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Sample records for circuit lbb concept

  1. The analysis of normative requirements to materials of PWR components, basing on LBB concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T. [CRISM Prometey, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-04-01

    The paper discusses the advisability of the correction of Norms to solve in terms of material science the Problem: how the normative requirements to materials must be changed in terms of the concept {open_quotes}leak before break{close_quotes} (LBB).

  2. Defect occurrence, detection, location and characterization; essential variables of the LBB concept application to primary piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutzen, S.; Koble, T.D.; Lemaitre, P. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Applications of the Leak Before Break (LBB) concept involve the knowledge of flaw presence and characteristics. In Service Inspection is given the responsibility of detecting flaws of a determined importance to locate them precisely and to classify them in broad families. Often LBB concepts application imply the knowledge of flaw characteristics such as through wall depth; length at the inner diameter (ID) or outer diameter (OD) surface; orientation or tilt and skew angles; branching; surface roughness; opening or width; crack tip aspect. Besides detection and characterization, LBB evaluations consider important the fact that a crack could be in the weld material or in the base material or in the heat affected zone. Cracks in tee junctions, in homogenous simple welds and in elbows are not considered in the same way. Essential variables of a flaw or defect are illustrated, and examples of flaws found in primary piping as reported by plant operators or service vendors are given. If such flaw variables are important in the applications of LBB concepts, essential is then the knowledge of the performance achievable by NDE techniques, during an ISI, in detecting such flaws, in locating them and in correctly evaluating their characteristics.

  3. The analysis of normative requirements to materials of VVER components, basing on LBB concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T. [CRISM Prometey, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-04-01

    The paper demonstrates an insufficiency of some requirements native Norms (when comparing them with the foreign requirements for the consideration of calculating situations): (1) leak before break (LBB); (2) short cracks; (3) preliminary loading (warm prestressing). In particular, the paper presents (1) Comparison of native and foreign normative requirements (PNAE G-7-002-86, Code ASME, BS 1515, KTA) on permissible stress levels and specifically on the estimation of crack initiation and propagation; (2) comparison of RF and USA Norms of pressure vessel material acceptance and also data of pressure vessel hydrotests; (3) comparison of Norms on the presence of defects (RF and USA) in NPP vessels, developments of defect schematization rules; foundation of a calculated defect (semi-axis correlation a/b) for pressure vessel and piping components: (4) sequence of defect estimation (growth of initial defects and critical crack sizes) proceeding from the concept LBB; (5) analysis of crack initiation and propagation conditions according to the acting Norms (including crack jumps); (6) necessity to correct estimation methods of ultimate states of brittle an ductile fracture and elastic-plastic region as applied to calculating situation: (a) LBB and (b) short cracks; (7) necessity to correct estimation methods of ultimate states with the consideration of static and cyclic loading (warm prestressing effect) of pressure vessel; estimation of the effect stability; (8) proposals on PNAE G-7-002-86 Norm corrections.

  4. The use of LBB concept in French fast reactors: Application to SPX plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turbat, A.; Deschanels, H.; Sperandio, M. [and others

    1997-04-01

    The leak before break (LBB) concept was not used at the design level for SUPERPHENIX (SPX), but different studies have been performed or are in progress concerning different components : Main Vessel (MV), pipings. These studies were undertaken to improve the defense in depth, an approach used in all French reactors. In a first study, the LBB approach has been applied to the MV of SPX plant to verify the absence of risk as regards the core supporting function and to help in the definition of in-service inspection (ISI) program. Defining a reference semi-elliptic defect located in the welds of the structure, it is verified that the crack growth is limited and that the end-of-life defect is smaller than the critical one. Then it is shown that the hoop welds (those which are the most important for safety) located between the roof and the triple point verify the leak-before-break criteria. However, generally speaking, the low level of membrane primary stresses which is favorable for the integrity of the vessel makes the application of the leak-before-break concept more difficult due to small crack opening areas. Finally, the extension of the methodology to the secondary pipings of SPX incorporating recent European works of DCRC is briefly presented.

  5. Approach for Czech regulatory body to LBB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendera, P. [State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS), Prague (Czech Republic)

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWER model 213) and Temelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW-WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufactures. The objective for the Czech LBB programme is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of these NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety facilities, too. For both Dukovany and Temolin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASME, CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No. 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quotes} and consists of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  6. Approach of Czech regulatory body to LBB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendera, P.

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany, NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWBFL model 213) and Tomelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW - WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufacturers. The objective of the Czech LBB program is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of there NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety Facilities too. For both Dukovany and Tomelin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement, {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASMF CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quote} and consist of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  7. Application of the leak-before-break concept to the primary circuit piping of the Leningrad NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eperin, A.P.; Zakharzhevsky, Yu.O.; Arzhaev, A.I. [and others

    1997-04-01

    A two-year Finnish-Russian cooperation program has been initiated in 1995 to demonstrate the applicability of the leak-before-break concept (LBB) to the primary circuit piping of the Leningrad NPP. The program includes J-R curve testing of authentic pipe materials at full operating temperature, screening and computational LBB analyses complying with the USNRC Standard Review Plan 3.6.3, and exchange of LBB-related information with emphasis on NDE. Domestic computer codes are mainly used, and all tests and analyses are independently carried out by each party. The results are believed to apply generally to RBMK type plants of the first generation.

  8. Application of the LBB concept to nuclear power plants with WWER 440 and WWER 1000 reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdarek, J.; Pecinka, L. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez (Czech Republic)

    1997-04-01

    Leak-before-break (LBB) analysis of WWER type reactors in the Czech and Sloval Republics is summarized in this paper. Legislative bases, required procedures, and validation and verification of procedures are discussed. A list of significant issues identified during the application of LBB analysis is presented. The results of statistical evaluation of crack length characteristics are presented and compared for the WWER 440 Type 230 and 213 reactors and for the WWER 1000 Type 302, 320 and 338 reactors.

  9. The corrosion and corrosion mechanical properties evaluation for the LBB concept in VVERs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscak, M.; Chvatal, P.; Karnik, D.

    1997-04-01

    One of the conditions required for Leak Before Break application is the verification that the influence of corrosion environment on the material of the component can be neglected. Both the general corrosion and/or the initiation and, growth of corrosion-mechanical cracks must not cause the degradation. The primary piping in the VVER nuclear power plant is made from austenitic steels (VVER 440) and low alloy steels protected with the austenitic cladding (VVER 1000). Inspection of the base metal and heterogeneous weldments from the VVER 440 showed that the crack growth rates are below 10 m/s if a low oxygen level is kept in the primary environment. No intergranular cracking was observed in low and high oxygen water after any type of testing, with constant or periodic loading. In the framework of the LBB assessment of the VVER 1000, the corrosion and corrosion mechanical properties were also evaluated. The corrosion and corrosion mechanical testing was oriented predominantly to three types of tests: stress corrosion cracking tests corrosion fatigue tests evaluation of the resistance against corrosion damage. In this paper, the methods used for these tests are described and the materials are compared from the point of view of response on static and periodic mechanical stress on the low alloyed steel 10GN2WA and weld metal exposed in the primary circuit environment. The slow strain rate tests and static loading of both C-rings and CT specimens were performed in order to assess the stress corrosion cracking characteristics. Cyclic loading of CT specimens was done to evaluate the kinetics of the crack growth under periodical loading. Results are shown to illustrate the approaches used. The data obtained were evaluated also from the point of view of comparison of the influence of different structure on the stress corrosion cracking appearance. The results obtained for the base metal and weld metal of the piping are presented here.

