WorldWideScience

Sample records for circuit quantum electrodynamics

  1. Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Lev S

    2010-01-01

    Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics (cQED), the study of the interaction between superconducting circuits behaving as artificial atoms and 1-dimensional transmission-line resonators, has shown much promise for quantum information processing tasks. For the purposes of quantum computing it is usual to approximate the artificial atoms as 2-level qubits, and much effort has been expended on attempts to isolate these qubits from the environment and to invent ever more sophisticated control and measurement schemes. Rather than focussing on these technological aspects of the field, this thesis investigates the opportunities for using these carefully engineered systems for answering questions of fundamental physics.

  2. Planar Multilayer Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minev, Z. K.; Serniak, K.; Pop, I. M.; Leghtas, Z.; Sliwa, K.; Hatridge, M.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

    2016-04-01

    Experimental quantum information processing with superconducting circuits is rapidly advancing, driven by innovation in two classes of devices, one involving planar microfabricated (2D) resonators, and the other involving machined three-dimensional (3D) cavities. We demonstrate that circuit quantum electrodynamics can be implemented in a multilayer superconducting structure that combines 2D and 3D advantages. We employ standard microfabrication techniques to pattern each layer, and rely on a vacuum gap between the layers to store the electromagnetic energy. Planar qubits are lithographically defined as an aperture in a conducting boundary of the resonators. We demonstrate the aperture concept by implementing an integrated, two-cavity-mode, one-transmon-qubit system.

  3. Minimal resonator loss for circuit quantum electrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, R.; Vercruyssen, N.; Endo, A.; De Visser, P.J.; Zijlstra, T.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Diener, P.; Yates, S.J.C.; Baselmans, J.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    We report quality factors of up to 500x10³ in superconducting resonators at the single photon levels needed for circuit quantum electrodynamics. This result is achieved by using NbTiN and removing the dielectric from regions with high electric fields. As demonstrated by a comparison with Ta, the cru

  4. Circuit quantum electrodynamics with a nonlinear resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Bertet, P; Boissonneault, M; Bolduc, A; Mallet, F; Doherty, A C; Blais, A; Vion, D; Esteve, D

    2011-01-01

    One of the most studied model systems in quantum optics is a two-level atom strongly coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field stored in a cavity, a research field named cavity quantum electrodynamics or CQED. CQED has recently received renewed attention due to its implementation with superconducting artificial atoms and coplanar resonators in the so-called circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) architecture. In cQED, the couplings can be much stronger than in CQED due to the design flexibility of superconducting circuits and to the enhanced field confinement in one-dimensional cavities. This enabled the realization of fundamental quantum physics and quantum information processing experiments with a degree of control comparable to that obtained in CQED. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the situation where the resonator to which the atom is coupled is made nonlinear with a Kerr-type nonlinearity, causing its energy levels to be nonequidistant. The system is then described by a nonlinea...

  5. Circuit quantum electrodynamics with a superconducting quantum point contact

    OpenAIRE

    Romero G; Lizuain I.; Shumeiko V.S.; Solano E.; Bergeret F.S.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a superconducting quantum point contact in a circuit quantum electrodynamics setup. We study three different configurations, attainable with current technology, where a quantum point contact is coupled galvanically to a coplanar waveguide resonator. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the strong and ultrastrong coupling regimes can be achieved with realistic parameters, allowing the coherent exchange between a superconducting quantum point contact and a quantized intracavity field. ©...

  6. Multi-qubit circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehmann, Oliver

    2013-09-03

    Circuit QED systems are macroscopic, man-made quantum systems in which superconducting artificial atoms, also called Josephson qubits, interact with a quantized electromagnetic field. These systems have been devised to mimic the physics of elementary quantum optical systems with real atoms in a scalable and more flexible framework. This opens up a variety of possible applications of circuit QED systems. For instance, they provide a promising platform for processing quantum information. Recent years have seen rapid experimental progress on these systems, and experiments with multi-component circuit QED architectures are currently starting to come within reach. In this thesis, circuit QED systems with multiple Josephson qubits are studied theoretically. We focus on simple and experimentally realistic extensions of the currently operated circuit QED setups and pursue investigations in two main directions. First, we consider the equilibrium behavior of circuit QED systems containing a large number of mutually noninteracting Josephson charge qubits. The currently accepted standard description of circuit QED predicts the possibility of superradiant phase transitions in such systems. However, a full microscopic treatment shows that a no-go theorem for superradiant phase transitions known from atomic physics applies to circuit QED systems as well. This reveals previously unknown limitations of the applicability of the standard theory of circuit QED to multi-qubit systems. Second, we explore the potential of circuit QED for quantum simulations of interacting quantum many-body systems. We propose and analyze a circuit QED architecture that implements the quantum Ising chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field. Our setup can be used to study quench dynamics, the propagation of localized excitations, and other non-equilibrium features in this paradigmatic model in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantumcritical phenomena. The setup is based on a

  7. Multi-qubit circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circuit QED systems are macroscopic, man-made quantum systems in which superconducting artificial atoms, also called Josephson qubits, interact with a quantized electromagnetic field. These systems have been devised to mimic the physics of elementary quantum optical systems with real atoms in a scalable and more flexible framework. This opens up a variety of possible applications of circuit QED systems. For instance, they provide a promising platform for processing quantum information. Recent years have seen rapid experimental progress on these systems, and experiments with multi-component circuit QED architectures are currently starting to come within reach. In this thesis, circuit QED systems with multiple Josephson qubits are studied theoretically. We focus on simple and experimentally realistic extensions of the currently operated circuit QED setups and pursue investigations in two main directions. First, we consider the equilibrium behavior of circuit QED systems containing a large number of mutually noninteracting Josephson charge qubits. The currently accepted standard description of circuit QED predicts the possibility of superradiant phase transitions in such systems. However, a full microscopic treatment shows that a no-go theorem for superradiant phase transitions known from atomic physics applies to circuit QED systems as well. This reveals previously unknown limitations of the applicability of the standard theory of circuit QED to multi-qubit systems. Second, we explore the potential of circuit QED for quantum simulations of interacting quantum many-body systems. We propose and analyze a circuit QED architecture that implements the quantum Ising chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field. Our setup can be used to study quench dynamics, the propagation of localized excitations, and other non-equilibrium features in this paradigmatic model in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantumcritical phenomena. The setup is based on a

  8. Entanglement distillation in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppliger, Markus; Heinsoo, Johannes; Salathe, Yves; Potocnik, Anton; Mondal, Mintu; Wallraff, Andreas; Paraoanu, Gheorghe Sorin

    Entanglement is an essential resource for quantum information processing, such as quantum error correction, quantum teleportation and quantum communication. Such algorithms perform optimally with maximally entangled states. In practice entangled quantum states are very fragile due to a wide range of decoherence mechanisms. When two parties share degraded entangled states they are still able to generate an entangled state with higher fidelity using local operations and classical communication. This process is commonly referred to as entanglement distillation. Here we demonstrate distillation of highly entangled Bell states from two copies of less entangled states on a four transmon qubit device realized in the circuit-QED architecture. We characterize the output state for different degrees of entanglement at the input with quantum state tomography. A clear improvement of the entanglement measures is observed at the output.

  9. Entangling distant resonant exchange qubits via circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Vanita; Taylor, Jacob M.; Tahan, Charles

    Enabling modularity within a quantum information processing device relies on robust entanglement of coherent qubits at macroscopic distances. To address this challenge, we investigate theoretically a hybrid quantum system consisting of spatially separated resonant exchange qubits, defined in three-electron semiconductor triple quantum dots, that are coupled via a superconducting transmission line resonator. By analyzing three specific approaches drawn from circuit quantum electrodynamics and Hartmann-Hahn double resonance techniques for implementing resonator-mediated two-qubit entangling gates in both dispersive and resonant regimes, we show that methods for entangling superconducting qubits map directly to resonant exchange qubits. We also calculate the rate of relaxation via phonons for resonant exchange qubits in silicon triple dots and show that such an implementation is particularly well-suited to achieving the strong coupling regime. Our approach combines the robustness of encoded spin qubits in silicon with the rapid and robust long-range entanglement provided by circuit QED systems.

  10. Giant Kerr Nonlinearities in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rebic, Stojan; Twamley, Jason; Milburn, Gerard J.

    2009-01-01

    The very small size of optical nonlinearities places wide ranging restrictions on the types of novel physics one can explore. For an ensemble of multi-level systems one can synthesize a large effective optical nonlinearity using quantum coherence effects but such non-linearities are technically extremely challenging to demonstrate at the single atom level. In this work we describe how a single artificial multi-level Cooper Pair Box molecule, interacting with a superconducting microwave coplan...

  11. Dressed Zeno effect in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Chao; Ge, Guo-Qin; Feng, Shun-Bin

    2014-06-01

    We present a theoretical study of the quantum Zeno effect in a driven superconducting charge qubit strongly and ultrastrongly coupled to a transmission line resonator. Using the dressed-state approach, we predict the different dynamics behaviors of the dressed qubit subjected to two opposite projection measurements. We show that, for very frequent measurements, the survival probability of the initial state is of exponential form and the Zeno time of the dressed qubit can be several orders of magnitude longer than that of the bare qubit. For slowly repeated measurements, the detuning of the driving field has significant impact on the measurement dynamics, and by choosing appropriate parameters for the dressed qubit, the Zeno effect can occur in the nonresonant coupling case. Such a Zeno effect is excluded from a usual two-level system.

  12. Interacting Electrodynamics of Short Coherent Conductors in Quantum Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altimiras, C.; Portier, F.; Joyez, P.

    2016-07-01

    When combining lumped mesoscopic electronic components to form a circuit, quantum fluctuations of electrical quantities lead to a nonlinear electromagnetic interaction between the components, which is generally not understood. The Landauer-Büttiker formalism that is frequently used to describe noninteracting coherent mesoscopic components is not directly suited to describe such circuits since it assumes perfect voltage bias, i.e., the absence of fluctuations. Here, we show that for short coherent conductors of arbitrary transmission, the Landauer-Büttiker formalism can be extended to take into account quantum voltage fluctuations similarly to what is done for tunnel junctions. The electrodynamics of the whole circuit is then formally worked out disregarding the non-Gaussianity of fluctuations. This reveals how the aforementioned nonlinear interaction operates in short coherent conductors: Voltage fluctuations induce a reduction of conductance through the phenomenon of dynamical Coulomb blockade, but they also modify their internal density of states, leading to an additional electrostatic modification of the transmission. Using this approach, we can quantitatively account for conductance measurements performed on quantum point contacts in series with impedances of the order of RK=h /e2 . Our work should enable a better engineering of quantum circuits with targeted properties.

  13. Digital Quantum Simulation of Spin Models with Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Salathé, Y.; Mondal, M.; Oppliger, M.; Heinsoo, J.; Kurpiers, P.; Potočnik, A.; Mezzacapo, Antonio; Las Heras García, Urtzi; Lamata Manuel, Lucas; Solano Villanueva, Enrique Leónidas; Filipp, S.; Wallraff, A.

    2015-01-01

    Systems of interacting quantum spins show a rich spectrum of quantum phases and display interesting many-body dynamics. Computing characteristics of even small systems on conventional computers poses significant challenges. A quantum simulator has the potential to outperform standard computers in calculating the evolution of complex quantum systems. Here, we perform a digital quantum simulation of the paradigmatic Heisenberg and Ising interacting spin models using a two transmon-qubit circuit...

  14. Two-resonator circuit quantum electrodynamics: A superconducting quantum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariantoni, Matteo; Deppe, Frank; Marx, A.; Gross, R.; Wilhelm, F. K.; Solano, E.

    2008-09-01

    We introduce a systematic formalism for two-resonator circuit QED, where two on-chip microwave resonators are simultaneously coupled to one superconducting qubit. Within this framework, we demonstrate that the qubit can function as a quantum switch between the two resonators, which are assumed to be originally independent. In this three-circuit network, the qubit mediates a geometric second-order circuit interaction between the otherwise decoupled resonators. In the dispersive regime, it also gives rise to a dynamic second-order perturbative interaction. The geometric and dynamic coupling strengths can be tuned to be equal, thus permitting to switch on and off the interaction between the two resonators via a qubit population inversion or a shifting of the qubit operation point. We also show that our quantum switch represents a flexible architecture for the manipulation and generation of nonclassical microwave field states as well as the creation of controlled multipartite entanglement in circuit QED. In addition, we clarify the role played by the geometric interaction, which constitutes a fundamental property characteristic of superconducting quantum circuits without a counterpart in quantum-optical systems. We develop a detailed theory of the geometric second-order coupling by means of circuit transformations for superconducting charge and flux qubits. Furthermore, we show the robustness of the quantum switch operation with respect to decoherence mechanisms. Finally, we propose a realistic design for a two-resonator circuit QED setup based on a flux qubit and estimate all the related parameters. In this manner, we show that this setup can be used to implement a superconducting quantum switch with available technology.

  15. Quantum Zeno effect in the strong measurement regime of circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slichter, D. H.; Müller, C.; Vijay, R.; Weber, S. J.; Blais, A.; Siddiqi, I.

    2016-05-01

    We observe the quantum Zeno effect—where the act of measurement slows the rate of quantum state transitions—in a superconducting qubit using linear circuit quantum electrodynamics readout and a near-quantum-limited following amplifier. Under simultaneous strong measurement and qubit drive, the qubit undergoes a series of quantum jumps between states. These jumps are visible in the experimental measurement record and are analyzed using maximum likelihood estimation to determine qubit transition rates. The observed rates agree with both analytical predictions and numerical simulations. The analysis methods are suitable for processing general noisy random telegraph signals.

  16. Tunable coupling and ultrastrong interaction in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For future quantum information and quantum simulation architectures with superconducting circuits, a profound understanding of the coupling mechanisms between the individual building blocks is essential. In our work, we investigate galvanically coupled qubit-resonator systems, demonstrate the phenomenon of ultrastrong coupling and realize qubit mediated tunable and switchable coupling between two frequency-degenerate coplanar microwave resonators.

  17. Experiments on two-resonator circuit quantum electrodynamics. A superconducting quantum switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Elisabeth Christiane Maria

    2013-05-29

    The field of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) studies the interaction between light and matter on a fundamental level. In typical experiments individual natural atoms are interacting with individual photons trapped in three-dimensional cavities. Within the last decade the prospering new field of circuit QED has been developed. Here, the natural atoms are replaced by artificial solid state quantum circuits offering large dipole moments which are coupled to quasi-onedimensional cavities providing a small mode volume and hence a large vacuum field strength. In our experiments Josephson junction based superconducting quantum bits are coupled to superconducting microwave resonators. In circuit QED the number of parameters that can be varied is increased and regimes that are not accessible using natural atoms can be entered and investigated. Apart from design flexibility and tunability of system parameters a particular advantage of circuit QED is the scalability to larger system size enabled by well developed micro- and nanofabrication tools. When scaling up the resonator-qubit systems beyond a few coupled circuits, the rapidly increasing number of interacting subsystems requires an active control and directed transmission of quantum signals. This can, for example, be achieved by implementing switchable coupling between two microwave resonators. To this end, a superconducting flux qubit is used to realize a suitable coupling between two microwave resonators, all working in the Gigahertz regime. The resulting device is called quantum switch. The flux qubit mediates a second order tunable and switchable coupling between the resonators. Depending on the qubit state, this coupling can compensate for the direct geometric coupling of the two resonators. As the qubit may also be in a quantum superposition state, the switch itself can be ''quantum'': it can be a superposition of ''on'' and ''off''. This work

  18. Experiments on two-resonator circuit quantum electrodynamics. A superconducting quantum switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) studies the interaction between light and matter on a fundamental level. In typical experiments individual natural atoms are interacting with individual photons trapped in three-dimensional cavities. Within the last decade the prospering new field of circuit QED has been developed. Here, the natural atoms are replaced by artificial solid state quantum circuits offering large dipole moments which are coupled to quasi-onedimensional cavities providing a small mode volume and hence a large vacuum field strength. In our experiments Josephson junction based superconducting quantum bits are coupled to superconducting microwave resonators. In circuit QED the number of parameters that can be varied is increased and regimes that are not accessible using natural atoms can be entered and investigated. Apart from design flexibility and tunability of system parameters a particular advantage of circuit QED is the scalability to larger system size enabled by well developed micro- and nanofabrication tools. When scaling up the resonator-qubit systems beyond a few coupled circuits, the rapidly increasing number of interacting subsystems requires an active control and directed transmission of quantum signals. This can, for example, be achieved by implementing switchable coupling between two microwave resonators. To this end, a superconducting flux qubit is used to realize a suitable coupling between two microwave resonators, all working in the Gigahertz regime. The resulting device is called quantum switch. The flux qubit mediates a second order tunable and switchable coupling between the resonators. Depending on the qubit state, this coupling can compensate for the direct geometric coupling of the two resonators. As the qubit may also be in a quantum superposition state, the switch itself can be ''quantum'': it can be a superposition of ''on'' and ''off''. This work presents the theoretical background, the fabrication techniques and

  19. Thermal excitation of multi-photon dressed states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J M; Baur, M; Bianchetti, R; Filipp, S; Goeppl, M; Leek, P J; Steffen, L; Wallraff, A [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Blais, A [Departement de Physique, Universite de Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1 (Canada)], E-mail: jfink@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: andreas.wallraff@phys.ethz.ch

    2009-12-15

    The exceptionally strong coupling realizable between superconducting qubits and photons stored in an on-chip microwave resonator allows for the detailed study of matter-light interactions in the realm of circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). Here we investigate the resonant interaction between a single transmon-type multilevel artificial atom and weak thermal and coherent fields. We explore up to three photon dressed states of the coupled system in a linear response heterodyne transmission measurement. The results are in good quantitative agreement with a generalized Jaynes-Cummings model. Our data indicate that the role of thermal fields in resonant cavity QED can be studied in detail using superconducting circuits.

  20. Thermal excitation of multi-photon dressed states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exceptionally strong coupling realizable between superconducting qubits and photons stored in an on-chip microwave resonator allows for the detailed study of matter-light interactions in the realm of circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). Here we investigate the resonant interaction between a single transmon-type multilevel artificial atom and weak thermal and coherent fields. We explore up to three photon dressed states of the coupled system in a linear response heterodyne transmission measurement. The results are in good quantitative agreement with a generalized Jaynes-Cummings model. Our data indicate that the role of thermal fields in resonant cavity QED can be studied in detail using superconducting circuits.

  1. Deterministic amplification of Schrödinger cat states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jaewoo; Elliott, Matthew; Oi, Daniel K. L.; Ginossar, Eran; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2016-02-01

    Perfect deterministic amplification of arbitrary quantum states is prohibited by quantum mechanics, but determinism can be achieved by compromising between fidelity and amplification power. We propose a dynamical scheme for deterministically amplifying photonic Schrödinger cat states, which show great promise as a tool for quantum information processing. Our protocol is designed for strongly coupled circuit quantum electrodynamics and utilizes artificial atomic states and external microwave controls to engineer a set of optimal state transfers and achieve high fidelity amplification. We compare analytical results with full simulations of the open, driven Jaynes-Cummings model, using realistic device parameters for state of the art superconducting circuits. Amplification with a fidelity of 0.9 can be achieved for sizable cat states in the presence of cavity and atomic-level decoherence. This tool could be applied to practical continuous-variable information processing for the purification and stabilization of cat states in the presence of photon losses.

  2. Applications of the Fokker-Planck equation in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Matthew; Ginossar, Eran

    2016-01-01

    We study exact solutions of the steady state behaviour of several non-linear open quantum systems which can be applied to the field of circuit quantum electrodynamics. Using Fokker-Planck equations in the generalised P-representation we investigate the analytical solutions of two fundamental models. First, we solve for the steady-state response of a linear cavity that is coupled to an approximate transmon qubit and use this solution to study both the weak and strong driving regimes, using ana...

  3. Many-body physics with circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present proposals to simulate many-body physics with superconducting circuits. The ''body'' to work with for superconducting circuits is the microwave photon and interaction is induced by the nonlinearity of the Josephson effect. We present two different approaches to simulate Bose-Hubbard physics, one based on a polariton scheme and another with nonlinear resonators. We also present a Dicke-model like simulator for ultrastrongly coupled Josephson junctions to a resonator and show a scheme for implementing long range interactions.

  4. Lasing in circuit quantum electrodynamics with strong noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthaler, M.; Utsumi, Y.; Golubev, D. S.

    2015-05-01

    We study a model which can describe a superconducting single-electron transistor or a double quantum dot coupled to a transmission-line oscillator. In both cases the degree of freedom is given by a charged particle, which couples strongly to the electromagnetic environment or phonons. We consider the case where a lasing condition is established and study the dependence of the average photon number in the resonator on the spectral function of the electromagnetic environment. We focus on three important cases: a strongly coupled environment with a small cutoff frequency, a structured environment peaked at a specific frequency, and 1 /f noise. We find that the electromagnetic environment can have a substantial impact on the photon creation. Resonance peaks are in general broadened and additional resonances can appear.

  5. Mesoscopic entangled coherent states implemented with a circuit quantum electrodynamics system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ying-Yan; Jiang Nian-Quan

    2013-01-01

    We show a scheme to generate entangled coherent states in a circuit quantum electrodynamics system,which consists of a nanomechanical resonator,a superconducting Cooper-pair box (CPB),and a superconducting transmission line resonator.In the system,the CPB plays the role of a nonlinear medium and can be conveniently controlled by a gate voltage including direct-current and alternating-current components.The scheme provides a powerful tool for preparing the multipartite mesoscopic entangled coherent states.

  6. Controllable cross-Kerr interaction between microwave photons in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qin-Qin; Liao Jie-Qiao; Kuang Le-Man

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme to enable a controllable cross-Kerr interaction between microwave photons in a circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) system. In this scheme we use two transmission-line resonators (TLRs) and one superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) type charge qubit, which acts as an artificial atom. It is shown that in the dispersive regime of the circuit-QED system, a controllable cross-Kerr interaction can be obtained by properly preparing the initial state of the qubit, and a large cross-phase shift between two microwave fields in the two TLRs can then be reached. Based on this cross-Kerr interaction, we show how to create a macroscopic entangled state between the two TLRs.

  7. Quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document consists of translations of the following original papers: (A) the fluctuations of charge connected with the formation of matter from radiation, by W. Heisenberg, Sachsiche Akademie der Wissenschaften; 86:(1934) 317-322; (B) theory of the positron, by P.A.M. Dirac, Report to 7th Solvay Physics Conference, structure and properties of Atomic Nuclei (1934) 203-212; (C) comments on the Dirac theory of the positron, by W. Heisenberg, Zeitschrift fur Physik; 90:(1934) 209-231; and (D) the electrodynamics of the vacuum on the basis of the quantum theory of the electron, by V. Weisskopf, Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Mathematiskfysiske Meddelelser XIV, no. 6 (1936) 3-39. (U.K.)

  8. Circuit quantum electrodynamics simulator of flat band physics in a Lieb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zi-He; Wang, Yan-Pu; Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Yang, Wan-Li; Hu, Yong; Gao, Jin-Hua; Wu, Ying

    2016-06-01

    The concept of flat band plays an important role in strongly correlated many-body physics. However, the demonstration of the flat band physics is highly nontrivial due to intrinsic limitations in conventional condensed-matter materials. Here we propose a circuit quantum electrodynamics simulator of the two-dimensional (2D) Lieb lattice exhibiting a flat middle band. By exploiting the parametric conversion method, we design a photonic Lieb lattice with in situ tunable hopping strengths in a 2D array of coupled superconducting transmissionline resonators. Moreover, the flexibility of our proposal enables the incorporation of both the artificial gauge field and the strong photon-photon interaction in a time- and site-resolved manner. To unambiguously demonstrate the synthesized flat band, we further investigate the observation of the flat band localization of microwave photons through the pumping and the steady-state measurements of only a few sites on the lattice. Requiring only current level of technique and being robust against imperfections in realistic circuits, our scheme can be readily tested in experiment and may pave a new way towards the realization of exotic photonic quantum Hall fluids including anomalous quantum Hall effect and bosonic fractional quantum Hall effect without magnetic field.

  9. Novel approaches to high fidelity qubit state measurement in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Eran

    2011-03-01

    Qubit state measurement (`readout') in solid state systems is an open problem, which is currently the subject of intensive experimental and theoretical research. Achieving high fidelity in a single-shot measurement is an interesting quantum control problem, as well as an important component for the successful implementation of quantum information protocols. For superconducting qubits we can distinguish between linear dispersive and nonlinear methods, the latter relying on the bistability of a nonlinear resonator. In the context of circuit quantum electrodynamics, the transmon qubit is strongly coupled to a linear resonator and described by a generalized Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) with external drive and dissipation. Recent novel approaches to achieve high-fidelity readout in the dispersive regime rely on the intrinsic nonlinearity of the JCM and its ultimate linearity in the high excitation regime. In the degenerate regime we rely on the photon blockade and precise transient dynamics of the system. This regime presents a theoretical challenge and the driven damped JCM model exhibits a dynamical phase transition. Another proposed approach extends the Josephson Bifurcation Amplifier and employs the dynamical effects of frequency chirping of the drive on the coupled qubit-resonator system. We will discuss the physics of these different regimes and describe the readout schemes which have been demonstrated by recent experiments and quantum simulations, as well as the role of quantum fluctuations and optimal control.

  10. Projected Dipole Moments of Individual Two-Level Defects Extracted Using Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabi, B.; Ramanayaka, A. N.; Burin, A. L.; Wellstood, F. C.; Osborn, K. D.

    2016-04-01

    Material-based two-level systems (TLSs), appearing as defects in low-temperature devices including superconducting qubits and photon detectors, are difficult to characterize. In this study we apply a uniform dc electric field across a film to tune the energies of TLSs within. The film is embedded in a superconducting resonator such that it forms a circuit quantum electrodynamical system. The energy of individual TLSs is observed as a function of the known tuning field. By studying TLSs for which we can determine the tunneling energy, the actual pz , dipole moments projected along the uniform field direction, are individually obtained. A distribution is created with 60 pz . We describe the distribution using a model with two dipole moment magnitudes, and a fit yields the corresponding values p =p1=2.8 ±0.2 D and p =p2=8.3 ±0.4 D . For a strong-coupled TLS the vacuum-Rabi splitting can be obtained with pz and tunneling energy. This allows a measurement of the circuit's zero-point electric-field fluctuations, in a method that does not need the electric-field volume.

  11. Projected Dipole Moments of Individual Two-Level Defects Extracted Using Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabi, B; Ramanayaka, A N; Burin, A L; Wellstood, F C; Osborn, K D

    2016-04-22

    Material-based two-level systems (TLSs), appearing as defects in low-temperature devices including superconducting qubits and photon detectors, are difficult to characterize. In this study we apply a uniform dc electric field across a film to tune the energies of TLSs within. The film is embedded in a superconducting resonator such that it forms a circuit quantum electrodynamical system. The energy of individual TLSs is observed as a function of the known tuning field. By studying TLSs for which we can determine the tunneling energy, the actual p_{z}, dipole moments projected along the uniform field direction, are individually obtained. A distribution is created with 60 p_{z}. We describe the distribution using a model with two dipole moment magnitudes, and a fit yields the corresponding values p=p_{1}=2.8±0.2  D and p=p_{2}=8.3±0.4  D. For a strong-coupled TLS the vacuum-Rabi splitting can be obtained with p_{z} and tunneling energy. This allows a measurement of the circuit's zero-point electric-field fluctuations, in a method that does not need the electric-field volume. PMID:27152820

  12. Circuit-quantum electrodynamics with direct magnetic coupling to single-atom spin qubits in isotopically enriched 28Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Tosi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in silicon nanofabrication have allowed the manipulation of spin qubits that are extremely isolated from noise sources, being therefore the semiconductor equivalent of single atoms in vacuum. We investigate the possibility of directly coupling an electron spin qubit to a superconducting resonator magnetic vacuum field. By using resonators modified to increase the vacuum magnetic field at the qubit location, and isotopically purified 28Si substrates, it is possible to achieve coupling rates faster than the single spin dephasing. This opens up new avenues for circuit-quantum electrodynamics with spins, and provides a pathway for dispersive read-out of spin qubits via superconducting resonators.

  13. Molecular quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, D P

    1998-01-01

    This systematic introduction to quantum electrodynamics focuses on the interaction of radiation with outer electrons and nuclei of atoms and molecules, answering the long-standing need of chemists and physicists for a comprehensive text on this highly specialized subject.Geared toward postgraduate students in the chemical sciences who require an understanding of quantum electrodynamics as applied to the interpretation of optical experiments on atoms and molecules, the text offers a detailed explanation of the quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with matter. It feat

  14. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran

    2016-06-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. In order to facilitate the implementation of such complex protocols we propose a design for reducing the self-Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity. The teleporation scheme enables quantum information processing operations with circuit-QED based on entangled coherent states. These include state verification and single-qubit operations with entangled coherent states. These are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits.

  15. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran

    2016-01-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. In order to facilitate the implementation of such complex protocols we propose a design for reducing the self-Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity. The teleporation scheme enables quantum information processing operations with circuit-QED based on entangled coherent states. These include state verification and single-qubit operations with entangled coherent states. These are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits. PMID:27245775

  16. Asymptotic algebra of quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Herdegen, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The Staruszkiewicz quantum model of the long-range structure in electrodynamics is reviewed in the form of a Weyl algebra. This is followed by a personal view on the asymptotic structure of quantum electrodynamics.

  17. Switching from positive to negative absorption with electromagnetically induced transparency in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a theoretical study of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a superconducting quantum circuit with a tunable V-shaped energy spectrum derived from two superconducting Josephson charge qubits coupled with each other through a superconducting quantum interference device. Using the density matrix formalism and the steady-state approximation, we obtain the analytical expressions of the first-order matrix element associated with the absorption and dispersion of the probe field for two different V-type schemes. Our results show that, for this superconducting quantum system, it is possible to realize a remarkable phenomenon that dynamic conversion between EIT and EIT with amplification without population inversion. Such a unique optical feature has potential applications in quantum optical devices and quantum information processing. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  18. Evaluating charge noise acting on semiconductor quantum dots in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluate the charge noise acting on a GaAs/GaAlAs based semiconductor double quantum dot dipole-coupled to the voltage oscillations of a superconducting transmission line resonator. The in-phase (I) and the quadrature (Q) components of the microwave tone transmitted through the resonator are sensitive to charging events in the surrounding environment of the double dot with an optimum sensitivity of 8.5×10−5 e/√(Hz). A low frequency 1/f type noise spectrum combined with a white noise level of 6.6×10−6 e2/Hz above 1 Hz is extracted, consistent with previous results obtained with quantum point contact charge detectors on similar heterostructures. The slope of the 1/f noise allows to extract a lower bound for the double-dot charge qubit dephasing rate which we compare to the one extracted from a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian approach. The two rates are found to be similar emphasizing that charge noise is the main source of dephasing in our system

  19. Efficient transfer of an arbitrary qutrit state in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Xiong, Shao-Jie; Cao, Xiao-Zhi; Su, Qi-Ping; Yang, Chui-Ping

    2015-12-01

    Compared with a qubit, a qutrit (i.e., three-level quantum system) has a larger Hilbert space and thus can be used to encode more information in quantum information processing and communication. Here, we propose a method to transfer an arbitrary quantum state between two flux qutrits coupled to two resonators. This scheme is simple because it only requires two basic operations. The state-transfer operation can be performed fast because only resonant interactions are used. Numerical simulations show that the high-fidelity transfer of quantum states between the two qutrits is feasible with current circuit-QED technology. This scheme is quite general and can be applied to accomplish the same task for other solid-state qutrits coupled to resonators. PMID:26625061

  20. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ginossar, E.; J Joo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mod...

  1. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jaewoo Joo; Eran Ginossar

    2016-01-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mod...

  2. Cross-Kerr-effect induced by coupled Josephson qubits in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a scheme for implementing cross-Kerr nonlinearity between two superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs) via their interactions with a coupler constructed by two superconducting transmon qubits connected to each other through a superconducting quantum interference device. When suitably driven, the coupler can induce very strong cross phase modulation (XPM) between the two TLRs due to its N-type level structure and the consequent electromagnetically induced transparency in its lowest states. The flexibility of our design can lead to various inter-TLR coupling configurations. The obtained cross-Kerr coefficient is large enough to allow many important quantum operations in which only few photons are involved. We further show that this scheme is very robust against fluctuations in solid-state quantum circuits. Our numerical calculations imply that the absorption and the dispersion of the TLRs resulting from the decoherence of the coupler are very small compared with the proposed XPM strength.

  3. Cross Kerr Effect Induced by Coupled Josephson Qubits in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yong; Chen, Shi; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Chen, You-Ling

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scheme for implementing cross Kerr nonlinearity between two superconducting transmission line resonators (TLR) via their interaction with a coupler which is constructed by two superconducting charge qubits connected to each other via a superconducting quantum interference device. When suitably driven, the coupler can induce very strong cross phase modulation (XPM) between the two TLRs due to its N-type level structure and the consequent electromagnetically induced transparency in its lowest states. The flexibility of our design can lead to various inter-TLR coupling configurations. The obtained cross Kerr coefficient is large enough to allow many important quantum operations in which only few photons are involved. We further show that this scheme is very robust against the fluctuations in solid state circuits. Our numerical calculations imply that the absorption and dispersion resulted from the decoherence of the coupler are very small compared with the strength of the proposed XPM.

  4. Minimal Quantum Electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui, R.; Berrondo, M.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and coherent formulation of quantum electrodynamics is obtained within the general framework of the LSZ field theory. The commutation relations for the interacting fields are obtained rather than being postulated a priori and the current densities fulfill the one particle stability conditions. Thus, the inconsistencies which appear in the canonical formalism are avoided. The resulting spectral representations do not have any ambiguities so that we do not have to introduce the renormalization concept.

  5. Minimal quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and coherent formulation of quantum electrodynamics is obtained within the general framework of the LSZ field theory. The commutation relations for the intereacting fields are obtained rather than being postulated a priori and the current densities fulfill the one particle stability conditions. Thus, the inconsistencies which appear in the canonical formalism are avoided. The resulting spectral representations do not have any ambiguities so that we do not have to introduce the ''renormalization'' concept

  6. Minimal Quantum Electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and coherent formulation of quantum electrodynamics is obtained within the general framework of the LSZ field theory. The commutation relations for the interacting fields are obtained rather than being postulated a priori and the current densities fulfill the one particle stability conditions. Thus, the inconsistencies which appear in the canonical formalism are avoided. The resulting spectral representations do not have any ambiguities so that we do not have to introduce the renormalization concept

  7. Quantum electrodynamics in a classical approximation, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum electrodynamics is formulated in a classical approximation. A quantum mechanical proper-time is employed as a useful parameter, which enables us to elucidate the relationship between quantum electrodynamics and classical electrodynamics. The classical motion of a charged particle is realized as an asymptotic limit of quantum electrodynamics. (author)

  8. Recurrent Delocalization and Quasiequilibration of Photons in Coupled Systems in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Myung-Joong; Kim, M S; Choi, Mahn-Soo

    2016-04-15

    We explore the photon population dynamics in two coupled circuit QED systems. For a sufficiently weak intercavity photon hopping, as the photon-cavity coupling increases, the dynamics undergoes double transitions first from a delocalized to a localized phase and then from the localized to another delocalized phase. The latter delocalized phase is distinguished from the former one; instead of oscillating between the two cavities, the photons rapidly quasiequilibrate over the two cavities. These intriguing features are attributed to an interplay between two qualitatively distinctive nonlinear behaviors of the circuit QED systems in the utrastrong coupling regime, whose distinction has been widely overlooked. PMID:27127967

  9. The relation between classical and quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Bacelar Valente

    2012-01-01

    Quantum electrodynamics presents intrinsic limitations in the description of physical processes that make it impossible to recover from it the type of description we have in classical electrodynamics. Hence one cannot consider classical electrodynamics as reducing to quantum electrodynamics and being recovered from it by some sort of limiting procedure. Quantum electrodynamics has to be seen not as an more fundamental theory, but as an upgrade of classical electrodynamics, which permits an ex...

  10. Non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book presents a systematic account of non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics. The subject is discussed under the subject headings: classical equations of motion, canonical formalism, canonical quantization, symmetries and conservation laws, interaction of photons and atoms and lastly, path-dependent electrodynamics. (U.K.)

  11. Broadband filters for abatement of spontaneous emission in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to perform fast, high-fidelity readout of quantum bits (qubits) is essential to the goal of building a quantum computer. However, coupling a fast measurement channel to a superconducting qubit typically also speeds up its relaxation via spontaneous emission. Here, we use impedance engineering to design a filter by which photons may easily leave the resonator at the cavity frequency but not at the qubit frequency. We implement this broadband filter in both an on-chip and off-chip configuration

  12. Broadband filters for abatement of spontaneous emission in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronn, Nicholas T., E-mail: ntbronn@us.ibm.com; Hertzberg, Jared B.; Córcoles, Antonio D.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Chow, Jerry M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Liu, Yanbing; Houck, Andrew A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-10-26

    The ability to perform fast, high-fidelity readout of quantum bits (qubits) is essential to the goal of building a quantum computer. However, coupling a fast measurement channel to a superconducting qubit typically also speeds up its relaxation via spontaneous emission. Here, we use impedance engineering to design a filter by which photons may easily leave the resonator at the cavity frequency but not at the qubit frequency. We implement this broadband filter in both an on-chip and off-chip configuration.

  13. Experimental status of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review of the experimental status of quantum electrodynamics covers the fine structure constant, the muon g-2 value, the Lamb shift in hydrogen, the finite proton radius, progress in muonium, and positronium. 37 references

  14. Timelike Momenta In Quantum Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, S. J.; Ting, S. C. C.

    1965-12-01

    In this note we discuss the possibility of studying the quantum electrodynamics of timelike photon propagators in muon or electron pair production by incident high energy muon or electron beams from presently available proton or electron accelerators.

  15. Dynamics of dispersive single-qubit readout in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum state of a superconducting qubit nonresonantly coupled to a transmission line resonator can be determined by measuring the quadrature amplitudes of an electromagnetic field transmitted through the resonator. We present experiments in which we analyze in detail the dynamics of the transmitted field as a function of the measurement frequency for both weak continuous and pulsed measurements. We find excellent agreement between our data and calculations based on a set of Bloch-type differential equations for the cavity field derived from the dispersive Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian including dissipation. We show that the measured system response can be used to construct a measurement operator from which the qubit population can be inferred accurately. Such a measurement operator can be used in tomographic methods to reconstruct single and multiqubit states in ensemble-averaged measurements.

  16. Quantum Hall Effect in Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Penin, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics and find a deviation from the quantum mechanical prediction for the Hall conductivity due to radiative antiscreening of electric charge in an external magnetic field. A weak universal dependence of the von Klitzing constant on the magnetic field strength, which can possibly be observed in a dedicated experiment, is predicted.

  17. The Relation between Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bacelar Valente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum electrodynamics presents intrinsic limitations in the description of physical processes that make it impossible to recover from it the type of description we have in classical electrodynamics. Hence one cannot consider classical electrodynamics as reducing to quantum electrodynamics and being recovered from it by some sort of limiting procedure. Quantum electrodynamics has to be seen not as an more fundamental theory, but as an upgrade of classical electrodynamics, which permits an extension of classical theory to the description of phenomena that, while being related to the conceptual framework of the classical theory, cannot be addressed from the classical theory.

  18. Potentialities of Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lehnert B.

    2013-01-01

    The potentialities of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED) earlier established by the author are reconsidered, also in respect to other fundamental theories such as those by Dirac and Higgs. The RQED theory is characterized by intrinsic linear symmetry breaking due to a nonzero divergence of the electric field strength in the vacuum state, as supported by the Zero Point Energy and the experimentally confirmed Casimir force. It includes the results of electron spin and antimatter by ...

  19. Renormalizability of generalized quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present the study of the renormalizability of the Generalized Quantum Electrodynamics ($GQED_{4}$). We begin the article by reviewing the on-shell renormalization scheme applied to $GQED_{4}$. Thereafter, we calculate the explicit expressions for all the counter-terms at one-loop approximation and discuss the infrared behavior of the theory as well. Next, we explore some properties of the effective coupling of the theory which would give an indictment of the validity regime of...

  20. Quantum Electrodynamics of Nanosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Masood, Samina S

    2012-01-01

    Quantum description of mulitiparticle nano-systems is studied in a hot and dense electromagnetic medium. We use renormalization techniques of quantum field theory to show that the electromagnetic properties like electric permittivity and magnetic permeability depend on the temperature and density of the media. Casimir force also depends upon the physical properties of the medium and becomes a function of these parameters within the nano-systems. We discuss the effect of the Casimir force on the nanosystems in terms of temperature and density of the system. We present carbon nanotubes and biomolecules as examples.

  1. Offshell quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we develop the quantum field theory of off-shell electromagnetism, and use it to calculate the Møller scattering cross-section. This calculation leads to qualitative deviations from the usual scattering cross-sections, which are, however, small effects, but may be visible at small angles near the forward direction.

  2. Minimal theory of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the general framework of the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann axiomatic field theory, we obtain a simple and coherent formulation of quantum electrodynamics. The definitions of the current densities fulfill the one-particle stability condition, and the commutation relations for the interacting fields are obtained rather than being postulated a priori, thus avoiding the inconsistencies which appear in the canonical formalism. This is possible due to the fact that we use the integral form of the equations of motion in order to compute the propagators and the S matrix. The resulting spectral representations automatically fulfill the correct boundary conditions thus fixing the ubiquitous quasilocal operators in a unique fashion

  3. Relativistic Geometry and Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    González-Martin, G R

    2000-01-01

    Excitations of a relativistic geometry are used to represent the theory of quantum electrodynamics. The connection excitations and the frame excitations reduce, respectively, to the electromagnetic field operator and electron field operator. Because of the inherent geometric algebraic structure these operators obey the standard commutation rules of QED. If we work with excitations, we need to use statistical theory when considering the evolution of microscopic subsystems. The use of classical statistics, in particular techniques of irreversible thermodynamics, determine that the probability of absorption or emission of a geometric excitation is a function of the classical energy density. Emission and absorption of geometric excitations imply discrete changes of certain physical variables, but with a probability determined by its wave energy density. Hence, this geometric theory, without contradicting the fundamental aspects of quantum physics, provides a geometric foundation for the theory.

  4. Renormalizability of generalized quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bufalo, R; Zambrano, G E R; 10.1103/PhysRevD.86.125023

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present the study of the renormalizability of the Generalized Quantum Electrodynamics ($GQED_{4}$). We begin the article by reviewing the on-shell renormalization scheme applied to $GQED_{4}$. Thereafter, we calculate the explicit expressions for all the counter-terms at one-loop approximation and discuss the infrared behavior of the theory as well. Next, we explore some properties of the effective coupling of the theory which would give an indictment of the validity regime of theory: $m^{2} \\leq k^{2} < m_{P}^{2}$. Afterwards, we make use of experimental data from the electron anomalous magnetic moment to set possible values for the theory free parameter through the one-loop contribution of Podolsky mass-dependent term to Pauli's form factor $F_{2}(q^{2})$.

  5. Potentialities of Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The potentialities of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED earlier established by the author are reconsidered, also in respect to other fundamental theories such as those by Dirac and Higgs. The RQED theory is characterized by intrinsic linear symmetry breaking due to a nonzero divergence of the electric field strength in the vacuum state, as supported by the Zero Point Energy and the experimentally confirmed Casimir force. It includes the results of electron spin and antimatter by Dirac, as well as the rest mass of elementary particles predicted by Higgs in terms of spontaneous nonlinear symmetry breaking. It will here be put into doubt whether the approach by Higgs is the only theory which becomes necessary for explaining the particle rest masses. In addition, RQED theory leads to new results beyond those being available from the theories by Dirac, Higgs and the Standard Model, such as in applications to leptons and the photon.

  6. The physical state space of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the fact that electrically charged particles are massive we derive a criterion which characterizes the state space of quantum electrodynamics. This criterion clarifies the special role of the electric charge amongst the uncountably many superselection rules in quantum electrodynamics and provides a basis for a general analysis of the infrared problem. Within this framework we establish the existence of asymptotic electromagnetic fields in all charge-sectors, find a general characterization of infraparticles and introduce a notion of asymptotic completeness. (orig.)

