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Sample records for circuits targeting parvalbumin-containing

  1. The 5-HT1A serotonin receptor is located on calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing neurons in the rat brain.

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    Aznar, Susana; Qian, Zhaoxia; Shah, Reshma; Rahbek, Birgitte; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2003-01-03

    The 5-HT(1A) receptor is a well-characterized serotonin receptor playing a role in many central nervous functions and known to be involved in depression and other mental disorders. In situ hybridization, immunocytochemical, and binding studies have shown that the 5-HT(1A) receptor is widely distributed in the rat brain, with a particularly high density in the limbic system. The receptor's localization in the different neuronal subtypes, which may be of importance for understanding its role in neuronal circuitries, is, however, unknown. In this study we show by immunocytochemical double-labeling techniques, that the 5-HT(1A) receptor is present on both pyramidal and principal cells, and calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing neurons, which generally define two different subtypes of interneurons. Moreover, semiquantitative analysis showed that the receptor's distribution in the different neuronal types varies between brain areas. In cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala the receptor was located on both principal cells and calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing neurons. In septum and thalamus, the receptor was mostly present on calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing cells. Especially in the medial septum and thalamic reticular nucleus, the receptor highly colocalized with parvalbumin-positive neurons. These results suggest a diverse function of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in modulating neuronal circuitry in different brain areas, that may depend on the type of neuron the receptor is predominantly located on.

  2. Conceptual studies for a mercury target circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, B. [ETH Nuclear Engineering Lab., Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-06-01

    For the now favored target design of the European Spallation Source project, i.e. the version using mercury as target material, a basic concept of the primary system has been worked out. It does not include a detailed design of the various components of the target circuit, but tries to outline a feasible solution for the system. Besides the removal of the thermal power of about 3MW produced in the target by the proton beam, the primary system has to satisfy a number of other requirements related to processing, safety, and operation. The basic proposal uses an electromagnetic pump and a mercury-water intermediate heat excanger, but other alternatives are also being discussed. Basic safety requirements, i.e. protection against radiation and toxic mercury vapours, are satisfied by a design using an air-tight primary system containment, double-walled tubes in the intermediate heat exchanger, a fail-safe system for decay heat removal, and a remote handling facility for the active part of the system. Much engineering work has still to be done, because many details of the design of the mercury and gas processing systems remain to be clarified, the thermal-hydraulic components need further optimisation, the system for control and instrumentation is only known in outline and a through safety analysis will be required.

  3. Glutamate receptor subunit 3 (GluR3) immunoreactivity delineates a subpopulation of parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the rat hippocampus.

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    Moga, Diana E; Janssen, William G M; Vissavajjhala, Prabhakar; Czelusniak, Sharon M; Moran, Thomas M; Hof, Patrick R; Morrison, John H

    2003-07-14

    Rasmussen's encephalitis is a childhood disease resulting in intractable seizures associated with hippocampal and neocortical inflammation. An autoantibody against the GluR3 subunit of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors is implicated in the pathophysiology of Rasmussen's encephalitis. AMPA receptors mediate excitatory neurotransmission in the brain and contain combinations of four subunits (GluR1-4). Although the distributions of GluR1, GluR2, and GluR4 are known in some detail, the cellular distribution of GluR3 in the mammalian brain remains to be described. We developed and characterized a GluR3-specific monoclonal antibody and quantified the cellular distribution of GluR3 in CA1 of the rat hippocampus. GluR3 immunoreactivity was detected in all pyramidal neurons and astrocytes and in most interneurons. We quantified the intensity of GluR3 immunoreactivity in interneuron subtypes defined by their calcium-binding protein content. GluR3 immunofluorescence, but not GluR1 or GluR2 immunofluorescence, was significantly elevated in somata of parvalbumin-containing interneurons compared to pyramidal somata. Strikingly, increased GluR3 immunofluorescence was not observed in calbindin- and calretinin-containing interneurons. Furthermore, 24% of parvalbumin-containing interneurons could be distinguished from surrounding neurons based on their intense GluR3 immunoreactivity. This subpopulation had significantly elevated GluR3 immunoreactivity compared to the rest of parvalbumin-containing interneurons. Electron microscopy revealed enriched GluR3 immunoreactivity in parvalbumin-containing perikarya at cytoplasmic and postsynaptic sites. Parvalbumin-containing interneurons, potent inhibitors of cortical pyramidal neurons, are vulnerable in the brains of epileptic patients. Our findings suggest that the somata of these interneurons are enriched in GluR3, which may render them vulnerable to pathological states such as epilepsy and

  4. Entorhinal cortical innervation of parvalbumin-containing neurons (Basket and Chandelier cells) in the rat Ammon's horn.

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    Kiss, J; Buzsaki, G; Morrow, J S; Glantz, S B; Leranth, C

    1996-01-01

    Physiological data suggest that in the CA1-CA3 hippocampal areas of rats, entorhinal cortical efferents directly influence the activity of interneurons, in addition to pyramidal cells. To verify this hypothesis, the following experiments were performed: 1) light microscopic double-immunostaining for parvalbumin and the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin injected into the entorhinal cortex; 2) light and electron microscopic analysis of cleaved spectrin-immunostained (i.e., degenerating axons and boutons) hippocampal sections following entorhinal cortex lesion; and 3) an electron microscopic study of parvalbumin-immunostained hippocampal sections after entorhinal cortex lesion. The results demonstrate that in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of the CA1 and CA3 regions, entorhinal cortical axons form asymmetric synaptic contacts on parvalbumin-containing dendritic shafts. In the stratum lacunosum-moleculare, parvalbumin-immunoreactive dendrites represent processes of GABAergic, inhibitory basket and chandelier cells; these interneurons innervate the perisomatic area and axon initial segments of pyramidal cells, respectively. A feed-forward activation of these neurons by the entorhinal input may explain the strong, short-latency inhibition of pyramidal cells.

  5. Glutamatergic deficits and parvalbumin-containing inhibitory neurons in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia

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    Kelley JF

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that the expression of the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA for the NR2A subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA class of glutamate receptor was decreased in a subset of inhibitory interneurons in the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia. In this study, we sought to determine whether a deficit in the expression of NR2A mRNA was present in the subset of interneurons that contain the calcium buffer parvalbumin (PV and whether this deficit was associated with a reduction in glutamatergic inputs in the prefrontal cortex (PFC in schizophrenia. Methods We examined the expression of NR2A mRNA, labeled with a 35S-tagged riboprobe, in neurons that expressed PV mRNA, visualized with a digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe via an immunoperoxidase reaction, in twenty schizophrenia and twenty matched normal control subjects. We also immunohistochemically labeled the glutamatergic axon terminals with an antibody against vGluT1. Results The density of the PV neurons that expressed NR2A mRNA was significantly decreased by 48-50% in layers 3 and 4 in the subjects with schizophrenia, but the cellular expression of NR2A mRNA in the PV neurons that exhibited a detectable level of this transcript was unchanged. In addition, the density of vGluT1-immunoreactive boutons was significantly decreased by 79% in layer 3, but was unchanged in layer 5 of the PFC in schizophrenia. Conclusion These findings suggest that glutamatergic neurotransmission via NR2A-containing NMDA receptors on PV neurons in the PFC may be deficient in schizophrenia. This may disinhibit the postsynaptic excitatory circuits, contributing to neuronal injury, aberrant information flow and PFC functional deficits in schizophrenia.

  6. Multiple anxiogenic drugs recruit a parvalbumin-containing subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons in the basolateral amygdala.

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    Hale, Matthew W; Johnson, Philip L; Westerman, Alex M; Abrams, Jolane K; Shekhar, Anantha; Lowry, Christopher A

    2010-10-01

    The basolateral amygdala is a nodal structure within a distributed and interconnected network that regulates anxiety states and anxiety-related behavior. Administration of multiple anxiogenic drugs increases cellular responses (i.e., increases c-Fos expression) in a subregion of the basolateral amygdala, but the neurochemical phenotypes of these cells are not known. The basolateral amygdala contains glutamatergic projection neurons and several populations of γ-aminobutyric acid-synthesizing (GABAergic) interneurons, including a population of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing GABAergic interneurons that co-express the excitatory 5-HT(2A) receptor. The role for these PV-expressing GABAergic interneurons in anxiety-states is unclear. In this experiment we examined the effects of multiple anxiogenic drugs including the 5-HT(2C/2A) receptor agonist m-chlorophenyl piperazine (mCPP), the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine, the α(2)-adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine and the partial inverse agonist at the benzodiazepine allosteric site on the GABA(A) receptor, N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142), on c-Fos expression in PV-immunoreactive (PV-ir) interneurons in subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala. All drugs with the exception of mCPP increased c-Fos expression in PV-ir neurons in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, anterior part (BLA). The numbers of c-Fos-immunoreactive (c-Fos-ir)/PV-ir GABAergic interneurons in the BLA were positively correlated with the numbers of c-Fos-ir serotonergic neurons in the mid-rostrocaudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and with a measure of anxiety-related behavior. All four drugs increased c-Fos expression in non-PV-ir cells in most of the subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala that were sampled, compared with vehicle-injected controls. Together, these data suggest that the PV/5-HT(2A) receptor expressing GABAergic interneurons in the basolateral amygdala are part of a DR-basolateral amygdala neuronal circuit modulating

  7. A role for L-type calcium channels in the maturation of parvalbumin-containing hippocampal interneurons.

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    Jiang, M; Swann, J W

    2005-01-01

    While inhibitory interneurons are well recognized to play critical roles in the brain, relatively little is know about the molecular events that regulate their growth and differentiation. Calcium ions are thought to be important in neuronal development and L-type voltage gated Ca(+2) channels have been implicated in activity-dependent mechanisms of early-life. However, few studies have examined the role of these channels in the maturation of interneurons. The studies reported here were conducted in hippocampal slice cultures and indicate that the L-type Ca(+2) channel agonists and antagonists accelerate and suppress respectively the growth of parvalbumin-containing interneurons. The effects of channel blockade were reversible suggesting they are not the result of interneuronal cell death. Results from immunoblotting showed that these drugs have similar effects on the expression of the GABA synthetic enzymes, glutamic acid decarboxylase65, glutamic acid decarboxylase67 and the vesicular GABA transporter. This suggests that L-type Ca(+2) channels regulate not only parvalbumin expression but also interneuron development. These effects are likely mediated by actions on the interneurons themselves since the alpha subunits of L-type channels, voltage-gated calcium channel subunit 1.2 and voltage-gated calcium channel subunit 1.3 were found to be highly expressed in neonatal mouse hippocampus and co-localized with parvalbumin in interneurons. Results also showed that while these interneurons can contain either subunit, voltage-gated calcium channel subunit 1.3 was more widely expressed. Taken together results suggest that an important subset of developing interneurons expresses L-type Ca(+2) channels alpha subunits, voltage-gated calcium channel subunit 1.2 and especially voltage-gated calcium channel subunit 1.3 and that these channels likely regulate the development of these interneurons in an activity-dependent manner.

  8. Prolonged protein deprivation differentially affects calretinin- and parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult rats.

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    Hipólito-Reis, José; Pereira, Pedro Alberto; Andrade, José Paulo; Cardoso, Armando

    2013-10-25

    Protein deprivation is a detrimental nutritional state that induces several deleterious changes in the rat hippocampal formation. In this study, we compared the effects of protein deprivation in the number of parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive and calretinin (CR)-immunoreactive interneurons of the dentate gyrus, which are involved in the control of calcium homeostasis and fine tuning of the hippocampal circuits. Two month-old rats were randomly assigned to control and low-protein diet groups. The rats of the latter group were fed with a low-protein diet (8% casein) for 6 months. All animals were perfused at 8 months of age. The number of neurons expressing CR in the molecular layer and in the hilus of dentate gyrus was reduced in protein-deprived rats. Conversely, protein deprivation increased the number of PV-containing interneurons in the dentate granule cell layer and hilus. These results support the view that protein deprivation may disturb calcium homeostasis, leading to neuronal death including GABAergic interneurons expressing CR. In the other hand, the up-regulation of PV cells may reflect a protective mechanism to counteract the calcium overload and protect the remaining neurons of the dentate gyrus.

  9. Prolonged protein deprivation, but not food restriction, affects parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the dentate gyrus of adult rats.

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    Cardoso, Armando; Castro, João Paulo; Pereira, Pedro Alberto; Andrade, José Paulo

    2013-07-19

    Several studies have demonstrated the vulnerability of the hippocampal formation to malnutrition. In this study, we compared the effects of food restriction and protein malnutrition in the total number of neurons of the dentate gyrus and in the number of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) interneurons, which are related to the control of calcium homeostasis and fine tuning of the hippocampal circuits. Two month-old rats were randomly assigned to control, food-restricted and low-protein diet groups. After 6 months, 10 rats from the low-protein diet group were selected at random and fed with a normal protein diet for 2 months. The total number of granule and hilar cells was reduced in protein-deprived rats and the nutritional reestablishment with a normal protein diet did not recover neuron numbers. Protein deprivation increased the number of PV-IR interneurons in the granule cell layer and hilus, but their number returned to values similar to controls after nutritional rehabilitation. Food restriction did not affect the total number of neurons or the density of PV-IR interneurons in the dentate gyrus. These results support the view that protein deprivation may disturb calcium homeostasis, leading to neuronal death. The up-regulation of PV-IR cells may reflect a protective mechanism to counteract the calcium overload and protect the remaining neurons of the dentate gyrus. This imbalance in cell-ratio favoring GABAergic interneurons may justify some learning and memory impairments described in protein-deprived animals. This contrast between the results of food restriction and protein deprivation should be further analyzed in future studies.

  10. Altered dendritic distribution of dopamine D2 receptors and reduction in mitochondrial number in parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex of cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL) is a brain region integral to complex behaviors that are highly influenced by cannabinoids and by dopamine D2 receptor (D2R)-mediated regulation of fast-firing parvalbumin-containing interneurons. We have recently shown that constitutive deletion of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) greatly reduces parvalbumin levels in these neurons. The effects of CB1R deletion on PL parvalbumin interneurons may be ascribed to loss of CB1R-mediated retrograde signaling...

  11. Altered dendritic distribution of dopamine D2 receptors and reduction in mitochondrial number in parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex of cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor knockout mice.

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    Fitzgerald, Megan L; Chan, June; Mackie, Kenneth; Lupica, Carl R; Pickel, Virginia M

    2012-12-01

    The prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL) is a brain region integral to complex behaviors that are highly influenced by cannabinoids and by dopamine D2 receptor (D2R)-mediated regulation of fast-firing parvalbumin-containing interneurons. We have recently shown that constitutive deletion of the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) greatly reduces parvalbumin levels in these neurons. The effects of CB1R deletion on PL parvalbumin interneurons may be ascribed to loss of CB1R-mediated retrograde signaling on mesocortical dopamine transmission, and, in turn, altered expression and/or subcellular distribution of D2R in the PL. Furthermore, diminished parvalbumin expression could indicate metabolic changes in fast-firing interneurons that may be reflected in changes in mitochondrial density in this population. We therefore comparatively examined electron microscopic dual labeling of D2R and parvalbumin in CB1 (-/-) and CB1 (+/+) mice to test the hypothesis that absence of CB1R produces changes in D2R localization and mitochondrial distribution in parvalbumin-containing interneurons of the PL. CB1 (-/-) mice had a significantly lower density of cytoplasmic D2R-immunogold particles in medium parvalbumin-labeled dendrites and a concomitant increase in the density of these particles in small dendrites. These dendrites received both excitatory and inhibitory-type synapses from unlabeled terminals and contained many mitochondria, whose numbers were significantly reduced in CB1 (-/-) mice. Non-parvalbumin dendrites showed no between-group differences in either D2R distribution or mitochondrial number. These results suggest that cannabinoid signaling provides an important determinant of dendritic D2 receptor distribution and mitochondrial availability in fast-spiking interneurons.

  12. Cellular heterogeneity mediates inherent sensitivity-specificity tradeoff in cancer targeting by synthetic circuits.

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    Morel, Mathieu; Shtrahman, Roman; Rotter, Varda; Nissim, Lior; Bar-Ziv, Roy H

    2016-07-19

    Synthetic gene circuits are emerging as a versatile means to target cancer with enhanced specificity by combinatorial integration of multiple expression markers. Such circuits must also be tuned to be highly sensitive because escape of even a few cells might be detrimental. However, the error rates of decision-making circuits in light of cellular variability in gene expression have so far remained unexplored. Here, we measure the single-cell response function of a tunable logic AND gate acting on two promoters in heterogeneous cell populations. Our analysis reveals an inherent tradeoff between specificity and sensitivity that is controlled by the AND gate amplification gain and activation threshold. We implement a tumor-mimicking cell-culture model of cancer cells emerging in a background of normal ones, and show that molecular parameters of the synthetic circuits control specificity and sensitivity in a killing assay. This suggests that, beyond the inherent tradeoff, synthetic circuits operating in a heterogeneous environment could be optimized to efficiently target malignant state with minimal loss of specificity.

  13. [PhysioFlex: a target-controlled self-regulating closed-circuit inhalation anesthesia regulator].

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    Nathan, N; Sperandio, M; Erdmann, W; Westerkamp, B; Van Dijk, G; Scherpereel, P; Feiss, P

    1997-01-01

    Physi Flex is the first commercially available apparatus capable for quantitative, or self-regulating target controlled inhalational anaesthesia, with a totally closed circuit, in adults and children. The fresh gas supply to the circuit is intermittent, automatically regulated by continuous monitoring of the volume and composition of the gas mixture in the breathing circuit. The circle system includes, instead of the two conventional one way valves, a blower creating a continuous unidirectional flow at 70 L.min-1. In addition to the CO2-absorber it contains an absorber with carbon, absorbing the anaesthetic vapour when switched into the circuit. The ventilator consists of four ventilating chambers, each one with a membrane separating the patient and the motor compartments. The displacement of the membranes generates and measures the tidal volume. Automatic ventilation is achieved by electric valves and motor gas, and manual ventilation using a bag. Spontaneous ventilation is also possible. The machine is operated via a computer with selects the number of ventilating chambers (one, two or four), and the tidal volume between 50 and 2,000 mL, depending on age, gender and weight of the patient. The computer maintains the gas volume and the gas and vapour concentrations at their preset values. The O2-flow and consumption, the N2O flow and uptake, FICO2 and FETCO2, FI and FET of the volatile anaesthetic, all other important data are displayed in a numerical and graphical form on a color screen and registered for a delayed analysis. The end tidal concentration of the volatile anaesthetic drives a stepmotor with a syringe containing the selected volatile anaesthetic agent with is directly injected into the breathing circuit where it is vaporized. Therefore the concentration of the anaesthetic vapour can be instantaneously increased with this injector at induction and lowered at end of anaesthesia with the carbon absorber, and the fresh gas consumption is significantly

  14. Selective expression of KCNS3 potassium channel α-subunit in parvalbumin-containing GABA neurons in the human prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Georgiev

    Full Text Available The cognitive deficits of schizophrenia appear to be associated with altered cortical GABA neurotransmission in the subsets of inhibitory neurons that express either parvalbumin (PV or somatostatin (SST. Identification of molecular mechanisms that operate selectively in these neurons is essential for developing targeted therapeutic strategies that do not influence other cell types. Consequently, we sought to identify, in the human cortex, gene products that are expressed selectively by PV and/or SST neurons, and that might contribute to their distinctive functional properties. Based on previously reported expression patterns in the cortex of mice and humans, we selected four genes: KCNS3, LHX6, KCNAB1, and PPP1R2, encoding K(+ channel Kv9.3 modulatory α-subunit, LIM homeobox protein 6, K(+ channel Kvβ1 subunit, and protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 2, respectively, and examined their colocalization with PV or SST mRNAs in the human prefrontal cortex using dual-label in situ hybridization with (35S- and digoxigenin-labeled antisense riboprobes. KCNS3 mRNA was detected in almost all PV neurons, but not in SST neurons, and PV mRNA was detected in >90% of KCNS3 mRNA-expressing neurons. LHX6 mRNA was detected in almost all PV and >90% of SST neurons, while among all LHX6 mRNA-expressing neurons 50% expressed PV mRNA and >44% expressed SST mRNA. KCNAB1 and PPP1R2 mRNAs were detected in much larger populations of cortical neurons than PV or SST neurons. These findings indicate that KCNS3 is a selective marker of PV neurons, whereas LHX6 is expressed by both PV and SST neurons. KCNS3 and LHX6 might be useful for characterizing cell-type specific molecular alterations of cortical GABA neurotransmission and for the development of novel treatments targeting PV and/or SST neurons in schizophrenia.

  15. Selective expression of KCNS3 potassium channel α-subunit in parvalbumin-containing GABA neurons in the human prefrontal cortex.

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    Georgiev, Danko; González-Burgos, Guillermo; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Minabe, Yoshio; Lewis, David A; Hashimoto, Takanori

    2012-01-01

    The cognitive deficits of schizophrenia appear to be associated with altered cortical GABA neurotransmission in the subsets of inhibitory neurons that express either parvalbumin (PV) or somatostatin (SST). Identification of molecular mechanisms that operate selectively in these neurons is essential for developing targeted therapeutic strategies that do not influence other cell types. Consequently, we sought to identify, in the human cortex, gene products that are expressed selectively by PV and/or SST neurons, and that might contribute to their distinctive functional properties. Based on previously reported expression patterns in the cortex of mice and humans, we selected four genes: KCNS3, LHX6, KCNAB1, and PPP1R2, encoding K(+) channel Kv9.3 modulatory α-subunit, LIM homeobox protein 6, K(+) channel Kvβ1 subunit, and protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 2, respectively, and examined their colocalization with PV or SST mRNAs in the human prefrontal cortex using dual-label in situ hybridization with (35)S- and digoxigenin-labeled antisense riboprobes. KCNS3 mRNA was detected in almost all PV neurons, but not in SST neurons, and PV mRNA was detected in >90% of KCNS3 mRNA-expressing neurons. LHX6 mRNA was detected in almost all PV and >90% of SST neurons, while among all LHX6 mRNA-expressing neurons 50% expressed PV mRNA and >44% expressed SST mRNA. KCNAB1 and PPP1R2 mRNAs were detected in much larger populations of cortical neurons than PV or SST neurons. These findings indicate that KCNS3 is a selective marker of PV neurons, whereas LHX6 is expressed by both PV and SST neurons. KCNS3 and LHX6 might be useful for characterizing cell-type specific molecular alterations of cortical GABA neurotransmission and for the development of novel treatments targeting PV and/or SST neurons in schizophrenia.

  16. Complete axon arborization of a single CA3 pyramidal cell in the rat hippocampus, and its relationship with postsynaptic parvalbumin-containing interneurons.

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    Sik, A; Tamamaki, N; Freund, T F

    1993-12-01

    The complete axon arborization of a single CA3 pyramidal cell has been reconstructed from 32 (60 microns thick) sections from the rat hippocampus following in vivo intracellular injection of neurobiotin. The same sections were double-immunostained for parvalbumin--a calcium-binding protein selectively present in two types of GABAergic interneurons, the basket and chandelier cells--in order to map boutons of the pyramidal cell in contact with dendrites and somata of these specific subsets of interneurons visualized in a Golgi-like manner. The axon of the pyramidal cell formed 15,295 boutons, 63.8% of which were in stratum oriens, 15.4% in stratum pyramidale and 20.8% in stratum radiatum. Only 2.1% of the axon terminals contacted parvalbumin-positive neurons. Most of these were single contacts (84.7%), but double or triple contacts (15.3%) were also found. The majority of the boutons terminated on dendrites (84.1%) of parvalbumin-positive cells, less frequently on cell bodies (15.9%). In order to estimate the proportion of contacts representing synapses, 16 light microscopically identified contacts between boutons of the filled pyramidal cell axon and the parvalbumin-positive targets were examined by correlated electron microscopy. Thirteen of them were found to be asymmetrical synapses, and in the remaining three cases synapses between the labelled profiles could not be confirmed. We conclude that the physiologically effective excitatory connections between single pyramidal cells and postsynaptic inhibitory neurons are mediated by a small number of contacts, mostly by a single synapse. This results in a high degree of convergence and divergence in hippocampal networks.

  17. An integrated control and readout circuit for implantable multi-target electrochemical biosensing.

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    Ghoreishizadeh, Sara S; Baj-Rossi, Camilla; Cavallini, Andrea; Carrara, Sandro; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    We describe an integrated biosensor capable of sensing multiple molecular targets using both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). In particular, we present our custom IC to realize voltage control and current readout of the biosensors. A mixed-signal circuit block generates sub-Hertz triangular waveform for the biosensors by means of a direct-digital-synthesizer to control CV. A current to pulse-width converter is realized to output the data for CA measurement. The IC is fabricated in 0.18 μm technology. It consumes 220 μW from 1.8 V supply voltage, making it suitable for remotely-powered applications. Electrical measurements show excellent linearity in sub- μA current range. Electrochemical measurements including CA measurements of glucose and lactate and CV measurements of the anti-cancer drug Etoposide have been acquired with the fabricated IC and compared with a commercial equipment. The results obtained with the fabricated IC are in good agreement with those of the commercial equipment for both CV and CA measurements.

  18. p53 activated by AND gate genetic circuit under radiation and hypoxia for targeted cancer gene therapy.

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    Ding, Miao; Li, Rong; He, Rong; Wang, Xingyong; Yi, Qijian; Wang, Weidong

    2015-09-01

    Radio-activated gene therapy has been developed as a novel therapeutic strategy against cancer; however, expression of therapeutic gene in peritumoral tissues will result in unacceptable toxicity to normal cells. To restrict gene expression in targeted tumor mass, we used hypoxia and radiation tolerance features of tumor cells to develop a synthetic AND gate genetic circuit through connecting radiation sensitivity promoter cArG6 , heat shock response elements SNF1, HSF1 and HSE4 with retroviral vector plxsn. Their construction and dynamic activity process were identified through downstream enhanced green fluorescent protein and wtp53 expression in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells and in a nude mice model. The result showed that AND gate genetic circuit could be activated by lower required radiation dose (6 Gy) and after activated, AND gate could induce significant apoptosis effects and growth inhibition of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The radiation- and hypoxia-activated AND gate genetic circuit, which could lead to more powerful target tumoricidal activity represented a promising strategy for both targeted and effective gene therapy of human lung adenocarcinoma and low dose activation character of the AND gate genetic circuit implied that this model could be further exploited to decrease side-effects of clinical radiation therapy.

  19. Towards behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits - an implementation template targeting syntax directed compilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Sparsø, Jens; Madsen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a method for behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits. Our approach aims at providing a synthesis flow which is very similar to what is found in existing synchronous design tools. We adapt the synchronous behavioral synthesis abstraction into the asynchronous handshake...... domain by introducing a computation model, which resembles the synchronous datapath and control architecture, but which is completely asynchronous. The datapath and control architecture is then expressed in the Balsa-language, and using syntax directed compilation a corresponding handshake circuit...... implementation is produced. The paper also reports area, speed and power figures for a couple of benchmark circuits, which have been synthesized to layout....

  20. Interneurons are the source and the targets of the first synapses formed in the rat developing hippocampal circuit.

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    Gozlan, Henri; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel

    2003-06-01

    In hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, GABAergic synapses are established before glutamatergic synapses. GABAergic interneurons should therefore develop and acquire synapses at an earlier stage to provide the source for GABAergic synapses. We now report that this is indeed the case. At birth and in utero, when nearly all pyramidal neurons are not yet functional, most interneurons have already either GABAergic only or GABAergic and glutamatergic postsynaptic currents. At birth, the morphological maturation of interneurons parallels their individual functional responses. In addition, the formation of functional interneurons types appears to be a sequential process. Interneurons that innervate other interneurons acquire GABA(A) synapses before peridendritic interneurons, but also before perisomatic interneurons that are not yet functional at birth. Therefore, interneurons are the source and the targets of the first synapses formed in the developing circuit. Since GABA was shown to be excitatory in utero, interneurons provide all the excitatory drive at a time when the principal cells are silent. They could therefore play a central role in the formation of the cortical circuit at early developmental stages.

  1. How thoughts give rise to action - conscious motor intention increases the excitability of target-specific motor circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker R Zschorlich

    Full Text Available The present study shows evidence for conscious motor intention in motor preparation prior to movement execution. We demonstrate that conscious motor intention of directed movement, combined with minimally supra-threshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS of the motor cortex, determines the direction and the force of resulting movements, whilst a lack of intention results in weak and omni-directed muscle activation. We investigated changes of consciously intended goal directed movements by analyzing amplitudes of motor-evoked potentials of the forearm muscle, flexor carpi radialis (FCR, and extensor carpi radialis (ECR, induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right motor cortex and their motor outcome. Right-handed subjects were asked to develop a strong intention to move their left wrist (flexion or extension, without any overt motor output at the wrist, prior to brain stimulation. Our analyses of hand acceleration and electromyography showed that during the strong motor intention of wrist flexion movement, it evoked motor potential responses that were significantly larger in the FCR muscle than in the ECR, whilst the opposite was true for an extension movement. The acceleration data on flexion/extension corresponded to this finding. Under no-intention conditions again, which served as a reference for motor evoked potentials, brain stimulation resulted in undirected and minimally simultaneous extension/flexion innervation and virtually no movement. These results indicate that conscious intentions govern motor function, which in turn shows that a neuronal activation representing an "intention network" in the human brain pre-exists, and that it functionally represents target specific motor circuits. Until today, it was unclear whether conscious motor intention exists prior to movement, or whether the brain constructs such an intention after movement initiation. Our study gives evidence that motor intentions become aware before

  2. Target-cell-dependent plasticity within the mossy fibre-CA3 circuit reveals compartmentalized regulation of presynaptic function at divergent release sites.

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    Pelkey, Kenneth A; McBain, Chris J

    2008-03-15

    Individual axons of central neurons innervate a large number of distinct postsynaptic targets belonging to divergent functional categories such as glutamatergic principal cells and inhibitory interneurons. While each bouton along a common axon should experience the same activity pattern in response to action potential firing within the parent presynaptic neuron, accumulating evidence suggests that neighbouring boutons contacting functionally distinct postsynaptic targets regulate their release properties independently, despite being separated by only a few microns. This target-cell-specific autonomy of presynaptic function can greatly expand the computational prowess of central axons to allow for precise coordination of large neuronal ensembles within a given circuit. An excellent example of target-cell-specific presynaptic mechanisms occurs in the CA3 hippocampus where mossy fibre (MF) axons of dentate gyrus granule cells target both principal cells and local circuit inhibitory interneurons via both anatomically and functionally specialized terminals. Of particular interest, mechanisms of both short- and long-term plasticity remain autonomous at these divergent release sites due to an anatomical and biochemical segregation of discrete molecular signalling cascades. Here we review roughly a decades worth of research on the MF-CA3 pathway to showcase the target-cell dependence of presynaptically expressed NMDA receptor-independent synaptic plasticity.

  3. Output targets and transcriptional regulation by a cyclic dimeric GMP-responsive circuit in the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Scr network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rosana B R; Chodur, Daniel M; Antunes, Luis Caetano M; Trimble, Michael J; McCarter, Linda L

    2012-03-01

    The Vibrio parahaemolyticus Scr system modulates decisions pertinent to surface colonization by affecting the cellular level of cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP). In this work, we explore the scope and mechanism of this regulation. Transcriptome comparison of ΔscrABC and wild-type strains revealed expression differences with respect to ∼100 genes. Elevated c-di-GMP repressed genes in the surface-sensing regulon, including those encoding the lateral flagellar and type III secretion systems and N-acetylglucosamine-binding protein GpbA while inducing genes encoding other cell surface molecules and capsular polysaccharide. The transcription of a few regulatory genes was also affected, and the role of one was characterized. Mutations in cpsQ suppressed the sticky phenotype of scr mutants. cpsQ encodes one of four V. parahaemolyticus homologs in the CsgD/VpsT family, members of which have been implicated in c-di-GMP signaling. Here, we demonstrate that CpsQ is a c-di-GMP-binding protein. By using a combination of mutant and reporter analyses, CpsQ was found to be the direct, positive regulator of cpsA transcription. This c-di-GMP-responsive regulatory circuit could be reconstituted in Escherichia coli, where a low level of this nucleotide diminished the stability of CpsQ. The molecular interplay of additional known cps regulators was defined by establishing that CpsS, another CsgD family member, repressed cpsR, and the transcription factor CpsR activated cpsQ. Thus, we are developing a connectivity map of the Scr decision-making network with respect to its wiring and output strategies for colonizing surfaces and interaction with hosts; in doing so, we have isolated and reproduced a c-di-GMP-sensitive regulatory module in the circuit.

  4. Algebraic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lloris Ruiz, Antonio; Parrilla Roure, Luis; García Ríos, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a complete and accurate study of algebraic circuits, digital circuits whose performance can be associated with any algebraic structure. The authors distinguish between basic algebraic circuits, such as Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs) and cellular automata, and algebraic circuits, such as finite fields or Galois fields. The book includes a comprehensive review of representation systems, of arithmetic circuits implementing basic and more complex operations, and of the residue number systems (RNS). It presents a study of basic algebraic circuits such as LFSRs and cellular automata as well as a study of circuits related to Galois fields, including two real cryptographic applications of Galois fields.

  5. Combined RT-qPCR of mRNA and microRNA Targets within One Fluidigm Integrated Fluidic Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Don A; Horan, Annamarie D; Hesketh, Patrick J; Mehta, Samir

    2016-07-01

    The ability to profile expression levels of a large number of mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) within the same sample, using a single assay method, would facilitate investigations of miRNA effects on mRNA abundance and streamline biomarker screening across multiple RNA classes. A protocol is described for reverse transcription of long RNA and miRNA targets, followed by preassay amplification of the pooled cDNAs and quantitative PCR (qPCR) detection for a mixed panel of candidate RNA biomarkers. The method provides flexibility for designing custom target panels, is robust over a range of input RNA amounts, and demonstrated a high assay success rate.

  6. Selective Manipulation of Neural Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong Geun; Carmel, Jason B

    2016-04-01

    Unraveling the complex network of neural circuits that form the nervous system demands tools that can manipulate specific circuits. The recent evolution of genetic tools to target neural circuits allows an unprecedented precision in elucidating their function. Here we describe two general approaches for achieving circuit specificity. The first uses the genetic identity of a cell, such as a transcription factor unique to a circuit, to drive expression of a molecule that can manipulate cell function. The second uses the spatial connectivity of a circuit to achieve specificity: one genetic element is introduced at the origin of a circuit and the other at its termination. When the two genetic elements combine within a neuron, they can alter its function. These two general approaches can be combined to allow manipulation of neurons with a specific genetic identity by introducing a regulatory gene into the origin or termination of the circuit. We consider the advantages and disadvantages of both these general approaches with regard to specificity and efficacy of the manipulations. We also review the genetic techniques that allow gain- and loss-of-function within specific neural circuits. These approaches introduce light-sensitive channels (optogenetic) or drug sensitive channels (chemogenetic) into neurons that form specific circuits. We compare these tools with others developed for circuit-specific manipulation and describe the advantages of each. Finally, we discuss how these tools might be applied for identification of the neural circuits that mediate behavior and for repair of neural connections.

  7. Resonance circuits for adiabatic circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schlachta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible techniques to reduces the power consumption in digital CMOS circuits is to slow down the charge transport. This slowdown can be achieved by introducing an inductor in the charging path. Additionally, the inductor can act as an energy storage element, conserving the energy that is normally dissipated during discharging. Together with the parasitic capacitances from the circuit a LCresonant circuit is formed.

  8. GATING CIRCUITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, L.C.

    1958-10-14

    Control circuits for vacuum tubes are described, and a binary counter having an improved trigger circuit is reported. The salient feature of the binary counter is the application of the input signal to the cathode of each of two vacuum tubes through separate capacitors and the connection of each cathode to ground through separate diodes. The control of the binary counter is achieved in this manner without special pulse shaping of the input signal. A further advantage of the circuit is the simplicity and minimum nuruber of components required, making its use particularly desirable in computer machines.

  9. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  10. Affective Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to the intersecting streams of goods, people, ideas, and money as they circulate between African migrants and their kin who remain back home. They also show the complex ways that emotions become entangled in these exchanges. Examining how these circuits operate in domains of social life ranging from child fosterage......Moving between Africa and Europe, the book explores the many ways migrants sustain and rework family ties and intimate relationships at home and abroad. It demonstrates how their quotidian efforts—on such a mass scale—contribute to a broader process of social regeneration. The contributors point...

  11. Design of superconductor frame compression circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, T.; Miyaho, N.; Miyahara, K.

    2007-10-01

    We proposed previously a novel interface circuit which was used between semiconductor data-input circuits and superconductor high-speed routers. The frame length of data packets is compressed in the interface circuit. Our proposed interface circuit has rather narrow timing margin. The problem was that our control circuit of the interface circuit could allow only very small timing delay. In this paper we propose a modified control circuit. We have improved the timing margin of the control circuit using RS-flip flop (RS-FF), where two shift registers and one control circuit are driven by clock pulses provided from a master clock-pulse generator. In this circuit, we have assumed fixed frame length packets. Our final target of master clock frequency is 100 GHz which will be realized with the device-parameter set of future advanced process. As the first step of realizing this target value, we aimed at 40 GHz clock operation with the conventional device-parameter set of NECs standard I process. The behavior of the whole frame compression circuit was simulated by a computer, and it was confirmed that it operated properly up to the master clock frequency of 23 GHz.

  12. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-15

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  13. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premerlani, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  14. Analog circuit design designing dynamic circuit response

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This second volume, Designing Dynamic Circuit Response builds upon the first volume Designing Amplifier Circuits by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences.

  15. Analog circuit design designing waveform processing circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The fourth volume in the set Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors.