  10. LBB application in the US operating and advanced reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichman, K.; Tsao, J.; Mayfield, M.

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory application of leak before break (LBB) for operating and advanced reactors in the U.S. is described. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved the application of LBB for six piping systems in operating reactors: reactor coolant system primary loop piping, pressurizer surge, safety injection accumulator, residual heat removal, safety injection, and reactor coolant loop bypass. The LBB concept has also been applied in the design of advanced light water reactors. LBB applications, and regulatory considerations, for pressurized water reactors and advanced light water reactors are summarized in this paper. Technology development for LBB performed by the NRC and the International Piping Integrity Research Group is also briefly summarized.

  11. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  12. Overview of LBB implementation for the EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauquelin, C.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the use of leak-before-break (LBB) analysis for EPR reactors. EPR is an evolutionary Nuclear Island of the 4 loop x 1500 Mwe class currently in the design phase. Application of LBB to the main coolant lines and resulting design impacts are summarized. Background information on LBB analysis in France and Germany is also presented.

  13. A computing system for LBB considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, K.; Miettinen, J.; Raiko, H.; Keskinen, R.

    1997-04-01

    A computing system has been developed at VTT Energy for making efficient leak-before-break (LBB) evaluations of piping components. The system consists of fracture mechanics and leak rate analysis modules which are linked via an interactive user interface LBBCAL. The system enables quick tentative analysis of standard geometric and loading situations by means of fracture mechanics estimation schemes such as the R6, FAD, EPRI J, Battelle, plastic limit load and moments methods. Complex situations are handled with a separate in-house made finite-element code EPFM3D which uses 20-noded isoparametric solid elements, automatic mesh generators and advanced color graphics. Analytical formulas and numerical procedures are available for leak area evaluation. A novel contribution for leak rate analysis is the CRAFLO code which is based on a nonequilibrium two-phase flow model with phase slip. Its predictions are essentially comparable with those of the well known SQUIRT2 code; additionally it provides outputs for temperature, pressure and velocity distributions in the crack depth direction. An illustrative application to a circumferentially cracked elbow indicates expectedly that a small margin relative to the saturation temperature of the coolant reduces the leak rate and is likely to influence the LBB implementation to intermediate diameter (300 mm) primary circuit piping of BWR plants.

  14. Overview of large scale experiments performed within the LBB project in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadecka, P.; Lauerova, D. [Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czechoslovakia)

    1997-04-01

    During several recent years NRI Rez has been performing the LBB analyses of safety significant primary circuit pipings of NPPs in Czech and Slovak Republics. The analyses covered the NPPs with reactors WWER 440 Type 230 and 213 and WWER 1000 Type 320. Within the relevant LBB projects undertaken with the aim to prove the fulfilling of the requirements of LBB, a series of large scale experiments were performed. The goal of these experiments was to verify the properties of the components selected, and to prove the quality and/or conservatism of assessments used in the LBB-analyses. In this poster, a brief overview of experiments performed in Czech Republic under guidance of NRI Rez is presented.

  15. Application of the LBB regulatory approach to the steamlines of advanced WWER 1000 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselyov, V.A.; Sokov, L.M.

    1997-04-01

    The LBB regulatory approach adopted in Russia in 1993 as an extra safety barrier is described for advanced WWER 1000 reactor steamline. The application of LBB concept requires the following additional protections. First, the steamline should be a highly qualified piping, performed in accordance with the applicable regulations and guidelines, carefully screened to verify that it is not subjected to any disqualifying failure mechanism. Second, a deterministic fracture mechanics analysis and leak rate evaluation have been performed to demonstrate that postulated through-wall crack that yields 95 1/min at normal operation conditions is stable even under seismic loads. Finally, it has been verified that the leak detection systems are sufficiently reliable, diverse and sensitive, and that adequate margins exist to detect a through wall crack smaller than the critical size. The obtained results are encouraging and show the possibility of the application of the LBB case to the steamline of advanced WWER 1000 reactor.

  16. LBB considerations for a new plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swamy, S.A.; Mandava, P.R.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The leak-before-break (LBB) methodology is accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of Double-Ended Guillotine Breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. This is the result of extensive research, development, and rigorous evaluations by the NRC and the commercial nuclear power industry since the early 1970s. The DEGB postulation is responsible for the many hundreds of pipe whip restraints and jet shields found in commercial nuclear plants. These restraints and jet shields not only cost many millions of dollars, but also cause plant congestion leading to reduced reliability in inservice inspection and increased man-rem exposure. While use of leak-before-break technology saved hundreds of millions of dollars in backfit costs to many operating Westinghouse plants, value-impacts resulting from the application of this technology for future plants are greater on a per plant basis. These benefits will be highlighted in this paper. The LBB technology has been applied extensively to high energy piping systems in operating plants. However, there are differences between the application of LBB technology to an operating plant and to a new plant design. In this paper an approach is proposed which is suitable for application of LBB to a new plant design such as the Westinghouse AP600. The approach is based on generating Bounding Analyses Curves (BAC) for the candidate piping systems. The general methodology and criteria used for developing the BACs are based on modified GDC-4 and Standard Review Plan (SRP) 3.6.3. The BAC allows advance evaluation of the piping system from the LBB standpoint thereby assuring LBB conformance for the piping system. The piping designer can use the results of the BACs to determine acceptability of design loads and make modifications (in terms of piping layout and support configurations) as necessary at the design stage to assure LBB for the, piping systems under consideration.

  17. The LBB methodology application results performed on the safety related piping of NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupca, L.; Beno, P. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-04-01

    A broad overview of the leak before break (LBB) application to the Slovakian V-1 nuclear power plant is presented in the paper. LBB was applied to the primary cooling circuit and surge lines of both WWER 440 type units, and also used to assess the integrity of safety related piping in the feed water and main steam systems. Experiments and calculations performed included analyses of stresses, material mechanical properties, corrosion, fatigue damage, stability of heavy component supports, water hammer, and leak rates. A list of analysis results and recommendations are included in the paper.

  18. Students conception and perception of simple electrical circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyani, ND; Suparmi; Sarwanto; Handhika, J.