  7. On higher order estimates in quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Matte, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method to derive certain higher order estimates in quantum electrodynamics. Our method is particularly convenient in the application to the non-local semi-relativistic models of quantum electrodynamics as it avoids the use of iterated commutator expansions. We re-derive higher order estimates obtained earlier by Fr\\"ohlich, Griesemer, and Schlein and prove new estimates for a non-local molecular no-pair operator.

  8. Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, T; Cormick, C; Landa, H; Stojanović, Vladimir M; Demler, E; Morigi, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics. PMID:26684118

  9. Quantum Electrodynamics in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup

    In this thesis we have performed quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiments in photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and cavity QED in the Anderson localized regime in disordered PhC waveguides. Decay rate measurements of quantum dots embedded in PhC waveguides has been used to map out the variations in...

  10. On Quantum Corrections to Chern-Simons Spinor Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud; Fainberg, V Ya

    1998-01-01

    We make a detailed investigation on the quantum corrections to Abelian Chern-Simons spinor electrodynamics. Starting from Chern-Simons spinor quantum electrodynamics with the Maxwell term $-1/(4\\gamma){\\int}d^3x F_{\\mu\

  11. Dyson-Schwinger equations in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantum field theory is completely determined by the knowledge of its Green functions and this thesis is concerned with the Salam and Delbourgo approximation method for the determination of the Green functions. In chapter 2 a Lorentz covariant, canonical formulation for quantum electrodynamics is described. In chapter 3 the definition of the Green functions in quantum electrodynamics is given with a derivation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations. The Ward-Takahashi identities, which are a consequence of current conservation, are derived and finally renormalization is briefly mentioned and the equations for the renormalized quantities are given. The gauge transformations, changing the gauge-parameter, a, discussed in Chapter 2 for the field operators, also have implications for the Green functions, and these are worked out in Chapter 4 for the electron propagator, which is not gauge-invariant. Before developing the main approximation, a simple, non-relativistic model is studied in Chapter 5. It has the feature of being exactly solvable in a way which closely resembles the approximation method of Chapter 6 for relativistic quantum electrodynamics. There the Dyson-Schwinger equations for the electron and photon propagator are studied. In chapter 7, the Johnson-Baker-Willey program of finite quantum electrodynamics is considered, in connection with the Ansatz of Salam and Delbourgo, and the question of a possible fixed point of the coupling constant is considered. In the last chapter, some remarks are made about how the results of the approximation scheme can be improved. (Auth.)

  12. On Calculation of Amplitudes in Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karplyuk, Kostyantyn; Zhmudsky, Oleksandr

    2012-01-01

    A new method of calculation of amplitudes of different processes in quantum electrodynamics is proposed. The method does not use the Feynman technique of trace of product of matrices calculation. The method strongly simplifies calculation of cross sections for different processes. The effectiveness of the method is shown on the cross-section calculation of Coulomb scattering, Compton scattering and electron-positron annihilation.

  13. Massless quantum electrodynamics: a variational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variational method was used to study the probable existence of a compound vacuum in quantum electrodynamics. An Ansatz containing a condensate of electron-positron pairs was investigated and an optimization equation for the condensate wave function found. (L.C.J.A.)

  14. Lamb Shift in Nonrelativistic Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotch, Howard

    1981-01-01

    The bound electron self-energy or Lamb shift is calculated in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics. Retardation is retained and also an interaction previously dropped in other nonrelativistic approaches is kept. Results are finite without introducing a cutoff and lead to a Lamb shift in hydrogen of 1030.9 MHz. (Author/JN)

  15. Quantum electrodynamic perspective on multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fully quantum nonperturbative method is developed to describe multiphoton ionization in intense fields. It is shown that, treating the radiation field with quantum electrodynamic (QED) theory enables the authors to obtain the above-threshold ionization energy distribution spectrum in analytical form firstly. Moreover, in addition to the well-known semiclassical theory, the framework presented here, derived from a QED perspective, provides a new picture of the multiphoton ionization

  16. Applications of conformal symmetry in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum electrodyanmics is a system in which the only scale is provided by the electron mass. A topic of continuing interest has been the structure of this field theory for spatial separations small in comparison to the scale defined by the Compton size ((h/2π)/mc), and one is thus led to consider 'massless' quantum electrodynamics (m equivalent to 0). The classical field equations for massless electrodynamics are invariant under a much larger group of space-time transformations than the massive theory, namely the full fifteen parameter conformal group. However, in contrast to the massive theory where calculations can be formulated in terms of a set of fully Lorentz covariant Green's functions, no fully conformally covariant formalism exists for the massless theory because of complications associated with gauge invariance. The authors present what they regard as the most salient aspects of the conformal symmetry when it is used to simplify calculations. (Auth.)

  17. Soliton-like solution in quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Skoromnik, O D; Keitel, C H

    2016-01-01

    A novel soliton-like solution in quantum electrodynamics is obtained via a self-consistent field method. By writing the Hamiltonian of quantum electrodynamics in the Coulomb gauge, we separate out a classical component in the density operator of the electron-positron field. Then, by modeling the state vector in analogy with the theory of superconductivity, we minimize the functional for the energy of the system. This results in the equations of the self-consistent field, where the solutions are associated with the collective excitation of the electron-positron field---the soliton-like solution. In addition, the canonical transformation of the variables allowed us to separate out the total momentum of the system and, consequently, to find the relativistic energy dispersion relation for the moving soliton.

  18. Recent advances in bound state quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments are reviewed in four areas of computational quantum electrodynamics: a new relativistic two-body formalism equal in rigor to the Bethe-Salpeter formalism but with strong calculational advantages is discussed; recent work on the computation of the decay rate of bound systems (positronium in particular) is presented; limits on possible composite structure of leptons are discussed; a new multidimensional integration program ('VEGAS') suitable for higher order calculations is presented

  19. Test of quantum electrodynamics at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential cross sections for the reactions e+e → e+e- and e+e- → γγ are given for energies between 27.7 and 31.6 GeV. The results agree with the predictions of standard quantum electrodynamics and set lower limits to the usual cut off parameters of up to 104 GeV. A limit on the Weinberg angle, sin2theta sub(W) 2. (orig.)

  20. Digital Quantum Rabi and Dicke Models in Superconducting Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacapo, A.; Las Heras, U.; Pedernales, J. S.; Dicarlo, L.; Solano, E.; Lamata, L.

    2014-12-01

    We propose the analog-digital quantum simulation of the quantum Rabi and Dicke models using circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). We find that all physical regimes, in particular those which are impossible to realize in typical cavity QED setups, can be simulated via unitary decomposition into digital steps. Furthermore, we show the emergence of the Dirac equation dynamics from the quantum Rabi model when the mode frequency vanishes. Finally, we analyze the feasibility of this proposal under realistic superconducting circuit scenarios.

  1. Quantum electrodynamics in strong external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the theoretical description of quantum electrodynamics in the presence of strong and supercritical fields. In particular, the process of the spontaneous vacuum decay accompanied by the observable positron emission in heavy ion collisions is described. Emphasis is put on the proper formulation of many-body aspects in the framework of quantum field theory. The extension of the theory to the description of Bose fields and many-body effects is presented, and the Klein paradox is resolved. Some implications of the theoretical methods developed here are presented concerning non-abelian gauge theories and the quark confinement puzzle. (orig.)

  2. Investigation on regulators in quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Raymond Félix

    We present in this work three models which are able to suppress the divergences of approximate versions of Quantum Electrodynamics.It is indeed argued that, in view of the smallness of the fine structure constant, not only the first terms of a perturbation expansion, or of an expansion according to the number of particles involved in intermediate states, gives a fair approximattonbut furthermore, that it is in these terms that a breakdown of electrodynamics should be sought. Our goal is to connect the high energy behaviour of relevant physical processes with the suppression of the divergences. Our goal is to connect the high energy behaviour of relevant physical processes with the suppression of the divergences. The first model assumes the existence of a photon cut off, whose observable consequences are clearly stated, and of a fermion out off which, although unable to give a satisfactory ...

  3. Clothed Particles in Quantum Electrodynamics and Quantum Chromodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebeko, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    The notion of clothing in quantum field theory (QFT), put forward by Greenberg and Schweber and developed by M. Shirokov, is applied in quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Along the guideline we have derived a novel analytic expression for the QED Hamiltonian in the clothed particle representation (CPR). In addition, we are trying to realize this notion in QCD (to be definite for the gauge group SU(3)) when drawing parallels between QCD and QED.

  4. Clothed Particles in Quantum Electrodynamics and Quantum Chromodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebeko Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of clothing in quantum field theory (QFT, put forward by Greenberg and Schweber and developed by M. Shirokov, is applied in quantum electrodynamics (QED and quantum chromodynamics (QCD. Along the guideline we have derived a novel analytic expression for the QED Hamiltonian in the clothed particle representation (CPR. In addition, we are trying to realize this notion in QCD (to be definite for the gauge group SU(3 when drawing parallels between QCD and QED.

  5. Off-shell quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Land, M C

    1996-01-01

    More than twenty years have passed since the threads of the `proper time formalism' in covariant classical and quantum mechanics were brought together to construct a canonical formalism for the relativistic mechanics of many particles. Drawing on the work of Fock, Stueckelberg, Nambu, Schwinger, and Feynman, the formalism was raised from the status of a purely formal mathematical technique to a covariant evolution theory for interacting particles. In the context of this theory, solutions have been found for the relativistic bound state problem, classical and quantum scattering in relativistic potentials, as well as applications in statistical mechanics. It has been shown that a generalization of the Maxwell theory is required in order that the electromagnetic interaction be well-posed in the theory. The resulting theory of electromagnetism involves a fifth gauge field introduced to compensate for the dependence of the gauge transformation on the invariant time parameter; permitting such dependence relaxes the...

  6. Off-Shell Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Land, M. C.; Horwitz, L. P.

    1996-01-01

    More than twenty years have passed since the threads of the `proper time formalism' in covariant classical and quantum mechanics were brought together to construct a canonical formalism for the relativistic mechanics of many particles. Drawing on the work of Fock, Stueckelberg, Nambu, Schwinger, and Feynman, the formalism was raised from the status of a purely formal mathematical technique to a covariant evolution theory for interacting particles. In the context of this theory, solutions have...

  7. Electron-photon coupling in mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, A.; Kontos, T.; Douçot, B.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the interaction between cavity photons and electronic nanocircuits is crucial for the development of mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics (QED). One has to combine ingredients from atomic cavity QED, such as orbital degrees of freedom, with tunneling physics and strong cavity field inhomogeneities, specific to superconducting circuit QED. It is therefore necessary to introduce a formalism which bridges between these two domains. We develop a general method based on a photonic pseudopotential to describe the electric coupling between electrons in a nanocircuit and cavity photons. In this picture, photons can induce simultaneously orbital energy shifts, tunneling, and local orbital transitions. We study in detail the elementary example of a single quantum dot with a single normal metal reservoir, coupled to a cavity. Photon-induced tunneling terms lead to a nonuniversal relation between the cavity frequency pull and the damping pull. Our formalism can also be applied to multiple quantum dot circuits, molecular circuits, quantum point contacts, metallic tunnel junctions, and superconducting nanostructures enclosing Andreev bound states or Majorana bound states, for instance.

  8. New Approach to Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Kui Ng

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that a photon with a specific frequency can be identified with the Dirac magnetic monopole. When a Dirac-Wilson line forms a Dirac-Wilson loop, it is a photon. This loop model of photon is exactly solvable. From the winding numbers of this loop-form of photon, we derive the quantization properties of energy and electric charge. A new QED theory is presented that is free of ultravioletdivergences. The Dirac-Wilson line is as the quantum photon propagator of the new QED theory from which we can derive known QED effects such as the anomalous magnetic moment and the Lamb shift. The one-loop computation of these effects is simpler and is more accurate than that in the conventional QED theory. Furthermore, from the new QED theory, we have derived a new QED effect. A new formulation of the Bethe-Salpeter (BS equation solves the difficulties of the BS equation and gives a modified ground state of the positronium. By the mentioned new QED effect and by the new formulation of the BS equation, a term in the orthopositronium decay rate that is missing in the conventional QED is found, resolving the orthopositronium lifetime puzzle completely. It is also shown that the graviton can be constructed from the photon, yielding a theory of quantum gravity that unifies gravitation and electromagnetism.

  9. New Approach to Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Kui Ng

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that a photon with a specific frequency can be identified with the Dirac mag- netic monopole. When a Dirac-Wilson line forms a Dirac-Wilson loop, it is a photon. This loop model of photon is exactly solvable. From the winding numbers of this loop- form of photon, we derive the quantization properties of energy and electric charge. A new QED theory is presented that is free of ultraviolet divergences. The Dirac-Wilson line is as the quantum photon propagator of the new QED theory from which we can derive known QED e ects such as the anomalous magnetic moment and the Lamb shift. The one-loop computation of these e ects is simpler and is more accurate than that in the conventional QED theory. Furthermore, from the new QED theory, we have derived a new QED e ect. A new formulation of the Bethe-Salpeter (BS equation solves the di culties of the BS equation and gives a modified ground state of the positronium. By the mentioned new QED e ect and by the new formulation of the BS equation, a term in the orthopositronium decay rate that is missing in the conventional QED is found, resolving the orthopositronium lifetime puzzle completely. It is also shown that the graviton can be constructed from the photon, yielding a theory of quantum gravity that unifies gravitation and electromagnetism.

  10. Gauge independence of transition amplitudes in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauge independence of transition amplitudes in quantum electrodynamics is proved in the framework of covariant quantum electrodynamics exploited by Yokoyama. A systematic law of gauge transformation is given for general Green functions in QED. Gauge independence of the wave-function renormalization constant Z2 is also discussed to some extent. (author)

  11. Quantum electrodynamics with arbitrary charge on a noncommutative space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wan-Ping; CAI Shao-Hong; LONG Zheng-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Using the Seiberg-Witten map,we obtain a quantum electrodynamics on a noncommutative space,which has arbitrary charge and keep the gauge invariance to at the leading order in theta.The one-loop divergence and Compton scattering are reinvestigated.The uoncommutative effects are larger than those in ordinary noncommutative quantum electrodynamics.

  12. Quantum Electrodynamics vacuum polarization solver

    CERN Document Server

    Carneiro, Pedro; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luís

    2016-01-01

    The self-consistent modeling of vacuum polarization due to virtual electron-positron fluctuations is of relevance for many near term experiments associated with high intensity radiation sources and represents a milestone in describing scenarios of extreme energy density. We present a generalized finite-difference time-domain solver that can incorporate the modifications to Maxwells equations due to virtual vacuum polarization. Our multidimensional solver reproduced in one dimensional configurations the results for which an analytic treatment is possible, yielding vacuum harmonic generation and birefringence. The solver has also been tested for two-dimensional scenarios where finite laser beam spot sizes must be taken into account. We employ this solver to explore different types of counter-propagating configurations that can be relevant for future planned experiments aiming to detect quantum vacuum dynamics at ultra-high electromagnetic field intensities.

  13. Quantum Electrodynamics Theory of Laser Assisted Recombination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖淑艳; 程太旺; 李晓峰; 潘守甫; 傅盘铭

    2003-01-01

    Using a formal scattering theoretical approach, we develop a nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics theory to describe laser assisted recombination (LAR), in which an electron initially in the quantized Volkov state recombines with an ion and emits a high-energy photon with frequency defined by energy conservation laws.The transition probability is expressed as an analytic closed form and the spectrum of LAR reflects mainly the properties of general Bessel functions. For the case of a fast electron the LAR spectrum is confined in a well-defined range, while for a slow electron, the LAR spectrum exhibits a double-plateau structure.

  14. Deterministic cavity quantum electrodynamics with trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have employed radio-frequency trapping to localize a single 40Ca+-ion in a high-finesse optical cavity. By means of laser Doppler cooling, the position spread of the ion's wavefunction along the cavity axis was reduced to 42 nm, a fraction of the resonance wavelength of ionized calcium (λ = 397 nm). By controlling the position of the ion in the optical field, continuous and completely deterministic coupling of ion and field was realized. The precise three-dimensional location of the ion in the cavity was measured by observing the fluorescent light emitted upon excitation in the cavity field. The single-ion system is ideally suited to implement cavity quantum electrodynamics under cw conditions. To this end we operate the cavity on the D3/2-P1/2 transition of 40Ca+ (λ 866 nm). Applications include the controlled generation of single-photon pulses with high efficiency and two-ion quantum gates

  15. Pole-factorization theorem in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In quantum electrodynamics a classical part of the S-matrix is normally factored out in order to obtain a quantum remainder that can be treated perturbatively without the occurrence of infrared divergences. However, this separation, as usually performed, introduces spurious large-distance effects that produce an apparent breakdown of the important correspondence between stable particles and poles of the S-matrix, and, consequently, lead to apparent violations of the correspondence principle and to incorrect results for computations in the mesoscopic domain lying between the atomic and classical regimes. An improved computational technique is described that allows valid results to be obtained in this domain, and that leads, for the quantum remainder, in the cases studied, to a physical-region singularity structure that, as regards the most singular parts, is the same as the normal physical-region analytic structure in theories in which all particles have non-zero mass. The key innovations here are to define the classical part in coordinate space, rather than in momentum space, and to define there a separation of the photon-electron coupling into its classical and quantum parts that has the following properties: (1) The contributions from the terms containing only classical couplings can be summed to all orders to give a unitary operator that generates the coherent state that corresponds to the appropriate classical process, and (2) The quantum remainder can be rigorously shown to exhibit, as regards its most singular parts, the normal analytic structure. 22 refs

  16. Digital Quantum Simulation of Spin Systems in Superconducting Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Heras, U. Las; Mezzacapo, A.; Lamata, L.; Filipp, S.; Wallraff, A.; Solano, E.

    2013-01-01

    We propose the implementation of a digital quantum simulator for prototypical spin models in a circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture. We consider the feasibility of the quantum simulation of Heisenberg and frustrated Ising models in transmon qubits coupled to coplanar waveguide microwave resonators. Furthermore, we analyze the time evolution of these models and compare the ideal spin dynamics with a realistic version of the proposed quantum simulator. Finally, we discuss the key steps ...

  17. Macroscopic Quantum Criticality in a Circuit QED

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y D; Nori, F; Quan, H T; Sun, C P; Liu, Yu-xi; Nori, Franco

    2006-01-01

    Cavity quantum electrodynamic (QED) is studied for two strongly-coupled charge qubits interacting with a single-mode quantized field, which is provided by a on-chip transmission line resonator. We analyze the dressed state structure of this superconducting circuit QED system and the selection rules of electromagnetic-induced transitions between any two of these dressed states. Its macroscopic quantum criticality, in the form of ground state level crossing, is also analyzed, resulting from competition between the Ising-type inter-qubit coupling and the controllable on-site potentials.

  18. Does quantum electrodynamics have an arrow of time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, David

    2006-01-01

    Quantum electrodynamics is a time-symmetric theory that is part of the electroweak interaction, which is invariant under a generalized form of this symmetry, the PCT transformation. The thesis is defended that the arrow of time in electrodynamics is a consequence of the assumption of an initial stat

  19. Quantum electrodynamical corrections in critical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate field-theoretical corrections, such as vacuum polarization and self energy to study their influence on strongly bound electrons in heavy and superheavy atoms. In critical fields (Z≅170) for spontaneous e+e- pair creation the coupling constant of the external field Zα exceeds 1 thereby preventing the ordinary perturbative approach of quantum electrodynamical correction which employs an expansion in Zα. For heavy and superheavy elements radiative corrections have to be treated to all orders in Zα. The dominant effect is provided by the Uehling contribution being visualized by the first diagram on the right hand side. It is linear in the external field and thus of order α(Zα). (orig./HSI)

  20. A new view on quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Golovko, V A

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the equations of quantum electrodynamics and establish that the electron must be described by two bispinors that satisfy two mutually connected Dirac equations. The equations of the electronic and electromagnetic fields are reformulated in terms of c-numbers, which enables one to elucidate the structure of the electron. Although the equations obtained allow only for numerical solution, some characteristics of the electron, in particular its size, can be found at this stage. It is shown also that the Dirac equation should, instead of the mass of the electron, contain a combination involving the electron Compton wavelength. In this case the equations obtained can be used not only for the description of the electron but also for the description of other leptons, which will allow one to find the mass spectrum of leptons.

  1. Fast multiple-action circuit breaker with an electrodynamic drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description and test results of a fast-response circuit breaker of multiplex action with an electrodynamic drive are presented. The circuit breaker contact system consists of a set of membrane-type hollow disk contacts alternating with all-metal disk contacts. The contact system is housed in a pressure-tight casing filled with transformer oil. The tests have shown the total resistance of the contact system to be equal to 6x10-6 Ohm at a compressed gas pressure in the contact system 6x105 Pa. Model tests of the circuit breaker, in the regime close to the nominal one, for the current commutation from inductive storage to the active load have shown the circuit breaker to be steadily commutating the current of 45 kA at the commutation voltage of 20 to 25 kV and current interruption time of 50 to 100 μs. The circuit breaker withstood some 103 cycles of response without replacement of the construction elements

  2. Structure an dynamics in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the theoretical background related to the radiative processes for atoms in the presence of boundaries comes from two often disjoint areas, namely cavity quantum electrodynamics and optical bistability with two-state atoms. While the former of these areas has been associated to a large degree with studies in a perturbative domain of altered associated to a large degree with studies in a perturbative domain of altered emission processes in the presence of boundaries other than those of free space, the latter is often viewed from the perspective of hysteresis cycles and device applications. With the exception of the laser, however, perhaps the most extensive investigations of quantum statistical processes in quantum optics are to be found in the literature on bistability with two-state atoms and on cavity QED. Unfortunately, the degree of overlap of these two areas has not always been fully appreciated. This circumstance is perhaps due in part to the fact that the investigation of dynamical processes in cavity QED has had as its cornerstone the Jaynes-Cummings problem, with extensions to include, for example, small amounts of dissipation. On the other hand, a principle aspect of the bistability literature has been the study of quantum fluctuations in open systems for which dissipation plays a central role, but for which the coherent quantum dynamics of the Haynes-Cummings model are to a large measure lost due to the usual assumption of large system size and weak coupling (as in the standard theory of the laser). 132 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab

  3. Quantum electrodynamic theory of the cardiac excitation propagation I: construction of quantum electrodynamics in the bidomain

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Sehun

    2013-01-01

    To provide a unified theoretical framework ranging from a cellular-level excitation mechanism to organic-level geometric propagation, a new theory inspired by quantum electrodynamic theory for light propagation is proposed by describing the cardiac excitation propagation as the continuation of absorption and emission of charged ions by myocardial cells. By the choice of gauge and the membrane current density, a set of Maxwell's equations with a charge density and a current density is constructed in macroscopic bidomain and is shown to be equivalent to the diffusion-reaction system with the B. van der Pol oscillator. The derived Maxwell's equations for the excitation propagation obeys the conservational laws of the number of the cations, energy and momentum, but the total charge is not conserved. The Lagrangian is derived to reveal that the trajectory and wavefront of the excitation propagation are the same as the electrodynamic wave if ion channels work uniformly. From the second quantization, the Hamiltonian...

  4. Large payload quantum steganography based on cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large payload quantum steganography protocol based on cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) is presented in this paper, which effectively uses the evolutionary law of atoms in cavity QED. The protocol builds up a hidden channel to transmit secret messages using entanglement swapping between one GHZ state and one Bell state in cavity QED together with the Hadamard operation. The quantum steganography protocol is insensitive to cavity decay and the thermal field. The capacity, imperceptibility and security against eavesdropping are analyzed in detail in the protocol. It turns out that the protocol not only has good imperceptibility but also possesses good security against eavesdropping. In addition, its capacity for a hidden channel achieves five bits, larger than most of the previous quantum steganography protocols. (general)

  5. Large payload quantum steganography based on cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Tian-Yu; Jiang Li-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    A large payload quantum steganography protocol based on cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) is presented in this paper,which effectively uses the evolutionary law of atoms in cavity QED.The protocol builds up a hidden channel to transmit secret messages using entanglement swapping between one GHZ state and one Bell state in cavity QED together with the Hadamard operation.The quantum steganography protocol is insensitive to cavity decay and the thermal field.The capacity,imperceptibility and security against eavesdropping are analyzed in detail in the protocol.It turns out that the protocol not only has good imperceptibility but also possesses good security against eavesdropping.In addition,its capacity for a hidden channel achieves five bits,larger than most of the previous quantum steganography protocols.

  6. Quantum theory of an electromagnetic observer: classically behaving macroscopic systems and emergence of classical world in quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Plimak, L. I.; Ivanov, Misha; Aiello, A.; Stenholm, S.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum electrodynamics under conditions of distinguishability of interacting matter entities, and of controlled actions and back-actions between them, is considered. Such "mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics" is shown to share its dynamical structure with the classical stochastic electrodynamics. In formal terms, we demonstrate that all general relations of the mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics may be recast in a form lacking Planck's constant. Mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics is therefore...

  7. Quantum theory of an electromagnetic observer: Classically behaving macroscopic systems and the emergence of the classical world in quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plimak, L. I.; Ivanov, Misha; Aiello, A.; Stenholm, S.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum electrodynamics under conditions of distinguishability of interacting matter entities, and of controlled actions and back-actions between them, is considered. Such "mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics" is shown to share its dynamical structure with the classical stochastic electrodynamics. In formal terms, we demonstrate that all general relations of the mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics may be recast in a form lacking Planck's constant. Mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics is therefore subject to "doing quantum electrodynamics while thinking classically," allowing one to substitute essentially classical considerations for quantum ones without any loss in generality. Implications of these results for the quantum measurement theory are discussed.

  8. Quantum electrodynamics and experiment demonstrate the non-retarded nature of electrodynamical force fields

    OpenAIRE

    Field, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    In quantum electrodynamics, the quantitatively most successful theory in the history of science, intercharge forces obeying the inverse square law are due to the exchange of space-like virtual photons. The fundamental quantum process underlying applications as diverse as the gyromagnetic ratio of the electron and electrical machinery is then M{\\o}ller scattering $ee \\to ee$. Analysis of the quantum amplitude for this process shows that the corresponding intercharge force acts instantaneously....

  9. Quantum electrodynamics of inhomogeneous anisotropic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Adrian E.R.; Lombardo, Fernando C. [Ciudad Universitaria, Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-02-01

    In this work we calculate the closed time path generating functional for the electromagnetic (EM) field interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. For this purpose, we first find a general expression for the electromagnetic field's influence action from the interaction of the field with a composite environment consisting in the quantum polarization degrees of freedom in each point of space, at arbitrary temperatures, connected to thermal baths. Then we evaluate the generating functional for the gauge field, in the temporal gauge, by implementing the Faddeev-Popov procedure. Finally, through the point-splitting technique, we calculate closed expressions for the energy, the Poynting vector, and the Maxwell tensor in terms of the Hadamard propagator. We show that all the quantities have contributions from the field's initial conditions and also from the matter degrees of freedom. Throughout the whole work we discuss how the gauge invariance must be treated in the formalism when the EM-field is interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. We study the electrodynamics in the temporal gauge, obtaining the EM-field's equation and a residual condition. Finally we analyze the case of the EM-field in bulk material and also discuss several general implications of our results in relation with the Casimir physics in a non-equilibrium scenario. (orig.)

  10. A Way to Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In conventional theoretical physics and its Standard Model the guiding principle is that the equations are symmetrical. This limitation leads to a number of difficulties, because it does not permit masses for leptons and quarks, the electron tends to “explode” un- der the action of its self-charge, a corresponding photon model has no spin, and such a model cannot account for the “needle radiation” proposed by Einstein and observed in the photoelectric e ff ect and in two-slit experiments. This paper summarizes a revised Lorentz and gauge invariant quantum electrodynamic theory based on a nonzero electric field divergence in the vacuum and characterized by linear intrinsic broken symmetry. It thus provides an alternative to the Higgs concept of nonlinear spontaneous broken sym- metry, for solving the difficulties of the Standard Model. New results are obtained, such as nonzero and finite lepton rest masses, a point-charge-like behavior of the electron due to a revised renormalization procedure, a magnetic volume force which counteracts the electrostatic eigen-force of the electron, a nonzero spin of the photon and of light beams, needle radiation, and an improved understanding of the photoelectric effect, two-slit ex- periments, electron-positron pair formation, and cork-screw-shaped light beams.

  11. Vacuum-Induced Abelian and Non-Abelian Gauge Potentials in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海龙; 梁奇锋; 俞立先; 陈刚

    2011-01-01

    Gauge potential plays an important role in exploring exotic phenomena in the single- and many-body quantum systems. In this paper, we propose a scheme to create both new Abelian and non-Abelian gauge potentials by adiabatically controlling the degenerate Dicke model in cavity quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that a non-Abelian gauge potential is achieved only for a single atom, whereas an Abelianizen diagonal gauge potential is realized for the atomic ensemble. More importantly, two interesting quantum phenomena such as the geometric phase and the magnetic monopole induced by our created gauge potentials are also predicted. The possible physical realization is presented in the macroscopic circuit quantum electrodynamics with the Cooper pair boxes, which act as the artificial two-level atoms controlled by the gate voltage and the external magnetic flux.

  12. Quantum Circuits with Mixed States

    OpenAIRE

    Aharonov, Dorit; Kitaev, Alexei; Nisan, Noam

    1998-01-01

    We define the model of quantum circuits with density matrices, where non-unitary gates are allowed. Measurements in the middle of the computation, noise and decoherence are implemented in a natural way in this model, which is shown to be equivalent in computational power to standard quantum circuits. The main result in this paper is a solution for the subroutine problem: The general function that a quantum circuit outputs is a probabilistic function, but using pure state language, such a func...

  13. An Experiment on the Limits of Quantum Electro-dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, W. C.; Richter, B.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; O'Neill, G. K.; Gittelman, B.

    1959-06-01

    The limitations of previously performed or suggested electrodynamic cutoff experiments are reviewed, and an electron-electron scattering experiment to be performed with storage rings to investigate further the limits of the validity of quantum electrodynamics is described. The foreseen experimental problems are discussed, and the results of the associated calculations are given. The parameters and status of the equipment are summarized. (D.C.W.)

  14. Quantum electrodynamics with 1D arti cial atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Alisa

    A 1D atom, a single quantum emitter coupled to a single optical mode, exhibits rich quantum electrodynamic (QED) e_ects and is thought to be the key ingredient for many applications in quantuminformation processing. Single quantum dots (QD) in photonic-crystal waveguides (PCW) constitute a robust...... photons as expected from the theory. The value of g(2)(0) is around 1.08. The results con_rm the observation of an on-chip giant optical nonlinearity and the 1D atom behavior. Another direction in this thesis has been to investigate the e_ect of Anderson localization on the electrodynamics of QDs in PCWs...

  15. A Toy Model of Quantum Electrodynamics in (1 + 1) Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    We present a toy model of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in (1 + 1) dimensions. The QED model is much simpler than QED in (3 + 1) dimensions but exhibits many of the same physical phenomena, and serves as a pedagogical introduction to both QED and quantum field theory in general. We show how the QED model can be derived by quantizing a toy model of…

  16. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    factor of 15 on resonance with the Anderson-localized mode, and 94% of the emitted single photons coupled to the mode. Disordered photonic media thus provide an efficient platform for quantum electrodynamics, offering an approach to inherently disorder-robust quantum information devices....

  17. Resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present dissertation experiments on resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip are described. Thereby for the first time single atoms catched in a chip trap could be detected. For this in the framework of this thesis a novel optical microresonator was developed, which can because of its miniaturization be combined with the microtrap technique introduced in our working group for the manipulation of ultracold atoms. For this resonator glass-fiber ends are used as mirror substrates, between which a standing light wave is formed. With such a fiber Fabry-Perot resonator we obtain a finess of up to ∼37,000. Because of the small mode volumina in spite of moderate resonator quality the coherent interaction between an atom and a photon can be made so large that the regime of the strong atom-resonator coupling is reached. For the one-atom-one-photon coupling rate and the one-atom-one-photon cooperativity thereby record values of g0=2π.300 MHz respectively C0=210 are reached. Just so for the first time the strong coupling regime between a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and the field of a high-quality resonator could be reached. The BEC was thereby by means of the magnetic microtrap potentials deterministically brought to a position within the resonator and totally transformed in a well defined antinode of an additionally optical standing-wave trap. The spectrum of the coupled atom-resonator system was measured for different atomic numbers and atom-resonator detunings, whereby a collective vacuum Rabi splitting of more than 20 GHz could be reached.

  18. Hybrid quantum circuit with implanted erbium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics experiments with focused ion beam implanted Er3+ ions in Y2SiO5 coupled to an array of superconducting lumped element microwave resonators. The Y2SiO5 crystal is divided into several areas with distinct erbium doping concentrations, each coupled to a separate resonator. The coupling strength is varied from 5 MHz to 18.7 MHz, while the linewidth ranges between 50 MHz and 130 MHz. We confirm the paramagnetic properties of the implanted spin ensemble by evaluating the temperature dependence of the coupling. The efficiency of the implantation process is analyzed and the results are compared to a bulk doped Er:Y2SiO5 sample. We demonstrate the integration of these engineered erbium spin ensembles with superconducting circuits.

  19. Simulation and Analysis Package Development of Short-Circuit Electrodynamic Force of Power Transformer Windings

    OpenAIRE

    Bochao Chen; Xiangjun Meng; Yanqin Liu; Zhigao Wang; Bin Feng; Shuhong Wang

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the calculation method for short-circuit electrodynamic force of power transformer winding and development of electrodynamic force analysis software package. Finite element method is used to achieve the leakage magnetic field of transformer winding under short circuit operation. Electromagnetic force is calculated by using Lorentz force formula. Based on mechanical properties of kraft-manila paper and press-board, which are used as insulation and reinforcement materials, c...

  20. Quantum electrodynamics of high-Z few-electron atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively new area in the field of Atomic Physics and Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) is the precise theoretical and experimental study of high-Z few-electron atoms. Comparison of theory and experiment for the transition rates and energy splittings of these systems provides a fundamental test of the theory of strongly bound electrons. This reviews the quantum electrodynamics of high-Z few-electron atoms based on perturbation theory in the Furry bound interaction picture. A complete overview of the theory is given, from the basic equations to the numerical results for the energy splittings, with attention focused on the Lamb shift in two-electron atoms as an example

  1. Chapter 12: Trapped Electrons as Electrical (Quantum) Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, José

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a detailed model of the equivalent electric circuit of a single trapped particle in a coplanar-waveguide (CPW) Penning trap. The CPW-trap, which is essentially a section of coplanar-waveguide transmission-line, is designed to make it compatible with circuit-quantum electrodynamic architectures. This will enable a single trapped electron, or geonium atom, as a potential building block of microwave quantum circuits. The model of the trapped electron as an electric circuit was first introduced by Hans Dehmelt in the 1960s. It is essential for the description of the electronic detection using resonant tank circuits. It is also the basis for the description of the interaction of a geonium atom with other distant quantum systems through electrical (microwave) signals.

  2. Quantum State Transfer between Charge and Flux Qubits in Circuit-QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qin-Qin; LIAO Jie-Qiao; KUANG Le-Man

    2008-01-01

    @@ We propose a scheme to implement quantum state transfer in a hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED)system which consists of a superconducting charge qubit, a flux qubit, and a transmission line resonator (TLR).It is shown that quantum state transfer between the charge qubit and the flux qubit can be realized by using the TLR as the data bus.

  3. On Galilean invariance and nonlinearity in electrodynamics and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Goldin, G A; Goldin, Gerald A.; Shtelen, Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    Recent experimental results on slow light heighten interest in nonlinear Maxwell theories. We obtain Galilei covariant equations for electromagnetism by allowing special nonlinearities in the constitutive equations only, keeping Maxwell's equations unchanged. Combining these with linear or nonlinear Schroedinger equations, e.g. as proposed by Doebner and Goldin, yields a Galilean quantum electrodynamics.

  4. Infrared phenomena in quantum electrodynamics : II. Bremsstrahlung and compton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeringen, W. van

    1960-01-01

    The infrared aspects of quantum electrodynamics are discussed by treating two examples of scattering processes, bremsstrahlung and Compton scattering. As in the previous paper one uses a non-covariant diagram technique which gives very clear insight in the cancelling of infrared divergences between

  5. A Parity Invariant Regularization in 3-D Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Tadahiko

    1994-01-01

    We regularize the 3-D quantum electrodynamics by a parity invariant Pauli-Villars regularization method. We find that in the perturbation theory the Chern-Simons term is not induced in the massless fermion case and induced in the massive fermion case.

  6. Quantum electrodynamics in finite volume and nonrelativistic effective field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Z.; Hoelbling, C.; Katz, S. D.; Lellouch, L.; Portelli, A.; Szabo, K. K.; Toth, B. C.

    2016-04-01

    Electromagnetic effects are increasingly being accounted for in lattice quantum chromodynamics computations. Because of their long-range nature, they lead to large finite-size effects over which it is important to gain analytical control. Nonrelativistic effective field theories provide an efficient tool to describe these effects. Here we argue that some care has to be taken when applying these methods to quantum electrodynamics in a finite volume.

  7. Dimensional regularization and infrared divergences in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimensional continuation was devised as a powerful regularization method for ultraviolet divergences in quantum field theories. Recently it was clear, at least for quantum electrodynamics, that such a method could be employed for factorizing out infrared divergences from the on-shell S-matrix elements. This provides a renormalization scheme on the electron mass-shell without using a gauge violating ''photon mass''. (author)

  8. K\\"all\\'en-Lehmann representation of noncommutative quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bufalo, R.; Cardoso, T. R.; Pimentel, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Noncommutative (NC) quantum field theory is the subject of many analyses on formal and general aspects looking for deviations and, therefore, potential noncommutative spacetime effects. Within of this large class, we may now pay some attention to the quantization of NC field theory on lower dimensions and look closely at the issue of dynamical mass generation to the gauge field. This work encompasses the quantization of the two-dimensional massive quantum electrodynamics and three-dimensional...

  9. Path Integral Quantization of Generalized Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bufalo, Rodrigo; Pimentel, Bruto Max; Zambrano, German Enrique Ramos

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a complete covariant quantization of generalized electrodynamics is shown through the path integral approach. To this goal, we first studied the hamiltonian structure of system following Dirac's methodology and, then, we followed the Faddeev-Senjanovic procedure to obtain the transition amplitude. The complete propagators (Schwinger-Dyson-Fradkin equations) of the correct gauge fixation and the generalized Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities are also obtained. Afterwards, an expl...

  10. Initialization by Measurement of a Superconducting Quantum Bit Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Riste, D.; van Leeuwen, J. G.; Ku, H.S.; Lehnert, K. W.; DiCarlo, L.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate initialization by joint measurement of two transmon qubits in 3D circuit quantum electrodynamics. Homodyne detection of cavity transmission is enhanced by Josephson parametric amplification to discriminate the two-qubit ground state from single-qubit excitations nondestructively and with 98.1% fidelity. Measurement and postselection of a steady-state mixture with 4.7% residual excitation per qubit achieve 98.8% fidelity to the ground state, thus outperforming passive initializa...

  11. K\\"all\\'en-Lehmann representation of noncommutative quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bufalo, R; Pimentel, B M

    2014-01-01

    Noncommutative (NC) quantum field theory is the subject of many analyses on formal and general aspects looking for deviations and, therefore, potential noncommutative spacetime effects. Within of this large class, we may now pay some attention to the quantization of NC field theory on lower dimensions and look closely at the issue of dynamical mass generation to the gauge field. This work encompasses the quantization of the two-dimensional massive quantum electrodynamics and three-dimensional topologically massive quantum electrodynamics. We begin by addressing the problem on a general dimensionality making use of the perturbative Seiberg-Witten map to, thus, construct a general action, to only then specify the problem to two and three dimensions. The quantization takes place through the K\\"all\\'en-Lehmann spectral representation and Yang-Feldman-K\\"all\\'en formulation, where we calculate the respective spectral density function to the gauge field. Furthermore, regarding the photon two-point function, we disc...

  12. Path integral quantization of generalized quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a complete covariant quantization of generalized electrodynamics is shown through the path integral approach. To this goal, we first studied the Hamiltonian structure of the system following Dirac's methodology and, then, we followed the Faddeev-Senjanovic procedure to obtain the transition amplitude. The complete propagators (Schwinger-Dyson-Fradkin equations) of the correct gauge fixation and the generalized Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities are also obtained. Afterwards, an explicit calculation of one-loop approximations of all Green's functions and a discussion about the obtained results are presented.

  13. Path Integral Quantization of Generalized Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bufalo, Rodrigo; Zambrano, German Enrique Ramos

    2010-01-01

    It is shown in this paper a complete covariant quantization of Generalized Electrodynamics by path integral approach. To this goal we first studied the hamiltonian structure of system following Dirac's methodology, and then we follow the Faddeev-Senjanovic procedure to attain the amplitude transition. The complete propagators (Schwinger-Dyson-Fradkin equations) on correct gauge fixation and the generalized Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities are also obtained. Afterwards, an explicit calculation on one-loop approximation of all Green's functions and a discussion about the obtained results are presented.

  14. An Interpreter for Quantum Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Helms; Ruben Gamboa

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an ACL2 interpreter for "netlists" describing quantum circuits. Several quantum gates are implemented, including the Hadamard gate H, which rotates vectors by 45 degrees, necessitating the use of irrational numbers, at least at the logical level. Quantum measurement presents an especially difficult challenge, because it requires precise comparisons of irrational numbers and the use of random numbers. This paper does not address computation with irrational numbers or the g...

  15. Simulation and Analysis Package Development of Short-Circuit Electrodynamic Force of Power Transformer Windings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochao Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the calculation method for short-circuit electrodynamic force of power transformer winding and development of electrodynamic force analysis software package. Finite element method is used to achieve the leakage magnetic field of transformer winding under short circuit operation. Electromagnetic force is calculated by using Lorentz force formula. Based on mechanical properties of kraft-manila paper and press-board, which are used as insulation and reinforcement materials, considering the elastic force and friction of the various insulating materials, the equivalent mass spring model of winding is established and axial dynamic force and displacement is calculated. Using client/server mode, short-circuit electrodynamic force analysis software for power transformer winding is developed, which consists of several sub-system, such as parameter input and calculation and result analysis. The client/server structure facilitates the expansion of the software features. This software package has been applied in the power transformer manufacture enterprise.

  16. Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformations in Reduced Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, A; Concha-Sánchez, Y; Raya, A

    2016-01-01

    We derive the Landau-Khalatnikov-Frandkin transformation (LKFT) for the fermion propagator in quantum electrodynamics (QED) described within a brane-world inspired framework where photons are allowed to move in $d_\\gamma$ space-time (bulk) dimensions while electrons remain confined to a $d_e$-dimensional brane, with $d_e < d_\\gamma$, referred to in the literature as Reduced Quantum Electrodynamics, RQED$_{d_\\gamma,d_e}$. Specializing to the case of graphene, namely RQED$_{4,3}$ with massless fermions, we derive the non-perturbative form of the fermion propagator starting from its bare counterpart and then compare its weak coupling expansion to known one- and two-loop perturbative results. The agreement of the gauge dependent terms at order $\\alpha$ and $\\alpha^{2}$ is reminiscent from the structure of LKFT in ordinary QED in arbitrary space-time dimensions and provides strong constraints for the multiplicative renormalizability of RQED$_{d_\\gamma,d_e}$.

