesis, we aim to realize this process with simple geometric primitives, circular arcs. We investigate architectural surfaces and structures consisting of circular arcs. Our focus is lying on how to employ them nicely and repetitively in architectural design, in order to decrease the cost in manufacturing. Firstly, we study Darboux cyclides, which are algebraic surfaces of order ≤ 4. We provide a computational tool to identify all families of circles on a given cyclide based on the spherical model of M ̈obius geometry. Practical ways to design cyclide patches that pass through certain inputs are presented. In particular, certain triples of circle families on Darboux cyclides may be suitably arranged as 3-webs. We provide a complete classification of all possible 3-webs of circles on Darboux cyclides. We then investigate the circular arc snakes, which are smooth sequences of circu- lar arcs. We evolve the snakes such that their curvature, as a function of arc length, remains unchanged. The evolution of snakes is utilized to approximate given surfaces by circular arcs or to generated freeform shapes, and it is realized by a 2-step pro- cess. More interestingly, certain 6-arc snake with boundary constraints can produce a smooth self motion, which can be employed to build flexible structures. Another challenging topic is approximating smooth freeform skins with simple panels. We contribute to this problem area by approximating a negatively-curved 5 surface with a smooth union of rational bilinear patches. We provide a proof for vertex consistency of hyperbolic nets using the CAGD approach of the rational B ́ezier form. Moreover, we use Darboux transformations for the
Hollis, Brian R.; Hollingsworth, Kevin E.
2014-01-01
Aeroheating data on mid lift-to-drag ratio entry vehicle configurations has been obtained through hypersonic wind tunnel testing. Vehicles of this class have been proposed for high-mass Mars missions, such as sample return and crewed exploration, for which the conventional sphere-cone entry vehicle geometries of previous Mars missions are insufficient. Several configurations were investigated, including elliptically-blunted cylinders with both circular and elliptical cross sections, biconic geometries based on launch vehicle dual-use shrouds, and parametrically-optimized analytic geometries. Testing was conducted at Mach 6 over a range of Reynolds numbers sufficient to generate laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow. Global aeroheating data were obtained using phosphor thermography. Both stream-wise and cross-flow transition occured on different configurations. Comparisons were made with laminar and turbulent computational predictions generated with an algebraic turbulence model. Predictions were generally in good agreement in regions of laminar or fully-turbulent flow; however for transitional cases, the lack of a transition onset prediction capability produced less accurate comparisons. The data obtained in this study are intended to be used for prelimary mission design studies and the development and validation of computational methods.
NONLINEAR FARADAY WAVES IN A PARAMETRICALLY EXCITED CIRCULAR CYLINDRICAL CONTAINER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
菅永军; 鄂学全; 柏威
2003-01-01
In the cylindrical coordinate system, a singular perturbation theory of multiple-scale asymptotic expansions was developed to study single standing water wave mode bysolving potential equations of water waves in a rigid circular cylinder, which is subject to avertical oscillation. It is assumed that the fluid in the circular cylindrical vessel is inviscid ,incompressible and the motion is irrotational, a nonlinear amplitude equation with cubicand vertically excited terms of the vessel was derived by expansion of two-time scales withoutconsidering the effect of surface tension. It is shown by numerical computation that differentfree surface standing wave patterns will be formed in different excited frequencies andamplitudes. The contours of free surface waves are agreed well with the experimental resultswhich were carried out several years ago.
Conjugate natural convection between horizontal eccentric cylinders
Nasiri, Davood; Dehghan, Ali Akbar; Hadian, Mohammad Reza
2016-06-01
This study involved the numerical investigation of conjugate natural convection between two horizontal eccentric cylinders. Both cylinders were considered to be isothermal with only the inner cylinder having a finite wall thickness. The momentum and energy equations were discretized using finite volume method and solved by employing SIMPLER algorithm. Numerical results were presented for various solid-fluid conductivity ratios (KR) and various values of eccentricities in different thickness of inner cylinder wall and also for different angular positions of inner cylinder. From the results, it was observed that in an eccentric case, and for KR 10 value caused an increase in overline{{K_{eq} }} . It was also concluded that in any angular position of inner cylinder, the value of overline{{K_{eq} }} increased with increase in the eccentricity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Mingyue
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The Deep Draft Semi-Submersible (DDS concepts are known for their favourable vertical motion performance. However, the DDS may experience critical Vortex-Induced Motion (VIM stemming from the fluctuating forces on the columns. In order to investigate the current-induced excitation forces of VIM, an experimental study of flow characteristics around four square-section cylinders in a square configuration is presented. A number of column spacing ratios and array attack angles were considered to investigate the parametric influences. The results comprise flow patterns, drag and lift forces, as well as Strouhal numbers. It is shown that both the drag and lift forces acting on the cylinders are slightly different between the various L/D values, and the fluctuating forces peak at L/D = 4.14. The lift force of downstream cylinders reaches its maximum at around α = 15°. Furthermore, the flow around circular-section-cylinder arrays is also discussed in comparison with that of square cylinders.
Comparison of Flow Structures in the Downstream Region of a Cylinder with Flexible Strip
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tekşin Süleyman
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The present study investigates the details of flow structure to downstream of a circular cylinder mounted on a flat surface, in successive plan-view plane both in the boundary layer and up level region. The behavior of the flow in the wake of the bare cylinder and attached a flexible strip which has a 1400 N/mm2 modulus of elasticity vinyl PVC transperent film. The length of strip 240 mm (L/D=4 is investigated using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV technique for Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder diameter of 2500. The flow data downstream of the cylinder are presented using time-averaged velocity vector map, Vavg, streamline patterns, ψavg, vorticity contours, ωavg, and Reynolds stress correlations, u’u’ avg, v’v’ avg, u’v’ avg and rms velocity values. The locations of the peak values of Reynolds stress correlations and other data are also presented in both bare cylinder and attached body in order to determine the regions under high fluctuations. Another L/D ratios will be investigated in other experiments.
Cylinder valve packing nut studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)
1991-12-31
The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.
Quantum Mechanics on the cylinder
González, J A; Tosiek, J
2003-01-01
A new approach to deformation quantization on the cylinder considered as phase space is presented. The method is based on the standard Moyal formalism for R^2 adapted to (S^1 x R) by the Weil--Brezin--Zak transformation. The results are compared with other solutions of this problem presented by Kasperkovitz and Peev (Ann. Phys. vol. 230, 21 (1994)0 and by Plebanski and collaborators (Acta Phys. Pol. vol. B 31}, 561 (2000)). The equivalence of these three methods is proved.
Fatigue Tests with Densit Cylinders - D4
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ellegaard, Peter
This report contains descriptions and results of a series of fatigue tests performed during the autumn of 2005 at the Stuctural Research Laboratory, Aalborg University. Cylinders with a diameter of 45 mm and a height of 90 mm were used as test specimens; the material was Densit Ducorit D4. Four...... cylinders were tested statically under compression and the rest of the cylinders (30) were tested under fatigue conditions with a load varying sinusoidally....
Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo
2013-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva
Effects of viscoelasticity in the high Reynolds number cylinder wake
Richter, David
2012-01-16
At Re = 3900, Newtonian flow past a circular cylinder exhibits a wake and detached shear layers which have transitioned to turbulence. It is the goal of the present study to investigate the effects which viscoelasticity has on this state and to identify the mechanisms responsible for wake stabilization. It is found through numerical simulations (employing the FENE-P rheological model) that viscoelasticity greatly reduces the amount of turbulence in the wake, reverting it back to a state which qualitatively appears similar to the Newtonian mode B instability which occurs at lower Re. By focusing on the separated shear layers, it is found that viscoelasticity suppresses the formation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which dominates for Newtonian flows, consistent with previous studies of viscoelastic free shear layers. Through this shear layer stabilization, the viscoelastic far wake is then subject to the same instability mechanisms which dominate for Newtonian flows, but at far lower Reynolds numbers. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.
Non-contractible loops in the dense O(n) loop model on the cylinder
Alcaraz, F. C.; Brankov, J. G.; Priezzhev, V. B.; Rittenberg, V.; Rogozhnikov, A. M.
2014-01-01
A lattice model of critical dense polymers $O(0)$ is considered for the finite cylinder geometry. Due to the presence of non-contractible loops with a fixed fugacity $\\xi$, the model is a generalization of the critical dense polymers solved by Pearce, Rasmussen and Villani. We found the free energy for any height $N$ and circumference $L$ of the cylinder. The density $\\rho$ of non-contractible loops is found for $N \\rightarrow \\infty$ and large $L$. The results are compared with those obtaine...
Manipulating textures of rotating superfluid 3 He- A phase in a single narrow cylinder
Kunimatsu, T.; Nema, H.; Ishiguro, R; Kubota, M.; Takagi, T; Sasaki, Y.; Ishikawa, O
2014-01-01
We investigated order parameter textures of the rotating superfluid 3 He-A phase in a single narrow cylinder witha diameter of about 10 times the dipole coherence length by the cw-NMR method. It is theoretically proposedthat in such a narrow cylinder, a few special textures will appear due to the confinement in a cylindrical geometry.We observed three types of NMR spectra in the A phase. The NMR spectra of the textures were identified bya comparison with the spin waves excited in the NMR pote...
Study of an Industrial FEM tool for line boring process of cylinder blocks
TABIBIAN, Shadan; Lorong, Philippe
2015-01-01
The aim of this study is to realize a simple simulation tool, in order to predict the form defect of cylinder block bore liners in the moment of rough boring process. In this study a simple static FEM model, based on the cylinder block geometry, is proposed to predict the form defect of the bore liners in the moment of process.The simulation results put forward that the clamping condition plays an import role in the bore distortion. Consequently, optimizing the clamping pressure and its local...
Noncontractible loops in the dense O(n) loop model on the cylinder.
Alcaraz, F C; Brankov, J G; Priezzhev, V B; Rittenberg, V; Rogozhnikov, A M
2014-11-01
A lattice model of critical dense polymers O(n) is considered for finite cylinder geometry. Due to the presence of noncontractible loops with a fixed fugacity ξ, the model at n=0 is a generalization of the critical dense polymers solved by Pearce, Rasmussen, and Villani. We found the free energy for any height N and circumference L of the cylinder. The density ρ of noncontractible loops is obtained for N→∞ and large L. The results are compared with those found for the anisotropic quantum chain with twisted boundary conditions. Using the latter method, we derived ρ for any O(n) model and an arbitrary fugacity. PMID:25493770
Fire exposure of empty 30B cylinders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ziehlke, K.T. [MJB Technical Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)
1991-12-31
Cylinders for UF{sub 6} handling, transport, and storage are designed and built as unfired pressure vessels under ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria and standards. They are normally filled and emptied while UF{sub 6} is in its liquid phase. Transport cylinders such as the Model 30B are designed for service at 200 psi and 250{degrees}F, to sustain the process conditions which prevail during filling or emptying operations. While in transport, however, at ambient temperature the UF{sub 6} is solid, and the cylinder interior is well below atmospheric pressure. When the cylinders contain isotopically enriched product (above 1.0 percent U-235), they are transported in protective overpacks which function to guard the cylinders and their contents against thermal or mechanical damage in the event of possible transport accidents. Two bare Model 30B cylinders were accidentally exposed to a storage warehouse fire in which a considerable amount of damage was sustained by stored materials and the building structure, as well as by the cylinder valves and valve protectors. The cylinders were about six years old, and had been cleaned, inspected, hydrotested, and re-certified for service, but were still empty at the time of the fire. The privately-owned cylinders were transferred to DOE for testing and evaluation of the fire damage.
Overseas shipments of 48Y cylinders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanaka, R.T.; Furlan, A.S. [Cameco Corp., Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)
1991-12-31
This paper describes experiences with two incidents of overseas shipments of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The first incident involved nine empty UF{sub 6} cylinders in enclosed sea containers. Three UF{sub 6} cylinders broke free from their tie-downs and damaged and contaminated several sea containers. This paper describes briefly how decontamination was carried out. The second incident involved a shipment of 14 full UF{sub 6} cylinders. Although the incident did not cause an accident, the potential hazard was significant. The investigation of the cause of the near accident is recounted. Recommendations to alleviate future similar incidents for both cases are presented.
Inner cylinder of the CMS vacuum tank.
Patrice Loïez
2002-01-01
The vacuum tank of the CMS magnet system consists of inner and outer stainless-steel cylinders and houses the superconducting coil. The inner cylinder contains all the barrel sub-detectors, which it supports via a system of horizontal rails. The cylinder is pictured here in the vertical position on a yellow platform mounted on the ferris-wheel support structure. This will allow it to be pivoted and inserted into the outer cylinder already attached to the innermost ring of the barrel yoke.
Solvable Critical Dense Polymers on the Cylinder
Pearce, Paul A.; Rasmussen, Jorgen; Villani, Simon P.
2009-01-01
A lattice model of critical dense polymers is solved exactly on a cylinder with finite circumference. The model is the first member LM(1,2) of the Yang-Baxter integrable series of logarithmic minimal models. The cylinder topology allows for non-contractible loops with fugacity alpha that wind around the cylinder or for an arbitrary number ell of defects that propagate along the full length of the cylinder. Using an enlarged periodic Temperley-Lieb algebra, we set up commuting transfer matrice...