  16. An immunohistochemical study of parvalbumin containing interneurons in the gerbil hippocampus after cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, T; Kato, H; Liu, X H; Kogure, K; Kato, K; Itoyama, Y

    1994-09-01

    We investigated postischemic changes of non-pyramidal neurons in the gerbil hippocampus 1 h - 7 days after 10 min of cerebral ischemia, with parvalbumin and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-immunohistochemistry. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons in the hippocampus were unaffected up to 24 h after ischemia. A slight reduction of the immunoreactivity in neuronal processes was seen in the hippocampal CA1 sector 48 h after ischemia. Seven days after ischemia, a marked loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons was observed in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 sectors. Furthermore, reduced staining in the dentate granular and molecular layers was observed. MAP2-immunoreactive pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus were unchanged up to 48 h after ischemia. Seven days after ischemia, a severe loss of MAP2 immunoreactivity was found in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 neurons and dentate hilar neurons. However, scattered CA1 neurons, most likely interneurons, preserved MAP2 immunoreactivity. The results demonstrate that transient cerebral ischemia can cause a loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons in the hippocampus. Furthermore, some interneurons seem to lose parvalbumin synthesis. Although dentate granule cells are resistant to ischemia, considerable reductions of afferent input was suggested by parvalbumin staining.

  17. Partial loss of parvalbumin-containing hippocampal interneurons in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Johnson, Mary; Perry, Robert H; LeBeau, Fiona E N; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Bogerts, Bernhard; Perry, Elaine K

    2011-02-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common neurodegenerative dementia. Among many other neuropathological changes in DLB, brain region-specific cellular deficits have been reported. They include decreases in motor neuron and pyramidal cell densities, while neocortical parvalbumin (parv)-containing neurons are thought to be free of Lewy bodies and spared in DLB. However, elevated parv levels are found in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients suffering from dementia with Lewy bodies. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis of hippocampal parv-immunoreactive neurons in well-characterised DLB cases and from controls using a specific antibody against the calcium binding protein. In addition, an analysis of the regional and cellular distribution of alpha-synuclein was carried out. Subfield and laminar distribution of parv-immunoreactive (ir) neurons on the hippocampus in subjects with DLB and controls were present exclusively as non-granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG)/hilus and non-pyramidal cells of CA1, CA2, CA3 and CA4 areas of the hippocampus. The distribution patterns did not differ qualitatively between DLB and controls. Quantitative estimation of parv-ir neuron density revealed significant decreases in the dentate (DG)/hilus region as well as in the CA1 subfield. Double immunolabelling experiments showed that only 2% of parv expressing interneurons were laden with alpha-synuclein immunoreactive material. No significant changes were found for the total neuron densities in DLB cases. Our results show a partial loss of parv-expressing hippocampal interneurons in DLB, which might be the result of long-lasting calcium overload in combination with a proposed impaired mitochondrial function. It remains to be elucidated if the numerical decrease of this particular subset of hippocampal interneurons has consequences for the gamma (20-80 Hz) frequency activity in DLB patients.

  18. Depth optimization for topological quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFailakawi, Mohammad; Ahmad, Imtiaz; AlTerkawi, Laila; Hamdan, Suha

    2015-02-01

    Topological quantum computing (TQC) model is one of the most promising models for quantum computation. A circuit implemented under TQC is optimized by reducing its depth due to special construction requirements in such technology. In this work, we propose a hybrid approach that combines a left-edge greedy heuristic with genetic algorithm (GA) to minimize circuit depth through combined line and gate ordering. In our implementation, GA is used to find line ordering, whereas the left edge is used to reduce circuit depth by taking into consideration overlap constraints imposed by line ordering. Moreover, the proposed algorithm can merge gates together realizing circuit with multi-target gates to provide reduced circuit depth. Experimental results on random benchmark circuits show that the proposed algorithm was able to reduce circuit depth by 42 % on average for CNOT circuits, with additional 5 % savings when multi-target optimization is used. Results on RevLib benchmarks revealed a typical enhancement of 21 % and an additional 11 % when multi-target gates are allowed.

  19. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  20. Simple Autonomous Chaotic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Jessica; Sprott, J.

    2010-03-01

    Over the last several decades, numerous electronic circuits exhibiting chaos have been proposed. Non-autonomous circuits with as few as two components have been developed. However, the operation of such circuits relies on the non-ideal behavior of the devices used, and therefore the circuit equations can be quite complex. In this paper, we present two simple autonomous chaotic circuits using only opamps and linear passive components. The circuits each use one opamp as a comparator, to provide a signum nonlinearity. The chaotic behavior is robust, and independent of nonlinearities in the passive components. Moreover, the circuit equations are among the algebraically simplest chaotic systems yet constructed.

  1. Circuit analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago, John

    2013-01-01

    Circuits overloaded from electric circuit analysis? Many universities require that students pursuing a degree in electrical or computer engineering take an Electric Circuit Analysis course to determine who will ""make the cut"" and continue in the degree program. Circuit Analysis For Dummies will help these students to better understand electric circuit analysis by presenting the information in an effective and straightforward manner. Circuit Analysis For Dummies gives you clear-cut information about the topics covered in an electric circuit analysis courses to help

  2. Solenoid-Simulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical properties of solenoids imitated for tests of control circuits. Simulation circuit imitates voltage and current responses of two engine-controlling solenoids. Used in tests of programs of digital engine-control circuits, also provides electronic interface with circuits imitating electrical properties of pressure sensors and linear variable-differential transformers. Produces voltages, currents, delays, and discrete turnon and turnoff signals representing operation of solenoid in engine-control relay. Many such circuits used simulating overall engine circuitry.

  3. Dynamical compensation in physiological circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Omer; Swisa, Avital; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval; Alon, Uri

    2016-11-08

    Biological systems can maintain constant steady-state output despite variation in biochemical parameters, a property known as exact adaptation. Exact adaptation is achieved using integral feedback, an engineering strategy that ensures that the output of a system robustly tracks its desired value. However, it is unclear how physiological circuits also keep their output dynamics precise-including the amplitude and response time to a changing input. Such robustness is crucial for endocrine and neuronal homeostatic circuits because they need to provide a precise dynamic response in the face of wide variation in the physiological parameters of their target tissues; how such circuits compensate their dynamics for unavoidable natural fluctuations in parameters is unknown. Here, we present a design principle that provides the desired robustness, which we call dynamical compensation (DC). We present a class of circuits that show DC by means of a nonlinear feedback loop in which the regulated variable controls the functional mass of the controlling endocrine or neuronal tissue. This mechanism applies to the control of blood glucose by insulin and explains several experimental observations on insulin resistance. We provide evidence that this mechanism may also explain compensation and organ size control in other physiological circuits.

  4. Hidden circuits and argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Risto; Kesonen, Mikko H. P.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the relevance of DC circuits in everyday life and schools, they have been shown to cause numerous learning difficulties at various school levels. In the course of this article, we present a flexible method for teaching DC circuits at lower secondary level. The method is labelled as hidden circuits, and the essential idea underlying hidden circuits is in hiding the actual wiring of DC circuits, but to make their behaviour evident for pupils. Pupils are expected to find out the wiring of the circuit which should enhance their learning of DC circuits. We present two possible ways to utilise hidden circuits in a classroom. First, they can be used to test and enhance pupils’ conceptual understanding when pupils are expected to find out which one of the offered circuit diagram options corresponds to the actual circuit shown. This method aims to get pupils to evaluate the circuits holistically rather than locally, and as a part of that aim this method highlights any learning difficulties of pupils. Second, hidden circuits can be used to enhance pupils’ argumentation skills with the aid of argumentation sheet that illustrates the main elements of an argument. Based on the findings from our co-operating teachers and our own experiences, hidden circuits offer a flexible and motivating way to supplement teaching of DC circuits.

  5. The circuit designer's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Circuit Designer's Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are foll

  6. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  7. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  8. Circuits on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Vinay, V

    2006-01-01

    We consider the computational power of constant width polynomial size cylindrical circuits and nondeterministic branching programs. We show that every function computed by a Pi2 o MOD o AC0 circuit can also be computed by a constant width polynomial size cylindrical nondeterministic branching...... program (or cylindrical circuit) and that every function computed by a constant width polynomial size cylindrical circuit belongs to ACC0....

  9. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  10. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  11. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of p

  12. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  13. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, Simon Minze; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converte

  14. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, Simon Minze; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converte

  15. Reversible Logic Circuit Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Shende, V V; Markov, I L; Prasad, A K; Hayes, John P.; Markov, Igor L.; Prasad, Aditya K.; Shende, Vivek V.

    2002-01-01

    Reversible, or information-lossless, circuits have applications in digital signal processing, communication, computer graphics and cryptography. They are also a fundamental requirement for quantum computation. We investigate the synthesis of reversible circuits that employ a minimum number of gates and contain no redundant input-output line-pairs (temporary storage channels). We propose new constructions for reversible circuits composed of NOT, Controlled-NOT, and TOFFOLI gates (the CNT gate library) based on permutation theory. A new algorithm is given to synthesize optimal reversible circuits using an arbitrary gate library. We also describe much faster heuristic algorithms. We also pursue applications of the proposed techniques to the synthesis of quantum circuits.

  16. Automatic design of digital synthetic gene circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Marchisio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available De novo computational design of synthetic gene circuits that achieve well-defined target functions is a hard task. Existing, brute-force approaches run optimization algorithms on the structure and on the kinetic parameter values of the network. However, more direct rational methods for automatic circuit design are lacking. Focusing on digital synthetic gene circuits, we developed a methodology and a corresponding tool for in silico automatic design. For a given truth table that specifies a circuit's input-output relations, our algorithm generates and ranks several possible circuit schemes without the need for any optimization. Logic behavior is reproduced by the action of regulatory factors and chemicals on the promoters and on the ribosome binding sites of biological Boolean gates. Simulations of circuits with up to four inputs show a faithful and unequivocal truth table representation, even under parametric perturbations and stochastic noise. A comparison with already implemented circuits, in addition, reveals the potential for simpler designs with the same function. Therefore, we expect the method to help both in devising new circuits and in simplifying existing solutions.

  17. Automatic design of digital synthetic gene circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisio, Mario A; Stelling, Jörg

    2011-02-01

    De novo computational design of synthetic gene circuits that achieve well-defined target functions is a hard task. Existing, brute-force approaches run optimization algorithms on the structure and on the kinetic parameter values of the network. However, more direct rational methods for automatic circuit design are lacking. Focusing on digital synthetic gene circuits, we developed a methodology and a corresponding tool for in silico automatic design. For a given truth table that specifies a circuit's input-output relations, our algorithm generates and ranks several possible circuit schemes without the need for any optimization. Logic behavior is reproduced by the action of regulatory factors and chemicals on the promoters and on the ribosome binding sites of biological Boolean gates. Simulations of circuits with up to four inputs show a faithful and unequivocal truth table representation, even under parametric perturbations and stochastic noise. A comparison with already implemented circuits, in addition, reveals the potential for simpler designs with the same function. Therefore, we expect the method to help both in devising new circuits and in simplifying existing solutions.

  18. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  19. Exact Threshold Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    We initiate a systematic study of constant depth Boolean circuits built using exact threshold gates. We consider both unweighted and weighted exact threshold gates and introduce corresponding circuit classes. We next show that this gives a hierarchy of classes that seamlessly interleave with the ......We initiate a systematic study of constant depth Boolean circuits built using exact threshold gates. We consider both unweighted and weighted exact threshold gates and introduce corresponding circuit classes. We next show that this gives a hierarchy of classes that seamlessly interleave...... with the well-studied corresponding hierarchies defined using ordinary threshold gates. A major open problem in Boolean circuit complexity is to provide an explicit super-polynomial lower bound for depth two threshold circuits. We identify the class of depth two exact threshold circuits as a natural subclass...

  20. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  1. Parallelizing quantum circuit synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Di Matteo, Olivia; Mosca, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Quantum circuit synthesis is the process in which an arbitrary unitary operation is decomposed into a sequence of gates from a universal set, typically one which a quantum computer can implement both efficiently and fault-tolerantly. As physical implementations of quantum computers improve, the need is growing for tools which can effectively synthesize components of the circuits and algorithms they will run. Existing algorithms for exact, multi-qubit circuit synthesis scale exponentially in t...

  2. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  3. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  4. Timergenerator circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Timer/Generator Circuits Manual is an 11-chapter text that deals mainly with waveform generator techniques and circuits. Each chapter starts with an explanation of the basic principles of its subject followed by a wide range of practical circuit designs. This work presents a total of over 300 practical circuits, diagrams, and tables.Chapter 1 outlines the basic principles and the different types of generator. Chapters 2 to 9 deal with a specific type of waveform generator, including sine, square, triangular, sawtooth, and special waveform generators pulse. These chapters also include pulse gen

  5. CMOS circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1995-01-01

    CMOS Circuits Manual is a user's guide for CMOS. The book emphasizes the practical aspects of CMOS and provides circuits, tables, and graphs to further relate the fundamentals with the applications. The text first discusses the basic principles and characteristics of the CMOS devices. The succeeding chapters detail the types of CMOS IC, including simple inverter, gate and logic ICs and circuits, and complex counters and decoders. The last chapter presents a miscellaneous collection of two dozen useful CMOS circuits. The book will be useful to researchers and professionals who employ CMOS circu

  6. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  7. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  8. MOS integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfendale, E

    2013-01-01

    MOS Integral Circuit Design aims to help in the design of integrated circuits, especially large-scale ones, using MOS Technology through teaching of techniques, practical applications, and examples. The book covers topics such as design equation and process parameters; MOS static and dynamic circuits; logic design techniques, system partitioning, and layout techniques. Also featured are computer aids such as logic simulation and mask layout, as well as examples on simple MOS design. The text is recommended for electrical engineers who would like to know how to use MOS for integral circuit desi

  9. Security electronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1998-01-01

    Security Electronics Circuits Manual is an invaluable guide for engineers and technicians in the security industry. It will also prove to be a useful guide for students and experimenters, as well as providing experienced amateurs and DIY enthusiasts with numerous ideas to protect their homes, businesses and properties.As with all Ray Marston's Circuits Manuals, the style is easy-to-read and non-mathematical, with the emphasis firmly on practical applications, circuits and design ideas. The ICs and other devices used in the practical circuits are modestly priced and readily available ty

  10. Synchronizing Hyperchaotic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamasevicius, Arunas; Cenys, Antanas; Namajunas, Audrius;

    1997-01-01

    Regarding possible applications to secure communications the technique of synchronizing hyperchaotic circuits with a single dynamical variable is discussed. Several specific examples including the fourth-order circuits with two positive Lyapunov exponents as well as the oscillator with a delay line...

  11. A Virtual Circuits Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    The University of Colorado's Physics Education Technology (PhET) website offers free, high-quality simulations of many physics experiments that can be used in the classroom. The Circuit Construction Kit, for example, allows students to safely and constructively play with circuit components while learning the mathematics behind many circuit…

  12. Genetic circuit design automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Der, Bryan S; Shin, Jonghyeon; Vaidyanathan, Prashant; Paralanov, Vanya; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Ross, David; Densmore, Douglas; Voigt, Christopher A

    2016-04-01

    Computation can be performed in living cells by DNA-encoded circuits that process sensory information and control biological functions. Their construction is time-intensive, requiring manual part assembly and balancing of regulator expression. We describe a design environment, Cello, in which a user writes Verilog code that is automatically transformed into a DNA sequence. Algorithms build a circuit diagram, assign and connect gates, and simulate performance. Reliable circuit design requires the insulation of gates from genetic context, so that they function identically when used in different circuits. We used Cello to design 60 circuits forEscherichia coli(880,000 base pairs of DNA), for which each DNA sequence was built as predicted by the software with no additional tuning. Of these, 45 circuits performed correctly in every output state (up to 10 regulators and 55 parts), and across all circuits 92% of the output states functioned as predicted. Design automation simplifies the incorporation of genetic circuits into biotechnology projects that require decision-making, control, sensing, or spatial organization.

  13. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-12-22

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  14. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  15. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  16. Modern TTL circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Modern TTL Circuits Manual provides an introduction to the basic principles of Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). This book outlines the major features of the 74 series of integrated circuits (ICs) and introduces the various sub-groups of the TTL family.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basics of digital ICs. This text then examines the symbology and mathematics of digital logic. Other chapters consider a variety of topics, including waveform generator circuitry, clocked flip-flop and counter circuits, special counter/dividers, registers, data latches, com

  17. Plasmonic Nanoguides and Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Modern communication systems dealing with huge amounts of data at ever increasing speed try to utilize the best aspects of electronic and optical circuits. Electronic circuits are tiny but their operation speed is limited, whereas optical circuits are extremely fast but their sizes are limited by diffraction. Waveguide components utilizing surface plasmon (SP) modes were found to combine the huge optical bandwidth and compactness of electronics, and plasmonics thereby began to be considered as the next chip-scale technology. In this book, the authors concentrate on the SP waveguide configurati

  18. Pragmatic circuits frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2006-01-01

    Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain goes through the Laplace transform to get from the time domain to topics that include the s-plane, Bode diagrams, and the sinusoidal steady state. This second of three volumes ends with a-c power, which, although it is just a special case of the sinusoidal steady state, is an important topic with unique techniques and terminology. Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain is focused on the frequency domain. In other words, time will no longer be the independent variable in our analysis. The two other volumes in the Pragmatic Circuits series include titles on DC

  19. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronics Circuits Manual covers the basic principles and characteristics of the best known types of optoelectronic devices, as well as the practical applications of many of these optoelectronic devices. The book describes LED display circuits and LED dot- and bar-graph circuits and discusses the applications of seven-segment displays, light-sensitive devices, optocouplers, and a variety of brightness control techniques. The text also tackles infrared light-beam alarms and multichannel remote control systems. The book provides practical user information and circuitry and illustrations.

  20. Circuit analysis with Multisim

    CERN Document Server

    Baez-Lopez, David

    2011-01-01

    This book is concerned with circuit simulation using National Instruments Multisim. It focuses on the use and comprehension of the working techniques for electrical and electronic circuit simulation. The first chapters are devoted to basic circuit analysis.It starts by describing in detail how to perform a DC analysis using only resistors and independent and controlled sources. Then, it introduces capacitors and inductors to make a transient analysis. In the case of transient analysis, it is possible to have an initial condition either in the capacitor voltage or in the inductor current, or bo

  1. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucel, R. A.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), a new microwave technology which is expected to exert a profound influence on microwave circuit designs for future military systems as well as for the commercial and consumer markets, is discussed. The book contains an historical discussion followed by a comprehensive review presenting the current status in the field. The general topics of the volume are: design considerations, materials and processing considerations, monolithic circuit applications, and CAD, measurement, and packaging techniques. All phases of MMIC technology are covered, from design to testing.

  2. Latching overcurrent circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M. L.

    1970-01-01

    Circuit breaker consists of a preset current amplitude sensor, and a lamp-photo-resistor combination in a feedback arrangement which energizes a power switching relay. The ac input power is removed from the load at predetermined current amplitudes.

  3. High temperature circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R. N.; Travis, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Alternating current circuit breaker is suitable for reliable long-term service at 1000 deg F in the vacuum conditions of outer space. Construction materials are resistant to nuclear radiation and vacuum welding. Service test conditions and results are given.

  4. Overriding Faulty Circuit Breakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Richard L.; Pierson, Thomas E.

    1987-01-01

    Retainer keeps power on in emergency. Simple mechanical device attaches to failed aircraft-type push/pull circuit breaker to restore electrical power temporarily until breaker replaced. Device holds push/pull button in closed position; unnecessary for crewmember to hold button in position by continual finger pressure. Sleeve and plug hold button in, overriding mechanical failure in circuit breaker. Windows in sleeve show button position.

  5. Nanoelectronic circuit design and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsir, Muzaffer Orkun

    -alone nanowire circuits have been experimentally evaluated in research laboratories. In order to speed up development of nanowire circuits, and to increase the exposure to this technology, development of physical and logic-level design methodologies and tools for implementing VLSI designs are essential. In this thesis, we discuss an automated logic-to-layout design automation tool to fulfill this need for nanowires. The tool accepts a logic-level netlist and performs logic synthesis targeting nanowire cells. Then, since the defect levels in nanotechnologies are expected to be relatively high, it performs defect-aware placement and global routing. This is followed by the following steps: detailed routing, layout display, circuit extraction and SPICE simulation. We demonstrate preliminary results for area, delay and power for various benchmarks.

  6. Memristor-based nanoelectronic computing circuits and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Vourkas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    This book considers the design and development of nanoelectronic computing circuits, systems and architectures focusing particularly on memristors, which represent one of today’s latest technology breakthroughs in nanoelectronics. The book studies, explores, and addresses the related challenges and proposes solutions for the smooth transition from conventional circuit technologies to emerging computing memristive nanotechnologies. Its content spans from fundamental device modeling to emerging storage system architectures and novel circuit design methodologies, targeting advanced non-conventional analog/digital massively parallel computational structures. Several new results on memristor modeling, memristive interconnections, logic circuit design, memory circuit architectures, computer arithmetic systems, simulation software tools, and applications of memristors in computing are presented. High-density memristive data storage combined with memristive circuit-design paradigms and computational tools applied t...

  7. Circuit simulation: some humbling thoughts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Manfred; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A short, very personal note on circuit simulation is presented. It does neither include theoretical background on circuit simulation, nor offers an overview of available software, but just gives some general remarks for a discussion on circuit simulator needs in context to the design and development of accelerator beam instrumentation circuits and systems.

  8. A semiconductor laser excitation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaadzunari, O.; Masaty, K.

    1984-03-27

    A semiconductor laser excitation circuit is patented that is designed for operation in a pulsed mode with a high pulse repetition frequency. This circuit includes, in addition to a semiconductor laser, a high speed photodetector, a reference voltage source, a comparator, and a pulse oscillator and modulator. If the circuit is built using standard silicon integrated circuits, its speed amounts to several hundred megahertz, if it is constructed using gallium arsenide integrated circuits, its speed is several gigahertz.

  9. The Mind Grows Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahy, Rina

    2012-01-01

    There is a vast supply of prior art that study models for mental processes. Some studies in psychology and philosophy approach it from an inner perspective in terms of experiences and percepts. Others such as neurobiology or connectionist-machines approach it externally by viewing the mind as complex circuit of neurons where each neuron is a primitive binary circuit. In this paper, we also model the mind as a place where a circuit grows, starting as a collection of primitive components at birth and then builds up incrementally in a bottom up fashion. A new node is formed by a simple composition of prior nodes when we undergo a repeated experience that can be described by that composition. Unlike neural networks, however, these circuits take "concepts" or "percepts" as inputs and outputs. Thus the growing circuits can be likened to a growing collection of lambda expressions that are built on top of one another in an attempt to compress the sensory input as a heuristic to bound its Kolmogorov Complexity.

  10. Chaotic memristive circuit: equivalent circuit realization and dynamical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Bo-Cheng; Xu Jian-Ping; Zhou Guo-Hua; Ma Zheng-Hua; Zou Ling

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,a practical equivalent circuit of an active flux-controlled memristor characterized by smooth piecewise-quadratic nonlinearity is designed and an experimental chaotic memristive circuit is implemented.The chaotic memristive circuit has an equilibrium set and its stability is dependent on the initial state of the memristor.The initial state-dependent and the circuit parameter-dependent dynamics of the chaotic memristive circuit are investigated via phase portraits,bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents.Both experimental and simulation results validate the proposed equivalent circuit realization of the active flux-controlled memristor.

  11. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  12. Current Conveyor Equivalent Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejmal S. Rathore

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An equivalence between a class of (current conveyor CC II+ and CC II- circuits is established. CC IIequivalent circuit uses one extra element. However, under certain condition, the extra element can be eliminated. As an illustration of the application of this equivalence, minimal first and second order all-pass filters are derived. Incertain cases, it is possible to compensate the effect of the input resistor of CC at port X. At the end, an open problem of realizing an Nth order (N > 2 minimal all-pass filter is stated.

  13. Inrush Current Control Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An inrush current control circuit having an input terminal connected to a DC power supply and an output terminal connected to a load capacitor limits the inrush current that charges up the load capacitor during power up of a system. When the DC power supply applies a DC voltage to the input terminal, the inrush current control circuit produces a voltage ramp at the load capacitor instead of an abrupt DC voltage. The voltage ramp results in a constant low level current to charge up the load capacitor, greatly reducing the current drain on the DC power supply.

  14. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  15. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  16. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  17. Two railway circuits: a universal circuit and an NP-difficult one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Margenstern

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first we construct a railway circuit based on three types of switches and on crossings. Such a circuit is able to simulate the computation of any Turing machine, in particular of a universal one. That result was proved by Ian Stewart in [3]. In this paper, we give another construction, indeed a simpler one: here we show that it is possible to simulate the computation of any register machine, from which the same conclusion can be derived. The switches that are used in the universality result are re-used in order to prove another result. Define the accessibility problem for railway circuits to consist in the following. The circuit is given with, at the same time, two points of the circuit, one is called the source point, the other one is called the target point and a fixed number of other points, called flip-flop switches, that can be initialized arbitrarily. The problem is to decide, whether or not there is an initialization of the flip-flop switches such that it is then possible to go from the source to the target. This problem is proved to be NP-complete.

  18. Quantum secure circuit evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huanhuan; LI Bin; ZHUANG Zhenquan

    2004-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of classical secure circuit evaluation, this paper proposes a quantum approach. In this approach, the method of inserting redundant entangled particles and quantum signature has been employed to strengthen the security of the system. Theoretical analysis shows that our solution is secure against classical and quantum attacks.

  19. Superconducting Quantum Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majer, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes a number of experiments with superconducting cir- cuits containing small Josephson junctions. The circuits are made out of aluminum islands which are interconnected with a very thin insulating alu- minum oxide layer. The connections form a Josephson junction. The current trough

  20. Bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Sayler, Gary S. (Blaine, TN); Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are monolithic bioelectronic devices comprising a bioreporter and an OASIC. These bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit are useful in detecting substances such as pollutants, explosives, and heavy-metals residing in inhospitable areas such as groundwater, industrial process vessels, and battlefields. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for environmental pollutant detection, oil exploration, drug discovery, industrial process control, and hazardous chemical monitoring.

  1. Unusual target selectivity of perisomatic inhibitory cells in the hilar region of the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acsády, L; Katona, I; Martínez-Guijarro, F J; Buzsáki, G; Freund, T F

    2000-09-15

    Perisomatic inhibitory innervation of all neuron types profoundly affects their firing characteristics and vulnerability. In this study we examined the postsynaptic targets of perisomatic inhibitory cells in the hilar region of the dentate gyrus where the proportion of potential target cells (excitatory mossy cells and inhibitory interneurons) is approximately equal. Both cholecystokinin (CCK)- and parvalbumin-immunoreactive basket cells formed multiple contacts on the somata and proximal dendrites of mossy cells. Unexpectedly, however, perisomatic inhibitory terminals arriving from these cell types largely ignored hilar GABAergic cell populations. Eighty-ninety percent of various GABAergic neurons including other CCK-containing basket cells received no input from CCK-positive terminals. Parvalbumin-containing cells sometimes innervated each other but avoided 75% of other GABAergic cells. Overall, a single mossy cell received 40 times more CCK-immunoreactive terminals and 15 times more parvalbumin-positive terminals onto its soma than the cell body of an average hilar GABAergic cell. In contrast to the pronounced target selectivity in the hilar region, CCK- and parvalbumin-positive neurons innervated each other via collaterals in stratum granulosum and moleculare. Our observations indicate that the inhibitory control in the hilar region is qualitatively different from other cortical areas at both the network level and the level of single neurons. The paucity of perisomatic innervation of hilar interneurons should have profound consequences on their action potential generation and on their ensemble behavior. These findings may help explain the unique physiological patterns observed in the hilus and the selective vulnerability of the hilar cell population in various pathophysiological conditions.

  2. Distribution of parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the hippocampus of the gerbil--a qualitative and quantitative statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch, C; Scotti, A L; Nitsch, F M

    1995-08-01

    In the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) hippocampal formation, the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) shows a unique species-specific distribution: it is present in the perforant path from the entorhinal cortex to the stratum molecular of the dentate are and cornu ammonis. A possible relation of this to the seizure-sensitivity of gerbils has been suggested. In addition, as in other species, PV is contained in a subpopulation of GABAergic nerve cells of the gerbil hippocampus. The characteristics of these PV-containing neurons are here described. Distribution and shape of the PV-positive neurons in general agreed with the features described for rat hippocampus with two notable exceptions: in CA2 PV-containing perikarya were densely crowded and gave rise to an intense immunoreactive plexus around the pyramidal cells and, in CA1, the number of stained neurons was variable, often much lower than in rats and occasionally not a single PV-positive neuron was present. In parasagittal brain sections of the lateralities 1.0, 1.6 and 2.2 mm from the midline, obtained from 27 male gerbils, the number of PV-containing neurons was determined. The data set obtained in CA3 and dentate area resembled unimodal distributions, while in CA1 a bimodal frequency distribution was present. Since parametric and non-parametric correlation tests rely on a unimodal distribution of the data set, they gave falsely significant values in CA1. The bimodal distribution suggests that, with respect to the PV-containing interneurons in CA1, two different populations of gerbils were included in our sample, those with many positive neurons and those with only a few. Since the nerve terminal staining is preserved also in those gerbils with only a few positive perikarya in CA1, it seems possible that an unknown factor influenced PV expression and storage in the soma. Sex, age, seasonal or circadian rhythm or quality of immunocytochemical staining did not influence the outcome of the quantitative analysis. However, a relation of the expression of the high affinity calcium buffering PV in interneurons and the individual seizure sensitivity of the gerbil is considered.

  3. Parvalbumin-containing interneurons in rat hippocampus have an AMPA receptor profile suggestive of vulnerability to excitotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, Diana; Hof, Patrick R; Vissavajjhala, Prabhakar; Moran, Thomas M; Morrison, John H

    2002-05-01

    alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors mediate excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system, and contain combinations of four subunits (GluR1-4). We developed a GluR3-specific monoclonal antibody and quantified the cellular distribution of GluR3 in rat hippocampus. GluR3 immunoreactivity was detected in all pyramidal neurons and most interneurons. In addition, we found a subset of parvalbumin (PV)-containing interneurons in the hippocampus and neocortex that was notable for its intense GluR3 immunoreactivity and lack of GluR2 immunoreactivity. Such an expression pattern of AMPA receptor subunits is likely to make these interneurons selectively vulnerable to excitotoxicity.

  4. A loss of parvalbumin-containing interneurons is associated with diminished oscillatory activity in an animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Daniel J; Behrens, Margarita M; Grace, Anthony A

    2009-02-25

    Decreased GABAergic signaling is among the more robust pathologies observed postmortem in schizophrenia; however, the functional consequences of this deficit are still largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate, in a verified animal model of schizophrenia, that a reduced expression of parvalbumin (PV)-containing interneurons is correlated with a reduction in coordinated neuronal activity during task performance in freely moving rats. More specifically, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-treated rats display a decreased density of parvalbumin-positive interneurons throughout the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ventral (but not dorsal) subiculum of the hippocampus. Furthermore, the reduction in interneuron functionality is correlated with a significantly reduced gamma-band response to a conditioned tone during a latent inhibition paradigm. Finally, deficits in mPFC and ventral hippocampal oscillatory activity are associated with an impaired behavioral expression of latent inhibition in MAM-treated rats. Thus, we propose that a decrease in intrinsic GABAergic signaling may be responsible, at least in part, for the prefrontal and hippocampal hypofunctionality observed during task performance, which is consistently observed in animal models as well as in schizophrenia in humans. In addition, a deficit in intrinsic GABAergic signaling may be the origin of the hippocampal hyperactivity purported to underlie the dopamine dysfunction in psychosis. Such information is central to gaining a better understanding of the disease pathophysiology and alternate pharmacotherapeutic approaches.

  5. A loss of parvalbumin-containing interneurons is associated with diminished oscillatory activity in an animal model of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Lodge, Daniel J.; Behrens, Margarita M.; Grace, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Decreased GABAergic signaling is among the more robust pathologies observed post-mortem in schizophrenia; however, the functional consequences of this deficit are still largely unknown. Here we demonstrate, in a verified animal model of schizophrenia, that a reduced expression of parvalbumin- (PV) containing interneurons is correlated with a reduction in coordinated neuronal activity during task performance in freely moving rats. More specifically, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-treated ra...

  6. Parallel sparse direct solver for integrated circuit simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaoming; Yang, Huazhong

    2017-01-01

    This book describes algorithmic methods and parallelization techniques to design a parallel sparse direct solver which is specifically targeted at integrated circuit simulation problems. The authors describe a complete flow and detailed parallel algorithms of the sparse direct solver. They also show how to improve the performance by simple but effective numerical techniques. The sparse direct solver techniques described can be applied to any SPICE-like integrated circuit simulator and have been proven to be high-performance in actual circuit simulation. Readers will benefit from the state-of-the-art parallel integrated circuit simulation techniques described in this book, especially the latest parallel sparse matrix solution techniques. · Introduces complicated algorithms of sparse linear solvers, using concise principles and simple examples, without complex theory or lengthy derivations; · Describes a parallel sparse direct solver that can be adopted to accelerate any SPICE-like integrated circuit simulato...

  7. Electronic circuits and systems: A compilation. [including integrated circuits, logic circuits, varactor diode circuits, low pass filters, and optical equipment circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Technological information is presented electronic circuits and systems which have potential utility outside the aerospace community. Topics discussed include circuit components such as filters, converters, and integrators, circuits designed for use with specific equipment or systems, and circuits designed primarily for use with optical equipment or displays.

  8. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a method for behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits, which aims at providing a synthesis flow which uses and tranfers methods from synchronous circuits to asynchronous circuits. We move the synchronous behavioral synthesis abstraction into the asynchronous handshake...... is idle. This reduces unnecessary switching activity in the individual functional units and therefore the energy consumption of the entire circuit. A collection of behavioral synthesis algorithms have been developed allowing the designer to perform time and power constrained design space exploration...

  9. The LMT circuit and SPICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamacevicius, Arunas

    2006-01-01

    The state equations of the LMT circuit are modeled as a dedicated analogue computer circuit and solved by means of PSpice. The nonlinear part of the system is studied. Problems with the PSpice program are presented.......The state equations of the LMT circuit are modeled as a dedicated analogue computer circuit and solved by means of PSpice. The nonlinear part of the system is studied. Problems with the PSpice program are presented....

  10. Diode, transistor & fet circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Diode, Transistor and FET Circuits Manual is a handbook of circuits based on discrete semiconductor components such as diodes, transistors, and FETS. The book also includes diagrams and practical circuits. The book describes basic and special diode characteristics, heat wave-rectifier circuits, transformers, filter capacitors, and rectifier ratings. The text also presents practical applications of associated devices, for example, zeners, varicaps, photodiodes, or LEDs, as well as it describes bipolar transistor characteristics. The transistor can be used in three basic amplifier configuration

  11. Statistical circuit design for yield improvement in CMOS circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, H. J.; Purviance, J. E.; Whitaker, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the statistical design of CMOS integrated circuits for improved parametric yield. The work uses the Monte Carlo technique of circuit simulation to obtain an unbiased estimation of the yield. A simple graphical analysis tool, the yield factor histogram, is presented. The yield factor histograms are generated by a new computer program called SPICENTER. Using the yield factor histograms, the most sensitive circuit parameters are noted, and their nominal values are changed to improve the yield. Two basic CMOS example circuits, one analog and one digital, are chosen and their designs are 'centered' to illustrate the use of the yield factor histograms for statistical circuit design.

  12. Circuit Bodging: Atari Punk Console

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, B.

    2009-01-01

    Circuit bodging is back! Maxwell is proud to present small, simple, but ultimately lovable little circuits to build for your own, personal pleasure. In this edition we are featuring: The Atari Punk Console. The Atari Punk Console (or APC) is a 555 timer IC based noise maker circuit. The original was

  13. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  14. LC-Circuit Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bossen, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    We present a new type of calorimeter in which we couple an unknown heat capacity with the aid of Peltier elements to an electrical circuit. The use of an electrical inductance and an amplifier in the circuit allows us to achieve autonomous oscillations, and the measurement of the corresponding resonance frequency makes it possible to accurately measure the heat capacity with an intrinsic statistical error that decreases as ~t^{-3/2} with measuring time t, as opposed to a corresponding error ~t^{-1/2} in the conventional alternating current (a.c.) method to measure heat capacities. We have built a demonstration experiment to show the feasibility of the new technique, and we have tested it on a gadolinium sample at its transition to the ferromagnetic state.

  15. Preconditioner Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ground plane and both operational amplifier terminals. The parasitic capacitances are labeled Cp1 and Cp2 in Figure 19. Figure 19. Circuit for...3.69 MHz 3.98pF 55720 5107 OV                                  (17) Cp2 = 1 pF R1 = 5107 Ω R3...circuit. The capacitor would be placed in parallel with RF to cancel the effect of Cp2 and then feedback factor will look purely resistive. Another

  16. Inkjet deposited circuit components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidoki, S. M.; Nouri, J.; Heidari, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    All-printed electronics as a means of achieving ultra-low-cost electronic circuits has attracted great interest in recent years. Inkjet printing is one of the most promising techniques by which the circuit components can be ultimately drawn (i.e. printed) onto the substrate in one step. Here, the inkjet printing technique was used to chemically deposit silver nanoparticles (10-200 nm) simply by ejection of silver nitrate and reducing solutions onto different substrates such as paper, PET plastic film and textile fabrics. The silver patterns were tested for their functionality to work as circuit components like conductor, resistor, capacitor and inductor. Different levels of conductivity were achieved simply by changing the printing sequence, inks ratio and concentration. The highest level of conductivity achieved by an office thermal inkjet printer (300 dpi) was 5.54 × 105 S m-1 on paper. Inkjet deposited capacitors could exhibit a capacitance of more than 1.5 nF (parallel plate 45 × 45 mm2) and induction coils displayed an inductance of around 400 µH (planar coil 10 cm in diameter). Comparison of electronic performance of inkjet deposited components to the performance of conventionally etched items makes the technique highly promising for fabricating different printed electronic devices.