  17. Fixed point structure of quenched, planar quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauge theories exhibiting a hierarchy of fermion mass scales may contain a pseudo-Nambu-Boldstone boson of spontaneously broken scale invariance. The relation between scale and chiral symmetry breaking is studied analytically in quenched, planar quantum electrodynamics in four dimensions. The model possesses a novel nonperturbative ultraviolet fixed point governing its strong coupling phase which requires the mixing of four fermion operators. 12 refs

  18. The Adler-Bardeen theorem in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new proof of the Adler-Bardeen theorem in quantum electrodynamics is presented on the basis of three kinds of Ward-Takahashi identities. Among them one is new and essential to the proof. By examining the consistency of these identities with the renormalization group we find three equations for the anomalous dimensions of the operators appearing in the Ward-Takahashi identities. Combination of these three equations immediately yields the Adler-Bardeen theorem. (author)

  19. Progress in quantum electrodynamics theory of highly charged ions

    OpenAIRE

    Volotka, A. V.; Glazov, D. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum electrodynamics (QED) calculations of highly charged ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions for the binding energies, the hyperfine splittings, and the g factors are presented and compared with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to tests of bound-state QED at strong field regime. Future prospects for tests of QED at the strongest electric and magnetic fields as well as for determination of the fine structure constant and the nuclear magnet...

  20. High-energy limit of quantum electrodynamics beyond Sudakov approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Penin, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the high-energy behavior of the scattering amplitudes in quantum electrodynamics beyond the leading order of the small electron mass expansion in the leading logarithmic approximation. In contrast to the Sudakov logarithms, the mass-suppressed double-logarithmic radiative corrections are induced by a soft electron pair exchange and result in enhancement of the power-suppressed contribution, which dominates the amplitudes at extremely high energies. Possible applications of our result...

  1. High-energy limit of quantum electrodynamics beyond Sudakov approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Penin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the high-energy behavior of the scattering amplitudes in quantum electrodynamics beyond the leading order of the small electron mass expansion in the leading logarithmic approximation. In contrast to the Sudakov logarithms, the mass-suppressed double-logarithmic radiative corrections are induced by a soft electron pair exchange and result in enhancement of the power-suppressed contribution, which dominates the amplitudes at extremely high energies. Possible applications of our result to the analysis of the high-energy processes in quantum chromodynamics is also discussed.

  2. High-energy limit of quantum electrodynamics beyond Sudakov approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penin, Alexander A., E-mail: penin@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    We study the high-energy behavior of the scattering amplitudes in quantum electrodynamics beyond the leading order of the small electron mass expansion in the leading logarithmic approximation. In contrast to the Sudakov logarithms, the mass-suppressed double-logarithmic radiative corrections are induced by a soft electron pair exchange and result in enhancement of the power-suppressed contribution, which dominates the amplitudes at extremely high energies. Possible applications of our result to the analysis of the high-energy processes in quantum chromodynamics is also discussed.

  3. Circuit analysis of quantum measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Kurotani, Yuji; Ueda, Masahito

    2006-01-01

    We develop a circuit theory that enables us to analyze quantum measurements on a two-level system and on a continuous-variable system on an equal footing. As a measurement scheme applicable to both systems, we discuss a swapping state measurement which exchanges quantum states between the system and the measuring apparatus before the apparatus meter is read out. This swapping state measurement has an advantage in gravitational-wave detection over contractive state measurement in that the post...

  4. Black hole qubit correspondence from quantum circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Prudencio, Thiago; Silva, Edilberto O; Belich, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    We propose a black hole qubit correspondence (BHQC) from quantum circuits, taking into account the BHQC formulations of wrapped brane qubits. With base on BHQC, we implement the corresponding gate operations to realize any given quantum circuit. In particular, we implement cases of the generation of Bell states, quantum teleportation and GHZ states circuits. Finally, we give an interpretation of the BHQC from quantum circuits with base on the BHQC classification of entanglement classes.

  5. The quantum Hall's effect:A quantum electrodynamic phenomenon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.I. Arbab

    2012-01-01

    We have applied Maxwell's equations to study the physics of quantum Hall's effect.The electromagnetic properties of this system are obtained.The Hall's voltage,VH =2πh2ns/e rn,where ns is the electron number density,for a 2-dimensional system,and h =2πh is the Planck's constant,is found to coincide with the voltage drop across the quantum capacitor.Consideration of the cyclotronic motion of electrons is found to give rise to Hall's resistance.Ohmic resistances in the horizontal and vertical directions have been found to exist before equilibrium state is reached.At a fundamental level,the Hall's effect is found to be equivalent to a resonant LCR circuit with LH =2π m/e2ns and CH =me2/2πh2ns satisfying the resonance condition with resonant frequency equal to the inverse of the scattering (relaxation) time,Ts.The Hall's resistance is found to be RH =√LH/CH.The Hall's resistance may be connected with the impedance that the electron wave experiences when it propagates in the 2-dimeasional gas.

  6. Quantum Electrodynamics with Semiconductor Quantum Dots Coupled to Anderson‐localized Random Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    spontaneous emission decay rate by up to a factor 15 and an efficiency of channeling single photons into Anderson-localized modes reaching values as high as 94%. These results prove that disordered photonic media provide an efficient platform for quantum electrodynamics, offering a novel route to quantum...

  7. Measuring the effective phonon density of states of a quantum dot in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Nielsen, Per Kær; Kreiner-Møller, Asger;

    2013-01-01

    We employ detuning-dependent decay-rate measurements of a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity to study the influence of phonon dephasing in a solid-state quantum-electrodynamics experiment. The experimental data agree with a microscopic non-Markovian model accounting for dephasing from...

  8. Casimir effect from macroscopic quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Philbin, T G

    2011-01-01

    The canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism was recently presented in New J. Phys. 12 (2010) 123008. This theory is here used to derive the Casimir effect, by considering the special case of thermal and zero-point fields. The stress-energy-momentum tensor follows from Noether's theorem, and its electromagnetic part in thermal equilibrium gives the Casimir energy density and stress tensor. The results hold for arbitrary inhomogeneous magnetodielectrics and are obtained from a rigorous quantization of electromagnetism in dispersive, dissipative media. Continuing doubts about the status of the standard Lifshitz theory as a proper quantum treatment of Casimir forces do not apply to the derivation given here.

  9. Modified Maxwell equations in quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Harmuth, Henning F; Meffert, Beate

    2001-01-01

    Divergencies in quantum field theory referred to as "infinite zero-point energy" have been a problem for 70 years. Renormalization has always been considered an unsatisfactory remedy. In 1985 it was found that Maxwell's equations generally do not have solutions that satisfy the causality law. An additional term for magnetic dipole currents corrected this shortcoming. Rotating magnetic dipoles produce magnetic dipole currents, just as rotating electric dipoles in a material like barium titanate produce electric dipole currents. Electric dipole currents were always part of Maxwell's equations. T

  10. Quantum circuits for isometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iten, Raban; Colbeck, Roger; Kukuljan, Ivan; Home, Jonathan; Christandl, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    We consider the decomposition of arbitrary isometries into a sequence of single-qubit and controlled-not (cnot) gates. In many experimental architectures, the cnot gate is relatively costly and hence we aim to keep the number of these as low as possible. We derive a theoretical lower bound on the number of cnot gates required to decompose an arbitrary isometry from m to n qubits and give three explicit gate decompositions that achieve this bound up to a factor of about 2 in the leading order. We also perform some further optimizations for certain cases where m and n are small. In addition, we show how to apply our result for isometries to give a decomposition scheme for an arbitrary quantum operation via Stinespring's theorem and derive a lower bound on the number of cnot gates in this case too. These results will have an impact on experimental efforts to build a quantum computer, enabling them to go further with the same resources.

  11. Quantum Circuits with Mixed States

    CERN Document Server

    Aharonov, D; Nisan, N; Aharonov, Dorit; Kitaev, Alexei; Nisan, Noam

    1998-01-01

    We define the model of quantum circuits with density matrices, where non-unitary gates are allowed. Measurements in the middle of the computation, noise and decoherence are implemented in a natural way in this model, which is shown to be equivalent in computational power to standard quantum circuits. The main result in this paper is a solution for the subroutine problem: The general function that a quantum circuit outputs is a probabilistic function, but using pure state language, such a function can not be used as a black box in other computations. We give a natural definition of using general subroutines, and analyze their computational power. We suggest convenient metrics for quantum computing with mixed states. For density matrices we analyze the so called ``trace metric'', and using this metric, we define and discuss the ``diamond metric'' on superoperators. These metrics enable a formal discussion of errors in the computation. Using a ``causality'' lemma for density matrices, we also prove a simple lowe...

  12. Fast Equivalence-checking for Quantum Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Yamashita, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    We perform formal verification of quantum circuits by integrating several techniques specialized to particular classes of circuits. Our verification methodology is based on the new notion of a reversible miter that allows one to leverage existing techniques for circuit simplification of quantum circuits. For reversible circuits which arise as runtime bottlenecks of key quantum algorithms, we develop several verification techniques and empirically compare them. We also combine existing quantum verification tools with the use of SAT-solvers. Experiments with circuits for Shor's number-factoring algorithm, containing thousands of gates, show improvements in efficiency by four orders of magnitude.

  13. Quantum Electrodynamics near a Huttner-Barnett dielectric

    CERN Document Server

    Eberlein, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    We build up a consistent theory of quantum electrodynamics in the presence of macroscopic polarizable media. We use the Huttner-Barnett model of a dispersive and absorbing dielectric medium and formulate the theory in terms of interacting quantum fields. We integrate out the damped polaritons by using diagrammatic techniques and find an exact expression for the displacement field (photon) propagator in the presence of a dispersive and absorbing dielectric half-space. This opens a new route to traceable perturbative calculations of the same kind as in free-space quantum electrodynamics. As a worked-through example we consider the interaction of a neutral atom with a dispersive and absorbing dielectric half-space. For that we use the multipolar coupling $\\boldsymbol{\\mu}\\cdot\\mathbf{D}$ of the atomic dipole moment to the electromagnetic displacement field. We apply the newly developed formalism to calculate the one-loop correction to the atomic electron propagator and find the energy-level shift and changes in ...

  14. Infrared multiphoton resummation in quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mati, P

    2015-01-01

    Infrared singularities in massless gauge theories are known since the foundation of quantum field theories. The root of this problem can be tracked back to the very definition of these long-range interacting theories such as QED. It can be shown that singularities are caused by the massless degrees of freedom (i.e. the photons in the case of QED). In the Bloch-Nordsieck model the absence of the infrared catastrophe can be shown exactly by the complete summation of the radiative corrections. In this paper we will give the idea of the derivation of the Bloch-Nordsieck propagator, that describes the infrared structure of the electron propagation, at zero and finite temperatures. Some ideas of the possible applications are also mentioned.

  15. Strong-Field Quantum Electrodynamics and Muonic Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Jentschura, U D

    2014-01-01

    We explore the possibility of a breakdown of perturbative quantum electrodynamics in light muonic bound systems, notably, muonic hydrogen. The average electric field seen by a muon orbiting a proton is shown to be comparable to hydrogenlike Uranium and, notably, larger than the electric field achievable using even the most advanced strong-laser facilities. Following Maltman and Isgur who have shown that fundamental forces such as the meson exchange force may undergo a qualitative change in the strong-coupling regime, we investigate a concomitant possible existence of muon-proton and electron-proton contact interactions, of nonperturbative origin, and their influence on transition frequencies in light one-muon ions.

  16. On bosonization ambiguities of two dimensional quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study bosonization ambiguities in two dimensional quantum electrodynamics in the presence and in the absence of topologically charged gauge fields. The computation of fermionic correlation functions gives us a mechanism to fix the ambiguities in nontrivial topologies, provided that we do not allow changes of sector as we evaluate functional integrals. This removes an infinite arbitrariness from the theory. In the case of trivial topologies, we find upper and lower bounds for the Jackiw-Rajaraman parameter, corresponding to the limiting cases of regularizations which preserve gauge or chiral symmetry. (author). 19 refs

  17. Progress in quantum electrodynamics theory of highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volotka, Andrey V. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Mommsenstrasse 13, 01062, Dresden (Germany); Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, Oulianovskaya 1, Petrodvorets, 198504, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Glazov, Dmitry A.; Shabaev, Vladimir M. [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, Oulianovskaya 1, Petrodvorets, 198504, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Plunien, Guenter [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Mommsenstrasse 13, 01062, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    Recent progress in quantum electrodynamics (QED) calculations of highly charged ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions for the binding energies, the hyperfine splittings, and the g factors are presented and compared with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to tests of bound-state QED at strong field regime. Future prospects for tests of QED at the strongest electric and magnetic fields as well as for determination of the fine structure constant and the nuclear magnetic moments with heavy ions are discussed. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Renormalization constants and asymptotic behaviour in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using dimensional regularization a field theory contains at least one parameter less than the dimension of a mass. The Callan-Symanzik equations for the renormalization constants then become soluble entirely in terms of the coefficient functions. Explicit expressions are obtained for all the renormalization constants in Quantum Electrodynamics. At nonexceptional momenta the infrared behaviour and the three leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of any Greens function are controlled by the Callan-Symanzik equations. For the propagators the three leading terms are computed explicitly in terms of functions of α only. The gauge dependence of the electron propagator in momentum space is solved explicitly in all orders of perturbation theory. (Auth.)

  19. Lamb shift in quantum electrodynamics (semiclassical theory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to bring some arguments to the proof of the Barut and Van Huele formula, which gives the Lamb shift in the semi-classical theory model: by shortening the calculation owing to the use of a decomposition of the self-potential of the electron; by eliminating the appeal to a divergent series; by bringing justifications and clarifications on some important points of the proof. The effective calculation of the coefficients of the formula is achieved for some of them, and the general analytical form of these coefficients is explicited. It is also proved that the B. and V.H. formula must give results at least as close to the experiment as those of the Bethe formula, which is obtained in Quantum Theory of Fields. Finally one shows that the B. and V.H. formula provides a justification de facto for the cut-off which is used for associating finite numbers to the divergent integrals of the Bethe formula

  20. Nonlocal electrodynamics of Josephson vortices in superconducting circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdumalikov, A. A., Jr.; Alfimov, G. L.; Malishevskii, A. S.

    2009-02-01

    A review of the main analytical, numerical and experimental results of nonlocal Josephson electrodynamics in different types of junctions is presented. Several mechanisms of nonlocality are discussed. Linear electromagnetic waves and vortices (kinks) propagating along junctions are examined in detail. The main attention is paid to bulk junctions with internal nonlocality and to narrow junctions with geometrical nonlocality. Theoretical conceptions of Cherenkov excitation of plasma waves, discretization of kink velocities and forming of multikinks by binding of elementary vortices are considered. Experimental results for narrow junctions are surveyed. It is shown that the positions of Fiske steps and Cherenkov resonances at current-voltage characteristics which have been obtained in experiments can be properly explained by a nonlocal model that takes into account stray magnetic fields outside the junction.

  1. Dispersion relations in quantum electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, J.W.

    2006-12-15

    We study field theories on the noncommutative Minkowski space with noncommuting time. The focus lies on dispersion relations in quantized interacting models in the Yang-Feldman formalism. In particular, we compute the two-point correlation function of the field strength in noncommutative quantum electrodynamics to second order. At this, we take into account the covariant coordinates that allow the construction of local gauge invariant quantities (observables). It turns out that this does not remove the well-known severe infrared problem, as one might have hoped. Instead, things become worse, since nonlocal divergences appear. We also show that these cancel in a supersymmetric version of the theory if the covariant coordinates are adjusted accordingly. Furthermore, we study the {phi}{sup 3} and the Wess-Zumino model and show that the distortion of the dispersion relations is moderate for parameters typical for the Higgs field. We also discuss the formulation of gauge theories on noncommutative spaces and study classical electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space using covariant coordinates. In particular, we compute the change of the speed of light due to nonlinear effects in the presence of a background field. Finally, we examine the so-called twist approach to quantum field theory on the noncommutative Minkowski space and point out some conceptual problems of this approach. (orig.)

  2. Dispersion relations in quantum electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study field theories on the noncommutative Minkowski space with noncommuting time. The focus lies on dispersion relations in quantized interacting models in the Yang-Feldman formalism. In particular, we compute the two-point correlation function of the field strength in noncommutative quantum electrodynamics to second order. At this, we take into account the covariant coordinates that allow the construction of local gauge invariant quantities (observables). It turns out that this does not remove the well-known severe infrared problem, as one might have hoped. Instead, things become worse, since nonlocal divergences appear. We also show that these cancel in a supersymmetric version of the theory if the covariant coordinates are adjusted accordingly. Furthermore, we study the Φ3 and the Wess-Zumino model and show that the distortion of the dispersion relations is moderate for parameters typical for the Higgs field. We also discuss the formulation of gauge theories on noncommutative spaces and study classical electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space using covariant coordinates. In particular, we compute the change of the speed of light due to nonlinear effects in the presence of a background field. Finally, we examine the so-called twist approach to quantum field theory on the noncommutative Minkowski space and point out some conceptual problems of this approach. (orig.)

  3. Relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects in superheavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Pašteka, Lukáš F.; Punnett, Andrew; Bowman, Patrick O.

    2015-12-01

    The current status of relativistic electronic structure theory for superheavy elements is reviewed. Recent developments in relativistic quantum theory have made it possible to obtain accurate electronic properties for the trans-actinide elements with the aim to predict their chemical and physical behaviour. The role of quantum electrodynamic effects beyond the no-virtual-pair approximation, which is usually neglected in relativistic molecular calculations, is discussed. Changes in periodic trends due to relativistic effects are outlined for the superheavy elements with nuclear charge Z = 111- 120. We also analyse the role of the negative energy states for the electronic stability of superheavy elements beyond the critical nuclear charge (Zcrit ≈ 170), where the 1s state enters the negative energy continuum at - 2mec2.

  4. Quantum corrections to the Larmor radiation formula in scalar electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Higuchi, A

    2009-01-01

    We use the semi-classical approximation in perturbative scalar quantum electrodynamics to calculate the quantum correction to the Larmor radiation formula to first order in Planck's constant in the non-relativistic approximation, choosing the initial state of the charged particle to be a momentum eigenstate. We calculate this correction in two cases: in the first case the charged particle is accelerated by a time-dependent but space-independent vector potential whereas in the second case it is accelerated by a time-independent vector potential which is a function of one spatial coordinate. We find that the corrections in these two cases are different even for a charged particle with the same classical motion. The correction in each case turns out to be non-local in time in contrast to the classical approximation.

  5. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the possible

  6. Inflationary universe from higher derivative quantum gravity coupled with scalar electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Odintsov, Sergei; Sebastiani, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We study inflation for a quantum scalar electrodynamics model in curved space-time and for higher-derivative quantum gravity (QG) coupled with scalar electrodynamics. The corresponding renormalization-group (RG) improved potential is evaluated for both theories in Jordan frame where non-minimal scalar-gravitational coupling sector is explicitly kept. The role of one-loop quantum corrections is investigated by showing how these corrections enter in the expressions for the slow-roll parameters,...

  7. Physical synthesis of quantum circuits using templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkhani, Zahra; Mohammadzadeh, Naser

    2016-06-01

    Similar to traditional CMOS circuits, quantum circuit design flow is divided into two main processes: logic synthesis and physical design. Addressing the limitations imposed on optimization of the quantum circuit metrics because of no information sharing between logic synthesis and physical design processes, the concept of "physical synthesis" was introduced for quantum circuit flow, and a few techniques were proposed for it. Following that concept, in this paper a new approach for physical synthesis inspired by template matching idea in quantum logic synthesis is proposed to improve the latency of quantum circuits. Experiments show that by using template matching as a physical synthesis approach, the latency of quantum circuits can be improved by more than 23.55 % on average.

  8. Quantum State Engineering with Circuit Electromechanical Three-Body Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Mehdi; Pernpeintner, Matthias; Gross, Rudolf; Huebl, Hans; Hartmann, Michael J.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a hybrid system with quantum mechanical three-body interactions between photons, phonons, and qubit excitations. These interactions take place in a circuit quantum electrodynamical architecture with a superconducting microwave resonator coupled to a transmon qubit whose shunt capacitance is free to mechanically oscillate. We show that this system design features a three-mode polariton-mechanical mode and a nonlinear transmon-mechanical mode interaction in the strong coupling regime. Together with the strong resonator-transmon interaction, these properties provide intriguing opportunities for manipulations of this hybrid quantum system. We show, in particular, the feasibility of cooling the mechanical motion down to its ground state and preparing various nonclassical states including mechanical Fock and cat states and hybrid tripartite entangled states.

  9. Preparation of multi-photon Fock states and quantum entanglement properties in circuit QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the controllable generation of multi-photon Fock states in circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit QED). The external bias flux regulated by a counter can effectively adjust the bias time on each superconducting flux qubit so that each flux qubit can pass in turn through the circuit cavity and thereby avoid the effect of decoherence. We further investigate the quantum correlation dynamics of coupling superconducting qubits in a Fock state. The results reveal that the lower the photon number of the light field in the number state, the stronger the interaction between qubits is, then the more beneficial to maintaining entanglement between qubits it will be. (general)

  10. Are There Topologically Charged States Associated with Quantum Electrodynamics ?

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, E C

    1994-01-01

    We present a formulation of Quantum Electrodynamics in terms of an antisymmetric tensor gauge field. In this formulation the topological current of this field appears as a source for the electromagnetic field and the topological charge therefore acts physically as an electric charge. The charged states of QED lie in the sector where the topological charge is identical to the matter charge. The antisymmetric field theory, however, admits new sectors where the topological charge is more general. These nontrivial, electrically charged, sectors contain massless states orthogonal to the vacuum which are created by a gauge invariant operator and can be interpreted as coherent states of photons. We evaluate the correlation functions of these states in the absence of matter. The new states have a positive definite norm and do interact with the charged states of QED in the usual way. It is argued that if these new sectors are in fact realized in nature then a very intense background electromagnetic field is necessary ...

  11. Effective field theory of quantum gravity coupled to scalar electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibiapina Bevilaqua, L.; Lehum, A. C.; da Silva, A. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we use the framework of effective field theory to couple Einstein’s gravity to scalar electrodynamics and determine the renormalization of the model through the study of physical processes below Planck scale, a realm where quantum mechanics and general relativity are perfectly compatible. We consider the effective field theory up to dimension six operators, corresponding to processes involving one-graviton exchange. Studying the renormalization group functions, we see that the beta function of the electric charge is positive and possesses no contribution coming from gravitational interaction. Our result indicates that gravitational corrections do not alter the running behavior of the gauge coupling constants, even if massive particles are present.

  12. On the finite-temperature quantum electrodynamics of gravitational acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, G.

    1989-12-01

    The temperature-dependent quantum-electrodynamic corrections to the Helmholtz free energy F of a particle at rest, and to its inertial mass minert, are the same: ΔF=Δminert=πe2(kT)2/3m. By contrast, the correction to the total energy U=F+TS is ΔU=-ΔF. Donoghue, Holstein, and Robinett have pointed out that if (as the equivalence principle appears to imply) weight is proportional to total energy, then the gravitational acceleration of a particle inside a blackbody cavity becomes g(m+ΔU)/(m+ΔF)~=g(1-2ΔF/m)Galilean acceleration g.

  13. Radiative emission of neutrino pair free of quantum electrodynamic backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scheme of quantum electrodynamic (QED) background-free radiative emission of a neutrino pair (RENP) is proposed in order to achieve precision determination of neutrino properties so far not accessible. The important point for the background rejection is the fact that the dispersion relation between the wave vector along the propagating direction in the wave guide (and in a photonic-crystal-type fiber) and the frequency is modified by a discretized non-vanishing effective mass. This effective mass acts as a cutoff of allowed frequencies, and one may select the RENP photon energy region free of all macro-coherently amplified QED processes by choosing the cutoff larger than the mass of neutrinos

  14. Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics of Continuously Monitored Bose-Condensed Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study cavity quantum electrodynamics of Bose-condensed atoms that are subjected to continuous monitoring of the light leaking out of the cavity. Due to a given detection record of each stochastic realization, individual runs spontaneously break the symmetry of the spatial profile of the atom cloud and this symmetry can be restored by considering ensemble averages over many realizations. We show that the cavity optomechanical excitations of the condensate can be engineered to target specific collective modes. This is achieved by exploiting the spatial structure and symmetries of the collective modes and light fields. The cavity fields can be utilized both for strong driving of the collective modes and for their measurement. In the weak excitation limit the condensate–cavity system may be employed as a sensitive phonon detector which operates by counting photons outside the cavity that have been selectively scattered by desired phonons.

  15. Nonperturbative renormalization of scalar quantum electrodynamics in d=3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimock, J., E-mail: dimock@buffalo.edu [Department of Mathematics, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    For scalar quantum electrodynamics on a three-dimensional toroidal lattice with a fine lattice spacing, we consider the renormalization problem of choosing counter terms depending on the lattice spacing, so that the theory stays finite as the spacing goes to zero. We employ a renormalization group method which analyzes the flow of the mass and the vacuum energy as a problem in discrete dynamical systems. The main result is that counter terms can be chosen so that at the end of the iteration these quantities take preassigned values. No use is made of perturbation theory. The renormalization group transformations are defined with bounded fields, an approximation which can be justified in Balaban’s approach to the renormalization group.

  16. Quantum electrodynamics and plasmonic resonance of metallic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Xiang, Hongping; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang

    2016-04-20

    Plasmonic resonance of a metallic nanostructure results from coherent motion of its conduction electrons driven by incident light. At the resonance, the induced dipole in the nanostructure is proportional to the number of the conduction electrons, hence 10(7) times larger than that in an atom. The interaction energy between the induced dipole and fluctuating virtual field of the incident light can reach a few tenths of an eV. Therefore, the classical electromagnetism dominating the field may become inadequate. We propose that quantum electrodynamics (QED) may be used as a fundamental theory to describe the interaction between the virtual field and the oscillating electrons. Based on QED, we derive analytic expressions for the plasmon resonant frequency, which depends on three easily accessible material parameters. The analytic theory reproduces very well the experimental data, and can be used in rational design of materials for plasmonic applications. PMID:26987436

  17. Higgs-Like Particle due to Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Higgs-like particle having zero net electric charge, zero spin, and a nonzero rest mass can be deduced from an earlier elaborated revised quantum electrodynamical theory which is based on linear symmetry breaking through a nonzero electric field divergence in the vacuum state. This special particle is obtained from a composite longitudinal solution based on a zero magnetic field strength and on a nonzero divergence but a vanishing curl of the electric field strength. The present theory further differs from that of the nonlinear spontaneously broken symmetry by Higgs, in which elementary particles obtain their masses through an interaction with the Higgs field. An experimental proof of the basic features of a Higgs-like particle thus supports the present theory, but does not for certain confirm the process which would generate massive particles through a Higgs field

  18. Quantum-to-Classical Transition in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (QED)

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, J M; Studer, P; Bishop, Lev S; Baur, M; Bianchetti, R; Bozyigit, D; Lang, C; Filipp, S; Leek, P J; Wallraff, A

    2010-01-01

    The quantum properties of electromagnetic, mechanical or any other type of harmonic oscillator can be revealed by investigating its strong coherent coupling to a single quantum two level system in an approach known as cavity QED. At temperatures much lower than the characteristic energy level spacing the observation of vacuum Rabi oscillations or mode splittings with one or a few quanta asserts the quantum nature of the system. Here, we study how the classical response of a quantum cavity QED system emerges when its thermal occupation -- or effective temperature -- is raised gradually over 5 orders of magnitude. In this way we explore in detail the continuous cross-over from a quantum response to a classical response in the spirit of Bohr's correspondence principle. We also demonstrate how to extract effective cavity field temperatures from both spectroscopic and time-resolved vacuum Rabi measurements.

  19. Reversible and quantum circuits optimization and complexity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abdessaied, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new optimization flow for quantum circuits realization. At the reversible level, optimization algorithms are presented to reduce the quantum cost. Then, new mapping approaches to decompose reversible circuits to quantum circuits using different quantum libraries are described. Finally, optimization techniques to reduce the quantum cost or the delay are applied to the resulting quantum circuits. Furthermore, this book studies the complexity of reversible circuits and quantum circuits from a theoretical perspective.

  20. Realization of Quantum Circuits in Fock Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Lei; LI Yun

    2004-01-01

    In this letter, by using the method we offered in our paper [L. Ma and Y.D. Zhang, Commun. Theor. Phys.(Beijing, China) 36 (2001) 119], some extended quantum logic gates, such as quantum counter, quantum adder, are studied and their expressions are given. It may be useful for us to study the more complicated quantum logic circuits deeply.

  1. Thermal and Electrodynamic Risk of Residual Current Devices in the Case of Back-Up Protection by Overcurrent Circuit Breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Czapp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Residual current operated circuit breakers without integral overcurrent protection should be back-up protected. As back-up protection devices, overcurrent circuit breakers are used. The maximum let-through energy and let-through current of the overcurrent devices were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The thermal and electrodynamic risk of residual current devices was analyzed.

  2. Discretized light-cone quantization: Application to quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a general method for solving quantum field theories, Discretized Light-Cone Quantization (DLCQ), is presented. The method is very straightforward and essentially consists of diagonalizing the light-cone Hamiltonian matrix for the mass spectrum and wavefunctions. This method has been applied successfully in the past to various one space, one time dimensional theories. In each of these past applications, the mass spectrum and wave functions were successfully obtained, and all results agree with previous analytical and numerical work. The success of DLCQ in 1 + 1 dimensions provides the hope of solving theories in three space and one time dimensions. The application to higher dimensions is much more involved than in 1 + 1 dimensions due to the need to introduce ultraviolet and infrared regulators, and invoke a renormalization scheme consistent with gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. This is in addition to the extra work involved implementing two extra dimensions with their added degrees of freedom. In this paper, I will present the application of DLCQ to 3 + 1 dimensional Quantum Electrodynamics. 24 refs., 43 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Quantum electrodynamics of resonance energy transfer in nanowire systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeraddana, Dilusha; Premaratne, Malin; Andrews, David L.

    2016-02-01

    Nonradiative resonance energy transfer (RET) provides the ability to transfer excitation energy between contiguous nanowires (NWs) with high efficiency under certain conditions. Nevertheless, the well-established Förster formalism commonly used to represent RET was developed for energy transfer primarily between molecular blocks (i.e., from one molecule, or part of a molecule, to another). Although deviations from Förster theory for functional blocks such as NWs have been studied previously, the role of the relative distance, the orientation of transition dipole moment pairs, and the passively interacting matter on electronic energy transfer are to a large extent unknown. Thus, a comprehensive theory that models RET in NWs is required. In this context, analytical insights to give a deeper and more intuitive understanding of the distance and orientation dependence of RET in NWs is presented within the framework of quantum electrodynamics. Additionally, the influence of an included intermediary on the rate of excitation energy transfer is illustrated, embracing indirect energy transfer rate and quantum interference. The results deliver equations that afford new intuitions into the behavior of virtual photons. In particular, results indicate that RET efficiency in a NW system can be explicitly expedited or inhibited by a neighboring mediator, depending on the relative spacing and orientation of NWs.

  4. Scheme for implementing perfect quantum teleportation with four-qubit entangled states in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing-Wu; Zhao, Guan-Xiang; He, Xiong-Hui

    2011-05-01

    Recently, Peng et al. [2010 Eur. Phys. J. D 58 403] proposed to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state with a family of four-qubit entangled states, which simultaneously include the tensor product of two Bell states, linear cluster state and Dicke-class state. This paper proposes to implement their scheme in cavity quantum electrodynamics and then presents a new family of four-qubit entangled state |Ω4>1234. It simultaneously includes all the well-known four-qubit entangled states which can be used to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state. The distinct advantage of the scheme is that it only needs a single setup to prepare the whole family of four-qubit entangled states, which will be very convenient for experimental realization. After discussing the experimental condition in detail, we show the scheme may be feasible based on present technology in cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  5. Scheme for implementing perfect quantum teleportation with four-qubit entangled states in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Peng et al. [2010 Eur. Phys. J. D 58 403] proposed to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state with a family of four-qubit entangled states, which simultaneously include the tensor product of two Bell states, linear cluster state and Dicke-class state. This paper proposes to implement their scheme in cavity quantum electrodynamics and then presents a new family of four-qubit entangled state |Ω4>1234. It simultaneously includes all the well-known four-qubit entangled states which can be used to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state. The distinct advantage of the scheme is that it only needs a single setup to prepare the whole family of four-qubit entangled states, which will be very convenient for experimental realization. After discussing the experimental condition in detail, we show the scheme may be feasible based on present technology in cavity quantum electrodynamics. (general)

  6. Scheme for implementing perfect quantum teleportation with four-qubit entangled states in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jing-Wu; Zhao Guan-Xiang; He Xiong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Peng et al. [2010 Eur. Phys. J. D 58 403] proposed to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state with a family of four-qubit entangled states, which simultaneously include the tensor product of two Bell states, linear cluster state and Dicke-class state. This paper proposes to implement their scheme in cavity quantum electrodynamics and then presents a new family of four-qubit entangled state |Ω4)1234. It simultaneously includes all the well-known four-qubit entangled states which can be used to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state. The distinct advantage of the scheme is that it only needs a single setup to prepare the whole family of four-qubit entangled states, which will be very convenient for experimental realization. After discussing the experimental condition in detail, we show the scheme may be feasible based on present technology in cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  7. Feedback control of superconducting quantum circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ristè, D.

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting circuits have recently risen to the forefront of the solid-state prototypes for quantum computing. Reaching the stage of robust quantum computing requires closing the loop between measurement and control of quantum bits (qubits). This thesis presents the realization of feedback contr

  8. Quantum gravitational contributions to the beta function of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Because of the negative mass dimension of the coupling constant perturbative Einstein quantum gravity (EQG) is nonrenormalizable. However, one can still make sense of EQG if it's interpreted as an effective field theory within a low energy expansion of a more fundamental theory. In an effective field theory all interactions compatible with its essential symmetry content are in principle allowed into the Lagrangian and thus it establishes a systematic framework to calculate quantum gravitational effects. This approach has been used to study the asymptotic behavior at high energies of quantum field theories that incorporate the gravitational field. Some studies analyze the asymptotic freedom for the coupling constants of some theories including gravitation near the Planck scale. For example, Robinson and Wilczek suggest that the gravitational field improve the asymptotic freedom of pure Yang-Mills near the Planck scale. Already , a similar calculation in the Maxwell-Einstein theory suggest that such conclusion is gauge dependence. This result was obtained by Pietrykowski. D. Toms say what the effective action is calculated in a gauge-condition independent version of the background field method using dimensional regularization it's argued that the gravitational field plays no role in the beta function of the Yang-Mills coupling. Another calculation done by Ebert, Plefka and Rodigast using conventional diagrammatic methods confirms the result obtained by Toms. In a recent publication, again published by Toms in 2010, claimed that quadratic divergent contributions were responsible to improve asymptotic freedom of fine structure constant by quantum gravity effects by using proper time cutoff regularization and effective action methods. However, the physical reality of the result in Tom's was questioned in recent work. This purpose of this work is to shed light on the origin of such controversies using only a diagrammatic analysis. As an effective model EQG is

  9. Cavity quantum electrodynamics studies with site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots integrated into high quality microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzenstein, S.; Schneider, C.; Albert, F.;

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are fascinating nanoscopic structures for photonics and future quantum information technology. However, the random position of self-organized QDs inhibits a deterministic coupling in devices relying on cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) effects which complicates...

  10. Nonlinear quantum electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuren, Sebastian

    2015-06-24

    Various nonlinear electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong plane-wave laser fields are considered with an emphasis on short-pulse effects. In particular, the momentum distribution of photoproduced electron-positron pairs is calculated numerically and a semiclassical interpretation of its characteristic features is established. By proving the optical theorem, compact double-integral expressions for the total pair-creation probability are obtained and numerically evaluated. The exponential decay of the photon wave function in a plane wave is included by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations to leading-order in the quasistatic approximation. In this respect, the polarization operator in a plane wave is investigated and its Ward-Takahashi identity verified. A classical analysis indicates that a photoproduced electron-positron pair recollides for certain initial conditions. The contributions of such recollision processes to the polarization operator are identified and calculated both analytically and numerically. Furthermore, the existence of nontrivial electron-spin dynamics induced by quantum fluctuations is verified for ultra-short laser pulses. Finally, the exchange of weak gauge bosons is considered, which is essential for neutrino-photon interactions. In particular, the axial-vector-vector coupling tensor is calculated and the so-called Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly investigated.

  11. On the finite-temperature quantum electrodynamics of gravitational acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature-dependent quantum-electrodynamic corrections to the Helmholtz free energy F of a particle at rest, and to its inertial mass minert, are the same: ΔF=Δminert=πe2(kT)2/3m. By contrast, the correction to the total energy U=F+TS is ΔU=-ΔF. Donoghue, Holstein, and Robinett have pointed out that if (as the equivalence principle appears to imply) weight is proportional to total energy, then the gravitational acceleration of a particle inside a blackbody cavity becomes g(m+ΔU)/(m+ΔF)∼g(1-2ΔF/m)< g. However, while F represents the random kinetic energy of (and is thereby localized on) the particle, further analysis now suggests that the entropic energy difference TΔS=ΔU-ΔF is distributed over the cavity uniformly and independently of the particle position. If so, then the gravitational pull on TΔS cannot affect the motion of the particle well within the cavity, so that it will, after all, experience the universal Galilean acceleration g

  12. Effect of laser polarization on quantum electrodynamical cascading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of quantum electrodynamical (QED) cascades in a standing electromagnetic wave for circular and linear polarizations is simulated numerically with a 3D PIC-MC code. It is demonstrated that for the same laser energy the number of particles produced in a circularly polarized field is greater than in a linearly polarized field, though the acquiring mean energy per particle is larger in the latter case. The qualitative model of laser-assisted QED cascades is extended by including the effect of polarization of the field. It turns out that cascade dynamics is notably more complicated in the case of linearly polarized field, where separation into the qualitatively different “electric” and “magnetic” regions (where the electric field is stronger than the magnetic field and vice versa) becomes essential. In the “magnetic” regions, acceleration is suppressed, and moreover the high-energy electrons are even getting cooled by photon emission. The volumes of the “electric” and “magnetic” regions evolve periodically in time and so does the cascade growth rate. In contrast to the linear polarization, the charged particles can be accelerated by circularly polarized wave even in “magnetic region.” The “electric” and “magnetic” regions do not evolve in time, and cascade growth rate almost does not depend on time for circular polarization

  13. Perfect photon absorption in nonlinear regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, G S; Wang, Liyong; Zhu, Yifu

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that perfect photon absorption can occur in the linear excitation regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), in which photons from two identical light fields coupled into two ends of the cavity are completely absorbed and result in excitation of the polariton state of the CQED system. The output light from the cavity is totally suppressed by the destructive interference and the polariton state can only decay incoherently back to the ground state. Here we analyze the perfect photon absorption and onset of optical bistability in the nonlinear regime of the CQED and show that the perfect photon absorption persists in the nonlinear regime of the CQED below the threshold of the optical bistability. Therefore the perfect photon absorption is a phenomenon that can be observed in both linear and nonlinear regimes of CQED. Furthermore, our study reveals for the first time that the optical bistability is influenced by the input-light interference and can be manipulated by varying the relative ph...

  14. Quantum Electrodynamics in d =3 from the ɛ Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Lorenzo; Komargodski, Zohar; Shamir, Itamar; Stamou, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    We study quantum electrodynamics in d =3 coupled to Nf flavors of fermions. The theory flows to an IR fixed point for Nf larger than some critical number Nfc. For Nf≤Nfc, chiral-symmetry breaking is believed to take place. In analogy with the Wilson-Fisher description of the critical O (N ) models in d =3 , we make use of the existence of a fixed point in d =4 -2 ɛ to study the three-dimensional conformal theory. We compute, in perturbation theory, the IR dimensions of fermion bilinear and quadrilinear operators. For small Nf, a quadrilinear operator can become relevant in the IR and destabilize the fixed point. Therefore, the epsilon expansion can be used to estimate Nfc. An interesting novelty compared to the O (N ) models is that the theory in d =3 has an enhanced symmetry due to the structure of 3D spinors. We identify the operators in d =4 -2 ɛ that correspond to the additional conserved currents at d =3 and compute their infrared dimensions.

  15. Quantum Electrodynamics in d=3 from the ε Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Lorenzo; Komargodski, Zohar; Shamir, Itamar; Stamou, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    We study quantum electrodynamics in d=3 coupled to N_{f} flavors of fermions. The theory flows to an IR fixed point for N_{f} larger than some critical number N_{f}^{c}. For N_{f}≤N_{f}^{c}, chiral-symmetry breaking is believed to take place. In analogy with the Wilson-Fisher description of the critical O(N) models in d=3, we make use of the existence of a fixed point in d=4-2ε to study the three-dimensional conformal theory. We compute, in perturbation theory, the IR dimensions of fermion bilinear and quadrilinear operators. For small N_{f}, a quadrilinear operator can become relevant in the IR and destabilize the fixed point. Therefore, the epsilon expansion can be used to estimate N_{f}^{c}. An interesting novelty compared to the O(N) models is that the theory in d=3 has an enhanced symmetry due to the structure of 3D spinors. We identify the operators in d=4-2ε that correspond to the additional conserved currents at d=3 and compute their infrared dimensions. PMID:27081967

  16. Rabi model as a quantum coherent heat engine: From quantum biology to superconducting circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Ferdi; Hardal, Ali Ü. C.; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Özgür E.

    2015-02-01

    We propose a multilevel quantum heat engine with a working medium described by a generalized Rabi model which consists of a two-level system coupled to a single-mode bosonic field. The model is constructed to be a continuum limit of a quantum biological description of light-harvesting complexes so that it can amplify quantum coherence by a mechanism which is a quantum analog of classical Huygens clocks. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle where the working medium is coupled to classical heat baths in the isochoric processes of the four-stroke cycle, while either the coupling strength or the resonance frequency is changed in the adiabatic stages. We found that such an engine can produce work with an efficiency close to the Carnot bound when it operates at low temperatures and in the ultrastrong-coupling regime. The interplay of the effects of quantum coherence and quantum correlations on the engine performance is discussed in terms of second-order coherence, quantum mutual information, and the logarithmic negativity of entanglement. We point out that the proposed quantum Otto engine can be implemented experimentally with modern circuit quantum electrodynamic systems where flux qubits can be coupled ultrastrongly to superconducting transmission-line resonators.

  17. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanbekyan, Mikayel

    2009-10-27

    In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the

  18. Quantum Electrodynamics Basis of Classical-Field High-Harmonic Generation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵兵; 高靓辉; 傅盘铭; 郭东升; R. R. Freeman

    2001-01-01

    From the nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics theory, we derive the Landau-Dykhne formula which represents the quantum-mechanical formulation of the three-step model. These studies provide a basis for the classical-field approaches to high-order harmonic generation and justify some assumptions used in classical-field modelling.

  19. Higher order energy transfer. Quantum electrodynamical calculations and graphical representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Chapter 1, a novel method of calculating quantum electrodynamic amplitudes is formulated using combinatorial theory. This technique is used throughout instead of conventional time-ordered methods. A variety of hyperspaces are discussed to highlight isomorphism between a number of A generalisation of Pascal's triangle is shown to be beneficial in determining the form of hyperspace graphs. Chapter 2 describes laser assisted resonance energy transfer (LARET), a higher order perturbative contribution to the well-known process resonance energy transfer, accommodating an off resonance auxiliary laser field to stimulate the migration. Interest focuses on energy exchanges between two uncorrelated molecular species, as in a system where molecules are randomly oriented. Both phase-weighted and standard isotropic averaging are required for the calculations. Results are discussed in terms of a laser intensity-dependent mechanism. Identifying the applied field regime where LARET should prove experimentally significant, transfer rate increases of up to 30% are predicted. General results for three-center energy transfer are elucidated in chapter 3. Cooperative and accretive mechanistic pathways are identified with theory formulated to elicit their role in a variety of energy transfer phenomena and their relative dominance. In multichromophoric the interplay of such factors is analysed with regard to molecular architectures. The alignments and magnitudes of donor and acceptor transition moments and polarisabilities prove to have profound effects on achievable pooling efficiency for linear configurations. Also optimum configurations are offered. In ionic lattices, although both mechanisms play significant roles in pooling and cutting processes, only the accretive is responsible for sensitisation. The local, microscopic level results are used to gauge the lattice response, encompassing concentration and structural effects. (author)

  20. Quantum-electrodynamic influences on the lifetime of metastable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-precision lifetime measurements of the metastable 1s22s22p2P03/2 level in boronlike Ar XIV and the 3s22p 2P03/2 level in aluminumlike Fe XIV were performed at the Heidelberg electron beam ion trap (HD-EBIT). The lifetimes were inferred by monitoring their optical decay curves resulting from the magnetic dipole (M1) transition 1s22s22p2P03/2-2P01/2 and 3s23p 2P03/2-2P01/2 to the ground state configuration with transition wavelengths of 441.256 nm and 530.29 nm, respectively. Possible systematic error sources were investigated by studying the dependence of the decay times of the curves on various trapping conditions with high statistical significance. A new trapping scheme for lifetime measurements at an EBIT has been applied and allowed to reach an unprecedented precision in the realm of lifetime determinations on highly charged ions. The results of 9.573(4)(+12-5) ms (stat)(syst) for Ar XIV and 16.726(10)(+17) ms (stat)(syst) for Fe XIV with a relative accuracy of 0.14% and 0.13%, respectively, make these measurements for the first time sensitive to quantum electrodynamic effects like the electron anomalous magnetic moment (EAMM). The results, improving the accuracy of previous measurements by factors of 10 and 6, respectively, show a clear discrepancy of about 3σ and 4σ to the trend of existing theoretical models, which in almost all cases predict a shorter lifetime, when adjusted for the EAMM. The obvious disagreement between experimental results and the predictions points at the incompleteness of the theoretical models used. (orig.)