Swap your propane cylinder with SWOP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1997-11-01
A very successful propane cylinder exchange program operated by South Western Ontario Propane (SWOP) Inc., was described. The company specializes in propane cylinder exchange and in the refurbishing and marketing of top quality domestic and commercial propane cylinders. The company, currently operating out of Bradford, Ontario, was started in 1991. It employs a staff of 25 in peak season. It has some 200 exchange outlets throughout Ontario and has accepted outdated tanks from as far west as Manitoba and as far east as Quebec. A typical transaction involves bringing an empty cylinder to the nearest SWOP location and exchanging it for a full SWOP cylinder. SWOP does about 50,000 to 60,000 exchanges a year. For the consumer, the program is said to be cheaper, safer and more convenient than getting refills. As far as dealers are concerned operating a SWOP exchange outlet can add extra profits, attract new customers, and build additional consumer loyalty without the need for extra staff or additional indoor space. SWOP delivers full cylinders to exchange outlets on a weekly basis when it also picks up the empty cylinders. At dealer locations, the cylinders (full or empty) are stored in company -designed vandal-proof metal cages. Major expansion of the network of outlets and the cylinder refurbishing and refilling facilities are planned for 1998.
Scaled, circular-emitter Penning SPS for intense H- beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Los Alamos versions of the Penning Surface-Plasma Source (SPS) routinely generate H- ion beams with pulsed currents over 100 mA. However, these sources employ geometries that result in the extraction of slit beams (0.5 x 10 mm2). Our modeling with the SNOW code indicates that the beam from a 5.4-mm-diam circular emitter will have lower emittance and divergence for transport to and injection into our radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator. This paper describes a newly constructed Penning SPS that has most of its discharge chamber dimensions scaled up by a factor of 4 to accommodate this circular emitter
Elastostatic bending of a bimaterial plate with a circular interface
Ogbonna, Nkem
2015-08-01
The elastostatic bending of an arbitrarily loaded bimaterial plate with a circular interface is analysed. It is shown that the deflections in the composite solid are directly related to the deflection in the corresponding homogeneous material by integral and differential operators. It is further shown that, by a simple transformation of elastic constants, the Airy stress function induced in the composite by a stretching singularity can be deduced from the deflection induced by a bending singularity. This result is significant for reduction of mathematical labour and for systematic construction of solutions for more complex structures with circular geometry.
Non-monotonic thermal Casimir force from geometry-temperature interplay
Weber, Alexej; Gies, Holger
2010-01-01
The geometry dependence of Casimir forces is significantly more pronounced in the presence of thermal fluctuations due to a generic geometry-temperature interplay. We show that the thermal force for standard sphere-plate or cylinder-plate geometries develops a non-monotonic behavior already in the simple case of a fluctuating Dirichlet scalar. In particular, the attractive thermal force can increase for increasing distances below a critical temperature. This anomalous behavior is triggered by...
Hardin, G. R.; Sani, R. L.; Henry, D.; Roux, B.
1990-01-01
The buoyancy-driven instability of a monocomponent or binary fluid completely contained in a vertical circular cylinder is investigated, including the influence of the Soret effect for the binary mixture. The Boussinesq approximation is used, and the resulting linear stability problem is solved using a Galerkin technique. The analysis considers fluid mixtures ranging from gases to liquid metals. The flow structure is found to depend strongly on both the cylinder aspect ratio and the magnitude of the Soret effect. The predicted stability limits are shown to agree closely with experimental observations.
Mahé, Louis; Roy, Marie-Françoise
1992-01-01
Ten years after the first Rennes international meeting on real algebraic geometry, the second one looked at the developments in the subject during the intervening decade - see the 6 survey papers listed below. Further contributions from the participants on recent research covered real algebra and geometry, topology of real algebraic varieties and 16thHilbert problem, classical algebraic geometry, techniques in real algebraic geometry, algorithms in real algebraic geometry, semialgebraic geometry, real analytic geometry. CONTENTS: Survey papers: M. Knebusch: Semialgebraic topology in the last ten years.- R. Parimala: Algebraic and topological invariants of real algebraic varieties.- Polotovskii, G.M.: On the classification of decomposing plane algebraic curves.- Scheiderer, C.: Real algebra and its applications to geometry in the last ten years: some major developments and results.- Shustin, E.L.: Topology of real plane algebraic curves.- Silhol, R.: Moduli problems in real algebraic geometry. Further contribu...
A Convenient Storage Rack for Graduated Cylinders
Love, Brian
2004-01-01
An attempt is made to find a solution to the occasional problem of a need for storing large numbers of graduated cylinders in many teaching and research laboratories. A design, which involves the creation of a series of parallel channels that are used to suspend inverted graduated cylinders by their bases, is proposed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg
2014-01-01
It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... repeatedly to convey the feeling of a man and a woman falling in love. This raises the question of why producers and directors choose certain stylistic features to narrate certain categories of content. Through the analysis of several short film and TV clips, this article explores whether...... or not there are perceptual aspects related to specific stylistic features that enable them to be used for delimited narrational purposes. The article further attempts to reopen this particular stylistic debate by exploring the embodied aspects of visual perception in relation to specific stylistic features...
Circular PVDF Airborne Transducer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIAO Li-hua; XU Li-mei; HONG Hu
2007-01-01
With the required increased audio pressure of the parametric ultrasonic transducer array and the difficulty to theoretically analyse the complex ultrasonic structure in audio beam application, an computafionally efficient model is desired to describe the characteristic of the parametric ultrasonic transducer array for the system design and optimization. By applying the symmetry boundary conditions at the mid-plane in the thickness direction, a finite element model based on the half thickness simplification is presented to analyze the parametric circular transducer which is designed by gluing the poly Vinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). The validity of the proposed model is confirmed by a comparison of finite element aalysis results with the theoretical value and experimental data, which show that they are making a good agreement with each other.
Operational circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) – Operational circulars
HR Department
2011-01-01
Operational Circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) is applicable to members of the personnel and other persons concerned. Operational Circular No. 1 (Rev. 1) entitled "Operational circulars", approved following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 4 May 2011, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: https://hr-docs.web.cern.ch/hr-docs/opcirc/opcirc.asp It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 1 entitled "Operational Circulars” of December 1996. This new version clarifies, in particular, that operational circulars do not necessarily arise from the Staff Rules and Regulations, and the functional titles have been updated to bring them into line with the current CERN organigram. Department Head Office
Buckling test of a 3-meter-diameter corrugated graphite-epoxy ring-stiffened cylinder
Davis, R. C.
1982-01-01
A three m diameter by three m long corrugated cylindrical shell with external stiffening rings was tested to failure by buckling. The corrugation geometry for the graphite epoxy composite cylinder wall was optimized to withstand a compressive load producing an ultimate load intensity of 157.6 kN/m without buckling. The test method used to produce the design load intensity was to mount the specimen as a cantilevered cylinder and apply a pure bending moment to the end. A load introduction problem with the specimen was solved by using the BOSOR 4 shell of revolution computer code to analyze the shell and attached loading fixtures. The cylinder test loading achieved was 101 percent of design ultimate, and the resulting mass per unit of shell wall area was 1.96 kg/sq m.