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to describe the profile of the students’ conception and perception on the simple electrical circuit. The results of this research suppose to be used as a reference by teachers to use learning models or strategies to improve understanding the physics concept. The research method used is descriptive qualitative. Research subjects are the students of physics education program, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia (49 students). The results showed that students have alternative conceptions. Their conceptions are (1) a high-voltage wire has an electric current and can cause electric shock, (2) the potential difference and the value of resistance used in a circuit is influenced by electric current, (3) the value of resistance of a lamp is proportional to the filament thickness, (4) the amount of electric current that coming out from the positive pole battery is the same for all type of circuit, in series or parallel (battery is constant current sources), (5) the current at any resistor in the series circuit is influenced by the resistor used, (6) the resistor consume the current through it. This incorrect conception can cause misconceptions.

  19. The "Brightness Rules" Alternative Conception for Light Bulb Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Joel A.; Stuessy, Carol

    2006-01-01

    An alternative conception for the observed differences in light bulb brightness was revealed during an unguided inquiry investigation in which prospective elementary teachers placed identical bulbs in series, parallel, and combination direct current circuits. Classroom observations, document analyses, and video and audio transcriptions led to the…

  20. Development of crack shape: LBB methodology for cracked pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulin, D.; Chapuliot, S.; Drubay, B. [Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, Gif sur Yvette (France)

    1997-04-01

    For structures like vessels or pipes containing a fluid, the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) assessment requires to demonstrate that it is possible, during the lifetime of the component, to detect a rate of leakage due to a possible defect, the growth of which would result in a leak before-break of the component. This LBB assessment could be an important contribution to the overall structural integrity argument for many components. The aim of this paper is to review some practices used for LBB assessment and to describe how some new R & D results have been used to provide a simplified approach of fracture mechanics analysis and especially the evaluation of crack shape and size during the lifetime of the component.

  1. Identifying and Investigating Difficult Concepts in Engineering Mechanics and Electric Circuits. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streveler, Ruth; Geist, Monica; Ammerman, Ravel; Sulzbach, Candace; Miller, Ronald; Olds, Barbara; Nelson, Mary

    2007-01-01

    This study extends ongoing work to identify difficult concepts in thermal and transport science and measure students' understanding of those concepts via a concept inventory. Two research questions provided the focal point: "What important concepts in electric circuits and engineering mechanics do students find difficult to learn?" and…

  2. Memristor: A New Concept in Synchronization of Coupled Neuromorphic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. K. Volos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The existence of the memristor, as a fourth fundamental circuit element, by researchers at Hewlett Packard (HP labs in 2008, has attracted much interest since then. This occurs because the memristor opens up new functionalities in electronics and it has led to the interpretation of phenomena not only in electronic devices but also in biological systems. Furthermore, many research teams work on projects, which use memristors in neuromorphic devices to simulate learning, adaptive and spontaneous behavior while other teams on systems, which attempt to simulate the behavior of biological synapses. In this paper, the latest achievements and applications of this newly development circuit element are presented. Also, the basic features of neuromorphic circuits, in which the memristor can be used as an electrical synapse, are studied. In this direction, a flux-controlled memristor model is adopted for using as a coupling element between coupled electronic circuits, which simulate the behavior of neuron-cells. For this reason, the circuits which are chosen realize the systems of differential equations that simulate the well-known Hindmarsh-Rose and FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron models. Finally, the simulation results of the use of a memristor as an electric synapse present the effectiveness of the proposed method and many interesting dynamic phenomena concerning the behavior of coupled neuron-cells.

  3. Turkish Students' Conceptions about the Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepni, Salih; Keles, Esra

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the Turkish students' understanding level of electric circuits consisting of two bulbs and one battery was investigated by using open-ended questions. Two-hundred fifty students, whose ages range from 11 to 22, were chosen from five different groups at primary, secondary and university levels in Trabzon in Turkey. In analyzing…

  4. The short-circuit concept used in field equivalence principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1990-01-01

    In field equivalence principles, electric and magnetic surface currents are specified and considered as impressed currents. Often the currents are placed on perfect conductors. It is shown that these currents can be treated through two approaches. The first approach is decomposition of the total...... field into partial fields caused by the individual impressed currents. When this approach is used, it is shown that, on a perfect electric (magnetic) conductor, impressed electric (magnetic) surface currents are short-circuited. The second approach is to note that, since Maxwell's equations...... and the boundary conditions are satisfied, none of the impressed currents is short-circuited and no currents are induced on the perfect conductors. Since all currents and field quantities are considered at the same time, this approach is referred to as the total-field approach. The partial-field approach leads...

  5. Application of LBB to a nozzle-pipe interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y.J.; Sohn, G.H.; Kim, Y.J. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Typical LBB (Leak-Before-Break) analysis is performed for the highest stress location for each different type of material in the high energy pipe line. In most cases, the highest stress occurs at the nozzle and pipe interface location at the terminal end. The standard finite element analysis approach to calculate J-Integral values at the crack tip utilizes symmetry conditions when modeling near the nozzle as well as away from the nozzle region to minimize the model size and simplify the calculation of J-integral values at the crack tip. A factor of two is typically applied to the J-integral value to account for symmetric conditions. This simplified analysis can lead to conservative results especially for small diameter pipes where the asymmetry of the nozzle-pipe interface is ignored. The stiffness of the residual piping system and non-symmetries of geometry along with different material for the nozzle, safe end and pipe are usually omitted in current LBB methodology. In this paper, the effects of non-symmetries due to geometry and material at the pipe-nozzle interface are presented. Various LBB analyses are performed for a small diameter piping system to evaluate the effect a nozzle has on the J-integral calculation, crack opening area and crack stability. In addition, material differences between the nozzle and pipe are evaluated. Comparison is made between a pipe model and a nozzle-pipe interface model, and a LBB PED (Piping Evaluation Diagram) curve is developed to summarize the results for use by piping designers.

  6. Conceptions of French Pupils Concerning Electric Circuits: Structure and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin, Jean-Jacques; Johsua, Samuel

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the results of an investigation into the understanding of the concepts of basic electricity by French students from grade six up through the fourth year of college. Discusses the misconceptions formed and the challenges these present to physics educators. (TW)