  1. Single-shot optical readout of a quantum bit using cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuo; Waks, Edo

    2016-07-01

    We propose a method to perform single-shot optical readout of a quantum bit (qubit) using cavity quantum electrodynamics. We selectively couple the optical transitions associated with different qubit basis states to the cavity and utilize the change in cavity transmissivity to generate a qubit readout signal composed of many photons. We show that this approach enables single-shot optical readout even when the qubit does not have a good cycling transition, which is required for standard resonance fluorescence measurements. We calculate the probability that the measurement detects the correct qubit state using the example of a quantum-dot spin under various experimental conditions and demonstrate that it can exceed 0.99.

  2. Phenomenology of the vacuum in quantum electrodynamics and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determining forces that arise by the restriction of the fluctuation modes of the vacuum by the insertion of boundaries or the observation of altered light propagation in external fields is a versatile means to investigate the vacuum structure of quantum electrodynamics. For these quantum vacuum probes, the vacuum can be understood and effectively modeled as a medium. Investigating the properties of this medium cannot only test and broaden our understanding of known interactions but can also be a valuable tool in the search for particles at low energy scales which arise in extensions of the standard model. In this thesis, we first study the geometry dependence of fluctuation modes in the Dirichlet-scalar analog of Casimir-Polder forces between an atom and a surface with arbitrary uniaxial corrugations. To this end we employ a technique which is fully nonperturbative in the height profile. We parameterize the differences to the distance dependencies in the planar limit in terms of an anomalous dimension quantifying the power-law deviation from the planar case. In numerical studies of experimentally relevant corrugations, we identify a universal regime of the anomalous dimension at larger distances. We argue that this universality arises as the relevant fluctuations average over corrugation structures smaller than the atom-wall distance. Turning to modified light propagation as a probe of the quantum vacuum, we show that a combination of strong, pulsed magnets and gravitational-wave interferometers can not only facilitate the detection of strong-field QED phenomena, but also significantly enlarges the accessible parameter space of hypothetical hidden-sector particles. We identify pulsed magnets as a suitable strong-field source to induce quantum nonlinearities, since their pulse frequency can be perfectly matched with the domain of highest sensitivity of modern gravitational-wave interferometers. Pushing current laboratory field-strengths to their limits, we suggest a

  3. Phenomenology of the vacuum in quantum electrodynamics and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebrich, Babette

    2011-09-30

    Determining forces that arise by the restriction of the fluctuation modes of the vacuum by the insertion of boundaries or the observation of altered light propagation in external fields is a versatile means to investigate the vacuum structure of quantum electrodynamics. For these quantum vacuum probes, the vacuum can be understood and effectively modeled as a medium. Investigating the properties of this medium cannot only test and broaden our understanding of known interactions but can also be a valuable tool in the search for particles at low energy scales which arise in extensions of the standard model. In this thesis, we first study the geometry dependence of fluctuation modes in the Dirichlet-scalar analog of Casimir-Polder forces between an atom and a surface with arbitrary uniaxial corrugations. To this end we employ a technique which is fully nonperturbative in the height profile. We parameterize the differences to the distance dependencies in the planar limit in terms of an anomalous dimension quantifying the power-law deviation from the planar case. In numerical studies of experimentally relevant corrugations, we identify a universal regime of the anomalous dimension at larger distances. We argue that this universality arises as the relevant fluctuations average over corrugation structures smaller than the atom-wall distance. Turning to modified light propagation as a probe of the quantum vacuum, we show that a combination of strong, pulsed magnets and gravitational-wave interferometers can not only facilitate the detection of strong-field QED phenomena, but also significantly enlarges the accessible parameter space of hypothetical hidden-sector particles. We identify pulsed magnets as a suitable strong-field source to induce quantum nonlinearities, since their pulse frequency can be perfectly matched with the domain of highest sensitivity of modern gravitational-wave interferometers. Pushing current laboratory field-strengths to their limits, we suggest a

  4. Applications of quantum and classical connections in modeling atomic, molecular and electrodynamic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Popa, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    Applications of Quantum and Classical Connections in Modeling Atomic, Molecular and Electrodynamical Systems is a reference on the new field of relativistic optics, examining topics related to relativistic interactions between very intense laser beams and particles. Based on 30 years of research, this unique book connects the properties of quantum equations to corresponding classical equations used to calculate the energetic values and the symmetry properties of atomic, molecular and electrodynamical systems. In addition, it examines applications for these methods, and for the calculation of

  5. Testing quantum circuits and detecting insecure encryption

    CERN Document Server

    Rosgen, Bill

    2011-01-01

    We show that computational problem of testing the behaviour of quantum circuits is hard for the class of problems known as QMA that can be verified efficiently with a quantum computer. This result is a generalization of the techniques previously used to prove the hardness of other problem on quantum circuits. We use this result to show the QMA-hardness of a weak version of the problem of detecting the insecurity of a symmetric-key quantum encryption system, or alternately the problem of determining when a quantum channel is not private. We also give a QMA protocol for the problem of detecting insecure encryption to show that it is QMA-complete.

  6. Photonic Quantum Circuits with Time Delays

    CERN Document Server

    Pichler, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamics of photonic quantum circuits consisting of nodes coupled by quantum channels. We are interested in the regime where time delay in communication between the nodes is significant. This includes the problem of quantum feedback, where a quantum signal is fed back on a system with a time delay. We develop a matrix product state approach to solve the Quantum Stochastic Schr\\"odinger Equation with time delays, which accounts in an efficient way for the entanglement of nodes with the stream of emitted photons in the waveguide, and thus the non-Markovian character of the dynamics. We illustrate this approach with two paradigmatic quantum optical examples: two coherently driven distant atoms coupled to a photonic waveguide with a time delay, and a driven atom coupled to its own output field with a time delay as an instance of a quantum feedback problem.

  7. Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing of Classical Message using Cavity Quantum Electrodynamic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Lian-Fang; LIU Yi-Min; ZHANG Zhan-Jun

    2006-01-01

    @@ An experimental feasible scheme of multiparty secret sharing of classical messages is proposed, based on a cavity quantum electrodynamic system. The secret messages are imposed on atomic Bell states initially in the sender's possession by local unitary operations. By swapping quantum entanglement of atomic Bell states, the secret messages are split into several parts and each part is distributed to a separate party. In this case, any subset of the entire party group can not read out the secret message but the entirety via mutual cooperations. In this scheme, to discriminate atomic Bell states, additional classical fields are employed besides the same highly-detuned single-mode cavities used to prepare atomic Bell states. This scheme is insensitive to the cavity decay and the thermal field, and usual joint Bell-state measurements are unnecessary.

  8. Quantum Electric Circuits Analogous to Ballistic Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoman, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    The conductance steps in a constricted two-dimensional electron gas and the minimum conductivity in graphene are related to a new uncertainty relation between electric charge and conductance in a quantized electric circuit that mimics the electric transport in mesoscopic systems. This uncertainty relation makes specific use of the discreteness of electric charge. Quantum electric circuits analogous to both constricted two-dimensional electron gas and graphene are introduced. In the latter cas...

  9. Quantum-electrodynamical density-functional theory: Bridging quantum optics and electronic-structure theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggenthaler, Michael; Flick, Johannes; Pellegrini, Camilla; Appel, Heiko; Tokatly, Ilya V.; Rubio, Angel

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we give a comprehensive derivation of an exact and numerically feasible method to perform ab initio calculations of quantum particles interacting with a quantized electromagnetic field. We present a hierarchy of density-functional-type theories that describe the interaction of charged particles with photons and introduce the appropriate Kohn-Sham schemes. We show how the evolution of a system described by quantum electrodynamics in Coulomb gauge is uniquely determined by its initial state and two reduced quantities. These two fundamental observables, the polarization of the Dirac field and the vector potential of the photon field, can be calculated by solving two coupled, nonlinear evolution equations without the need to explicitly determine the (numerically infeasible) many-body wave function of the coupled quantum system. To find reliable approximations to the implicit functionals, we present the appropriate Kohn-Sham construction. In the nonrelativistic limit, this density-functional-type theory of quantum electrodynamics reduces to the density-functional reformulation of the Pauli-Fierz Hamiltonian, which is based on the current density of the electrons and the vector potential of the photon field. By making further approximations, e.g., restricting the allowed modes of the photon field, we derive further density-functional-type theories of coupled matter-photon systems for the corresponding approximate Hamiltonians. In the limit of only two sites and one mode we deduce the appropriate effective theory for the two-site Hubbard model coupled to one photonic mode. This model system is used to illustrate the basic ideas of a density-functional reformulation in great detail and we present the exact Kohn-Sham potentials for our coupled matter-photon model system.

  10. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR CALCULATING CLOSING IN OF SWITCH-GEAR FLEXIBLE BUSES AT SHORT CIRCUIT BY IMPULSE OF ELECTRODYNAMIC FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains description of a simplified method for calculating closing-in of switch-gear flexible buses at short circuit. The developed method is based on integral and energy principles of  mechanics. In order to increase accuracy of the calculation corrections factors are introduced in an explicit formula for calculation of maximum horizontal deviations. These factors have been obtained with the help of a computer program that realized numerical method for calculating closing-in of wires by flexible thread levels.Diagrams are constructed with the purpose to find ymax and criteria of electro-dynamic resistance of flexible buses (permissible impulse of electro-dynamic forces and current of electro-dynamic resistance is determined.

  11. Theory and simulation of cavity quantum electro-dynamics in multi-partite quantum complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cavity quantum electrodynamics of various complex systems is here analyzed using a general versatile code developed in this research. Such quantum multi-partite systems normally consist of an arbitrary number of quantum dots in interaction with an arbitrary number of cavity modes. As an example, a nine-partition system is simulated under different coupling regimes, consisting of eight emitters interacting with one cavity mode. Two-level emitters (e.g. quantum dots) are assumed to have an arrangement in the form of a linear chain, defining the mutual dipole-dipole interactions. It was observed that plotting the system trajectory in the phase space reveals a chaotic behavior in the so-called ultrastrong-coupling regime. This result is mathematically confirmed by detailed calculation of the Kolmogorov entropy, as a measure of chaotic behavior. In order to study the computational complexity of our code, various multi-partite systems consisting of one to eight quantum dots in interaction with one cavity mode were solved individually. Computation run times and the allocated memory for each system were measured. (orig.)

  12. Theory and simulation of cavity quantum electro-dynamics in multi-partite quantum complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alidoosty Shahraki, Moslem; Khorasani, Sina; Aram, Mohammad Hasan [Sharif University of Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The cavity quantum electrodynamics of various complex systems is here analyzed using a general versatile code developed in this research. Such quantum multi-partite systems normally consist of an arbitrary number of quantum dots in interaction with an arbitrary number of cavity modes. As an example, a nine-partition system is simulated under different coupling regimes, consisting of eight emitters interacting with one cavity mode. Two-level emitters (e.g. quantum dots) are assumed to have an arrangement in the form of a linear chain, defining the mutual dipole-dipole interactions. It was observed that plotting the system trajectory in the phase space reveals a chaotic behavior in the so-called ultrastrong-coupling regime. This result is mathematically confirmed by detailed calculation of the Kolmogorov entropy, as a measure of chaotic behavior. In order to study the computational complexity of our code, various multi-partite systems consisting of one to eight quantum dots in interaction with one cavity mode were solved individually. Computation run times and the allocated memory for each system were measured. (orig.)

  13. Computational Method for the Retarded Potential in the Real-Time Simulation of Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the method to compute the integrals which appear in the retarded potential term for a real-time simulation based on QED (Quantum Electrodynamics). We show that the oscillatory integrals over the infinite interval involved in them can be efficiently performed by the method developed by Ooura and Mori based on the double exponential (DE) formula.

  14. Mode expansions in the quantum electrodynamics of photonic media with disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    We address two issues in the quantum electrodynamical description of photonic media with some disorder, neglecting material dispersion. When choosing a gauge in which the static potential vanishes, the normal modes of the medium with disorder satisfy another transversality condition than the modes...

  15. Efficient scheme for preparation of the multi-atom W state via cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jin; Ye Liu

    2004-01-01

    We present an efficient scheme for preparation of the multi-atom W state via cavity quantum electrodynamics.Involved in this scheme are n identical two-level atoms and a single-mode cavity field. Discussion indicates that this scheme can be realized easily by current technologies.

  16. Quantum Information Transfer in Circuit QED with Landau-Zener Tunneling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-Wang; WU Chun-Wang; DAI Hong-Yi

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme to implement quantum information transfer between Cooper-pair boxes (CPBs) in a circuit quantum electrodynamic (QED) system with Landau-Zener tunneling. The system consists of two CPB qubits and a one-dimensional transmission line resonator (TLR). By analytically solving the eigenequation and numerically calculating the transition probability, the results show the quantum state transfer from one qubit to another via a fast adiabatic passage. The coupling mechanism is robust against decoherence effects.%@@ We propose a scheme to implement quantum information transfer between Cooper-pair boxes(CPBs)in a circuit quantum electrodynamic(QED)system with Landau-Zener tunneling.The system consists of two CPB qubits and a one-dimensional transmission line resonator(TLR).By analytically solving the eigenequation and numeri-cally calculating the transition probability,the results show the quantum state transfer from one qubit to another via a fast adiabatic passage.The coupling mechanism is robust against decoherence effects.

  17. Photon antibunching and bunching in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zihao; Zhou, Yao; Shen, Jung-Tsung

    2016-07-15

    We numerically investigate the photonic state generation and its nonclassical correlations in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system. Specifically, we discuss photon antibunching and bunching in various scenarios, including the imperfect resonator with backscattering and dissipations. Our numerical results indicate that an imperfect ring resonator with backscattering can enhance the quality of antibunching. In addition, we also identify the quantum photonic halo phenomenon in the photon scattering dynamics and the shoulder effect in the second-order correlation function. PMID:27420523

  18. Thermal rectification in nonlinear quantum circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruokola, T.; Ojanen, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2009-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of radiative heat transport in nonlinear solid-state quantum circuits. We give a detailed account of heat rectification effects, i.e., the asymmetry of heat current with respect to a reversal of the thermal gradient, in a system consisting of two reservoirs at finite...

  19. Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei

    2016-01-01

    It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039

  20. Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei

    2016-01-01

    It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039

  1. Teleportation of Atomic States via Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Guerra, E S

    2004-01-01

    In this article we discuss a scheme of teleportation of atomic states. The experimental realization proposed makes use of cavity Quatum Electrodynamics involving the interaction of Rydberg atoms with a micromaser cavity prepared in a coherent state. We start presenting a scheme to prepare atomic Bell states via the interaction of atoms with a cavity. In our scheme the cavity and some atoms play the role of auxiliary systems used to achieve the teleportation.

  2. On Galilean invariance and nonlinearity in electrodynamics and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Gerald A.; Shtelen, Vladimir M.

    2001-02-01

    Recent experimental results such as those on slow light heighten interest in nonlinear Maxwell theories. We obtain Galilei covariant equations for electromagnetism by allowing special nonlinearities in the constitutive equations only, keeping Maxwell's equations unchanged. Combining these with linear or nonlinear Schrödinger equations, e.g., as proposed by Doebner and Goldin, yields a consistent, nonlinear, Galilean Schrödinger-Maxwell electrodynamics.

  3. Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics: The Strange Theory of Light in a Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Sergio M.

    2004-12-01

    What happens to light when it is trapped in a box? Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics addresses a fascinating question in physics: what happens to light, and in particular to its interaction with matter, when it is trapped inside a box? With the aid of a model-building approach, readers discover the answer to this question and come to appreciate its important applications in computing, cryptography, quantum teleportation, and opto-electronics. Instead of taking a traditional approach that requires readers to first master a series of seemingly unconnected mathematical techniques, this book engages the readers' interest and imagination by going straight to the point, introducing the mathematics along the way as needed. Appendices are provided for the additional mathematical theory. Researchers, scientists, and students of modern physics can refer to Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics and examine the field thoroughly. Several key topics covered that readers cannot find in any other quantum optics book include: * Introduction to the problem of the "vacuum catastrophe" and the cosmological constant * Detailed up-to-date account of cavity QED lasers and thresholdless lasing * Examination of cavities with movable walls * First-principles discussion about cavity QED in open cavities * Pedagogical account of microscopic quantization in dielectrics Complementing the coverage of the most advanced theory and techniques, the author provides context by discussing the historical evolution of the field and its discoveries. In that spirit, "recommended reading," provided in each chapter, leads readers to both contemporary literature as well as key historical papers. Despite being one of many specialties within physics, cavity quantum electrodynamics serves as a window to many of the fundamental issues of physics. Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics will serve as an excellent resource for advanced undergraduate quantum mechanics courses as well as for graduate students, researchers, and

  4. Inflationary universe from higher derivative quantum gravity coupled with scalar electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We study inflation for a quantum scalar electrodynamics model in curved space-time and for higher-derivative quantum gravity (QG) coupled with scalar electrodynamics. The corresponding renormalization-group (RG) improved potential is evaluated for both theories in Jordan frame where non-minimal scalar-gravitational coupling sector is explicitly kept. The role of one-loop quantum corrections is investigated by showing how these corrections enter in the expressions for the slow-roll parameters, the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio and how they influence the bound of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of the primordial acceleration. We demonstrate that the viable inflation maybe successfully realized, so that it turns out to be consistent with last Planck and BICEP2/Keck Array data.

  5. Inflationary universe from higher derivative quantum gravity coupled with scalar electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrzakulov, R.; Odintsov, S. D.; Sebastiani, L.

    2016-06-01

    We study inflation for a quantum scalar electrodynamics model in curved space-time and for higher-derivative quantum gravity (QG) coupled with scalar electrodynamics. The corresponding renormalization-group (RG) improved potential is evaluated for both theories in Jordan frame where non-minimal scalar-gravitational coupling sector is explicitly kept. The role of one-loop quantum corrections is investigated by showing how these corrections enter in the expressions for the slow-roll parameters, the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio and how they influence the bound of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of the primordial acceleration. We demonstrate that the viable inflation maybe successfully realized, so that it turns out to be consistent with last Planck and BICEP2/Keck Array data.

  6. Classical and quantum electrodynamics and the B(3) field

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Myron W

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that classical electrodynamics is riddled with internal inconsistencies springing from the fact that it is a linear, Abelian theory in which the potentials are unphysical. This volume offers a self-consistent hypothesis which removes some of these problems, as well as builds a framework on which linear and nonlinear optics are treated as a non-Abelian gauge field theory based on the emergence of the fundamental magnetizing field of radiation, the B(3) field. Contents: Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation with One Fermion; The Field Equations of Classical O (3) b Electrodyn

  7. Tunable Hybrid Quantum Electrodynamics from Non-Linear Electron Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Schiró, Marco; Hur, Karyn Le

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum electronics have allowed to engineer hybrid nano-devices comprising on chip a microwave electromagnetic resonator coupled to an artificial atom, a quantum dot. These systems realize novel platforms to explore non-equilibrium quantum impurity physics with light and matter. Coupling the quantum dot system to reservoir leads (source and drain) produces an electronic current as well as dissipation when applying a bias voltage across the system. Focusing on a standard mo...

  8. Superconducting circuit probe for analog quantum simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liang-Hui; You, J. Q.; Tian, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Analog quantum simulators can be used to study quantum correlation in novel many-body systems by emulating the Hamiltonian of these systems. One essential question in quantum simulation is to probe the properties of an emulated many-body system. Here we present a circuit QED scheme for probing such properties by measuring the spectrum of a superconducting resonator coupled to a quantum simulator. We first study a general framework of this approach and show that the spectrum of the resonator is directly related to the correlation function of the coupling operator between the resonator and the simulator. We then apply this scheme to a simulator of the transverse field Ising model implemented with superconducting qubits, where the resonance peaks in the resonator spectrum correspond to the frequencies of the elementary excitations. The effects of resonator damping, qubit decoherence, and resonator backaction are also discussed. This setup can be used to probe a broad range of many-body models.

  9. Theory of quantum and classical connections in modeling atomic, molecular and electrodynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Popa, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    Quantum and Classical Connections in Modeling Atomic, Molecular and Electrodynamic Systems is intended for scientists and graduate students interested in the foundations of quantum mechanics and applied scientists interested in accurate atomic and molecular models. This is a reference to those working in the new field of relativistic optics, in topics related to relativistic interactions between very intense laser beams and particles, and is based on 30 years of research. The novelty of this work consists of accurate connections between the properties of quantum equations and correspon

  10. Radiative corrections for the matter-zeropoint field system: establishing contact with quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrödinger quantum mechanics has been shown in previous work to emerge as a consequence of matter-zeropoint field interaction, in the time-asymptotic regime where an energy balance has been achieved and the radiationless approximation can be taken. In this paper, we show that Planck's constant enters the quantum description precisely through the condition of energy balance. We then study the two most important effects to first order of previously neglected radiative terms on the atom, namely atomic transitions and the Lamb shift. The respective nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics formulae are fully recovered, with a clear role assigned to the intervention of the zeropoint field.

  11. Mathematica® for Theoretical Physics Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity and Fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Mathematica for Theoretical Physics: Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity, and Fractals This second edition of Baumann's Mathematica® in Theoretical Physics shows readers how to solve physical problems and deal with their underlying theoretical concepts while using Mathematica® to derive numeric and symbolic solutions. Each example and calculation can be evaluated by the reader, and the reader can change the example calculations and adopt the given code to related or similar problems. The second edition has been completely revised and expanded into two volumes: The first volume covers classical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics. Both topics are the basis of a regular mechanics course. The second volume covers electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, and fractals and fractional calculus. New examples have been added and the representation has been reworked to provide a more interactive problem-solving presentation. This book can be used as a textbook or as a reference work, by student...

  12. Atomistic electrodynamics simulations of bare and ligand-coated nanoparticles in the quantum size regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Moore, Justin E; Zekarias, Meserret; Jensen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles with nanometre dimensions exhibit features that cannot be described by classical electrodynamics. In this quantum size regime, the near-field properties are significantly modified and depend strongly on the geometric arrangements. However, simulating realistically sized systems while retaining the atomistic description remains computationally intractable for fully quantum mechanical approaches. Here we introduce an atomistic electrodynamics model where the traditional description of nanoparticles in terms of a macroscopic homogenous dielectric constant is replaced by an atomic representation with dielectric properties that depend on the local chemical environment. This model provides a unified description of bare and ligand-coated nanoparticles, as well as strongly interacting nanoparticle dimer systems. The non-local screening owing to an inhomogeneous ligand layer is shown to drastically modify the near-field properties. This will be important to consider in optimization of plasmonic nanostructures for near-field spectroscopy and sensing applications. PMID:26555179

  13. Memory Efficient Quantum Circuit Simulator Based on Linked List Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Samad, Wissam Abdel; Ghandour, Roy; Chehade, Mohamad Nabil Hajj

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we will introduce the quantum circuit simulator we developed in C++ environment. We devise a novel method for efficient memory handling using linked list structures that enables us to simulate a quantum circuit of up to 20 qubits in a reasonable time. Our package can simulate the activity of any quantum circuit constructed by the user; it will also be used to understand the robustness of certain quantum algorithms such as Simons and Shors.

  14. SIMLA: Simulating laser-particle interactions via classical and quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Green, D. G.; Harvey, C. N.

    2014-01-01

    We present the Fortran code SIMLA, which is designed for the study of charged particle dynamics in laser and other background fields. This can be done classically via the Landau-Lifshitz equation, or alternatively, via the simulation of photon emission events determined by strong-field quantum-electrodynamics amplitudes and implemented using Monte-Carlo type routines. Multiple laser fields can be included in the simulation and the propagation direction, beam shape (plane wave, focussed paraxi...

  15. Infinity in the regularization of Quantum Electrodynamics: A non standard Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Barcenas, J.; Reyes, L.; Esquivel--Sirvent, R.

    2006-01-01

    We review the concept of infinity as applied to regularization procedures in Quantum Electrodynamics. A clear distinction that is lacking in current literature is made between the physical contents of renormalization, and the mathematical aspects of regularization. Robinson's non-standard analysis is offered as a means to settle the ambiguities of the theory, in the spirit of Paul Dirac's well known comments concerning the weak status of the mathematics used in traditional regularization sche...

  16. Bound states in the two-dimension massive quantum electrodynamics (Qed2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studies the fermion-antifermion bound states in the (1+1)D two-dimension massive quantum electrodynamic in the 1/N expansion. The scattering matrices in the non-relativistic approximation have been calculated through TQC, and compared with the cross section in the Born approximation, and therefore the potential responsible by the interactions in the scattering processes have been obtained. Using Schroedinger equation, the existence of possible bound states have been investigated

  17. What we can learn about quantum electrodynamics from heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great success of quantum electrodynamics carries with it the importance of finding the limits of validity for the theory. A heavy-ion beam can be used to test some of these limits. Questions connected with the experimental proof of the instability of the neutral vacuum in supercritical fields and its decays into charged vacuum by means of positron emission are reviewed. The measurement of vacuum polarization in heavy-ion scattering is also discussed. (14 figures) (U.S.)

  18. Normalizability analysis of the generalized quantum electrodynamics from the causal point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Soto, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    The causal perturbation theory is an axiomatic perturbative theory of the S-matrix. This formalism has as its essence the following axioms: causality, Lorentz invariance and asymptotic conditions. Any other property must be showed via the inductive method order-by-order and, of course, it depends on the particular physical model. In this work we shall study the normalizability of the generalized quantum electrodynamics in the framework of the causal approach. Furthermore, we analyse the impli...

  19. Quantum electrodynamics within the framework of a new 4-dimensional symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum electrodynamics is discussed within the framework of a new 4-dimensional symmetry in which the concept of time, the propagation of light and the transformation property of many physical quantities are drastically different from those in special relativity. However, they are consistent with experiments. The new framework allows for natural developments of additional concepts. A possible and crucial experimental test of the new 4-dimensional symmetry is discussed

  20. Semidirect product of CCR and CAR algebras and asymptotic states in quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Herdegen, Andrzej

    1997-01-01

    A C*-algebra containing the CCR and CAR algebras as its subalgebras and naturally described as the semidirect product of these algebras is discussed. A particular example of this structure is considered as a model for the algebra of asymptotic fields in quantum electrodynamics, in which Gauss' law is respected. The appearence in this algebra of a phase variable related to electromagnetic potential leads to the universal charge quantization. Translationally covariant representations of this al...

  1. Preparation of Genuinely Entangled Six-Atom State via Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen; LIU Yi-Min; YIN Xiao-Feng; ZHANG Zhan-Jun

    2011-01-01

    A cavity quantum electrodynamics scheme for preparing a genuinely entangled state [A. Borras, et al., J. Phys. A 40 (2007) 13407] on six two-level atoms is proposed. In the scheme, the atom-cavity detuning is much bigger than the atom-cavity coupling strength and the necessary preparation time is much shorter than the Rydberg-atom lifespan. Hence the scheme has two distinct features, i.e., insensitive to the cavity decay and the atom radiation.

  2. Breit and Quantum Electrodynamics Energy Contributions in Multielectron Atoms from the Relativistic Screened Hydrogenic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Héctor O.; Lanzini, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The correction to the Coulomb repulsion between two electrons due to the exchange of a transverse photon, referred to as the Breit interaction, as well as the main quantum electrodynamics contributions to the atomic energies (self-energy and vacuum polarization), are calculated using the recently formulated relativistic screened hydrogenic model. Comparison with the results of multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations and experimental X- ray energies is made.

  3. Quantum memory with millisecond coherence in circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagor, Matthew; Pfaff, Wolfgang; Axline, Christopher; Heeres, Reinier W.; Ofek, Nissim; Sliwa, Katrina; Holland, Eric; Wang, Chen; Blumoff, Jacob; Chou, Kevin; Hatridge, Michael J.; Frunzio, Luigi; Devoret, Michel H.; Jiang, Liang; Schoelkopf, Robert J.

    2016-07-01

    Significant advances in coherence render superconducting quantum circuits a viable platform for fault-tolerant quantum computing. To further extend capabilities, highly coherent quantum systems could act as quantum memories for these circuits. A useful quantum memory must be rapidly addressable by Josephson-junction-based artificial atoms, while maintaining superior coherence. We demonstrate a superconducting microwave cavity architecture that is highly robust against major sources of loss that are encountered in the engineering of circuit QED systems. The architecture allows for storage of quantum superpositions in a resonator on the millisecond scale, while strong coupling between the resonator and a transmon qubit enables control, encoding, and readout at MHz rates. This extends the maximum available coherence time attainable in superconducting circuits by almost an order of magnitude compared to earlier hardware. Our design is an ideal platform for studying coherent quantum optics and marks an important step towards hardware-efficient quantum computing in Josephson-junction-based quantum circuits.

  4. Generation of a multi-qubit W entangled state through spatially separated semiconductor quantum-dot-molecules in cavity-quantum electrodynamics arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Siping [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Yu, Rong [Wuhan Institute of Technology, School of Science, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot, Wuhan 430073 (China); Li, Jiahua, E-mail: huajia-li@163.com [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu, Ying, E-mail: yingwu2@126.com [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-04-07

    Generating entangled states attract tremendous interest as the most vivid manifestation of nonlocality of quantum mechanics and also for emerging applications in quantum information processing (QIP). Here, we propose theoretically a scheme for the deterministic generation of a three-qubit W sate with three semiconductor quantum-dot-molecules (QDMs) trapped in spatially separated cavities connected by optical fibers. The proposed scheme takes full advantage of the voltage-controlled tunnelling effects in QDMs, which induces the quantum coherence and further controls the generation of the W entangled state. The influences of the system parameters and various decoherence processes including spontaneous decay and photon leakage on the fidelity of the W state are discussed in details. Numerical results indicate that our scheme is not only robust against these decoherence factors but also insensitive to the deviation of the system parameters from the ideal conditions. Furthermore, the present scheme can be directly extended to realize an N-qubit W state. Also, this scheme can be generically transferred to other physical systems, including circuit quantum electrodynamics and photonic crystal cavities. The results obtained here may be useful in real experiments for realizing QIP in a solid-state platform.

  5. Quantum-electrodynamical approach to the Casimir force problem

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    We derive the Casimir force expression from Maxwell's stress tensor by means of original quantum-electro-dynamical cavity modes. In contrast with similar calculations, our method is straightforward and does not rely on intricate mathematical extrapolation relations.

  6. Cavity quantum electrodynamics in the Anderson-localized regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally measure, by means of time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, a 15-fold enhancement of the spontaneous emission decay rate of single semiconductor quantum dots coupled to disorder-induced Anderson-localized modes with efficiencies reaching 94%....

  7. A scheme for transferring an unknown atomic entangled state via cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Tao; Ye Liu; Ni Zhi-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a scheme for transferring an unknown atomic entangled state via cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This scheme, which has a successful probability of 100 percent, does not require Bell-state measurement and performing any operations to reconstruct an initial state. Meanwhile, the scheme only involves atomfield interaction with a large detuning and does not require the transfer of quantum information between the atoms and cavity. Thus the scheme is insensitive to the cavity field states and cavity decay. This scheme can also be extended to transfer ring an entangled state of n-atom.

  8. Multi-objective design of quantum circuits using genetic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvaghad-Moghaddam, Moein

    2016-01-01

    Quantum computing is a new way of data processing based on the concept of quantum mechanics. Quantum circuit design is a process of converting a quantum gate to a series of basic gates and is divided into two general categories based on the decomposition and composition. In the second group, using evolutionary algorithms and especially genetic algorithms, multiplication of matrix gates was used to achieve the final characteristic of quantum circuit. Genetic programming is a subfield of evolut...

  9. On Multiplicative Linear Logic, Modality and Quantum Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Dal Lago

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A logical system derived from linear logic and called QMLL is introduced and shown able to capture all unitary quantum circuits. Conversely, any proof is shown to compute, through a concrete GoI interpretation, some quantum circuits. The system QMLL, which enjoys cut-elimination, is obtained by endowing multiplicative linear logic with a quantum modality.

  10. Approach for electrodynamic force for compensation in low voltage circuit breaker WP 630-1.2 type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Na; XU L.J.; Miedzi(n)ski B.

    2007-01-01

    Undesirable repulsive force between contact members due to both a current path shrink near a real contact area and/or so-called pinch effect is particularly onerous for power switch applications, and results in either contact floating or bouncing which are associated with an electric arc following contact welding. This problem is of great importance for any circuit breaker especially for compact low voltage vacuum circuit breakers. To avoid contact floating at closure and during any inrush current under short circuit conditions, the electrodynamic repulsive force can be employed successfully if we use a special compensation system flexibly combined with the contact itself. However to select and design the compensation system properly, its efficiency has to be known. This paper presents an approach to obtain the electrodynamic force value depending on different shaped (rectangular,square, circle and arch) copper plates used in the compensator by using ANSYS for current values 40 kA RMS. Curve-fitting was done according to the calculating results, the optimization designing of compensation unit is based on them.

  11. Random electrodynamics : a classical foundation for key quantum concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model of random electrodynamics, in which electromagnetic particles are subjected, in a classical manner, to the forces of radiation damping and the fluctuating zero-point fields provides the framework in which the following results are obtained: (1) The precession dynamics of a long-lived, non-relativistic particle with a magnetic moment proportional to its spin, leads to a self-consistent determination of the spin value as one-half. (2) The internal dynamic underlying the intrinsic magnetic moment of a Dirac particle yields a classically visualizable picture of the spin-magnetic moment. (3) The Bose correlation among indistinguishable, non-interacting, spin-zero Particles arises from the coupling through the common- zero point fields and the radiation reaction fields when the particles are close together in both the r vector and the energy spaces. (4) The (exclusion principle-induced) correlation among identical, non-interacting magnetic particles with spin 1/2 is brought about by the coupling, (through the common fields of radiation reaction and the vacuum fluctuations), of the spins as well as the translational motions when the particles are close together in r vector and the energy spaces. (5) A dilute gas of free electrons has a Maxwellian distribution of velocities and the correct value of the djamagnetic moment in the presence of a magnetic field. Considerations on the centre of mass motion of a composite neutral particle lead to a simple resolution of the foundational paradoxes of statistical mechanics. (6) An approximate treatment of the hydrogen atom leads to a description of the evolution to the ground state at absolute zero and an estimation of the mass frequency and the line-width of the radiation emitted when an excited atom decays. (author)

  12. Universal Quantum Circuit of Near-Trivial Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Min; Yang, Li

    2011-01-01

    Any unitary transformation can be decomposed into a product of a group of near-trivial transformations. We investigate in details the construction of universal quantum circuit of near trivial transformations. We first construct two universal quantum circuits which can implement any single-qubit rotation $R_y(\\theta)$ and $R_z(\\theta)$ within any given precision, and then we construct universal quantum circuit implementing any single-qubit transformation within any given precision. Finally, a ...

  13. A 3+1 formalism for quantum electrodynamical corrections to Maxwell equations in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Pétri, J

    2015-01-01

    Magnetized neutron stars constitute a special class of compact objects harbouring gravitational fields that deviate strongly from the Newtonian weak field limit. Moreover strong electromagnetic fields anchored into the star give rise to non-linear corrections to Maxwell equations described by quantum electrodynamics (QED). Electromagnetic fields close to or above the critical value of $\\BQ=4.4\\times10^9$~T are probably present in some pulsars and for most of the magnetars. To account properly for emission emanating from the neutron star surface like for instance thermal radiation and its polarization properties, it is important to include general relativistic (GR) effects simultaneously with non-linear electrodynamics. This can be achieved through a 3+1 formalism known in general relativity and that incorporates QED perturbations to Maxwell equations. Starting from the lowest order corrections to the Lagrangian for the electromagnetic field, as given for instance by Born-Infeld or Euler-Heisenberg theory, we ...

  14. Quantum Teleportation circuit using Matlab and Mathematica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms.Swati Sharma,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This Paper describes a basic Quantum Teleportation circuit using mat lab Qlib tool. Teleportation is a new and exciting field of future communication. We know that security in data communication is a major concern nowadays. Among the encryption technologies that are available at present, shared key is the most reliable which depends on secure key generation and distribution. Teleportation/ ntanglement is a perfect solution for secure key generation and distribution, as for the no cloning theorem of quantum mechanics any attempt to intercept the key by the eavesdropper will be detectable immediately. A program is simulated with successful simulation which give successful transfer of random qubit to output and which governs perfect communication between Alice and Bob.

  15. A nanophotonic probe for quantum electrodynamics in random cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huisman, S. R.; Frater, E. H.; Korterik, J. P.; Herek, J. L.; Mosk, A. P.; Offerhaus, H. L.; Lagendijk, A.; Stobbe, Søren; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Lodahl, Peter; Vos, W. L.; Pinkse, P .W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Disorder in photonic-crystal slab waveguides can cause localization of light [1, 2]. Sapienza et al. observed that the interaction of localized light with embedded quantum dots is so strong that it yields a considerable Purcell enhancement of the emission rate [3]. This coupling between emitters...... and these “random cavities” warrants a more detailed investigation....

  16. A nanophotonic probe for quantum electrodynamics in random cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huisman, S. R.; Frater, E. H.; Korterik, J. P.;

    2011-01-01

    Disorder in photonic-crystal slab waveguides can cause localization of light [1, 2]. Sapienza et al. observed that the interaction of localized light with embedded quantum dots is so strong that it yields a considerable Purcell enhancement of the emission rate [3]. This coupling between emitters ...

  17. Epitaxial lift-off for solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Greuter, Lukas; Kuhlmann, Andreas V; Valentin, Sascha; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Starosielec, Sebastian; Warburton, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to incorporate self-assembled quantum dots into a Fabry-P\\'{e}rot-like microcavity. Thereby a 3$\\lambda$/4 GaAs layer containing quantum dots is epitaxially removed and attached by van der Waals bonding to one of the microcavity mirrors. We reach a finesse as high as 4,100 with this configuration limited by the reflectivity of the dielectric mirrors and not by scattering at the semiconductor - mirror interface, demonstrating that the epitaxial lift-off procedure is a promising procedure for cavity quantum electrodynamics in the solid state. As a first step in this direction, we demonstrate a clear cavity-quantum dot interaction in the weak coupling regime with a Purcell factor in the order of 3. Estimations of the coupling strength via the Purcell factor suggests that we are close to the strong coupling regime.

  18. Quantum electrodynamics in a whispering-gallery microcavity coated with a polymer nanolayer

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yun-Feng; Xue, Peng; Xiao, Lixin; Li, Yan; Dong, Chun-Hua; Han, Zheng-Fu; Gong, Qihuang

    2010-01-01

    Quasi-transverse-electric and -transverse-magnetic fundamental whispering gallery modes in a polymer-coated silica microtoroid are theoretically investigated and demonstrated to possess very high-quality factors. The existence of a nanometer-thickness layer not only evidently reduces the cavity mode volume but also draws the maximal electric field's position of the mode to the outside of the silica toroid, where single quantum dots or nanocrystals are located. Both effects result in a strongly enhanced coherent interaction between a single dipole (for example, a single defect center in a diamond crystal) and the quantized cavity mode. Since the coated microtoroid is highly feasible and robust in experiments, it may offer an excellent platform to study strong-coupling cavity quantum electrodynamics, quantum information, and quantum computation.

  19. Quantum electrodynamics in a whispering-gallery microcavity coated with a polymer nanolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasi-transverse-electric and -transverse-magnetic fundamental whispering gallery modes in a polymer-coated silica microtoroid are theoretically investigated and demonstrated to possess very high-quality factors. The existence of a nanometer-thickness layer not only evidently reduces the cavity mode volume but also draws the maximal electric field's position of the mode to the outside of the silica toroid, where single quantum dots or nanocrystals are located. Both effects result in a strongly enhanced coherent interaction between a single dipole (for example, a single defect center in a diamond crystal) and the quantized cavity mode. Since the coated microtoroid is highly feasible and robust in experiments, it may offer an excellent platform to study strong-coupling cavity quantum electrodynamics, quantum information, and quantum computation.

  20. Epitaxial lift-off for solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greuter, Lukas; Najer, Daniel; Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Starosielec, Sebastian; Warburton, Richard J. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, Basel 4056 (Switzerland); Valentin, Sascha R.; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2015-08-21

    We demonstrate an approach to incorporate self-assembled quantum dots into a Fabry-Pérot-like microcavity. Thereby, a 3λ/4 GaAs layer containing quantum dots is epitaxially removed and attached by van der Waals bonding to one of the microcavity mirrors. We reach a finesse as high as 4100 with this configuration limited by the reflectivity of the dielectric mirrors and not by scattering at the semiconductor-mirror interface, demonstrating that the epitaxial lift-off procedure is a promising procedure for cavity quantum electrodynamics in the solid state. As a first step in this direction, we demonstrate a clear cavity-quantum dot interaction in the weak coupling regime with a Purcell factor in the order of 3. Estimations of the coupling strength via the Purcell factor suggest that we are close to the strong coupling regime.

  1. Epitaxial lift-off for solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate an approach to incorporate self-assembled quantum dots into a Fabry-Pérot-like microcavity. Thereby, a 3λ/4 GaAs layer containing quantum dots is epitaxially removed and attached by van der Waals bonding to one of the microcavity mirrors. We reach a finesse as high as 4100 with this configuration limited by the reflectivity of the dielectric mirrors and not by scattering at the semiconductor-mirror interface, demonstrating that the epitaxial lift-off procedure is a promising procedure for cavity quantum electrodynamics in the solid state. As a first step in this direction, we demonstrate a clear cavity-quantum dot interaction in the weak coupling regime with a Purcell factor in the order of 3. Estimations of the coupling strength via the Purcell factor suggest that we are close to the strong coupling regime

  2. Circuit Design Methods for Quantum Separator (QS) and Systems to Use Its Output

    CERN Document Server

    Werbos, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    The underlying dynamics (\\partialt{\\psi}=iH{\\psi}) of quantum electrodynamics are symmetric with respect to time (T and CPT), but traditional calculations and designs in electronics and electromagnetics impose an observer formalism or causality constraints which assume a gross asymmetry between forwards time and backwards time. In 2008, I published a paper in the International Journal of Theoretical Physics (see arXiv:0801.1234) which describes how to construct physics based on the dynamics alone, without these extraneous assumptions. It pointed out that this changes certain predictions of physics in a testable way, and that evidence from experiment favors the new and simpler versions of quantum theory. This disclosure follows up on that paper, by describing methods for circuit design based on the new physics. It provides a striking example - how to design a quantum separator (QS), which separates out the eigenfunctions which supply ordinary time-forwards free energy from the time-inverted eigenfunctions, whe...

  3. Quantum Effects of Mesoscopic Inductance and Capacity Coupling Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Xin; AN Zhan-Yuan; SONG Yong-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Using the quantum theory for a mesoscopic circuit based on the discretenes of electric charges, the finitedifference Schrodinger equation of the non-dissipative mesoscopic inductance and capacity coupling circuit is achieved.The Coulomb blockade effect, which is caused by the discreteness of electric charges, is studied. Appropriately choose the components in the circuits, the finite-difference Schrodinger equation can be divided into two Mathieu equations in p representation. With the WKBJ method, the currents quantum fluctuations in the ground states of the two circuits are calculated. The results show that the currents quantum zero-point fluctuations of the two circuits are exist and correlated.