  17. Digital integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasek, P.; Halamik, J.

    1984-05-01

    The term semicustom designed integrated circuits denotes integrated circuits of an all purpose character in which the production of chips is completed by using one to three custom design stencil type exposure masks. This involves in most cases interconnecting masks that are used to devise the circuit function desired by the customer. Silicon plates with an all purpose gate matrix are produced up to the interconnection level and can be kept at this phase in storage, after which a customer's specific demands can be met very expediently. All purpose logic fields containing 200 logic gates on a chip and an all purpose chip to be expanded to 1,000 logic gates are discussed. The technology facilitates the devising of fast gates with a delay of approximately 5 ns and power dissipation of 1 mW. In assembly it will be possible to make use of the entire assortment of the currently used casings with 16, 18, 20, 24, 28 and 40 outlets. In addition to the development of the mentioned technology, a general methodology for design of the mentioned gate fields is currently under way.

  18. Changes to the shuttle circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    To fit with passengers expectation, there will be some changes to the shuttle circuits as from Monday 10 October. See details on http://cern.ch/ShuttleService (on line on 7 October). Circuit No. 5 is cancelled as circuit No. 1 also stops at Bldg. 33. In order to guarantee shorter travel times, circuit No. 1 will circulate on Meyrin site only and circuit No. 2, with departures from Bldg. 33 and 500, on Prévessin site only. Site Services Section

  19. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Lane, William H.

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  20. Robust design of biological circuits: evolutionary systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Liou, Jing-Jia

    2011-01-01

    Artificial gene circuits have been proposed to be embedded into microbial cells that function as switches, timers, oscillators, and the Boolean logic gates. Building more complex systems from these basic gene circuit components is one key advance for biologic circuit design and synthetic biology. However, the behavior of bioengineered gene circuits remains unstable and uncertain. In this study, a nonlinear stochastic system is proposed to model the biological systems with intrinsic parameter fluctuations and environmental molecular noise from the cellular context in the host cell. Based on evolutionary systems biology algorithm, the design parameters of target gene circuits can evolve to specific values in order to robustly track a desired biologic function in spite of intrinsic and environmental noise. The fitness function is selected to be inversely proportional to the tracking error so that the evolutionary biological circuit can achieve the optimal tracking mimicking the evolutionary process of a gene circuit. Finally, several design examples are given in silico with the Monte Carlo simulation to illustrate the design procedure and to confirm the robust performance of the proposed design method. The result shows that the designed gene circuits can robustly track desired behaviors with minimal errors even with nontrivial intrinsic and external noise.

  1. Differential GABAB-receptor-mediated effects in perisomatic- and dendrite-targeting parvalbumin interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Sam A; Gross, Anna; Althof, Daniel; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Bettler, Bernhard; Frotscher, Michael; Hearing, Matthew; Wickman, Kevin; Watanabe, Masahiko; Kulik, Ákos; Vida, Imre

    2013-05-01

    Inhibitory parvalbumin-containing interneurons (PVIs) control neuronal discharge and support the generation of theta- and gamma-frequency oscillations in cortical networks. Fast GABAergic input onto PVIs is crucial for their synchronization and oscillatory entrainment, but the role of metabotropic GABA(B) receptors (GABA(B)Rs) in mediating slow presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition remains unknown. In this study, we have combined high-resolution immunoelectron microscopy, whole-cell patch-clamp recording, and computational modeling to investigate the subcellular distribution and effects of GABA(B)Rs and their postsynaptic effector Kir3 channels in rat hippocampal PVIs. Pre-embedding immunogold labeling revealed that the receptors and channels localize at high levels to the extrasynaptic membrane of parvalbumin-immunoreactive dendrites. Immunoreactivity for GABA(B)Rs was also present at lower levels on PVI axon terminals. Whole-cell recordings further showed that synaptically released GABA in response to extracellular stimulation evokes large GABA(B)R-mediated slow IPSCs in perisomatic-targeting (PT) PVIs, but only small or no currents in dendrite-targeting (DT) PVIs. In contrast, paired recordings demonstrated that GABA(B)R activation results in presynaptic inhibition at the output synapses of both PT and DT PVIs, but more strongly in the latter. Finally, computational analysis indicated that GABA(B) IPSCs can phasically modulate the discharge of PT interneurons at theta frequencies. In summary, our results show that GABA(B)Rs differentially mediate slow presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition in PVIs and can contribute to the dynamic modulation of their activity during oscillations. Furthermore, these data provide evidence for a compartment-specific molecular divergence of hippocampal PVI subtypes, suggesting that activation of GABA(B)Rs may shift the balance between perisomatic and dendritic inhibition.

  2. Memristor based startup circuit for self biased circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mangal; Singh, Amit Kumar; Rathi, Amit; Singhal, Sonal

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the design of a Memristor based startup circuit for self biased circuits. Memristor has many advantages over conventional CMOS devices such as low leakage current at nanometer scale, easy to manufacture. In this work the switching characteristics of memristor is utilized. First the theoretical equations describing the switching behavior of memristor are investigated. To prove the switching capability of Memristor, a startup circuit based on memristor is proposed which uses series combination of Memristor and capacitor. Proposed circuit is compared with the previously reported MOSFET based startup circuits. Comparison of different circuits was done to validate the results. Simulation results show that memristor based circuit can attain on (I = 12.94 µA) to off state (I = 1 .2 µA) in 25 ns while the MOSFET based startup circuits take on (I = 14.19 µA) to off state (I = 1.4 µA) in more than 90 ns. The benefit comes in terms of area because the number of components used in the circuit are lesser than the conventional startup circuits.

  3. Semaphorin signaling in vertebrate neural circuit assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka eYoshida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuit formation requires the coordination of many complex developmental processes. First, neurons project axons over long distances to find their final targets and then establish appropriate connectivity essential for the formation of neuronal circuitry. Growth cones, the leading edges of axons, navigate by interacting with a variety of attractive and repulsive axon guidance cues along their trajectories and at final target regions. In addition to guidance of axons, neuronal polarization, neuronal migration and dendrite development must be precisely regulated during development to establish proper neural circuitry. Semaphorins consist of a large protein family, which includes secreted and cell surface proteins, and they play important roles in many steps of neural circuit formation. The major semaphorin receptors are plexins and neuropilins, however other receptors and co-receptors also mediate signaling by semaphorins. Upon semaphorin binding to their receptors, downstream signaling molecules transduce this event within cells to mediate further events, including alteration of microtubule and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Here, I review recent studies on semaphorin signaling in vertebrate neural circuit assembly, with the goal of highlighting how this diverse family of cues and receptors imparts exquisite specificity to neural complex connectivity.

  4. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  5. Electronic logic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, J

    2013-01-01

    Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate

  6. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  7. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  8. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1999-01-01

    This manual is a useful single-volume guide specifically aimed at the practical design engineer, technician, and experimenter, as well as the electronics student and amateur. It deals with the subject in an easy to read, down to earth, and non-mathematical yet comprehensive manner, explaining the basic principles and characteristics of the best known devices, and presenting the reader with many practical applications and over 200 circuits. Most of the ICs and other devices used are inexpensive and readily available types, with universally recognised type numbers.The second edition

  9. Nano integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-15

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  10. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  11. Electric circuits problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of electric circuits currently av

  12. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lawrence T.; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  13. 49 CFR 236.13 - Spring switch; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... circuits through circuit controller. 236.13 Section 236.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller. The control circuits of signals governing... circuit controller, or through the contacts of relay repeating the position of such circuit...

  14. Quasi-Linear Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, William; Bird, Ross; Eldred, Dennis; Zook, Jon; Knowles, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    This work involved developing spacequalifiable switch mode DC/DC power supplies that improve performance with fewer components, and result in elimination of digital components and reduction in magnetics. This design is for missions where systems may be operating under extreme conditions, especially at elevated temperature levels from 200 to 300 degC. Prior art for radiation-tolerant DC/DC converters has been accomplished utilizing classical magnetic-based switch mode converter topologies; however, this requires specific shielding and component de-rating to meet the high-reliability specifications. It requires complex measurement and feedback components, and will not enable automatic re-optimization for larger changes in voltage supply or electrical loading condition. The innovation is a switch mode DC/DC power supply that eliminates the need for processors and most magnetics. It can provide a well-regulated voltage supply with a gain of 1:100 step-up to 8:1 step down, tolerating an up to 30% fluctuation of the voltage supply parameters. The circuit incorporates a ceramic core transformer in a manner that enables it to provide a well-regulated voltage output without use of any processor components or magnetic transformers. The circuit adjusts its internal parameters to re-optimize its performance for changes in supply voltage, environmental conditions, or electrical loading at the output

  15. Automated Design of Quantum Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin P.; Gray, Alexander G.

    2000-01-01

    In order to design a quantum circuit that performs a desired quantum computation, it is necessary to find a decomposition of the unitary matrix that represents that computation in terms of a sequence of quantum gate operations. To date, such designs have either been found by hand or by exhaustive enumeration of all possible circuit topologies. In this paper we propose an automated approach to quantum circuit design using search heuristics based on principles abstracted from evolutionary genetics, i.e. using a genetic programming algorithm adapted specially for this problem. We demonstrate the method on the task of discovering quantum circuit designs for quantum teleportation. We show that to find a given known circuit design (one which was hand-crafted by a human), the method considers roughly an order of magnitude fewer designs than naive enumeration. In addition, the method finds novel circuit designs superior to those previously known.

  16. CMOS Nonlinear Signal Processing Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The chapter describes various nonlinear signal processing CMOS circuits, including a high reliable WTA/LTA, simple MED cell, and low-voltage arbitrary order extractor. We focus the discussion on CMOS analog circuit design with reliable, programmable capability, and low voltage operation. It is a practical problem when the multiple identical cells are required to match and realized within a single chip using a conventional process. Thus, the design of high-reliable circuit is indeed needed. Th...

  17. Analog electronic neural network circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, H.P.; Jackel, L.D. (AT and T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ (USA))

    1989-07-01

    The large interconnectivity and moderate precision required in neural network models present new opportunities for analog computing. This paper discusses analog circuits for a variety of problems such as pattern matching, optimization, and learning. Most of the circuits build so far are relatively small, exploratory designs. The most mature circuits are those for template matching. Chips performing this function are now being applied to pattern recognition problems.

  18. Transistor switching and sequential circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sparkes, John J

    1969-01-01

    Transistor Switching and Sequential Circuits presents the basic ideas involved in the construction of computers, instrumentation, pulse communication systems, and automation. This book discusses the design procedure for sequential circuits. Organized into two parts encompassing eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the ways on how to generate the types of waveforms needed in digital circuits, principally ramps, square waves, and delays. This text then considers the behavior of some simple circuits, including the inverter, the emitter follower, and the long-tailed pair. Other cha

  19. Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.;

    1999-01-01

    A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...

  20. A Circuit to Demonstrate Phase Relationships in "RLC" Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, P. E.; Warren, G.; Zheng, B.; Smith, P.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a circuit to demonstrate the phase relationships between resistive and reactive elements in series "RLC" circuits. We utilize a differential amplifier to allow the phases of the three elements and the current to be simultaneously displayed on an inexpensive four channel oscilloscope. We have included a novel circuit…

  1. VLSI circuits implementing computational models of neocortical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijekoon, Jayawan H B; Dudek, Piotr

    2012-09-15

    This paper overviews the design and implementation of three neuromorphic integrated circuits developed for the COLAMN ("Novel Computing Architecture for Cognitive Systems based on the Laminar Microcircuitry of the Neocortex") project. The circuits are implemented in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology and include spiking and bursting neuron models, and synapses with short-term (facilitating/depressing) and long-term (STDP and dopamine-modulated STDP) dynamics. They enable execution of complex nonlinear models in accelerated-time, as compared with biology, and with low power consumption. The neural dynamics are implemented using analogue circuit techniques, with digital asynchronous event-based input and output. The circuits provide configurable hardware blocks that can be used to simulate a variety of neural networks. The paper presents experimental results obtained from the fabricated devices, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the analogue circuit approach to computational neural modelling.

  2. A dishwasher for circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    You have always been told that electronic devices fear water. However, at the Surface Mount Devices (SMD) Workshop here at CERN all the electronic assemblies are cleaned with a machine that looks like a… dishwasher.   The circuit dishwasher. Credit: Clara Nellist.  If you think the image above shows a dishwasher, you wouldn’t be completely wrong. Apart from the fact that the whole pumping system and the case itself are made entirely from stainless steel and chemical resistant materials, and the fact that it washes electrical boards instead of dishes… it works exactly like a dishwasher. It’s a professional machine (mainly used in the pharmaceutical industry) designed to clean everything that can be washed with a water-based chemical soap. This type of treatment increases the lifetime of the electronic boards and therefore the LHC's reliability by preventing corrosion problems in the severe radiation and ozone environment of the LHC tunn...

  3. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  4. Memristor Circuits and Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-05-01

    Current CMOS-based technologies are facing design challenges related to the continuous scaling down of the minimum feature size, according to Moore’s law. Moreover, conventional computing architecture is no longer an effective way of fulfilling modern applications demands, such as big data analysis, pattern recognition, and vector processing. Therefore, there is an exigent need to shift to new technologies, at both the architecture and the device levels. Recently, memristor devices and structures attracted attention for being promising candidates for this job. Memristor device adds a new dimension for designing novel circuits and systems. In addition, high-density memristor-based crossbar is widely considered to be the essential element for future memory and bio-inspired computing systems. However, numerous challenges need to be addressed before the memristor genuinely replaces current memory and computing technologies, which is the motivation behind this research effort. In order to address the technology challenges, we begin by fabricating and modeling the memristor device. The devices fabricated at our local clean room enriched our understanding of the memristive phenomenon and enabled the experimental testing for our memristor-based circuits. Moreover, our proposed mathematical modeling for memristor behavior is an essential element for the theoretical circuit design stage. Designing and addressing the challenges of memristor systems with practical complexity, however, requires an extra step, which takes the form of a reliable and modular simulation platform. We, therefore, built a new simulation platform for the resistive crossbar, which can simulate realistic size arrays filled with real memory data. In addition, this simulation platform includes various crossbar nonidealities in order to obtain accurate simulation results. Consequently, we were able to address the significant challenges facing the high density memristor crossbar, as the building block for

  5. Diamond Integrated Optomechanical Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Rath, Patrik; Nebel, Christoph; Wild, Christoph; Pernice, Wolfram H P

    2013-01-01

    Diamond offers unique material advantages for the realization of micro- and nanomechanical resonators due to its high Young's modulus, compatibility with harsh environments and superior thermal properties. At the same time, the wide electronic bandgap of 5.45eV makes diamond a suitable material for integrated optics because of broadband transparency and the absence of free-carrier absorption commonly encountered in silicon photonics. Here we take advantage of both to engineer full-scale optomechanical circuits in diamond thin films. We show that polycrystalline diamond films fabricated by chemical vapour deposition provide a convenient waferscale substrate for the realization of high quality nanophotonic devices. Using free-standing nanomechanical resonators embedded in on-chip Mach-Zehnder interferometers, we demonstrate efficient optomechanical transduction via gradient optical forces. Fabricated diamond resonators reproducibly show high mechanical quality factors up to 11,200. Our low cost, wideband, carri...

  6. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2010-09-01

    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  7. Short-circuit impedance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating the short-circuit impedance in the power grid are investigated for various voltage levels and situations. The short-circuit impedance is measured, preferably from naturally occurring load changes in the grid, and it is shown that such a measurement system faces different...

  8. Comminution circuits for compact itabirites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ferreira Pinto

    Full Text Available Abstract In the beneficiation of compact Itabirites, crushing and grinding account for major operational and capital costs. As such, the study and development of comminution circuits have a fundamental importance for feasibility and optimization of compact Itabirite beneficiation. This work makes a comparison between comminution circuits for compact Itabirites from the Iron Quadrangle. The circuits developed are: a crushing and ball mill circuit (CB, a SAG mill and ball mill circuit (SAB and a single stage SAG mill circuit (SSSAG. For the SAB circuit, the use of pebble crushing is analyzed (SABC. An industrial circuit for 25 million tons of run of mine was developed for each route from tests on a pilot scale (grinding and industrial scale. The energy consumption obtained for grinding in the pilot tests was compared with that reported by Donda and Bond. The SSSAG route had the lowest energy consumption, 11.8kWh/t and the SAB route had the highest energy consumption, 15.8kWh/t. The CB and SABC routes had a similar energy consumption of 14.4 kWh/t and 14.5 kWh/t respectively.

  9. Dive In to Aquatic Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    The article presents a method for swimming teachers and coaches to stave off workout boredom in their students by using a circuit in the pool. After explaining how to set up a training circuit, the article describes sample stations and notes important safety precautions. (SM)

  10. Sequential Polarity-Reversing Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaw, Clayton C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed circuit reverses polarity of electric power supplied to bidirectional dc motor, reversible electro-mechanical actuator, or other device operating in direction depending on polarity. Circuit reverses polarity each time power turned on, without need for additional polarity-reversing or direction signals and circuitry to process them.

  11. Logic Circuit Design Selected Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Vingron, Shimon P

    2012-01-01

        In three main divisions the  book covers combinational circuits, latches, and asynchronous sequential circuits. Combinational circuits have  no memorising ability, while sequential circuits have such an ability to various degrees. Latches are the simplest sequential circuits, ones with the shortest memory. The presentation is decidedly non-standard.         The design of combinational circuits is discussed in an orthodox manner using normal forms and in an unorthodox manner using set-theoretical evaluation formulas relying heavily on Karnaugh maps. The latter approach allows for a new design technique called composition.          Latches are covered very extensively. Their memory functions are expressed mathematically in a time-independent manner allowing the use of (normal, non-temporal) Boolean logic in their calculation. The theory of latches is then used as the basis for calculating asynchronous circuits.         Asynchronous circuits are specified in a tree-representation, eac...

  12. Enhancement of Linear Circuit Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Dabu, Mihaela; Beldiman, Octavian

    1996-01-01

    In this report a preliminary user friendly interface has been added to the LCP2 program making it possible to describe an electronic circuit by actually drawing the circuit on the screen. Component values and other options and parameters can easily be set by the aid of the interface. The interfac...

  13. Accurate Switched-Voltage voltage averaging circuit

    OpenAIRE

    金光, 一幸; 松本, 寛樹

    2006-01-01

    Abstract ###This paper proposes an accurate Switched-Voltage (SV) voltage averaging circuit. It is presented ###to compensated for NMOS missmatch error at MOS differential type voltage averaging circuit. ###The proposed circuit consists of a voltage averaging and a SV sample/hold (S/H) circuit. It can ###operate using nonoverlapping three phase clocks. Performance of this circuit is verified by PSpice ###simulations.

  14. 46 CFR 169.670 - Circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit breakers. 169.670 Section 169.670 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.670 Circuit breakers. Each circuit breaker must be of the manually reset type designed... the circuit without damage to the circuit breaker....

  15. A 'tool box' for deciphering neuronal circuits in the developing chick spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Yoav; Etlin, Alex; Falk, Haya; Avraham, Oshri; Kobiler, Oren; Panet, Amos; Lev-Tov, Aharon; Klar, Avihu

    2014-10-29

    The genetic dissection of spinal circuits is an essential new means for understanding the neural basis of mammalian behavior. Molecular targeting of specific neuronal populations, a key instrument in the genetic dissection of neuronal circuits in the mouse model, is a complex and time-demanding process. Here we present a circuit-deciphering 'tool box' for fast, reliable and cheap genetic targeting of neuronal circuits in the developing spinal cord of the chick. We demonstrate targeting of motoneurons and spinal interneurons, mapping of axonal trajectories and synaptic targeting in both single and populations of spinal interneurons, and viral vector-mediated labeling of pre-motoneurons. We also demonstrate fluorescent imaging of the activity pattern of defined spinal neurons during rhythmic motor behavior, and assess the role of channel rhodopsin-targeted population of interneurons in rhythmic behavior using specific photoactivation.

  16. Photodiode circuits for retinal prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, J D; Cogan, S F; Mathieson, K; Sher, A; Palanker, D V

    2011-10-01

    Photodiode circuits show promise for the development of high-resolution retinal prostheses. While several of these systems have been constructed and some even implanted in humans, existing descriptions of the complex optoelectronic interaction between light, photodiode, and the electrode/electrolyte load are limited. This study examines this interaction in depth with theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. Actively biased photoconductive and passive photovoltaic circuits are investigated, with the photovoltaic circuits consisting of one or more diodes connected in series, and the photoconductive circuits consisting of a single diode in series with a pulsed bias voltage. Circuit behavior and charge injection levels were markedly different for platinum and sputtered iridium-oxide film (SIROF) electrodes. Photovoltaic circuits were able to deliver 0.038 mC/cm(2) (0.75 nC/phase) per photodiode with 50- μm platinum electrodes, and 0.54-mC/cm(2) (11 nC/phase) per photodiode with 50-μ m SIROF electrodes driven with 0.5-ms pulses of light at 25 Hz. The same pulses applied to photoconductive circuits with the same electrodes were able to deliver charge injections as high as 0.38 and 7.6 mC/cm(2) (7.5 and 150 nC/phase), respectively. We demonstrate photovoltaic stimulation of rabbit retina in-vitro, with 0.5-ms pulses of 905-nm light using peak irradiance of 1 mW/mm(2). Based on the experimental data, we derive electrochemical and optical safety limits for pixel density and charge injection in various circuits. While photoconductive circuits offer smaller pixels, photovoltaic systems do not require an external bias voltage. Both classes of circuits show promise for the development of high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prostheses.

  17. Functioning of Circuits Connecting Thalamus and Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, S Murray

    2017-03-16

    Glutamatergic pathways in thalamus and cortex are divided into two distinct classes: driver, which carries the main information between cells, and modulator, which modifies how driver inputs function. Identifying driver inputs helps to reveal functional computational circuits, and one set of such circuits identified by this approach are cortico-thalamo-cortical (or transthalamic corticocortical) circuits. This, in turn, leads to the conclusion that there are two types of thalamic relay: first order nuclei (such as the lateral geniculate nucleus) that relay driver input from a subcortical source (i.e., retina), and higher order nuclei (such as the pulvinar) which are involved in these transthalamic pathways by relaying driver input from layer 5 of one cortical area to another. This thalamic division is also seen in other sensory pathways and beyond these so that most of thalamus by volume consists of higher-order relays. Many, and perhaps all, direct driver connections between cortical areas are paralleled by an indirect cortico-thalamo-cortical (transthalamic) driver route involving higher order thalamic relays. Such thalamic relays represent a heretofore unappreciated role in cortical functioning, and this assessment challenges and extends conventional views regarding both the role of thalamus and mechanisms of corticocortical communication. Finally, many and perhaps the vast majority of driver inputs relayed through thalamus arrive via branching axons, with extrathalamic targets often being subcortical motor centers. This raises the possibility that inputs relayed by thalamus to cortex also serve as efference copies, and this may represent an important feature of information relayed up the cortical hierarchy via transthalamic circuits. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:713-739, 2017.

  18. Experimental Device for Learning of Logical Circuit Design using Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    石橋, 孝昭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for learning of logical circuit design using integrated circuits and breadboards. The experimental device can be made at a low cost and can be used for many subjects such as logical circuits, computer engineering, basic electricity, electrical circuits and electronic circuits. The proposed device is effective to learn the logical circuits than the usual lecture.

  19. 30 CFR 75.800 - High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. 75.800... § 75.800 High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. High-voltage circuits entering the underground area of any coal mine shall be protected by suitable circuit breakers of adequate interrupting...

  20. Performance analysis of electrical circuits /PANE/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. L.; Steinberg, L. L.

    1968-01-01

    Automated statistical and worst case computer program has been designed to perform dc and ac steady circuit analyses. The program determines the worst case circuit performance by solving circuit equations.

  1. Variational integrators for electric circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ober-Blöbaum, Sina, E-mail: sinaob@math.upb.de [Computational Dynamics and Optimal Control, University of Paderborn (Germany); Tao, Molei [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Cheng, Mulin [Applied and Computational Mathematics, California Institute of Technology (United States); Owhadi, Houman; Marsden, Jerrold E. [Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology (United States); Applied and Computational Mathematics, California Institute of Technology (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In this contribution, we develop a variational integrator for the simulation of (stochastic and multiscale) electric circuits. When considering the dynamics of an electric circuit, one is faced with three special situations: 1. The system involves external (control) forcing through external (controlled) voltage sources and resistors. 2. The system is constrained via the Kirchhoff current (KCL) and voltage laws (KVL). 3. The Lagrangian is degenerate. Based on a geometric setting, an appropriate variational formulation is presented to model the circuit from which the equations of motion are derived. A time-discrete variational formulation provides an iteration scheme for the simulation of the electric circuit. Dependent on the discretization, the intrinsic degeneracy of the system can be canceled for the discrete variational scheme. In this way, a variational integrator is constructed that gains several advantages compared to standard integration tools for circuits; in particular, a comparison to BDF methods (which are usually the method of choice for the simulation of electric circuits) shows that even for simple LCR circuits, a better energy behavior and frequency spectrum preservation can be observed using the developed variational integrator.

  2. Determining Covers in Combinational Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Cvetkovic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a procedure for determining 0- or 1-cover of an arbitrary line in a combinational circuit. When determining a cover we do not need Boolean expression for the line; only the circuit structure is used. Within the proposed procedure we use the tools of the cube theory, in particular, some operations defined on cubes. The procedure can be applied for determining 0- and 1- covers of output lines in programmable logic devices. Basically, this procedure is a method for the analysis of a combinational circuit.

  3. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-09-28

    The invention presented relates to a high-power pulsing circuit and more particularly to a repetitive pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit for an electromagnetic launcher. In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, an overpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  4. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-09-28

    The invention presented relates to a high-power pulsing circuit and more particularly to a repetitive pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit for an electromagnetic launcher. In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, a counterpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  5. Secure integrated circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Verbauwhede, Ingrid MR

    2010-01-01

    On any advanced integrated circuit or 'system-on-chip' there is a need for security. In many applications the actual implementation has become the weakest link in security rather than the algorithms or protocols. The purpose of the book is to give the integrated circuits and systems designer an insight into the basics of security and cryptography from the implementation point of view. As a designer of integrated circuits and systems it is important to know both the state-of-the-art attacks as well as the countermeasures. Optimizing for security is different from optimizations for speed, area,

  6. The Maplin electronic circuits handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Maplin Electronic Circuits Handbook provides pertinent data, formula, explanation, practical guidance, theory and practical guidance in the design, testing, and construction of electronic circuits. This book discusses the developments in electronics technology techniques.Organized into 11 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the common types of passive component. This text then provides the reader with sufficient information to make a correct selection of passive components for use in the circuits. Other chapters consider the various types of the most commonly used semiconductor

  7. Chaos Control for Chua's Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tôrres, L. A. B.; Aguirre, L. A.; Palhares, R. M.; Mendes, E. M. A. M.

    The practical implementation of Chua's circuit control methods is discussed in this chapter. In order to better address this subject, an inductorless Chua's circuit realization is first presented, followed by practical issues related to data analysis, mathematical modelling, and dynamical characterization associated to this electronic chaotic oscillator. As a consequence of the investigation of different control strategies applied to Chua's circuit, a tradeoff among control objective, control energy, and model complexity is devised, which quite naturally leads to a principle that seems to be of general nature: the Information Transmission Via Control (ITVC) for nonlinear oscillators. The main purpose of the present chapter is to serve as an introductory guide to the universe of Chua's circuit control, synchronization, and mathematical modelling.

  8. CADAT integrated circuit mask analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    CADAT System Mask Analysis Program (MAPS2) is automated software tool for analyzing integrated-circuit mask design. Included in MAPS2 functions are artwork verification, device identification, nodal analysis, capacitance calculation, and logic equation generation.

  9. Circuit design on plastic foils

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, Daniele; Roermund, Arthur H M

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates a variety of circuit designs on plastic foils and provides all the information needed to undertake successful designs in large-area electronics.  The authors demonstrate architectural, circuit, layout, and device solutions and explain the reasons and the creative process behind each. Readers will learn how to keep under control large-area technologies and achieve robust, reliable circuit designs that can face the challenges imposed by low-cost low-temperature high-throughput manufacturing.   • Discusses implications of problems associated with large-area electronics and compares them to standard silicon; • Provides the basis for understanding physics and modeling of disordered material; • Includes guidelines to quickly setup the basic CAD tools enabling efficient and reliable designs; • Illustrates practical solutions to cope with hard/soft faults, variability, mismatch, aging and bias stress at architecture, circuit, layout, and device levels.

  10. Wireless communications circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yichuang

    2004-01-01

    This new book examines integrated circuits, systems and transceivers for wireless and mobile communications. It covers the most recent developments in key RF, IF, analogue, mixed-signal components and single-chip transceivers in CMOS technology.

  11. Optimizing Transmission Line Matching Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, S.

    1996-01-01

    When designing transmission line matching circuits, there exist often overlooked, additional, not much used, degree of choice in the selection of the transmission line impedance. In this work are presented results of CAD analysis for the two element transmission line matching networks, demonstrating that selecting matching circuits transmission lines with higher impedance, than usually used 50 or 75 ohms, can in most cases substantially decrease the physical dimension of the final matching ci...

  12. Spinal sensory circuits in motion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The role of sensory feedback in shaping locomotion has been long debated. Recent advances in genetics and behavior analysis revealed the importance of proprioceptive pathways in spinal circuits. The mechanisms underlying peripheral mechanosensation enabled to unravel the networks that feedback to spinal circuits in order to modulate locomotion. Sensory inputs to the vertebrate spinal cord were long thought to originate from the periphery. Recent studies challenge this ...

  13. Neural Circuits on a Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Fayad Hasan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits are responsible for the brain’s ability to process and store information. Reductionist approaches to understanding the brain include isolation of individual neurons for detailed characterization. When maintained in vitro for several days or weeks, dissociated neurons self-assemble into randomly connected networks that produce synchronized activity and are capable of learning. This review focuses on efforts to control neuronal connectivity in vitro and construct living neural circuits of increasing complexity and precision. Microfabrication-based methods have been developed to guide network self-assembly, accomplishing control over in vitro circuit size and connectivity. The ability to control neural connectivity and synchronized activity led to the implementation of logic functions using living neurons. Techniques to construct and control three-dimensional circuits have also been established. Advances in multiple electrode arrays as well as genetically encoded, optical activity sensors and transducers enabled highly specific interfaces to circuits composed of thousands of neurons. Further advances in on-chip neural circuits may lead to better understanding of the brain.

  14. Recruitment of a hedgehog regulatory circuit in butterfly eyespot evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, D N; Lewis, D L; Selegue, J E; Pearson, B J; Goodrich, L V; Johnson, R L; Gates, J; Scott, M P; Carroll, S B

    1999-01-22

    The origin of new morphological characters is a long-standing problem in evolutionary biology. Novelties arise through changes in development, but the nature of these changes is largely unknown. In butterflies, eyespots have evolved as new pattern elements that develop from special organizers called foci. Formation of these foci is associated with novel expression patterns of the Hedgehog signaling protein, its receptor Patched, the transcription factor Cubitus interruptus, and the engrailed target gene that break the conserved compartmental restrictions on this regulatory circuit in insect wings. Redeployment of preexisting regulatory circuits may be a general mechanism underlying the evolution of novelties.

  15. High performance integer arithmetic circuit design on FPGA architecture, implementation and design automation

    CERN Document Server

    Palchaudhuri, Ayan

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the optimized implementations of several arithmetic datapath, controlpath and pseudorandom sequence generator circuits for realization of high performance arithmetic circuits targeted towards a specific family of the high-end Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). It explores regular, modular, cascadable, and bit-sliced architectures of these circuits, by directly instantiating the target FPGA-specific primitives in the HDL. Every proposed architecture is justified with detailed mathematical analyses. Simultaneously, constrained placement of the circuit building blocks is performed, by placing the logically related hardware primitives in close proximity to one another by supplying relevant placement constraints in the Xilinx proprietary “User Constraints File”. The book covers the implementation of a GUI-based CAD tool named FlexiCore integrated with the Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE) for design automation of platform-specific high-performance arithmetic circuits from us...

  16. Utilizing Symbolic Programming in Analog Circuit Synthesis of Arbitrary Rational Transfer Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Fuad Hajjar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The employment of symbolic programming in analog circuit design for system interfaces is proposed. Given a rational transfer function with a set of specifications and constraints, one may autonomously synthesize it into an analog circuit. First, a classification of the target transfer function polynomials into 14 classes is performed. The classes include both stable and unstable functions as required. A symbolic exhaustive search algorithm based on a circuit configuration under investigation is then conducted where a polynomial in hand is to be identified. For illustration purposes, a set of complete design equations for the primary rational transfer functions is obtained targeting all classes of second order polynomials based on a proposed general circuit configuration. The design consists of a single active element and four different circuit structures. Finally, an illustrative example with full analysis and simulation is presented.

  17. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  18. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used....

  19. Equivalence Checking of Hierarchical Combinational Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Poul Frederick; Hulgaard, Henrik; Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method for verifying that two hierarchical combinational circuits implement the same Boolean functions. The key new feature of the method is its ability to exploit the modularity of circuits to reuse results obtained from one part of the circuits in other parts. We demonstra...... our method on large adder and multiplier circuits....

  20. Difference-Equation/Flow-Graph Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcvey, I. M.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical technique enables rapid, approximate analyses of electronic circuits containing linear and nonlinear elements. Practiced in variety of computer languages on large and small computers; for circuits simple enough, programmable hand calculators used. Although some combinations of circuit elements make numerical solutions diverge, enables quick identification of divergence and correction of circuit models to make solutions converge.

  1. Comparison between four piezoelectric energy harvesting circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhao QIU; Hao JIANG; Hongli JI; Kongjun ZHU

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates and compares the efficiencies of four different interfaces for vibration-based energy harvesting systems. Among those four circuits, two circuits adopt the synchronous switching technique, in which the circuit is switched synchronously with the vibration. In this study, a simple source-less trigger circuit used to control the synchronized switch is proposed and two interface circuits of energy harvesting systems are designed based on the trigger circuit. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed circuits, an experimental system was established and the power harvested by those circuits from a vibration beam was measured. Experimental results show that the two new circuits can increase the harvested power by factors 2.6 and 7, respectively, without consuming extra power in the circuits.

  2. Using Combinational Circuits for Control Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A. Nabulsi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Combinational circuits are used in computers for generating binary control decisions and for providing digital components for data processing. Approach: The use of combinational circuits and logic gates to control other circuits was discussed. Different systems that use logic gates, multiplexers, decoders and encoders to control different circuits were presented. This study presented a design and implementation of some combinational circuits such as a decoder, an encoder, a multiplexer, a bus system and read/write memory operations. Results: When we connected some types of combinational circuits to the inputs/outputs of digital circuit, these combinational circuits can help us to manage and flow a different types of control signals through a large digital circuit. Conclusion: Many combinational circuits had a good function which can be used for controlling different parts of any digital system and they produce a suitable way to transfer a control signals between different digital components of any large digital system.

  3. Low power RF circuit design in standard CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarado, Unai; Adín, Iñigo

    2012-01-01

    Low Power Consumption is one of the critical issues in the performance of small battery-powered handheld devices. Mobile terminals feature an ever increasing number of wireless communication alternatives including GPS, Bluetooth, GSM, 3G, WiFi or DVB-H. Considering that the total power available for each terminal is limited by the relatively slow increase in battery performance expected in the near future, the need for efficient circuits is now critical. This book presents the basic techniques available to design low power RF CMOS analogue circuits. It gives circuit designers a complete guide of alternatives to optimize power consumption and explains the application of these rules in the most common RF building blocks: LNA, mixers and PLLs. It is set out using practical examples and offers a unique perspective as it targets designers working within the standard CMOS process and all the limitations inherent in these technologies.

  4. Thalamic circuit mechanisms link sensory processing in sleep and attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between sleep integrity and attentional performance is normally interpreted as poor sleep causing impaired attention. Here, we provide an alternative explanation for this correlation: common thalamic circuits regulate sensory processing across sleep and attention, and their disruption may lead to correlated dysfunction. Using multi-electrode recordings in mice, we find that rate and rhythmicity of thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN neurons are predictive of their functional organization in sleep and suggestive of their participation in sensory processing across states. Surprisingly, TRN neurons associated with spindles in sleep are also associated with alpha oscillations during attention. As such, we propose that common thalamic circuit principles regulate sensory processing in a state-invariant manner and that in certain disorders, targeting these circuits may be a more viable therapeutic strategy than considering individual states in isolation.

  5. Instrumentation and test gear circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Instrumentation and Test Gear Circuits Manual provides diagrams, graphs, tables, and discussions of several types of practical circuits. The practical circuits covered in this book include attenuators, bridges, scope trace doublers, timebases, and digital frequency meters. Chapter 1 discusses the basic instrumentation and test gear principles. Chapter 2 deals with the design of passive attenuators, and Chapter 3 with passive and active filter circuits. The subsequent chapters tackle 'bridge' circuits, analogue and digital metering techniques and circuitry, signal and waveform generation, and p

  6. 49 CFR 236.5 - Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of control circuits on closed circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.5 Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle. All control circuits the functioning of which affects safety of train...

  7. 30 CFR 77.506 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. 77.506 Section 77.506 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. Automatic circuit-breaking devices or fuses of the...

  8. 30 CFR 77.800 - High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. 77.800... COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.800 High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. High-voltage circuits supplying power to portable or mobile equipment shall be protected by suitable...

  9. 30 CFR 75.601-1 - Short circuit protection; ratings and settings of circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of circuit breakers. 75.601-1 Section 75.601-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Trailing Cables § 75.601-1 Short circuit protection; ratings and settings of circuit breakers. Circuit breakers providing short circuit protection for trailing cables shall be set so as not to exceed...

  10. Introduction to lethal circuit transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, Petr; Schmidt, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Logic optimization is a process that takes a logic circuit description (Boolean network) as an input and tries to refine it, to reduce its size and/or depth. An ideal optimization process should be able to devise an optimum implementation of a network in a reasonable time, given any circuit structure at the input. However, there are cases where it completely fails to produce even near-optimum solutions. Such cases are typically induced by non-standard circuit structure modifications. Surprisingly enough, such deviated structures are frequently present in standard benchmark sets too. We may only wonder whether it is an intention of the benchmarks creators, or just an unlucky coincidence. Even though synthesis tools should be primarily well suited for practical circuits, there is no guarantee that, e.g., a higher-level synthesis process will not generate such unlucky structures. Here we present examples of circuit transformations that lead to failure of most of state-of-the-art logic synthesis and optimization processes, both academic and commercial, and suggest actions to mitigate the disturbing effects.