  7. Approaching the Processes in the Generator Circuit Breaker at Disconnection through Sustainability Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A. Bulucea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the electric connection circuits of power plants (based on fossil fuels as well as renewable sources entail generator circuit-breakers (GCBs at the generator terminals, since the presence of that electric equipment offers many advantages related to the sustainability of a power plant. In an alternating current (a.c. circuit the interruption of a short circuit is performed by the circuit-breaker at the natural passing through zero of the short-circuit current. During the current interruption, an electric arc is generated between the opened contacts of the circuit-breaker. This arc must be cooled and extinguished in a controlled way. Since the synchronous generator stator can flow via highly asymmetrical short-circuit currents, the phenomena which occur in the case of short-circuit currents interruption determine the main stresses of the generator circuit-breaker; the current interruption requirements of a GCB are significantly higher than for the distribution network circuit breakers. For shedding light on the proper moment when the generator circuit-breaker must operate, using the space phasor of the short-circuit currents, the time expression to the first zero passing of the short-circuit current is determined. Here, the manner is investigated in which various factors influence the delay of the zero passing of the short-circuit current. It is shown that the delay time is influenced by the synchronous machine parameters and by the load conditions which precede the short-circuit. Numerical simulations were conducted of the asymmetrical currents in the case of the sudden three-phase short circuit at the terminals of synchronous generators. Further in this study it is emphasized that although the phenomena produced in the electric arc at the terminals of the circuit-breaker are complicated and not completely explained, the concept of exergy is useful in understanding the physical phenomena. The article points out that just after the short-circuit

  8. LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop by using the US NRC approved methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E. [Westinghouse Nuclear Technology Division, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory requirements for postulated pipe ruptures have changed significantly since the first nuclear plants were designed. The Leak-Before-Break (LBB) methodology is now accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of double-ended guillotine breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. The previous pipe rupture design requirements for nuclear power plant applications are responsible for all the numerous and massive pipe whip restraints and jet shields installed for each plant. This results in significant plant congestion, increased labor costs and radiation dosage for normal maintenance and inspection. Also the restraints increase the probability of interference between the piping and supporting structures during plant heatup, thereby potentially impacting overall plant reliability. The LBB approach to eliminate postulating ruptures in high energy piping systems is a significant improvement to former regulatory methodologies, and therefore, the LBB approach to design is gaining worldwide acceptance. However, the methods and criteria for LBB evaluation depend upon the policy of individual country and significant effort continues towards accomplishing uniformity on a global basis. In this paper the historical development of the U.S. LBB criteria will be traced and the results of an LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop applying U.S. NRC approved methods will be presented. In addition, another approach using the Japanese LBB criteria will be shown and compared with the U.S. criteria. The comparison will be highlighted in this paper with detailed discussion.

  9. Evaluation of LBB margin of nuclear piping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Il Soon; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Oh, Yeong Jin; Lim, Jun [Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Seob; Kim, Yong Seon; Lee, Joo Seok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-15

    Most of previous elastic-plastic fracture studies for LBB assessment of low alloy steel piping have been focused on base metals and weld metals. In contract, the heat affected zone of welded pipe has not been studied in detail primarily because the size of heat affected zone in welded pipe os too small to make specimens for mechanical properties measurement. When structural members are joined by welding, the base metal is heated to its melting point and then cooled rapidly. As a result of this very severe thermal cycle, mechanical properties in the heat affected zone can be degraded by grain coarsening, the precipitation and the segregation of trace impurities. In this study, a thermal and microstructural analysis is performed, and mechanical properties are measured for the weld heat affected zone of SA106Gr.C low allowed piping steel. In addition, inter critical annealing treatment. in two-phase (alpha+gamma) region was performed to investigate the possibilities of improving the toughness and reducing dynamic strain aging (DSA) susceptibility for giving allowable LBB safety margins. From the results, intercritical annealing is shown to give a smaller ductility loss due to DSA than the case of as-received material. Furthermore, the intercritical annealing was able to increase the impact toughness by a factor of 1.5 compared to the as-received material.

  10. Robert Lacoste's the darker side practical applications for electronic design concepts from circuit cellar

    CERN Document Server

    Lacoste, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Robert Lacoste's The Darker Side column has quickly become a must read among Circuit Cellar devotees. His column provides readers with succinct theoretical concepts and practical applications on topics as far reaching as digital modulation to antenna basics. Difficult concepts are demystified as Robert shines a light on complex topics within electronic design.This book collects sixteen Darker Side articles that have been enriched with new, exclusive content from the author. An intro into The Darker Side will give examples of material that can enhance and optimize the way you design. A

  11. Neural reuse of action perception circuits for language, concepts and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2018-01-01

    Neurocognitive and neurolinguistics theories make explicit statements relating specialized cognitive and linguistic processes to specific brain loci. These linking hypotheses are in need of neurobiological justification and explanation. Recent mathematical models of human language mechanisms constrained by fundamental neuroscience principles and established knowledge about comparative neuroanatomy offer explanations for where, when and how language is processed in the human brain. In these models, network structure and connectivity along with action- and perception-induced correlation of neuronal activity co-determine neurocognitive mechanisms. Language learning leads to the formation of action perception circuits (APCs) with specific distributions across cortical areas. Cognitive and linguistic processes such as speech production, comprehension, verbal working memory and prediction are modelled by activity dynamics in these APCs, and combinatorial and communicative-interactive knowledge is organized in the dynamics within, and connections between APCs. The network models and, in particular, the concept of distributionally-specific circuits, can account for some previously not well understood facts about the cortical 'hubs' for semantic processing and the motor system's role in language understanding and speech sound recognition. A review of experimental data evaluates predictions of the APC model and alternative theories, also providing detailed discussion of some seemingly contradictory findings. Throughout, recent disputes about the role of mirror neurons and grounded cognition in language and communication are assessed critically. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. LBB assessment on ferrite piping structure of large-scale FBR

    OpenAIRE

    兪 淵植

    2002-01-01

    These days, this interest on LBB(Leak before Break) design becomes to be rising in the viewpoint of the cost reduction and structural inter-grity for the commercialization of FBR plants, LBB design enables pla-nts to be shut down safely before occuring unstable fracture by dete- cting the leak rates even if a crack initiates and penetrates a wall thickness. It is necessary to assess crack growth and penetration be- havior considering in-service conditions under operation temperature, leak re...

  13. Application of LBB to high energy piping systems in operating PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C. [Westinghouse Nuclear Technology Division, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The amendment to General Design Criterion 4 allows exclusion, from the design basis, of dynamic effects associated with high energy pipe rupture by application of leak-before-break (LBB) technology. This new approach has resulted in substantial financial savings to utilities when applied to the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) primary loop piping and auxiliary piping systems made of stainless steel material. To date majority of applications pertain to piping systems in operating plants. Various steps of evaluation associated with the LBB application to an operating plant are described in this paper.

  14. Acquiring Knowledge in Learning Concepts from Electrical Circuits: The Use of Multiple Representations in Technology-Based Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljalil Métioui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The constructivists approach on the conception of relative software of modelling to training and teaching of the concepts of current and voltage requires appraisal of several disciplinary fields in order to provide to the learners a training adapted to their representations. Thus, this approach requires the researchers to have adequate knowledge or skills in data processing, didactics and science content. In this regard, several researches underline that the acquisition of basic concepts that span a field of a given knowledge, must take into account the student and the scientific representations. The present research appears in this perspective, and aims to present the interactive computer environments that take into account the students (secondary and college and scientific representations related to simple electric circuits. These computer environments will help the students to analyze the functions of the electric circuits adequately.