CONTACT STRESSES IN A TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC SOLID CYLINDER LATERALLY COMPRESSED BY AN INDENTER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmet YAPICI
2004-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, an elastostatic contact problem for a laterally compressed transversely isotropic cylinder subjected to radial compression through a circumferential rigid indenter is considered. The extent of the contact region and the stress distribution are sought. It is assumed that the contact between the cylinder and the rigid indenter is frictionless and only compressive normal tractions can be transmitted through the interface. Due to the geometry of the configuration, Fourier transform techniques are chosen. The problem is reduced to a singular integral equation. It is reduced to linear algebraic equation system by using Gauss Chebyshev Integration Formulae and is solved by using Gauss Elimination method. E glass and barium titanate are used as a transversely isotropic materials. The stress analysis is performed for different contact area, punch radiuses and cylinder radiuses. The obtained results are shown in figures.
Digital Differential Geometry Processing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xin-Guo Liu; Hu-Jun Bao; Qun-Sheng Peng
2006-01-01
The theory and methods of digital geometry processing has been a hot research area in computer graphics, as geometric models serves as the core data for 3D graphics applications. The purpose of this paper is to introduce some recent advances in digital geometry processing, particularly mesh fairing, surface parameterization and mesh editing, that heavily use differential geometry quantities. Some related concepts from differential geometry, such as normal, curvature, gradient,Laplacian and their counterparts on digital geometry are also reviewed for understanding the strength and weakness of various digital geometry processing methods.
Bru, Luis A; Di Molfetta, Giuseppe; Pérez, Armando; Roldán, Eugenio; Silva, Fernando
2016-01-01
We consider the 2D alternate quantum walk on a cylinder. We concentrate on the study of the motion along the open dimension, in the spirit of looking at the closed coordinate as a small or "hidden" extra dimension. If one starts from localized initial conditions on the lattice, the dynamics of the quantum walk that is obtained after tracing out the small dimension shows the contribution of several components, which can be understood from the study of the dispersion relations for this problem. In fact, these components originate from the contribution of the possible values of the quasi-momentum in the closed dimension. In the continuous space-time limit, the different components manifest as a set of Dirac equations, with each quasi-momentum providing the value of the corresponding mass. We briefly discuss the possible link of these ideas to the simulation of high energy physical theories that include extra dimensions.
Kinetics of binding and geometry of cells on molecular biochips
Chechetkin, V.R.
2011-01-01
We examine how the shape of cells and the geometry of experiment affect the reaction-diffusion kinetics at the binding between target and probe molecules on molecular biochips. In particular, we compare the binding kinetics for the probes immobilized on surface of the semispherical and flat circular cells, the limit of thin slab of analyte solution over probe cell as well as hemispherical gel pads and cells printed in gel slab over a substrate. It is shown that hemispherical geometry provides...
Cylinder packing by simulated annealing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Helena Correia
2000-12-01
Full Text Available This paper is motivated by the problem of loading identical items of circular base (tubes, rolls, ... into a rectangular base (the pallet. For practical reasons, all the loaded items are considered to have the same height. The resolution of this problem consists in determining the positioning pattern of the circular bases of the items on the rectangular pallet, while maximizing the number of items. This pattern will be repeated for each layer stacked on the pallet. Two algorithms based on the meta-heuristic Simulated Annealing have been developed and implemented. The tuning of these algorithms parameters implied running intensive tests in order to improve its efficiency. The algorithms developed were easily extended to the case of non-identical circles.Este artigo aborda o problema de posicionamento de objetos de base circular (tubos, rolos, ... sobre uma base retangular de maiores dimensões. Por razões práticas, considera-se que todos os objetos a carregar apresentam a mesma altura. A resolução do problema consiste na determinação do padrão de posicionamento das bases circulares dos referidos objetos sobre a base de forma retangular, tendo como objetivo a maximização do número de objetos estritamente posicionados no interior dessa base. Este padrão de posicionamento será repetido em cada uma das camadas a carregar sobre a base retangular. Apresentam-se dois algoritmos para a resolução do problema. Estes algoritmos baseiam-se numa meta-heurística, Simulated Annealling, cuja afinação de parâmetros requereu a execução de testes intensivos com o objetivo de atingir um elevado grau de eficiência no seu desempenho. As características dos algoritmos implementados permitiram que a sua extensão à consideração de círculos com raios diferentes fosse facilmente conseguida.
Numerical Simulation on Hydraulic Performances of Quarter Circular Breakwater
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
Quarter circular breakwater (QCB) is a new-type breakwater developed from semi-circular breakwater (SCB). The superstructure of QCB is composed of a quarter circular front wall, a horizontal base slab and a vertical rear wall. The width of QCB's base slab is about half that of SCB, which makes QCB suitable to be used on relatively firm soil foundation. The numerical wave flume based on the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations for impressible viscosity fluid is adopted in this paper to simulate the hydraulic performances of QCB. Since the geometry of both breakwaters is similar and SCB has been studied in depth, the hydraulic performances of QCB are given in comparison with those of SCB.
Calculation of Geometrical Parameters of Geokhod Transmission With Hydraulic Cylinders
Blaschuk, M. Yu; Dronov, A. A.; Ganovichev, S. S.
2016-08-01
Developed analytical expressions for determining parameters of transmission hydraulic cylinders' arrangement are considered, as well as the conditions for internal arrangement of a required number of hydraulic cylinders.
Meyer, Walter J
2006-01-01
Meyer''s Geometry and Its Applications, Second Edition, combines traditional geometry with current ideas to present a modern approach that is grounded in real-world applications. It balances the deductive approach with discovery learning, and introduces axiomatic, Euclidean geometry, non-Euclidean geometry, and transformational geometry. The text integrates applications and examples throughout and includes historical notes in many chapters. The Second Edition of Geometry and Its Applications is a significant text for any college or university that focuses on geometry''s usefulness in other disciplines. It is especially appropriate for engineering and science majors, as well as future mathematics teachers.* Realistic applications integrated throughout the text, including (but not limited to): - Symmetries of artistic patterns- Physics- Robotics- Computer vision- Computer graphics- Stability of architectural structures- Molecular biology- Medicine- Pattern recognition* Historical notes included in many chapters...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Enli; MO Xiaohuan
2006-01-01
In this paper,a survey on Riemann-Finsler geometry is given.Non-trivial examples of Finsler metrics satisfying different curvature conditions are presented.Local and global results in Finsler geometry are analyzed.