  11. Logic circuits from zero forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgarth, Daniel; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Hogben, Leslie; Severini, Simone; Young, Michael

    We design logic circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we show that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity. Moreover, in the light of applications of zero forcing in quantum mechanics, the link with Boolean functions may suggest a new directions in quantum control theory and in the study of engineered quantum spin systems. It is an open technical problem to verify whether there is a link between zero forcing and computation with contact circuits.

  12. Optic Glomeruli: Biological Circuits that Compute Target Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    looming. 8 Distribution A Figure 5. Giant fiber descending neuron response to visual and mechanical stimuli. (A) Light OFF elicits a large EPSP ...slow flicker (0.5Hz) only the first ON and OFF phases initiate an obvious response (C). 10Hz flicker stimulus initiate no noticeable EPSP or IPSP...antennae elicit a large EPSP at stimulus start (H) and sometimes at termination (I). Responses following initial EPSP vary: membrane potential can

  13. Genetic dissection of GABAergic neural circuits in mouse neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki eTaniguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diverse and flexible cortical functions rely on the ability of neural circuits to perform multiple types of neuronal computations. GABAergic inhibitory interneurons significantly contribute to this task by regulating the balance of activity, synaptic integration, spiking, synchrony, and oscillation in a neural ensemble. GABAergic interneruons display a high degree of cellular diversity in morphology, physiology, connectivity, and gene expression. A considerable number of subtypes of GABAergic interneurons diversify modes of cortical inhibition, enabling various types of information processing in the cortex. Thus, comprehensively understanding fate specification, circuit assembly and physiological function of GABAergic interneurons is a key to elucidate the principles of cortical wiring and function. Recent advances in genetically encoded molecular tools have made a breakthrough to systematically study cortical circuitry at the molecular, cellular, circuit, and whole animal levels. However, the biggest obstacle to fully applying the power of these to analysis of GABAergic circuits was that there were no efficient and reliable methods to express them in subtypes of GABAergic interneurons. Here, I first summarize cortical interneuron diversity and current understanding of mechanisms, by which distinct classes of GABAergic interneurons are generated. I then review recent development in genetically encoded molecular tools for neural circuit research, and genetic targeting of GABAergic interneuron subtypes, particulary focusing on our recent effort to develop and characterize Cre/CreER knockin lines. Finally, I highlight recent success in genetic targeting of chandelier cells (ChCs, the most unique and distinct GABAergic interneuron subtype, and discuss what kind of questions need to be addressed to understand development and function of cortical inhibitory circuits.

  14. Nuclear sensor signal processing circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenbach, Gene A.; Noda, Frank T.; Mitchell, Dean J.; Etzkin, Joshua L.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for a compact and temperature-insensitive nuclear sensor that can be calibrated with a non-hazardous radioactive sample. The nuclear sensor includes a gamma ray sensor that generates tail pulses from radioactive samples. An analog conditioning circuit conditions the tail-pulse signals from the gamma ray sensor, and a tail-pulse simulator circuit generates a plurality of simulated tail-pulse signals. A computer system processes the tail pulses from the gamma ray sensor and the simulated tail pulses from the tail-pulse simulator circuit. The nuclear sensor is calibrated under the control of the computer. The offset is adjusted using the simulated tail pulses. Since the offset is set to zero or near zero, the sensor gain can be adjusted with a non-hazardous radioactive source such as, for example, naturally occurring radiation and potassium chloride.

  15. Chua's Circuit: Control and Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimiciuc, Stefan-Andrei; Vasilovici, Ovidiu; Dimitriu, Dan-Gheorghe

    Chaos-based data encryption is one of the most reliable methods used in secure communications. This implies a good control of a chaotic system and a good synchronization between the involved systems. Here, experimental results are shown on the control and synchronization of Chua's circuits. The control of the chaotic circuit was achieved by using the switching method. The influence of the control signal characteristics (amplitude, frequency and shape) on the system's states was also investigated. The synchronization of two similar chaotic circuits was studied, emphasizing the importance of the chaotic state characteristics of the Master system in respect to those of Slave system. It was shown that the synchronization does not depend on the chaotic state type, neither on the dimension (x, y or z) used for synchronization.

  16. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  17. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  18. Boolean network model of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallidis, Stylianos E; Karafyllidis, Ioannis G

    2014-09-01

    To coordinate their behavior and virulence and to synchronize attacks against their hosts, bacteria communicate by continuously producing signaling molecules (called autoinducers) and continuously monitoring the concentration of these molecules. This communication is controlled by biological circuits called quorum sensing (QS) circuits. Recently QS circuits and have been recognized as an alternative target for controlling bacterial virulence and infections without the use of antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects insects, plants, animals and humans and can cause acute infections. This bacterium has three interconnected QS circuits that form a very complex and versatile QS system, the operation of which is still under investigation. Here we use Boolean networks to model the complete QS system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and we simulate and analyze its operation in both synchronous and asynchronous modes. The state space of the QS system is constructed and it turned out to be very large, hierarchical, modular and scale-free. Furthermore, we developed a simulation tool that can simulate gene knock-outs and study their effect on the regulons controlled by the three QS circuits. The model and tools we developed will give to life scientists a deeper insight to this complex QS system.

  19. Frontostriatal circuits and the development of bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Marsh, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by both recurrent episodes of binge eating that are, in part, defined by a sense of loss of control and compensatory behaviors to avoid weight gain. Impulsive behaviors are also common in individuals with BN, indicating more pervasive difficulties in behavioral self-regulation. Findings from functional and anatomical neuroimaging studies of individuals with BN suggest dysfunction in the dorsal frontostriatal circuits that support self-regulatory capacities and habit learning and in overlapping ventral circuits that support reward processing and reward-based learning. In this review, we describe the normal development of frontostriatal circuits and then present behavioral and neuroimaging data from adolescents and adults with BN. These data suggest that the abnormal maturation of frontostriatal circuits may contribute to the habitual binge-eating and purging behaviors of BN. Future longitudinal imaging studies will improve understanding of how these circuits contribute to the developmental trajectory of BN and will inform novel interventions that could target or prevent the impulsive and habit-like features of this disorder.

  20. Frontostriatal circuits and the development of bulimia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Berner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulimia nervosa (BN is characterized by both recurrent episodes of binge eating that are, in part, defined by a sense of loss of control and compensatory behaviors to avoid weight gain. Impulsive behaviors are also common in individuals with BN, indicating more pervasive difficulties in behavioral self-regulation. Findings from functional and anatomical neuroimaging studies of individuals with BN suggest dysfunction in the dorsal frontostriatal circuits that support self-regulatory capacities and habit learning and in overlapping ventral circuits that support reward processing and reward-based learning. In this review, we describe the normal development of frontostriatal circuits and then present behavioral and neuroimaging data from adolescents and adults with BN. These data suggest that the abnormal maturation of frontostriatal circuits may contribute to the habitual binge-eating and purging behaviors of BN. Future longitudinal imaging studies will improve understanding of how these circuits contribute to the developmental trajectory of BN and will inform novel interventions that could target or prevent the impulsive and habit-like features of this disorder.

  1. Paired Stimulation to Promote Lasting Augmentation of Corticospinal Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Y. Harel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After injury, electrical stimulation of the nervous system can augment plasticity of spared or latent circuits through focal modulation. Pairing stimulation of two parts of a spared circuit can target modulation more specifically to the intended circuit. We discuss 3 kinds of paired stimulation in the context of the corticospinal system, because of its importance in clinical neurorehabilitation. The first uses principles of Hebbian plasticity: by altering the stimulation timing of presynaptic neurons and their postsynaptic targets, synapse function can be modulated up or down. The second form uses synchronized presynaptic inputs onto a common synaptic target. We dub this a “convergent” mechanism, because stimuli have to converge on a common target with coordinated timing. The third form induces focal modulation by tonic excitation of one region (e.g., the spinal cord during phasic stimulation of another (e.g., motor cortex. Additionally, endogenous neural activity may be paired with exogenous electrical stimulation. This review addresses what is known about paired stimulation of the corticospinal system of both humans and animal models, emphasizes how it qualitatively differs from single-site stimulation, and discusses the gaps in knowledge that must be addressed to maximize its use and efficacy in neurorehabilitation.

  2. Integrated circuits for multimedia applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandi, Luca

    2007-01-01

    This work presents several key aspects in the design of RF integrated circuits for portable multimedia devices. One chapter is dedicated to the application of negative-feedback topologies to receiver frontends. A novel feedback technique suitable for common multiplier-based mixers is described......, and it is applied to a broad-band dual-loop receiver architecture in order to boost the linearity performances of the stage. A simplified noise- and linearity analysis of the circuit is derived, and a comparison is provided with a more traditional dual-loop topology (a broad-band stage based on shunt...

  3. Fermionic models with superconducting circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Las Heras, Urtzi; Garcia-Alvarez, Laura; Mezzacapo, Antonio; Lamata, Lucas [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); Solano, Enrique [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method for the efficient quantum simulation of fermionic systems with superconducting circuits. It consists in the suitable use of Jordan-Wigner mapping, Trotter decomposition, and multiqubit gates, be with the use of a quantum bus or direct capacitive couplings. We apply our method to the paradigmatic cases of 1D and 2D Fermi-Hubbard models, involving couplings with nearest and next-nearest neighbours. Furthermore, we propose an optimal architecture for this model and discuss the benchmarking of the simulations in realistic circuit quantum electrodynamics setups. (orig.)

  4. Circuit modeling for electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    Darney, Ian B

    2013-01-01

    Very simply, electromagnetic interference (EMI) costs money, reduces profits, and generally wreaks havoc for circuit designers in all industries. This book shows how the analytic tools of circuit theory can be used to simulate the coupling of interference into, and out of, any signal link in the system being reviewed. The technique is simple, systematic and accurate. It enables the design of any equipment to be tailored to meet EMC requirements. Every electronic system consists of a number of functional modules interconnected by signal links and power supply lines. Electromagnetic interference

  5. Simplified design of filter circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1999-01-01

    Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets

  6. Embedded systems circuits and programming

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Julio

    2012-01-01

    During the development of an engineered product, developers often need to create an embedded system--a prototype--that demonstrates the operation/function of the device and proves its viability. Offering practical tools for the development and prototyping phases, Embedded Systems Circuits and Programming provides a tutorial on microcontroller programming and the basics of embedded design. The book focuses on several development tools and resources: Standard and off-the-shelf components, such as input/output devices, integrated circuits, motors, and programmable microcontrollers The implementat

  7. Endogenous money, circuits and financialization

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Sawyer

    2013-01-01

    This paper locates the endogenous money approach in a circuitist framework. It argues for the significance of the credit creation process for the evolution of the economy and the absence of any notion of ‘neutrality of money’. Clearing banks are distinguished from other financial institutions as the providers of initial finance in a circuit whereas other financial institutions operate in a final finance circuit. Financialization is here viewed in terms of the growth of financial assets an...

  8. Circuit, Thermal and Cost Characteristics of Impulse Magnetizing Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development of circuit, thermal and cost model for a capacitor discharge impulse megnetizer and compares simulations to measurements from an actual system. We used a cost structure consisting of five major subsystems for cost modeling. Especially, we estimated the potential for cost reductions impulse magnetizer as a function of time using the learning curve.

  9. Chemical Detection using Electrically Open Circuits having no Electrical Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Olgesby, Donald M.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents investigations to date on chemical detection using a recently developed method for designing, powering and interrogating sensors as electrically open circuits having no electrical connections. In lieu of having each sensor from a closed circuit with multiple electrically connected components, an electrically conductive geometric pattern that is powered using oscillating magnetic fields and capable of storing an electric field and a magnetic field without the need of a closed circuit or electrical connections is used. When electrically active, the patterns respond with their own magnetic field whose frequency, amplitude and bandwidth can be correlated with the magnitude of the physical quantities being measured. Preliminary experimental results of using two different detection approaches will be presented. In one method, a thin film of a reactant is deposited on the surface of the open-circuit sensor. Exposure to a specific targeted reactant shifts the resonant frequency of the sensor. In the second method, a coating of conductive material is placed on a thin non-conductive plastic sheet that is placed over the surface of the sensor. There is no physical contact between the sensor and the electrically conductive material. When the conductive material is exposed to a targeted reactant, a chemical reaction occurs that renders the material non-conductive. The change in the material s electrical resistance within the magnetic field of the sensor alters the sensor s response bandwidth and amplitude, allowing detection of the reaction without having the reactants in physical contact with the sensor.

  10. An Approach to Simplify Reversible Logic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabitra Roy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy loss is one of the major problems in traditional irreversible circuits. For every bit of information loss kTln2 joules of heat is lost. In order to reduce the energy loss the concept of reversible logic circuits are introduced. Here we have described an algorithm for simplifying the reversible logic circuit and hence reduction of circuit cost and energy. The algorithm considers sub_circuit with respect to their number of lines and contiguous gates. The resulting sub_circuits are re-synthesized with smaller equivalent implementation. The process continues until circuit cost reaches good enough for Application or until a given computation budget has been exhausted. The circuit is constructed by NOT, CNOT and Toffoli gates only. By applying the algorithm and using the equivalent implementation we will get significant reduction of circuit cost and hence energy.

  11. Relaxation Based Electrical Simulation for VLSI Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajkumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical circuit simulation was one of the first CAD tools developed for IC design. The conventional circuit simulators like SPICE and ASTAP were designed initially for the cost effective analysis of circuits containing a few hundred transistors or less. A number of approaches have been used to improve the performances of congenital circuit simulators for the analysis of large circuits. Thereafter relaxation methods was proposed to provide more accurate waveforms than standard circuit simulators with up to two orders of magnitude speed improvement for large circuits. In this paper we have tried to highlights recently used waveform and point relaxation techniques for simulation of VLSI circuits. We also propose a simple parallelization technique and experimentally demonstrate that we can solve digital circuits with tens of million transistors in a few hours.

  12. Retropath: automated pipeline for embedded metabolic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Pablo; Parutto, Pierre; Baudier, Claire; Junot, Christophe; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-08-15

    Metabolic circuits are a promising alternative to other conventional genetic circuits as modular parts implementing functionalities required for synthetic biology applications. To date, metabolic design has been mainly focused on production circuits. Emergent applications such as smart therapeutics, however, require circuits that enable sensing and regulation. Here, we present RetroPath, an automated pipeline for embedded metabolic circuits that explores the circuit design space from a given set of specifications and selects the best circuits to implement based on desired constraints. Synthetic biology circuits embedded in a chassis organism that are capable of controlling the production, processing, sensing, and the release of specific molecules were enumerated in the metabolic space through a standard procedure. In that way, design and implementation of applications such as therapeutic circuits that autonomously diagnose and treat disease, are enabled, and their optimization is streamlined.

  13. Programmable genetic circuits for pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Moon, Tae Seok

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic biology has the potential to provide decisive advances in genetic control of metabolic pathways. However, there are several challenges that synthetic biologists must overcome before this vision becomes a reality. First, a library of diverse and well-characterized sensors, such as metabolite-sensing or condition-sensing promoters, must be constructed. Second, robust programmable circuits that link input conditions with a specific gene regulation response must be developed. Finally, multi-gene targeting strategies must be integrated with metabolically relevant sensors and complex, robust logic. Achievements in each of these areas, which employ the CRISPR/Cas system, in silico modeling, and dynamic sensor-regulators, among other tools, provide a strong basis for future research. Overall, the future for synthetic biology approaches in metabolic engineering holds immense promise.

  14. Digital circuit boards mach 1 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    A unique, practical approach to the design of high-speed digital circuit boards The demand for ever-faster digital circuit designs is beginning to render the circuit theory used by engineers ineffective. Digital Circuit Boards presents an alternative to the circuit theory approach, emphasizing energy flow rather than just signal interconnection to explain logic circuit behavior. The book shows how treating design in terms of transmission lines will ensure that the logic will function, addressing both storage and movement of electrical energy on these lines. It cove

  15. Advanced circuit simulation using Multisim workbench

    CERN Document Server

    Báez-López, David; Cervantes-Villagómez, Ofelia Delfina

    2012-01-01

    Multisim is now the de facto standard for circuit simulation. It is a SPICE-based circuit simulator which combines analog, discrete-time, and mixed-mode circuits. In addition, it is the only simulator which incorporates microcontroller simulation in the same environment. It also includes a tool for printed circuit board design.Advanced Circuit Simulation Using Multisim Workbench is a companion book to Circuit Analysis Using Multisim, published by Morgan & Claypool in 2011. This new book covers advanced analyses and the creation of models and subcircuits. It also includes coverage of transmissi

  16. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  17. A circuit mechanism for neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Francesco; Caroni, Pico

    2012-10-12

    How deficiency in SMN1 selectively affects motoneurons in spinal muscular atrophy is poorly understood. Here, Imlach et al. and Lotti et al. show that aberrant splicing of Stasimon in cholinergic sensory neurons and interneurons leads to motoneuron degeneration, suggesting that altered circuit function may underlie the disorder.

  18. Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)

  19. The voltage-current relationship and equivalent circuit implementation of parallel flux-controlled memristive circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Bo-Cheng; Feng Fei; Dong Wei; Pan Sai-Hu

    2013-01-01

    A flux-controlled memristor characterized by smooth cubic nonlinearity is taken as an example,upon which the voltage-current relationships (VCRs) between two parallel memristive circuits-a parallel memristor and capacitor circuit (the parallel MC circuit),and a parallel memristor and inductor circuit (the parallel ML circuit)-are investigated.The results indicate that the VCR between these two parallel memristive circuits is closely related to the circuit parameters,and the frequency and amplitude of the sinusoidal voltage stimulus.An equivalent circuit model of the memristor is built,upon which the circuit simulations and experimental measurements of both the parallel MC circuit and the parallel ML circuit are performed,and the results verify the theoretical analysis results.

  20. Fabric circuits and method of manufacturing fabric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor); Trevino, Robert C. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible, fabric-based circuit comprises a non-conductive flexible layer of fabric and a conductive flexible layer of fabric adjacent thereto. A non-conductive thread, an adhesive, and/or other means may be used for attaching the conductive layer to the non-conductive layer. In some embodiments, the layers are attached by a computer-driven embroidery machine at pre-determined portions or locations in accordance with a pre-determined attachment layout before automated cutting. In some other embodiments, an automated milling machine or a computer-driven laser using a pre-designed circuit trace as a template cuts the conductive layer so as to separate an undesired portion of the conductive layer from a desired portion of the conductive layer. Additional layers of conductive fabric may be attached in some embodiments to form a multi-layer construct.

  1. Developing a Domain Model for Relay Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    the statics as well as the dynamics of relay circuits, i.e. how a relay circuit can be composed legally from electrical components as well as how the components may change state over time. Finally the circuit model is transformed into an executable model, and we show how a concrete circuit can be defined......In this paper we stepwise develop a domain model for relay circuits as used in railway control systems. First we provide an abstract, property-oriented model of networks consisting of components that can be glued together with connectors. This model is strongly inspired by a network model...... for railways madeby Bjørner et.al., however our model is more general: the components can be of any kind and can later be refined to e.g. railway components or circuit components. Then we show how the abstract network model can be refined into an explicit model for relay circuits. The circuit model describes...

  2. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  3. Brain-machine interface circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zjajo, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a complete overview of significant design challenges in respect to circuit miniaturization and power reduction of the neural recording system, along with circuit topologies, architecture trends, and (post-silicon) circuit optimization algorithms. The introduced novel circuits for signal conditioning, quantization, and classification, as well as system configurations focus on optimized power-per-area performance, from the spatial resolution (i.e. number of channels), feasible wireless data bandwidth and information quality to the delivered power of implantable system.

  4. Solid-State dc Circuit Breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P.

    1983-01-01

    Circuit breaker with no moving parts protects direct-current (dc) loads. Current which circuit breaker opens (trip current) is adjustable and so is time delay before breaker trips. Forward voltage drop rises from 0.6 to 1.2 V as current rises to trip point. Breaker has two terminals, like fuse, therefore replaces fuse in dc circuit. Powered by circuit it protects and reset by either turning off power source or disconnecting load.

  5. An Improved Squaring Circuit for Binary Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiraj Sethi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a high speed squaring circuit for binary numbers is proposed. High speed Vedic multiplier is used for design of the proposed squaring circuit. The key to our success is that only one Vedic multiplier is used instead of four multipliers reported in the literature. In addition, one squaring circuit is used twice. Our proposed Squaring Circuit seems to have better performance in terms of speed.

  6. DC operating points of transistor circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovic, Ljiljana

    Finding a circuit's dc operating points is an essential step in its design and involves solving systems of nonlinear algebraic equations. Of particular research and practical interests are dc analysis and simulation of electronic circuits consisting of bipolar junction and field-effect transistors (BJTs and FETs), which are building blocks of modern electronic circuits. In this paper, we survey main theoretical results related to dc operating points of transistor circuits and discuss numerical methods for their calculation.

  7. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate...

  9. 49 CFR 234.203 - Control circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control circuits. 234.203 Section 234.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.203 Control circuits. All control circuits that...

  10. An Equivalent Circuit for Landau Damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1976-01-01

    An equivalent circuit simulating the effect of Landau damping in a stable plasma‐loaded parallel‐plate capacitor is presented. The circuit contains a double infinity of LC components. The transition from stable to unstable plasmas is simulated by the introduction of active elements into the circuit....

  11. 49 CFR 236.721 - Circuit, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, control. 236.721 Section 236.721..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.721 Circuit, control. An electrical circuit between a source of electric energy and a device which it operates....

  12. Controllability/observability analysis of digital circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.H.

    1978-11-01

    The testability of a digital circuit is directy related to the difficulty of controlling and observing the logical values of internal nodes from circuit inputs and outputs, respectively. A method for analyzing digital circuits in terms of six functions which characterize combinational and sequential controllability and observability is presented.

  13. Controllability/observability analysis of digital circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    The testability of a digital circuit is directly related to the difficulty of controlling and observing the logical values of internal nodes from circuit inputs and outputs, respectively. A method for analyzing digital circuits in terms of six functions which characterize combinational and sequential controllability and observability is presented.

  14. Controllability/observability analysis of digital circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.H.

    1979-09-01

    The testability of a digital circuit is directly related to the difficulty of controlling and observing the logical values of internal nodes from circuit inputs and outputs, respectively. A method for analyzing digital circuits in terms of six functions which characterize combinational and sequential controllability and observability is presented.

  15. New Logic Circuit with DC Parametric Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Masanori; Kaneda, Hisayoshi

    1982-12-01

    It is shown that dc parametric excitation is possible in a circuit named JUDO, which is composed of two resistively-connected Josephson junctions. Simulation study proves that the circuit has large gain and properties suitable for the construction of small, high-speed logic circuits.

  16. 30 CFR 75.518 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection. 75.518 Section 75.518 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.518 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection....

  17. Phonon waveguides for electromechanical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, D.; Mahboob, I.; Onomitsu, K.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2014-07-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), utilizing localized mechanical vibrations, have found application in sensors, signal processors and in the study of macroscopic quantum mechanics. The integration of multiple mechanical elements via electrical or optical means remains a challenge in the realization of NEMS circuits. Here, we develop a phonon waveguide using a one-dimensional array of suspended membranes that offers purely mechanical means to integrate isolated NEMS resonators. We demonstrate that the phonon waveguide can support and guide mechanical vibrations and that the periodic membrane arrangement also creates a phonon bandgap that enables control of the phonon propagation velocity. Furthermore, embedding a phonon cavity into the phonon waveguide allows mobile mechanical vibrations to be dynamically switched or transferred from the waveguide to the cavity, thereby illustrating the viability of waveguide-resonator coupling. These highly functional traits of the phonon waveguide architecture exhibit all the components necessary to permit the realization of all-phononic NEMS circuits.

  18. Handbook of microwave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Reinmut K.

    The design and operation of ICs for use in the 0.5-20-GHz range are described in an introductory and reference work for industrial engineers. Chapters are devoted to an overview of microwave IC (MIC) technology, general stripline characteristics, microwave transmission line (MTL) parameters for microstrips with isotropic dielectric substrates, higher-order modes on a microstrip, the effects of metallic enclosure on MTL transmission parameters, losses in microstrips, the measurement of MTL parameters, and MTLs on anisotropic dielectric substrates. Consideration is given to coupled microstrips on dielectric substrates, microstrip discontinuities, radiation from microstrip circuits, MTL variations, coplanar MTLs, slotlines, and spurious modes in MTL circuits. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and a glossary of symbols are provided.

  19. Delay locked loop integrated circuit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-10-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) integrated circuit (IC). The DLL was developed and tested as a stand-alone IC test chip to be integrated into a larger application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the Quadrature Digital Waveform Synthesizer (QDWS). The purpose of the DLL is to provide a digitally programmable delay to enable synchronization between an internal system clock and external peripherals with unknown clock skew. The DLL was designed and fabricated in the IBM 8RF process, a 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process. It was designed to operate with a 300MHz clock and has been tested up to 500MHz.

  20. Advanced Microwave Circuits and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is based on recent research work conducted by the authors dealing with the design and development of active and passive microwave components, integrated circuits and systems. It is divided into seven parts. In the first part comprising the first two chapters, alternative concepts...... and equations for multiport network analysis and characterization are provided. A thru-only de-embedding technique for accurate on-wafer characterization is introduced. The second part of the book corresponds to the analysis and design of ultra-wideband low-noise amplifiers (LNA). The LNA is the most critical...... as sufficient gain in a wide frequency range of operation, which is very difficult to achieve. Most circuits demonstrated are not stable across the frequency band, which makes these amplifiers prone to self-oscillations and therefore limit their applicability. The trade-off between noise figure, gain, linearity...

  1. Monolithic readout circuits for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, P.; Harder, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Several CMOS ASICs have been developed for a proposed RHIC experiment. This paper discusses why ASIC implementation was chosen for certain functions, circuit specifications and the design techniques used to meet them, and results of simulations and early prototypes. By working closely together from an early stage in the planning process, in-house ASIC designers and detector and data acquisition experimenters can achieve optimal use of this important technology.

  2. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, a counterpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  3. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, an overpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  4. Optimization of Bootstrapping in Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Benhamouda, Fabrice; Lepoint, Tancrède; Mathieu, Claire; Zhou, Hang

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, Gentry proposed the first Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) scheme, an extremely powerful cryptographic primitive that enables to perform computations, i.e., to evaluate circuits, on encrypted data without decrypting them first. This has many applications, in particular in cloud computing. In all currently known FHE schemes, encryptions are associated to some (non-negative integer) noise level, and at each evaluation of an AND gate, the noise level increases. This is problematic bec...

  5. Coulomb drag in quantum circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Levchenko, Alex; Kamenev, Alex

    2008-01-01

    We study drag effect in a system of two electrically isolated quantum point contacts (QPC), coupled by Coulomb interactions. Drag current exhibits maxima as a function of QPC gate voltages when the latter are tuned to the transitions between quantized conductance plateaus. In the linear regime this behavior is due to enhanced electron-hole asymmetry near an opening of a new conductance channel. In the non-linear regime the drag current is proportional to the shot noise of the driving circuit,...

  6. Ultra-low power integrated circuit design circuits, systems, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dongmei; Wang, Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the design of CMOS circuits for ultra-low power consumption including analog, radio frequency (RF), and digital signal processing circuits (DSP). The book addresses issues from circuit and system design to production design, and applies the ultra-low power circuits described to systems for digital hearing aids and capsule endoscope devices. Provides a valuable introduction to ultra-low power circuit design, aimed at practicing design engineers; Describes all key building blocks of ultra-low power circuits, from a systems perspective; Applies circuits and systems described to real product examples such as hearing aids and capsule endoscopes.

  7. The search for novel analgesics: re-examining spinal cord circuits with new tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M Smith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this perspective, we propose the absence of detailed information regarding spinal cord circuits that process sensory information remains a major barrier to advancing analgesia. We highlight recent advances showing that functionally discrete populations of neurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn play distinct roles in processing sensory information. We then discuss new molecular, electrophysiological, and optogenetic techniques that can be employed to understand how dorsal horn circuits process tactile and nociceptive information. We believe this information can drive the development of entirely new classes of pharmacotherapies that target key elements in spinal circuits to selectively modify sensory function and blunt pain.

  8. The search for novel analgesics: re-examining spinal cord circuits with new tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly M.; Madden, Jessica F.; Callister, Robert J.; Hughes, David I.; Graham, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    In this perspective, we propose the absence of detailed information regarding spinal cord circuits that process sensory information remains a major barrier to advancing analgesia. We highlight recent advances showing that functionally discrete populations of neurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn (DH) play distinct roles in processing sensory information. We then discuss new molecular, electrophysiological, and optogenetic techniques that can be employed to understand how DH circuits process tactile and nociceptive information. We believe this information can drive the development of entirely new classes of pharmacotherapies that target key elements in spinal circuits to selectively modify sensory function and blunt pain. PMID:24616699

  9. CMOS circuit design, layout and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, R Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Third Edition of CMOS Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation continues to cover the practical design of both analog and digital integrated circuits, offering a vital, contemporary view of a wide range of analog/digital circuit blocks including: phase-locked-loops, delta-sigma sensing circuits, voltage/current references, op-amps, the design of data converters, and much more. Regardless of one's integrated circuit (IC) design skill level, this book allows readers to experience both the theory behind, and the hands-on implementation of, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) IC design via detailed derivations, discussions, and hundreds of design, layout, and simulation examples.

  10. A Transistor Sizing Tool for Optimization of Analog CMOS Circuits: TSOp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C.Wong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of a circuit by transistor sizing is often a slow, tedious and iterative manual process which relies on designer intuition. It is highly desirable to automate the transistor sizing process towards being able to rapidly design high performance integrated circuit. Presented here is a simple but effective algorithm for automatically optimizing the circuit parameters by exploiting the relationships among the genetic algorithm's coefficient values derived from the analog circuit design variables. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm (TSOp converges to optimal solutions efficiently for the circuits which contain discrete or discontinuous parameters constraints in a large search spaces. The robustness of TSOp has been verified by using a cascaded amplifier assisted inverter and an operational amplifier circuitries based on TSMC 0.25um process technology. Even though with a large number of design variables, TSOp successfully converges to a range of optimum solution for the targeted circuit performance. TSOp achieves optimum solutions and simplifies the design steps in developing an analog circuit, thereby significantly improving the time to market for an integrated circuit chip.

  11. CMOS Interface Circuits for Spin Tunneling Junction Based Magnetic Random Access Memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh Saripalli

    2002-12-31

    Magneto resistive memories (MRAM) are non-volatile memories which use magnetic instead of electrical structures to store data. These memories, apart from being non-volatile, offer a possibility to achieve densities better than DRAMs and speeds faster than SRAMs. MRAMs could potentially replace all computer memory RAM technologies in use today, leading to future applications like instan-on computers and longer battery life for pervasive devices. Such rapid development was made possible due to the recent discovery of large magnetoresistance in Spin tunneling junction devices. Spin tunneling junctions (STJ) are composite structures consisting of a thin insulating layer sandwiched between two magnetic layers. This thesis research is targeted towards these spin tunneling junction based Magnetic memories. In any memory, some kind of an interface circuit is needed to read the logic states. In this thesis, four such circuits are proposed and designed for Magnetic memories (MRAM). These circuits interface to the Spin tunneling junctions and act as sense amplifiers to read their magnetic states. The physical structure and functional characteristics of these circuits are discussed in this thesis. Mismatch effects on the circuits and proper design techniques are also presented. To demonstrate the functionality of these interface structures, test circuits were designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.35{micro} CMOS process. Also circuits to characterize the process mismatches were fabricated and tested. These results were then used in Matlab programs to aid in design process and to predict interface circuit's yields.

  12. CMOS Interface Circuits for Spin Tunneling Junction Based Magnetic Random Access Memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saripalli, Ganesh [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Magneto resistive memories (MRAM) are non-volatile memories which use magnetic instead of electrical structures to store data. These memories, apart from being non-volatile, offer a possibility to achieve densities better than DRAMs and speeds faster than SRAMs. MRAMs could potentially replace all computer memory RAM technologies in use today, leading to future applications like instan-on computers and longer battery life for pervasive devices. Such rapid development was made possible due to the recent discovery of large magnetoresistance in Spin tunneling junction devices. Spin tunneling junctions (STJ) are composite structures consisting of a thin insulating layer sandwiched between two magnetic layers. This thesis research is targeted towards these spin tunneling junction based Magnetic memories. In any memory, some kind of an interface circuit is needed to read the logic states. In this thesis, four such circuits are proposed and designed for Magnetic memories (MRAM). These circuits interface to the Spin tunneling junctions and act as sense amplifiers to read their magnetic states. The physical structure and functional characteristics of these circuits are discussed in this thesis. Mismatch effects on the circuits and proper design techniques are also presented. To demonstrate the functionality of these interface structures, test circuits were designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.35μ CMOS process. Also circuits to characterize the process mismatches were fabricated and tested. These results were then used in Matlab programs to aid in design process and to predict interface circuit's yields.

  13. Controlling chaos in balanced neural circuits with input spike trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelken, Rainer; Wolf, Fred

    The cerebral cortex can be seen as a system of neural circuits driving each other with spike trains. Here we study how the statistics of these spike trains affects chaos in balanced target circuits.Earlier studies of chaos in balanced neural circuits either used a fixed input [van Vreeswijk, Sompolinsky 1996, Monteforte, Wolf 2010] or white noise [Lajoie et al. 2014]. We study dynamical stability of balanced networks driven by input spike trains with variable statistics. The analytically obtained Jacobian enables us to calculate the complete Lyapunov spectrum. We solved the dynamics in event-based simulations and calculated Lyapunov spectra, entropy production rate and attractor dimension. We vary correlations, irregularity, coupling strength and spike rate of the input and action potential onset rapidness of recurrent neurons.We generally find a suppression of chaos by input spike trains. This is strengthened by bursty and correlated input spike trains and increased action potential onset rapidness. We find a link between response reliability and the Lyapunov spectrum. Our study extends findings in chaotic rate models [Molgedey et al. 1992] to spiking neuron models and opens a novel avenue to study the role of projections in shaping the dynamics of large neural circuits.

  14. Synaptic polarity of the interneuron circuit controlling C. elegans locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek eRakowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available C. elegans is the only animal for which a detailed neural connectivity diagram has been constructed. However, synaptic polarities in this diagram, and thus, circuit functions are largely unknown. Here, we deciphered the likely polarities of 7 pre-motor neurons implicated in the control of worm's locomotion, using a combination of experimental and computational tools. We performed single and multiple laser ablations in the locomotor interneuron circuit and recorded times the worms spent in forward and backward locomotion. We constructed a theoretical model of the locomotor circuit and searched its all possible synaptic polarity combinations and sensory input patterns in order to find the best match to the timing data. The optimal solution is when either all or most of the interneurons are inhibitory and forward interneurons receive the strongest input, which suggests that inhibition governs the dynamics of the locomotor interneuron circuit. From the five pre-motor interneurons, only AVB and AVD are equally likely to be excitatory, i.e. they have probably similar number of inhibitory and excitatory connections to distant targets. The method used here has a general character and thus can be also applied to other neural systems consisting of small functional networks.

  15. Synaptic polarity of the interneuron circuit controlling C. elegans locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowski, Franciszek; Srinivasan, Jagan; Sternberg, Paul W; Karbowski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is the only animal for which a detailed neural connectivity diagram has been constructed. However, synaptic polarities in this diagram, and thus, circuit functions are largely unknown. Here, we deciphered the likely polarities of seven pre-motor neurons implicated in the control of worm's locomotion, using a combination of experimental and computational tools. We performed single and multiple laser ablations in the locomotor interneuron circuit and recorded times the worms spent in forward and backward locomotion. We constructed a theoretical model of the locomotor circuit and searched its all possible synaptic polarity combinations and sensory input patterns in order to find the best match to the timing data. The optimal solution is when either all or most of the interneurons are inhibitory and forward interneurons receive the strongest input, which suggests that inhibition governs the dynamics of the locomotor interneuron circuit. From the five pre-motor interneurons, only AVB and AVD are equally likely to be excitatory, i.e., they have probably similar number of inhibitory and excitatory connections to distant targets. The method used here has a general character and thus can be also applied to other neural systems consisting of small functional networks.

  16. Progress in understanding mood disorders: optogenetic dissection of neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, S; Tye, K M; Warden, M R

    2014-01-01

    Major depression is characterized by a cluster of symptoms that includes hopelessness, low mood, feelings of worthlessness and inability to experience pleasure. The lifetime prevalence of major depression approaches 20%, yet current treatments are often inadequate both because of associated side effects and because they are ineffective for many people. In basic research, animal models are often used to study depression. Typically, experimental animals are exposed to acute or chronic stress to generate a variety of depression-like symptoms. Despite its clinical importance, very little is known about the cellular and neural circuits that mediate these symptoms. Recent advances in circuit-targeted approaches have provided new opportunities to study the neuropathology of mood disorders such as depression and anxiety. We review recent progress and highlight some studies that have begun tracing a functional neuronal circuit diagram that may prove essential in establishing novel treatment strategies in mood disorders. First, we shed light on the complexity of mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) responses to stress by discussing two recent studies reporting that optogenetic activation of midbrain DA neurons can induce or reverse depression-related behaviors. Second, we describe the role of the lateral habenula circuitry in the pathophysiology of depression. Finally, we discuss how the prefrontal cortex controls limbic and neuromodulatory circuits in mood disorders.

  17. Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Garcia, Alberto Valdes; Oida, Satoshi; Jenkins, Keith A; Haensch, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much interest as a future channel material in radio frequency electronics because of its superior electrical properties. Fabrication of a graphene integrated circuit without significantly degrading transistor performance has proven to be challenging, posing one of the major bottlenecks to compete with existing technologies. Here we present a fabrication method fully preserving graphene transistor quality, demonstrated with the implementation of a high-performance three-stage graphene integrated circuit. The circuit operates as a radio frequency receiver performing signal amplification, filtering and downconversion mixing. All circuit components are integrated into 0.6 mm(2) area and fabricated on 200 mm silicon wafers, showing the unprecedented graphene circuit complexity and silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process compatibility. The demonstrated circuit performance allow us to use graphene integrated circuit to perform practical wireless communication functions, receiving and restoring digital text transmitted on a 4.3-GHz carrier signal.