  15. Conception de circuits analogique-numérique pour le conditionnement de micro-capteurs embarqués

    OpenAIRE

    Regis, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    The domain of sensors instrumentation is constantly evolving. The present work proposes the design of the key elements conception which constitute the instrumentations chains of current sensors through 3 concrete applications. The first application is speed and position measurement, for example in a wheel bearing. We present the design and realization of an analogical circuit for the conditioning of magneto resistive sensor. This sensor measures the magnetic field generated by the coding whee...

  16. Current as the Key Concept of Taiwanese Students' Understandings of Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Hsing; Chen, Hsueh-Yu; Chou, Ching-Yang; Lain, Kuen-Der

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the results of a nationwide survey of Taiwanese high schools students' understandings about electric circuits. The study involved two stratified random samples consisting of 7,145 students in Grades 8 and 9, and 2,857 students in Grade 11, accounting for about 2.3% of the total enrolment in the corresponding…

  17. Cost Estimate for Molybdenum and Tantalum Refractory Metal Alloy Flow Circuit Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Robert R.; Martin, James J.; Schmidt, George R.; Godfroy, Thomas J.; Bryhan, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission-Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been tasked by the Naval Reactors Prime Contract Team (NRPCT) to provide a cost and delivery rough order of magnitude estimate for a refractory metal-based lithium (Li) flow circuit. The design is based on the stainless steel Li flow circuit that is currently being assembled for an NRPCT task underway at the EFF-TF. While geometrically the flow circuit is not representative of a final flight prototype, knowledge has been gained to quantify (time and cost) the materials, manufacturing, fabrication, assembly, and operations to produce a testable configuration. This Technical Memorandum (TM) also identifies the following key issues that need to be addressed by the fabrication process: Alloy selection and forming, cost and availability, welding, bending, machining, assembly, and instrumentation. Several candidate materials were identified by NRPCT including molybdenum (Mo) alloy (Mo-47.5 %Re), tantalum (Ta) alloys (T-111, ASTAR-811C), and niobium (Nb) alloy (Nb-1 %Zr). This TM is focused only on the Mo and Ta alloys, since they are of higher concern to the ongoing effort. The initial estimate to complete a Mo-47%Re system ready for testing is =$9,000k over a period of 30 mo. The initial estimate to complete a T-111 or ASTAR-811C system ready for testing is =$12,000k over a period of 36 mo.

  18. Detection of Thrombosis in the Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Circuit by Infrasound: Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Gabriel; Berg, Niclas; Eriksson, Anders; Prahl Wittberg, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    As of today, there exist no reliable, objective methods for early detection of thrombi in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenators (ECMO) system. Within the ECMO system, thrombi are not always fixed to a certain component or location in the circuit. Thus, clot fragments of different shapes and consistencies may circulate and give rise to vibrations and sound generation. By bedside sound measurements and additional laboratory experiments (although not detailed herein), we found that the presence of particles (clots or aggregates and fragments of clots) can be detected by analyzing the strength of infra-sound (< 20 Hz) modes of the spectrum near the inlet and outlet of the centrifugal pump in the ECMO circuit. For the few patients that were considered in this study, no clear false positive or negative examples were found when comparing the spectral approach with clinical observations. A laboratory setup provided insight to the flow in and out of the pump, confirming that in the presence of particles a low-amplitude low-frequency signal is strongly amplified, enabling the identification of a clot. © 2016 The Authors Artificial Organs published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Center for Artificial Organ and Transplantation (ICAOT).

  19. Production of a lipolytic enzyme originating from Bacillus halodurans LBB2 in the methylogrophic yeast Pichia pastoria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramchuran, SO

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A gene encoding a lipolytic enzyme amplified from the alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans LBB2 was cloned into the pPICZaB vector and integrated into the genome of the protease deficient yeast strain Pichia pastoris SMD1168H. This previously...

  20. Integrated Circuit Conception: A Wire Optimization Technic Reducing Interconnection Delay in Advanced Technology Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Darmi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As we increasingly use advanced technology nodes to design integrated circuits (ICs, physical designers and electronic design automation (EDA providers are facing multiple challenges, firstly, to honor all physical constraints coming with cutting-edge technologies and, secondly, to achieve expected quality of results (QoR. An advanced technology should be able to bring better performances with minimum cost whatever the complexity. A high effort to develop out-of-the-box optimization techniques is more than needed. In this paper, we will introduce a new routing technique, with the objective to optimize timing, by only acting on routing topology, and without impacting the IC Area. In fact, the self-aligned double patterning (SADP technology offers an important difference on layer resistance between SADP and No-SADP layers; this property will be taken as an advantage to drive the global router to use No-SADP less resistive layers for critical nets. To prove the benefit on real test cases, we will use Mentor Graphics’ physical design EDA tool Nitro-SoC™ and several 7 nm technology node designs. The experiments show that worst negative slack (WNS and total negative slack (TNS improved up to 13% and 56%, respectively, compared to the baseline flow.

  1. A Fast-Processing Modulation Strategy for Three-Phase Four-Leg Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter Based on the Circuit-Level Decoupling Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishy, Hoda; Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a modulation strategy based on the circuit-level decoupling concept is proposed and investigated for the three-level four-leg neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter,with the aim of delivering power to all sorts of loads, linear/nonlinear and balanced/unbalanced. By applying the propo......In this paper, a modulation strategy based on the circuit-level decoupling concept is proposed and investigated for the three-level four-leg neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter,with the aim of delivering power to all sorts of loads, linear/nonlinear and balanced/unbalanced. By applying...

  2. Fatigue flaw growth assessment and inclusion of stratification to the LBB assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samohyl, P.

    1997-04-01

    The application of the LBB requires also fatigue flaw growth assessment. This analysis was performed for PWR nuclear power plants types VVER 440/230, VVER 440/213c, VVER 1000/320. Respecting that these NPP`s were designed according to Russian codes that differ from US codes it was needed to compare these approaches. Comparison with our experimental data was accomplished, too. Margins of applicability of the US methods and their modifications for the materials used for construction of Czech and Slovak NPP`s are shown. Computer code accomplishing the analysis according to described method is presented. Some measurement and calculations show that thermal stratifications in horizontal pipelines can lead to additive loads that are not negligible and can be dangerous. An attempt to include these loads induced by steady-state stratification was made.

  3. The nature thickness pipe element testing method to validate the application of LBB conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilchenko, G.S.; Artemyev, V.I.; Merinov, G.N. [and others

    1997-04-01

    To validate the application of leak before break analysis to the VVER-1000 reactor, a procedure for testing a large-scale specimen on electrohydraulic machinery was developed. Steel pipe with a circular weld and stainless cladding inside was manufactured and large-scale longitudinal cross-sections were cut. The remaining parts of the weld after cut out were used to determination standard tensile mechanical properties, critical temperature of brittlness and for manufacture of compact specimens. Experimental mechanical properties of the weld are summarized.