ESTIMATION OF 2-D DOA USING NON-CIRCULAR MUSIC METHOD FOR UNIFORM CIRCULAR AND RECTANGULAR ARRAYS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Rui; Shi Xiaowei; Xu Le; Bi Xiaojun; Li Ping
2011-01-01
This paper extends the Non-Circular MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) (NC-MUSIC)method for the common array geometries including Uniform Circular Arrays (UCAs) and Uniform Rectangular Arrays (URAs),which enables the algorithm to estimate 2-D Direction Of Arrival (DOA).A comparison between UCAs and URAs of NC-MUSIC is made in this paper.The simulations show that the NC-MUSIC method doubles the maximum estimation number of standard MUSIC.Using non-circular signals,the performance of URAs is improved remarkably while the improvement of UCAs is not so significantly.Moreover,the influence of arrays structures on the NC-MUSIC method is dis-cussed.
Three dimensional behaviour of a circular excavation in Nantes, France
MARTEN, S; Bourgeois, E
2005-01-01
In the framework of a co-operation between the LCPC and Solétanche-Bachy, the behaviour of a cicular retaining wall the the site" Ilot 7" in Nantes has been studied. The geometry of the excavation and of the retaining structure is symmetric and the ground conditions show horizontal soil layers. However, the measurements carried out during construction indicate that the deformations of the circular wall are not symmetric at all. Therefore, a three-dimensional finite element calculation (using ...
Taylor, M
2006-01-01
Two charge BPS horizon free supergravity geometries are important in proposals for understanding black hole microstates. In this paper we construct a new class of geometries in the NS1-P system, corresponding to solitonic strings carrying fermionic as well as bosonic condensates. Such geometries are required to account for the full microscopic entropy of the NS1-P system. We then briefly discuss the properties of the corresponding geometries in the dual D1-D5 system.
Circularly Polarized Microwave Antenna Element with Very Low Off-Axis Cross-Polarization
Greem. David; DuToit, Cornelis
2013-01-01
The goal of this work was to improve off-axis cross-polarization performance and ease of assembly of a circularly polarized microwave antenna element. To ease assembly, the initial design requirement of Hexweb support for the internal circuit part, as well as the radiating disks, was eliminated. There is a need for different plating techniques to improve soldering. It was also desirable to change the design to eliminate soldering as well as the need to use the Hexweb support. Thus, a technique was developed to build the feed without using solder, solving the lathing and soldering issue. Internal parts were strengthened by adding curvature to eliminate Hexweb support, and in the process, the new geometries of the internal parts opened the way for improving the off-axis cross-polarization performance as well. The radiating disks curvatures were increased for increased strength, but it was found that this also improved crosspolarization. Optimization of the curvatures leads to very low off-axis cross-polarization. The feed circuit was curved into a cylinder for improved strength, eliminating Hexweb support. An aperture coupling feed mechanism eliminated the need for feed pins to the disks, which would have required soldering. The aperture coupling technique also improves cross-polarization performance by effectively exciting the radiating disks very close to the antenna s central axis of symmetry. Because of the shape of the parts, it allowed for an all-aluminum design bolted together and assembled with no solder needed. The advantage of a solderless design is that the reliability is higher, with no single-point failure (solder), and no need for special plating techniques in order to solder the unit together. The shapes (curved or round) make for a more robust build without extra support materials, as well as improved offaxis cross-polarization.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav
2004-01-01
To facilitate the validation of the numerical Method of Auxiliary Sources an analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution is derived in this paper. The Analytical solution is valid for transverse magnetic, and electric, plane wave scattering by circular impedance Cylinders, and it is derived...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morton, C., E-mail: chris.morton@ucalgary.ca [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Yarusevych, S. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Scarano, F. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628 Delft (Netherlands)
2016-02-15
This experimental study focuses on the near wake development of a dual step cylinder geometry consisting of a long base cylinder of diameter d to which a larger diameter (D) cylinder of length L is attached coaxially at mid-span. The experiments cover a range of Reynolds numbers, 2000 ≤ Re{sub D} ≤ 5000, diameter ratios, 1.33 ≤ D/d ≤ 2.0 and large cylinder aspect ratios, 0.5 ≤ L/D ≤ 5 using Tomographic particle image velocimetry. Distinct changes in wake topology are observed varying the above parameters. Supporting previous experimental studies on the same geometry involving flow visualization and planar measurements, four distinct flow regimes are identified to which a distinct three-dimensional wake topology can be associated. The vortex-dominated wake dynamical behaviour is investigated with Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and conditional averaging of three-dimensional velocity fields is used to exemplify the different shedding regimes. The conditionally averaged flow fields are shown to quantitatively resolve flow features equivalent to those obtained from a reduced order model consisting of the first ten to twenty POD modes, identifying the dominant vortex shedding cells and their interactions.
Nondestructive relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements using a split-cylinder resonator
Janezic, Michael Daniel
To keep pace with the expanding wireless and electronics industries, manufacturers are developing innovative materials for improving system performance, and there is a critical need to accurately characterize the electrical properties of these new materials at microwave frequencies. To address this need, this thesis develops a nondestructive method for measuring the relative permittivity and loss tangent of dielectric substrates using a split-cylinder resonator. Three theoretical models for the split-cylinder resonator are derived using mode-matching, least-squares boundary residual, and Hankel-transform methods, from which one can calculate the relative permittivity and loss tangent of a dielectric substrate from measurements of the split-cylinder resonator's TE0np resonant frequency and quality factor. Each of these models has several advantages over previously published models. First, the accuracy of the relative permittivity measurement is increased because each model accurately models the fringing fields that extend beyond the cylindrical-cavity sections. Second, to increase the accuracy of the loss tangent measurement, each model accurately separates the conductive metal losses of the split-cylinder resonator from the dielectric losses of the substrate. Finally, in contrast to previous models for the split-cylinder resonator that use only the TE011 resonant mode, each of the new models include the higher-order TE0np resonant modes, thereby broadening the frequency range over which one can make relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements. In a comparison of the three models, the mode-matching method was found to be superior on the basis of measurement accuracy and computational speed. Relative permittivity and loss tangent measurements for several dielectric materials are performed using a split-cylinder resonator and are in good agreement with measurements made using a circular-cylindrical cavity, split-post resonator, and dielectric post resonator
Conceptual Ideas for New Nondestructive UF6 Cylinder Assay Techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, Karen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-05-02
Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of uranium cylinders play an important role in helping the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguard uranium enrichment plants. Traditionally, these measurements have consisted of a scale or load cell to determine the mass of UF{sub 6} in the cylinder combined with a gamma-ray measurement of the 186 keV peak from {sup 235}U to determine enrichment. More recently, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed systems that exploit the passive neutron signal from UF{sub 6} to determine uranium mass and/or enrichment. These include the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM), and the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The purpose of this report is to provide the IAEA with new ideas on technologies that may or may not be under active development but could be useful for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay. To begin, we have included two feasibility studies of active interrogation techniques. There is a long history of active interrogation in the field of nuclear safeguards, especially for uranium assay. Both of the active techniques provide a direct measure of {sup 235}U content. The first is an active neutron method based on the existing PNEM design that uses a correlated {sup 252}Cf interrogation source. This technique shows great promise for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay and is based on advanced technology that could be implemented in the field in the near term. The second active technique is nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF). In the NRF technique, a bremsstrahlung photon beam could be used to illuminate the cylinder, and high-resolution gamma-ray detectors would detect the characteristic de-excitation photons. The results of the feasibility study show that under certain measurement geometries, NRF is impractical for UF6 cylinder assay, but the 'grazing transmission' and 'secant transmission' geometries
3D measurement using circular gratings
Harding, Kevin
2013-09-01
3D measurement using methods of structured light are well known in the industry. Most such systems use some variation of straight lines, either as simple lines or with some form of encoding. This geometry assumes the lines will be projected from one side and viewed from another to generate the profile information. But what about applications where a wide triangulation angle may not be practical, particularly at longer standoff distances. This paper explores the use of circular grating patterns projected from a center point to achieve 3D information. Originally suggested by John Caulfield around 1990, the method had some interesting potential, particularly if combined with alternate means of measurement from traditional triangulation including depth from focus methods. The possible advantages of a central reference point in the projected pattern may offer some different capabilities not as easily attained with a linear grating pattern. This paper will explore the pros and cons of the method and present some examples of possible applications.