  4. Quantum State Engineering by Superpositions of Coherent States along aStraight Line in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑仕标

    2001-01-01

    A scheme is proposed for generating the superpositions of several coherent states in a cavity field with dispersive cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). In the scheme, a sequence of atoms interacts dispersively with the cavity field, connected with a microwave source, and is manipulated by classical fields, followed by state-selective measurements. In this way, the cavity field is collapsed onto a superposition of several coherent states along a straight line with controllable coefficients. This scheme provides the possibility for quantum state engineering via coherent-state superpositions along a straight line in cavity QED for the first time.

  5. Universal programmable quantum circuit schemes to emulate an operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlike fixed designs, programmable circuit designs support an infinite number of operators. The functionality of a programmable circuit can be altered by simply changing the angle values of the rotation gates in the circuit. Here, we present a new quantum circuit design technique resulting in two general programmable circuit schemes. The circuit schemes can be used to simulate any given operator by setting the angle values in the circuit. This provides a fixed circuit design whose angles are determined from the elements of the given matrix–which can be non-unitary–in an efficient way. We also give both the classical and quantum complexity analysis for these circuits and show that the circuits require a few classical computations. For the electronic structure simulation on a quantum computer, one has to perform the following steps: prepare the initial wave function of the system; present the evolution operator U=e−iHt for a given atomic and molecular Hamiltonian H in terms of quantum gates array and apply the phase estimation algorithm to find the energy eigenvalues. Thus, in the circuit model of quantum computing for quantum chemistry, a crucial step is presenting the evolution operator for the atomic and molecular Hamiltonians in terms of quantum gate arrays. Since the presented circuit designs are independent from the matrix decomposition techniques and the global optimization processes used to find quantum circuits for a given operator, high accuracy simulations can be done for the unitary propagators of molecular Hamiltonians on quantum computers. As an example, we show how to build the circuit design for the hydrogen molecule.

  6. Quantum memristor in a superconducting circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmilehto, Juha; Sanz, Mikel; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Solano, Enrique

    Memristors, resistive elements that retain information of their past, have garnered interest due to their paradigm-changing potential in information processing and electronics. The emergent hysteretic behaviour allows for novel architectural applications and has recently been classically demonstrated in a simplified superconducting setup using the phase-dependent conductance in the tunnel-junction-microscopic model. In this contribution, we present a truly quantum model for a memristor constructed using established elements and techniques in superconducting nanoelectronics, and explore the parameters for feasible operation as well as refine the methods for quantifying the memory retention. In particular, the memristive behaviour is shown to arise from quasiparticle-induced tunneling in the full dissipative model and can be observed in the phase-driven tunneling current. The relevant hysteretic behaviour should be observable using current state-of-the-art measurements for detecting quasiparticle excitations. Our theoretical findings constitute the first quantum memristor in a superconducting circuit and act as the starting point for designing further circuit elements that have non-Markovian characteristics The authors acknowledge support from the CCQED EU project and the Finnish Cultural Foundation.

  7. The current density in quantum electrodynamics in external potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schlemmer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We review different definitions of the current density for quantized fermions in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. Several deficiencies in the popular prescription due to Schwinger and the mode sum formula for static external potentials are pointed out. We argue that Dirac's method, which is the analog of the Hadamard point-splitting employed in quantum field theory in curved space-times, is conceptually the most satisfactory. As a concrete example, we discuss vacuum polarization and the stress-energy tensor for massless fermions in 1+1 dimension. Also a general formula for the vacuum polarization in static external potentials in 3+1 dimensions is derived.

  8. The current density in quantum electrodynamics in external potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemmer, Jan; Zahn, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    We review different definitions of the current density for quantized fermions in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. Several deficiencies in the popular prescription due to Schwinger and the mode sum formula for static external potentials are pointed out. We argue that Dirac's method, which is the analog of the Hadamard point-splitting employed in quantum field theory in curved space-times, is conceptually the most satisfactory. As a concrete example, we discuss vacuum polarization and the stress-energy tensor for massless fermions in 1+1 dimension. Also a general formula for the vacuum polarization in static external potentials in 3+1 dimensions is derived.

  9. A Quantum Algorithm for Finding a Hamilton Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hao; LONG Gui-Lu; SUN Yang; XIU Xiao-Lin

    2001-01-01

    A quantum algorithm for solving the classical NP-complete problem - the Hamilton circuit is presented. The algorithm employs the quantum SAT and the quantum search algorithms. The algorithm is square-root faster than classical algorithm, and becomes exponentially faster than classical algorithm if nonlinear quantum mechanical computer is used.

  10. Computing Hypergraph Ramsey Numbers by Using Quantum Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Ri; Li, Zong-shang; WANG, Juan; Bao, Yan-ru; Cao, Xiao-chun

    2012-01-01

    Gaitan and Clark [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 010501 (2012)] have recently shown a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers using adiabatic quantum evolution. We present a quantum algorithm to compute the two-color Ramsey numbers for r-uniform hypergraphs by using the quantum counting circuit.

  11. Analysis of adiabatic transfer in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joyee Ghosh; R Ghosh; Deepak Kumar

    2011-10-01

    A three-level atom in a configuration trapped in an optical cavity forms a basic unit in a number of proposed protocols for quantum information processing. This system allows for efficient storage of cavity photons into long-lived atomic excitations, and their retrieval with high fidelity, in an adiabatic transfer process through the ‘dark state’ by a slow variation of the control laser intensity. We study the full quantum mechanics of this transfer process with a view to examine the non-adiabatic effects arising from inevitable excitations of the system to states involving the upper level of , which is radiative. We find that the fidelity of storage is better, the stronger the control field and the slower the rate of its switching off. On the contrary, unlike the adiabatic notion, retrieval is better with faster rates of switching on of an optimal control field. Also, for retrieval, the behaviour with dissipation is non-monotonic. These results lend themselves to experimental tests. Our exact computations, when applied to slow variations of the control intensity for strong atom–photon couplings, are in very good agreement with Berry’s superadiabatic transfer results without dissipation.

  12. Emergence of supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics on the surface of a correlated topological insulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jian, Shao-Kai; Maciejko, Joseph; Yao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We show that a supersymmetric gauge theory with dynamical gauge bosons and fermionic gauginos emerges naturally at the pair-density-wave (PDW) quantum phase transition on the surface of a correlated topological insulator (TI) hosting three Dirac cones, such as the candidate topological Kondo insulator SmB$_6$. At the tricritical point separating the first- and second-order quantum phase transitions between the surface Dirac semimetal and nematic PDW phases, three massless bosonic Cooper pair fields emerge as the superpartners of three massless surface Dirac fermions. The resulting low-energy effective theory is the supersymmetric XYZ model, which is dual by mirror symmetry to $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics (SQED) in 2+1 dimensions. Using supersymmetry, we calculate exactly certain critical exponents and the optical conductivity of the surface states at the tricritical point, which may be measured in future experiments.

  13. Low depth quantum circuits for Ising models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iblisdir, S., E-mail: iblisdir@ecm.ub.edu [Dept. Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cirio, M. [Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109 (Australia); Boada, O. [Physics of Information Group, Instituto de Telecomunicações, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Brennen, G.K., E-mail: gavin.brennen@mq.edu.au [Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2014-01-15

    A scheme for measuring complex temperature partition functions of Ising models is introduced. Two applications of this scheme are presented. First, through appropriate Wick rotations, those amplitudes can be analytically continued to yield estimates for partition functions of Ising models. Bounds on the estimated error are provided through a central-limit theorem whose validity extends beyond the present context; it holds for example for estimations of the Jones polynomial. The kind of state preparations and measurements involved in this application can be made independent of the system size or the parameters of the system being simulated. Second, the scheme allows to accurately estimate non-trivial invariants of links. Another result concerns the computational power of estimations of partition functions for real temperature classical ferromagnetic Ising models. We provide conditions under which estimating such partition functions allows to reconstruct scattering amplitudes of quantum circuits, making the problem BQP-hard. We also show fidelity overlaps for ground states of quantum Hamiltonians, which serve as a witness to quantum phase transitions, can be estimated from classical Ising model partition functions. Finally, we discuss how accurate corner magnetisation measurements on thermal states of two-dimensional Ising models lead to fully polynomial random approximation schemes (FPRAS) for the partition function.

  14. Observable effects and parametrized scaling limits of a model in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hiroshima, F

    2001-01-01

    Scaling limits of the Hamiltonian $H$ of a system of $N$ charged particles coupled to a quantized radiation field are considered. Ultraviolet cutoffs, $\\la_1,....,\\la_N$, are imposed on the radiation field and the Coulomb gauge is taken. It is so called the Pauli-Fierz model in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics. We mainly consider two cases: (i) all the ultraviolet cutoffs are identical, $\\la_1=\\cdots=\\la_N$, (ii) supports of ultraviolet cutoffs have no intersection, ${\\rm supp}\\la_i\\cap{\\rm supp}\\laj=\\emptyset$, $i\

  15. SIMLA: Simulating laser-particle interactions via classical and quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, D G

    2014-01-01

    We present the Fortran code SIMLA, which is designed for the study of charged particle dynamics in laser and other background fields. This can be done classically via the Landau-Lifshitz equation, or alternatively, via the simulation of photon emission events determined by strong-field quantum-electrodynamics amplitudes and implemented using Monte-Carlo type routines. Multiple laser fields can be included in the simulation and the propagation direction, beam shape (plane wave, focussed paraxial, constant crossed, or constant magnetic), and time envelope of each can be independently specified.

  16. Normalizability analysis of the generalized quantum electrodynamics from the causal point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Bufalo, R; Soto, D E

    2015-01-01

    The causal perturbation theory is an axiomatic perturbative theory of the S-matrix. This formalism has as its essence the following axioms: causality, Lorentz invariance and asymptotic conditions. Any other property must be showed via the inductive method order-by-order and, of course, it depends on the particular physical model. In this work we shall study the normalizability of the generalized quantum electrodynamics in the framework of the causal approach. Furthermore, we analyse the implication of the gauge invariance onto the model and obtain the respective Ward-Takahashi-Fradkin identities.

  17. Explicit Derivation of Duality between a Free Dirac Cone and Quantum Electrodynamics in (2 +1 ) Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mross, David F.; Alicea, Jason; Motrunich, Olexei I.

    2016-07-01

    We explicitly derive the duality between a free electronic Dirac cone and quantum electrodynamics in (2 +1 ) dimensions (QED3 ) with N =1 fermion flavors. The duality proceeds via an exact, nonlocal mapping from electrons to dual fermions with long-range interactions encoded by an emergent gauge field. This mapping allows us to construct parent Hamiltonians for exotic topological-insulator surface phases, derive the particle-hole-symmetric field theory of a half-filled Landau level, and nontrivially constrain QED3 scaling dimensions. We similarly establish duality between bosonic topological insulator surfaces and N =2 QED3 .

  18. Chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics as fixed point annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Herbut, Igor F

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in three dimensional ($d=3$) quantum electrodynamics is understood as annihilation of an infrared-stable fixed point that describes the large-N conformal phase by another unstable fixed point at a critical number of fermions $N=N_c$. We discuss the root of universality of $N_c$ in this picture, together with some features of the phase boundary in the $(d,N)$ plane. In particular, it is shown that as $d\\rightarrow 4$, $N_c\\rightarrow 0$ with a constant slope, our best estimate of which suggests that $N_c = 2.89$ in $d=3$.

  19. Chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics as fixed point annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbut, Igor F.

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional (d =3 ) quantum electrodynamics is understood as annihilation of an infrared-stable fixed point that describes the large-N conformal phase by another unstable fixed point at a critical number of fermions N =Nc. We discuss the root of universality of Nc in this picture, together with some features of the phase boundary in the (d ,N ) plane. In particular, it is shown that as d →4 , Nc→0 with a constant slope, our best estimate of which suggests that Nc=2.89 in d =3 .

  20. Time Evolution in the external field problem of Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarovici, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    A general problem of quantum field theories is the fact that the free vacuum and the vacuum for an interacting theory belong to different, non-equivalent representations of the canonical (anti-)commutation relations. In the external field problem of QED, we encounter this problem in the form that the Dirac time evolution for an external field with non-vanishing magnetic components will not satisfy the Shale-Stinespring condition, known to be necessary and sufficient for the existence of an implementation on the fermionic Fock space. Therefore, a second quantization of the time evolution in the usual way is impossible. In this thesis, we present several rigorous approaches to QED with time-dependent, external fields and analyze in what sense a time evolution can exist in the second quantized theory. We study different constructions of the fermionic Fock space and prove their equivalence. We study and compare the results of Deckert et. al. (2010), where the time evolution is realized as unitary transformations ...

  1. Nonlinear Electrodynamics and QED

    OpenAIRE

    Delphenich, David

    2003-01-01

    The limits of linear electrodynamics are reviewed, and possible directions of nonlinear extension are explored. The central theme is that the qualitative character of the empirical successes of quantum electrodynamics must be used as a guide for understanding the nature of the nonlinearity of electrodynamics at the subatomic level. Some established theories of nonlinear electrodynamics, namely, those of Mie, Born, and Infeld are presented in the language of the modern geometrical and topologi...

  2. A 3+1 formalism for quantum electrodynamical corrections to Maxwell equations in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétri, J.

    2015-08-01

    Magnetized neutron stars constitute a special class of compact objects harbouring gravitational fields that deviate strongly from the Newtonian weak field limit. Moreover, strong electromagnetic fields anchored into the star give rise to non-linear corrections to Maxwell equations described by quantum electrodynamics (QED). Electromagnetic fields close to or above the critical value of BQ = 4.4 × 109 T are probably present in some pulsars and for most of the magnetars. To account properly for emission emanating from the neutron star surface like for instance thermal radiation and its polarization properties, it is important to include general relativistic (GR) effects simultaneously with non-linear electrodynamics. This can be achieved through a 3+1 formalism known in general relativity and that incorporates QED perturbations to Maxwell equations. Starting from the lowest order corrections to the Lagrangian for the electromagnetic field, as given for instance by Born-Infeld or Euler-Heisenberg theory, we derive the non-linear Maxwell equations in general relativity including quantum vacuum effects. We also derive a prescription for the force-free limit and show that these equations can be solved with classical finite volume methods for hyperbolic conservation laws. It is therefore straightforward to include general relativity and QED in the description of neutron star magnetospheres by using standard classical numerical techniques borrowed from Maxwell and Newton theory. As an application, we show that spin-down luminosity corrections associated with QED effects are negligible with respect to GR corrections.

  3. Non-unitary probabilistic quantum computing circuit and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin P. (Inventor); Gingrich, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A quantum circuit performing quantum computation in a quantum computer. A chosen transformation of an initial n-qubit state is probabilistically obtained. The circuit comprises a unitary quantum operator obtained from a non-unitary quantum operator, operating on an n-qubit state and an ancilla state. When operation on the ancilla state provides a success condition, computation is stopped. When operation on the ancilla state provides a failure condition, computation is performed again on the ancilla state and the n-qubit state obtained in the previous computation, until a success condition is obtained.

  4. Mapping of topological quantum circuits to physical hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J; Nemoto, Kae; Polian, Ilia

    2014-01-01

    Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve large-scale, error-corrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3-dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and fault-tolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit. PMID:24722360

  5. Mapping of Topological Quantum Circuits to Physical Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J.; Nemoto, Kae; Polian, Ilia

    2014-04-01

    Topological quantum computation is a promising technique to achieve large-scale, error-corrected computation. Quantum hardware is used to create a large, 3-dimensional lattice of entangled qubits while performing computation requires strategic measurement in accordance with a topological circuit specification. The specification is a geometric structure that defines encoded information and fault-tolerant operations. The compilation of a topological circuit is one important aspect of programming a quantum computer, another is the mapping of the topological circuit into the operations performed by the hardware. Each qubit has to be controlled, and measurement results are needed to propagate encoded quantum information from input to output. In this work, we introduce an algorithm for mapping an topological circuit to the operations needed by the physical hardware. We determine the control commands for each qubit in the computer and the relevant measurements that are needed to track information as it moves through the circuit.

  6. Modeling of radiative and quantum electrodynamics effects in PIC simulations of ultra-relativistic laser-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, M.; d'Humières, E.; Grech, M.; Ruyer, C.; Davoine, X.; Gremillet, L.

    2016-03-01

    Next generation of ultra-intense laser facilities will lead to novel physical conditions ruled by collective and quantum electrodynamics effects, such as synchrotron-like emission of high-energy photons and e + e - pair generation. In view of the future experiments performed in this regime, the latter processes have been implemented into the particle-in-cell code CALDER.

  7. Relativistic wave equations of n-body systems of fermions and antifermions of various masses in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variational method in a reformulated Hamiltonian formalism of quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to derive relativistic wave equations for systems consisting of n fermions and antifermions of various masses. The derived interaction kernels of these equations include one-photon exchange interactions. The equations have the expected Schroedinger non-relativistic limit. Application to some exotic few lepton systems is discussed briefly. (author)

  8. Modeling of photon and pair production due to quantum electrodynamics effects in particle-in-cell simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, W -M; Gibbon, P; Li, Y -T

    2016-01-01

    We develop the particle-in-cell (PIC) code KLAPS to include the photon generation via the Compton scattering and electron-positron creation via the Breit-Wheeler process due to quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects. We compare two sets of existing formulas for the photon generation and different Monte Carlo algorithms. Then we benchmark the PIC simulation results.

  9. A superconducting circuit probe for analog quantum simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Liang-Hui; You, J. Q.; Tian, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Analog quantum simulators can be used to study quantum correlation in novel many-body systems by emulating the Hamiltonian of these systems. One essential question in quantum simulation is to probe the properties of an emulated many-body system. Here we present a circuit QED scheme for probing such properties by measuring the spectrum of a superconducting resonator coupled to a quantum simulator. We first study a general framework of this approach, and show that the spectrum of the resonator ...

  10. Discrete-charge quantum circuits in semiclassical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Utreras-Díaz, C.A.; J. C. Flores

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a new approach to describe mesoscopic systems, based on the ideas of quantum electrical circuits with charge discreteness. This approach has allowed us to propose a simple alternative descriptions of some mesoscopic systems, with interesting results for some mesoscopic systems. In his work, we show that the application of the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rules to the Quantum $LC$ circuit with discrete charge allows us to easily reproduce previous results.

  11. Generating efficient quantum circuits for preparing maximally multipartite entangled states

    OpenAIRE

    Sadowski, Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    In this work we provide a method for generating quantum circuits preparing maximally multipartite entangled states using genetic programming. The presented method is faster that known realisations thanks to the applied fitness function and several modifications to the genetic programming schema. Moreover, we enrich the described method by the unique possibility to define an arbitrary structure of a system. We use the developed method to find new quantum circuits, which are simpler from known ...

  12. Specification of photonic circuits using Quantum Hardware Description Language

    OpenAIRE

    Tezak, Nikolas; Niederberger, Armand; Pavlichin, Dmitri S.; Sarma, Gopal; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Following the simple observation that the interconnection of a set of quantum optical input-output devices can be specified using structural mode VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL), we demonstrate a computer-aided schematic capture workflow for modeling and simulating multi-component photonic circuits. We describe an algorithm for parsing circuit descriptions to derive quantum equations of motion, illustrate our approach using simple examples based on linear and cavity-nonlinear optic...

  13. Quantum Effect in the Mesoscopic RLC Circuits with a Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Xin; YAN Zhan-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The research work on the quantum effects in mesoscopic circuits has undergone a rapid development recently, however the whole quantum theory of the mesoscopic circuits should consider the discreteness of the electric charge. In this paper, based on the fundamental fact that the electric charge takes discrete values, the finite-difference Schrodinger equation of.the mesoscopic RLC circuit with a source is achieved. With a unitary transformation, the Schrodinger equation becomes the standard Mathieu equation, then the energy spectrum and the wave functions of the system are obtained. Using the WKBJ method, the average of currents and square of the current are calculated. The results show the existence of the current fluctuation, which causes noise in the circuits. This paper is an application of the whole quantum mesoscopic circuits theory to the fundamental circuits, and the results will shed light on the design of the miniation circuits, especially on the purpose of reducing quantum noise coherent controlling of the mesoscopic quantum states.

  14. Teleportation of two-atom entangled state in resonant cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhen-Biao

    2007-01-01

    An alternative scheme is presented for teleportation of a two-atom entangled state in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). It is based on the resonant atom-cavity field interaction. In the scheme, only one cavity is involved, and the number of the atoms needed to be detected is decreased compared with the previous scheme. Since the resonant atom-cavity field interaction greatly reduces the interaction time, the decoherence effect can be effectively suppressed during the teleportation process. The experimental feasibility of the scheme is discussed. The scheme can easily be generalized to the teleportation of N-atom Greeninger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states. The number of atoms needed to be detected does not increase as the number of the atoms in the GHZ state increases.

  15. Electrodynamics and quantum capacity: The case of Bi2Se3 topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craco, L.

    2015-11-01

    Layered Bi-chalcogenide topological insulators are among the most available energy conversion (thermoelectric) and storage (battery) materials. Motivated by this applied aspect of fundamental importance and the good agreement between theory and key experiments probing spectroscopy and dc transport, we undertake a detailed study of electrodynamic responses of bulk Bi2Se3 topological insulator. In particular, we confirm that the interplay between spin-orbit and electron correlations underpins its bulk metallicity. We show the implications of our proposal for the multi-channel nature of galvanostatic, voltage-capacity profiles intrinsic to LixBi2Se3 battery material. Supported by a microscopic description of quantum capacity, we predict that layered Bi-based topological insulators are promising candidates for future high-voltage solid-state batteries.

  16. The current density in quantum electrodynamics in time-dependent external potentials and the Schwinger effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in external potentials, we introduce a method to compute the time-dependence of the expectation value of the current density for time-dependent homogeneous external electric fields. We apply it to the so-called Sauter pulse. For late times, our results agree with the asymptotic value due to electron-positron pair production. We correct a general expression derived by Serber for the expectation value of the current, linearized in the external field, and compare with our results for the Sauter pulse. Based on the properties of the current density, we argue that the appearance of enhanced quasi-particle densities at intermediate times in slowly varying sub-critical potentials is generic. Also an alternative approach, which circumvents these difficulties, is sketched. (paper)

  17. The positronium and the dipositronium in a Hartree-Fock approximation of quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Jérémy

    2016-02-01

    The Bogoliubov-Dirac-Fock (BDF) model is a no-photon approximation of quantum electrodynamics. It allows to study relativistic electrons in interaction with the Dirac sea. A state is fully characterized by its one-body density matrix, an infinite rank non-negative projector. We prove the existence of the para-positronium, the bound state of an electron and a positron with antiparallel spins, in the BDF model represented by a critical point of the energy functional in the absence of an external field. We also prove the existence of the dipositronium, a molecule made of two electrons and two positrons that also appears as a critical point. More generally, for any half integer j ∈ 1/2 + Z + , we prove the existence of a critical point of the energy functional made of 2j + 1 electrons and 2j + 1 positrons.

  18. Reduced Dirac equation and Lamb shift as off-mass-shell effect in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the accurate experimental data of energy-level differences in hydrogen-like atoms, especially the 1S—2S transitions of hydrogen and deuterium, the necessity of introducing a reduced Dirac equation with reduced mass as the substitution of original electron mass is stressed. Based on new cognition about the essence of special relativity, we provide a reasonable argument for the reduced Dirac equation to have two symmetries, the invariance under the (newly defined) space-time inversion and that under the pure space inversion, in a noninertial frame. By using the reduced Dirac equation and within the framework of quantum electrodynamics in covariant form, the Lamb shift can be evaluated (at one-loop level) as the radiative correction on a bound electron staying in an off-mass-shell state—-a new approach eliminating the infrared divergence. Hence the whole calculation, though with limited accuracy, is simplified, getting rid of all divergences and free of ambiguity. (general)

  19. Reduced Dirac equation and Lamb shift as off-mass-shell effect in quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Guang-Jiong; Xu, Jian-Jun; Lou, Sen-Yue

    2011-02-01

    Based on the accurate experimental data of energy-level differences in hydrogen-like atoms, especially the 1S—2S transitions of hydrogen and deuterium, the necessity of introducing a reduced Dirac equation with reduced mass as the substitution of original electron mass is stressed. Based on new cognition about the essence of special relativity, we provide a reasonable argument for the reduced Dirac equation to have two symmetries, the invariance under the (newly defined) space-time inversion and that under the pure space inversion, in a noninertial frame. By using the reduced Dirac equation and within the framework of quantum electrodynamics in covariant form, the Lamb shift can be evaluated (at one-loop level) as the radiative correction on a bound electron staying in an off-mass-shell state—-a new approach eliminating the infrared divergence. Hence the whole calculation, though with limited accuracy, is simplified, getting rid of all divergences and free of ambiguity.

  20. Space-time-resolved quantum electrodynamics: A (1+1)-dimensional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Scott; Smith, Dallas; Pritchett, Luke; Gardner, John; Ware, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    We develop a model that reduces quantum electrodynamics (QED) in time plus three spatial dimensions to time plus a single spatial dimension, making it is possible to numerically calculate the dynamic behavior of simple QED systems. The dimensionality is restricted in such a way as to preserve the influence of spin and angular momentum. In contrast to the S -matrix scattering approach, these calculations are not perturbative within the zero- and one-photon sector of the relevant Hilbert space. The model restricts the electron occupation number to one and the photon occupation number to zero or one. We use this model to calculate the dynamics of a so-called bare electron that dresses itself by a photon field.

  1. Perfect photon absorption in the nonlinear regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, G. S.; Di, Ke; Wang, Liyong; Zhu, Yifu

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown that perfect photon absorption can occur in the linear excitation regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), in which photons from two identical light fields coupled into two ends of the cavity are completely absorbed and result in excitation of the polariton state of the CQED system. The output light from the cavity is totally suppressed by destructive interference and the polariton state can only decay incoherently back to the ground state. Here we analyze perfect photon absorption and the onset of optical bistability in the nonlinear regime of the CQED and show that perfect photon absorption persists in the nonlinear regime of the CQED below the threshold of optical bistability. Therefore perfect photon absorption is a phenomenon that can be observed in both linear and nonlinear regimes of CQED. Furthermore, our study reveals that optical bistability is influenced by input-light interference and can be manipulated by varying the relative phase of the two input fields.

  2. Quantum Electrodynamical Density-matrix Functional Theory and Group-theoretical Consideration of its Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Ohsaku, T; Yamaki, D; Yamaguchi, K

    2002-01-01

    For studying the group theoretical classification of the solutions of the density functional theory in relativistic framework, we propose quantum electrodynamical density-matrix functional theory (QED-DMFT). QED-DMFT gives the energy as a functional of a local one-body $4\\times4$ matrix $Q(x)\\equiv -$, where $\\psi$ and $\\bar{\\psi}$ are 4-component Dirac field and its Dirac conjugate, respectively. We examine some characters of QED-DMFT. After these preparations, by using Q(x), we classify the solutions of QED-DMFT under O(3) rotation, time reversal and spatial inversion. The behavior of Q(x) under nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic limits are also presented. Finally, we give plans for several extensions and applications of QED-DMFT.

  3. Reduced Dirac equation and Lamb shift as off-mass-shell effect in quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Guang-Jiong; Xu Jian-Jun; Lou Sea-Yue

    2011-01-01

    Based on the accurate experimental data of energy-level differences in hydrogen-like atoms, especially the 1S-2S transitions of hydrogen and deuterium, the necessity of introducing a reduced Dirac equation with reduced mass as the substitution of original electron mass is stressed. Based on new cognition about the essence of special relativity, we provide a reasonable argument for the reduced Dirac equation to have two symmetries, the invariance under the (newly defined) space-time inversion and that under the pure space inversion, in a noninertial frame. By using the reduced Dirac equation and within the framework of quantum electrodynamics in covariant form, the Lamb shift can be evaluated (at one-loop level) as the radiative correction on a bound electron staying in an off-mass-shell state-a new approach eliminating the infrared divergence. Hence the whole calculation, though with limited accuracy, is simplified, getting rid of all divergences and free of ambiguity.

  4. Efficient quantum circuits for diagonal unitaries without ancillas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate evaluation of diagonal unitary operators is often the most resource-intensive element of quantum algorithms such as real-space quantum simulation and Grover search. Efficient circuits have been demonstrated in some cases but generally require ancilla registers, which can dominate the qubit resources. In this paper, we give a simple way to construct efficient circuits for diagonal unitaries without ancillas, using a correspondence between Walsh functions and a basis for diagonal operators. This correspondence reduces the problem of constructing the minimal-depth circuit within a given error tolerance, for an arbitrary diagonal unitary eif(x-^) in the |x〉 basis, to that of finding the minimal-length Walsh-series approximation to the function f(x). We apply this approach to the quantum simulation of the classical Eckart barrier problem of quantum chemistry, demonstrating that high-fidelity quantum simulations can be achieved with few qubits and low depth

  5. Irreversibility and entanglement spectrum statistics in quantum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that in a quantum system evolving unitarily under a stochastic quantum circuit the notions of irreversibility, universality of computation, and entanglement are closely related. As the state evolves from an initial product state, it gets asymptotically maximally entangled. We define irreversibility as the failure of searching for a disentangling circuit using a Metropolis-like algorithm. We show that irreversibility corresponds to Wigner–Dyson statistics in the level spacing of the entanglement eigenvalues, and that this is obtained from a quantum circuit made from a set of universal gates for quantum computation. If, on the other hand, the system is evolved with a non-universal set of gates, the statistics of the entanglement level spacing deviates from Wigner–Dyson and the disentangling algorithm succeeds. These results open a new way to characterize irreversibility in quantum systems

  6. Implications of Electronics Constraints for Solid-State Quantum Error Correction and Quantum Circuit Failure Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, James E.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Ganti, Anand; Phillips, Cynthia A.; Landahl, Andrew J.; Gurrieri, Thomas M.; Carr, Robert D.; Stalford, Harold L.; Nielsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the impact of classical electronics constraints on a solid-state quantum dot logical qubit architecture. Constraints due to routing density, bandwidth allocation, signal timing, and thermally aware placement of classical supporting electronics significantly affect the quantum error correction circuit's error rate. We analyze one level of a quantum error correction circuit using nine data qubits in a Bacon-Shor code configured as a quantum memory. A hypothetical silico...

  7. Quantum Wavelet Transforms Fast Algorithms and Complete Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Fijany, A; Fijany, Amir; Williams, Colin P.

    1998-01-01

    The quantum Fourier transform (QFT), a quantum analog of the classical Fourier transform, has been shown to be a powerful tool in developing quantum algorithms. However, in classical computing there is another class of unitary transforms, the wavelet transforms, which are every bit as useful as the Fourier transform. Wavelet transforms are used to expose the multi-scale structure of a signal and are likely to be useful for quantum image processing and quantum data compression. In this paper, we derive efficient, complete, quantum circuits for two representative quantum wavelet transforms, the quantum Haar and quantum Daubechies $D^{(4)}$ transforms. Our approach is to factor the operators for these transforms into direct sums, direct products and dot products of unitary matrices. In so doing, we find that permutation matrices, a particular class of unitary matrices, play a pivotal role. Surprisingly, we find that operations that are easy and inexpensive to implement classically are not always easy and inexpen...

  8. Efficient quantum circuits for Toeplitz and Hankel matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasinghe, A.; Wang, J. B.

    2016-07-01

    Toeplitz and Hankel matrices have been a subject of intense interest in a wide range of science and engineering related applications. In this paper, we show that quantum circuits can efficiently implement sparse or Fourier-sparse Toeplitz and Hankel matrices. This provides an essential ingredient for solving many physical problems with Toeplitz or Hankel symmetry in the quantum setting with deterministic queries.

  9. Quantum-circuit model of Hamiltonian search algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze three different quantum search algorithms, namely, the traditional circuit-based Grover's algorithm, its continuous-time analog by Hamiltonian evolution, and the quantum search by local adiabatic evolution. We show that these algorithms are closely related in the sense that they all perform a rotation, at a constant angular velocity, from a uniform superposition of all states to the solution state. This makes it possible to implement the two Hamiltonian-evolution algorithms on a conventional quantum circuit, while keeping the quadratic speedup of Grover's original algorithm. It also clarifies the link between the adiabatic search algorithm and Grover's algorithm

  10. Quantum circuit implementation of cyclic mutually unbiased bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfarth, Ulrich; Dittmann, Niklas; Alber, Gernot [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Complete sets of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) play an important role in the areas of quantum state tomography and quantum cryptography. Sets which can be generated cyclically may eliminate certain side-channel attacks. To profit from the advantages of these MUBs we propose a method for deriving a quantum circuit that implements the generator of a set into an experimental setup. For some dimensions this circuit is minimal. The presented method is in principle applicable for a larger set of operations and generalizes recently published results.

  11. Integrated digital superconducting logic circuits for the quantum synthesizer. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results, which were reached in the framework of the BMBF cooperative plan ''Quantum Synthesizer'' in the partial plan ''Integrated Digital Superconducting Logic Circuits''. As essential goal of the plan a novel instrument on the base of quantum-coherent superconducting circuits should be developed. which allows to generate praxis-relevant wave forms with quantum accuracy, the quantum synthesizer. The main topics of development of the reported partial plan lied at the one hand in the development of integrated, digital, superconducting circuit in rapid-single-flux (RSFQ) quantum logics for the pattern generator of the quantum synthesizer, at the other hand in the further development of the fabrication technology for the aiming of high circuit complexity. In order to fulfil these requirements at the PTB a new design system was implemented, based on the software of Cadence. Together with the required RSFQ extensions for the design of digital superconducting circuits was a platform generated, on which the reachable circuit complexity is exclusively limited by the technology parameters of the available fabrication technology: Physical simulations are with PSCAN up to a complexity of more than 1000 circuit elements possible; furthermore VHDL allows the verification of arbitrarily large circuit architectures. In accordance for this the production line at the PTB was brought to a level, which allows in Nb/Al-AlxOy/Nb SIS technology implementation the fabrication of highly integrable RSFQ circuit architectures. The developed and fabricated basic circuits of the pattern generator have proved correct functionality and reliability in the measuring operation. Thereby for the circular RSFQ shift registers a key role as local memories in the construction of the pattern generator is devolved upon. The registers were realized with the aimed bit lengths up to 128 bit and with reachable signal-processing speeds of above 10 GHz. At the interface RSFQ

  12. A new algorithm for producing quantum circuits using KAK decompositions

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Y; Sekigawa, H; Nakajima, Yumi; Kawano, Yasuhito; Sekigawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    We provide a new algorithm that translates a unitary matrix into a quantum circuit according to the G=KAK theorem in Lie group theory. The algorithm can derive any matrix decomposition based on the G=KAK theorem corresponding to the type-AIII Cartan involutions by selecting a global Cartan involution. The algorithm contains, as its special cases, Cosine-Sine decomposition (CSD) and Khaneja-Glaser decomposition (KGD) in the sense that it derives the same quantum circuits as the ones obtained by them, if we select suitable Cartan involutions and square-root matrices in the algorithm. Although the number of gates needed in order to implement an element g of SU(2^n) is bounded by O(4^n) in the worst case, which is the same as the previous results, we show explicitly that our method can automatically reproduce the well-known efficient quantum circuit for the n-qubit quantum Fourier transform.

  13. Perturbation theory based on Darboux transformation on one-dimensional Dirac equation in the case of cavity quantum electrodynamics and quantum transistor

    CERN Document Server

    Trisetyarso, Agung

    2010-01-01

    We present the recent works \\cite{trisetyarso01,trisetyarso02} on the application of Darboux transformation on one-dimensional Dirac equation related to the field of Quantum Information and Computation (QIC). The representation of physical system in one-dimensional equation and its transformation due to the Bagrov, Baldiotti, Gitman, and Shamshutdinova (BBGS)-Darboux transformation showing the possibility admitting the concept of relativity and the trade-off of concurrent condition of quantum and classical physics play into the area of QIC. The applications in cavity quantum electrodynamics and on the proposal of quantum transistor are presented.

  14. Photonic Circuits with Time Delays and Quantum Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter

    2016-03-01

    We study the dynamics of photonic quantum circuits consisting of nodes coupled by quantum channels. We are interested in the regime where the time delay in communication between the nodes is significant. This includes the problem of quantum feedback, where a quantum signal is fed back on a system with a time delay. We develop a matrix product state approach to solve the quantum stochastic Schrödinger equation with time delays, which accounts in an efficient way for the entanglement of nodes with the stream of emitted photons in the waveguide, and thus the non-Markovian character of the dynamics. We illustrate this approach with two paradigmatic quantum optical examples: two coherently driven distant atoms coupled to a photonic waveguide with a time delay, and a driven atom coupled to its own output field with a time delay as an instance of a quantum feedback problem.

  15. Photonic Circuits with Time Delays and Quantum Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter

    2016-03-01

    We study the dynamics of photonic quantum circuits consisting of nodes coupled by quantum channels. We are interested in the regime where the time delay in communication between the nodes is significant. This includes the problem of quantum feedback, where a quantum signal is fed back on a system with a time delay. We develop a matrix product state approach to solve the quantum stochastic Schrödinger equation with time delays, which accounts in an efficient way for the entanglement of nodes with the stream of emitted photons in the waveguide, and thus the non-Markovian character of the dynamics. We illustrate this approach with two paradigmatic quantum optical examples: two coherently driven distant atoms coupled to a photonic waveguide with a time delay, and a driven atom coupled to its own output field with a time delay as an instance of a quantum feedback problem. PMID:26991174

  16. Digital quantum simulation of fermionic models with a superconducting circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barends, R.; Lamata, L.; Kelly, J.; García-Álvarez, L.; Fowler, A. G.; Megrant, A.; Jeffrey, E.; White, T. C.; Sank, D.; Mutus, J. Y.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Hoi, I.-C.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Solano, E.; Martinis, John M.

    2015-07-01

    One of the key applications of quantum information is simulating nature. Fermions are ubiquitous in nature, appearing in condensed matter systems, chemistry and high energy physics. However, universally simulating their interactions is arguably one of the largest challenges, because of the difficulties arising from anticommutativity. Here we use digital methods to construct the required arbitrary interactions, and perform quantum simulation of up to four fermionic modes with a superconducting quantum circuit. We employ in excess of 300 quantum logic gates, and reach fidelities that are consistent with a simple model of uncorrelated errors. The presented approach is in principle scalable to a larger number of modes, and arbitrary spatial dimensions.

  17. Quantum chemistry and charge transport in biomolecules with superconducting circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, L.; Las Heras, U.; Mezzacapo, A.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.; Lamata, L.

    2016-06-01

    We propose an efficient protocol for digital quantum simulation of quantum chemistry problems and enhanced digital-analog quantum simulation of transport phenomena in biomolecules with superconducting circuits. Along these lines, we optimally digitize fermionic models of molecular structure with single-qubit and two-qubit gates, by means of Trotter-Suzuki decomposition and Jordan-Wigner transformation. Furthermore, we address the modelling of system-environment interactions of biomolecules involving bosonic degrees of freedom with a digital-analog approach. Finally, we consider gate-truncated quantum algorithms to allow the study of environmental effects.

  18. Quantum chemistry and charge transport in biomolecules with superconducting circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, L.; Las Heras, U.; Mezzacapo, A.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.; Lamata, L.

    2016-01-01

    We propose an efficient protocol for digital quantum simulation of quantum chemistry problems and enhanced digital-analog quantum simulation of transport phenomena in biomolecules with superconducting circuits. Along these lines, we optimally digitize fermionic models of molecular structure with single-qubit and two-qubit gates, by means of Trotter-Suzuki decomposition and Jordan-Wigner transformation. Furthermore, we address the modelling of system-environment interactions of biomolecules involving bosonic degrees of freedom with a digital-analog approach. Finally, we consider gate-truncated quantum algorithms to allow the study of environmental effects. PMID:27324814

  19. Quantum interface between an electrical circuit and a single atom

    CERN Document Server

    Kielpinski, D; Woolley, M J; Milburn, G J; Taylor, J M

    2011-01-01

    We show how to bridge the divide between atomic systems and electronic devices by engineering a coupling between the motion of a single ion and the quantized electric field of a resonant circuit. Our method can be used to couple the internal state of an ion to the quantized circuit with the same speed as the internal-state coupling between two ions. All the well-known quantum information protocols linking ion internal and motional states can be converted to protocols between circuit photons and ion internal states. Our results enable quantum interfaces between solid state qubits, atomic qubits, and light, and lay the groundwork for a direct quantum connection between electrical and atomic metrology standards.

  20. Characterization of optical quantum circuits using resonant phase shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Poot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that important information about linear optical circuits can be obtained through the phase shift induced by integrated optical resonators. As a proof of principle, the phase of an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer is determined. Then the method is applied to a complex optical circuit designed for linear optical quantum computation. In this controlled-NOT gate with qubit initialization and tomography stages, the relative phases are determined as well as the coupling ratios of its directional couplers.

  1. Exact quantum Bayesian rule for qubit measurements in circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Liang, Pengfei; Qin, Lupei; Li, Xin-Qi

    2016-02-01

    Developing efficient framework for quantum measurements is of essential importance to quantum science and technology. In this work, for the important superconducting circuit-QED setup, we present a rigorous and analytic solution for the effective quantum trajectory equation (QTE) after polaron transformation and converted to the form of Stratonovich calculus. We find that the solution is a generalization of the elegant quantum Bayesian approach developed in arXiv:1111.4016 by Korotokov and currently applied to circuit-QED measurements. The new result improves both the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the qubit density matrix, via amending the distribution probabilities of the output currents and several important phase factors. Compared to numerical integration of the QTE, the resultant quantum Bayesian rule promises higher efficiency to update the measured state, and allows more efficient and analytical studies for some interesting problems such as quantum weak values, past quantum state, and quantum state smoothing. The method of this work opens also a new way to obtain quantum Bayesian formulas for other systems and in more complicated cases.

  2. Exploring Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Based Reversible Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Kumar Chandra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA is a new technology for development of logic circuits based on nanotechnology, and it is an one of the alternative for designing high performance computing over existing CMOS technology. The basic logic in QCA does not use voltage level for logic representation rather it represent binary state by polarization of electrons on the Quantum Cell which is basic building block of QCA. Extensive work is going on QCA for circuit design due to low power consumption and regularity in the circuit.. Clocking is used in QCA circuit to synchronize and control the information flow and to provide the power to run the circuit. Reversible logic design is a well-known paradigm in digital computation, and if circuit developed is reversible then it consumes very low power . Here, in this paper we are presenting a Reversible Universal Gate (RUG based on Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA. The RUG implemented by QCA Designer tool and also its behavior is simulated by it.

  3. Specification of photonic circuits using quantum hardware description language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezak, Nikolas; Niederberger, Armand; Pavlichin, Dmitri S; Sarma, Gopal; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2012-11-28

    Following the simple observation that the interconnection of a set of quantum optical input-output devices can be specified using structural mode VHSIC hardware description language, we demonstrate a computer-aided schematic capture workflow for modelling and simulating multi-component photonic circuits. We describe an algorithm for parsing circuit descriptions to derive quantum equations of motion, illustrate our approach using simple examples based on linear and cavity-nonlinear optical components, and demonstrate a computational approach to hierarchical model reduction. PMID:23091208

  4. Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated quantum photonic waveguide circuits are a promising approach to realizing future photonic quantum technologies. Here, we present an integrated photonic quantum technology platform utilizing the silicon-on-insulator material system, where quantum interference and the manipulation of quantum states of light are demonstrated in components orders of magnitude smaller than previous implementations. Two-photon quantum interference is presented in a multi-mode interference coupler, and the manipulation of entanglement is demonstrated in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, opening the way to an all-silicon photonic quantum technology platform. (paper)

  5. Deterministic linear optics quantum computation utilizing linked photon circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Yoran, N; Yoran, Nadav; Reznik, Benni

    2003-01-01

    We suggest an efficient scheme for quantum computation with linear optical elements utilizing "linked" photon states. The linked states are designed according to the particular quantum circuit one wishes to process. Once a linked-state has been successfully prepared, the computation is pursued deterministically by a sequence of teleportation steps. The present scheme enables a significant reduction of the average number of elementary gates per logical gate to about 20-30 CZ_{9/16} gates.