  4. TACIS 91: Application of leak-before-break concept in VVER 440-230

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholome, G.; Faidy, C.; Franco, C. [and others

    1997-04-01

    The applicability of the leak-before-break (LBB) concept for primary piping in the first generation of WWER type plants in Russia is investigated. The procedures for LBB behavior used in France and Germany are applied, and the evaluation is discussed within the framework of the European Technical Assistance for the Community of Independent States (TACIS) project. Emphasis is placed on experimental validation of national and international engineering practice for evaluating and optimizing existing installations. Design criteria of WWER plants are compared to western standard design.

  5. Upgrade of the Quench Protection Systems for the Superconducting Circuits of the LHC Machine at CERN: From Concept and Design to the First Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Formenti, F; Coelingh, G J; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Denz, R; Honma, A; Ravaioli, E; Schmidt, R; Siemko, A; Steckert, J; Feher, S; Flora, R H; Pfeffer, H

    2010-01-01

    Two events, occurring in 2008 during commissioning of the LHC circuits, lead to fundamental changes to the scope of circuit protection. The discovery of aperturesymmetric quenches and the accidental rupture at 9 kA of an interconnecting busbar resulted in an emergency program for development and implementation of new protection facilities. The new scheme comprises a distributed busbar supervision system with early warning capabilities based on high-precision splice resistance measurements and system interlocks for rapid deexcitation of the circuit in case of sudden splice resistance increase. The developed symmetric quench detectors are digital systems with radiation-resistant FPGA logic controllers, having magnet heater firing capabilities. This program successfully allowed a safe re-powering of the collider. The concept of the new electronics boards and the powering modules will be described. More than 14600 extra cables and 6000 new detector and control cards were added to the existing Quench Protection Sy...

  6. The circuit designer's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Tim

    1991-01-01

    The Circuit Designer's Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are foll

  7. A simplified LBB evaluation procedure for austenitic and ferritic steel piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, R.M.; Wichman, K.R.

    1997-04-01

    The NRC previously has approved application of LBB analysis as a means to demonstrate that the probability of pipe rupture was extremely low so that dynamic loads associated with postulated pipe break could be excluded from the design basis (1). The purpose of this work was to: (1) define simplified procedures that can be used by the NRC to compute allowable lengths for circumferential throughwall cracks and assess margin against pipe fracture, and (2) verify the accuracy of the simplified procedures by comparison with available experimental data for piping having circumferential throughwall flaws. The development of the procedures was performed using techniques similar to those employed to develop ASME Code flaw evaluation procedures. The procedures described in this report are applicable to pipe and pipe fittings with: (1) wrought austenitic steel (Ni-Cr-Fe alloy) having a specified minimum yield strength less than 45 ksi, and gas metal-arc, submerged arc and shielded metal-arc austentic welds, and (2) seamless or welded wrought carbon steel having a minimum yield strength not greater than 40 ksi, and associated weld materials. The procedures can be used for cast austenitic steel when adequate information is available to place the cast material toughness into one of the categories identified later in this report for austenitic wrought and weld materials.

  8. A physical method to incorporate parasitic elements in a circuit simulator based on the partial inductance concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenblij, B.H.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    In switching Power Electronics circuits inductive parasitics of wiring and components contribute substantially to the current and voltage waveforms. This article addresses the theoretical basis as well as the implementation and validation of the incorporation of these inductances in a computerised

  9. Développement des méthodes de stabilisation pour la conception des circuits hyperfréquences : application à l'optimisation d'un amplificateur de puissance spatial

    OpenAIRE

    Ayllón Rozas, Natanael

    2011-01-01

    209 p. : graf. [fre]Eviter toute oscillation non désirée est une question majeure pour la conception optimale de tout type de circuits hyperfréquences. Ceci est d'autant plus critique en technologie MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) car le réglage ultérieur est impossible. Des nombreux travaux ont concerné cet aspect critique pendant la phase de la conception de ces circuits. Néanmoins, cette analyse est généralement menée à la fin du processus afin de vérifier, a posteriori, ...

  10. Electric circuits and signals

    CERN Document Server

    Sabah, Nassir H

    2007-01-01

    Circuit Variables and Elements Overview Learning Objectives Electric Current Voltage Electric Power and Energy Assigned Positive Directions Active and Passive Circuit Elements Voltage and Current Sources The Resistor The Capacitor The Inductor Concluding Remarks Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Circuit Connections and Laws Overview Learning Objectives Circuit Terminology Kirchhoff's Laws Voltage Division and Series Connection of Resistors Current Division and Parallel Connection of Resistors D-Y Transformation Source Equivalence and Transformation Reduced-Voltage Supply Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics and Examples on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Analysis of Resistive Circuits Overview Learning Objectives Number of Independent Circuit Equations Node-Voltage Analysis Special Considerations in Node-Voltage Analysis Mesh-Current Analysis Special Conside...

  11. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  12. Conception and test of an integrated circuit (ASIC): application to multiwire chambers and photomultipliers of the GRAAL experience; Conception et test d`un circuit integre (ASIC): application aux chambres multifils et aux photomultiplicateurs de l`experience GRAAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugnet, H.

    1995-11-21

    The nuclear physics project GRAAL (GRenoble Anneau Accelerateur Laser) located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble produces a high energy photon beam with a maximum energy of 1.5 GeV. This gamma beam is obtained by Compton backscattering and can be polarized easily. It permits to probe, in an original way, the structure of the nucleon. The associated detector system includes multiwire proportional chambers and scintillator hodoscopes. A kit of six ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) has been developed and used for the signal processing and data conditioning up to the level of the data acquisition. This integrated electronics can be mounted right on the detectors. Obvious advantages, due to the reduction of the length of the wires and the number of connections, are an improvement of the signal quality and an increase of the reliability. The Wire Processor (WP), ASIC designed and tested during this thesis, treats the signals from the chamber wires and the photomultipliers. In one chip, there are two identical channels permitting the amplification, the amplitude discrimination, the generation of a programmable delay and the writing in a two state memory in case of coincidence with an external strobe signal. The measurement of the multiwire chamber efficiency demonstrates the functioning of the WP, the data conditioning electronics, the data acquisition and the chamber itself. (author). 62 refs., 111 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Meaningful learning of concepts of electric circuits making use of a virtual teaching environment by students of Young and Adult Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliéverson Guerchi Gonzales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a teaching sequence that worked the fundamental concepts of electricity, as the intensity of the electric current, the electrical resistance and the combination of resistors in the Youth and Adult Education. The instructional material used as support of the teaching sequence was a Virtual Teaching Environment (VTE. The Virtual Teaching Environment includes issues related to simple electric circuits and its development is based on the principles of progressive differentiation and integrative reconciliation as proposed by the Meaningful Verbal Learning Theory by David Ausubel. Another milestone of this work is the Conceptual Change Model by Posner and colleagues. In order to evaluate the impact of the proposed teaching sequence on the students’ learning of the subject we made use of qualitative and quantitative analysis. For this goal, two classrooms in the second phase of Education of Young and Adult level were divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group had access to the content through the VTE, while the control group accessed the content in the format of the traditional classroom. Data were collected in three moments: semi-structured clinical interview, test dissertation with real images of the components of simple electrical circuits and test dissertation with symbols usually used in physics to represent the electrical circuit components. All tests were applied before and after instruction. These tests were designed to search for evidence to the promotion of meaningful learning and conceptual change in students’ beliefs. The results, both quantitative and qualitative, indicate a significant difference in the post-tests of the experimental group as compared to the post-tests of the control group which points out to the positive effect of the proposed teaching sequence in to develop meaningful learning by the experimental group.