  18. Fractional linear systems and electrical circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Kaczorek, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    This monograph covers some selected problems of positive and fractional electrical circuits composed of resistors, coils, capacitors and voltage (current) sources. The book consists of 8 chapters, 4 appendices and a list of references. Chapter 1 is devoted to fractional standard and positive continuous-time and discrete-time linear systems without and with delays. In chapter 2 the standard and positive fractional electrical circuits are considered and the fractional electrical circuits in transient states are analyzed.  Descriptor linear electrical circuits and their properties are investigated in chapter 3,  while chapter 4 is devoted to the stability of fractional standard and positive linear electrical circuits. The reachability, observability and reconstructability of fractional positive electrical circuits and their decoupling zeros are analyzed in chapter 5. The fractional linear electrical circuits with feedbacks are considered in chapter 6. In chapter 7 solutions of minimum energy control for standa...

  19. Lower Bounds for Tropical Circuits and Dynamic Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Jukna, Stasys

    2014-01-01

    Tropical circuits are circuits with Min and Plus, or Max and Plus operations as gates. Their importance stems from their intimate relation to dynamic programming algorithms. The power of tropical circuits lies somewhere between that of monotone boolean circuits and monotone arithmetic circuits. In this paper we present some lower bounds arguments for tropical circuits, and hence, for dynamic programs.

  20. 46 CFR 111.54-1 - Circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit breakers. 111.54-1 Section 111.54-1 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Circuit Breakers § 111.54-1 Circuit breakers. (a) Each Circuit breaker must— (1) Meet the general... circuit breaker frame. (e) Each circuit breaker located in an engineroom, boilerroom, or machinery......

  1. 14 CFR 23.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... circuit breakers, must be installed in all electrical circuits other than— (1) Main circuits of starter... circuit breaker or replace a fuse is essential to safety in flight, that circuit breaker or fuse must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Circuit protective devices. 23.1357...

  2. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  3. Quantum Memristors with Superconducting Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmilehto, J.; Deppe, F.; Di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.

    2017-01-01

    Memristors are resistive elements retaining information of their past dynamics. They have garnered substantial interest due to their potential for representing a paradigm change in electronics, information processing and unconventional computing. Given the advent of quantum technologies, a design for a quantum memristor with superconducting circuits may be envisaged. Along these lines, we introduce such a quantum device whose memristive behavior arises from quasiparticle-induced tunneling when supercurrents are cancelled. For realistic parameters, we find that the relevant hysteretic behavior may be observed using current state-of-the-art measurements of the phase-driven tunneling current. Finally, we develop suitable methods to quantify memory retention in the system. PMID:28195193

  4. Model reduction for circuit simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hinze, Michael; Maten, E Jan W Ter

    2011-01-01

    Simulation based on mathematical models plays a major role in computer aided design of integrated circuits (ICs). Decreasing structure sizes, increasing packing densities and driving frequencies require the use of refined mathematical models, and to take into account secondary, parasitic effects. This leads to very high dimensional problems which nowadays require simulation times too large for the short time-to-market demands in industry. Modern Model Order Reduction (MOR) techniques present a way out of this dilemma in providing surrogate models which keep the main characteristics of the devi

  5. Recursive Optimization of Digital Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-14

    capability will become increasingly important as the application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) market continues to meet its rapid growth projections... market (ASIC) continues to grow (18). The recursive optimization system presented in this thesis was developed to inves- tigate a new approach to global...f)) (narg (bar arg)) (fO (divide f narg)) (f1 (divide f arg)) (gO (divide g narg)) (gi (divide g arg)) ( productO (mult fO gO)) (producti (mult fl gl

  6. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  7. Circuit Breakers and Market Runs

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Draus; Mark Van Achter

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether the application of a “circuit breaker” to a financial market (i.e. a mechanism that interrupts trading for a predetermined period when the price moves beyond a predetermined level) reaches its intended goals of increased market stability and overall welfare. Our framework of analysis is a model in which investors can trade at several dates and might face a liquidity shock forcing them to sell immediately when the shock occurs. This setting potentially induces a “ma...

  8. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  9. Circuit QED with transmon qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Puertas, Javier; Baust, Alexander; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Haeberlein, Max; Schwarz, Manuel; Xie, Edwar; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Marx, Achim; Menzel, Edwin; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Weides, Martin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting quantum bits are basic building blocks for circuit QED systems. Applications in the fields of quantum computation and quantum simulation require long coherence times. We have fabricated and characterized superconducting transmon qubits which are designed to operate at a high ratio of Josephson energy and charging energy. Due to their low sensitivity to charge noise transmon qubits show good coherence properties. We couple transmon qubits to coplanar waveguide resonators and coplanar slotline resonators and characterize the devices at mK-temperatures. From the experimental data we derive the qubit-resonator coupling strength, the qubit relaxation time and calibrate the photon number in the resonator via Stark shifts.

  10. Quantum Memristors with Superconducting Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmilehto, J.; Deppe, F.; di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.

    2017-02-01

    Memristors are resistive elements retaining information of their past dynamics. They have garnered substantial interest due to their potential for representing a paradigm change in electronics, information processing and unconventional computing. Given the advent of quantum technologies, a design for a quantum memristor with superconducting circuits may be envisaged. Along these lines, we introduce such a quantum device whose memristive behavior arises from quasiparticle-induced tunneling when supercurrents are cancelled. For realistic parameters, we find that the relevant hysteretic behavior may be observed using current state-of-the-art measurements of the phase-driven tunneling current. Finally, we develop suitable methods to quantify memory retention in the system.

  11. Radio frequency integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, John W M

    2010-01-01

    This newly revised and expanded edition of the 2003 Artech House classic, Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Design, serves as an up-to-date, practical reference for complete RFIC know-how. The second edition includes numerous updates, including greater coverage of CMOS PA design, RFIC design with on-chip components, and more worked examples with simulation results. By emphasizing working designs, this book practically transports you into the authors' own RFIC lab so you can fully understand the function of each design detailed in this book. Among the RFIC designs examined are RF integrated LC

  12. HF radio systems and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, William

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive reference for the design of high frequency communications systems and equipment. This revised edition is loaded with practical data, much of which cannot be found in other reference books. Its approach to the subject follows the needs of an engineer from system definition and performance requirements down to the individual circuit elements that make up radio transmitters and receivers. The accompanying disk contains updated software on filters, matching networks and receiver analysis. SciTech Publishing also provides many other products related to Communication Systems Design.

  13. Cholinergic interneurons control local circuit activity and cocaine conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Ilana B; Lin, Shih-Chun; Brodsky, Matthew; Prakash, Rohit; Diester, Ilka; Anikeeva, Polina; Gradinaru, Viviana; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Deisseroth, Karl

    2010-12-17

    Cholinergic neurons are widespread, and pharmacological modulation of acetylcholine receptors affects numerous brain processes, but such modulation entails side effects due to limitations in specificity for receptor type and target cell. As a result, causal roles of cholinergic neurons in circuits have been unclear. We integrated optogenetics, freely moving mammalian behavior, in vivo electrophysiology, and slice physiology to probe the cholinergic interneurons of the nucleus accumbens by direct excitation or inhibition. Despite representing less than 1% of local neurons, these cholinergic cells have dominant control roles, exerting powerful modulation of circuit activity. Furthermore, these neurons could be activated by cocaine, and silencing this drug-induced activity during cocaine exposure (despite the fact that the manipulation of the cholinergic interneurons was not aversive by itself) blocked cocaine conditioning in freely moving mammals.

  14. Developmental expression and functional characterization of the potassium-channel subunit Kv3.1b in parvalbumin-containing interneurons of the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Zhang, L; Weiser, M; Rudy, B; McBain, C J

    1996-01-15

    The expression of the voltage-gated K(+)-channel subunit Kv3.1b in the developing hippocampus was determined by immunoblot and immunohistochemical techniques. Kv3.1b protein was detected first at postnatal day (P) 8. The Kv3.1b-immunopositive cell number per tissue section reached a maximum at P14 and was maintained through P40. In contrast, the Kv3.1b protein content of isolated membrane vesicles in immunoblots progressively increased through P40, suggesting an increase in Kv3.1b content per cell throughout this time period. Kv3.1b protein was expressed selectively in the somata, proximal dendrites, and axons of cells lying within or near the pyramidal cell layer, consistent with their being GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. Kv3.1b was present in approximately 80% of parvalbumin-positive interneurons. The developmental onset of Kv3.1b and parvalbumin immunoreactivity was identical. In contrast, Kv3.1b was mostly absent from the subset of somatostatin-positive inhibitory interneurons. Electrophysiological recordings were made from stratum pyramidale interneurons in which morphology and Kv3.1b-positive immunoreactivity were confirmed post hoc. Outward currents had voltage-dependent and biophysical properties resembling those of channels formed by Kv3.1b. The current blocked by low concentrations of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) showed marked inactivation, suggesting that Kv3.1b may coassemble with other members of the Kv3 subfamily. In current-clamp recordings, concentrations of 4-AP that blocked the current through Kv3.1b channels allowed us tentatively to assign a role to Kv3.1b-containing channels in action-potential repolarization. These data demonstrate that Kv3.1b is regulated developmentally in a specific subpopulation of hippocampal interneurons and that channels containing this subunit may be a major determinant in imparting "fast-spiking" characteristics to these and other cells throughout the central nervous system containing the Kv3.1b subunit.

  15. Stress differentially alters mu opioid receptor density and trafficking in parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the female and male rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Teresa A; Burstein, Suzanne R; Marrone, Gina F; Khalid, Sana; Gonzalez, Andreina D; Williams, Tanya J; Schierberl, Kathryn C; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Gonzales, Keith L; McEwen, Bruce S; Waters, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Stress differentially affects hippocampal-dependent learning relevant to addiction and morphology in male and female rats. Mu opioid receptors (MORs), which are located in parvalbumin (PARV)-containing GABAergic interneurons and are trafficked in response to changes in the hormonal environment, play a critical role in promoting principal cell excitability and long-term potentiation. Here, we compared the effects of acute and chronic immobilization stress (AIS and CIS) on MOR trafficking in PARV-containing neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus in female and male rats using dual label immunoelectron microscopy. Following AIS, the density of MOR silver-intensified gold particles (SIGs) in the cytoplasm of PARV-labeled dendrites was significantly reduced in females (estrus stage). Conversely, AIS significantly increased the proportion of cytoplasmic MOR SIGs in PARV-labeled dendrites in male rats. CIS significantly reduced the number of PARV-labeled neurons in the dentate hilus of males but not females. However, MOR/PARV-labeled dendrites and terminals were significantly smaller in CIS females, but not males, compared with controls. Following CIS, the density of cytoplasmic MOR SIGs increased in PARV-labeled dendrites and terminals in females. Moreover, the proportion of near-plasmalemmal MOR SIGs relative to total decreased in large PARV-labeled dendrites in females. After CIS, no changes in the density or trafficking of MOR SIGs were seen in PARV-labeled dendrites or terminals in males. These data show that AIS and CIS differentially affect available MOR pools in PARV-containing interneurons in female and male rats. Furthermore, they suggest that CIS could affect principal cell excitability in a manner that maintains learning processes in females but not males.

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor selectively regulates dendritogenesis of parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the main olfactory bulb through the PLCgamma pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuis, Paul; Agerman, Karin; Dobszay, Marton B; Minichiello, Liliana; Harkany, Tibor; Ernfors, Patrik

    2006-11-01

    Molecular mechanisms of neurotrophin signaling on dendrite development and dynamics are only partly understood. To address the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the morphogenesis of GABAergic neurons of the main olfactory bulb, we analyzed mice lacking BDNF, mice carrying neurotrophin-3 (NT3) in the place of BDNF, and TrkB signaling mutant mice with a receptor that can activate phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma) but is unable to recruit the adaptors Shc/Frs2. BDNF deletion yielded a compressed olfactory bulb with a significant loss of parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in GABAergic interneurons of the external plexiform layer. Dendrite development of PV-positive interneurons was selectively attenuated by BDNF since other Ca2+ -binding protein-containing neuron populations appeared unaffected. The deficit in PV-positive neurons could be rescued by the NT3/NT3 alleles. The degree of PV immunoreactivity was dependent on BDNF and TrkB recruitment of the adaptor proteins Shc/Frs2. In contrast, PLCgamma signaling from the TrkB receptor was sufficient for dendrite growth in vivo and consistently, blocking PLCgamma prevented BDNF-dependent dendrite development in vitro. Collectively, our results provide genetic evidence that BDNF and TrkB signaling selectively regulate PV expression and dendrite growth in a subset of neurochemically-defined GABAergic interneurons via activation of the PLCgamma pathway.

  17. BETA-AMYLOID((1-42)) AFFECTS CHOLINERGIC BUT NOT PARVALBUMIN-CONTAINING NEURONS IN THE SEPTAL COMPLEX OF THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HARKANY, T; DEJONG, GI; SOOS, K; PENKE, B; LUITEN, PGM; GULYA, K

    1995-01-01

    beta-Amyloid((1-42)) peptide (beta AP((1-42))) was injected into the medial septum of rats. After a 14-day survival time, neuronal alterations in the septal cholinergic and GABAergic systems were visualized by means of histo- and immunocytochemical methods. Neurons insulted by the peptide were prima

  18. Dizocilpine (MK-801) induces distinct changes of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor subunits in parvalbumin-containing interneurons in young adult rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Dong; Zhang, Wentong; Wang, Huai-Xing; Stradtman, George G; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2009-11-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction has long been implicated in schizophrenia and NMDARs on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons are proposed to play an essential role in the pathogenesis. However, controversial results have been reported regarding the regulation of NMDAR expression, and direct evidence of how NMDAR antagonists act on specific subpopulations of prefrontal interneurons is missing. We investigated the effects of the NMDAR antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) on the expression of NMDAR subtypes in the identified interneurons in young adult rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) by using laser microdissection and real-time polymerase chain reaction, combined with Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. We found that MK-801 induced distinct changes of NMDAR subunits in the parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-ir) interneurons vs. pyramidal neurons in the PFC circuitry. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of all NMDAR subtypes, including NR1 and NR2A to 2D, exhibited inverted-U dose-dependent changes in response to MK-801 treatment in the PFC. In contrast, subunit mRNAs of NMDARs in PV-ir interneurons were significantly down-regulated at low doses, unaltered at medium doses, and significantly decreased again at high doses, suggesting a biphasic dose response to MK-801. The differential effects of MK-801 in mRNA expression of NMDAR subunits were consistent with the protein expression of NR2A and NR2B subunits revealed with Western blotting and double immunofluorescent staining. These results suggest that PV-containing interneurons in the PFC exhibit a distinct responsiveness to NMDAR antagonism and that NMDA antagonist can differentially and dose-dependently regulate the functions of pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons in the prefrontal cortical circuitry.

  19. β-Amyloid(1-42) affects cholinergic but not parvalbumin-containing neurons in the septal complex of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkany, T.; Jong, G.I. de; Soós, K.; Penke, B.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Gulya, K.

    1995-01-01

    β-Amyloid(1-42) peptide (βAP(1-42)) was injected into the medial septum of rats. After a 14-day survival time, neuronal alterations in the septal cholinergic and GABAergic systems were visualized by means of histo- and immunocytochemical methods. Neurons insulted by the peptide were primarily cholin

  20. Immunocytochemical localization of calcium-binding proteins, calbindin D28K-, calretinin-, and parvalbumin-containing neurons in the dog visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Song-Hee; Lee, Jea-Young; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2011-09-01

    Although the dog is widely used to analyze the function of the brain, it is not known whether the distribution of calcium-binding proteins reflects a specific pattern in the visual cortex. The distribution of neurons containing calcium-binding proteins, calbindin D28K, calretinin, and parvalbumin in adult dog visual cortex were studied using immunocytochemistry. We also compared this labeling to that of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Calbindin D28K-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were predominantly located in layer II/III. Calretinin- and parvalbumin-IR neurons were located throughout the layers with the highest density in layers II/III and IV. The large majority of calbindin D28K-IR neurons were multipolar stellate cells. The majority of the calretinin-IR neurons were vertical fusiform cells with long processes traveling perpendicular to the pial surface. And the large majority of parvalbumin-IR neurons were multipolar stellate and round/oval cells. More than 90% of the calretinin- and parvalbumin-IR neurons were double-labeled with GABA, while approximately 66% of the calbindin D28K-IR neurons contained GABA. This study elucidates the neurochemical structure of calcium-binding proteins. These data will be informative in appreciating the functional significance of different laminar distributions of calcium-binding proteins between species and the differential vulnerability of calcium-binding proteins-containing neurons, with regard to calcium-dependent excitotoxic procedures.

  1. GLITCH ANALYSIS AND REDUCTION IN DIGITAL CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Shah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hazard in digital circuits is unnecessary transitions due to gate propagation delay in that circuit. Hazards occur due to uneven delay offered in the path of the various ongoing signals. One of the important reasons for power dissipation in CMOS circuits is the switching activity .This include activities such as spurious pulses, called glitches. Power optimization techniques that concentrate on the reduction of switching power dissipation of a given circuit are called glitch reduction techniques. In this paper, we analyse various Glitch reduction techniques such as Hazard filtering Technique, Balanced Path Technique, Multiple Threshold Technique and Gate Freezing Technique. We also measure the parameters such as noise and delay of the circuits on application of various techniques to check the reliability of different circuits in various situations.

  2. A concise guide to chaotic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buscarino, Arturo; Frasca, Mattia; Sciuto, Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides a source of instruction from which students can be taught about the practicalities of designing and using chaotic circuits. The text provides information on suitable materials, circuit design and schemes for design realization. Readers are then shown how to reproduce experiments on chaos and to design new ones. The text guides the reader easily from the basic idea of chaos to the laboratory test providing an experimental basis that can be developed for such applications as secure communications. This brief provides introductory information on sample chaotic circuits, includes coverage of their development, and the “gallery” section provides information on a wide range of circuits. Concise Guide to Chaotic Electronic Circuits will be useful to anyone running a laboratory class involving chaotic circuits and to students wishing to learn about them.

  3. Development of larval motor circuits in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Okusawa, Satoko; Itakura, Yuki; Fushiki, Akira; Nose, Akinao

    2012-04-01

    How are functional neural circuits formed during development? Despite recent advances in our understanding of the development of individual neurons, little is known about how complex circuits are assembled to generate specific behaviors. Here, we describe the ways in which Drosophila motor circuits serve as an excellent model system to tackle this problem. We first summarize what has been learned during the past decades on the connectivity and development of component neurons, in particular motor neurons and sensory feedback neurons. We then review recent progress in our understanding of the development of the circuits as well as studies that apply optogenetics and other innovative techniques to dissect the circuit diagram. New approaches using Drosophila as a model system are now making it possible to search for developmental rules that regulate the construction of neural circuits.

  4. A Singularity in the Kirchhoff's Circuit Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Harsha, N R Sree

    2016-01-01

    Students often have difficulty in understanding qualitatively the behaviour of simple electric circuits. In particular, as different studies have shown, they find multiple batteries connected in multiple loops difficult to analyse. In a recent paper [Phys. Educ. 50 568 (2015)], we showed such an electric circuit, which consists of ideal batteries connected in parallel, that couldn't be solved by the existing circuit analysis methods. In this paper, we shall introduce a new mathematical method of solving simple electric circuits from the solutions of more general circuits and show that the currents, in this particular circuit, take the indeterminate 0/0 form. We shall also present some of the implications of teaching the method. We believe that the description presented in this paper should help the instructors in teaching the behaviour of multiple batteries connected in parallel.

  5. Physical synthesis of quantum circuits using templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkhani, Zahra; Mohammadzadeh, Naser

    2016-10-01

    Similar to traditional CMOS circuits, quantum circuit design flow is divided into two main processes: logic synthesis and physical design. Addressing the limitations imposed on optimization of the quantum circuit metrics because of no information sharing between logic synthesis and physical design processes, the concept of " physical synthesis" was introduced for quantum circuit flow, and a few techniques were proposed for it. Following that concept, in this paper a new approach for physical synthesis inspired by template matching idea in quantum logic synthesis is proposed to improve the latency of quantum circuits. Experiments show that by using template matching as a physical synthesis approach, the latency of quantum circuits can be improved by more than 23.55 % on average.

  6. Analog VLSI neural network integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kub, F. J.; Moon, K. K.; Just, E. A.

    1991-01-01

    Two analog very large scale integration (VLSI) vector matrix multiplier integrated circuit chips were designed, fabricated, and partially tested. They can perform both vector-matrix and matrix-matrix multiplication operations at high speeds. The 32 by 32 vector-matrix multiplier chip and the 128 by 64 vector-matrix multiplier chip were designed to perform 300 million and 3 billion multiplications per second, respectively. An additional circuit that has been developed is a continuous-time adaptive learning circuit. The performance achieved thus far for this circuit is an adaptivity of 28 dB at 300 KHz and 11 dB at 15 MHz. This circuit has demonstrated greater than two orders of magnitude higher frequency of operation than any previous adaptive learning circuit.

  7. Nonlinear Acoustic Characterization of Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    matching so as to transmit as much energy as possible into the test object. In addition to this limitation, ultrasound is only able to measure range by...metric arrays for standoff analysis of targets. In 1982, Yoneyama[4] discussed the nonlinear interaction of ultrasound with air as the “scattering of... cavitation effect. This produces a rectification at higher frequencies just as a diode does in an electrical circuit. This natural rectification allows

  8. MESOSCOPIC ELECTRIC CIRCUITS WITH CHARGE DISCRETIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    MESOSCOPIC ELECTRIC CIRCUITS WITH CHARGE DISCRETIZATION Nanoscience is a modern aspect of electronic engineering with significant projections for applications on new devices. This project allowed presenting an innovative language and a rigorous vision on aspects of nanoscience. The theory of quantum electrical circuits with discrete charge corresponds to the description (in simple terms) of some aspects of nanoscience. Our results gather aspects of quantum mechanics, electrical circuit...

  9. Nonsmooth Modeling and Simulation for Switched Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Acary, Vincent; Brogliato, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    "Nonsmooth Modeling and Simulation for Switched Circuits" concerns the modeling and the numerical simulation of switched circuits with the nonsmooth dynamical systems (NSDS) approach, using piecewise-linear and multivalued models of electronic devices like diodes, transistors, switches. Numerous examples (ranging from introductory academic circuits to various types of power converters) are analyzed and many simulation results obtained with the INRIA open-source SICONOS software package are presented. Comparisons with SPICE and hybrid methods demonstrate the power of the NSDS approach

  10. Logarithmic current-measuring transistor circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Kristian Søe

    1967-01-01

    Describes two transistorized circuits for the logarithmic measurement of small currents suitable for nuclear reactor instrumentation. The logarithmic element is applied in the feedback path of an amplifier, and only one dual transistor is used as logarithmic diode and temperature compensating...... transistor. A simple one-amplifier circuit is compared with a two-amplifier system. The circuits presented have been developed in connexion with an amplifier using a dual m.o.s. transistor input stage with diode-protected gates....

  11. Combinational Circuit Obfuscation Through Power Signature Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    hardware descrip- tion files such as VHDL , SPICE netlist are needed for the SPICE-like simulation tools; however, the SID just needs a simple circuit...Time Interval) Figure 3.12: The Summary of Procedure for SPICE Simulation CORGI 3.0 XML Exporter Truth Table Exporter GraphML Exporter VHDL Exporter...encryption system developed by Falkinburg [4]. For installing the obfuscated version of a circuit into the test-bed, the circuit is described in VHDL format

  12. The analysis and design of linear circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Roland E; Toussaint, Gregory J

    2009-01-01

    The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, 6e gives the reader the opportunity to not only analyze, but also design and evaluate linear circuits as early as possible. The text's abundance of problems, applications, pedagogical tools, and realistic examples helps engineers develop the skills needed to solve problems, design practical alternatives, and choose the best design from several competing solutions. Engineers searching for an accessible introduction to resistance circuits will benefit from this book that emphasizes the early development of engineering judgment.

  13. Monitoring transients in low inductance circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilford, R.P.; Rosborough, J.R.

    1985-10-21

    The instant invention relates to methods of and apparatus for monitoring transients in low inductance circuits and to a probe utilized to practice said method and apparatus. More particularly, the instant invention relates to methods of and apparatus for monitoring low inductance circuits, wherein the low inductance circuits include a pair of flat cable transmission lines. The instant invention is further directed to a probe for use in monitoring pairs of flat cable transmission lines.

  14. Electronic circuits for communications systems: A compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The compilation of electronic circuits for communications systems is divided into thirteen basic categories, each representing an area of circuit design and application. The compilation items are moderately complex and, as such, would appeal to the applications engineer. However, the rationale for the selection criteria was tailored so that the circuits would reflect fundamental design principles and applications, with an additional requirement for simplicity whenever possible.

  15. Long-wavelength silicon photonic integrated circuits

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we elaborate on our development of silicon photonic integrated circuits operating at wavelengths beyond the telecommunication wavelength window. Silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits up to 3.8 mu m wavelength are demonstrated as well as germanium-on-silicon waveguide circuits operating in the 5-5 mu m wavelength range. The heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductors and IV-VI semiconductors on this platform is described for the integration of lasers and photodetectors op...

  16. Efficient FM Algorithm for VLSI Circuit Partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.RAJESH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In FM algorithm initial partitioning matrix of the given circuit is assigned randomly, as a result for larger circuit having hundred or more nodes will take long time to arrive at the final partition if theinitial partitioning matrix is close to the final partitioning then the computation time (iteration required is small . Here we have proposed novel approach to arrive at initial partitioning by using spectralfactorization method the results was verified using several circuits.

  17. Integrated capacitors for conductive lithographic film circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Harrey, PM; Evans, PSA; Harrison, DJ

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on fabrication of low-value embedded capacitors in conductive lithographic film (CLF) circuit boards. The CLF process is a low-cost and high speed manufacturing technique for flexible circuits and systems. We report on the construction and electrical characteristics of CLF capacitor structures printed onto flexible substrates. These components comprise a single polyester dielectric layer, which separates the printed electrode films. Multilayer circuit boards with printed co...

  18. Hyperchaotic circuit with damped harmonic oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.

    2001-01-01

    A simple fourth-order hyperchaotic circuit with damped harmonic oscillators is described. ANP3 and PSpice simulations including an eigenvalue study of the linearized Jacobian are presented together with a hardware implementation. The circuit contains two inductors with series resistance, two ideal...... capacitors and one nonlinear active conductor. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm the hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations of the circuit. The nonlinear conductor is realized with a diode. A negative impedance converter and a linear resistor. The performance of the circuit is investigated...

  19. Efficient Scheme for Optimizing Quantum Fourier Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Min; ZHANG Zengke; Tzyh-Jong Tarn

    2008-01-01

    In quantum circuits, importing of additional qubits can reduce the operation time and prevent de-coherence induced by the environment. However, excessive qubits may make the quantum system vulner-able. This paper describes how to relax existing qubits without additional qubits to significantly reduce the operation time of the quantum Fourier circuit compared to a circuit without optimization. The results indicate that this scheme makes full use of the qubits relaxation. The concepts can be applied to improve similar quantum circuits and guide the physical implementations of quantum algorithms or devices.

  20. Analog circuit design art, science, and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and Personalities discusses the many approaches and styles in the practice of analog circuit design. The book is written in an informal yet informative manner, making it easily understandable to those new in the field. The selection covers the definition, history, current practice, and future direction of analog design; the practice proper; and the styles in analog circuit design. The book also includes the problems usually encountered in analog circuit design; approach to feedback loop design; and other different techniques and applications. The text is

  1. Electric circuit theory applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yorke, R

    1981-01-01

    Electric Circuit Theory provides a concise coverage of the framework of electrical engineering. Comprised of six chapters, this book emphasizes the physical process of electrical engineering rather than abstract mathematics. Chapter 1 deals with files, circuits, and parameters, while Chapter 2 covers the natural and forced response of simple circuit. Chapter 3 talks about the sinusoidal steady state, and Chapter 4 discusses the circuit analysis. The fifth chapter tackles frequency response of networks, and the last chapter covers polyphase systems. This book will be of great help to electrical

  2. Model Order Reduction for Electronic Circuits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Shontz, Suzanne

    Electronic circuits are ubiquitous; they are used in numerous industries including: the semiconductor, communication, robotics, auto, and music industries (among many others). As products become more and more complicated, their electronic circuits also grow in size and complexity. This increased ...... in the semiconductor industry. Circuit simulation proceeds by using Maxwell’s equations to create a mathematical model of the circuit. The boundary element method is then used to discretize the equations, and the variational form of the equations are then solved on the graph network....

  3. Circuit For Control Of Electromechanical Prosthetic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed circuit for control of electromechanical prosthetic hand derives electrical control signals from shoulder movements. Updated, electronic version of prosthesis, that includes two hooklike fingers actuated via cables from shoulder harness. Circuit built around favored shoulder harness, provides more dexterous movement, without incurring complexity of computer-controlled "bionic" or hydraulically actuated devices. Additional harness and potentiometer connected to similar control circuit mounted on other shoulder. Used to control stepping motor rotating hand about prosthetic wrist to one of number of angles consistent with number of digital outputs. Finger-control signals developed by circuit connected to first shoulder harness transmitted to prosthetic hand via sliprings at prosthetic wrist joint.

  4. Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ming; Valdes-Garcia, Alberto; Han, Shu-Jen; Farmer, Damon B; Meric, Inanc; Sun, Yanning; Wu, Yanqing; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Grill, Alfred; Avouris, Phaedon; Jenkins, Keith A

    2011-06-10

    A wafer-scale graphene circuit was demonstrated in which all circuit components, including graphene field-effect transistor and inductors, were monolithically integrated on a single silicon carbide wafer. The integrated circuit operates as a broadband radio-frequency mixer at frequencies up to 10 gigahertz. These graphene circuits exhibit outstanding thermal stability with little reduction in performance (less than 1 decibel) between 300 and 400 kelvin. These results open up possibilities of achieving practical graphene technology with more complex functionality and performance.

  5. High Speed Solid State Circuit Breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesak, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Fort Monmouth, NJ, has developed and is installing two 3.3 MW high speed solid state circuit breakers at the Army's Pulse Power Center. These circuit breakers will interrupt 4160V three phase power mains in no more than 300 microseconds, two orders of magnitude faster than conventional mechanical contact type circuit breakers. These circuit breakers utilize Gate Turnoff Thyristors (GTO's) and are currently utility type devices using air cooling in an air conditioned enclosure. Future refinements include liquid cooling, either water or two phase organic coolant, and more advanced semiconductors. Each of these refinements promises a more compact, more reliable unit.

  6. The emergy analysis of loop circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kai; Feng, Xiao

    2008-12-01

    Emergy analysis can analyze the resource utilization and environmental performance of a system. Loop circuit is a common structure in the process industry, but when emergy analysis is carried out to such structure, mistakes such as emergy double counting often occur. To avoid emergy double counting, two types of loop circuit-direct loop circuit and indirect loop circuit-are theoretically distinguished, and the methods to avoid such mistake are proposed. Finally, PVC production and vinyl acetate production are adopted to demonstrate the methods.

  7. Neural circuits mediating olfactory-driven behavior in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eKermen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The fish olfactory system processes odor signals and mediates behaviors that are crucial for survival such as foraging, courtship and alarm response. Although the upstream olfactory brain areas (olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb are well studied, less is known about their target brain areas and the role they play in generating odor-driven behaviors. Here we review a broad range of literature on the anatomy, physiology and behavioral output of the olfactory system and its target areas in a wide range of teleost fish. Additionally, we discuss how applying recent technological advancements to the zebrafish (Danio rerio could help in understanding the function of these target areas. We hope to provide a framework for elucidating the neural circuit computations underlying the odor-driven behaviors in this small, transparent and genetically amenable vertebrate.

  8. Biocompatible circuit-breaker chip for thermal management of biomedical microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Dahmardeh, Masoud; Takahata, Kenichi

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a thermoresponsive micro circuit breaker for biomedical applications specifically targeted at electronic intelligent implants. The circuit breaker is micromachined to have a shape-memory-alloy cantilever actuator as a normally closed temperature-sensitive switch to protect the device of interest from overheating, a critical safety feature for smart implants including those that are electrothermally driven with wireless micro heaters. The device is fabricated in a size of 1.5  ×  2.0  ×  0.46 mm3 using biocompatible materials and a chip-based titanium package, exhibiting a nominal cold-state resistance of 14 Ω. The breaker rapidly enters the full open condition when the chip temperature exceeds 63 °C, temporarily breaking the circuit of interest to lower its temperature until chip temperature drops to 51 °C, at which the breaker closes the circuit to allow current to flow through it again, physically limiting the maximum temperature of the circuit. This functionality is tested in combination with a wireless resonant heater powered by radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, demonstrating self-regulation of heater temperature. The developed circuit-breaker chip operates in a fully passive manner that removes the need for active sensor and circuitry to achieve temperature regulation in a target device, contributing to the miniaturization of biomedical microsystems including electronic smart implants where thermal management is essential.

  9. Powerful Amplification Cascades of FRET-Based Two-Layer Nonenzymatic Nucleic Acid Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Ke; Huang, Jin; Yang, Xiaohai; Yang, Yanjing; Ying, Le; Wang, He; Xie, Nuli; Ou, Min; Wang, Kemin

    2016-06-07

    Nucleic acid circuits have played important roles in biological engineering and have increasingly attracted researchers' attention. They are primarily based on nucleic acid hybridizations and strand displacement reactions between nucleic acid probes of different lengths. Signal amplification schemes that do not rely on protein enzyme show great potential in analytical applications. While the single amplification circuit often achieves linear amplification that may not meet the need for detection of target in a very small amount, it is very necessary to construct cascade circuits that allow for larger amplification of inputs. Herein, we have successfully engineered powerful amplification cascades of FRET-based two-layer nonenzymatic nucleic acid circuits, in which the outputs of catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) activate hybridization chain reactions (HCR) circuits to induce repeated hybridization, allowing real-time monitoring of self-assembly process by FRET signal. The cascades can yield 50000-fold signal amplification with the help of the well-designed and high-quality nucleic acid circuit amplifiers. Subsequently, with coupling of structure-switching aptamer, as low as 200 pM adenosine is detected in buffer, as well as in human serum. To our knowledge, we have for the first time realized real-time monitoring adaptation of HCR to CHA circuits and achieved amplified detection of nucleic acids and small molecules with relatively high sensitivity.

  10. Cortico-amygdala-striatal circuits are organized as hierarchical subsystems through the primate amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngsun T; Ernst, Monique; Fudge, Julie L

    2013-08-28

    The prefrontal and insula cortex, amygdala, and striatum are key regions for emotional processing, yet the amygdala's role as an interface between the cortex and striatum is not well understood. In the nonhuman primate (Macaque fascicularis), we analyzed a collection of bidirectional tracer injections in the amygdala to understand how cortical inputs and striatal outputs are organized to form integrated cortico-amygdala-striatal circuits. Overall, diverse prefrontal and insular cortical regions projected to the basal and accessory basal nuclei of the amygdala. In turn, these amygdala regions projected to widespread striatal domains extending well beyond the classic ventral striatum. Analysis of the cases in aggregate revealed a topographic colocalization of cortical inputs and striatal outputs in the amygdala that was additionally distinguished by cortical cytoarchitecture. Specifically, the degree of cortical laminar differentiation of the cortical inputs predicted amygdalostriatal targets, and distinguished three main cortico-amygdala-striatal circuits. These three circuits were categorized as "primitive," "intermediate," and "developed," respectively, to emphasize the relative phylogenetic and ontogenetic features of the cortical inputs. Within the amygdala, these circuits appeared arranged in a pyramidal-like fashion, with the primitive circuit found in all examined subregions, and subsequent circuits hierarchically layered in discrete amygdala subregions. This arrangement suggests a stepwise integration of the functions of these circuits across amygdala subregions, providing a potential mechanism through which internal emotional states are managed with external social and sensory information toward emotionally informed complex behaviors.

  11. Genetic Circuit for the Early Warning of Lung Cancer using iBioSim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of molecular biology and gene-engineering technology, gene diagnosis has been an emerging approach for modern life sciences. Biological marker, recognized as the hot topic in the molecular and gene fields, has important values in early diagnosis, malignant tumour stage, treatment and therapeutic efficacy evaluation. The design of markers detection genetic circuit system for lung cancer is presented as a new method to provide basis for early warning and therapy. The system consists of three single-marker detection circuits and an integration circuit. The single-marker detection circuit provides an instantaneous low level when target marker’s concentration reaches the threshold. The integration circuit uses gene and gate to complete the output data fusion from single-marker detection circuit through logic operations to finish the combined detection. All the structure is modelled and analyzed by iBioSim through the biochemical reactions of different gene circuits. The experimental result indicates that the whole lung cancer detection system can realize joint detection of tumor markers with good stability and sensitivity.

  12. From synapses to behavior: development of a sensory-motor circuit in the leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Burgin, Antonia; Kristan, William B; French, Kathleen A

    2008-05-01

    The development of neuronal circuits has been advanced greatly by the use of imaging techniques that reveal the activity of neurons during the period when they are constructing synapses and forming circuits. This review focuses on experiments performed in leech embryos to characterize the development of a neuronal circuit that produces a simple segmental behavior called "local bending." The experiments combined electrophysiology, anatomy, and FRET-based voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs). The VSDs offered two major advantages in these experiments: they allowed us to record simultaneously the activity of many neurons, and unlike other imaging techniques, they revealed inhibition as well as excitation. The results indicated that connections within the circuit are formed in a predictable sequence: initially neurons in the circuit are connected by electrical synapses, forming a network that itself generates an embryonic behavior and prefigures the adult circuit; later chemical synapses, including inhibitory connections, appear, "sculpting" the circuit to generate a different, mature behavior. In this developmental process, some of the electrical connections are completely replaced by chemical synapses, others are maintained into adulthood, and still others persist and share their targets with chemical synaptic connections.