Oscillations and translation of a free cylinder in a confined flow
D'Angelo, Maria Veronica; Auradou, Harold
2013-01-01
An oscillatory instability has been observed experimentally on an horizontal cylinder free to move and rotate between two parallel vertical walls of distance H; its characteristics differ both from vortex shedding driven oscillations and from those of tethered cylinders in the same geometry. The vertical motion of the cylinder, its rotation about its axis and its transverse motion across the gap have been investigated as a function of its diameter D, its density s, of the mean vertical velocity U of the fluid and of its viscosity. For a blockage ratio D/H above 0.5 and a Reynolds number Re larger then 14, oscillations of the rolling angle of the cylinder about its axis and of its transverse coordinate in the gap are observed together with periodic variations of the vertical velocity. Their frequency f is the same for the sedimentation of the cylinder in a static fluid (U = 0) and for a non-zero mean flow (U 6= 0). The Strouhal number St associated to the oscillation varies as 1/Re with : St.Re = 3 $\\pm$ 0.15....
Drag measurements on long thin cylinders at small angles and high Reynolds numbers
Keith, William L.; Cipolla, Kimberly M.; Hart, David R.; Furey, Deborah A.
2005-06-01
Measurements of the drag caused by turbulent boundary layer mean wall shear stress on cylinders at small angles of attack and high length Reynolds numbers (8×106aluminum, titanium, and polyvinyl chloride. The diameter of all cylinders in this experiment was 12.7 mm; two cylinder lengths, 3.05 m and 6.10 m, were used, corresponding to aspect ratio values L/a=480 and 960, respectively. Materials of various densities were towed at critical angles, resulting in linear cylinder geometry for tow speeds ranging from 2.6 m/s to 20.7 m/s and angles between 0° and 12°. Towing angles were measured with digital photography, and streamwise drag was measured with a strut-mounted load cell at the tow point. The measured tangential drag was very sensitive to small increases in angle at all tow speeds. A momentum thickness length scale is proposed to scale the tangential drag coefficient. The effects of the cross-flow resulting from the small angles of tow have a significant effect on the tangential drag coefficient values. A scaling for the orthogonal force on the cylinders was determined and provides a correction to published normal drag coefficient values for pure cross-flow. The presence of the axial turbulent boundary layer has a significant effect on these orthogonal forces.
AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank
2015-01-01
In response to a request from the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is preparing the foundation for a next-generation large-scale accelerator infrastructure in the heart of Europe. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh), to be accommodated in a new ∼100 km tunnel near Geneva. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), which could be installed in the same tunnel as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3Sn superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. The interna...
Towards Future Circular Colliders
AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank
2016-01-01
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN presently provides proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass (c.m.) energy of 13 TeV. The LHC design was started more than 30 years ago, and its physics programme will extend through the second half of the 2030’s. The global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is now preparing for a post-LHC project. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new ∼100 km tunnel. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detectors, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on $Nb_3Sn$ superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton c...
AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank
2015-01-01
In response to a request from the 2013 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is preparing the foundation for a next-generation large-scale accelerator infrastructure in the heart of Europe. The FCC study focuses on the design of a 100-TeV hadron collider (FCC-hh), to be accommodated in a new ∼100 km tunnel near Geneva. It also includes the design of a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), which could be installed in the same tunnel as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron collider option (FCC-he). The scope of the FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detector, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. Among the FCC core technologies figure 16-T dipole magnets, based on Nb3Sn superconductor, for the FCC-hh hadron collider, and a highly efficient superconducting radiofrequency system for the FCC-ee lepton collider. The internat...
Multipole Analysis of Circular Cylindircal Magnetic Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Selvaggi, Jerry P. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)
2005-12-01
This thesis deals with an alternate method for computing the external magnetic field from a circular cylindrical magnetic source. The primary objective is to characterize the magnetic source in terms of its equivalent multipole distribution. This multipole distribution must be valid at points close to the cylindrical source and a spherical multipole expansion is ill-equipped to handle this problem; therefore a new method must be introduced. This method, based upon the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is developed as an alternative to the more familiar spherical harmonic expansion. A family of special functions, called the toroidal functions or Q-functions, are found to exhibit the necessary properties for analyzing circular cylindrical geometries. In particular, the toroidal function of zeroth order, which comes from the integral formulation of the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is employed to handle magnetic sources which exhibit circular cylindrical symmetry. The toroidal functions, also called Q-functions, are the weighting coefficients in a ''Fourier series-like'' expansion which represents the free-space Green's function. It is also called a toroidal expansion. This expansion can be directly employed in electrostatic, magnetostatic, and electrodynamic problems which exhibit cylindrical symmetry. Also, it is shown that they can be used as an alternative to the Elliptic integral formulation. In fact, anywhere that an Elliptic integral appears, one can replace it with its corresponding Q-function representation. A number of problems, using the toroidal expansion formulation, are analyzed and compared to existing known methods in order to validate the results. Also, the equivalent multipole distribution is found for most of the solved problems along with its corresponding physical interpretation. The main application is to characterize the external magnetic field due to a six
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. C. Gupta
1980-10-01
Full Text Available The problem of unsteady flow of a viscous incompressible conducting fluid containing a dilute suspension of small inert shperical particles in cylinders with circular and sectorial cross-sections, in the presence of a radial magnetic field, have been discussed. The analysis applies to flows with pressure gradients which are arbitrary functions on time. Explicit expressions for the exact velocities of the fluid and that of the particles are obtained by using the methods of operational calculus-the Laplace transform, the finite Hankel transforms etc. Numerical results have been obtained for the developing flow due to a constant pressure gradient, when the flow is taking place in a coaxial circular cylinder. The effects of mass concentration and relaxation time of particles and the magnetic field on the velocities have also been discussed.