  14. Measuring circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for measuring circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listings

  15. Oscillator circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for oscillator circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listing

  16. Driver circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Raymond T. (Inventor); Higashi, Stanley T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A driver circuit which has low power requirements, a relatively small number of components and provides flexibility in output voltage setting. The driver circuit comprises, essentially, two portions which are selectively activated by the application of input signals. The output signal is determined by which of the two circuit portions is activated. While each of the two circuit portions operates in a manner similar to silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR), the circuit portions are on only when an input signal is supplied thereto.

  17. Reversible gates and circuits descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracki, Krzystof

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents basic methods of reversible circuit description. To design reversible circuit a set of gates has to be chosen. Most popular libraries are composed of three types of gates so called CNT gates (Control, NOT and Toffoli). The gate indexing method presented in this paper is based on the CNT gates set. It introduces a uniform indexing of the gates used during synthesis process of reversible circuits. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 recalls basic concepts of reversible logic. In Section 2 and 3 a graphical representation of the reversible gates and circuits is described. Section 4 describes proposed uniform NCT gates indexing. The presented gate indexing method provides gate numbering scheme independent of lines number of the designed circuit. The solution for a circuit consisting of smaller number of lines is a subset of solution for a larger circuit.

  18. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-04-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  19. Arithmetic circuits for DSP applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stouraitis, Thanos

    2017-01-01

    Arithmetic Circuits for DSP Applications is a complete resource on arithmetic circuits for digital signal processing (DSP). It covers the key concepts, designs and developments of different types of arithmetic circuits, which can be used for improving the efficiency of implementation of a multitude of DSP applications. Each chapter includes various applications of the respective class of arithmetic circuits along with information on the future scope of research. Written for students, engineers, and researchers in electrical and computer engineering, this comprehensive text offers a clear understanding of different types of arithmetic circuits used for digital signal processing applications. The text includes contributions from noted researchers on a wide range of topics, including a review o circuits used in implementing basic operations like additions and multiplications; distributed arithmetic as a technique for the multiplier-less implementation of inner products for DSP applications; discussions on look ...

  20. Simulated annealing method for electronic circuits design: adaptation and comparison with other optimization methods; La methode du recuit simule pour la conception des circuits electroniques: adaptation et comparaison avec d`autres methodes d`optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthiau, G.

    1995-10-01

    The circuit design problem consists in determining acceptable parameter values (resistors, capacitors, transistors geometries ...) which allow the circuit to meet various user given operational criteria (DC consumption, AC bandwidth, transient times ...). This task is equivalent to a multidimensional and/or multi objective optimization problem: n-variables functions have to be minimized in an hyper-rectangular domain ; equality constraints can be eventually specified. A similar problem consists in fitting component models. In this way, the optimization variables are the model parameters and one aims at minimizing a cost function built on the error between the model response and the data measured on the component. The chosen optimization method for this kind of problem is the simulated annealing method. This method, provided by the combinatorial optimization domain, has been adapted and compared with other global optimization methods for the continuous variables problems. An efficient strategy of variables discretization and a set of complementary stopping criteria have been proposed. The different parameters of the method have been adjusted with analytical functions of which minima are known, classically used in the literature. Our simulated annealing algorithm has been coupled with an open electrical simulator SPICE-PAC of which the modular structure allows the chaining of simulations required by the circuit optimization process. We proposed, for high-dimensional problems, a partitioning technique which ensures proportionality between CPU-time and variables number. To compare our method with others, we have adapted three other methods coming from combinatorial optimization domain - the threshold method, a genetic algorithm and the Tabu search method - The tests have been performed on the same set of test functions and the results allow a first comparison between these methods applied to continuous optimization variables. (Abstract Truncated)

  1. Conception et test des circuits et systèmes numériques à haute fiabilité et sécurité

    OpenAIRE

    Di Natale, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Research activities I carried on after my nomination as Chargé de Recherche deal with the definition of methodologies and tools for the design, the test and the reliability of secure digital circuits and trustworthy manufacturing. More recently, we have started a new research activity on the test of 3D stacked Integrated CIrcuits, based on the use of Through Silicon Vias. Moreover, thanks to the relationships I have maintained after my post-doc in Italy, I have kept on cooperating with Polite...

  2. Uncertainty analysis for probabilistic steam generators tube rupture in LBB applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbec, V.; Pitner, P.; Pages, D. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Research and Development Div.; Riffard, T. [Electricite de France, 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Engineering and Construction Div.; Flesch, B. [Electricite de France, 92 - Paris la Defense (France). Generation and Transmission Div.

    1997-10-01

    Steam Generators (SG) of Pressurized Water Reactors have experienced world wide various types of tube degradations, mainly from stress corrosion cracking; because of this damage, primary-secondary leakage or tube rupture can occur. Safety against the risk of tube rupture is achieved through a combination of periodic in-service inspections (eddy current testing), surveillance of leaks during operation (leak before break concept) and tube plugging. In order to optimize the tube bundle SG maintenance, Electricite de France has developed a specific software named COMPROMIS. The model, based on probabilistic fracture mechanics makes it possible to quantify the influence of in service inspections and maintenance work on the risk of a SG Tube Rupture (SGTR), taking all significant parameters into account as random variables (initial defect size distribution, reliability of non-destructive examinations, crack initiation and propagation, critical sizes, leak before risk of break, etc...). This paper focuses on the leak rate calculation module and presents a sensitivity study of the influence of the leak before break on the conditional failure probability. (author) 8 refs.