  13. Reliability of Physical Systems: Detection of Malicious Subcircuits (Trojan Circuits) in Sequential Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosova, A. Yu.; Kirienko, I. E.; Tomkov, V. V.; Miryutov, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Reliability of physical systems is provided by reliability of their parts including logical ones. Insertion of malicious subcircuits that can destroy logical circuit or cause leakage of confidential information from a system necessitates the detection of such subcircuits followed by their masking if possible. We suggest a method of finding a set of sequential circuit nodes in which Trojan Circuits can be inserted. The method is based on random estimations of controllability and observability of combinational nodes calculated using a description of sequential circuit working area and an evidence of existence of a transfer sequence for the proper set of internal states without finding the sequence itself. The method allows cutting calculations using operations on Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (ROBDDs) that can depend only on the state variables of the circuit. The approach, unlike traditional ones, does not require preliminary sequential circuit simulation but can use its results. It can be used when malicious circuits cannot be detected during sequential circuit verification.

  14. Cornered by reality: circuit minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Moreno Mena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines a category of migrant children named “circuit minors.” This category includes unaccompanied migrant children and adolescents who cross the border continuously for various reasons and are typically associated with criminal gangs and human and drug traffickers. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem and consider the risks and the state of social vulnerability in which this population lives. These categories of children and adolescent migrants are identified through a review of the literature, newspaper archives, and official statistics. The study draws on interviews with key informants to characterize this population. We conclude that there is a need to review existing frameworks for the protection of migrant children and to create an action protocol for officials who have contact with these children to ensure their best interests.

  15. TIME CALIBRATED OSCILLOSCOPE SWEEP CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, V.L.; Carstensen, H.K.

    1959-11-24

    An improved time calibrated sweep circuit is presented, which extends the range of usefulness of conventional oscilloscopes as utilized for time calibrated display applications in accordance with U. S. Patent No. 2,832,002. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a pair of separate signal paths, each of which is phase and amplitude adjustable, to connect a high-frequency calibration oscillator to the output of a sawtooth generator also connected to the respective horizontal deflection plates of an oscilloscope cathode ray tube. The amplitude and phase of the calibration oscillator signals in the two signal paths are adjusted to balance out feedthrough currents capacitively coupled at high frequencies of the calibration oscillator from each horizontal deflection plate to the vertical plates of the cathode ray tube.

  16. Electrical circuit theory and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    This much-loved textbook explains the principles of electrical circuit theory and technology so that students of electrical and mechanical engineering can master the subject. Real-world situations and engineering examples put the theory into context. The inclusion of worked problems with solutions help you to learn and further problems then allow you to test and confirm you have fully understood each subject. In total the book contains 800 worked problems, 1000 further problems and 14 revision tests with answers online. This an ideal text for foundation and undergraduate degree students and those on upper level vocational engineering courses, in particular electrical and mechanical. It provides a sound understanding of the knowledge required by technicians in fields such as electrical engineering, electronics and telecommunications. This edition has been updated with developments in key areas such as semiconductors, transistors, and fuel cells, along with brand new material on ABCD parameters and Fourier's An...

  17. Advanced Microwave Circuits and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    such as voltage-controlled oscillators and electron devices for millimeter wave and submillimeter wave applications. This part also covers studies of integrated buffer circuits. Passive components are indispensable elements of any electronic system. The increasing demands to miniaturization and cost effectiveness...... component in a receiving system. Its performance determines the overall system sensitivity because it is the first block to amplify the received signal from the antenna. Hence, for the achievement of high receiver performance, the LNA is required to have a low noise figure with good input matching as well......, bandwidth, and power consumption, which generally accompanies the LNA design process, is discussed in this part. The requirement from an amplifier design differs for different applications. A power amplifier is a type of amplifier which drives the antenna of a transmitter. Unlike LNA, a power amplifier...

  18. Microtubule as nanobioelectronic nonlinear circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić Dalibor L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of biological molecules has offered exciting alternatives to conventional synthetic methods. Specific methods use various biological templates to direct the deposition and patterning of inorganic materials. Here we have established a new electrical model of microtubules as a biological nanoscale circuit based on polyelectrolyte features of cylindrical biopolymers. Our working hypothesis is that microtubules play an active role in sub-cellular computation and signaling via electronic and protonic conductivity and can thus be made useful in hybrid materials that offer novel electronic characteristics. We verify these hypotheses both computationally and analytically through a quantitative model based on the atomic resolution structures of the key functional proteins.

  19. Design of Multivalued Circuits Based on an Algebra for Current—Mode CMOS Multivalued Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈偕雄; ClaudioMoraga

    1995-01-01

    An algebra proposed for current-mode CMOS multivalued circuits is briefly reviewed.this paper discusses its application in the design of multivalued circuits.Several current-mode CMOS quaternary and quinary circuits are designed by algebraic means.The design method based on this algebra may offer a design simpler than the previously known ones.

  20. Scaling of graphene integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Massimiliano; Guerriero, Erica; Fiocco, Marco; Alberti, Ruggero; Polloni, Laura; Behnam, Ashkan; Carrion, Enrique A.; Pop, Eric; Sordan, Roman

    2015-04-01

    The influence of transistor size reduction (scaling) on the speed of realistic multi-stage integrated circuits (ICs) represents the main performance metric of a given transistor technology. Despite extensive interest in graphene electronics, scaling efforts have so far focused on individual transistors rather than multi-stage ICs. Here we study the scaling of graphene ICs based on transistors from 3.3 to 0.5 μm gate lengths and with different channel widths, access lengths, and lead thicknesses. The shortest gate delay of 31 ps per stage was obtained in sub-micron graphene ROs oscillating at 4.3 GHz, which is the highest oscillation frequency obtained in any strictly low-dimensional material to date. We also derived the fundamental Johnson limit, showing that scaled graphene ICs could be used at high frequencies in applications with small voltage swing.The influence of transistor size reduction (scaling) on the speed of realistic multi-stage integrated circuits (ICs) represents the main performance metric of a given transistor technology. Despite extensive interest in graphene electronics, scaling efforts have so far focused on individual transistors rather than multi-stage ICs. Here we study the scaling of graphene ICs based on transistors from 3.3 to 0.5 μm gate lengths and with different channel widths, access lengths, and lead thicknesses. The shortest gate delay of 31 ps per stage was obtained in sub-micron graphene ROs oscillating at 4.3 GHz, which is the highest oscillation frequency obtained in any strictly low-dimensional material to date. We also derived the fundamental Johnson limit, showing that scaled graphene ICs could be used at high frequencies in applications with small voltage swing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Discussions on the cutoff frequency fT, the maximum frequency of oscillation fmax, and the intrinsic gate delay CV/I. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01126d

  1. Improved Circuit For Hot-Film Anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Circuit suitable for automation or computer control of setup and operation. Hot-film or hot-wire anemometer circuit features individual current drives for two arms of wheatstone bridge, plus other features that provide improved calibration and automated or computer-controlled operation.

  2. Two New Families of Floating FDNR Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Soliman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new configurations for realizing ideal floating frequency-dependent negative resistor elements (FDNR are introduced. The proposed circuits are symmetrical and are realizable by four CCII or ICCII or a combination of both. Each configuration is realizable by eight different circuits. Simulation results are included to support the theory.

  3. Electric Circuit Theory--Computer Illustrated Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Brian

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the use of a computer-illustrated text (CIT) with integrated software to teach electric circuit theory to college students. Examples of software use are given, including simple animation, graphical displays, and problem-solving programs. Issues affecting electric circuit theory instruction are also addressed, including mathematical…

  4. Overload-protector/fault-indicator circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluka, J. R.; Moore, S. F.

    1977-01-01

    Circuit incorporates three-terminal current limiter (78M24) to increase overall reliability and to eliminate transistor burnouts resulting from shorted interconnection lines and other overloads. Fact-acting light emitting diodes across the limiters show status of transistor output circuits.

  5. Delay Reduction in Optimized Reversible Multiplier Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Assarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a novel reversible multiplier is presented. Reversible logic can play a significant role in computer domain. This logic can be applied in quantum computing, optical computing processing, DNA computing, and nanotechnology. One condition for reversibility of a computable model is that the number of input equate with the output. Reversible multiplier circuits are the circuits used frequently in computer system. For this reason, optimization in one reversible multiplier circuit can reduce its volume of hardware on one hand and increases the speed in a reversible system on the other hand. One of the important parameters that optimize a reversible circuit is reduction of delays in performance of the circuit. This paper investigates the performance characteristics of the gates, the circuits and methods of optimizing the performance of reversible multiplier circuits. Results showed that reduction of the reversible circuit layers has lead to improved performance due to the reduction of the propagation delay between input and output period. All the designs are in the nanometric scales.

  6. A Better Way to Drive "RLC" Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguia

    2009-01-01

    An electronic circuit for controlling "RLC" experiments is shown. This arrangement does not employ a function generator, which makes it more suitable when a wide range of "R," "L" and "C" values is required and a relatively high current is involved. This circuit can be used for driven and undriven DC…

  7. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L

    2010-01-01

    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...

  8. Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Baldo, Gian Luca

    1995-01-01

    The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower...... the impacts on the external environment from recycling...

  9. CMOS circuits for analog signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, Hans

    1988-01-01

    Design choices in CMOS analog signal processing circuits are presented. Special attention is focussed on continuous-time filter technologies. The basics of MOSFET-C continuous-time filters and CMOS Square Law Circuits are explained at the hand of a graphical MOST characteristics representation.

  10. RF Circuit Design in Nanometer CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    With CMOS technology entering the nanometer regime, the design of analog and RF circuits is complicated by low supply voltages, very non-linear (and nonquadratic) devices and large 1/f noise. At the same time, circuits are required to operate over increasingly wide bandwidths to implement modern mul

  11. Analysis of circuits including magnetic cores (MTRAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzen, G. R.; Nitzan, D.; Herndon, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Development of automated circuit analysis computer program to provide transient analysis of circuits with magnetic cores is discussed. Allowance is made for complications caused by nonlinearity of switching core model and magnetic coupling among loop currents. Computer program is conducted on Univac 1108 computer using FORTRAN IV.

  12. Design of drive circuit of laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yingying; Huang, Xuegong; Xu, Xiaobin

    2016-10-01

    Aiming at the difficult problem of high precision frequency stabilization of semiconductor laser diode, the laser frequency control is realized through the design of the semiconductor drive system. Above all, the relationship between the emission frequency and the temperature of LD is derived theoretically. Then the temperature corresponding to the stable frequency is obtained. According to the desired temperature stability of LD, temperature control system is designed, which is composed of a temperature setting circuit, temperature gathering circuit, the temperature display circuit, analog PID control circuit and a semiconductor refrigerator control circuit module. By sampling technology, voltage of platinum resistance is acquired, and the converted temperature is display on liquid crystal display. PID analog control circuit controls speed stability and precision of temperature control. The constant current source circuit is designed to provide the reference voltage by a voltage stabilizing chip, which is buffered by an operational amplifier. It is connected with the MOSFET to drive the semiconductor laser to provide stable current for the semiconductor laser. PCB circuit board was finished and the experimental was justified. The experimental results show that: the design of the temperature control system could achieve the goal of temperature monitoring. Meanwhile, temperature can be stabilized at 40°C +/- 0.1°C. The output voltage of the constant current source is 2 V. The current is 35 mA.

  13. IMPORTANT NOTICE: Cancellation of shuttle Circuit 3

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Circuit 3 of the CERN Shuttle Service (Point 5), which has served CMS since the start of LS1, will be cancelled with effect from Tuesday 16 April. This decision has been taken in consultation with CMS, as the circuit was seldom used.   In response to increasing demand for Circuit 1 - Meyrin and feedback from passengers, the two Circuit 3 journeys will be switched to Circuit 1 – Meyrin (see new timetable below): Mornings: Four journeys instead of three. Circuit 1 now starts at 8:10 (instead of 8:19 a.m.) and runs until 9:27 a.m. (instead of 9:16 a.m.). Lunchtimes: Five journeys in place between 12:10 p.m. and 1:47 p.m. Evenings: Circuit starts at 5:23 p.m. (instead of 5:03 p.m.) and ends at 6:20 p.m. at Building 33. Please note that the circuit will depart from Building 13 instead of Building 33.  

  14. Mathematical modelling of fractional order circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Moreles, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    In this work a classical derivation of fractional order circuits models is presented. Generalized constitutive equations in terms of fractional Riemann-Liouville derivatives are introduced in the Maxwell's equations. Next the Kirchhoff voltage law is applied in a RCL circuit configuration. A fractional differential equation model is obtained with Caputo derivatives. Thus standard initial conditions apply.

  15. F-Paris: integrated electronic circuits [Tender

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Fourniture, montage et tests des circuits imprimes et modules multi composants pour le trajectographe central de CMS. Maximum de 12 000 circuits imprimes et modules multi-composants necessaires au trajectographe central de l'experience CMS aupres du Large Hadron Collider" (1 page).

  16. Apollo 14 mission circuit breaker anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Continuity through the circuit breaker in the mechanically closed condition was prevented by a foreign substance on the contact surface onboard Apollo 14. It was concluded that this was the only failure of this type in over 3400 units that were flown, and since no circuit breaker is a single-point failure for crew safety or mission success, no corrective action was taken.

  17. Current Control Strategy of Chain Circuit STATCOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuan; FU Jian; TENG Letian; SUN Lijing; ZHAO Ruibin; WU Shouyuan; DENG Zhanfeng

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the current control strategy based on the chain circuit static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) dynamic model and the design control system with good stability and tracking accuracy, this paper applies the chain circuit STATCOM small signal AC model, and proposes the following assumptions:

  18. Synchronous transfer circuits for redundant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, S.

    1978-01-01

    Circuit arrangements for flip-flops, counters, and clock drivers in redundant systems ensure that control is synchronously transferred to surviving components when failure occurs. In addition to original application to spacecraft systems, redundant circuits have terrestrial uses in power generators, solar-energy converters, computers, vehicle controllers, and other systems demanding high reliability.

  19. Active components for integrated plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasavin, A.V.; Bolger, P.M.; Zayats, A.V.;

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides.......We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides....

  20. Understanding the Behaviour of Infinite Ladder Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.

    2008-01-01

    Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does…

  1. Circuits in the Sun: Solar Panel Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfroerer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Typical commercial solar panels consist of approximately 60 individual photovoltaic cells connected in series. Since the usual Kirchhoff rules apply, the current is uniform throughout the circuit, while the electric potential of the individual devices is cumulative. Hence, a solar panel is a good analog of a simple resistive series circuit, except…

  2. Wire recycling for quantum circuit optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paler, Alexandru; Wille, Robert; Devitt, Simon J.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum information processing is expressed using quantum bits (qubits) and quantum gates which are arranged in terms of quantum circuits. Here, each qubit is associated with a quantum circuit wire which is used to conduct the desired operations. Most of the existing quantum circuits allocate a single quantum circuit wire for each qubit and hence introduce significant overhead. In fact, qubits are usually not needed during the entire computation, only between their initialization and measurement. Before and after that, corresponding wires may be used by other qubits. In this work, we propose a solution which exploits this fact in order to optimize the design of quantum circuits with respect to the required wires. To this end, we introduce a representation of the lifetimes of all qubits which is used to analyze the respective need for wires. Based on this analysis, a method is proposed which "recycles" the available wires and, as a result, reduces the size of the resulting circuit. Numerical tests based on established reversible and fault-tolerant quantum circuits confirm that the proposed solution reduces the number of wires by more than 90% compared to unoptimized quantum circuits.

  3. 30 CFR 57.6407 - Circuit testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6407 Circuit testing. A blasting galvanometer or other instrument designed for testing blasting circuits shall be used to test the following: (a) In surface operations—...

  4. Textbook Error: Short Circuiting on Electrochemical Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicamp, Judith M.; Clark, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    Short circuiting an electrochemical cell is an unreported but persistent error in the electrochemistry textbooks. It is suggested that diagrams depicting a cell delivering usable current to a load be postponed, the theory of open-circuit galvanic cells is explained, the voltages from the tables of standard reduction potentials is calculated and…

  5. Entropy production by simple electrical circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, E N

    2012-01-01

    The entropy production by simple electrical circuits (R, RC, RL) is analyzed. It comes out that the entropy production is minimal, in agreement with a well known theorem due to Prigogine. In this way, it is wrong a recent result by Zupanovic, Juretic and Botric (Physica Review E 70, 056198) who claimed that the entropy production in simple electrical circuits is a maximum

  6. Circuit II--A Conversational Graphical Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Ronald A.

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of Circuit II, an interactive system that provides users with a graphical representation of an electronic circuit within which questions may be posed and manipulated, and discusses how mouse selections have analogous roles to certain natural language features, such as anaphora, deixis, and ellipsis. (13 references) (EA)

  7. 46 CFR 28.365 - Overcurrent protection and switched circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overcurrent protection and switched circuits. 28.365... switched circuits. (a) Each power source must be protected against overcurrent. Overcurrent devices for... a steering circuit, each circuit must be protected against both overload and short circuit....

  8. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heater circuits. 111.70-5 Section 111.70-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-5 Heater circuits. (a) If an enclosure for a... from a separate circuit, the heater circuit must be disconnected from its source of potential by...

  9. 46 CFR 28.860 - Overcurrent protection and switched circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overcurrent protection and switched circuits. 28.860... circuits. (a) Each power source must be protected against overcurrent. Overcurrent devices for generators... steering circuit, each circuit must be protected against both overload and short circuit. Each...

  10. 24 CFR 3280.805 - Branch circuits required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Branch circuits required. 3280.805... Branch circuits required. (a) The number of branch circuits required shall be determined in accordance... or 20 ampere lighting area circuits. e.g. = number of 15 or 20 ampere circuits. (2) Small...

  11. 30 CFR 77.904 - Identification of circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of circuit breakers. 77.904... COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.904 Identification of circuit breakers. Circuit breakers shall be labeled to show which circuits they control unless identification...

  12. 30 CFR 75.900-1 - Circuit breakers; location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuit breakers; location. 75.900-1 Section 75... Alternating Current Circuits § 75.900-1 Circuit breakers; location. Circuit breakers used to protect low-and medium-voltage circuits underground shall be located in areas which are accessible for...

  13. A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Automated Electronic Circuit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohn, Jason D.; Colombano, Silvano P.; Haith, Gary L.; Stassinopoulos, Dimitris; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We describe a parallel genetic algorithm (GA) that automatically generates circuit designs using evolutionary search. A circuit-construction programming language is introduced and we show how evolution can generate practical analog circuit designs. Our system allows circuit size (number of devices), circuit topology, and device values to be evolved. We present experimental results as applied to analog filter and amplifier design tasks.

  14. Dynamics and plasticity of spinal locomotor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Manira, Abdeljabbar

    2014-12-01

    Spinal circuits generate coordinated locomotor movements. These hardwired circuits are supplemented with neuromodulation that provide the necessary flexibility for animals to move smoothly through their environment. This review will highlight some recent insights gained in understanding the functional dynamics and plasticity of the locomotor circuits. First the mechanisms governing the modulation of the speed of locomotion will be discussed. Second, advantages of the modular organization of the locomotor networks with multiple circuits engaged in a task-dependent manner will be examined. Finally, the neuromodulation and the resulting plasticity of the locomotor circuits will be summarized with an emphasis on endocannabinoids and nitric oxide. The intention is to extract general principles of organization and discuss some onto-genetic and phylogenetic divergences.

  15. Grounding and shielding circuits and interference

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Applies basic field behavior in circuit design and demonstrates how it relates to grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design This book connects the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory to the problems of interference in all types of electronic design. The text covers power distribution in facilities, mixing of analog and digital circuitry, circuit board layout at high clock rates, and meeting radiation and susceptibility standards. The author examines the grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design and applies basic physics to circuit behavior. The sixth edition of this book has been updated with new material added throughout the chapters where appropriate. The presentation of the book has also been rearranged in order to reflect the current trends in the field.

  16. Depth-optimized reversible circuit synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabzadeh, Mona; Saheb Zamani, Morteza; Sedighi, Mehdi; Saeedi, Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, simultaneous reduction of circuit depth and synthesis cost of reversible circuits in quantum technologies with limited interaction is addressed. We developed a cycle-based synthesis algorithm which uses negative controls and limited distance between gate lines. To improve circuit depth, a new parallel structure is introduced in which before synthesis a set of disjoint cycles are extracted from the input specification and distributed into some subsets. The cycles of each subset are synthesized independently on different sets of ancillae. Accordingly, each disjoint set can be synthesized by different synthesis methods. Our analysis shows that the best worst-case synthesis cost of reversible circuits in the linear nearest neighbor architecture is improved by the proposed approach. Our experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed approach to reduce cost and circuit depth for several benchmarks.

  17. Progress in organic integrated circuit manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D. Martin

    2016-02-01

    This review article focuses on the development of processes for the manufacture of organic electronic circuits. Beginning with the first report of an organic transistor it highlights the key developments leading to the successful manufacture of microprocessors and other complex circuits incorporating organic transistors. Both batch processing (based on silicon integrated circuit technology) as well as mass-printing, roll-to-roll (R2R) approaches are discussed. Currently, the best circuit performances are achieved using batch processing. It is suggested that an emerging, large mass-market for electronic tags may dictate that R2R manufacture will likely be required to meet the high throughput rates needed. However, significant improvements in resolution and registration are necessary to achieve increased circuit operating speeds.

  18. Input- and Output-Specific Regulation of Serial Order Performance by Corticostriatal Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Patrick E; Hayton, Scott J; Sun, Gordon L; Fuccillo, Marc V; Lim, Byung Kook; Malenka, Robert C

    2015-10-21

    The serial ordering of individual movements into sequential patterns is thought to require synaptic plasticity within corticostriatal circuits that route information through the basal ganglia. We used genetically and anatomically targeted manipulations of specific circuit elements in mice to isolate the source and target of a corticostriatal synapse that regulates the performance of a serial order task. This excitatory synapse originates in secondary motor cortex, terminates on direct pathway medium spiny neurons in the dorsolateral striatum, and is strengthened by serial order learning. This experience-dependent and synapse-specific form of plasticity may sculpt the balance of activity in basal ganglia circuits during sequential movements, driving a disparity in striatal output that favors the direct pathway. This disparity is necessary for execution of responses in serial order, even though both direct and indirect pathways are active during movement initiation, suggesting dynamic modulation of corticostriatal circuitry contributes to the choreography of behavioral routines.

  19. An automatic synthesis method of compact models of integrated circuit devices based on equivalent circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, I. I.

    2006-05-01

    An automatic synthesis method of equivalent circuits of integrated circuit devices is described in the paper. This method is based on a physical approach to construction of finite-difference approximation to basic equations of semiconductor device physics. It allows to synthesize compact equivalent circuits of different devices automatically as alternative to, for example, sufficiently formal BSIM2 and BSIM3 models used in circuit simulation programs of SPICE type. The method is one of possible variants of general methodology for automatic synthesis of compact equivalent circuits of almost arbitrary devices and circuit-type structures of micro- and nanoelecronics [1]. The method is easily extended in the case of necessity to account thermal effects in integrated circuits. It was shown that its application would be especially perspective for analysis of integrated circuit fragments as a whole and for identification of significant collective physical effects, including parasitic effects in VLSI and ULSI. In the paper the examples illustrating possibilities of the method for automatic synthesis of compact equivalent circuits of some of semiconductor devices and integrated circuit devices are considered. Special attention is given to examples of integrated circuit devices for coarse grids of spatial discretization (less than 10 nodes).

  20. Neuronal circuits of fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herry, Cyril; Ferraguti, Francesco; Singewald, Nicolas; Letzkus, Johannes J; Ehrlich, Ingrid; Lüthi, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    Fear extinction is a form of inhibitory learning that allows for the adaptive control of conditioned fear responses. Although fear extinction is an active learning process that eventually leads to the formation of a consolidated extinction memory, it is a fragile behavioural state. Fear responses can recover spontaneously or subsequent to environmental influences, such as context changes or stress. Understanding the neuronal substrates of fear extinction is of tremendous clinical relevance, as extinction is the cornerstone of psychological therapy of several anxiety disorders and because the relapse of maladaptative fear and anxiety is a major clinical problem. Recent research has begun to shed light on the molecular and cellular processes underlying fear extinction. In particular, the acquisition, consolidation and expression of extinction memories are thought to be mediated by highly specific neuronal circuits embedded in a large-scale brain network including the amygdala, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and brain stem. Moreover, recent findings indicate that the neuronal circuitry of extinction is developmentally regulated. Here, we review emerging concepts of the neuronal circuitry of fear extinction, and highlight novel findings suggesting that the fragile phenomenon of extinction can be converted into a permanent erasure of fear memories. Finally, we discuss how research on genetic animal models of impaired extinction can further our understanding of the molecular and genetic bases of human anxiety disorders.

  1. Ion implanted dielectric elastomer circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Rosset, Samuel; Anderson, Iain A.; Shea, Herbert R.

    2013-06-01

    Starfish and octopuses control their infinite degree-of-freedom arms with panache—capabilities typical of nature where the distribution of reflex-like intelligence throughout soft muscular networks greatly outperforms anything hard, heavy, and man-made. Dielectric elastomer actuators show great promise for soft artificial muscle networks. One way to make them smart is with piezo-resistive Dielectric Elastomer Switches (DES) that can be combined with artificial muscles to create arbitrary digital logic circuits. Unfortunately there are currently no reliable materials or fabrication process. Thus devices typically fail within a few thousand cycles. As a first step in the search for better materials we present a preliminary exploration of piezo-resistors made with filtered cathodic vacuum arc metal ion implantation. DES were formed on polydimethylsiloxane silicone membranes out of ion implanted gold nano-clusters. We propose that there are four distinct regimes (high dose, above percolation, on percolation, low dose) in which gold ion implanted piezo-resistors can operate and present experimental results on implanted piezo-resistors switching high voltages as well as a simple artificial muscle inverter. While gold ion implanted DES are limited by high hysteresis and low sensitivity, they already show promise for a range of applications including hysteretic oscillators and soft generators. With improvements to implanter process control the promise of artificial muscle circuitry for soft smart actuator networks could become a reality.

  2. Microcontroller based Integrated Circuit Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif Taha Yousif Elamin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The digital integrated circuit (IC tester is implemented by using the ATmega32 microcontroller . The microcontroller processes the inputs and outputs and displays the results on a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD. The basic function of the digital IC tester is to test a digital IC for correct logical functioning as described in the truth table and/or function table. The designed model can test digital ICs having 14 pins. Since it is programmable, any number of ICs can be tested . This model applies the necessary signals to the inputs of the IC, monitoring the outputs at each stage and comparing them with the outputs in the truth table. Any discrepancy in the functioning of the IC results in a fail indication, displays the faulty and good gates on the LCD. The testing procedure is accomplished with the help of keypad keys present on the main board design. The test has been accomplished with most commonly used digital IC's, mainly belonging to the 74 series. Digital IC tester tests three samples of IC's ( NAND, NOT, NOR. The design is flexible . We can add extra IC bases and subroutines to test any other IC in the 74 series.

  3. EMI-resilient amplifier circuits

    CERN Document Server

    van der Horst, Marcel J; Linnenbank, André C

    2014-01-01

    This book enables circuit designers to reduce the errors introduced by the fundamental limitations and electromagnetic interference (EMI) in negative-feedback amplifiers.  The authors describe a systematic design approach for application specific negative-feedback amplifiers, with specified signal-to-error ratio (SER).  This approach enables designers to calculate noise, bandwidth, EMI, and the required bias parameters of the transistors used in  application specific amplifiers in order to meet the SER requirements.   ·         Describes design methods that incorporate electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the design of application specific negative-feedback amplifiers; ·         Provides designers with a structured methodology to avoid the use of trial and error in meeting signal-to-error ratio (SER) requirements; ·         Equips designers to increase EMI immunity of the amplifier itself, thus avoiding filtering at the input, reducing the number of components and avoiding detr...

  4. Performance Analysis of Modified QSERL Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Upadhyay

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on a new approach for minimizing energy consumption in quasi static energy recoverylogic (QSERL circuit which involves optimization by removing the non adiabatic losses completely.Energy recovering circuitry based on adiabatic principles is a promising technique leading towards lowpowerhigh performance circuit design. The efficiency of such circuits may be increased by reducing theadiabatic and non-adiabatic losses drawn by them during the charging and recovery operations. In thispaper, performance of the proposed logic style is analyzed and compared with CMOS in theirrepresentative inverters, gates, flip flops and adder circuits. All the circuits were simulated by VIRTUOSOSPECTRE simulator of Cadence in 0.18μm technology. In our proposed inverter the energy efficiency hasbeen improved to almost 30% & 20% upto 20MHz and 20fF external load capacitance in comparison toCMOS & QSERL circuits respectively. Our proposed circuit provides energy efficient performance up to100 MHz and thus it has proven to be used in high-performance VLSI circuitry.

  5. Visualization of circuit card electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwillinger, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    Circuit boards are used in nearly every electrical appliance. Most board failures cause differing currents in the circuit board traces and components. This causes the circuit board to radiate a differing electromagnetic field. Imaging this radiated field, which is equivalent to measuring the field, could be used for error detection. Using estimates of the fields radiated by a low power digital circuit board, properties of known materials, and available equipment, we determined how well the following technologies could be used to visualize circuit board electromagnetic fields (prioritized by promise): electrooptical techniques, magnetooptical techniques, piezoelectric techniques, thermal techniques, and electrodynamic force technique. We have determined that sensors using the electrooptical effect (Pockels effect) appear to be sufficiently sensitive for use in a circuit board imaging system. Sensors utilizing the magnetooptical effect may also be adequate for this purpose, when using research materials. These sensors appear to be capable of achieving direct broadband measurements. We also reviewed existing electromagnetic field sensors. Only one of the sensors (recently patented) was specifically designed for circuit board measurements.

  6. Adult Neurogenesis Leads to the Functional Reconstruction of a Telencephalic Neural Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Lima, Matheus; Miller, Kimberly E.; Brenowitz, Eliot A.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonally breeding songbirds exhibit pronounced annual changes in song behavior, and in the morphology and physiology of the telencephalic neural circuit underlying production of learned song. Each breeding season, new adult-born neurons are added to the pallial nucleus HVC in response to seasonal changes in steroid hormone levels, and send long axonal projections to their target nucleus, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA). We investigated the role that adult neurogenesis plays in the seasonal reconstruction of this circuit. We labeled newborn HVC neurons with BrdU, and RA-projecting HVC neurons (HVCRA) with retrograde tracer injected in RA of adult male white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) in breeding or nonbreeding conditions. We found that there were many more HVCRA neurons in breeding than nonbreeding birds. Furthermore, we observed that more newborn HVC neurons were back-filled by the tracer in breeding animals. Behaviorally, song structure degraded as the HVC-RA circuit degenerated, and recovered as the circuit regenerated, in close correlation with the number of new HVCRA neurons. These results support the hypothesis that the HVC-RA circuit degenerates in nonbreeding birds, and that newborn neurons reconstruct the circuit in breeding birds, leading to functional recovery of song behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We investigated the role that adult neurogenesis plays in the seasonal reconstruction of a telencephalic neural circuit that controls song behavior in white-crowned sparrows. We showed that nonbreeding birds had a 36%–49% reduction in the number of projection neurons compared with breeding birds, and the regeneration of the circuit in the breeding season is due to the integration of adult-born projection neurons. Additionally, song structure degraded as the circuit degenerated and recovered as the circuit regenerated, in close correlation with new projection neuron number. This study demonstrates that steroid hormones

  7. Reversible and quantum circuits optimization and complexity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abdessaied, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new optimization flow for quantum circuits realization. At the reversible level, optimization algorithms are presented to reduce the quantum cost. Then, new mapping approaches to decompose reversible circuits to quantum circuits using different quantum libraries are described. Finally, optimization techniques to reduce the quantum cost or the delay are applied to the resulting quantum circuits. Furthermore, this book studies the complexity of reversible circuits and quantum circuits from a theoretical perspective.

  8. Millimeter And Submillimeter-Wave Integrated Circuits On Quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Imran; Mazed, Mohammad; Siegel, Peter; Smith, R. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Proposed Quartz substrate Upside-down Integrated Device (QUID) relies on UV-curable adhesive to bond semiconductor with quartz. Integrated circuits including planar GaAs Schottky diodes and passive circuit elements (such as bandpass filters) fabricated on quartz substrates. Circuits designed to operate as mixers in waveguide circuit at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Integrated circuits mechanically more robust, larger, and easier to handle than planar Schottky diode chips. Quartz substrate more suitable for waveguide circuits than GaAs substrate.

  9. Synchrony and neural coding in cerebellar circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail L Person

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum regulates complex movements and is also implicated in cognitive tasks, and cerebellar dysfunction is consequently associated not only with movement disorders, but also with conditions like autism and dyslexia. How information is encoded by specific cerebellar firing patterns remains debated, however. A central question is how the cerebellar cortex transmits its integrated output to the cerebellar nuclei via GABAergic synapses from Purkinje neurons. Possible answers come from accumulating evidence that subsets of Purkinje cells synchronize their firing during behaviors that require the cerebellum. Consistent with models predicting that coherent activity of inhibitory networks has the capacity to dictate firing patterns of target neurons, recent experimental work supports the idea that inhibitory synchrony may regulate the response of cerebellar nuclear cells to Purkinje inputs, owing to the interplay between unusually fast inhibitory synaptic responses and high rates of intrinsic activity. Data from multiple laboratories lead to a working hypothesis that synchronous inhibitory input from Purkinje cells can set the timing and rate of action potentials produced by cerebellar nuclear cells, thereby relaying information out of the cerebellum. If so, then changing spatiotemporal patterns of Purkinje activity would allow different subsets of inhibitory neurons to control cerebellar output at different times. Here we explore the evidence for and against the idea that a synchrony code defines, at least in part, the input-output function between the cerebellar cortex and nuclei. We consider the literature on the existence of simple spike synchrony, convergence of Purkinje neurons onto nuclear neurons, and intrinsic properties of nuclear neurons that contribute to responses to inhibition. Finally, we discuss factors that may disrupt or modulate a synchrony code and describe the potential contributions of inhibitory synchrony to other motor

  10. Multi-qubit circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehmann, Oliver

    2013-09-03

    Circuit QED systems are macroscopic, man-made quantum systems in which superconducting artificial atoms, also called Josephson qubits, interact with a quantized electromagnetic field. These systems have been devised to mimic the physics of elementary quantum optical systems with real atoms in a scalable and more flexible framework. This opens up a variety of possible applications of circuit QED systems. For instance, they provide a promising platform for processing quantum information. Recent years have seen rapid experimental progress on these systems, and experiments with multi-component circuit QED architectures are currently starting to come within reach. In this thesis, circuit QED systems with multiple Josephson qubits are studied theoretically. We focus on simple and experimentally realistic extensions of the currently operated circuit QED setups and pursue investigations in two main directions. First, we consider the equilibrium behavior of circuit QED systems containing a large number of mutually noninteracting Josephson charge qubits. The currently accepted standard description of circuit QED predicts the possibility of superradiant phase transitions in such systems. However, a full microscopic treatment shows that a no-go theorem for superradiant phase transitions known from atomic physics applies to circuit QED systems as well. This reveals previously unknown limitations of the applicability of the standard theory of circuit QED to multi-qubit systems. Second, we explore the potential of circuit QED for quantum simulations of interacting quantum many-body systems. We propose and analyze a circuit QED architecture that implements the quantum Ising chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field. Our setup can be used to study quench dynamics, the propagation of localized excitations, and other non-equilibrium features in this paradigmatic model in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantumcritical phenomena. The setup is based on a

  11. Low-power VLSI circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive coverage of different aspects of low power circuit synthesis at various levels of design hierarchy; starting from the layout level to the system level. For a seamless understanding of the subject, basics of MOS circuits has been introduced at transistor, gate and circuit level; followed by various low-power design methodologies, such as supply voltage scaling, switched capacitance minimization techniques and leakage power minimization approaches. The content of this book will prove useful to students, researchers, as well as practicing engineers.

  12. Radio-frequency integrated-circuit engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Cam

    2015-01-01

    Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering addresses the theory, analysis and design of passive and active RFIC's using Si-based CMOS and Bi-CMOS technologies, and other non-silicon based technologies. The materials covered are self-contained and presented in such detail that allows readers with only undergraduate electrical engineering knowledge in EM, RF, and circuits to understand and design RFICs. Organized into sixteen chapters, blending analog and microwave engineering, Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering emphasizes the microwave engineering approach for RFICs. Provide

  13. The Drosophila melanogaster circadian pacemaker circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vasu Sheeba

    2008-12-01

    As an experimental model system, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been seminal in shaping our understanding of the circadian clockwork. The wealth of genetic tools at our disposal over the past four decades has enabled discovery of the genetic and molecular bases of circadian rhythmicity. More recently, detailed investigation leading to the anatomical, neurochemical and electrophysiological characterization of the various neuronal subgroups that comprise the circadian machinery has revealed pathways through which these neurons come together to act as a neuronal circuit. Thus the D. melanogaster circadian pacemaker circuit presents a relatively simple and attractive model for the study of neuronal circuits and their functions.

  14. A guide to printed circuit board design

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Charles

    1984-01-01

    A Guide to Printed Circuit Board Design discusses the basic design principles of printed circuit board (PCB). The book consists of nine chapters; each chapter provides both text discussion and illustration relevant to the topic being discussed. Chapter 1 talks about understanding the circuit diagram, and Chapter 2 covers how to compile component information file. Chapter 3 deals with the design layout, while Chapter 4 talks about preparing the master artworks. The book also covers generating computer aided design (CAD) master patterns, and then discusses how to prepare the production drawing a

  15. Newnes passive and discrete circuits pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    2000-01-01

    Newnes Passive and Discrete Circuits Pocket Book is aimed at all engineers, technicians, students and experimenters who can build a design directly from a circuit diagram. In a highly concise form Ray Marston presents a huge compendium of circuits that can be built as they appear, adapted or used as building blocks. The devices used have been carefully chosen for their ease of availability and reasonable price. The selection of devices has been thoroughly updated for the second edition, which has also been expanded to cover the latest ICs.The three sections of the book cover: Moder

  16. Theory of circuit block switch-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henzler

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Switching-off unused circuit blocks is a promising approach to supress static leakage currents in ultra deep sub-micron CMOS digital systems. Basic performance parameters of Circuit Block Switch-Off (CBSO schemes are defined and their dependence on basic circuit parameters is estimated. Therefore the design trade-off between strong leakage suppression in idle mode and adequate dynamic performance in active mode can be supported by simple analytic investigations. Additionally, a guideline for the estimation of the minimum time for which a block deactivation is useful is derived.