Expansion of Metallic Cylinders under Explosive Loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.S. Bola
1992-07-01
Full Text Available The behaviour of expanding metallic cylinders under explosive loading was studied. Using ultra high speed photography, the expansion characteristics of aluminium and copper metallic cylinders have been evaluated with different c/m ratio, and by changing the nature of high explosive. The results obtained are comparable to those predicted by the Gurney's energy and momentum balance equations. A cylinder test has been established for comparative to the metal by octol, TNT, PEK-1, baratol and composition B are calculated. The results are in close agreement with those calculated by Kury et al.
Investigation of Effect of Boundary Layer on Flow Structure Around a Cylinder with a Strip
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yayla Sedat
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the flow characteristic of the circular cylinder was placed vertically in channel which has dimensions as 8000 mm, 1000 mm, 750 mm, lenght, width and height repectively, was investigated. The cylinder was located in boundary layer with a diameter of 60 mm (D and a elastic stripwhich has a 1400 N/mm2 modulus of elasticity vinyl PVC transperent film was attached behind the cylinder. Lenght of the strip (L was 240 mm L/D=4. The Reynolds number was fixed at Re=7500. The time-averaged and instantaneous velocity vector maps, vorticity contours, Reynold shear and normal stresses, turbulent kinetic energy and frequency of shedding were obtained using the particle image velocimetry (PIV technique. It was found that the elastic plate which exists behind the cylinder has a slight influence on the flow structure of the wake-boundary layer interaction. Values of turbulent kinetic energy, streamwise Reynold stress, transverse Reynold stresses were decreased by attaching strip.
Numerical simulation of vibration of horizontal cylinder induced by progressive waves
Chern, Ming-Jyh; Odhiambo, E. A.; Horng, Tzyy-Leng; Borthwick, A. G. L.
2016-02-01
Maritime structures often comprise cylinders of small diameter relative to the prevailing wave length. This paper describes the direct forcing immersed boundary simulation of the hydroelastic behaviour of a rigid, horizontal circular cylinder in regular progressive waves. Fluid motions are numerically solved by the full Navier-Stokes equations, and the free surface by the volume-of-fluid method. The Reynolds number Re = 110, Keulegan-Carpenter number KC = 10, Froude number Fr = 0.69 and Ursell number U rs ≈ 12. A single-degree-of-freedom model is used for the elastically mounted cylinder. Velocity profiles for the stationary cylinder case have been successfully validated using experimental results. The frequency response for reduced velocities 4.5\\lt {U}R*\\lt 5.3 have been compared with theoretical data. Three transverse vibration regimes are identified: lower beating (4\\lt {U}R*\\lt 4.5); lock-in (4.7\\lt {U}R*\\lt 4.8); and upper beating (5\\lt {U}R*\\lt 10) modes. The lower and upper beating regimes exhibit varying amplitude response. The lock-in mode represents the region of fixed and maximum response. The lower beating and lock-in modes have peaks at a common vibration to wave frequency ratio {f}{{w}}* = 2. For the upper beating mode, {f}{{w}}* = 1, except for {U}R*=10 when {f}{{w}}* = 2.
Geothermal Casimir phenomena for the sphere-plate and cylinder-plate configurations
Weber, Alexej; Gies, Holger
2010-01-01
We investigate the nontrivial interplay between geometry and temperature in the Casimir effect for the sphere-plate and cylinder-plate configurations. At low temperature, the thermal contribution to the Casimir force is dominated by this interplay, implying that standard approximation techniques such as the PFA are inapplicable even in the limit of small surface separation. Thermal fluctuations on scales of the thermal wavelength lead to a delocalization of the thermal force density at low te...
Anomalous near-field heat transfer between a cylinder and a perforated surface
Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Reid, M. T. Homer; Varela, Jaime; Joannopoulos, John D.; Capasso, Federico; Johnson, Steven G.
2012-01-01
We predict that the radiative heat-transfer rate between a cylinder and a perforated surface depends non-monotonically on their separation. This anomalous behavior, which arises due to near-field effects, is explained using a heuristic model based on the interaction of a dipole with a plate. We show that nonmonotonicity depends not only on geometry and temperature but also on material dispersion - for micron and submicron objects, nonmonotonicity is present in polar dielectrics but absent in ...
Uyaner, Mesut; Ahmet AKDEMİR; ERİM, Seçil; Avci, Ahmet
1999-01-01
In this study, the problem of a ring shaped-crack contained in an infinitely long solid cylinder of elastic perfectly-plastic material is considered. The problem is formulated for a transversely isotropic material by using integral transform technique under uniform load. Due to the geometry of the configuration, Hankel and Fourier integral transform techniques are chosen and the problem is reduced to a singular integral equation. This integral equation is solved numerically by using Gaussian ...
Li, Cheng; Langham, Michael C; Epstein, Charles L.; Magland, Jeremy F; Wu, Jue; Gee, James,; Wehrli, Felix W.
2011-01-01
Susceptometry-based MR oximetry has previously been shown suitable for quantifying hemoglobin oxygen saturation in large vessels for studying vascular reactivity and quantification of global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen utilization. A key assumption underlying this method is that large vessels can be modeled as long paramagnetic cylinders. However, bifurcations, tapering, noncircular cross-section, and curvature of these vessels produce substantial deviations from cylindrical geometry, w...
Applicability of URANS and DES Simulations of Flow Past Rectangular Cylinders and Bridge Sections
Claudio Mannini
2015-01-01
This paper discusses the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations carried out for rectangular cylinders with various side ratios of interest for many civil engineering structures. A bridge deck of common cross-section geometry was also considered. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations were solved in conjunction with either an eddy-viscosity or a linearized explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model. The analysis showed that for the case studies considered the 2-D...
Ratchetting and creep-fatigue evaluation for nozzle-to-cylinder intersection. [LMFBR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barsoum, R.S.; Loomis, R.W.; Stewart, B.D.
1976-01-01
The study is part of an analytical investigation on the applicability of the simplified ratchetting and creep-fatigue rules to LMFBR component geometry. Both the detailed inelastic rules and the simplified elastic rules are applied to the results obtained from a three-dimensional finite element analysis of the nozzle-to-cylinder intersection. The results of both evaluations are compared at several locations on the surface, and an assessment of the degree of conservatism of the simplified methods is discussed.