  6. Magnetic monopole plasma phase in (2+1)d compact quantum electrodynamics with fermionic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first evidence from lattice simulations that the magnetic monopoles in three-dimensional compact quantum electrodynamics (cQED3) with Nf=2 and Nf=4 four-component fermion flavors are in a plasma phase. The evidence is based mainly on the divergence of the monopole susceptibility (polarizability) with the lattice size at weak gauge couplings. A weak four-Fermi term added to the cQED3 action enabled simulations with massless fermions. The exact chiral symmetry of the interaction terms forbids symmetry breaking lattice discretization counterterms to appear in the theory's effective action. It is also shown that the scenario of a monopole plasma does not depend on the strength of the four-Fermi coupling. Other observables such as the densities of isolated dipoles and monopoles and the so-called specific heat show that a crossover from a dense monopole plasma to a dilute monopole gas occurs at strong couplings. The implications of our results on the stability of U(1) spin liquids in two spatial dimensions are also discussed.

  7. Self-Localized Quasi-Particle Excitation in Quantum Electrodynamics and Its Physical Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Feranchuk, Ilya D

    2007-01-01

    The self-localized quasi-particle excitation of the electron-positron field (EPF) is found for the first time in the framework of a standard form of the quantum electrodynamics. This state is interpreted as the ``physical'' electron (positron) and it allows one to solve the following problems: i) to express the ``primary'' charge $e_0$ and the mass $m_0$ of the ``bare'' electron in terms of the observed values of $e$ and $m$ of the ``physical'' electron without any infinite parameters and by essentially nonperturbative way; ii) to consider $\\mu$-meson as another self-localized EPF state and to estimate the ratio $m_{\\mu}/m$; iii) to prove that the self-localized state is Lorentz-invariant and its energy spectrum corresponds to the relativistic free particle with the observed mass $m$; iv) to show that the expansion in a power of the observed charge $e \\ll 1$ corresponds to the strong coupling expansion in a power of the ``primary'' charge $e^{-1}_0 \\sim e $ when the interaction between the ``physical'' electr...

  8. Self-Localized Quasi-Particle Excitation in Quantum Electrodynamics and Its Physical Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feranchuk, Ilya D.; Feranchuk, Sergey I.

    2007-12-01

    The self-localized quasi-particle excitation of the electron-positron field (EPF) is found for the first time in the framework of a standard form of the quantum electrodynamics. This state is interpreted as the ''physical'' electron (positron) and it allows one to solve the following problems: i) to express the ''primary'' charge e0 and the mass m0 of the ''bare'' electron in terms of the observed values of e and m of the ''physical'' electron without any infinite parameters and by essentially nonperturbative way; ii) to consider μ-meson as another self-localized EPF state and to estimate the ratio mμ/m; iii) to prove that the self-localized state is Lorentz-invariant and its energy spectrum corresponds to the relativistic free particle with the observed mass m; iv) to show that the expansion in a power of the observed charge e << 1 corresponds to the strong coupling e! xpansion in a power of the ''primary'' charge e-10 ~ e when the interaction between the ``physical'' electron and the transverse electromagnetic field is considered by means of the perturbation theory and all terms of this series are free from the ultraviolet divergence.

  9. Nonperturbative Description Of The Mass And Charge Renormalization In Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Feranchuk, I D

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the nonperturbative analysis of the spectrum for one-particle excitations of the electron-positron field (EPF) is considered in the paper. A standard form of the quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used but the charge of the "bare" electron $e_0$ is supposed to be of a large value. It is shown that in this case the quasi-particle can be formed with a non-zero averaged value of the scalar component of the electromagnetic field (EMF). Self-consistent equations for the distribution of charge density in the "physical" electron (positron) are derived. A variational solution of these equations is obtained and it defines the finite renormalization of the charge and mass of the electron (positron). It is found that the coupling constant between EPF and EMF and mass of the "bare" electron can be connected with the observed values of the fine structure constant and the mass of the "physical" electron. It is also shown that although the non-renormalized QED corresponds to the strong coupling between EPF and E...

  10. Quantum electrodynamics tests and X-rays standards using pionic atoms and highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this thesis is to present a new measurement of the pion mass using pionic nitrogen X-ray spectroscopy and results on helium-like argon and sulphur spectroscopy. The new pion mass has been measured with an accuracy of 1.7 ppm, 30% better that the present world average value, and it is obtained from Bragg spectroscopy of 5 ->4 pionic nitrogen transitions using the theoretical predictions provided by quantum electrodynamics. We have got: m(π-) = (139.571042 ± 0.000210 ± 0.000110) where the first error is due to the statistics and the second is the systematic error. I present the calculation of the hyperfine structure and recoil corrections for pionic atoms using a new perturbation method for the Klein-Gordon equation. The spectrometer used for this measurement has been characterized with the relativistic M1 transitions from helium-like ions produced with a new device, the Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion Trap. High statistics spectra from these ions have enabled us to measure transition energies with an accuracy of some ppm which has allowed us to compare theoretical predictions with experiment data. X-ray emission from pionic atoms and multicharged ions can be used to define new types of X-ray standards for energies of a few keV

  11. On the possible existence of vacuum oscillations in the quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this thesis was the study of the possibility that the vacuum of quantum electrodynamics at presence of strong electric fields possesses excitation models of collective nature. The starting point of the discussion was the two-particle Green function, for which we have derived an integral equation of the Bethe-salpeter type. From the numerical results we conclude that the particle-hole correlations are of subordered importance concerning the electron-positron excitation energies in the field of a heavy atomic nucleus. The resulting energy shifts are not larger than 1 keV, so that the relative difference between the excitation energies of the free and the interacting electron-positron configurations is smaller than 0.5%. Furthermore from our calculations with a coupling constant α, which is by a factor 10 to 100 larger than the real value of 1/137 results, that also in the case of an essentially stronger electron-positron interaction no collective states are formed. The numerical results concerning the transition strength with and without regardment of the elctron-positron interactions support evidently our conclusions. (orig./HSI)

  12. Self-Localized Quasi-Particle Excitation in Quantum Electrodynamics and Its Physical Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya D. Feranchuk

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The self-localized quasi-particle excitation of the electron-positron field (EPF is found for the first time in the framework of a standard form of the quantum electrodynamics. This state is interpreted as the ''physical'' electron (positron and it allows one to solve the following problems: i to express the ''primary'' charge $e_0$ and the mass $m_0$ of the ''bare'' electron in terms of the observed values of $e$ and $m$ of the ''physical'' electron without any infinite parameters and by essentially nonperturbative way; ii to consider $mu$-meson as another self-localized EPF state and to estimate the ratio $m_mu/m$; iii to prove that the self-localized state is Lorentz-invariant and its energy spectrum corresponds to the relativistic free particle with the observed mass $m$; iv to show that the expansion in a power of the observed charge $e ll 1$ corresponds to the strong coupling expansion in a power of the ''primary'' charge $e^{-1}_0 sim e$ when the interaction between the ''physical'' electron and the transverse electromagnetic field is considered by means of the perturbation theory and all terms of this series are free from the ultraviolet divergence.

  13. Parallel Quantum Circuit in a Tunnel Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizy Namarvar, Omid; Dridi, Ghassen; Joachim, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Spectral analysis of 1 and 2-states per line quantum bus are normally sufficient to determine the effective Vab(N) electronic coupling between the emitter and receiver states through the bus as a function of the number N of parallel lines. When Vab(N) is difficult to determine, an Heisenberg-Rabi time dependent quantum exchange process must be triggered through the bus to capture the secular oscillation frequency Ωab(N) between those states. Two different linear and regimes are demonstrated for Ωab(N) as a function of N. When the initial preparation is replaced by coupling of the quantum bus to semi-infinite electrodes, the resulting quantum transduction process is not faithfully following the Ωab(N) variations. Because of the electronic transparency normalisation to unity and of the low pass filter character of this transduction, large Ωab(N) cannot be captured by the tunnel junction. The broadly used concept of electrical contact between a metallic nanopad and a molecular device must be better described as a quantum transduction process. At small coupling and when N is small enough not to compensate for this small coupling, an N(2) power law is preserved for Ωab(N) and for Vab(N). PMID:27453262

  14. Parallel Quantum Circuit in a Tunnel Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizy Namarvar, Omid; Dridi, Ghassen; Joachim, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Spectral analysis of 1 and 2-states per line quantum bus are normally sufficient to determine the effective Vab(N) electronic coupling between the emitter and receiver states through the bus as a function of the number N of parallel lines. When Vab(N) is difficult to determine, an Heisenberg-Rabi time dependent quantum exchange process must be triggered through the bus to capture the secular oscillation frequency Ωab(N) between those states. Two different linear and regimes are demonstrated for Ωab(N) as a function of N. When the initial preparation is replaced by coupling of the quantum bus to semi-infinite electrodes, the resulting quantum transduction process is not faithfully following the Ωab(N) variations. Because of the electronic transparency normalisation to unity and of the low pass filter character of this transduction, large Ωab(N) cannot be captured by the tunnel junction. The broadly used concept of electrical contact between a metallic nanopad and a molecular device must be better described as a quantum transduction process. At small coupling and when N is small enough not to compensate for this small coupling, an N2 power law is preserved for Ωab(N) and for Vab(N).

  15. Quantitative analysis of quantum dot dynamics and emission spectra in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, K H

    2012-01-01

    We present detuning-dependent spectral and decay-rate measurements to study the difference between spectral and dynamical properties of single quantum dots embedded in micropillar and photonic-crystal cavities. For the micropillar cavity, the dynamics is well described by the dissipative Jaynes-Cummings model, while systematic deviations are observed for the emission spectra. The discrepancy for the spectra is attributed to coupling of other exciton lines to the cavity and interference of different propagation paths towards the detector of the fields emitted by the quantum dot. In contrast, quantitative information about the system can readily be extracted from the dynamical measurements. In the case of photonic crystal cavities we observe an anti crossing in the spectra when detuning a single quantum dot through resonance, which is the spectral signature of strong coupling. However, time-resolved measurements reveal that the actual coupling strength is significantly smaller than anticipated from the spectral...

  16. Coupling single emitters to quantum plasmonic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Huck, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the controlled coupling of single photon emitters to propagating surface plasmons has been intensely studied, which is fueled by the prospect of a giant photonic non-linearity on a nano-scaled platform. In this article we will review the recent progress on coupling single emitters to nano-wires towards the construction of a new platform for strong light-matter interaction. The control over such a platform might open new doors for quantum information processing and quantum sensing at the nanoscale, and for the study of fundamental physics in the ultra-strong coupling regime.

  17. Parallel Quantum Circuit in a Tunnel Junction

    OpenAIRE

    Namarvar, Omid Faizy; Dridi, Ghassen; Joachim, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of 1-state and 2-states per line quantum buses is used to determine the effective $V_{ab}(N)$ electronic coupling between emitter and receiver states through the bus as a function of the number $N$ of parallel lines in the bus. When the calculation of $V_{ab}(N)$ is spectrally difficult, an Heisenberg-Rabi time dependent quantum exchange process can be triggered through the bus by preparing a specific initial non-stationanry state and identifying a target state to capture the eff...

  18. Two-dimensional lattice gauge theories with superconducting quantum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantum simulator of U(1) lattice gauge theories can be implemented with superconducting circuits. This allows the investigation of confined and deconfined phases in quantum link models, and of valence bond solid and spin liquid phases in quantum dimer models. Fractionalized confining strings and the real-time dynamics of quantum phase transitions are accessible as well. Here we show how state-of-the-art superconducting technology allows us to simulate these phenomena in relatively small circuit lattices. By exploiting the strong non-linear couplings between quantized excitations emerging when superconducting qubits are coupled, we show how to engineer gauge invariant Hamiltonians, including ring-exchange and four-body Ising interactions. We demonstrate that, despite decoherence and disorder effects, minimal circuit instances allow us to investigate properties such as the dynamics of electric flux strings, signaling confinement in gauge invariant field theories. The experimental realization of these models in larger superconducting circuits could address open questions beyond current computational capability

  19. Two-dimensional lattice gauge theories with superconducting quantum circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos, D., E-mail: david.marcos@me.com [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Widmer, P. [Albert Einstein Center, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern University, CH-3012, Bern (Switzerland); Rico, E. [IPCMS (UMR 7504) and ISIS (UMR 7006), University of Strasbourg and CNRS, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Hafezi, M. [Joint Quantum Institute, NIST/University of Maryland, College Park 20742 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Rabl, P. [Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Wiese, U.-J. [Albert Einstein Center, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern University, CH-3012, Bern (Switzerland); Zoller, P. [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    A quantum simulator of U(1) lattice gauge theories can be implemented with superconducting circuits. This allows the investigation of confined and deconfined phases in quantum link models, and of valence bond solid and spin liquid phases in quantum dimer models. Fractionalized confining strings and the real-time dynamics of quantum phase transitions are accessible as well. Here we show how state-of-the-art superconducting technology allows us to simulate these phenomena in relatively small circuit lattices. By exploiting the strong non-linear couplings between quantized excitations emerging when superconducting qubits are coupled, we show how to engineer gauge invariant Hamiltonians, including ring-exchange and four-body Ising interactions. We demonstrate that, despite decoherence and disorder effects, minimal circuit instances allow us to investigate properties such as the dynamics of electric flux strings, signaling confinement in gauge invariant field theories. The experimental realization of these models in larger superconducting circuits could address open questions beyond current computational capability.

  20. Derivative expansion of the effective action for quantum electrodynamics in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The derivative expansion of the one-loop effective action in QED3 and QED4 (quantum electrodynamics) is considered. The first term in such an expansion is the effective action for a constant electromagnetic field. An explicit expression for the next term containing two derivatives of the field strength Fμν, but exact in the magnitude of the field strength, is obtained. The general results for both fermion and scalar electrodynamics are presented. The cases of pure electric and pure magnetic external fields are considered in detail. The Feynman technique for the perturbative expansion of the one-loop effective action in the number of derivatives is developed. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  1. Synthesis of Arbitrary Quantum Circuits to Topological Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paler, Alexandru; Devitt, Simon J.; Fowler, Austin G.

    2016-08-01

    Given a quantum algorithm, it is highly nontrivial to devise an efficient sequence of physical gates implementing the algorithm on real hardware and incorporating topological quantum error correction. In this paper, we present a first step towards this goal, focusing on generating correct and simple arrangements of topological structures that correspond to a given quantum circuit and largely neglecting their efficiency. We detail the many challenges that will need to be tackled in the pursuit of efficiency. The software source code can be consulted at https://github.com/alexandrupaler/tqec.

  2. QOperAv, a Code Generator for Generating Quantum Circuits for Evaluating Certain Quantum Operator Averages

    CERN Document Server

    Tucci, Robert R

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces QOperAv v1.5, a Java application available for free. (Source code included in the distribution.) QOperAv is a "code generator" for generating quantum circuits. The quantum circuits generated by QOperAv can be used to evaluate with polynomial efficiency the average of $f(A)$ for some simple (that is, computable with polynomial efficiency) function $f$ and a Hermitian operator $A$, provided that we know how to compile $\\exp(iA)$ with polynomial efficiency. QOperAv implements an algorithm described in earlier papers, that combines various standard techniques such as quantum phase estimation and quantum multiplexors.

  3. 轴向分裂变压器的短路电动力特点%Characteristic of Short Circuit Electrodynamic Force in Axial Split Transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英; 武力

    2001-01-01

    This paper calculates and analyzes the winding leakage magnetic field and short circuit electrodynamic force in a three-phase axial double split transformer passed the short circuit test in half crossing situation. Some suggestions on increasing short circuit mechanical force withstand capability in an axial split transformer are offered.%以一台在半穿越状态下通过短路试验的三相轴向双分裂变压器为例,对半穿越运行的绕组漏磁场和短路电动力进行了计算分析,提出了增强轴向分裂变压器抗短路机械强度几点建议。

  4. Quantitative analysis of quantum dot dynamics and emission spectra in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We present detuning-dependent spectral and decay-rate measurements to study the difference between the spectral and dynamical properties of single quantum dots embedded in micropillar and photonic crystal cavities. For the micropillar cavity, the dynamics is well described by the dissipative Jayn...

  5. Cavity quantum electrodynamics of a quantum dot in a micropillar cavity: comparison between experiment and theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Ates, Serkan; Reitzenstein, S.;

    2010-01-01

    The coupling between a quantum dot (QD) and a micropillar cavity is experimentally investigated by performing time-resolved, correlation, and two-photon interference measurements. The Jaynes-Cummings model including dissipative Lindblad terms and dephasing is analyzed, and all the parameters for ...

  6. Quantum multiparty communication complexity and circuit lower bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Kerenidis, I

    2005-01-01

    We define a quantum model for multiparty communication complexity and prove a simulation theorem between the classical and quantum models. As a result of our simulation, we show that if the quantum k-party communication complexity of a function f is $\\Omega(n/2^k)$, then its classical k-party communication is $\\Omega(n/2^{k/2})$. Finding such an f would allow us to prove strong classical lower bounds for (k>log n) players and hence resolve a main open question about symmetric circuits. Furthermore, we prove that for the Generalized Inner Product (GIP) function, the quantum model is exponentially more efficient than the classical one. This provides the first exponential separation for a total function between any quantum and public coin randomized communication model.

  7. Complete quantum circuit of Haar wavelet based MRA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yuguo; SUN Jigui

    2005-01-01

    Wavelet analysis has applications in many areas, such as signal analysis and image processing. We propose a method for generating the complete circuit of Haar wavelet based MRA by factoring butterfly matrices and conditional perfect shuffle permutation matrices. The factorization of butterfly matrices is the essential part of the design. As a result, it is the key point to obtain the circuits of .I2t()W()I2n-2t-2. In this paper, we use a simple means to develop quantum circuits for this kind of matrices. Similarly, the conditional permutation matrix is implemented entirely, combined with the scheme of Fijany and Williams. The cir-cuits and the ideas adopted in the design are simple and in-telligible.

  8. Quantum Circuits for General Multiqubit Gates

    OpenAIRE

    Mottonen, Mikko; Vartiainen, Juha J.; Bergholm, Ville; Salomaa, Martti M.

    2004-01-01

    We consider a generic elementary gate sequence which is needed to implement a general quantum gate acting on n qubits -- a unitary transformation with 4^n degrees of freedom. For synthesizing the gate sequence, a method based on the so-called cosine-sine matrix decomposition is presented. The result is optimal in the number of elementary one-qubit gates, 4^n, and scales more favorably than the previously reported decompositions requiring 4^n-2^n+1 controlled NOT gates.

  9. Magneto-optical cavity quantum electrodynamics effects in quantum dot - micropillar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on magneto-optical studies of strongly coupled quantum dot - micropillar cavity systems. Large In0.3Ga0.7As quantum dots (QDs) in the active layer of the micropillar facilitate the observation of strong coupling. In addition, they exhibit a particular large diamagnetic response which is exploited to demonstrate magneto-optical resonance tuning in the strong coupling regime. The magnetic field employed in Faraday configuration induces a transition from strong coupling towards the critical coupling regime which is explained in terms of a magnetic field dependent oscillator strength of the In0.3Ga0.7As QDs. We further study the coherent interaction between spin resolved states of the QDs and microcavity photon modes. A detailed oscillator model is used to extract the associated coupling parameters of the individual spin and cavity modes and reveals an effective coupling between photon modes that is mediated by the exciton spin states.

  10. Single flux quantum circuit technology innovation for backbone router applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of high-end routers will soon reach the limits of conventional technology. Single flux quantum (SFQ) digital technology is a key technology for achieving a breakthrough. We have already proposed a high-end router using SFQ technology. In this paper, we report on the latest innovation of SFQ router technology. First we describe a design methodology development. We have developed a new SFQ logic cell library for cell-based top-down circuit design. To expand the circuit scale further, a novel pseudo-automatic Josephson transmission line (JTL) routing technique has also been developed. And then, we discuss issues of passive interconnection, and show the operation of a passive transmission line interconnected circuit up to 40-Gbps throughput. Second we describe a packet switch circuit demonstration. We designed a 2 x 2 crossbar packet switch circuit, which is a key element in the packet switch. We successfully tested the circuit up to a clock frequency of 35 GHz. Finally we discuss an SFQ circuit application in the optical router as an alternative application strategy

  11. QUANTUM FLUCTUATIONS IN A MESOSCOPIC DAMPED LC PARALLEL CIRCUIT IN DISPLACED SQUEEZED FOCK STATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU YONG-JIAN

    2001-01-01

    We study the quantum effects of a damped LC parallel circuit considering its different performance from an RLC series circuit in classical physics. The damped LC parallel circuit with a source is quantized and the quantum fluctuations of magnetic flux and electric charge in the circuit in displaced squeezed Fock state are investigated. It is shown that, as in the RLC series circuit, the fluctuations only depend on the squeezing parameter and the parameters of the circuit components in the damped LC parallel circuit, but the effects of the circuit components on the fluctuations are different in the two circuits.

  12. An investigation of algebraic quantum dynamics for mesoscopic coupled electric circuits with mutual inductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavani, H.; Kolur, E. Rahmanpour

    2016-08-01

    Based on the electrical charge discreteness, the Hamiltonian operator for the mutual inductance coupled quantum mesoscopic LC circuits has been found. The persistent current on two driven coupled mesoscopic electric pure L circuits (two quantum loops) has been obtained by using algebraic quantum dynamic approach. The influence of the mutual inductance on energy spectrum and quantum fluctuations of the charge and current for two coupled quantum electric mesoscopic LC circuits have been investigated.

  13. Causal approach for the electron-positron scattering in Generalized Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Soto, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the generalized electrodynamics contribution for the electron-positron scattering process, $e^{-}e^{+}\\rightarrow e^{-}e^{+}$, the Bhabha scattering. Within the framework of the standard model, for energies larger when compared to the electron mass, we calculate the cross section expression for the scattering process. This quantity is usually calculated in the framework of the Maxwell electrodynamics and, by phenomenological reasons, corrected by a cut-off parameter. On...

  14. Relativistic quantum teleportation with superconducting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, N; Lee, A R; Truong, K; Sabín, C; Solano, E; Johansson, G; Fuentes, I

    2013-03-15

    We study the effects of relativistic motion on quantum teleportation and propose a realizable experiment where our results can be tested. We compute bounds on the optimal fidelity of teleportation when one of the observers undergoes nonuniform motion for a finite time. The upper bound to the optimal fidelity is degraded due to the observer's motion. However, we discuss how this degradation can be corrected. These effects are observable for experimental parameters that are within reach of cutting-edge superconducting technology. PMID:25166531

  15. Relativistic Quantum Teleportation with superconducting circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Friis, Nicolai; Truong, Kevin; Sabín, Carlos; Solano, Enrique; Johansson, Göran; Fuentes, Ivette

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of relativistic motion on quantum teleportation and propose a realizable experiment where our results can be tested. We compute bounds on the optimal fidelity of teleportation when one of the observers undergoes non-uniform motion for a finite time. The upper bound to the optimal fidelity is degraded due to the observer's motion however, we discuss how this degradation can be corrected. These effects are observable for experimental parameters that are within reach of cutting-edge superconducting technology.

  16. Two-resonator circuit QED: A superconducting quantum switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupling different kind of superconducting (sc) qubits to on-chip microwave resonators has strongly advanced the field of circuit QED. Regarding the application of circuit QED systems in quantum information processing it would be highly desirable to switch on and off the interaction between two resonators. We introduce a formalism for two-resonator circuit QED where two on-chip microwave resonators are simultaneously coupled to one sc qubit. In this three-circuit network, the qubit mediates a geometric and a dynamic second-order interaction between the two resonators. These two coupling strengths can be tuned to be equal by varying the qubit operation point, thus permitting to switch on and off the interaction between the resonators. We discuss the effect of the qubit on the dynamic second-order coupling and how it can be deliberately manipulated to realize a sc quantum switch. Finally, we present a realistic design for implementing a two-resonator circuit QED setup based on a flux qubit and show preliminary experimental results.

  17. Spin mediated magneto-optical cavity quantum electrodynamics effects in quantum dot micropillar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on magneto-optical studies of strongly coupled quantum dot - micropillar cavity systems. Laterally extended In0.3Ga0.7As quantum dots (QDs) in the active layer of a micropillar cavity facilitate the observation of strong coupling. These QDs are characterized by large oscillator strength and they exhibit a large diamagnetic response, which is exploited to demonstrate magneto-optical resonance tuning. In addition, the coherent interaction between spin resolved states of the QDs and microcavity photon modes is studied. We access the spin degree of freedom by applying a non-zero magnetic field in Faraday configuration, so that the spin degeneracy of the QD exciton is lifted, while the resonance tuning of the Zeeman split exciton lines is achieved by temperature variation. A detailed oscillator model is used to extract coupling parameters of the individual spin and cavity modes. Our results demonstrate an effective coupling between photon modes that is mediated by the exciton spin states. We further show simulations of the photon-photon coupling in dependence of the coupling parameters.

  18. Chaotic phenomena in Josephson circuits coupled quantum cellular neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Sen; Cai Li; Li Qin; Wu Gang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the nonlinear dynamical behaviour of a quantum cellular neural network (QCNN) by coupling Josephson circuits was investigated and it was shown that the QCNN using only two of them can cause the onset of chaotic oscillation. The theoretical analysis and simulation for the two Josephson-circuits-coupled QCNN have been done by using the amplitude and phase as state variables. The complex chaotic behaviours can be observed and then proved by calculating Lyapunov exponents. The study provides valuable information about QCNNs for future application in high-parallel signal processing and novel chaotic generators.

  19. Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barends, R; Shabani, A; Lamata, L; Kelly, J; Mezzacapo, A; Las Heras, U; Babbush, R; Fowler, A G; Campbell, B; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z; Chiaro, B; Dunsworth, A; Jeffrey, E; Lucero, E; Megrant, A; Mutus, J Y; Neeley, M; Neill, C; O'Malley, P J J; Quintana, C; Roushan, P; Sank, D; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; White, T C; Solano, E; Neven, H; Martinis, John M

    2016-06-01

    Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable. PMID:27279216

  20. Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barends, R.; Shabani, A.; Lamata, L.; Kelly, J.; Mezzacapo, A.; Heras, U. Las; Babbush, R.; Fowler, A. G.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Lucero, E.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O’Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Solano, E.; Neven, H.; Martinis, John M.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable.

  1. Exploring Interacting Quantum Many-Body Systems by Experimentally Creating Continuous Matrix Product States in Superconducting Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, C.; Mlynek, J.; Butscher, J.; Kurpiers, P.; Hammerer, K.; Osborne, T. J.; Wallraff, A.

    2015-10-01

    Improving the understanding of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems such as gases of interacting atoms or electrons is one of the most important challenges in modern condensed matter physics, materials research, and chemistry. Enormous progress has been made in the past decades in developing both classical and quantum approaches to calculate, simulate, and experimentally probe the properties of such systems. In this work, we use a combination of classical and quantum methods to experimentally explore the properties of an interacting quantum gas by creating experimental realizations of continuous matrix product states—a class of states that has proven extremely powerful as a variational ansatz for numerical simulations. By systematically preparing and probing these states using a circuit quantum electrodynamics system, we experimentally determine a good approximation to the ground-state wave function of the Lieb-Liniger Hamiltonian, which describes an interacting Bose gas in one dimension. Since the simulated Hamiltonian is encoded in the measurement observable rather than the controlled quantum system, this approach has the potential to apply to a variety of models including those involving multicomponent interacting fields. Our findings also hint at the possibility of experimentally exploring general properties of matrix product states and entanglement theory. The scheme presented here is applicable to a broad range of systems exploiting strong and tunable light-matter interactions.

  2. Mathematica for Theoretical Physics: Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity and Fractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main focus of the second, enlarged edition of the book Mathematica for Theoretical Physics is on computational examples using the computer program Mathematica in various areas in physics. It is a notebook rather than a textbook. Indeed, the book is just a printout of the Mathematica notebooks included on the CD. The second edition is divided into two volumes, the first covering classical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, the second dealing with examples in electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, general relativity and fractal geometry. The second volume is not suited for newcomers because basic and simple physical ideas which lead to complex formulas are not explained in detail. Instead, the computer technology makes it possible to write down and manipulate formulas of practically any length. For researchers with experience in computing, the book contains a lot of interesting and non-trivial examples. Most of the examples discussed are standard textbook problems, but the power of Mathematica opens the path to more sophisticated solutions. For example, the exact solution for the perihelion shift of Mercury within general relativity is worked out in detail using elliptic functions. The virial equation of state for molecules' interaction with Lennard-Jones-like potentials is discussed, including both classical and quantum corrections to the second virial coefficient. Interestingly, closed solutions become available using sophisticated computing methods within Mathematica. In my opinion, the textbook should not show formulas in detail which cover three or more pages-these technical data should just be contained on the CD. Instead, the textbook should focus on more detailed explanation of the physical concepts behind the technicalities. The discussion of the virial equation would benefit much from replacing 15 pages of Mathematica output with 15 pages of further explanation and motivation. In this combination, the power of computing merged with physical intuition would

  3. The Utility of Naturalness, and how its Application to Quantum Electrodynamics envisages the Standard Model and Higgs Boson

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, James D

    2015-01-01

    With the Higgs boson discovery and no new physics found at the LHC, confidence in Naturalness as a guiding principle for particle physics is under increased pressure. We wait to see if it proves its mettle in the LHC upgrades ahead, and beyond. In the meantime, in a series of "realistic intellectual leaps" I present a justification {\\it a posteriori} of the Naturalness criterion by suggesting that uncompromising application of the principle to quantum electrodynamics leads toward the Standard Model and Higgs boson without additional experimental input. Potential lessons for today and future theory building are commented upon.

  4. No one-loop gauge anomalies for a Lorentz-violating quantum electrodynamics: evaluation of the three-photon vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of the diagrams that can lead to gauge anomalies in the (minimal) Lorentz- and CPT-violating extension of quantum electrodynamics reveal these to be the electron self-energy and vertex correction (related to the Ward–Takahashi identity), the photon self-energy (related to the vacuum polarization tensor transversality) and the three-photon vertex diagrams. All but the latter were explicitly verified to be free of anomalies to first order in loop expansion. Here we provide this remaining evaluation and verify the absence of anomalies in this process. (paper)

  5. Existence of Atoms and Molecules in the Mean-Field Approximation of No-Photon Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hainzl, Christian; Lewin, Mathieu; Sere, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The Bogoliubov-Dirac-Fock (BDF) model is the mean-field approximation of no-photon Quantum Electrodynamics. The present paper is devoted to the study of the minimization of the BDF energy functional under a charge constraint. An associated minimizer, if it exists, will usually represent the ground state of a system of $N$ electrons interacting with the Dirac sea, in an external electrostatic field generated by one or several fixed nuclei. We prove that such a minimizer exists when a binding (...

  6. Lorentz contraction of the equal-time Bethe–Salpeter amplitude in two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radożycki, Tomasz, E-mail: t.radozycki@uksw.edu.pl [Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Sciences, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University, Wóycickiego 1/3, 01-938, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-09-24

    The Lorentz transformation properties of the equal-time bound-state Bethe–Salpeter amplitude in the two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics (the so-called Schwinger model) are considered. It is shown that while boosting a bound state (a ‘meson’) this amplitude is subject to approximate Lorentz contraction. The effect is exact for large separations of constituent particles (‘quarks’), while for small distances the deviation is more significant. For this phenomenon to appear, the full function, i.e. with the inclusion of all instanton contributions, has to be considered. The amplitude in each separate topological sector does not exhibit such properties.

  7. Lorentz contraction of the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radozycki, Tomasz [Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-09-15

    The Lorentz transformation properties of the equal-time bound-state Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in the two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics (the so-called Schwinger model) are considered. It is shown that while boosting a bound state (a 'meson') this amplitude is subject to approximate Lorentz contraction. The effect is exact for large separations of constituent particles ('quarks'), while for small distances the deviation is more significant. For this phenomenon to appear, the full function, i.e. with the inclusion of all instanton contributions, has to be considered. The amplitude in each separate topological sector does not exhibit such properties. (orig.)

  8. Quantum Zeno effect in cavity quantum electrodynamics: Experimental proposal with nonideal cavities and detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R., Jr.; de Magalhães, A. R. Bosco; Nemes, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    We propose an experiment for the observation of the quantum Zeno effect (QZE) in a bipartite system. The setup involves two microwave cavities and a “tunneling” photon, which is observed by the passage of Rydberg atoms. Our proposal allows for the consideration of two types of measurements, namely, sequential observations of the atomic state and its inclusive measurement. In the present system the two processes are shown to lead to the same result in the ideal case. We consider realistic atom-field interaction times, cavity dissipation, and limited detection efficiency. Analytical expressions for the “tunneling” probability are obtained exhibiting a competition between the environment induced exponential decay and the characteristic t2 (for short times) dependence of the QZE. We show that for sufficiently small dissipation constants the effect can be observed with current experimental facilities.

  9. Electrodynamic modeling of strong coupling between a metasurface and intersubband transitions in quantum wells

    CERN Document Server

    Campione, Salvatore; Klem, John F; Sinclair, Michael B; Brener, Igal; Capolino, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Strong light-matter coupling has recently been demonstrated in sub-wavelength volumes by coupling engineered optical transitions in semiconductor heterostructures (e.g., quantum wells) to metasurface resonances via near fields. It has also been shown that different resonator shapes may lead to different Rabi splittings, though this has not yet been well explained. In this paper, our aim is to understand the correlation between resonator shape and Rabi splitting, and in particular determine and quantify the physical parameters that affect strong coupling by developing an equivalent circuit network model whose elements describe energy and dissipation. Because of the subwavelength dimension of each metasurface element, we resort to the quasi-static (electrostatic) description of the near-field and hence define an equivalent capacitance associated to each dipolar element of a flat metasurface, and we show that this is also able to accurately model the phenomenology involved in strong coupling between the metasurf...

  10. Two-loop fermion self-energy in reduced quantum electrodynamics and application to the ultra-relativistic limit of graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Kotikov, A V

    2013-01-01

    We compute the two-loop fermion self-energy in massless reduced quantum electrodynamics for an arbitrary gauge using the method of integration by parts. Focusing on the limit where the photon field is four-dimensional, our formula involves only recursively one-loop integrals and can therefore be evaluated exactly. From this formula, we deduce the anomalous scaling dimension of the fermion field as well as the renormalized fermion propagator up to two loops. The results are then applied to the ultra-relativistic limit of graphene and compared with similar results obtained for four-dimensional and three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics.

  11. Cooling a quantum circuit via coupling to a multiqubit system

    OpenAIRE

    Macovei, Mihai A.

    2010-01-01

    The cooling effects of a quantum LC circuit coupled inductively with an ensemble of artificial qubits are investigated. The particles may decay independently or collectively through their interaction with the environmental vacuum electromagnetic field reservoir. For appropriate bath temperatures and the resonator's quality factors, we demonstrate an effective cooling well below the thermal background. In particular, we found that for larger samples the cooling efficiency is better for indepen...

  12. Efficient synthesis of probabilistic quantum circuits with fallback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, Alex; Roetteler, Martin; Svore, Krysta M.

    2015-05-01

    Repeat-until-success (RUS) circuits can approximate a given single-qubit unitary with an expected number of T gates of about 1/3 of what is required by optimal, deterministic, ancilla-free decompositions over the Clifford + T gate set. In this work, we introduce a more general and conceptually simpler circuit decomposition method that allows for synthesis into protocols that probabilistically implement quantum circuits over several universal gate sets including, but not restricted to, the Clifford + T gate set. The protocol, which we call probabilistic quantum circuits with fallback (PQF), implements a walk on a discrete Markov chain in which the target unitary is an absorbing state and in which transitions are induced by multiqubit unitaries followed by measurements. In contrast to RUS protocols, the presented PQF protocols are guaranteed to terminate after a finite number of steps. Specifically, we apply our method to the Clifford + T , Clifford + V , and Clifford + π /12 gate sets to achieve decompositions with expected gate counts of logb(1 /ɛ ) +O {ln[ln(1 /ɛ ) ] } , where b is a quantity related to the expansion property of the underlying universal gate set.

  13. The Causal approach for the electron-positron scattering in the Generalized Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bufalo, R; Soto, D E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the generalized electrodynamics contribution for the electron-positron scattering process, $e^{-}e^{+}\\rightarrow e^{-}e^{+}$, the Bhabha scattering. Within the framework of the standard model, for energies larger when compared to the electron mass, we calculate the cross section expression for the scattering process. This quantity is usually calculated in the framework of the Maxwell electrodynamics and, by phenomenological reasons, corrected by a cut-off parameter. On the other hand, by considering the generalized electrodynamics instead of Maxwell's, we can show that the effects played by the Podolsky mass is actually a natural cut-off parameter for this scattering process. Furthermore, by means of experimental data of Bhabha scattering we will estimate its lower bound value. Nevertheless, in order to have a mathematically well defined description of our study we shall present our discussion in the framework of the Epstein-Glaser causal theory.

  14. Quantum electrodynamics based on self-fields: On the origin of thermal radiation detected by an accelerating observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We continue with our series of papers concerning a self-field approach to quantum electrodynamics that is not second quantized. We use the theory here to show that a detector with a uniform acceleration a will respond to its own self-field as if immersed in a thermal photon bath at temperature Ta=ℎa/2πkc. This is the celebrated Unruh effect, and it is closely related to the emission of Hawking radiation from the event horizon of a black hole. Our approach is novel in that the radiation field is classical and not quantized; the vacuum field being identically zero with no zero-point energy. From our point of view, all radiative effects are accounted for when the self-field of the detector, and not the hypothetical zero-point field of the vacuum, acts back on the detector in a quantum-electrodynamic analog of the classical phenomenon of radiation reaction. When the detector is accelerating, its transformed self-field induces a different back reaction than when it is moving inertially. This process gives rise to the appearance of a photon bath, but the photons are not real in the sense that the space surrounding the accelerating detector is truly empty of radiation, a fact that is verified by the null response of an inertially moving detector in the same vicinity. The thermal photons are in this sense fictitious, and they have no independent existence outside the detector

  15. Measurement of the cross-section of electron-positron scattering at high energy and quantum electrodynamics testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment we have performed on the ACO (Orsay Collider Ring) is one of the most accurate tests of quantum electrodynamics over very short interaction distances (10-14 cm). We have studied the electron-positron elastic scattering at very wide angle. This work is divided into 4 parts. The first part reviews recent tests of quantum electrodynamics and presents the electron-positron elastic scattering. The second part describes the measurement of brightness: the experimental device, data analysis and accuracy. The measurement of brightness has been performed by detecting the photons emitted in the double Bremsstrahlung reaction: e+e- → e+e-γγ. The third part deals with the measurement of the number of Bhabha events. The last part compares the experimental value of the Bhabha scattering with the theoretically expected value. We have got the following results: the number of Bhabha events: 757 events, the experimental value for Bhabha scattering cross-section: [1.97 ± 0.09 (stat.) ± 0.10 (syst.)]*10-31 cm2. The comparison of this experimental value with the expected value has allowed us to set the lower limit of the cutting parameter Λ: Λ > 2 GeV

  16. Quantum electrodynamics and the electron self-energy in a deformed space with a minimal length scale

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Apollo V; Neves, M J

    2016-01-01

    The main motivation to study models in the presence of a minimal length is to obtain a quantum field theory free of the divergences. In this way, in this paper, we have constructed a new framework for quantum electrodynamics embedded in a minimal length scale background. New operators are introduced and the Green function method was used for the solution of the field equations, i.e., the Maxwell, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. We have analyzed specifically the scalar field and its one loop propagator. The mass of the scalar field regularized by the minimal length was obtained. The QED Lagrangian containing a minimal length was also constructed and the divergences were analyzed. The electron and photon propagators, and the electron self-energy at one loop as a function of the minimal length was also obtained.

  17. Quantum electrodynamics and the electron self-energy in a deformed space with a minimal length scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Apollo V.; Abreu, E. M. C.; Neves, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    The main motivation to study models in the presence of a minimal length is to obtain a quantum field theory free of the divergences. In this way, in this paper, we have constructed a new framework for quantum electrodynamics embedded in a minimal length scale background. New operators are introduced and the Green function method was used for the solution of the field equations, i.e. the Maxwell, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. We have analyzed specifically the scalar field and its one loop propagator. The mass of the scalar field regularized by the minimal length was obtained. The QED Lagrangian containing a minimal length was also constructed and the divergences were analyzed. The electron and photon propagators, and the electron self-energy at one loop as a function of the minimal length was also obtained.

  18. Fabrication technology of and symmetry breaking in superconducting quantum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting quantum circuits are promising systems for experiments testing fundamental quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale and for applications in quantum information processing. We report on the fabrication and characterization of superconducting flux qubits, readout dc SQUIDs, on-chip shunting capacitors, and high-quality coplanar waveguide resonators. Furthermore, we discuss the tunability and fundamental symmetry aspects inherent to all superconducting qubits, which can be regarded as artificial solid-state atoms. Comparing them to their natural counterparts, we discuss first- and second-order energy shifts due to static control fields. Additionally, we present an intuitive derivation of the first- and second-order matrix elements for level transitions in the presence of coherent microwave driving.

  19. Quantum trajectories for dispersive readout in superconducting circuit QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present applications for the method of quantum trajectory simulations for the realistic simulation of single-shot readout experiments in superconducting circuit QED. Quantum trajectories generated by stochastic master equations allow to obtain a realistic measurement signal while one simultaneously gains access to the internal quantum dynamics of the system in question taking the measurement back-action into account correctly. Thus, useful insights beyond the ensemble average description of a conventional master equation can be obtained. To illustrate the power of the method, we present two important examples: (i) How to detect single itinerant microwave photons non-destructively (ii) How to generate massively entangled N-qubit states like W- and GHZ-states by measurement. We point out the presented examples can be realized using currently available experimental setups.

  20. Observation of topological transitions in interacting quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushan, Pedram

    2015-03-01

    Topology, despite its mathematical abstractness, often manifests itself in physics and plays a pivotal role in our understanding of natural phenomena. Notable examples include the discoveries of topological phases in condensed matter systems which have changed the modern conception of phases of matter. The global nature of topological ordering, however, makes direct experimental probing an outstanding challenge. Present experimental tools are mainly indirect and inadequate for studying such properties at a fundamental level. Here, we employ the exquisite control afforded by superconducting quantum circuits to directly investigate topological properties of quantum spin systems. The essence of our approach is to infer local curvature by measuring the deflection of quantum trajectories topological properties are then revealed from a quantum analog of the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. We benchmark our technique by constructing the topological phase diagram of the celebrated Haldane model. The nature of the individual phases is revealed by visualizing their microscopic spin texture and evolution across the transition. Furthermore, we demonstrate the power of our method in studying the topology of interacting quantum systems, utilizing a novel qubit architecture which enables control over every term in a two-qubit Hamiltonian. We discovered an interaction-driven topological phase, whose emergence is understood by fully exploring the parameter-space of the Hamiltonian. Our work establishes a generalizable experimental platform to study fundamental aspects of topological phenomena in quantum systems. NSF Grants: DMR-0907039 and DMR-1029764.

  1. Quantum Fluctuation of Mesoscopic Capacitance Coupled Circuit in a Thermal Vacuum State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱爱东; 张寿; 金哲; 赵永芳; 井孝功; 千正男; 苏文辉

    2003-01-01

    The quantum fluctuations of mesoscopic capacitance-coupled circuit in thermal vacuum state are investigated by using the theory of thermal field dynamics on the basis of quantization of the mesoscopic circuit. It is shown that under a definite temperature, the fluctuations of electric charges and currents change with temperature. The higher the temperature, the more quantum noise the coupled circuit exhibits.