  17. An introduction to logic circuit testing

    CERN Document Server

    Lala, Parag K

    2008-01-01

    An Introduction to Logic Circuit Testing provides a detailed coverage of techniques for test generation and testable design of digital electronic circuits/systems. The material covered in the book should be sufficient for a course, or part of a course, in digital circuit testing for senior-level undergraduate and first-year graduate students in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. The book will also be a valuable resource for engineers working in the industry. This book has four chapters. Chapter 1 deals with various types of faults that may occur in very large scale integration (VLSI)

  18. Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.

  19. Starting Circuit For Erasable Programmable Logic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    Voltage regulator bypassed to supply starting current. Starting or "pullup" circuit supplies large inrush of current required by erasable programmable logic device (EPLD) while being turned on. Operates only during such intervals of high demand for current and has little effect any other time. Performs needed bypass, acting as current-dependent shunt connecting battery or other source of power more nearly directly to EPLD. Input capacitor of regulator removed when starting circuit installed, reducing probability of damage to transistor in event of short circuit in or across load.

  20. Analog circuit design for communication SOC

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Steve Hung-Lung

    2012-01-01

    This e-book provides several state-of-the-art analog circuit design techniques. It presents both empirical and theoretical materials for system-on-a-chip (SOC) circuit design. Fundamental communication concepts are used to explain a variety of topics including data conversion (ADC, DAC, S-? oversampling data converters), clock data recovery, phase-locked loops for system timing synthesis, supply voltage regulation, power amplifier design, and mixer design. This is an excellent reference book for both circuit designers and researchers who are interested in the field of design of analog communic

  1. RF Circuit Design in Nanometer CMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    With CMOS technology entering the nanometer regime, the design of analog and RF circuits is complicated by low supply voltages, very non-linear (and nonquadratic) devices and large 1/f noise. At the same time, circuits are required to operate over increasingly wide bandwidths to implement modern multi-band communication systems as these systems move toward software-defined radio. These trends in technology and system design call for a re-thinking of analog and RF circuit design in nanometer C...

  2. Hermetic Packages For Millimeter-Wave Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Martin I.; Lee, Karen A.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Carpenter, Alain; Wamhof, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Advanced hermetic packages developed to house electronic circuits operating at frequencies from 1 to 100 gigahertz and beyond. Signals coupled into and out of packages electromagnetically. Provides circuit packages small, lightweight, rugged, and inexpensive in mass production. Packages embedded in planar microstrip and coplanar waveguide circuits, in waveguide-to-planar and planar-to-waveguide circuitry, in waveguide-to-waveguide circuitry, between radiating (antenna) elements, and between planar transmission lines and radiating elements. Other applications in automotive, communication, radar, remote sensing, and biomedical electronic systems foreseen.

  3. Semiconductors integrated circuit design for manufacturability

    CERN Document Server

    Balasinki, Artur

    2011-01-01

    Because of the continuous evolution of integrated circuit manufacturing (ICM) and design for manufacturability (DfM), most books on the subject are obsolete before they even go to press. That's why the field requires a reference that takes the focus off of numbers and concentrates more on larger economic concepts than on technical details. Semiconductors: Integrated Circuit Design for Manufacturability covers the gradual evolution of integrated circuit design (ICD) as a basis to propose strategies for improving return-on-investment (ROI) for ICD in manufacturing. Where most books put the spotl

  4. Power electronics handbook components, circuits and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    2013-01-01

    Power Electronics Handbook: Components, Circuits, and Applications is a collection of materials about power components, circuit design, and applications. Presented in a practical form, theoretical information is given as formulae. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 deals with the usual components found in power electronics such as semiconductor devices and power semiconductor control components, their electronic compatibility, and protection. Part 2 tackles parts and principles related to circuits such as switches; link frequency chargers; converters; and AC line control, and Part 3

  5. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2011-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.

  6. Silicon integrated circuits part A : supplement 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kahng, Dawon

    1981-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science, Supplement 2: Silicon Integrated Circuits, Part A focuses on MOS device physics. This book is divided into three chapters-physics of the MOS transistor; nonvolatile memories; and properties of silicon-on-sapphire substrates devices, and integrated circuits. The topics covered include the short channel effects, MOSFET structures, floating gate devices, technology for nonvolatile semiconductor memories, sapphire substrates, and SOS integrated circuits and systems. The MOS capacitor, MIOS devices, and SOS process and device technology are also deliberated. This public

  7. Microelectronic circuit design for energy harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the design of microelectronic circuits for energy harvesting, broadband energy conversion, new methods and technologies for energy conversion. The author also discusses the design of power management circuits and the implementation of voltage regulators. Coverage includes advanced methods in low and high power electronics, as well as principles of micro-scale design based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies with control and conditioning circuit design. Provides a single-source reference to energy harvesting and its applications; Serves as a practical guide to microelectronics design for energy harvesting, with application to mobile power supplies; Enables readers to develop energy harvesting systems for wearable/mobile electronics.

  8. Operational amplifier circuits analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, J C C

    1995-01-01

    This book, a revised and updated version of the author's Basic Operational Amplifiers (Butterworths 1986), enables the non-specialist to make effective use of readily available integrated circuit operational amplifiers for a range of applications, including instrumentation, signal generation and processing.It is assumed the reader has a background in the basic techniques of circuit analysis, particularly the use of j notation for reactive circuits, with a corresponding level of mathematical ability. The underlying theory is explained with sufficient but not excessive, detail. A range of compu

  9. Role of DSCAM in the development of the spinal locomotor and sensorimotor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Louise; Lemieux, Maxime; D Laflamme, Olivier; Bretzner, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Locomotion is controlled by spinal circuits that generate rhythm and coordinate left-right and flexor-extensor motoneuronal activities. The outputs of motoneurons and spinal interneuronal circuits are shaped by sensory feedback, relaying peripheral signals that are critical to the locomotor and postural control. Several studies in invertebrates and vertebrates have argued that the Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) would play an important role in the normal development of neural circuits through cell spacing and targeting, axonal and dendritic branching, and synapse establishment and maintenance. Although there is evidence that DSCAM is important for the normal development of neural circuits, little is known about its functional contribution to spinal motor circuits. We show here that adult DSCAM(2J) mutant mice, lacking DSCAM, exhibit a higher variability in their locomotor pattern and rhythm during treadmill locomotion. Retrograde tracing studies in neonatal isolated spinal cords show an increased number of spinal commissural interneurons, which likely contributes to reducing the left-right alternation and to increasing the flexor/swing duration during neonatal and adult locomotion. Moreover, our results argue that, by reducing the peripheral excitatory drive onto spinal motoneurons, the DSCAM mutation reduces or abolishes spinal reflexes in both neonatal isolated spinal cords and adult mice, thus likely impairing sensorimotor control. Collectively, our functional, electrophysiological, and anatomical studies suggest that the mammalian DSCAM protein is involved in the normal development of spinal locomotor and sensorimotor circuits.

  10. Automated Design of Synthetic Cell Classifier Circuits Using a Two-Step Optimization Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Pejman; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Benenson, Yaakov

    2017-02-22

    Cell classifiers are genetic logic circuits that transduce endogenous molecular inputs into cell-type-specific responses. Designing classifiers that achieve optimal differential response between specific cell types is a hard computational problem because it involves selection of endogenous inputs and optimization of both biochemical parameters and a logic function. To address this problem, we first derive an optimal set of biochemical parameters with the largest expected differential response over a diverse set of logic circuits, and second, we use these parameters in an evolutionary algorithm to select circuit inputs and optimize the logic function. Using this approach, we design experimentally feasible microRNA-based circuits capable of perfect discrimination for several real-world cell-classification tasks. We also find that under realistic cell-to-cell variation, circuit performance is comparable to standard cross-validation performance estimates. Our approach facilitates the generation of candidate circuits for experimental testing in therapeutic settings that require precise cell targeting, such as cancer therapy.

  11. Disrupted reward circuits is associated with cognitive deficits and depression severity in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Liang; Yin, Yingying; He, Cancan; Ye, Qing; Bai, Feng; Yuan, Yonggui; Zhang, Haisan; Lv, Luxian; Zhang, Hongxing; Xie, Chunming; Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that major depressive disorder (MDD) patients show blunted activity responses to reward-related tasks. However, whether abnormal reward circuits affect cognition and depression in MDD patients remains unclear. Seventy-five drug-naive MDD patients and 42 cognitively normal (CN) subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. The bilateral nucleus accumbens (NAc) were selected as seeds to construct reward circuits across all subjects. A multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to investigate the neural substrates of cognitive function and depression severity on the reward circuits in MDD patients. The common pathway underlying cognitive deficits and depression was identified with conjunction analysis. Compared with CN subjects, MDD patients showed decreased reward network connectivity that was primarily located in the prefrontal-striatal regions. Importantly, distinct and common neural pathways underlying cognition and depression were identified, implying the independent and synergistic effects of cognitive deficits and depression severity on reward circuits. This study demonstrated that disrupted topological organization within reward circuits was significantly associated with cognitive deficits and depression severity in MDD patients. These findings suggest that in addition to antidepressant treatment, normalized reward circuits should be a focus and a target for improving depression and cognitive deficits in MDD patients.

  12. An analog integrated signal processing circuit for on-chip diffusion-based gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Hesam; Ghafarinia, Vahid

    2013-07-01

    In diffusion-based gas analysis, the transient of gas diffusion process is recorded by a generic gas sensor to serve as a fingerprint for qualitative and quantitative analysis of gaseous samples. Following the acquisition of these specific signals, any standalone gas analyzer requires a pattern recognition system for pattern classification. The classic digital pattern recognition methods require computing hardware of adequate computational throughput. In this paper, we have followed a straightforward mathematical procedure to relate the signals to their associated target gases. We have shown that the procedure can be implemented by a set of analog functions. Based on the results, we have designed an analog integrated circuit, in 0.18 µm standard CMOS process, for processing the diffusion-based transient signals. The main circuit components are a low-pass filter, the differentiator, the feature extractor and an artificial neural network. The output of the circuit is a 2-bit binary code that specifies the target gas. The circuit successfully classified four alcoholic vapors by processing the experimentally obtained response patterns. The proposed signal processing circuit, the semiconductor gas sensor and the diffusion channel can all be implemented on a single substrate to fabricate an integrated micro gas analyzer.

  13. Noise tolerant voltage-controlled LC oscillator circuits for deep submicron VLSI system-on-a-chip radio circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Typpö, Jukka

    2003-01-01

    This thesis studies the problems with maintaining the spectral purity of fully integrated VCO circuits for radio frequency synthesizers in single-chip system designs. LC tank circuit oscillator circuits are shown to convert amplitude variation in the tank circuit voltage into frequency modulation, if voltage dependent capacitances are present in the tank circuit. Since the parasitic capacitances of the gain transistors and the capacitance of the varactor device in a VCO circuit are voltage de...

  14. Polynomial threshold functions and Boolean threshold circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    of secondary interest. We show that PTFs on general Boolean domains are tightly connected to depth two threshold circuits. Our main results in regard to this connection are: PTFs of polynomial length and polynomial degree compute exactly the functions computed by THRMAJ circuits. An exponential length lower...... bound for PTFs that holds regardless of degree, thereby extending known lower bounds for THRMAJ circuits. We generalize two-party unbounded error communication complexity to the multi-party number-on-the-forehead setting, and show that communication lower bounds for 3-player protocols would yield size...... lower bounds for THRTHR circuits. We obtain several other results about PTFs. These include relationships between weight and degree of PTFs, and a degree lower bound for PTFs of constant length. We also consider a variant of PTFs over the max-plus algebra. We show that they are connected to PTFs over...

  15. Analog Computation by DNA Strand Displacement Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tianqi; Garg, Sudhanshu; Mokhtar, Reem; Bui, Hieu; Reif, John

    2016-08-19

    DNA circuits have been widely used to develop biological computing devices because of their high programmability and versatility. Here, we propose an architecture for the systematic construction of DNA circuits for analog computation based on DNA strand displacement. The elementary gates in our architecture include addition, subtraction, and multiplication gates. The input and output of these gates are analog, which means that they are directly represented by the concentrations of the input and output DNA strands, respectively, without requiring a threshold for converting to Boolean signals. We provide detailed domain designs and kinetic simulations of the gates to demonstrate their expected performance. On the basis of these gates, we describe how DNA circuits to compute polynomial functions of inputs can be built. Using Taylor Series and Newton Iteration methods, functions beyond the scope of polynomials can also be computed by DNA circuits built upon our architecture.

  16. LC Quadrature Generation in Integrated Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais

    2001-01-01

    Today quadrature signals for IQ demodulation are provided through RC polyphase networks, quadrature oscillators or double frequency VCOs. This paper presents a new method for generating quadrature signals in integrated circuits using only inductors and capacitors. This LC quadrature generation...

  17. The global atmospheric electrical circuit and climate

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, R G

    2004-01-01

    Evidence is emerging for physical links among clouds, global temperatures, the global atmospheric electrical circuit and cosmic ray ionisation. The global circuit extends throughout the atmosphere from the planetary surface to the lower layers of the ionosphere. Cosmic rays are the principal source of atmospheric ions away from the continental boundary layer: the ions formed permit a vertical conduction current to flow in the fair weather part of the global circuit. Through the (inverse) solar modulation of cosmic rays, the resulting columnar ionisation changes may allow the global circuit to convey a solar influence to meteorological phenomena of the lower atmosphere. Electrical effects on non-thunderstorm clouds have been proposed to occur via the ion-assisted formation of ultrafine aerosol, which can grow to sizes able to act as cloud condensation nuclei, or through the increased ice nucleation capability of charged aerosols. Even small atmospheric electrical modulations on the aerosol size distribution ca...

  18. Density Matrix for Mesoscopic Distributed Parameter Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Ying-Hua; WANG Qi; LUO Hai-Mei; LEI Min-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Under the Born-von-Karmann periodic boundary condition, we propose a quantization scheme for nondissipative distributed parameter circuits (i.e. a uniform periodic transmission line). We find the unitary operator for diagonalizing the Hamiltonian of the uniform periodic transmission line. The unitary operator is expressed in a coordinate representation that brings convenience to deriving the density matrix p(q, q',β). The quantum fluctuations of charge and current at a definite temperature have been studied. It is shown that quantum fluctuations of distributed parameter circuits, which also have distributed properties, are related to both the circuit parameters and the positions and the mode of signals and temperature T. The higher the temperature is, the stronger quantum noise the circuit exhibits.

  19. Constructing circuit codes by permuting initial sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Wynn, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Two new constructions are presented for coils and snakes in the hypercube. Improvements are made on the best known results for snake-in-the-box coils of dimensions 9, 10 and 11, and for some other circuit codes of dimensions between 8 and 13. In the first construction, circuit codes are generated from permuted copies of an initial transition sequence; the multiple copies constrain the search, so that long codes can be found relatively efficiently. In the second construction, two lower-dimensional paths are joined together with only one or two changes in the highest dimension; this requires a search for a permutation of the second sequence to fit around the first. It is possible to investigate sequences of vertices of the hypercube, including circuit codes, by connecting the corresponding vertices in an extended graph related to the hypercube. As an example of this, invertible circuit codes are briefly discussed.

  20. Magnetic Logic Circuits for Extreme Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program aims to demonstrate a new genre of all-magnetic logic circuits which are radiation-tolerant and capable of reliable operation in extreme environmental...

  1. Energy Extraction for the LHC Superconducting Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Schmidt, R; Sonnemann, F

    2001-01-01

    The superconducting magnets of the LHC will be powered in about 1700 electrical circuits. The energy stored in circuits, up to 1.3 GJ, can potentially cause severe damage of magnets, bus bars and current leads. In order to protect the superconducting elements after a resistive transition, the energy is dissipated into a dump resistor installed in series with the magnet chain that is switched into the circuit by opening current breakers. Experiments and simulation studies have been performed to identify the LHC circuits that need energy extraction. The required values of the extraction resistors have been computed. The outcome of the experimental results and the simulation studies are presented and the design of the different energy extraction systems that operate at 600 A and at 13 kA is described.

  2. Classical Ising model test for quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Joseph; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2010-07-01

    We exploit a recently constructed mapping between quantum circuits and graphs in order to prove that circuits corresponding to certain planar graphs can be efficiently simulated classically. The proof uses an expression for the Ising model partition function in terms of quadratically signed weight enumerators (QWGTs), which are polynomials that arise naturally in an expansion of quantum circuits in terms of rotations involving Pauli matrices. We combine this expression with a known efficient classical algorithm for the Ising partition function of any planar graph in the absence of an external magnetic field, and the Robertson-Seymour theorem from graph theory. We give as an example a set of quantum circuits with a small number of non-nearest-neighbor gates which admit an efficient classical simulation.

  3. Logic circuits based on molecular spider systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Dandan; Lakin, Matthew R; Stefanovic, Darko

    2016-08-01

    Spatial locality brings the advantages of computation speed-up and sequence reuse to molecular computing. In particular, molecular walkers that undergo localized reactions are of interest for implementing logic computations at the nanoscale. We use molecular spider walkers to implement logic circuits. We develop an extended multi-spider model with a dynamic environment wherein signal transmission is triggered via localized reactions, and use this model to implement three basic gates (AND, OR, NOT) and a cascading mechanism. We develop an algorithm to automatically generate the layout of the circuit. We use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate circuit computations, and we analyze circuit complexity: our design scales linearly with formula size and has a logarithmic time complexity.

  4. Analog circuit for controlling acoustic transducer arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumheller, Douglas S. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A simplified ananlog circuit is presented for controlling electromechanical transducer pairs in an acoustic telemetry system. The analog circuit of this invention comprises a single electrical resistor which replaces all of the digital components in a known digital circuit. In accordance with this invention, a first transducer in a transducer pair of array is driven in series with the resistor. The voltage drop across this resistor is then amplified and used to drive the second transducer. The voltage drop across the resistor is proportional and in phase with the current to the transducer. This current is approximately 90 degrees out of phase with the driving voltage to the transducer. This phase shift replaces the digital delay required by the digital control circuit of the prior art.

  5. Combinatorics at Electronic Circuit Realization in FPAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Györök

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Our present work is to examine and offer an automatic electronic circuitconstruction solution which – using electronic devices and Field Programmable AnalogArrays (FPAA – enables us to form analogue circuits. The automatic computer-assistedconstruction is an old endeavor in the electronic development of electronic circuitconstructional tasks. The currently used constructional systems are integrated deviceswhich contain simulation modules based on circuit drawings and component parameters. Itis relevant in printed circuit construction as well, where wiring geometry can be modifieddepending on the examined (EMC, thermo-technical, transmissionldots, etc. parameters.To achieve this goal, new simulation and circuit generation processes are required, whichselect the most appropriate solutions regarding the parametrical description of electronictopology.

  6. Evolving Quantum Circuits using Genetic Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Prashant

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an application of genetic algorithm for evolving quantum computing circuits. The circuits use reversible one qubit and two qubit gates which are applied on a multi-qubit system having some initial state. The genetic algorithm automatically searches the space and comes out with the appropriate circuit design, which yields desired output state. The fitness function used matches the output with desired output and the search stops when it is found. The fitness value becomes higher if the output is close to the desired output. The paper briefly discusses the operation of a quantum gate over the multi-qubit system. The paper also demonstrates some examples of the evolved circuits using the algorithm.

  7. Quantum Electric Circuits Analogous to Ballistic Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The conductance steps in a constricted two-dimensional electron gas and the minimum conductivity in graphene are related to a new uncertainty relation between electric charge and conductance in a quantized electric circuit that mimics the electric transport in mesoscopic systems. This uncertainty relation makes specific use of the discreteness of electric charge. Quantum electric circuits analogous to both constricted two-dimensional electron gas and graphene are introduced. In the latter cas...

  8. Evolvable designs of experiments applications for circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2009-01-01

    Adopting a groundbreaking approach, the highly regarded author shows how to design methods for planning increasingly complex experiments. He begins with a brief introduction to standard quality methods and the technology in standard electric circuits. The book then gives numerous examples of how to apply the proposed methodology in a series of real-life case studies. Although these case studies are taken from the printed circuit board industry, the methods are equally applicable to other fields of engineering.

  9. On ageing effects in analogue integrated circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Salfelder, Felix (Dipl. Math.)

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of electronic circuits is influenced by ageing effects. Modelling the behaviour of circuits is a standard approach for the design of faster, smaller, more reliable and more robust systems. In this thesis, we propose a formalization of robustness that is derived from a failure model, which is based purely on the behavioural specification of a system. For a given specification, simulation can reveal if a system does not comply with a specification, and thus provide a failure model...

  10. Effects of smoke on functional circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are converting to digital instrumentation and control systems; however, the effects of abnormal environments such as fire and smoke on such systems are not known. There are no standard tests for smoke, but previous smoke exposure tests at Sandia National Laboratories have shown that digital communications can be temporarily interrupted during a smoke exposure. Another concern is the long-term corrosion of metals exposed to the acidic gases produced by a cable fire. This report documents measurements of basic functional circuits during and up to 1 day after exposure to smoke created by burning cable insulation. Printed wiring boards were exposed to the smoke in an enclosed chamber for 1 hour. For high-resistance circuits, the smoke lowered the resistance of the surface of the board and caused the circuits to short during the exposure. These circuits recovered after the smoke was vented. For low-resistance circuits, the smoke caused their resistance to increase slightly. A polyurethane conformal coating substantially reduced the effects of smoke. A high-speed digital circuit was unaffected. A second experiment on different logic chip technologies showed that the critical shunt resistance that would cause failure was dependent on the chip technology and that the components used in the smoke exposures were some of the most smoke tolerant. The smoke densities in these tests were high enough to cause changes in high impedance (resistance) circuits during exposure, but did not affect most of the other circuits. Conformal coatings and the characteristics of chip technologies should be considered when designing circuitry for nuclear power plant safety systems, which must be highly reliable under a variety of operating and accident conditions. 10 refs., 34 figs., 18 tabs.

  11. Analog baseband circuits for sensor systems

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is composed of six publications and an overview of the research topic, which also summarizes the work. The research presented in this thesis focuses on research into analog baseband circuits for sensor systems. The research is divided into three different topics: the integration of analog baseband circuits into a radio receiver for sensor applications; the integration of an ΔΣ modulator A/D converter into a GSM/WCDMA radio receiver for mobile phones, and the integration of algorit...

  12. Generalized circuit model for coupled plasmonic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benz, Felix; Tserkezis, Christos; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Sigle, Daniel O; Pukenas, Laurynas; Evans, Stephen D; Aizpurua, Javier; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2015-01-01

    We develop an analytic circuit model for coupled plasmonic dimers separated by small gaps that provides a complete account of the optical resonance wavelength. Using a suitable equivalent circuit, it shows how partially conducting links can be treated and provides quantitative agreement with both experiment and full electromagnetic simulations. The model highlights how in the conducting regime, the kinetic inductance of the linkers set the spectral blue-shifts of the coupled plasmon.

  13. Superfluidity in Bose-Hubbard circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arwas, Geva; Cohen, Doron

    2017-02-01

    A semiclassical theory is provided for the metastability regime diagram of atomtronic superfluid circuits. Such circuits typically exhibit high-dimensional chaos, and nonlinear resonances that couple the Bogoliubov excitations manifest. Contrary to the expectation, these resonances do not originate from the familiar Beliaev and Landau damping terms. Rather, they are described by a variant of the Cherry Hamiltonian of celestial mechanics. Consequently, we study the induced decay process and its dependence on the number of sites and condensed particles.

  14. Solution methods for very highly integrated circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nong, Ryan; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Chen, Yao; Mei, Ting; Santarelli, Keith R.; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2010-12-01

    While advances in manufacturing enable the fabrication of integrated circuits containing tens-to-hundreds of millions of devices, the time-sensitive modeling and simulation necessary to design these circuits poses a significant computational challenge. This is especially true for mixed-signal integrated circuits where detailed performance analyses are necessary for the individual analog/digital circuit components as well as the full system. When the integrated circuit has millions of devices, performing a full system simulation is practically infeasible using currently available Electrical Design Automation (EDA) tools. The principal reason for this is the time required for the nonlinear solver to compute the solutions of large linearized systems during the simulation of these circuits. The research presented in this report aims to address the computational difficulties introduced by these large linearized systems by using Model Order Reduction (MOR) to (i) generate specialized preconditioners that accelerate the computation of the linear system solution and (ii) reduce the overall dynamical system size. MOR techniques attempt to produce macromodels that capture the desired input-output behavior of larger dynamical systems and enable substantial speedups in simulation time. Several MOR techniques that have been developed under the LDRD on 'Solution Methods for Very Highly Integrated Circuits' will be presented in this report. Among those presented are techniques for linear time-invariant dynamical systems that either extend current approaches or improve the time-domain performance of the reduced model using novel error bounds and a new approach for linear time-varying dynamical systems that guarantees dimension reduction, which has not been proven before. Progress on preconditioning power grid systems using multi-grid techniques will be presented as well as a framework for delivering MOR techniques to the user community using Trilinos and the Xyce circuit

  15. Synthetic Biology: A Unifying View and Review Using Analog Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Jonathan J Y; Woo, Sung Sik; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2015-08-01

    We review the field of synthetic biology from an analog circuits and analog computation perspective, focusing on circuits that have been built in living cells. This perspective is well suited to pictorially, symbolically, and quantitatively representing the nonlinear, dynamic, and stochastic (noisy) ordinary and partial differential equations that rigorously describe the molecular circuits of synthetic biology. This perspective enables us to construct a canonical analog circuit schematic that helps unify and review the operation of many fundamental circuits that have been built in synthetic biology at the DNA, RNA, protein, and small-molecule levels over nearly two decades. We review 17 circuits in the literature as particular examples of feedforward and feedback analog circuits that arise from special topological cases of the canonical analog circuit schematic. Digital circuit operation of these circuits represents a special case of saturated analog circuit behavior and is automatically incorporated as well. Many issues that have prevented synthetic biology from scaling are naturally represented in analog circuit schematics. Furthermore, the deep similarity between the Boltzmann thermodynamic equations that describe noisy electronic current flow in subthreshold transistors and noisy molecular flux in biochemical reactions has helped map analog circuit motifs in electronics to analog circuit motifs in cells and vice versa via a `cytomorphic' approach. Thus, a body of knowledge in analog electronic circuit design, analysis, simulation, and implementation may also be useful in the robust and efficient design of molecular circuits in synthetic biology, helping it to scale to more complex circuits in the future.

  16. Fractal Electronic Circuits Assembled From Nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, M. S.; McCarthy, D.; Taylor, R. P.; Brown, S. A.

    2009-07-01

    Many patterns in nature can be described using fractal geometry. The effect of this fractal character is an array of properties that can include high internal connectivity, high dispersivity, and enhanced surface area to volume ratios. These properties are often desirable in applications and, consequently, fractal geometry is increasingly employed in technologies ranging from antenna to storm barriers. In this paper, we explore the application of fractal geometry to electrical circuits, inspired by the pervasive fractal structure of neurons in the brain. We show that, under appropriate growth conditions, nanoclusters of Sb form into islands on atomically flat substrates via a process close to diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), establishing fractal islands that will form the basis of our fractal circuits. We perform fractal analysis of the islands to determine the spatial scaling properties (characterized by the fractal dimension, D) of the proposed circuits and demonstrate how varying growth conditions can affect D. We discuss fabrication approaches for establishing electrical contact to the fractal islands. Finally, we present fractal circuit simulations, which show that the fractal character of the circuit translates into novel, non-linear conduction properties determined by the circuit's D value.

  17. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Griggs, Whitney; Amita, Hidetoshi

    2017-02-02

    The basal ganglia control body movements, mainly, based on their values. Critical for this mechanism is dopamine neurons, which sends unpredicted value signals, mainly, to the striatum. This mechanism enables animals to change their behaviors flexibly, eventually choosing a valuable behavior. However, this may not be the best behavior, because the flexible choice is focused on recent, and, therefore, limited, experiences (i.e., short-term memories). Our old and recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contain separate circuits that process value signals in a completely different manner. They are insensitive to recent changes in value, yet gradually accumulate the value of each behavior (i.e., movement or object choice). These stable circuits eventually encode values of many behaviors and then retain the value signals for a long time (i.e., long-term memories). They are innervated by a separate group of dopamine neurons that retain value signals, even when no reward is predicted. Importantly, the stable circuits can control motor behaviors (e.g., hand or eye) quickly and precisely, which allows animals to automatically acquire valuable outcomes based on historical life experiences. These behaviors would be called 'skills', which are crucial for survival. The stable circuits are localized in the posterior part of the basal ganglia, separately from the flexible circuits located in the anterior part. To summarize, the flexible and stable circuits in the basal ganglia, working together but independently, enable animals (and humans) to reach valuable goals in various contexts.

  18. Hysteresis in a quantized superfluid 'atomtronic' circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Stephen; Lee, Jeffrey G; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Murray, Noel; Clark, Charles W; Lobb, Christopher J; Phillips, William D; Edwards, Mark; Campbell, Gretchen K

    2014-02-13

    Atomtronics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that seeks to develop new functional methods by creating devices and circuits where ultracold atoms, often superfluids, have a role analogous to that of electrons in electronics. Hysteresis is widely used in electronic circuits-it is routinely observed in superconducting circuits and is essential in radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices. Furthermore, it is as fundamental to superfluidity (and superconductivity) as quantized persistent currents, critical velocity and Josephson effects. Nevertheless, despite multiple theoretical predictions, hysteresis has not been previously observed in any superfluid, atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. Here we directly detect hysteresis between quantized circulation states in an atomtronic circuit formed from a ring of superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate obstructed by a rotating weak link (a region of low atomic density). This contrasts with previous experiments on superfluid liquid helium where hysteresis was observed directly in systems in which the quantization of flow could not be observed, and indirectly in systems that showed quantized flow. Our techniques allow us to tune the size of the hysteresis loop and to consider the fundamental excitations that accompany hysteresis. The results suggest that the relevant excitations involved in hysteresis are vortices, and indicate that dissipation has an important role in the dynamics. Controlled hysteresis in atomtronic circuits may prove to be a crucial feature for the development of practical devices, just as it has in electronic circuits such as memories, digital noise filters (for example Schmitt triggers) and magnetometers (for example superconducting quantum interference devices).

  19. Simulating Boolean circuits on a DNA computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogihara, Mitsunori; Ray, A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1997-12-01

    We demonstrate that DNA computers can simulate Boolean circuits with a small overhead. Boolean circuits embody the notion of massively parallel signal processing and are frequently encountered in many parallel algorithms. Many important problems such as sorting, integer arithmetic, and matrix multiplication are known to be computable by small size Boolean circuits much faster than by ordinary sequential digital computers. This paper shows that DNA chemistry allows one to simulate large semi-unbounded fan-in Boolean circuits with a logarithmic slowdown in computation time. Also, for the class NC{sup 1}, the slowdown can be reduced to a constant. In this algorithm we have encoded the inputs, the Boolean AND gates, and the OR gates to DNA oligonucleotide sequences. We operate on the gates and the inputs by standard molecular techniques of sequence-specific annealing, ligation, separation by size, amplification, sequence-specific cleavage, and detection by size. Additional steps of amplification are not necessary for NC{sup 1} circuits. Preliminary biochemical experiments on a small test circuit have produced encouraging results. Further confirmatory experiments are in progress. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Parallel algorithm strategies for circuit simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornquist, Heidi K.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Keiter, Eric Richard

    2010-01-01

    Circuit simulation tools (e.g., SPICE) have become invaluable in the development and design of electronic circuits. However, they have been pushed to their performance limits in addressing circuit design challenges that come from the technology drivers of smaller feature scales and higher integration. Improving the performance of circuit simulation tools through exploiting new opportunities in widely-available multi-processor architectures is a logical next step. Unfortunately, not all traditional simulation applications are inherently parallel, and quickly adapting mature application codes (even codes designed to parallel applications) to new parallel paradigms can be prohibitively difficult. In general, performance is influenced by many choices: hardware platform, runtime environment, languages and compilers used, algorithm choice and implementation, and more. In this complicated environment, the use of mini-applications small self-contained proxies for real applications is an excellent approach for rapidly exploring the parameter space of all these choices. In this report we present a multi-core performance study of Xyce, a transistor-level circuit simulation tool, and describe the future development of a mini-application for circuit simulation.

  1. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  2. How Young Children Understand Electric Circuits: Prediction, Explanation and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauert, Esme Bridget

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a study of young children's views about electric circuits. Twenty-eight children aged 5 and 6 years were interviewed. They were shown examples of circuits and asked to predict whether they would work and explain why. They were then invited to try out some of the circuit examples or make circuits of their own…

  3. 46 CFR 169.690 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 169.690 Section 169.690... branch circuits. Each lighting branch circuit must meet the requirements of § 111.75-5 of this chapter... to a lighting distribution panelboard; and (b) Branch circuits in excess of 30 amperes may...

  4. 30 CFR 56.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 56.12053... § 56.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to the ground-return circuit....

  5. 30 CFR 57.12017 - Work on power circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work on power circuits. 57.12017 Section 57... Surface and Underground § 57.12017 Work on power circuits. Power circuits shall be deenergized before work is done on such circuits unless hot-line tools are used. Suitable warning signs shall be posted...

  6. 49 CFR 234.269 - Cut-out circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cut-out circuits. 234.269 Section 234.269..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.269 Cut-out circuits. Each cut-out circuit shall be tested at least once every three months to determine that the circuit functions as intended. For...

  7. 30 CFR 56.12017 - Work on power circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work on power circuits. 56.12017 Section 56....12017 Work on power circuits. Power circuits shall be deenergized before work is done on such circuits... the work. Switches shall be locked out or other measures taken which shall prevent the power...

  8. 49 CFR 236.205 - Signal control circuits; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal control circuits; requirements. 236.205... Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.205 Signal control circuits; requirements. The circuits shall be so... fouling point derail equipped with switch circuit controller is not in derailing position, (d) When...

  9. 30 CFR 75.519 - Main power circuits; disconnecting switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main power circuits; disconnecting switches. 75... § 75.519 Main power circuits; disconnecting switches. In all main power circuits, disconnecting... which main power circuits enter the underground area of the mine and within 500 feet of all other...

  10. 46 CFR 111.75-5 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 111.75-5 Section 111.75-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-5 Lighting branch circuits. (a) Loads. A lighting distribution panel must not supply branch circuits rated at over 30 amperes. (b) Connected...

  11. 30 CFR 57.12053 - Circuits powered from trolley wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuits powered from trolley wires. 57.12053... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12053 Circuits powered from trolley wires. Ground wires for lighting circuits powered from trolley wires shall be connected securely to the ground return circuit. Surface Only...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6402 - Deenergized circuits near detonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deenergized circuits near detonators. 56.6402... Electric Blasting § 56.6402 Deenergized circuits near detonators. Electrical distribution circuits within 50 feet of electric detonators at the blast site shall be deenergized. Such circuits need not...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.181 - Electrical circuits and distribution boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical circuits and distribution boards. 1915.181... Electrical Machinery § 1915.181 Electrical circuits and distribution boards. (a) The provisions of this... employee is permitted to work on an electrical circuit, except when the circuit must remain energized...

  14. 46 CFR 111.30-17 - Protection of instrument circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of instrument circuits. 111.30-17 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-17 Protection of instrument circuits. (a) Each circuit that supplies a device on a switchboard, except a circuit under paragraph (b) of this...

  15. 30 CFR 75.900-2 - Approved circuit schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... device installed in the main secondary circuit at the source transformer may be used to provide undervoltage protection for each circuit that receives power from that transformer. (c) One circuit breaker may... overcurrent protection for the smallest conductor. (d) Circuit breakers with shunt trip, series trip...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... electrical circuit other than— (1) The main circuits of starter motors; and (2) Circuits in which no hazard... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Circuit protective devices. 27.1357 Section 27.1357 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  17. 30 CFR 56.12001 - Circuit overload protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 56.12001 Circuit overload protection. Circuits shall be protected against excessive overload by fuses or circuit breakers of the correct type and capacity. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuit overload protection. 56.12001...

  18. 30 CFR 75.904 - Identification of circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of circuit breakers. 75.904 Section 75.904 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... Alternating Current Circuits § 75.904 Identification of circuit breakers. Circuit breakers shall be marked...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the position of the operating control. (d) If the ability to reset a circuit breaker or replace a fuse is essential to safety in flight, that circuit breaker or fuse must be located and identified so that... circuit protection. (g) Automatic reset circuit breakers may be used as integral protectors for...

  20. 30 CFR 57.12001 - Circuit overload protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12001 Circuit overload protection. Circuits shall be protected against excessive overloads by fuses or circuit breakers of the correct type and capacity. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuit overload protection. 57.12001...

  1. 30 CFR 75.800-1 - Circuit breakers; location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circuit breakers; location. 75.800-1 Section 75.800-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... § 75.800-1 Circuit breakers; location. Circuit breakers protecting high-voltage circuits entering...

  2. Differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Christopher A.; Denton, M. Bonner; Sperline, Roger P.

    2008-07-22

    A differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification. The amplifier circuit increase electronic signal-to-noise ratios in charge detection circuits designed for the detection of very small quantities of electrical charge and/or very weak electromagnetic waves. A differential, integrating capacitive transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit comprising capacitor feedback loops performs time-correlated subtraction of noise.