Analysis and Design of Variable Stiffness Composite Cylinders
Tatting, Brian F.; Guerdal, Zafer
1998-01-01
An investigation of the possible performance improvements of thin circular cylindrical shells through the use of the variable stiffness concept is presented. The variable stiffness concept implies that the stiffness parameters change spatially throughout the structure. This situation is achieved mainly through the use of curvilinear fibers within a fiber-reinforced composite laminate, though the possibility of thickness variations and discrete stiffening elements is also allowed. These three mechanisms are incorporated into the constitutive laws for thin shells through the use of Classical Lamination Theory. The existence of stiffness variation within the structure warrants a formulation of the static equilibrium equations from the most basic principles. The governing equations include sufficient detail to correctly model several types of nonlinearity, including the formation of a nonlinear shell boundary layer as well as the Brazier effect due to nonlinear bending of long cylinders. Stress analysis and initial buckling estimates are formulated for a general variable stiffness cylinder. Results and comparisons for several simplifications of these highly complex governing equations are presented so that the ensuing numerical solutions are considered reliable and efficient enough for in-depth optimization studies. Four distinct cases of loading and stiffness variation are chosen to investigate possible areas of improvement that the variable stiffness concept may offer over traditional constant stiffness and/or stiffened structures. The initial investigation deals with the simplest solution for cylindrical shells in which all quantities are constant around the circumference of the cylinder. This axisymmetric case includes a stiffness variation exclusively in the axial direction, and the only pertinent loading scenarios include constant loads of axial compression, pressure, and torsion. The results for these cases indicate that little improvement over traditional
Chugging response of submerged cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In some boiling water reactor accident scenarios, steam condensation and the subsequent vapor bubble collapse phenomena create travelling pressure transients in the water suppression pool affecting the loading on submerged structures. Due to the nature of the short duration of the pressure pulse no potential flow effect is expected in the pool, therefore the consideration of acoustic effects seems satisfactory. The submerged structures are in majority of cylindrical shape. Therefore, the response of an infinite cylinder will be studied here. The initial assumption is that the pool is of infinite dimensions and filled with inviscid fluid of constant acoustic velocity. The assumption of infinite dimensions for the pool does not affect the maximum pressure on the submerged structure since it is occurring prior to the back scattering of the waves on the finite pool walls for short duration pulses. However, this assumption gives different results for late time history of the pressure. Also, the wave is considered to be plane which results in a good accuracy for structures far from the pressure source. (orig.)
Vector synthesis problem of random geometry antenna differentiation conditions
Mishchenko, S. E.
2007-01-01
The problem definition of general random geometry continuous and discontinuous antenna vector synthesis is discussed. Conditions are formulated which allow presenting the initial antenna vector synthesis problem in the form of array of some scalar synthesis problems while locating the antenna in the free space and near the surface. On plane, cylinder and sphere examples antenna synthesis problems division possibilities of scalar problems are examined.
Spontaneous helicity of a polymer with side-loops confined to a cylinder
Chaudhuri, Debasish
2011-01-01
Inspired by recent experiments on the spatial organization of bacterial chromosomes, we consider a type of "bottle brush" polymer consisting of a flexible backbone chain, to which flexible side loops are connected. We show that such a model with an open linear backbone spontaneously adopts a helical structure with a well-defined pitch when confined to small cylindrical volume. This helicity persists over a range of sizes and aspect-ratios of the cylinder, provided the packing fraction of the chain is suitably large. We analyze this results in terms of the interplay between the effective stiffness and actual intra-chain packing effects caused by the side-loops in response to the confinement. For the case of a circular backbone, mimicking e.g. the E. coli chromosome, the polymer adopts a linearized configuration of two parallel helices connected at the cylinder poles.
Stability and vibration of a helical rod constrained by a cylinder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yanzhu Liu; Liwei Sheng
2007-01-01
The stability and vibration of an elastic rod with a circular cross section under the constraint of a cylinder is discussed. The differential equations of dynamics of the constrained rod are established with Euler's angles as variables describing the attitude of the cross section. The existence conditions of helical equilibrium under constraint are discussed as a special configuration of the rod. The stability of the helical equilibrium is discussed in the realms of statics and dyna- mics, respectively. Necessary conditions for the stability of helical rod are derived in space domain and time domain, and the difference and relationship between Lyapunov's and Euler's stability concepts are discussed. The free frequency of flexural vibration of the helical rod with cylinder constraint is obtained in analytical form.
The influences of wall Lorentz force and field Lorentz force on the cylinder drag reduction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hui Zhang; Bao-Chun Fan; Zhi-Hna Chen; Yan-Ling Li
2011-01-01
In this paper,the effects of Lorentz force on drag reduction for a circular cylinder have been studied experimentally and numerically.Based on its effects on drag reduction,the Lorentz force is found to be classified into two parts:one acts directly on the cylinder,named as the wall Lorentz force,and the other called the field Lorentz force acts on the fluid inside the boundary layer.The wall Lorentz force leads to the generation of a thrust,whereas the field Lorentz force results in drag increase.Since the former dominates the drag variation,the drag would reduce accordingly and even turn into negative (thrust) with the application of Lorentz force.
Tau functions for the Dirac operator on the cylinder
Lisovy, O O
2003-01-01
The goal of the present paper is to calculate the determinant of the Dirac operator with a mass in the cylindrical geometry. The domain of this operator consists of functions that realize a unitary one-dimensional representation of the fundamental group of the cylinder with $n$ marked points. The determinant represents a version of the isomonodromic $\\tau$-function, itroduced by M. Sato, T. Miwa and M. Jimbo. It is calculated by comparison of two sections of the $\\mathrm{det}^*$-bundle over an infinite-dimensional grassmannian. The latter is composed of the spaces of boundary values of some local solutions to Dirac equation. The principal ingredients of the computation are the formulae for the Green function of the singular Dirac operator and for the so-called canonical basis of global solutions on the 1-punctured cylinder. We also derive a set of deformation equations satisfied by the expansion coefficients of the canonical basis in the general case and find a more explicit expression for the $\\tau$-function...
Magnetohydrodynamic Flow Between Concentric Rotating Porous Cylinders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. N. Dube
1971-10-01
Full Text Available An attempt has been made to study the steady laminar flow of a incompressible electrically conducting fluid between infinitely long concentric rotating porous cylinders under the influence of radial magnetic field. A solution has been obtained under the assumption of uniform conditions along the axis of the cylinders. The cylinders being porous, a hyperbolic radial velocity distribution has been superimposed over the circumferential velocity produced due to rotation. There is a Bernoulli type pressure variation in the radial in the direction. When the inner cylinder is at rest the shearing stress at it and the torque transmitted to it decrease as R (=v/Sub/1y/Sub1/v= v/Sub2y/Sub2/v increases and the magnetic parameter lambda (=4sigma mue/sube/sup2A/Sup2/Mue will further decrease them.