  2. Fermionic models with superconducting circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Las Heras, Urtzi; Garcia-Alvarez, Laura; Mezzacapo, Antonio; Lamata, Lucas [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); Solano, Enrique [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method for the efficient quantum simulation of fermionic systems with superconducting circuits. It consists in the suitable use of Jordan-Wigner mapping, Trotter decomposition, and multiqubit gates, be with the use of a quantum bus or direct capacitive couplings. We apply our method to the paradigmatic cases of 1D and 2D Fermi-Hubbard models, involving couplings with nearest and next-nearest neighbours. Furthermore, we propose an optimal architecture for this model and discuss the benchmarking of the simulations in realistic circuit quantum electrodynamics setups. (orig.)

  3. Automated Method for Building CNOT Based Quantum Circuits for Boolean Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Younes, A; Younes, Ahmed; Miller, Julian

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an efficient technique that can implement any given Boolean function as a quantum circuit. The method converts a truth table of a Boolean function to the corresponding quantum circuit using a minimal number of auxiliary qubits. We give examples of some circuits synthesized with this technique. A direct result that follows from the technique is a new way to convert any classical digital circuit to its classical reversible form.

  4. Local random quantum circuits: ensemble CP maps and swap algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Zanardi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We define different classes of local random quantum circuits (L-RQC) and show that: a) statistical properties of L-RQC are encoded into an associated family of completely positive maps and b) average purity dynamics can be described by the action of these maps on operator algebras of permutations (swap algebras). An exactly solvable one-dimensional case is analyzed to illustrate the power of the swap algebra formalism. More in general, we prove short time area-law bounds on average purity for...

  5. A geometric approach to quantum circuit lower bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    What is the minimal size quantum circuit required to exactly implement a specified n-qubit unitary operation, U, without the use of ancilla qubits? We show that a lower bound on the minimal size is provided by the length of the minimal geodesic between U and the identity, I, where length is defined by a suitable Finsler metric on SU(2^n). The geodesic curves of such a metric have the striking property that once an initial position and velocity are set, the remainder of the geodesic is complet...

  6. On the satisfiability of quantum circuits of small treewidth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Oliveira Oliveira, Mateus

    Cham: Springer, 2015 - (Beklemishev, L.; Musatov, D.), s. 157-172. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 9139). ISBN 978-3-319-20296-9. ISSN 0302-9743. [International Computer Science Symposium in Russia, CSR 2015. Listvyanka (RU), 13.07.2015-17.07.2015] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Keywords : treewidth * satisfiability of quantum circuits * tensor networks Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-20297-6_11

  7. Quantum statistical relation for black holes in nonlinear electrodynamics coupled to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider curvature-squared corrections to Einstein-Hilbert gravity action in the form of a Gauss-Bonnet term in D>4 dimensions. In this theory, we study the thermodynamics of charged static black holes with anti-de Sitter (AdS) asymptotics, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics. These objects have received considerable attention in recent literature on gravity/gauge dualities. It is well-known that, within the framework of anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, there exists a nonvanishing Casimir contribution to the internal energy of the system, manifested as the vacuum energy for global AdS spacetime in odd dimensions. Because of this reason, we derive a quantum statistical relation directly from the Euclidean action and not from the integration of the first law of thermodynamics. To this end, we employ a background-independent regularization scheme which consists, in addition to the bulk action, of counterterms that depend on both extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures of the boundary (Kounterterm series). This procedure results in a consistent inclusion of the vacuum energy and chemical potential in the thermodynamic description for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity regardless of the explicit form of the nonlinear electrodynamics Lagrangian.

  8. Resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip; Resonator-Quantenelektrodynamik auf einem Mikrofallenchip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Tilo

    2008-04-29

    In the present dissertation experiments on resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip are described. Thereby for the first time single atoms catched in a chip trap could be detected. For this in the framework of this thesis a novel optical microresonator was developed, which can because of its miniaturization be combined with the microtrap technique introduced in our working group for the manipulation of ultracold atoms. For this resonator glass-fiber ends are used as mirror substrates, between which a standing light wave is formed. With such a fiber Fabry-Perot resonator we obtain a finess of up to {approx}37,000. Because of the small mode volumina in spite of moderate resonator quality the coherent interaction between an atom and a photon can be made so large that the regime of the strong atom-resonator coupling is reached. For the one-atom-one-photon coupling rate and the one-atom-one-photon cooperativity thereby record values of g{sub 0}=2{pi}.300 MHz respectively C{sub 0}=210 are reached. Just so for the first time the strong coupling regime between a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and the field of a high-quality resonator could be reached. The BEC was thereby by means of the magnetic microtrap potentials deterministically brought to a position within the resonator and totally transformed in a well defined antinode of an additionally optical standing-wave trap. The spectrum of the coupled atom-resonator system was measured for different atomic numbers and atom-resonator detunings, whereby a collective vacuum Rabi splitting of more than 20 GHz could be reached. [German] In der vorliegenden Dissertation werden Experimente zur Resonator-Quantenelektrodynamik auf einem Mikrofallenchip beschrieben. Dabei konnte u. a. erstmals einzelne, in einer Chipfalle gefangene Atome detektiert werden. Hier fuer wurde im Rahmen dieser Arbeit ein neuartiger optischer Mikroresonator entwickelt, der sich dank seiner Miniaturisierung mit der in unserer Arbeitsgruppe

  9. Quantum circuits with uniformly controlled one-qubit gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniformly controlled one-qubit gates are quantum gates which can be represented as direct sums of two-dimensional unitary operators acting on a single qubit. We present a quantum gate array which implements any n-qubit gate of this type using at most 2n-1-1 controlled-NOT gates, 2n-1 one-qubit gates, and a single diagonal n-qubit gate. To illustrate the versatility of these gates we then apply them to the decomposition of a general n-qubit gate and a state preparation procedure. Moreover, we study their implementation using only nearest-neighbor gates. We give upper bounds for the one-qubit and controlled-NOT gate counts for all the aforementioned applications. In all four cases, the proposed circuit topologies either improve on or achieve the previously reported upper bounds for the gate counts. Thus, they provide the most efficient method for general gate decompositions currently known

  10. Rabi model as a quantum coherent heat engine: From quantum biology to superconducting circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Hardal, Ali U. C.; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür Esat; Altıntaş, Ferdi

    2014-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 91, 023816 (2015) Rabi model as a quantum coherent heat engine: From quantum biology to superconducting circuits Ferdi Altintas,1 Ali U¨ . C. Hardal,2 and O¨ zgu¨r E. Mu¨stecaplıog˘lu2,* 1Department of Physics, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, 14280, Turkey 2Department of Physics, Koc¸ University, Sarıyer, ˙Istanbul, 34450, Turkey (Received 10 November 2014; published 12 February 2015) We propose a multilevel quantum heat engine with a working medium de...

  11. Observation of topological transitions in interacting quantum circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushan, P; Neill, C; Chen, Yu; Kolodrubetz, M; Quintana, C; Leung, N; Fang, M; Barends, R; Campbell, B; Chen, Z; Chiaro, B; Dunsworth, A; Jeffrey, E; Kelly, J; Megrant, A; Mutus, J; O'Malley, P J J; Sank, D; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; White, T; Polkovnikov, A; Cleland, A N; Martinis, J M

    2014-11-13

    Topology, with its abstract mathematical constructs, often manifests itself in physics and has a pivotal role in our understanding of natural phenomena. Notably, the discovery of topological phases in condensed-matter systems has changed the modern conception of phases of matter. The global nature of topological ordering, however, makes direct experimental probing an outstanding challenge. Present experimental tools are mainly indirect and, as a result, are inadequate for studying the topology of physical systems at a fundamental level. Here we employ the exquisite control afforded by state-of-the-art superconducting quantum circuits to investigate topological properties of various quantum systems. The essence of our approach is to infer geometric curvature by measuring the deflection of quantum trajectories in the curved space of the Hamiltonian. Topological properties are then revealed by integrating the curvature over closed surfaces, a quantum analogue of the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. We benchmark our technique by investigating basic topological concepts of the historically important Haldane model after mapping the momentum space of this condensed-matter model to the parameter space of a single-qubit Hamiltonian. In addition to constructing the topological phase diagram, we are able to visualize the microscopic spin texture of the associated states and their evolution across a topological phase transition. Going beyond non-interacting systems, we demonstrate the power of our method by studying topology in an interacting quantum system. This required a new qubit architecture that allows for simultaneous control over every term in a two-qubit Hamiltonian. By exploring the parameter space of this Hamiltonian, we discover the emergence of an interaction-induced topological phase. Our work establishes a powerful, generalizable experimental platform to study topological phenomena in quantum systems. PMID:25391961

  12. Electrodynamics and quantum capacity: The case of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craco, L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiabá, MT (Brazil)

    2015-11-14

    Layered Bi-chalcogenide topological insulators are among the most available energy conversion (thermoelectric) and storage (battery) materials. Motivated by this applied aspect of fundamental importance and the good agreement between theory and key experiments probing spectroscopy and dc transport, we undertake a detailed study of electrodynamic responses of bulk Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator. In particular, we confirm that the interplay between spin-orbit and electron correlations underpins its bulk metallicity. We show the implications of our proposal for the multi-channel nature of galvanostatic, voltage-capacity profiles intrinsic to Li{sub x}Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} battery material. Supported by a microscopic description of quantum capacity, we predict that layered Bi-based topological insulators are promising candidates for future high-voltage solid-state batteries.

  13. Polarization of vacuum of (2 + 1) dimensional quantum electrodynamics with nonzero density of fermions by external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One plotted the Green function of the Dirac equation within external constant and uniform field in terms of (2 + 1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QRD2+1) with nonzero density of fermions. In terms of QRD2+1 single-loop approximation one derived expression for polarization operator within external constant and uniform magnetic field at nonzero chemical potential. One calculated contribution of the Chern-Simon induced term into polarization operator and efficient Lagrangian at fermion density corresponding to occupation of the Landau n relativistic levels by them in the external magnetic field. One derived expression for the Chern-Simon induced term in the magnetic field at end temperature and nonzero chemical potential

  14. Kohn-Sham approach to quantum electrodynamical density-functional theory: Exact time-dependent effective potentials in real space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flick, Johannes; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel

    2015-12-15

    The density-functional approach to quantum electrodynamics extends traditional density-functional theory and opens the possibility to describe electron-photon interactions in terms of effective Kohn-Sham potentials. In this work, we numerically construct the exact electron-photon Kohn-Sham potentials for a prototype system that consists of a trapped electron coupled to a quantized electromagnetic mode in an optical high-Q cavity. Although the effective current that acts on the photons is known explicitly, the exact effective potential that describes the forces exerted by the photons on the electrons is obtained from a fixed-point inversion scheme. This procedure allows us to uncover important beyond-mean-field features of the effective potential that mark the breakdown of classical light-matter interactions. We observe peak and step structures in the effective potentials, which can be attributed solely to the quantum nature of light; i.e., they are real-space signatures of the photons. Our findings show how the ubiquitous dipole interaction with a classical electromagnetic field has to be modified in real space to take the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field fully into account. PMID:26627715

  15. Some quantum experiments from the point of view of stochastic electrodynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špička, Václav; Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Krištofik, Jozef

    Singapore : World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd, 2007 - (Nieuwenhuizen, T.; Špička, V.; Aghdami, M.; Khrennikov, A.), s. 247-270 ISBN 978-981-277-117-9 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010404; GA ČR GA202/04/0585; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : stochastic electrodynamics * zero - point energy * black-body radiation * noise measurements * weak localization Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  16. Decomposition of unitary matrices for finding quantum circuits: application to molecular Hamiltonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskin, Anmer; Kais, Sabre

    2011-04-14

    Constructing appropriate unitary matrix operators for new quantum algorithms and finding the minimum cost gate sequences for the implementation of these unitary operators is of fundamental importance in the field of quantum information and quantum computation. Evolution of quantum circuits faces two major challenges: complex and huge search space and the high costs of simulating quantum circuits on classical computers. Here, we use the group leaders optimization algorithm to decompose a given unitary matrix into a proper-minimum cost quantum gate sequence. We test the method on the known decompositions of Toffoli gate, the amplification step of the Grover search algorithm, the quantum Fourier transform, and the sender part of the quantum teleportation. Using this procedure, we present the circuit designs for the simulation of the unitary propagators of the Hamiltonians for the hydrogen and the water molecules. The approach is general and can be applied to generate the sequence of quantum gates for larger molecular systems. PMID:21495747

  17. Role of nonlinearity in non-Hermitian quantum mechanics: Description of linear quantum electrodynamics from the nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Gilbert C.; Gazeau, Maxime

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we consider a basic two-level nonlinear quantum model consisting in a two-particle interacting bound-state system. It is described by means of two different approaches: i) the mean-field stationary nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson equation with classical Coulomb interaction and harmonic potential; ii) the linear quantum electrodynamics Hamiltonian of a quantized field coupled to two fixed charges. Computing numerically the ground state and the first excited state about the maximum eigenstate overlap (which is not zero because of eigenstate non-orthogonality), we numerically demonstrate that these two descriptions coincide at first order. As a consequence, a specific definition of the fine-structure constant α is provided within 99.95% accuracy by the present first-order non-relativistic and nonlinear quantum description. This result also means that the internal Coulomb interaction commutes with external particle confinement for the calculation of the ground state. Consequently peculiar nonlinear quantum properties become observable (an experiment with GaAs quantum-dot helium is suggested).

  18. Explicit implementation of quantum circuits on a quantum-cellular-automata-like architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an efficient strategy to translate a normal quantum algorithm into a sequence of operations on the quantum-cellular-automata-like architecture (QCALA) originally proposed by Lloyd. The QCALA assumes arrays of weakly coupled quantum systems where an interaction exists only between neighboring qubits and can only perform the same quantum operation onto all the qubits. The sequence obtained by the strategy proposed by Lloyd needs at most 12n operations, where n is the number of qubits for the original circuit. The sequence obtained by our strategy needs at most 6n operations. We also clarified the relations between the upper bound of the number of translated operations and the period of the QCALA and between the upper bound of the number of qubits and the period of the QCALA

  19. Aharonov-Bohm phases in a quantum LC circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, ChunJun; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R

    2015-01-01

    We study novel types of contributions to the partition function of the Maxwell system defined on a small compact manifold. These contributions, often not addressed in the perturbative treatment with physical photons, emerge as a result of tunneling transitions between topologically distinct but physically identical vacuum winding states. These new terms give an extra contribution to the Casimir pressure, yet to be measured. We argue that this effect is highly sensitive to a small external electric field, which should be contrasted with the conventional Casimir effect where the vacuum photons are essentially unaffected by any external field. Furthermore, photons will be emitted from the vacuum in response to a time-dependent electric field, similar to the dynamical Casimir effect in which real particles are radiated from the vacuum due to the time-dependent boundary conditions. We also propose an experimental setup using a quantum LC circuit to detect this novel effect. We expect physical electric charges to a...

  20. Quantum gates by qubit frequency modulation in circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Felix; da Silva, Marcus P.; Johnson, Blake R.; Ohki, Thomas A.; Dutton, Zachary; Blais, Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Several types of two-qubit gates have been realized experimentally in circuit QED. These are based, for example, on tuning the pair of qubits in resonance with each other [Majer, Nature 449, 443-447 (2007)] or on a microwave pulse on one qubit at the transition frequency of a second qubit [Chow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 080502 (2011)]. Another realization is based on a sequence of blue-sideband transitions generated by microwave pulses [Leek, Phys. Rev. B 79, 180511(R) (2009)]. Here, we propose a different approach relying on oscillations of the qubit frequency using a flux-bias line. We explain how frequency modulation leads to tunable qubit-resonator and qubit-qubit interactions. We also show how this form of quantum control leads to faster (first-order) sideband transitions and consider applications to two-qubit gates.

  1. A scheme for two-photon lasing with two coupled flux qubits in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Zou, Xu-Bo; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-06-01

    We theoretically study the system of a superconducting transmission line resonator coupled to two interacting superconducting flux qubits. It is shown that under certain conditions the resonator mode can be tuned to two-photon resonance between the ground state and the highest excited state while the middle excited states are far-off resonance. Furthermore, we study the steady-state properties of the flux qubits and resonator, such as the photon statistics, the spectrum and squeezing of the resonator, and demonstrate that two-photon laser can be implemented with current experimental technology. Project supported by the National Fundamental Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011cba00200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274295), and the Doctor Foundation of Education Ministry of China (Grant No. 20113402110059).

  2. Realization of microwave quantum circuits using hybrid superconducting-semiconducting nanowire Josephson elements

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, G; van Heck, B.; Bruno, A.; Van Woerkom, D.J.; Geresdi, A.; Plissard, S.R.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Akhmerov, A.R.; Di Carlo, L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the realization of quantum microwave circuits using hybrid superconductor-semiconductor Josephson elements comprised of InAs nanowires contacted by NbTiN. Capacitively shunted single elements behave as transmon circuits with electrically tunable transition frequencies. Two-element circuits also exhibit transmonlike behavior near zero applied flux but behave as flux qubits at half the flux quantum, where nonsinusoidal current-phase relations in the elements produce a double-well Jose...

  3. Fano line-shape control and superluminal light using cavity quantum electrodynamics with a partially transmitting element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Liu, Jiuyang; Ding, Chunling; Wu, Ying

    2016-05-01

    We study the probe-field transmission in cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity-QED) systems with a partially transmitting element (PTE), where the PTE is used to control and tune the amplitude of the weak probe field propagating along a single waveguide channel in the structure. We derive analytic formulas utilized to determine the transmission coefficient of the probe field within the framework of quantum optics. Using experimentally accessible parameters, it is clearly shown that the asymmetric Fano-resonance line shape can be formed and manipulated by means of the added PTE. Furthermore, we reveal that there exists superluminal light with large intensity transmission in the transport spectrum of the waveguide-coupled cavity-QED system. This superluminal-light propagation effect, which exhibits the anomalous phase shift and is characterized by the negative group delay, can be enhanced by properly choosing the system parameters. The obtained results may be used for designing switching, modulation, and sensing for nanophotonic applications and ultrafast on-chip signal processing in telecom applications.

  4. Introduction to Quantum-limited Parametric Amplification of Quantum Signals with Josephson Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Devoret, Michel

    2016-01-01

    This short and opinionated review starts with a concept of quantum signals at microwave frequencies and focuses on the principle of linear parametric amplification. The amplification process arises from the dispersive nonlinearity of Josephson junctions driven with appropriate tones. We discuss two defining characteristics of these amplifiers: the number of modes receiving the signal, idler and pump waves and the number of independent ports through which these waves enter into the circuit.

  5. Circuit Design Methods for Quantum Separator (QS) and Systems to Use Its Output

    OpenAIRE

    Werbos, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    The underlying dynamics (\\partialt{\\psi}=iH{\\psi}) of quantum electrodynamics are symmetric with respect to time (T and CPT), but traditional calculations and designs in electronics and electromagnetics impose an observer formalism or causality constraints which assume a gross asymmetry between forwards time and backwards time. In 2008, I published a paper in the International Journal of Theoretical Physics (see arXiv:0801.1234) which describes how to construct physics based on the dynamics a...

  6. A quantum dynamical comparison of the electronic couplings derived from quantum electrodynamics and Förster theory: application to 2D molecular aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to investigate under what circumstances Förster theory of electronic (resonance) energy transfer breaks down in molecular aggregates. This is achieved by simulating the dynamics of exciton diffusion, on the femtosecond timescale, in molecular aggregates using the Liouville–von Neumann equation of motion. Specifically the focus of this work is the investigation of both spatial and temporal deviations between exciton dynamics driven by electronic couplings calculated from Förster theory and those calculated from quantum electrodynamics. The quantum electrodynamics (QED) derived couplings contain medium- and far-zone terms that do not exist in Förster theory. The results of the simulations indicate that Förster coupling is valid when the dipole centres are within a few nanometres of one another. However, as the distance between the dipole centres increases from 2 nm to 10 nm, the intermediate- and far-zone coupling terms play non-negligible roles and Förster theory begins to break down. Interestingly, the simulations illustrate how contributions to the exciton dynamics from the intermediate- and far-zone coupling terms of QED are quickly washed-out by the near-zone mechanism of Förster theory for lattices comprising closely packed molecules. On the other hand, in the case of sparsely packed arrays, the exciton dynamics resulting from the different theories diverge within the 100 fs lifetime of the trajectories. These results could have implications for the application of spectroscopic ruler techniques as well as design principles relating to energy harvesting materials. (paper)

  7. Solid state multi-ensemble quantum computer in waveguide circuit model

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, Sergey A; Gubaidullin, Firdus F

    2010-01-01

    The first realization of solid state quantum computer was demonstrated recently by using artificial atoms -- transmons in superconducting resonator. Here, we propose a novel architecture of flexible and scalable quantum computer based on a waveguide circuit coupling many quantum nodes of controlled atomic ensembles. For the first time, we found the optimal practically attainable parameters of the atoms and circuit for 100{%} efficiency of quantum memory for multi qubit photon fields and confirmed experimentally the predicted perfect storage. Then we revealed self modes for reversible transfer of qubits between the quantum memory node and arbitrary other nodes. We found a realization of iSWAP gate via direct coupling of two arbitrary nodes with a processing rate accelerated proportionally to number of atoms in the node. A large number of the two-qubit gates can be simultaneously realized in the circuit for implementation of parallel quantum processing. Dynamic coherent elimination procedure of excess quantum s...

  8. Scalable Integration of Long-Lived Quantum Memories into a Photonic Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouradian, Sara L.; Schröder, Tim; Poitras, Carl B.; Li, Luozhou; Goldstein, Jordan; Chen, Edward H.; Walsh, Michael; Cardenas, Jaime; Markham, Matthew L.; Twitchen, Daniel J.; Lipson, Michal; Englund, Dirk

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate a photonic circuit with integrated long-lived quantum memories. Precharacterized quantum nodes—diamond microwaveguides containing single, stable, negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers—are deterministically integrated into low-loss silicon nitride waveguides. These quantum nodes efficiently couple into the single-mode waveguides with >1 Mcps collected into the waveguide, have narrow single-scan linewidths below 400 MHz, and exhibit long electron spin coherence times up to 120 μ s . Our system facilitates the assembly of multiple quantum nodes with preselected properties into a photonic integrated circuit with near unity yield, paving the way towards the scalable fabrication of quantum information processors.

  9. Environment-Assisted Speed-up of the Field Evolution in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measure the quantum speed of the state evolution of the field in a weakly-driven optical cavity QED system. To this end, the mode of the electromagnetic field is considered as a quantum system of interest with a preferential coupling to a tunable environment: the atoms. By controlling the environment, i.e., changing the number of atoms coupled to the optical cavity mode, an environment assisted speed-up is realized: the quantum speed of the state re-population in the optical cavity increases with the coupling strength between the optical cavity mode and this non-Markovian environment (the number of atoms)

  10. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR CALCULATING CLOSING IN OF SWITCH-GEAR FLEXIBLE BUSES AT SHORT CIRCUIT BY IMPULSE OF ELECTRODYNAMIC FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Sergey; E. G. Ponomarenko; W. M. Sammur; P. I. Klimkovich

    2005-01-01

    The paper contains description of a simplified method for calculating closing-in of switch-gear flexible buses at short circuit. The developed method is based on integral and energy principles of  mechanics. In order to increase accuracy of the calculation corrections factors are introduced in an explicit formula for calculation of maximum horizontal deviations. These factors have been obtained with the help of a computer program that realized numerical method for calculating closing-in of wi...

  11. Study on Quantum Entanglement Between Mesoscopic Circuit and Environment at Coherent State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Ying-Hua

    2008-01-01

    Taking into account the interaction between electrons and phonons, in the case without-rotating-wave approximation, we study the entangling property between the mesoscopic circuit and environment at coherent state or equilibrium state. The result indicates that, in long time limit t→∞, the averages of charge and current in the circuit only depend on the average of the system at the initial state when the environment is initially at thermal equilibrium. However, when the environment is initiMly at coherent state, the average of charge and current in the circuit is determined by the specific coherent state ensemble. Generally speaking, the entanglement between the circuit and environment will lead to the quantum state purity declining of the circuit, then the circuit emerges decoherent phenomenon, and so a mixed state appears. Purity changes are related to the initial quantum state of environment and circuit. With the further evolution of time, coherence will be gradually restored, but cannot return to 1.

  12. Quantum electrodynamics based on self-energy, without second quantization: The Lamb shift and long-range Casimir-Polder van der Waals forces near boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a previously formulated theory of quantum electrodynamics based on self-energy, we give a general method for computing the Lamb shift and related Casimir-Polder energies for a quantum system in the vicinity of perfectly conducting boundaries. Our results are exact and easily extendable to a full covariant relativistic form. As a particular example we apply the method to an atom near an infinite conducting plane, and we recover the standard QED results (which are known only in the dipole approximation) in a simple and straightforward manner. This is accomplished in the context of the new theory which is not second quantized and contains no vacuum fluctuations. (author)

  13. A single flux quantum circuit with a ferromagnet-based Josephson π-junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the functionality of a Nb-based superconducting single flux quantum (SFQ) toggle flip-flop (TFF) circuit, comprising a complementary superconductor-ferromagnet-superconductor (SFS) Josephson π-junction. The SFS junction was used as a phase shifting element inserted in the storage loop of the TFF. The fabricated circuits demonstrated correct functionality with the operation parameter ranges of ± 20%. The application of SFS π-junctions makes the SFQ circuits very compact, may substantially improve their stability, and may also be suitable for integration with Josephson quantum circuits (qubits).

  14. Quantum Statistical Relation for black holes in nonlinear electrodynamics coupled to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Miskovic, Olivera

    2010-01-01

    We consider curvature-squared corrections to Einstein-Hilbert gravity action in the form of Gauss-Bonnet term in D>4 dimensions. In this theory, we study the thermodynamics of charged static black holes with anti-de Sitter (AdS) asymptotics, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics (NED). These objects have received considerable attention in recent literature on gravity/gauge dualities. It is well-known that, within the framework of anti de-Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, there exists a nonvanishing Casimir contribution to the internal energy of the system, manifested as the vacuum energy for global AdS spacetime in odd dimensions. Because of this reason, we derive a Quantum Statistical Relation directly from the Euclidean action and not from the integration of the First Law of thermodynamics. To this end, we employ a background-independent regularization scheme which consists in the addition to the bulk action of counterterms that depend on both extrinsic and...

  15. Cavity quantum electrodynamics using a near-resonance two-level system: Emergence of the Glauber state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarabi, B.; Ramanayaka, A. N. [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Burin, A. L. [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Wellstood, F. C. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Osborn, K. D. [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2015-04-27

    Random tunneling two-level systems (TLSs) in dielectrics have been of interest recently because they adversely affect the performance of superconducting qubits. The coupling of TLSs to qubits has allowed individual TLS characterization, which has previously been limited to TLSs within (thin) Josephson tunneling barriers made from aluminum oxide. Here, we report on the measurement of an individual TLS within the capacitor of a lumped-element LC microwave resonator, which forms a cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) system and allows for individual TLS characterization in a different structure and material than demonstrated with qubits. Due to the reduced volume of the dielectric (80 μm{sup 3}), even with a moderate dielectric thickness (250 nm), we achieve the strong coupling regime as evidenced by the vacuum Rabi splitting observed in the cavity spectrum. A TLS with a coherence time of 3.2 μs was observed in a film of silicon nitride as analyzed with a Jaynes-Cummings spectral model, which is larger than seen from superconducting qubits. As the drive power is increased, we observe an unusual but explicable set of continuous and discrete crossovers from the vacuum Rabi split transitions to the Glauber (coherent) state.

  16. Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, C; Guo, X; Fan, L; Ma, X; Poot, M; Tang, H X

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single-photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standard semiconductor thin-film technology, making it possible to implement more complex and larger scale quantum photonic circuits on silicon chips. PMID:26792424

  17. Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, C.; Guo, X.; Fan, L.; Ma, X.; Poot, M.; Tang, H. X.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single-photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standard semiconductor thin-film technology, making it possible to implement more complex and larger scale quantum photonic circuits on silicon chips.

  18. Distributed quantum computation with superconducting qubit via LC circuit using dressed states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Chao; Fang Mao-Fa; Xiao Xing; Li Yan-Ling; Cao Shuai

    2011-01-01

    A scheme is proposed where two superconducting qubits driven by a classical field interacting separately with two distant LC circuits connected by another LC circuit through mutual inductance, are used for implementing quantum gates. By using dressed states, quantum state transfer and quantum entangling gate can be implemented. With the help of the time-dependent electromagnetic field, any two dressed qubits can be selectively coupled to the data bus (the last LC circuit), then quantum state can be transferred from one dressed qubit to another and multi-mode entangled state can also be formed. As a result, the promising perspectives for quantum information processing of mesoscopic superconducting qubits are obtained and the distributed and scalable quantum computation can be implemented in this scheme.

  19. Aharonov-Bohm phases in a quantum LC circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, ChunJun; Yao, Yuan; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2016-03-01

    We study novel types of contributions to the partition function of the Maxwell system defined on a small compact manifold. These contributions, often not addressed in the perturbative treatment with physical photons, emerge as a result of tunneling transitions between topologically distinct but physically identical vacuum winding states. These new terms give an extra contribution to the Casimir pressure, yet to be measured. We argue that this effect is highly sensitive to a small external electric field, which should be contrasted with the conventional Casimir effect, where the vacuum photons are essentially unaffected by any external field. Furthermore, photons will be emitted from the vacuum in response to a time-dependent electric field, similar to the dynamical Casimir effect in which real particles are radiated from the vacuum due to the time-dependent boundary conditions. We also propose an experimental setup using a quantum LC circuit to detect this novel effect. We expect physical electric charges to appear on the capacitor plates when the system dimension is such that coherent Aharonov-Bohm phases can be maintained over macroscopically large distances.

  20. 3. International Conference on Quantum Electrodynamics and Statistical Physics. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference deals with the up-to-data problems of quantum field theory and elementary particle theory, QED processes at high energy, cosmology, theory of irreversible processes, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, phase transition and diffusion processes in condensed matter and gases.

  1. Quantum Fluctuation of a Mesoscopic Inductance Coupling Circuit at Finite Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Tong-Qiang; ZHU Yue-Jin

    2003-01-01

    We study the quantization of mesoscopic inductance coupling circuit and discuss its time evolution. Bymeans of the thermal field dynamics theory we study the quantum fluctuation of the system at finite temperature.

  2. On Real and Virtual Photons in the Davies Theory of Time-Symmetric Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kastner, R E

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the distinction between virtual and real photons in the context of the Davies quantum relativistic extension of the Wheeler-Feynman classical electromagnetic theory. An alternative way of understanding this distinction is proposed, based on the transactional picture as first proposed by Cramer. It is noted that this proposed account of the relationship between virtual and real photons might have empirically detectable consequences.

  3. Thermally-Reconfigurable Quantum Photonic Circuits at Telecom Wavelength by Femtosecond Laser Micromachining

    CERN Document Server

    Flamini, Fulvio; Rab, Adil S; Spagnolo, Nicolò; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Zandrini, Tommaso; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The importance of integrated quantum photonics in the telecom band resides on the possibility of interfacing with the optical network infrastructure developed for classical communications. In this framework, femtosecond laser written integrated photonic circuits, already assessed for quantum information experiments in the 800 nm wavelength range, have great potentials. In fact these circuits, written in glass, can be perfectly mode-matched at telecom wavelength to the in/out coupling fibers, which is a key requirement for a low-loss processing node in future quantum optical networks. In addition, for several applications quantum photonic devices will also need to be dynamically reconfigurable. Here we experimentally demonstrate the high performance of femtosecond laser written photonic circuits for quantum experiments in the telecom band and we show the use of thermal shifters, also fabricated by the same femtosecond laser, to accurately tune them. State-of-the-art manipulation of single and two-photon states...

  4. A study of high field quantum electrodynamics in the collision of high energy electrons with a terawatt laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment is described which studied quantum electrodynamic interactions under conditions of extremely high fields, along with a review of the relevant theory. The high fields were created by an intense, tightly-focused pulse of laser light at green or infrared wavelengths, into which was sent an ultra-relativistic electron beam of 46.6-GeV energy. The relevant theory is that of an electron in an electromagnetic wave so intense that the electron's mass is effectively shifted by the transverse momentum imparted to it by the wave, and the electron encounters field strengths comparable to the Schwinger critical field strength of 511 kV per Compton wavelength. An electron in the intense wave may radiate a photon and balance 4-momentum by absorbing multiple photons from the laser, which can lead to real photons with energies above the kinematic limit for conventional Compton scattering. All particles have significant probability of scattering multiple times while in the focus of the laser, including the photons radiated by the electrons, which may convert into electron-positron pairs, again with absorption of multiple photons from the laser. This experiment was able to measure the rates and spectra of positrons, electrons, and photons emerging from the interaction region. Results from both experiment and theoretical simulations are presented and compared. The results from the electron and positron measurements are compatible with the accepted theory, within experimental uncertainties due mainly to the laser intensity measurement. The photon spectrum shows the correct shape, but the ratio of rates in the linear and two-absorbed-photon portions of the spectrum does not vary as expected with the laser intensity, suggesting a disagreement with the accepted theory, with a significance of roughly two standard deviations. A follow-up experiment would be in order

  5. Quantum inductive circuits under ac and dc fields: Current manifestations of charge discreteness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the electrical current of a quantum inductive circuits with charge discreteness qe displays Bloch-like oscillations (frequency ωB=qeεd-bar ) under a dc external voltage (εd). Here we consider the effect of a superposed ac voltage in the circuit. Resonances are explicitly found. In the limit of small external frequency (ω-bar ωB), the electrical (one-period-averaged) current exist and has always the same sign. This gives us an experimental method to measure discrete charge effects in (quantum) nanometric circuits since the established current is depending on charge discreteness

  6. Java Application that Outputs Quantum Circuit for Some NAND Formula Evaluators

    OpenAIRE

    Tucci, Robert R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces QuanFruit v1.1, a Java application available for free. (Source code included in the distribution.) Recently, Farhi-Goldstone-Gutmann (FGG) wrote a paper arXiv:quant-ph/0702144 that proposes a quantum algorithm for evaluating NAND formulas. QuanFruit outputs a quantum circuit for the FFG algorithm.

  7. Ultraprecise phase manipulation in integrated photonic quantum circuits with generalized directional couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an innovative approach for ultra-precise phase manipulation in integrated photonic quantum circuits. To this end, we employ generalized directional couplers that utilize a detuning of the propagation constant in optical waveguides by the overlap of adjacent waveguide modes. We demonstrate our findings in experiments with classical as well as quantum light

  8. Deterministic implementations of quantum gates with circuit QEDs via Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A specific SCRAP technique is proposed to realize quantum gates in the circuit QED. • These quantum gates are insensitive to the durations of the applied pluses. • The implemented quantum gates are robustness against the operational imperfections. - Abstract: We show that a set of universal quantum gates could be implemented robustly in a circuit QED system by using Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique. Under the adiabatic limit we find that the population transfers could be deterministically passaged from one selected quantum states to the others, and thus the desired quantum gates can be implemented. The proposed SCRAP-based gates are insensitive to the details of the operations and thus relax the designs of the applied pulses, operational imperfections, and the decoherence of the system

  9. Deterministic implementations of quantum gates with circuit QEDs via Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingwei [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wei, L.F., E-mail: weilianfu@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2015-10-23

    Highlights: • A specific SCRAP technique is proposed to realize quantum gates in the circuit QED. • These quantum gates are insensitive to the durations of the applied pluses. • The implemented quantum gates are robustness against the operational imperfections. - Abstract: We show that a set of universal quantum gates could be implemented robustly in a circuit QED system by using Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique. Under the adiabatic limit we find that the population transfers could be deterministically passaged from one selected quantum states to the others, and thus the desired quantum gates can be implemented. The proposed SCRAP-based gates are insensitive to the details of the operations and thus relax the designs of the applied pulses, operational imperfections, and the decoherence of the system.

  10. A quantum watermarking scheme using simple and small-scale quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, S.; Nakamae, K.

    2016-05-01

    A new quantum gray-scale image watermarking scheme by using simple and small-scale quantum circuits is proposed. The NEQR representation for quantum images is used. The image sizes for carrier and watermark are assumed to be 2n × 2n and n × n, respectively. At first, a classical watermark with n × n image size and 8 bits gray scale is expanded to an image with 2n × 2n image size and 2 bits gray scale. Then the expanded image is scrambled to be a meaningless image by the SWAP gates that controlled by the keys only known to the operator. The scrambled image is embedded into the carrier image by the CNOT gates (XOR operation). The watermark is extracted from the watermarked image by applying operations in the reverse order. Simulation-based experimental results show that our proposed scheme is excellent in terms of three items, visual quality, robustness performance under noises, and computational complexity.

  11. Quantum Fluctuations of Mesoscopic Damped Circuit Involving Capacitance-Inductance Coupling at a Finite Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing-Lei; Xu, Shi-Min; Li, Hong-Qi

    2008-06-01

    The quantization of mesoscopic damped circuit involving capacitance-inductance coupling is proposed by the method of thrice linear transformation and damped harmonic oscillator quantization. The quantum fluctuations of the charges and current of each loop are calculated by thermo-field dynamics (TFD) in thermal vacuum state, thermal coherent state and thermal squeezed state, respectively. It is shown that the quantum fluctuations of the charges and current not only depend on circuit inherent parameter and coupled magnitude, but also rely on squeezed coefficients, squeezed angle, environmental temperature and damped resistance. And, because of influence of environmental temperature and damped resistance, the quantum fluctuations increase with increasing temperature and decrease with prolonging time.

  12. Circuit models and SPICE macro-models for quantum Hall effect devices

    OpenAIRE

    Ortolano, Massimo; Callegaro, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices are a pillar of modern quantum electrical metrology. Electrical networks including one or more QHE elements can be used as quantum resistance and impedance standards. The analysis of these networks allows metrologists to evaluate the effect of the inevitable parasitic parameters on their performance as standards. This paper presents a systematic analysis of the various circuit models for QHE elements proposed in the literature, and the development of a new mo...

  13. Electric circuit networks equivalent to chaotic quantum billiards

    OpenAIRE

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N.; Maksimov, Dmitrii N.; Sadreev, Almas F.

    2004-01-01

    We formulate two types of electric RLC resonance network equivalent to quantum billiards. In the network of inductors grounded by capacitors squared resonant frequencies are eigenvalues of the quantum billiard. In the network of capacitors grounded by inductors squared resonant frequencies are given by inverse eigen values of the billiard. In both cases local voltages play role of the wave function of the quantum billiard. However as different from quantum billiards there is a heat power beca...

  14. Anomalously Strong Scattering of Spontaneously Produced Laser Radiation in the First Free-Electron Laser and Study of Free-Electron Two-Quantum Stark Lasing in an Electric Wiggler with Quantum-Wiggler Electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. H. Kim

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the scattering cross section of an electron with respect to the spontaneously produced laser radiation in the first free-electron laser (FEL) with quantum-wiggler electrodynamics (QWD). The cross section is 1016 times the Thomson cross section, confirming the result obtained by a previous analysis of the experimental data. A QWD calculation show that spontaneous emission in an FEL using only an electric wiggler can be very strong while amplification through net stimulated emission is practically negligible.

  15. Quantum fluctuations of mesoscopic damped mutual capacitance coupled double resonance RLC circuit in thermal excitation state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xing-Lei

    2007-01-01

    Mesoscopic damped mutual capacitance coupled double resonance circuit is quantized by the method of damped harmonic oscillator quantization. Hamiltonian is diagonalized by the method of unitary transformation. The energy spectra of this circuit are given. The quantum fluctuations of the charge and current of each loop are investigated by the method of thermofield dynamics (TFD) in thermal excitation state,thermal squeezed vacuum state,thermal vacuum state and vacuum state. It is shown that the quantum fluctuations of the charge and current are related to not only circuit inherent parameter and coupled magnitude,but also quantum number of excitation,squeezed coefficients,squeezed angle and environmental temperature. And the quantum fluctuations increase with the increase of temperature and decay with time.

  16. Quantum Hadamard Gate Implementation Using Planar Lightwave Circuit and Photonic Crystal Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsolah Salemian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An all optical method has been proposed for quantum Hadamard gate implementation. This quantum gate was realized by using Y-junction beam splitter. Normal modes in waveguides have been used as quantum bit. This all optical gate can be used in quantum computation and communication. The proposed Hadamard gate has potential of being more compact and easily realized compared to other optical implementations. By using planar lightwave circuit in implementation, the width of Y-junction input waveguide, width of each branch, angle of bend and length of bend were obtained 1 micron, 0.75 micron, 45° and 0.75 micron, respectively. By using planar lightwave circuit in implementation, the radius of large air holes and the radius of small holes were obtained 0.2 ands 0.1 micron, respectively. The index of substrate was 1.325. Implementation based on photonic crystal structures and planar lightwave circuit technology was used in integrated optics.

  17. Quantum electrodynamical time-dependent density functional theory for many-electron systems on a lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzanehpour, Mehdi; Tokatly, Ilya; Nano-Bio Spectroscopy Group; ETSF Scientific Development Centre Team

    2015-03-01

    We present a rigorous formulation of the time-dependent density functional theory for interacting lattice electrons strongly coupled to cavity photons. We start with an example of one particle on a Hubbard dimer coupled to a single photonic mode, which is equivalent to the single mode spin-boson model or the quantum Rabi model. For this system we prove that the electron-photon wave function is a unique functional of the electronic density and the expectation value of the photonic coordinate, provided the initial state and the density satisfy a set of well defined conditions. Then we generalize the formalism to many interacting electrons on a lattice coupled to multiple photonic modes and prove the general mapping theorem. We also show that for a system evolving from the ground state of a lattice Hamiltonian any density with a continuous second time derivative is locally v-representable. Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Grant No. FIS2013-46159-C3-1-P), Grupos Consolidados UPV/EHU del Gobierno Vasco (Grant No. IT578-13), COST Actions CM1204 (XLIC) and MP1306 (EUSpec).

  18. Role of superconducting shields in electrodynamic propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Sanmartín Losada, Juan Ramón; Lorenzini, Enrico C.

    2008-01-01

    An electrodynamic tether can propel a spacecraft through a planetary magnetized plasma without using propellant. In the classical embodiment of an electrodynamic tether, the ambient magnetic fleld exerts a Lorentz force on the current along the tether, the ambient plasma providing circuit closure for the current A suggested propulsion scheme would hypothetically eliminate tether performance dependence on the plasma density by using a full wire loop to close the current circuit, and a supercon...

  19. Quantum interference in heterogeneous superconducting-photonic circuits on a silicon chip

    CERN Document Server

    Schuck, Carsten; Fan, Linran; Ma, Xiao-Song; Poot, Menno; Tang, Hong X

    2015-01-01

    Quantum information processing holds great promise for communicating and computing data efficiently. However, scaling current photonic implementation approaches to larger system size remains an outstanding challenge for realizing disruptive quantum technology. Two main ingredients of quantum information processors are quantum interference and single-photon detectors. Here we develop a hybrid superconducting-photonic circuit system to show how these elements can be combined in a scalable fashion on a silicon chip. We demonstrate the suitability of this approach for integrated quantum optics by interfering and detecting photon pairs directly on the chip with waveguide-coupled single-photon detectors. Using a directional coupler implemented with silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides, we observe 97% interference visibility when measuring photon statistics with two monolithically integrated superconducting single photon detectors. The photonic circuit and detector fabrication processes are compatible with standa...

  20. Error sensitivity to environmental noise in quantum circuits for chemical state preparation

    CERN Document Server

    Sawaya, Nicolas P D; McClean, Jarrod R; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2016-01-01

    Calculating molecular energies is likely to be one of the first useful applications to achieve quantum supremacy, performing faster on a quantum than a classical computer. However, if future quantum devices are to produce accurate calculations, errors due to environmental noise and algorithmic approximations need to be characterized and reduced. In this study, we use the high performance qHiPSTER software to investigate the effects of environmental noise on the preparation of quantum chemistry states. We simulate nineteen 16-qubit quantum circuits under environmental noise, each corresponding to a unitary coupled cluster state preparation of a different molecule or molecular configuration. Additionally, we analyze the nature of simple gate errors in noise-free circuits of up to 40 qubits. We find that the Jordan-Wigner (JW) encoding produces consistently smaller errors under a noisy environment as compared to the Bravyi-Kitaev (BK) encoding. For the JW encoding, pure-dephasing noise is shown to produce substa...