  3. Beyond Optimality to Understanding Neuronal Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Eve

    2010-03-01

    I will summarize recent theoretical and experimental work that shows that similar circuit outputs can be produced with highly variable circuit parameters. This work argues that the nervous system of each healthy individual has found a set of different solutions that give ``good enough'' circuit performance. I will use examples from theoretical and experimental studies using the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system to argue that synaptic and intrinsic currents can vary far more than the output of the circuit in which they are found. These data have significant implications for the mechanisms that maintain stable function over the animal's lifetime, and for the kinds of changes that allow the nervous system to recover function after injury. In this kind of complex system, merely collecting mean data from many individuals can lead to significant errors, and it becomes important to measure as many individual network parameters in each individual as possible. This work raises the question of the extent to which neuromodulation can be constant with underlying circuit parameter variation. To address this question, we construct two cell reciprocally inhibitory circuits using the dynamic clamp from biological GM neurons of the crab stomatogastric ganglion. We then describe the output of the circuits while sweeping through a range of synaptic and intrinsic conductances, first in control saline and then in the presence of serotonin. We find that serotonin extends the ranges of parameters that produce alternating bursting. Moreover, although serotonin's effects are highly robust and significant on the entire population, individual networks respond anomalously. These data demonstrate that while neuromodulation may have robust actions on a population, not all individuals may respond as do the majority. These findings have important implications for evolution.

  4. Development of synaptic connectivity in the retinal direction selective circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrie, Ryan D; Feller, Marla B

    2016-10-01

    Direction selectivity is a classic neuronal computation that has been described in many different sensory systems. The circuit basis of this computation is perhaps best understood in the retina, where direction selectivity is the result of asymmetric connectivity patterns between excitatory and inhibitory circuit components. Retinal direction selective circuits emerge before eye-opening, though components of the circuit undergo refinement after vision begins. These features make the direction selective circuit a rich model in which to investigate neuronal circuit assembly. In this Opinion, we highlight recent experiments investigating the contribution of various molecular cues, as well as neuronal activity, to the development of the retinal direction selective circuit.

  5. Fingerprinted circuits and methods of making and identifying the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Michael Ian (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A circuit having a fingerprint for identification of a particular instantiation of the circuit is disclosed. The circuit may include a plurality of digital circuits or gates. Each of the digital circuits or gates is responsive to a configuration voltage applied to its analog input for controlling whether or not the digital circuit or gate performs its intended digital function and each of the digital circuits or gates transitioning between its functional state and its at least one other state when the configuration voltage equals a boundary voltage. The boundary voltage varies between different instantiations of the circuit for a majority of the digital circuits or gates and these differing boundary voltages serving to identify (or fingerprint) different instantiations of the same circuit.

  6. 30 CFR 77.506-1 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and...-1 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements... minimum requirements for protection of electric circuits and equipment of the National Electric Code, 1968....

  7. 30 CFR 75.900 - Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving three-phase alternating current equipment; circuit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving three... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.900 Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving three-phase alternating current equipment; circuit...

  8. Research and design of the protection circuits in LD controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Jiang-dong; TIAN Xiao-jian; DENG Jun; ZHANG Shuang

    2006-01-01

    According to the parameters and applications of laser diode (LD), three protection circuits were designed: the time-delay soft-start protection circuit, the power-on impulse protection circuit and the limit-current protection circuit. In this article, the structure and the principle of every protection circuit have been detailed. From several tests and feedbacks from customers, the expected goals have been completed.

  9. A COMPACT QUADRATURE FEEDING CIRCUIT FOR CIRCULARLY POLARIZED ANTENNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yuliang; Tian Buning; Tang Song

    2002-01-01

    A novel compact quadrature feeding circuit for a circularly polarized antenna is described. The equivalent circuit method in microwave network theory is used and the conventional directional coupler is converted to a new quadrature feeding circuit. This feeding circuit has the same characteristics as the conventional directional coupler but its size is only about one fourth of that of the latter. The formulas for designing the feeding circuit are given. The optimized results obtained by using the software ENSEMBLE are also reported.

  10. Fear and reward circuit alterations in pediatric CRPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Simons

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In chronic pain, a number of brain regions involved in emotion (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, insula, anterior cingulate, and prefrontal cortex show significant functional and morphometric changes. One phenotypic manifestation of these changes is pain-related fear (PRF. PRF is associated with profoundly altered behavioral adaptations to chronic pain. For example, patients with a neuropathic pain condition known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS often avoid use of and may even neglect the affected body area(s, thus maintaining and likely enhancing PRF. These changes form part of an overall maladaptation to chronic pain. To examine fear-related brain circuit alterations in humans, 20 pediatric patients with CRPS and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in response to a well-established fearful faces paradigm. Despite no significant differences on self-reported emotional valence and arousal between the two groups, CRPS patients displayed a diminished response to fearful faces in regions associated with emotional processing compared to healthy controls. Additionally, increased PRF levels were associated with decreased activity in a number of brain regions including the right amygdala, insula, putamen, and caudate. Blunted activation in patients suggests that (a individuals with chronic pain may have deficits in cognitive-affective brain circuits that may represent an underlying vulnerability or consequence to the chronic pain state; and (b fear of pain may contribute and/or maintain these brain alterations. Our results shed new light on altered affective circuits in patients with chronic pain and identify PRF as a potentially important treatment target.

  11. Communication and Sensing Circuits on Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Alimenti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a review of several circuits for communication and wireless sensing applications implemented on cellulose-based materials. These circuits have been developed during the last years exploiting the adhesive copper laminate method. Such a technique relies on a copper adhesive tape that is shaped by a photo-lithographic process and then transferred to the hosting substrate (i.e., paper by means of a sacrificial layer. The presented circuits span from UHF oscillators to a mixer working at 24 GHz and constitute an almost complete set of building blocks that can be applied to a huge variety communication apparatuses. Each circuit is validated experimentally showing performance comparable with the state-of-the-art. This paper demonstrates that circuits on cellulose are capable of operating at record frequencies and that ultra- low cost, green i.e., recyclable and biodegradable materials can be a viable solution to realize high frequency hardware for the upcoming Internet of Things (IoT era.

  12. Advances in Analog Circuit Design 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Baschirotto, Andrea; Harpe, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 24th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, including low-power and energy-efficient analog electronics, with specific contributions focusing on the design of efficient sensor interfaces and low-power RF systems. This book serves as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development. ·         Provides a state-of-the-art reference in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; ·         Presents material in a tutorial-based format; ·         Includes coverage of high-performance analog-to-digital and digital to analog converters, integrated circuit design in scaled technologies, and time-domain signal processing.

  13. Document analysis with neural net circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Hans Peter

    1994-01-01

    Document analysis is one of the main applications of machine vision today and offers great opportunities for neural net circuits. Despite more and more data processing with computers, the number of paper documents is still increasing rapidly. A fast translation of data from paper into electronic format is needed almost everywhere, and when done manually, this is a time consuming process. Markets range from small scanners for personal use to high-volume document analysis systems, such as address readers for the postal service or check processing systems for banks. A major concern with present systems is the accuracy of the automatic interpretation. Today's algorithms fail miserably when noise is present, when print quality is poor, or when the layout is complex. A common approach to circumvent these problems is to restrict the variations of the documents handled by a system. In our laboratory, we had the best luck with circuits implementing basic functions, such as convolutions, that can be used in many different algorithms. To illustrate the flexibility of this approach, three applications of the NET32K circuit are described in this short viewgraph presentation: locating address blocks, cleaning document images by removing noise, and locating areas of interest in personal checks to improve image compression. Several of the ideas realized in this circuit that were inspired by neural nets, such as analog computation with a low resolution, resulted in a chip that is well suited for real-world document analysis applications and that compares favorably with alternative, 'conventional' circuits.

  14. Electronic circuits modeling using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejević Miona V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper artificial neural networks (ANN are applied to modeling of electronic circuits. ANNs are used for application of the black-box modeling concept in the time domain. Modeling process is described, so the topology of the ANN, the testing signal used for excitation, together with the complexity of ANN are considered. The procedure is first exemplified in modeling of resistive circuits. MOS transistor, as a four-terminal device, is modeled. Then nonlinear negative resistive characteristic is modeled in order to be used as a piece-wise linear resistor in Chua's circuit. Examples of modeling nonlinear dynamic circuits are given encompassing a variety of modeling problems. A nonlinear circuit containing quartz oscillator is considered for modeling. Verification of the concept is performed by verifying the ability of the model to generalize i.e. to create acceptable responses to excitations not used during training. Implementation of these models within a behavioral simulator is exemplified. Every model is implemented in realistic surrounding in order to show its interaction, and of course, its usage and purpose.

  15. Circuit design for the retina-like image sensor based on space-variant lens array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongxun; Hao, Qun; Jin, Xuefeng; Cao, Jie; Liu, Yue; Song, Yong; Fan, Fan

    2013-12-01

    Retina-like image sensor is based on the non-uniformity of the human eyes and the log-polar coordinate theory. It has advantages of high-quality data compression and redundant information elimination. However, retina-like image sensors based on the CMOS craft have drawbacks such as high cost, low sensitivity and signal outputting efficiency and updating inconvenience. Therefore, this paper proposes a retina-like image sensor based on space-variant lens array, focusing on the circuit design to provide circuit support to the whole system. The circuit includes the following parts: (1) A photo-detector array with a lens array to convert optical signals to electrical signals; (2) a strobe circuit for time-gating of the pixels and parallel paths for high-speed transmission of the data; (3) a high-precision digital potentiometer for the I-V conversion, ratio normalization and sensitivity adjustment, a programmable gain amplifier for automatic generation control(AGC), and a A/D converter for the A/D conversion in every path; (4) the digital data is displayed on LCD and stored temporarily in DDR2 SDRAM; (5) a USB port to transfer the data to PC; (6) the whole system is controlled by FPGA. This circuit has advantages as lower cost, larger pixels, updating convenience and higher signal outputting efficiency. Experiments have proved that the grayscale output of every pixel basically matches the target and a non-uniform image of the target is ideally achieved in real time. The circuit can provide adequate technical support to retina-like image sensors based on space-variant lens array.

  16. Benchmarking of TALE- and CRISPR/dCas9-Based Transcriptional Regulators in Mammalian Cells for the Construction of Synthetic Genetic Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebar, Tina; Jerala, Roman

    2016-10-21

    Transcriptional activator-like effector (TALE)- and CRISPR/Cas9-based designable recognition domains represent a technological breakthrough not only for genome editing but also for building designed genetic circuits. Both platforms are able to target rarely occurring DNA segments, even within complex genomes. TALE and dCas9 domains, genetically fused to transcriptional regulatory domains, can be used for the construction of engineered logic circuits. Here we benchmarked the performance of the two platforms, targeting the same DNA sequences, to compare their advantages for the construction of designed circuits in mammalian cells. Optimal targeting strands for repression and activation of dCas9-based designed transcription factors were identified; both platforms exhibited good orthogonality and were used to construct functionally complete NOR gates. Although the CRISPR/dCas9 system is clearly easier to construct, TALE-based activators were significantly stronger, and the TALE-based platform performed better, especially for the construction of layered circuits.

  17. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  18. GATA Factor-G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Circuit Suppresses Hematopoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs originate from hemogenic endothelium within the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM region of the mammalian embryo. The relationship between genetic circuits controlling stem cell genesis and multi-potency is not understood. A Gata2 cis element (+9.5 enhances Gata2 expression in the AGM and induces the endothelial to HSC transition. We demonstrated that GATA-2 rescued hematopoiesis in +9.5−/− AGMs. As G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are the most common targets for FDA-approved drugs, we analyzed the GPCR gene ensemble to identify GATA-2-regulated GPCRs. Of the 20 GATA-2-activated GPCR genes, four were GATA-1-activated, and only Gpr65 expression resembled Gata2. Contrasting with the paradigm in which GATA-2-activated genes promote hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell genesis/function, our mouse and zebrafish studies indicated that GPR65 suppressed hematopoiesis. GPR65 established repressive chromatin at the +9.5 site, restricted occupancy by the activator Scl/TAL1, and repressed Gata2 transcription. Thus, a Gata2 cis element creates a GATA-2-GPCR circuit that limits positive regulators that promote hematopoiesis.

  19. A dendritic disinhibitory circuit mechanism for pathway-specific gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangyu Robert; Murray, John D.; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2016-01-01

    While reading a book in a noisy café, how does your brain ‘gate in' visual information while filtering out auditory stimuli? Here we propose a mechanism for such flexible routing of information flow in a complex brain network (pathway-specific gating), tested using a network model of pyramidal neurons and three classes of interneurons with connection probabilities constrained by data. We find that if inputs from different pathways cluster on a pyramidal neuron dendrite, a pathway can be gated-on by a disinhibitory circuit motif. The branch-specific disinhibition can be achieved despite dense interneuronal connectivity, even with random connections. Moreover, clustering of input pathways on dendrites can naturally emerge through synaptic plasticity regulated by dendritic inhibition. This gating mechanism in a neural circuit is further demonstrated by performing a context-dependent decision-making task. The model suggests that cognitive flexibility engages top-down signalling of behavioural rule or context that targets specific classes of inhibitory neurons. PMID:27649374

  20. Circadian remodeling of neuronal circuits involved in rhythmic behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paz Fernández

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Clock output pathways are central to convey timing information from the circadian clock to a diversity of physiological systems, ranging from cell-autonomous processes to behavior. While the molecular mechanisms that generate and sustain rhythmicity at the cellular level are well understood, it is unclear how this information is further structured to control specific behavioral outputs. Rhythmic release of pigment dispersing factor (PDF has been proposed to propagate the time of day information from core pacemaker cells to downstream targets underlying rhythmic locomotor activity. Indeed, such circadian changes in PDF intensity represent the only known mechanism through which the PDF circuit could communicate with its output. Here we describe a novel circadian phenomenon involving extensive remodeling in the axonal terminals of the PDF circuit, which display higher complexity during the day and significantly lower complexity at nighttime, both under daily cycles and constant conditions. In support to its circadian nature, cycling is lost in bona fide clockless mutants. We propose this clock-controlled structural plasticity as a candidate mechanism contributing to the transmission of the information downstream of pacemaker cells.

  1. Two-photon holographic optogenetics of neural circuits (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weijian; Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Peterka, Darcy S.; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    Optical manipulation of in vivo neural circuits with cellular resolution could be important for understanding cortical function. Despite recent progress, simultaneous optogenetic activation with cellular precision has either been limited to 2D planes, or a very small numbers of neurons over a limited volume. Here we demonstrate a novel paradigm for simultaneous 3D activation using a low repetition rate pulse-amplified fiber laser system and a spatial light modulator (SLM) to project 3D holographic excitation patterns on the cortex of mice in vivo for targeted volumetric 3D photoactivation. This method is compatible with two-photon imaging, and enables the simultaneous activation of multiple cells in 3D, using red-shifted opsins, such as C1V1 or ReaChR, while simultaneously imaging GFP-based sensors such as GCaMP6. This all-optical imaging and 3D manipulation approach achieves simultaneous reading and writing of cortical activity, and should be a powerful tool for the study of neuronal circuits.

  2. Microfluidic technologies for studying synthetic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Benjamin; Levchenko, Andre

    2012-08-01

    Advances in synthetic biology have augmented the available toolkit of biomolecular modules, allowing engineering and manipulation of signaling in a variety of organisms, ranging in complexity from single bacteria and eukaryotic cells to multi-cellular systems. The richness of synthetic circuit outputs can be dramatically enhanced by sophisticated environmental control systems designed to precisely pattern spatial-temporally heterogeneous environmental stimuli controlling these circuits. Moreover, the performance of the synthetic modules and 'blocks' needed to assemble more complicated networks requires more complete characterization as a function of arbitrarily complex environmental inputs. Microfluidic technologies are poised to meet these needs through a variety of innovative designs capitalizing on the unique benefits of manipulating fluids on the micro-scales and nano-scales. This review discusses the utility of microfluidics for the study of synthetic circuits and highlights recent work in the area.

  3. Fractional-order RC and RL circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2012-05-30

    This paper is a step forward to generalize the fundamentals of the conventional RC and RL circuits in fractional-order sense. The effect of fractional orders is the key factor for extra freedom, more flexibility, and novelty. The conditions for RC and RL circuits to act as pure imaginary impedances are derived, which are unrealizable in the conventional case. In addition, the sensitivity analyses of the magnitude and phase response with respect to all parameters showing the locations of these critical values are discussed. A qualitative revision for the fractional RC and RL circuits in the frequency domain is provided. Numerical and PSpice simulations are included to validate this study. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

  4. Electrochemical cell with internal circuit interrupter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulos, P.; Langkau, J.

    1989-08-08

    This patent describes an electrochemical cell. It comprises an electrode assembly containing a positive and negative electrode; a housing containing the electrode assembly, and containing a means for providing a terminal for one of the electrodes; a cover assembly containing a means for providing a terminal opposite the terminal of the housing to thereby establish an electrical circuit in the cell; and a current collector member disposed in the circuit and in physical contact with one of the electrodes. The collector is comprised of a shape-memory alloy, and having a base portion and a plurality of legs extending from the base portion; wherein the collector provides a means for disconnecting the electrical circuit in the cell when the internal temperature of the cell rises.

  5. Application of Memristors in Microwave Passive Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Potrebic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent implementation of the fourth fundamental electric circuit element, the memristor, opened new vistas in many fields of engineering applications. In this paper, we explore several RF/microwave passive circuits that might benefit from the memristor salient characteristics. We consider a power divider, coupled resonator bandpass filters, and a low-reflection quasi-Gaussian lowpass filter with lossy elements. We utilize memristors as configurable linear resistors and we propose memristor-based bandpass filters that feature suppression of parasitic frequency pass bands and widening of the desired rejection band. The simulations are performed in the time domain, using LTspice, and the RF/microwave circuits under consideration are modeled by ideal elements available in LTspice.

  6. Earth current monitoring circuit for inductive loads

    CERN Document Server

    Montabonnet, V; Thurel, Y; Cussac, P

    2010-01-01

    The search for higher magnetic fields in particle accelerators increasingly demands the use of superconducting magnets. This magnet technology has a large amount of magnetic energy storage during operation at relatively high currents. As such, many monitoring and protection systems are required to safely operate the magnet, including the monitoring of any leakage of current to earth in the superconducting magnet that indicates a failure of the insulation to earth. At low amplitude, the earth leakage current affects the magnetic field precision. At a higher level, the earth leakage current can additionally generate local losses which may definitively damage the magnet or its instrumentation. This paper presents an active earth fault current monitoring circuit, widely deployed in the converters for the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets. The circuit allows the detection of earth faults before energising the circuit as well as limiting any eventual earth fault current. The electrical stress...

  7. Gate-Level Simulation of Quantum Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Viamontes, G F; Markov, I L; Hayes, J P; Viamontes, George F.; Rajagopalan, Manoj; Markov, Igor L.; Hayes, John P.

    2002-01-01

    While thousands of experimental physicists and chemists are currently trying to build scalable quantum computers, it appears that simulation of quantum computation will be at least as critical as circuit simulation in classical VLSI design. However, since the work of Richard Feynman in the early 1980s little progress was made in practical quantum simulation. Most researchers focused on polynomial-time simulation of restricted types of quantum circuits that fall short of the full power of quantum computation. Simulating quantum computing devices and useful quantum algorithms on classical hardware now requires excessive computational resources, making many important simulation tasks infeasible. In this work we propose a new technique for gate-level simulation of quantum circuits which greatly reduces the difficulty and cost of such simulations. The proposed technique is implemented in a simulation tool called the Quantum Information Decision Diagram (QuIDD) and evaluated by simulating Grover's quantum search al...

  8. Radiation-hardened transistor and integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kwok K.

    2007-11-20

    A composite transistor is disclosed for use in radiation hardening a CMOS IC formed on an SOI or bulk semiconductor substrate. The composite transistor has a circuit transistor and a blocking transistor connected in series with a common gate connection. A body terminal of the blocking transistor is connected only to a source terminal thereof, and to no other connection point. The blocking transistor acts to prevent a single-event transient (SET) occurring in the circuit transistor from being coupled outside the composite transistor. Similarly, when a SET occurs in the blocking transistor, the circuit transistor prevents the SET from being coupled outside the composite transistor. N-type and P-type composite transistors can be used for each and every transistor in the CMOS IC to radiation harden the IC, and can be used to form inverters and transmission gates which are the building blocks of CMOS ICs.

  9. Noise in Advanced Electronic Devices and Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, M. Jamal; Marinov, O.

    2005-08-01

    State-of-the-art low-frequency and high-frequency noise performance and modeling in modern semiconductor devices and circuits are discussed. The increase of noise-to-DC current ratio may compromise the circuit applications in near future. The low-frequency noise (LFN) tends to a log-normal distribution. Since the random-telegraph-signal (RTS) noise is pronounced in submicron devices, then new techniques being used to characterize of multilevel RTS are discussed. High-frequency noise modeling and sample experimental results are presented, including the important effect of gate-tunneling current for future devices. For the RF circuits, we discuss the phase noise in voltage-controlled oscillators (VCO) based on ring oscillators and LC-tank VCOs with and without automatic amplitude control. Finally, the effects of hot-carrier stress on the performance of a VCO is presented and discussed.

  10. Estimating the short-circuit impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1997-01-01

    A method for establishing a complex value of the short-circuit impedance from naturally occurring variations in voltage and current is discussed. It is the symmetrical three phase impedance at the fundamental grid frequency there is looked for. The positive sequence components in voltage and curr......A method for establishing a complex value of the short-circuit impedance from naturally occurring variations in voltage and current is discussed. It is the symmetrical three phase impedance at the fundamental grid frequency there is looked for. The positive sequence components in voltage...... and current are derived each period, and the short-circuit impedance is estimated from variations in these components created by load changes in the grid. Due to the noisy and dynamic grid with high harmonic distortion it is necessary to threat the calculated values statistical. This is done recursively...

  11. Designing Low Power Circuits: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan M Joshi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing market of battery-operated portable applications like laptop, mobile etc requires microelectronic devices with low power consumption. As transistor size continues to shrink and as need for more complex chips increases, power management of the chip is one of the key challenges in VLSI industry. The manufacturers are looking for low power designs because providing adequate cooling and packaging increases the cost and limits the functionality of the device. This paper surveys the optimization techniques used to reduce power consumption in CMOS at all the levels of the design flow. It includes the technology used to implement digital circuits, the circuit design style and topology, the architecture for implementing the circuits, and at the highest level the software and algorithms that are implemented.

  12. Some results on uniform arithmetic circuit complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Valence, Mark; Barrington, David A. Mix

    1994-01-01

    We introduce a natural set of arithmetic expressions and define the complexity class AE to consist of all those arithmetic functions (over the fieldsF 2n) that are described by these expressions. We show that AE coincides with the class of functions that are computable with constant depth...... that if some such representation is X-uniform (where X is P or DLOGTIME), then the arithmetic complexity of a function (measured with X-uniform unbounded fan-in arithmetic circuits) is identical to the Boolean complexity of this function (measured with X-uniform threshold circuits). We show the existence...... and polynomial-size unbounded fan-in arithmetic circuits satisfying a natural uniformity constraint (DLOGTIME-uniformity). A 1-input and 1-output arithmetic function over the fieldsF2n may be identified with ann-input andn-output Boolean function when field elements are represented as bit strings. We prove...

  13. Circuit electromechanics with single photon strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Zheng-Yuan, E-mail: zyxue@scnu.edu.cn; Yang, Li-Na [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, and School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou, Jian, E-mail: jianzhou8627@163.com [Department of Electronic Communication Engineering, Anhui Xinhua University, Hefei 230088 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, and School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-07-13

    In circuit electromechanics, the coupling strength is usually very small. Here, replacing the capacitor in circuit electromechanics by a superconducting flux qubit, we show that the coupling among the qubit and the two resonators can induce effective electromechanical coupling which can attain the strong coupling regime at the single photon level with feasible experimental parameters. We use dispersive couplings among two resonators and the qubit while the qubit is also driven by an external classical field. These couplings form a three-wave mixing configuration among the three elements where the qubit degree of freedom can be adiabatically eliminated, and thus results in the enhanced coupling between the two resonators. Therefore, our work constitutes the first step towards studying quantum nonlinear effect in circuit electromechanics.

  14. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne; Martin, James

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission - Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper discusses the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  15. Logarithmic circuit with wide dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, P. H.; Manus, E. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A circuit deriving an output voltage that is proportional to the logarithm of a dc input voltage susceptible to wide variations in amplitude includes a constant current source which forward biases a diode so that the diode operates in the exponential portion of its voltage versus current characteristic, above its saturation current. The constant current source includes first and second, cascaded feedback, dc operational amplifiers connected in negative feedback circuit. An input terminal of the first amplifier is responsive to the input voltage. A circuit shunting the first amplifier output terminal includes a resistor in series with the diode. The voltage across the resistor is sensed at the input of the second dc operational feedback amplifier. The current flowing through the resistor is proportional to the input voltage over the wide range of variations in amplitude of the input voltage.

  16. Thermodynamics of squeezed states in mesoscopic circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Ying-Hua; Luo Hai-Mei; Liu Qing; Lei Min-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Based on the information theory, we present a density matrix to discuss coherent and squeezed states in a mesoscopic LC circuit with time-dependent frequency. With the relevant operators included in the density matrix, a connection between the appearance of coherent and squeezed states is established, i.e., the quantum state evolution of the system is closely related to the initial state. Generally speaking, due to the effect of environment temperature, the mesoscopic LC circuit will evolve to a squeezed state when it initially lies in an excited state. In particular, at a low temperature, step changes of circuit parameters will result in a squeezed minimum uncertainty state if the resonance frequency remains the same after the change.

  17. Transistor Level Implementation of Digital Reversible Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Prudhvi Raj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Now a days each and every electronic gadget is desi gning smartly and provides number of applications, so these designs dissipate high amount of power. Rever sible logic is becoming one of the best emerging de sign technologies having its applications in low power C MOS, Quantum computing and Nanotechnology. Reversible logic plays an important role in the des ign of energy efficient circuits. Adders and subtra ctors are the essential blocks of the computing systems. In this paper, reversible gates and circuits are de signed and implemented in CMOS and pass transistor logic u sing Mentor graphics backend tools. A four-bit ripp le carry adder/subtractor and an eight-bit reversible Carry Skip Adder are implemented and compared with the conventional circuits

  18. Requirement for Dicer in Maintenance of Monosynaptic Sensory-Motor Circuits in the Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Fumiyasu; Chen, Xiaoting; Weirauch, Matthew T; Yoshida, Yutaka

    2016-11-22

    In contrast to our knowledge of mechanisms governing circuit formation, our understanding of how neural circuits are maintained is limited. Here, we show that Dicer, an RNaseIII protein required for processing microRNAs (miRNAs), is essential for maintenance of the spinal monosynaptic stretch reflex circuit in which group Ia proprioceptive sensory neurons form direct connections with motor neurons. In postnatal mice lacking Dicer in proprioceptor sensory neurons, there are no obvious defects in specificity or formation of monosynaptic sensory-motor connections. However, these circuits degrade through synapse loss and retraction of proprioceptive axonal projections from the ventral spinal cord. Peripheral terminals are also impaired without retracting from muscle targets. Interestingly, despite these central and peripheral axonal defects, proprioceptive neurons survive in the absence of Dicer-processed miRNAs. These findings reveal that Dicer, through its production of mature miRNAs, plays a key role in the maintenance of monosynaptic sensory-motor circuits.

  19. Matching tutors and students: effective strategies for information transfer between circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesileanu, Tiberiu; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Olveczky, Bence

    Many neural circuits transfer learned information to downstream circuits: hippocampal-dependent memories are consolidated into long-term memories elsewhere; motor cortex is essential for skill learning but dispensable for execution; anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) in songbirds drives short-term improvements in song that are later consolidated in pre-motor area RA. We show how to match instructive signals from tutor circuits to synaptic plasticity rules in student circuits to achieve effective two-stage learning. We focus on learning sequential patterns where a timebase is transformed into motor commands by connectivity with a `student' area. If the sign of the synaptic change is given by the magnitude of tutor input, a good teaching strategy uses a strong (weak) tutor signal if student output is below (above) its target. If instead timing of tutor input relative to the timebase determines the sign of synaptic modifications, a good instructive signal accumulates the errors in student output as the motor program progresses. We demonstrate song learning in a biologically-plausible model of the songbird circuit given diverse plasticity rules interpolating between those described above. The model also reproduces qualitative firing statistics of RA neurons in juveniles and adults. Also affiliated to CUNY - Graduate Center.

  20. Simplified design of micropower and battery circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1995-01-01

    'Simplified Design of Micropower and Battery Circuits' provides a simplified, step-by-step approach to micropower and supply cell circuit design. No previous experience in design is required to use the techniques described, thus making the book well suited for the beginner, student, or experimenter as well as the design professional.The book concentrates on the use of commercial micropower ICs by discussing selections of external components that modify the IC-package characteristics. The basic approach is to start design problems with approximations for trial-value components in expe

  1. Human-friendly organic integrated circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sekitani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Many electronic systems such as flat-panel displays, optical detectors, and sensor arrays would benefit greatly from mechanical flexibility. Ultraflexible and foldable electronics demonstrate ultimate flexibility, and are highly portable. A major obstacle toward the development of foldable electronics is the fundamental compromise between operation voltage, transistor performance, and mechanical flexibility. This review describes foldable and conformable integrated circuits based on organic thin-film transistors (TFTs with very high mechanical stability. We review our work on such transistors and integrated circuits, that continue to operate without failure, without detectable degradation during folding of the plastic substrate.

  2. Lumped elements for RF and microwave circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Bahl, Inder

    2003-01-01

    Due to the unprecedented growth in wireless applications over the past decade, development of low-cost solutions for RF and microwave communication systems has become of great importance. This practical new book is the first comprehensive treatment of lumped elements, which are playing a critical role in the development of the circuits that make these cost-effective systems possible. The books offers you an in-depth understanding of the different types of RF and microwave circuit elements, including inductors, capacitors, resistors, transformers, via holes, airbridges, and crossovers. Support

  3. Modeling digital switching circuits with linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Mitchell A

    2014-01-01

    Modeling Digital Switching Circuits with Linear Algebra describes an approach for modeling digital information and circuitry that is an alternative to Boolean algebra. While the Boolean algebraic model has been wildly successful and is responsible for many advances in modern information technology, the approach described in this book offers new insight and different ways of solving problems. Modeling the bit as a vector instead of a scalar value in the set {0, 1} allows digital circuits to be characterized with transfer functions in the form of a linear transformation matrix. The use of transf

  4. Basic matrix algebra and transistor circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Zelinger, G

    1963-01-01

    Basic Matrix Algebra and Transistor Circuits deals with mastering the techniques of matrix algebra for application in transistors. This book attempts to unify fundamental subjects, such as matrix algebra, four-terminal network theory, transistor equivalent circuits, and pertinent design matters. Part I of this book focuses on basic matrix algebra of four-terminal networks, with descriptions of the different systems of matrices. This part also discusses both simple and complex network configurations and their associated transmission. This discussion is followed by the alternative methods of de

  5. Microwave filters and circuits contributions from Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Akio

    1970-01-01

    Microwave Filters and Circuits: Contributions from Japan covers ideas and novel circuits used to design microwave filter that have been developed in Japan, as well as network theory into the field of microwave transmission networks. The book discusses the general properties and synthesis of transmission-line networks; transmission-line filters on the image-parameter basis; and experimental results on a class of transmission-line filter constructed only with commensurate TEM lossless transmission lines. The text describes lines constants, approximation problems in transmission-line networks, as

  6. Symbolic Model Checking for Sequential Circuit Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-15

    umI4A8807, and in paut by the Semiconductor Research Corporation under Contract 92cW~-294. The fourti author was supported by an AT&T Bell Laboamtories Ph.D...found late in the design phase of a digital circuit are a major cause of unexpected delays in realising the circuit in hardware. As a result, interest in...block diagram of the stack. It consists of an array of d cells, each cell consisting of a control part, a data part and a completion tree. The data

  7. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidari, E.; Keskin, M.; Maloberti, F.;

    1999-01-01

    Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications.......Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications....

  8. RF microwave circuit design for wireless applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L

    2012-01-01

    Provides researchers and engineers with a complete set of modeling, design, and implementation tools for tackling the newest IC technologies Revised and completely updated, RF/Microwave Circuit Design for Wireless Applications, Second Edition is a unique, state-of-the-art guide to wireless integrated circuit design that provides researchers and engineers with a complete set of modeling, design, and implementation tools for tackling even the newest IC technologies. It emphasizes practical design solutions for high-performance devices and circuitry, incorporating ample exa

  9. Electronic circuit realization of the logistic map

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhekar Suneel

    2006-02-01

    An electronic circuit realization of the logistic difference equation is presented using analog electronics. The behaviour of the realized system is evaluated against computer simulations of the same. The circuit is found to exhibit the entire range of dynamics of the logistic equation: fixed points, periodicity, period doubling, chaos and intermittency. Quantitative measurements of the dynamics of the realized system are presented and are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Some possible applications of such a realization are briefly discussed.

  10. Modulation of anxiety circuits by serotonergic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowry, Christopher A; Johnson, Philip L; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    of emotionally salient events, often when both rewarding and aversive outcomes are possible. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the neural circuits regulating anxiety states and anxiety-related behavior with an emphasis on the role of brainstem serotonergic systems in modulating...... anxiety-related circuits. In particular, we explore the possibility that the regulation of anxiety states and anxiety-related behavior by serotonergic systems is dependent on a specific, topographically organized mesolimbocortical serotonergic system that originates in the mid-rostrocaudal and caudal...

  11. Symbolic Analysis of OTRAs-Based Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sánchez-López

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new nullor-based model to describe the behavior of Operational Transresistance Amplifiers (OTRAs is introduced.The new model is composed of four nullors and three grounded resistors. As a consequence, standard nodal analysiscan be applied to compute fully-symbolic small-signal characteristics of OTRA-based analog circuits, and the nullorbasedOTRAs model can be used in CAD tools. In this manner, the fully-symbolic transfer functions of severalapplication circuits, such as filters and oscillators can easily be approximated.

  12. Data readout system utilizing photonic integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopiński, S., E-mail: S.Stopinski@tue.nl [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2013-10-11

    We describe a novel optical solution for data readout systems. The core of the system is an Indium-Phosphide photonic integrated circuit performing as a front-end readout unit. It functions as an optical serializer in which the serialization of the input signal is provided by means of on-chip optical delay lines. The circuit employs electro-optic phase shifters to build amplitude modulators, power splitters for signal distribution, semiconductor optical amplifiers for signal amplification as well as on-chip reflectors. We present the concept of the system, the design and first characterization results of the devices that were fabricated in a multi-project wafer run.

  13. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  14. Resonant circuit model for efficient metamaterial absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, Alexandre; Teperik, Tatiana V; de Lustrac, André

    2013-11-04

    The resonant absorption in a planar metamaterial is studied theoretically. We present a simple physical model describing this phenomenon in terms of equivalent resonant circuit. We discuss the role of radiative and dissipative damping of resonant mode supported by a metamaterial in the formation of absorption spectra. We show that the results of rigorous calculations of Maxwell equations can be fully retrieved with simple model describing the system in terms of equivalent resonant circuit. This simple model allows us to explain the total absorption effect observed in the system on a common physical ground by referring it to the impedance matching condition at the resonance.

  15. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  16. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste print circuit board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Ge; CHEN Lie-qiang; PENG Shao-hong; CAI Ming-zhao

    2005-01-01

    Waste print circuit board containing 11.38% Br was pyrolyzed in vacuum.Thermal stability of waste print circuit board was studied under vacuum condition by thermo-gravimetry(TG). Vacuum pyrolysis of WPCB was studied emphasizing on the kinetics of WPCB pyrolysis reactions. Based on the TG results, a kinetic model was proposed. Kinetic parameters were calculated for reaction with this model including all stages of decomposition. The average activation energy is 68 k J/mol with reaction order 3. These findings provide new insights into the WPCB thermal decomposition and useful data for rational design and operation of pyrolysis.

  17. Modeling Deterministic Chaos Using Electronic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gotthans

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings a note on systematic circuit synthesis methods for modeling the dynamical systems given by mathematical model. Both classical synthesis and integrator based method is demonstrated via the relatively complicated real physical systems with possible chaotic solution. A variety of the different active building blocks are utilized to make the final circuits as simple as possible while preserving easily measurable voltage-mode state variables. Brief experimental verification, i.e. oscilloscope screenshots, is presented. The observed attractors have some structural stability and good relationship to their numerically integrated counterparts.

  18. Optimal design of APD biasing circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Chun-sheng; QIN Shi-qiao; WANG Xing-shu; ZHU Dong-hua

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a control method for avalanche photodiode (APD) reverse bias with temperature compensation and load resistance compensation. The influence of background light and load resistance on APD detection circuit is analyzed in detail. A theoretical model of temperature compensation and load resistance compensation is established, which is used for APD biasing circuit designing. It is predicted that this control method is especially suitable for LD laser range finder used on vehicles. Experimental results confirm thatthe design proposed in this paper can considerablely improve the performance of range finder.

  19. Black-box superconducting circuit quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Simon E; Paik, Hanhee; Vlastakis, Brian; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Shankar, S; Frunzio, Luigi; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J; Girvin, S M

    2012-06-15

    We present a semiclassical method for determining the effective low-energy quantum Hamiltonian of weakly anharmonic superconducting circuits containing mesoscopic Josephson junctions coupled to electromagnetic environments made of an arbitrary combination of distributed and lumped elements. A convenient basis, capturing the multimode physics, is given by the quantized eigenmodes of the linearized circuit and is fully determined by a classical linear response function. The method is used to calculate numerically the low-energy spectrum of a 3D transmon system, and quantitative agreement with measurements is found.

  20. Exact two-qubit universal quantum circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Sastry, S; Whaley, K B; Zhang, Jun; Vala, Jiri; Sastry, Shankar

    2003-01-01

    We provide an analytic way to implement any arbitrary two-qubit unitary operation, given an entangling two-qubit gate together with local gates. This is shown to provide explicit construction of a universal quantum circuit that exactly simulates arbitrary two-qubit gates. Each block in this circuit is given in a closed form solution. We also analyze the efficiency of different entangling gates, and find that exactly half of all the controlled-unitary gates can be used to implement two-qubit operations as efficiently as the commonly used CNOT gate.