  1. Control of quantum evolution and Josephson junction circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Niskanen, Antti O.

    2004-01-01

    Ever since Peter Shor's ground-breaking discovery in 1994 of an algorithm capable of factoring large integers on a quantum-mechanical computer exponentially faster than using any known classical method, research on quantum computing has boomed. Quantum information – a unique mixture of computer science, physics and mathematics – has developed into a new branch of information theory. On the experimental side, physicists from many different disciplines including atomic, solid-state and low-temp...

  2. Geometric reduction of dynamical nonlocality in nanoscale quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strambini, E.; Makarenko, K. S.; Abulizi, G.; de Jong, M. P.; van der Wiel, W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young’s double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is well known that loss of dynamical nonlocality can occur due to (partial) collapse of the wavefunction due to a measurement, such as which-path detection. However, alternative mechanisms affecting dynamical nonlocality have hardly been considered, although of crucial importance in many schemes for quantum information processing. Here, we present a fundamentally different pathway of losing dynamical nonlocality, demonstrating that the detailed geometry of the detection scheme is crucial to preserve nonlocality. By means of a solid-state quantum-interference experiment we quantify this effect in a diffusive system. We show that interference is not only affected by decoherence, but also by a loss of dynamical nonlocality based on a local reduction of the number of quantum conduction channels of the interferometer. With our measurements and theoretical model we demonstrate that this mechanism is an intrinsic property of quantum dynamics. Understanding the geometrical constraints protecting nonlocality is crucial when designing quantum networks for quantum information processing.

  3. Dimensions and Units in Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hehl, F W; Hehl, Friedrich W; Obukhov, Yuri N

    2004-01-01

    We sketch the foundations of classical electrodynamics, in particular the transition that took place when Einstein, in 1915, succeeded to formulate general relativity. In 1916 Einstein demonstrated that, with a choice of suitable variables for the electromagnetic field, it is possible to put Maxwell's equation into a form that is covariant under general coordinate transformations. This unfolded, by basic contributions of Kottler, Cartan, van Dantzig, Schouten & Dorgelo, Toupin & Truesdell, and Post, to what one may call {\\em premetric classical electrodynamics.} This framework will be described shortly. An analysis is given of the physical dimensions involved in electrodynamics and subsequently the question of units addressed. It will be pointed out that these results are untouched by the generalization of classical to quantum electrodynamics (QED). We compare critically our results with those of {\\sl L.B. Okun} which he had presented at a recent conference.

  4. Quantum-electrodynamic influences on the lifetime of metastable states; Quantenelektrodynamische Einfluesse auf die Lebensdauer metastabiler Zustaende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, G.

    2007-07-17

    High-precision lifetime measurements of the metastable 1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2} level in boronlike Ar XIV and the 3s{sup 2}2p {sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2} level in aluminumlike Fe XIV were performed at the Heidelberg electron beam ion trap (HD-EBIT). The lifetimes were inferred by monitoring their optical decay curves resulting from the magnetic dipole (M1) transition 1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2}-{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 1/2} and 3s{sup 2}3p {sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2}-{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 1/2} to the ground state configuration with transition wavelengths of 441.256 nm and 530.29 nm, respectively. Possible systematic error sources were investigated by studying the dependence of the decay times of the curves on various trapping conditions with high statistical significance. A new trapping scheme for lifetime measurements at an EBIT has been applied and allowed to reach an unprecedented precision in the realm of lifetime determinations on highly charged ions. The results of 9.573(4)({sup +12}{sub -5}) ms (stat)(syst) for Ar XIV and 16.726(10)(+17) ms (stat)(syst) for Fe XIV with a relative accuracy of 0.14% and 0.13%, respectively, make these measurements for the first time sensitive to quantum electrodynamic effects like the electron anomalous magnetic moment (EAMM). The results, improving the accuracy of previous measurements by factors of 10 and 6, respectively, show a clear discrepancy of about 3{sigma} and 4{sigma} to the trend of existing theoretical models, which in almost all cases predict a shorter lifetime, when adjusted for the EAMM. The obvious disagreement between experimental results and the predictions points at the incompleteness of the theoretical models used. (orig.)

  5. Quantum phase transition and degeneracy of a circuit-QED vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Nataf, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the quantum vacuum properties of a transmission line resonator inductively coupled to a chain of $N$ superconducting qubits. We derive the quantum Hamiltonian for such circuit-QED system, showing that, due to the type and strength of the interaction, a quantum phase transition occurs in the limit of large $N$, with a twice degenerate quantum vacuum above a critical coupling. The phase diagram can be fully explored thanks to the controllable ultrastrong coupling of the qubits with the modes of the transmission line resonator. For finite values of $N$, an energy splitting occurs, which becomes exponentially small with increasing size and coupling.

  6. Hybrid quantum circuit with a superconducting qubit coupled to an electron spin ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the experimental realization of a hybrid quantum circuit combining a superconducting qubit and an ensemble of electronic spins. The qubit, of the transmon type, is coherently coupled to the spin ensemble consisting of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in a diamond crystal via a frequency-tunable superconducting resonator acting as a quantum bus. Using this circuit, we prepare arbitrary superpositions of the qubit states that we store into collective excitations of the spin ensemble and retrieve back into the qubit. We also report a new method for detecting the magnetic resonance of electronic spins at low temperature with a qubit using the hybrid quantum circuit, as well as our recent progress on spin echo experiments.

  7. Microfabricated electrodynamic transformers for electromechanical power conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a compact power electronic device, called an ‘electrodynamic transformer (ET)’, that transfers electrical power between isolated circuits through electrodynamically coupled vibrations of a mechanical beam structure. Background motivating factors are discussed, and an equivalent circuit model of the ET is presented. A microscale (10 mm3) ET is designed, fabricated and characterized, achieving ∼40% maximum efficiency. Taking advantage of the unique circuit topology of the ET equivalent circuit model, a dc/ac power inverter is then implemented with only two external components, a MOSFET and a capacitor. (paper)

  8. Observing the nonequilibrium dynamics of the quantum transverse-field Ising chain in circuit QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehmann, Oliver; von Delft, Jan; Marquardt, Florian

    2013-01-18

    We show how a quantum Ising spin chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field can be simulated and experimentally probed in the framework of circuit QED with current technology. The proposed setup provides a new platform for observing the nonequilibrium dynamics of interacting many-body systems. We calculate its spectrum to offer a guideline for its initial experimental characterization. We demonstrate that quench dynamics and the propagation of localized excitations can be observed with the proposed setup and discuss further possible applications and modifications of this circuit QED quantum simulator. PMID:23373908

  9. Automatic synthesis of quantum circuits for point addition on ordinary binary elliptic curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhathoki, Parshuram; Steinwandt, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    When designing quantum circuits for Shor's algorithm to solve the discrete logarithm problem, implementing the group arithmetic is a cost-critical task. We introduce a software tool for the automatic generation of addition circuits for ordinary binary elliptic curves, a prominent platform group for digital signatures. The resulting circuits reduce the number of -gates by a factor compared to the best previous construction, without increasing the number of qubits or -depth. The software also optimizes the (CNOT) depth for -linear operations by means of suitable graph colorings.

  10. Switching circuit to improve the frequency modulation difference-intensity THz quantum cascade laser imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saat, N. K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia (Malaysia); Dean, P.; Khanna, S. P.; Salih, M.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-24

    We demonstrate new switching circuit for difference-intensity THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) imaging by amplitude modulation and lock in detection. The switching circuit is designed to improve the frequency modulation so that it can stably lock the amplitude modulation of the QCL and the detector output. The combination of a voltage divider and a buffer in switching circuit to quickly switch the amplitude of the QCL biases of 15.8 V and 17.2 V is successfully to increase the frequency modulation up to ∼100 Hz.

  11. Quantum fluctuations of mesoscopic RLC circuit involving complicated coupling in thermal squeezed state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing-Lei; Li, Hong-Qi; Wang, Ji-Suo

    2007-06-01

    Starting from the Kirchhoff's equation for electric circuits and in reference of damped harmonic oscillator quantization and thermo-field dynamics (TFD), the quantization of damped double-resonance mesoscopic RLC circuit involving complicated coupling is proposed. The quantum fluctuations of charge and current of each loop are calculated in thermal squeezed state, thermal coherent state and thermal vacuum state, respectively. The results not only depend on the circuit proper parameters and coupled magnitude, but also rely on the squeezing coefficients, environmental temperature and damped resistance. The fluctuations increase with temperature rising and decay with time.

  12. Switching circuit to improve the frequency modulation difference-intensity THz quantum cascade laser imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate new switching circuit for difference-intensity THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) imaging by amplitude modulation and lock in detection. The switching circuit is designed to improve the frequency modulation so that it can stably lock the amplitude modulation of the QCL and the detector output. The combination of a voltage divider and a buffer in switching circuit to quickly switch the amplitude of the QCL biases of 15.8 V and 17.2 V is successfully to increase the frequency modulation up to ∼100 Hz

  13. Switching circuit to improve the frequency modulation difference-intensity THz quantum cascade laser imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Saat, NK; Dean, P.; Khanna, SP; Salih, M; Linfield, EH; Davies, AG

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate new switching circuit for difference-intensity THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) imaging by amplitude modulation and lock in detection. The switching circuit is designed to improve the frequency modulation so that it can stably lock the amplitude modulation of the QCL and the detector output. The combination of a voltage divider and a buffer in switching circuit to quickly switch the amplitude of the QCL biases of 15.8 V and 17.2 V is successfully to increase the frequency modula...

  14. Quantum circuits for realizing deterministic and exact teleportation via two partially entangled pairs of particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wen-Dong; Zhang Jian-Li; Gu Yong-Jian

    2006-01-01

    Deterministic and exact teleportation can be achieved via two partially entangled pairs of particles[Gu Y J 2006 Opt.Comm.259 385].The key point of the protocol is a generalized measurement described by a positive operator valued measure, which can be realized by performing a unitary operation in the extended space and a conventional Von Neumann orthogonal measurement.By decomposing the evolution process from the initial state to the final state, we construct the quantum circuits for realizing the unitary operation with quantum Toffoli gates, and thus provide a physical means to realize the teleportation.Our method for constructing quantum circuits differs from the usual methods based on decomposition of unitary matrices, and is convenient for a large class of quantum processes involving generalized measurements.

  15. Gradiometric tunable-gap flux qubits in a circuit QED architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In circuit quantum electrodynamics or quantum simulation experiments, superconducting quantum bits with long coherence time, high in situ tunability and usually large anharmonicity are required. In contrast to the popular transmon, the gradiometric tunable-gap flux qubit meets all these requirements. We fabricate and characterize such a qubit and demonstrate its first implementation into a transmission line resonator. We show spectroscopy and first time domain results.

  16. Gradiometric tunable-gap flux qubits in a circuit QED architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Manuel Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In circuit quantum electrodynamics or quantum simulation experiments, superconducting quantum bits with long coherence time, high in situ tunability and usually large anharmonicity are required. In contrast to the popular transmon, the gradiometric tunable-gap flux qubit meets all these requirements. We fabricate and characterize such a qubit and demonstrate its first implementation into a transmission line resonator. We show spectroscopy and first time domain results.

  17. Observation of Majorization Principle for quantum algorithms via 3-D integrated photonic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Flamini, Fulvio; Giordani, Taira; Bentivegna, Marco; Spagnolo, Nicoló; Crespi, Andrea; Corrielli, Giacomo; Osellame, Roberto; Martin-Delgado, Miguel Angel; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The Majorization Principle is a fundamental statement governing the dynamics of information processing in optimal and efficient quantum algorithms. While quantum computation can be modeled to be reversible, due to the unitary evolution undergone by the system, these quantum algorithms are conjectured to obey a quantum arrow of time dictated by the Majorization Principle: the probability distribution associated to the outcomes gets ordered step-by-step until achieving the result of the computation. Here we report on the experimental observation of the effects of the Majorization Principle for two quantum algorithms, namely the quantum fast Fourier transform and a recently introduced validation protocol for the certification of genuine many-boson interference. The demonstration has been performed by employing integrated 3-D photonic circuits fabricated via femtosecond laser writing technique, which allows to monitor unambiguously the effects of majorization along the execution of the algorithms. The measured ob...

  18. Single qudit realization of the Deutsch algorithm using superconducting many-level quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiktenko, E. O.; Fedorov, A. K.; Strakhov, A. A.; Man'ko, V. I.

    2015-07-01

    Design of a large-scale quantum computer has paramount importance for science and technologies. We investigate a scheme for realization of quantum algorithms using noncomposite quantum systems, i.e., systems without subsystems. In this framework, n artificially allocated "subsystems" play a role of qubits in n-qubits quantum algorithms. With focus on two-qubit quantum algorithms, we demonstrate a realization of the universal set of gates using a d = 5 single qudit state. Manipulation with an ancillary level in the systems allows effective implementation of operators from U(4) group via operators from SU(5) group. Using a possible experimental realization of such systems through anharmonic superconducting many-level quantum circuits, we present a blueprint for a single qudit realization of the Deutsch algorithm, which generalizes previously studied realization based on the virtual spin representation (Kessel et al., 2002 [9]).

  19. Solving field equations in spinor electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bratchikov, A. V.

    2009-01-01

    Solutions of classical and quantum equations of motion in spinor electrodynamics are constructed within the context of perturbation theory. The solutions possess a graphical representation in terms of diagrams.

  20. Automatic Single-Flux-Quantum (SFQ) Logic Synthesis Method for Top-Down Circuit Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-flux-quantum (SFQ) logic circuits provide faster operations with lower power consumption, using Josephson junctions as the switching devices. In the top-down flow of SFQ circuit design, we have already developed a place-and-route tool that covers backend circuit design. In this paper, we present an automatic SFQ logic synthesis method that covers front-end circuit design. The logic synthesis is a process that generates a gate-level logic circuit from a functional specification written in hardware description languages. In our SFQ synthesis method, after we generate an intermediate circuit with the help of a synthesis tool for semiconductor circuits, we convert it into a gate-level pipelined SFQ circuit. To do this, an automatic synthesis tool was implemented. To evaluate the effectiveness of the method and the tool, we synthesized arithmetic and logic units (ALUs). It took only two and half minutes to synthesize a 64-bit-width ALU that consisted of about 18, 000 gates

  1. Mesoscopic quantum circuit theory to the persistent current and Coulomb blockade

    OpenAIRE

    Li, You-quan

    1997-01-01

    The quantum theory for mesoscopic electric circuit is briefly described. The uncertainty relation for electric charge and current modifies the tranditional Heisenberg uncertainty relation. The mesoscopic ring is regarded as a pure L-design, and the persistent current is obtained explicitly. The Coulomb blockade phenomenon appears when applying to the pure C-design.

  2. Asymptotically Optimal Quantum Circuits for d-level Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bullock, S S; O'Leary, D P; Brennen, Gavin K.; Bullock, Stephen S.; Leary, Dianne P. O'

    2004-01-01

    As a qubit is a two-level quantum system whose state space is spanned by |0>, |1>, so a qudit is a d-level quantum system whose state space is spanned by |0>,...,|d-1>. Quantum computation has stimulated much recent interest in algorithms factoring unitary evolutions of an n-qubit state space into component two-particle unitary evolutions. In the absence of symmetry, Shende, Markov and Bullock use Sard's theorem to prove that at least C 4^n two-qubit unitary evolutions are required, while Vartiainen, Moettoenen, and Salomaa (VMS) use the QR matrix factorization and Gray codes in an optimal order construction involving two-particle evolutions. In this work, we note that Sard's theorem demands C d^{2n} two-qudit unitary evolutions to construct a generic (symmetry-less) n-qudit evolution. However, the VMS result applied to virtual-qubits only recovers optimal order in the case that d is a power of two. We further construct a QR decomposition for d-multi-level quantum logics, proving a sharp asymptotic of Theta(d...

  3. Implementing fault tolerance in a superconducting quantum circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barends, Rami

    2015-03-01

    The surface code error correction scheme is appealing for superconducting circuits as the fundamental operations have been demonstrated at the fault-tolerant threshold. Here, we present experimental results on the repetition code, a one-dimensional primitive of the surface code which can detect bit-flip errors, implemented on a device consisting of nine Xmon transmon qubits. We discuss the basic mechanics of error detection, show preservation of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, and show suppression of environmentally-induced error.

  4. Circuit models and SPICE macro-models for quantum Hall effect devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise electrical measurement technology based on the quantum Hall effect is one of the pillars of modern quantum electrical metrology. Electrical networks including one or more QHE elements can be used as quantum resistance and impedance standards. The analysis of these networks allows metrologists to evaluate the effect of the inevitable parasitic parameters on their performance as standards. This paper presents a concise review of the various circuit models for QHE elements proposed in the literature, and the development of a new model. This last model is particularly suited to be employed with the analogue electronic circuit simulator SPICE. The SPICE macro-model and examples of SPICE simulations, validated by comparison with the corresponding analytical solution and/or experimental data, are provided. (paper)

  5. Circuit models and SPICE macro-models for quantum Hall effect devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ortolano, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices are a pillar of modern quantum electrical metrology. Electrical networks including one or more QHE elements can be used as quantum resistance and impedance standards. The analysis of these networks allows metrologists to evaluate the effect of the inevitable parasitic parameters on their performance as standards. This paper presents a systematic analysis of the various circuit models for QHE elements proposed in the literature, and the development of a new model. This last model is particularly suited to be employed with the analogue electronic circuit simulator SPICE. The SPICE macro-model and examples of SPICE simulations, validated by comparison with the corresponding analytical solution and/or experimental data, are provided.

  6. Quantum computing with photons: introduction to the circuit model, the one-way quantum computer, and the fundamental principles of photonic experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie

    2015-04-01

    Quantum physics has revolutionized our understanding of information processing and enables computational speed-ups that are unattainable using classical computers. This tutorial reviews the fundamental tools of photonic quantum information processing. The basics of theoretical quantum computing are presented and the quantum circuit model as well as measurement-based models of quantum computing are introduced. Furthermore, it is shown how these concepts can be implemented experimentally using photonic qubits, where information is encoded in the photons’ polarization.

  7. Polarization operator in the 2+1 dimensional quantum electrodynamics with a nonzero fermion density in a constant uniform magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Khalilov, V R

    2015-01-01

    The polarization operator (tensor) for planar charged fermions in constant uniform magnetic field is calculated in the one-loop approximation of the 2+1 dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED$_{2+1}$) with a nonzero fermion density. We construct the Green function of the Dirac equation with a constant uniform external magnetic field in the QED$_{2+1}$ at the finite chemical potential, find the imaginary part of this Green function and then obtain the polarization tensor related to the combined contribution from real particles occupying the finite number of energy levels and magnetic field. We expect that some physical effects under consideration seem to be likely to be revealed in a monolayer graphene sample in the presence of external constant uniform magnetic field $B$ perpendicular to it.

  8. Polarization operator in the 2+1 dimensional quantum electrodynamics with a nonzero fermion density in a constant uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalilov, V.R.; Mamsurov, I.V. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-01

    The polarization operator (tensor) for planar charged fermions in a constant uniform magnetic field is calculated in the one-loop approximation of 2 + 1-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED{sub 2+1}) with a nonzero fermion density. We construct the Green function of the Dirac equation with a constant uniform external magnetic field in QED{sub 2+1} at a finite chemical potential, find the imaginary part of this Green function, and then obtain the polarization tensor related to the combined contribution from real particles occupying the finite number of energy levels and magnetic field. We expect that some physical effects under consideration seem likely to be revealed in a monolayer graphene sample in the presence of an external constant uniform magnetic field B perpendicular to it. (orig.)

  9. Sub-Kelvin single flux quantum control circuits and multi-chip packaging for supporting superconducting qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting single flux quantum (SFQ) circuit can operate at very low temperature. This is suitable for controlling a quantum computing system with Josephson junctions. However, it is difficult to integrate both SFQ circuits and qubits into a single-chip, because of the dissipative characteristics of SFQ circuits. Therefore, we have developed a multi-chip packaging technology for a qubit control module. The module consists of SFQ circuit chips, qubit chips, and a substrate all of which are fabricated with Nb and Al technology. The chips are flip-chip bonded with superconducting solder bumps. We also investigated SFQ control circuits for superconducting qubits and circuit parameter optimization for sub-Kelvin temperature operation. Using both multi-chip packaging and optimized SFQ control circuit makes the design of qubit control module more flexible

  10. Equivalent circuit-level model and improvement of terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equivalent circuit-level model of terahertz (THz) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is developed by using rate equations. This model can be employed to investigate the characteristics of THz QCLs accurately and to improve their design. We use the circuit-level model to analyse a new active structure, which can improve the performance of THz QCLs by means of enhancing carrier injection. The simulation result shows that THz QCLs with the new active structure have a much higher performance compared with conventional THz QCLs. The high-performance THz QCLs are expected to be operated at higher temperatures. (lasers)

  11. Optimal ILP-Based Approach for Gate Location Assignment and Scheduling in Quantum Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Mohammadzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical design and synthesis are two key processes of quantum circuit design methodology. The physical design process itself decomposes into scheduling, mapping, routing, and placement. In this paper, a mathematical model is proposed for mapping, routing, and scheduling in ion-trap technology in order to minimize latency of the circuit. The proposed model which is a mixed integer linear programming (MILP model gives the optimal locations for gates and the best sequence of operations in terms of latency. Experimental results show that our scheme outperforms the other schemes for the attempted benchmarks.

  12. Cavity enhanced second-order nonlinear quantum photonic logic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Trivedi, Rahul; Majumdar, Arka

    2015-01-01

    A large obstacle for realizing quantum photonic logic is the weak optical nonlinearity of available materials, which results in large power consumption. In this paper, we argue that second order ($\\chi^{(2)}$) nonlinear optical devices are more suitable for achieving low power photonic logic. We present the theoretical design of all-optical logic with $\\chi^{(2)}$ nonlinear bimodal cavities and their networks. Using semiclassical models derived from the Wigner quasi-probability distribution function, we analyze the power consumption of networks implementing an optical AND gate and an optical latch. Comparison between the second and third order $(\\chi^{(3)})$ optical logic reveals that the $\\chi^{(2)}$ design outperforms the corresponding $\\chi^{(3)}$ design in terms of the gate power consumption at high quality factors. Specifically, using realistic estimates for the $\\chi^{(2)}$ and $\\chi^{(3)}$ susceptibilities of available materials we show that at cavity quality factors $\\sim 10^4$, optical logic designed...

  13. A Novel Implementation of Efficient Algorithms for Quantum Circuit Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Luke

    In this project, we design and develop a computer program to effectively approximate arbitrary quantum gates using the discrete set of Clifford Gates together with the T gate (π/8 gate). Employing recent results from Mosca et. al. and Giles and Selinger, we implement a decomposition scheme that outputs a sequence of Clifford, T, and Tt gates that approximate the input to within a specified error range ɛ. Specifically, the given gate is first rounded to an element of Z[1/2, i] with a precision determined by ɛ, and then exact synthesis is employed to produce the resulting gate. It is known that this procedure is optimal in approximating an arbitrary single qubit gate. Our program, written in Matlab and Python, can complete both approximate and exact synthesis of qubits. It can be used to assist in the experimental implementation of an arbitrary fault-tolerant single qubit gate, for which direct implementation isn't feasible.

  14. High-fidelity quantum state evolution in imperfect photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Jacob; Harris, Nicholas C.; Steinbrecher, Gregory R.; Lahini, Yoav; Englund, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    We propose and analyze the design of a programmable photonic integrated circuit for high-fidelity quantum computation and simulation. We demonstrate that the reconfigurability of our design allows us to overcome two major impediments to quantum optics on a chip: it removes the need for a full fabrication cycle for each experiment and allows for compensation of fabrication errors using numerical optimization techniques. Under a pessimistic fabrication model for the silicon-on-insulator process, we demonstrate a dramatic fidelity improvement for the linear optics controlled-not and controlled-phase gates and, showing the scalability of this approach, the iterative phase estimation algorithm built from individually optimized gates. We also propose and simulate an experiment that the programmability of our system would enable: a statistically robust study of the evolution of entangled photons in disordered quantum walks. Overall, our results suggest that existing fabrication processes are sufficient to build a quantum photonic processor capable of high-fidelity operation.

  15. Two-resonator circuit QED: Dissipative theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managing the interaction between two quantum objects is a fundamental issue for quantum information processing. A promising approach is a two-resonator circuit quantum electrodynamics setup referred to as quantum switch. Here, a superconducting qubit provides switchable coupling between the resonators. This requires operation in the dispersive regime, where the qubit transition frequency is far detuned from those of the resonators. In our contribution we present a dissipative theory for the quantum switch. We derive an effective Hamiltonian beyond rotating-wave approximation and study the dissipative dynamics within a quantum master equation approach. We derive analytically how the qubit affects the dynamics and the coherence of the switch even if its state remains constant, and we estimate the strength of this influence. Our results are corroborated by numerical simulations.

  16. Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit, part I: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamata, L.; Barends, R.; Shabani, A.; Kelly, J.; Mezzacapo, A.; Las Heras, U.; Babbush, R.; Fowler, A. G.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Lucero, E.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Solano, E.; Neven, H.; Martinis, John M.

    Adiabatic quantum computing (AQC) is a general-purpose optimization algorithm that in contrast to circuit-model quantum algorithms can be applied to a large set of computational problems. An analog physical realization of AQC has certain limitations that we propose can be overcome by a gate-model equivalence of the AQC. In this talk we discuss the hardware advantages of digitized AQC in particular arbitrary interactions, precision, and coherence. We could experimentally realize the principles of digitized AQC on a chain of nine qubits, and highlight the physics of adiabatic evolutions as well as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism.

  17. Towards scalable networks of solid-state quantum memories in a photonic integrated circuit (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Dirk R.

    2015-09-01

    A central goal of quantum information science is the entanglement of multiple quantum memories that can be individually controlled. Here, we discuss progress towards photonic integrated circuits designed to enable efficient optical interactions between multiple spin qubits in nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. We describe NV-nanocavity systems in the strong Purcell regime with optical quality factors approaching 10,000 and electron spin coherence times exceeding 200 μs implantation of NVs with nanometer-scale apertures, including into cavity field maxima; hybrid on-chip networks for integration of multiple functional NV-cavity systems; and scalable integration of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors on-chip.

  18. Implementation of energy efficient single flux quantum digital circuits with sub-aJ/bit operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the first experimental demonstration of recently proposed energy efficient single flux quantum logic, eSFQ. This logic can represent the next generation of RSFQ logic, eliminating the dominant static power dissipation associated with a dc bias current distribution and providing over two orders of magnitude efficiency improvement over conventional RSFQ logic. We further demonstrate that the introduction of passive phase shifters allows the reduction of dynamic power dissipation by about 20%, reaching ∼0.8 aJ/bit operation. Two types of demonstration eSFQ circuit, shift registers and demultiplexers (deserializers), were implemented using the standard HYPRES 4.5 kA cm−2 fabrication process. In this paper, we present eSFQ circuit design and demonstrate the viability and performance metrics of eSFQ circuits through simulations and experimental testing. (paper)

  19. Observing the Nonequilibrium Dynamics of the Quantum Transverse-Field Ising Chain in Circuit QED

    OpenAIRE

    Viehmann, Oliver; von Delft, Jan; Marquardt, Florian

    2012-01-01

    We show how a quantum Ising spin chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field can be simulated and experimentally probed in the framework of circuit QED with current technology. The proposed setup provides a new platform for observing the nonequilibrium dynamics of interacting many-body systems. We calculate its spectrum to offer a guideline for its initial experimental characterization. We demonstrate that quench dynamics and the propagation of localized excitations can be observed wi...

  20. Substorm electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David P.

    1990-01-01

    The present one-dimensional model analysis of substorm electrodynamics proceeds from the standard scenario in which the plasma sheet collapses into a neutral sheet, and magnetic merging occurs between the two tail lobes; plasma flows into the neutral sheet from the lobes and the sides, undergoing acceleration in the dawn-dusk direction. The process is modified by the tendency of the accelerated plasma to unbalance charge neutrality, leading to an exchange of electrons with the ionosphere in order to maintain neutrality. The cross-tail current is weakened by the diversion: this reduces the adjacent lobe-field intensity, but without notable effects apart from a slight expansion of the tail boundary.

  1. Quantum circuit for a direct sum of two-dimensional unitary operators

    CERN Document Server

    Bergholm, V; Möttönen, M P; Salomaa, M M; Bergholm, Ville; Vartiainen, Juha J.; Mottonen, Mikko; Salomaa, Martti M.

    2004-01-01

    In this article we study n-qubit quantum gates which may be represented as direct sums of two-dimensional unitary operators. We call this class of gates uniformly controlled one-qubit gates. We present a quantum circuit which implements any gate of this type using 2^{n-1} - 1 controlled-NOT gates, 2^{n-1} one-qubit gates and a single n-qubit diagonal gate. The construction is based on a modified version of the so-called quantum multiplexor circuit. We illustrate the versatility of the uniformly controlled gates by applying them to the decomposition of a general n-qubit gate and an n-qubit state-preparation procedure. Moreover, we study the implementation of these circuits using only nearest-neighbor gates and give the worst-case one-qubit and CNOT gate counts for all of the aforementioned applications. In all four cases, the proposed method either improves or achieves the previously reported upper bounds for the gate counts.

  2. Number-Phase Quantization Scheme and the Quantum Effects of a Mesoscopic Electric Circuit at Finite Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai

    2009-05-01

    For L-C circuit, a new quantized scheme has been proposed in the context of number-phase quantization. In this quantization scheme, the number n of the electric charge q( q= en) is quantized as the charge number operator and the phase difference θ across the capacity is quantized as phase operator. Based on the scheme of number-phase quantization and the thermo field dynamics (TFD), the quantum fluctuations of the charge number and phase difference of a mesoscopic L-C circuit in the thermal vacuum state, the thermal coherent state and the thermal squeezed state have been studied. It is shown that these quantum fluctuations of the charge number and phase difference are related to not only the parameters of circuit, the squeezing parameter, but also the temperature in these quantum states. It is proven that the number-phase quantization scheme is very useful to tackle with quantization of some mesoscopic electric circuits and the quantum effects.

  3. Minimized open-circuit voltage reduction in GaAs/InGaAs quantum well solar cells with bandgap-engineered graded quantum well depths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of InGaAs quantum wells with composition graded across the intrinsic region to increase open-circuit voltage in p-i-n GaAs/InGaAs quantum well solar cells is demonstrated and analyzed. By engineering the band-edge energy profile to reduce photo-generated carrier concentration in the quantum wells at high forward bias, simultaneous increases in both open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density are achieved, compared to those for a structure with the same average In concentration, but constant rather than graded quantum well composition across the intrinsic region. This approach is combined with light trapping to further increase short-circuit current density.

  4. QUANTUM: A Wolfram Mathematica add-on for Dirac Bra-Ket Notation, Non-Commutative Algebra, and Simulation of Quantum Computing Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Muñoz, J. L.; Delgado, F.

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces QUANTUM, a free library of commands of Wolfram Mathematica that can be used to perform calculations directly in Dirac braket and operator notation. Its development started several years ago, in order to study quantum random walks. Later, many other features were included, like operator and commutator algebra, simulation and graphing of quantum computing circuits, generation and solution of Heisenberg equations of motion, among others. To the best of our knowledge, QUANTUM remains a unique tool in its use of Dirac notation, because it is used both in the input and output of the calculations. This work depicts its usage and features in Quantum Computing and Quantum Hamilton Dynamics.

  5. Invariants and Quantum Fluctuations of a Mesoscopic RLC Circuit in a Squeezed State and Squeezed Number State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU You-Hong

    2008-01-01

    The invariants for a mesoscopic RLC circuit with a power source are studied and used to construct the squeezed states and squeezed number states for the system. The quantum fluctuations of the mesoscopic RLC circuit in the squeezed states and squeezed number states are also investigated.

  6. Photonic realization of the quantum Rabi model

    CERN Document Server

    Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We realize a photonic analog simulator of the quantum Rabi model, based on light transport in femtosecond-laser-written waveguide superlattices, which provides an experimentally accessible testbed to explore the physics of light-matter interaction in the deep strong coupling regime. Our optical setting enables to visualize dynamical regimes not yet accessible in cavity or circuit quantum electrodynamics, such as bouncing of photon number wave packets in parity chains of Hilbert space.

  7. Controllable high-fidelity quantum state transfer and entanglement generation in circuit QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Yang, Xu-Chen; Mei, Feng; Xue, Zheng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize controllable quantum state transfer and entanglement generation among transmon qubits in the typical circuit QED setup based on adiabatic passage. Through designing the time-dependent driven pulses applied on the transmon qubits, we find that fast quantum sate transfer can be achieved between arbitrary two qubits and quantum entanglement among the qubits also can also be engineered. Furthermore, we numerically analyzed the influence of the decoherence on our scheme with the current experimental accessible systematical parameters. The result shows that our scheme is very robust against both the cavity decay and qubit relaxation, the fidelities of the state transfer and entanglement preparation process could be very high. In addition, our scheme is also shown to be insensitive to the inhomogeneous of qubit-resonator coupling strengths. PMID:26804326

  8. Thermoelectric energy harvesting with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review recent theoretical work on thermoelectric energy harvesting in multi-terminal quantum-dot setups. We first discuss several examples of nanoscale heat engines based on Coulomb-coupled conductors. In particular, we focus on quantum dots in the Coulomb-blockade regime, chaotic cavities and resonant tunneling through quantum dots and wells. We then turn toward quantum-dot heat engines that are driven by bosonic degrees of freedom such as phonons, magnons and microwave photons. These systems provide interesting connections to spin caloritronics and circuit quantum electrodynamics. (topical review)

  9. The quantum vacuum a scientific and philosophical concept, from electrodynamics to string theory and the geometry of the microscopic world

    CERN Document Server

    Boi, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    A vacuum, classically understood, contains nothing. The quantum vacuum, on the other hand, is a seething cauldron of nothingness: particle pairs going in and out of existence continuously and rapidly while exerting influence over an enormous range of scales. Acclaimed mathematical physicist and natural philosopher Luciano Boi expounds the quantum vacuum, exploring the meaning of nothingness and its relationship with physical reality. Boi first provides a deep analysis of the interaction between geometry and physics at the quantum level. He next describes the relationship between the microscopic and macroscopic structures of the world. In so doing, Boi sheds light on the very nature of the universe, stressing in an original and profound way the relationship between quantum geometry and the internal symmetries underlying the behavior of matter and the interactions of forces. Beyond the physics and mathematics of the quantum vacuum, Boi offers a profoundly philosophical interpretation of the concept. Plato and...

  10. Synthesis of multi-qudit Hybrid and d-valued Quantum Logic Circuits by Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, F S; Khan, Faisal Shah; Perkowski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    Recent research in generalizing quantum computation from 2-valued qudits to d-valued qudits has shown practical advantages for scaling up a quantum computer. A further generalization leads to quantum computing with hybrid qudits where two or more qudits have different finite dimensions. Advantages of hybrid and d-valued gates (circuits) and their physical realizations have been studied in detail by Muthukrishnan and Stroud (Physical Review A, 052309, 2000), Daboul et al. (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 2525-2536, 2003), and Bartlett et al (Physical Review A, Vol.65, 052316, 2002). In both cases, a quantum computation is performed when a unitary evolution operator, acting as a quantum logic gate, transforms the state of qudits in a quantum system. Unitary operators can be represented by square unitary matrices. If the system consists of a single qudit, then Tilma et al (J.Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 (2002) 10467-10501) have shown that the unitary evolution matrix (gate) can be synthesized in terms of its Euler angle par...

  11. Generation of Two-Mode Nonclassical States via Dispersive Interaction in Trapped-Ion Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-Xing; ZHAN Zhi-Ming; LI Jia-Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ We propose a simple method to generate a practical SU(2)-Schrodinger-cat state of a single trapped-ion vibration mode and the light field state, using the method based on a quantum system, which is composed of the onedimensional trapped-ion motion and a single cavity field mode. Moreover, the method proposed can be used for the generation two-mode maximal quantum entangled state. The detection of such a state is also briefly discussed.

  12. Modeling light-induced charge transfer dynamics across a metal-molecule-metal junction: Bridging classical electrodynamics and quantum dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zixuan; Ratner, Mark A.; Seideman, Tamar, E-mail: t-seideman@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States)

    2014-12-14

    We develop a numerical approach for simulating light-induced charge transport dynamics across a metal-molecule-metal conductance junction. The finite-difference time-domain method is used to simulate the plasmonic response of the metal structures. The Huygens subgridding technique, as adapted to Lorentz media, is used to bridge the vastly disparate length scales of the plasmonic metal electrodes and the molecular system, maintaining accuracy. The charge and current densities calculated with classical electrodynamics are transformed to an electronic wavefunction, which is then propagated through the molecular linker via the Heisenberg equations of motion. We focus mainly on development of the theory and exemplify our approach by a numerical illustration of a simple system consisting of two silver cylinders bridged by a three-site molecular linker. The electronic subsystem exhibits fascinating light driven dynamics, wherein the charge density oscillates at the driving optical frequency, exhibiting also the natural system timescales, and a resonance phenomenon leads to strong conductance enhancement.

  13. Modeling light-induced charge transfer dynamics across a metal-molecule-metal junction: Bridging classical electrodynamics and quantum dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zixuan; Ratner, Mark A.; Seideman, Tamar

    2014-12-01

    We develop a numerical approach for simulating light-induced charge transport dynamics across a metal-molecule-metal conductance junction. The finite-difference time-domain method is used to simulate the plasmonic response of the metal structures. The Huygens subgridding technique, as adapted to Lorentz media, is used to bridge the vastly disparate length scales of the plasmonic metal electrodes and the molecular system, maintaining accuracy. The charge and current densities calculated with classical electrodynamics are transformed to an electronic wavefunction, which is then propagated through the molecular linker via the Heisenberg equations of motion. We focus mainly on development of the theory and exemplify our approach by a numerical illustration of a simple system consisting of two silver cylinders bridged by a three-site molecular linker. The electronic subsystem exhibits fascinating light driven dynamics, wherein the charge density oscillates at the driving optical frequency, exhibiting also the natural system timescales, and a resonance phenomenon leads to strong conductance enhancement.

  14. Modeling light-induced charge transfer dynamics across a metal-molecule-metal junction: Bridging classical electrodynamics and quantum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a numerical approach for simulating light-induced charge transport dynamics across a metal-molecule-metal conductance junction. The finite-difference time-domain method is used to simulate the plasmonic response of the metal structures. The Huygens subgridding technique, as adapted to Lorentz media, is used to bridge the vastly disparate length scales of the plasmonic metal electrodes and the molecular system, maintaining accuracy. The charge and current densities calculated with classical electrodynamics are transformed to an electronic wavefunction, which is then propagated through the molecular linker via the Heisenberg equations of motion. We focus mainly on development of the theory and exemplify our approach by a numerical illustration of a simple system consisting of two silver cylinders bridged by a three-site molecular linker. The electronic subsystem exhibits fascinating light driven dynamics, wherein the charge density oscillates at the driving optical frequency, exhibiting also the natural system timescales, and a resonance phenomenon leads to strong conductance enhancement

  15. Hardware-Efficient and Fully Autonomous Quantum Error Correction in Superconducting Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapit, Eliot

    2016-04-01

    Superconducting qubits are among the most promising platforms for building a quantum computer. However, individual qubit coherence times are not far past the scalability threshold for quantum error correction, meaning that millions of physical devices would be required to construct a useful quantum computer. Consequently, further increases in coherence time are very desirable. In this Letter, we blueprint a simple circuit consisting of two transmon qubits and two additional lossy qubits or resonators, which is passively protected against all single-qubit quantum error channels through a combination of continuous driving and engineered dissipation. Photon losses are rapidly corrected through two-photon drive fields implemented with driven superconducting quantum interference device couplings, and dephasing from random potential fluctuations is heavily suppressed by the drive fields used to implement the multiqubit Hamiltonian. Comparing our theoretical model to published noise estimates from recent experiments on flux and transmon qubits, we find that logical state coherence could be improved by a factor of 40 or more compared to the individual qubit T1 and T2 using this technique. We thus demonstrate that there is substantial headroom for improving the coherence of modern superconducting qubits with a fairly modest increase in device complexity.

  16. Nanocatalysts by Quantum Electrodynamics Induced Electromagnetic Radiation%量子电动学诱导电磁辐射研究纳米催化剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas V. PREVENSLIK

    2008-01-01

    Gold has been regarded as a poor heterogeneous catalyst because it is generally considered a nonreactive metal. But as nanocatalysts, gold and other metals somehow significantly enhance reactivity. It is generally thought chemical bonds of reactants are weakened by adsorption to nanocatalysts thereby allowing reactions to proceed more rapidly, but how this reaction proceeds to completion is not well understood. Here gold nanocatalysts are treated as unsupported nanoparticles (NPs) in a solution of reactant molecules from which extensions are made to gold NPs supported on titanium dioxide. Whether the NPs are supported or unsupported, enhanced catalytic reactivity depends on absorbed thermal kT (k is Boltzmann′s constant and T is absolute temperature) energy accumulated from prior collisions of reactant molecules. The accumulated kT energy is treated as electromagnetic thereby allowing frequency up-conversion by quantum electrodynamics (QED) to the confinement frequency of the NP, typically beyond the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). By this theory, the chemical reaction of reactant molecules having bonds weakened by adsorption is completed by QED induced VUV photolysis.

  17. Electrodynamic Stability Computations for Flexible Conductors of the Aerial Lines

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Sergey; Y. G. Panamarenka; P. I. Klimkovich; A. P. Dolin; Y. V. Potachits

    2015-01-01

    In aerial transmission lines aluminium multiwire conductors are in use. Owing to their flexible design the electrodynamic effect of short circuit currents may lead to intolerable mutual rendezvous and even cross-whipping of the phase conductors. The increasing motion of the conductors caused by effect of the short-circuit electrodynamic force impulse is accompanied by the dynamic load impact affecting the conductors, insulating and supporting constructions of the aerial lines. Intensity of th...

  18. Local random quantum circuits: Ensemble completely positive maps and swap algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We define different classes of local random quantum circuits (L-RQC) and show that (a) statistical properties of L-RQC are encoded into an associated family of completely positive maps and (b) average purity dynamics can be described by the action of these maps on operator algebras of permutations (swap algebras). An exactly solvable one-dimensional case is analyzed to illustrate the power of the swap algebra formalism. More in general, we prove short time area-law bounds on average purity for uncorrelated L-RQC and infinite time results for both the uncorrelated and correlated cases

  19. Theory of coupled electromagnetic circuits, the connection to quantum mechanical resonance interactions and relevance to chronobiology

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmer, W; Halberg, F; Schwarzkopff, O

    2011-01-01

    The existence of specific biorhythms and the role of geomagnetic and/or solar magnetic activities are well-established by appropriate correlations in chronobiology. From a physical viewpoint, there are two different accesses to biorhythms to set up connections to molecular processes: 1. Diffusion of charged molecules in magnetic fields. 2. Quantum mechanical perturbation theoretical methods and their resonance dominators to characterize specific interactions between constituents. The methods of point 2 permit the treatment of molecular processes by circuits with characteristic resonances and 'beat-frequencies', which result from the primarily fast physical processes. As examples the tunneling processes between DNA base pairs (H bonds) and the ATP decomposition are considered.

  20. Deterministic separation of arbitrary photon pair states in integrated quantum circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Marchildon, Ryan P

    2015-01-01

    Entangled photon pairs generated within integrated devices must often be spatially separated for their subsequent manipulation in quantum circuits. Separation that is both deterministic and universal can in principle be achieved through anti-coalescent two-photon quantum interference. However, such interference-facilitated pair separation (IFPS) has not been extensively studied in the integrated setting, where the strong polarization and wavelength dependencies of integrated couplers -- as opposed to bulk-optics beamsplitters -- can have important implications for performance beyond the identical-photon regime. This paper provides a detailed review of IFPS and examines how these dependencies impact separation fidelity and interference visibility. Focus is given to IFPS mediated by an integrated directional coupler. The analysis applies equally to both on-chip and in-fiber implementations, and can be expanded to other coupler architectures such as multimode interferometers. When coupler dispersion is present, ...