  3. LBB in Candu plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozluk, M.J.; Vijay, D.K. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-04-01

    Postulated catastrophic rupture of high-energy piping systems is the fundamental criterion used for the safety design basis of both light and heavy water nuclear generating stations. Historically, the criterion has been applied by assuming a nonmechanistic instantaneous double-ended guillotine rupture of the largest diameter pipes inside of containment. Nonmechanistic, meaning that the assumption of an instantaneous guillotine rupture has not been based on stresses in the pipe, failure mechanisms, toughness of the piping material, nor the dynamics of the ruptured pipe ends as they separate. This postulated instantaneous double-ended guillotine rupture of a pipe was a convenient simplifying assumption that resulted in a conservative accident scenario. This conservative accident scenario has now become entrenched as the design basis accident for: containment design, shutdown system design, emergency fuel cooling systems design, and to establish environmental qualification temperature and pressure conditions. The requirement to address dynamic effects associated with the postulated pipe rupture subsequently evolved. The dynamic effects include: potential missiles, pipe whipping, blowdown jets, and thermal-hydraulic transients. Recent advances in fracture mechanics research have demonstrated that certain pipes under specific conditions cannot crack in ways that result in an instantaneous guillotine rupture. Canadian utilities are now using mechanistic fracture mechanics and leak-before-break assessments on a case-by-case basis, in limited applications, to support licensing cases which seek exemption from the need to consider the various dynamic effects associated with postulated instantaneous catastrophic rupture of high-energy piping systems inside and outside of containment.

  4. Balanced calibration of resonant shunt circuits for piezoelectric vibration control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan; Krenk, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Shunting of piezoelectric transducers and suitable electric circuits constitutes an effective passive approach to resonant vibration damping of structures. Most common design concepts for resonant resistor-inductor (RL) shunt circuits rely on either maximization of the attainable modal damping...

  5. Affective Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to the intersecting streams of goods, people, ideas, and money as they circulate between African migrants and their kin who remain back home. They also show the complex ways that emotions become entangled in these exchanges. Examining how these circuits operate in domains of social life ranging from child fosterage...... to binational marriages, from coming-of-age to healing and religious rituals, the book also registers the tremendous impact of state officials, laws, and policies on migrant experience. Together these essays paint an especially vivid portrait of new forms of kinship at a time of both intense mobility and ever...

  6. LOGIC CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, G.H.; Faught, M.L.

    1963-12-24

    A device for safety rod counting in a nuclear reactor is described. A Wheatstone bridge circuit is adapted to prevent de-energizing the hopper coils of a ball backup system if safety rods, sufficient in total control effect, properly enter the reactor core to effect shut down. A plurality of resistances form one arm of the bridge, each resistance being associated with a particular safety rod and weighted in value according to the control effect of the particular safety rod. Switching means are used to switch each of the resistances in and out of the bridge circuit responsive to the presence of a particular safety rod in its effective position in the reactor core and responsive to the attainment of a predetermined velocity by a particular safety rod enroute to its effective position. The bridge is unbalanced in one direction during normal reactor operation prior to the generation of a scram signal and the switching means and resistances are adapted to unbalance the bridge in the opposite direction if the safety rods produce a predetermined amount of control effect in response to the scram signal. The bridge unbalance reversal is then utilized to prevent the actuation of the ball backup system, or, conversely, a failure of the safety rods to produce the predetermined effect produces no unbalance reversal and the ball backup system is actuated. (AEC)

  7. Coherent-feedback control in nanophotonic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Hideo

    2012-06-01

    The emerging discipline of coherent-feedback quantum control provides core concepts and methods for nanopho- tonic circuit theory, which can be assimilated within modern approaches to computer-aided design. Current research in this area includes the development of software tools to enable a schematic capture workflow for compilation and analysis of quantum stochastic models for nanophotonic circuits, exploration of elementary coherent-feedback circuit motifs, and laboratory demonstrations of quantum nonlinear photonic devices.

  8. Quantum simulations with circuit quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, G.; Solano, E.; Lamata, L.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting circuits have become a leading quantum technology for testing fundamentals of quantum mechanics and for the implementation of advanced quantum information protocols. In this chapter, we revise the basic concepts of circuit network theory and circuit quantum electrodynamics for the sake of digital and analog quantum simulations of quantum field theories, relativistic quantum mechanics, and many-body physics, involving fermions and bosons. Based on recent improvements in scalabi...

  9. Development of CMOS integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, F.; Feller, A.; Greenhouse, J.; Lombardi, T.; Merriam, A.; Noto, R.; Ozga, S.; Pryor, R.; Ramondetta, P.; Smith, A.

    1979-01-01

    Report documents life cycles of two custom CMOS integrated circuits: (1) 4-bit multiplexed register with shift left and shift right capabilities, and (2) dual 4-bit registers. Cycles described include conception as logic diagrams through design, fabrication, testing, and delivery.

  10. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    signal. The control unit comprises a first signal processing unit, a second signal processing unit, and a combiner unit. The first signal processing unit has an output and is supplied with a first carrier signal and an input signal. The second signal processing unit has an output and is supplied...... with a second carrier signal and the input signal. The combiner unit is connected to the first and second signal processing units combining the outputs of the first and the second signal processing units to form a signal representative of the control signal......A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  11. Lateral power transistors in integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Erlbacher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    This book details and compares recent advancements in the development of novel lateral power transistors (LDMOS devices) for integrated circuits in power electronic applications. It includes the state-of-the-art concept of double-acting RESURF topologies.

  12. Effects of Specimen Size and Side-groove on the Results of J-R Fracture Toughness Test for LBB Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Choi, Myung Rak [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young Jin; Park, Heung Bae; Kim, Kyung Su [KEPCO E and C, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    In this study, the effects of specimen size and side-groove on the results of the J-R test for leak-before-break (LBB) evaluation were investigated. A series of J-R tests were conducted at both RT and 316℃, using three different sizes of compact tension (CT) specimens machined from SA508 Gr.1a piping material: 12.7 mm-thick 1T-CT, 25.4 mm-thick 1T-CT, and 25.4 mm-thick 2T-CT with and without side-groove. The results showed that side-grooving reduced the J-R curve for all specimens and the effect of side-grooving was more significant at 316℃ than at RT. As the thickness of the specimens decreased and the width of the specimens increased, the J-R curve slightly decreased at RT but it increased at 316℃. However, the variation in the J-R curve of SA508 Gr.1a with the thickness and width of CT specimen was insignificant.

  13. Analog circuit design designing dynamic circuit response

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This second volume, Designing Dynamic Circuit Response builds upon the first volume Designing Amplifier Circuits by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences.

  14. Analog circuit design designing waveform processing circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The fourth volume in the set Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors.

  15. Design of Nonlinear Circuits : The Linear Time-Varying Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijstermans, F.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Over the last years the ever-growing demand for higher performance has led to much interest in using nonlinear circuit concepts for electronic circuit design. For this we have to deal with analysis and synthesis of dynamic nonlinear circuits. This thesis proposes to handle the nonlinear design

  16. History of Circuit Breakers and Expectations of Japanese Original Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Yoshio; Yoshinaga, Kiyoshi; Yanabu, Satoru

    This paper studies the history of high voltage circuit breaker engineering. Methods of analysis are (1) to collect facts in regard to its development, (2) to review the history in order to find essential factors and (3) to identify its pros and cons from engineering point of view. The amount of electric power consumption has increased and gradually the circuit breaker concept was developed. At first the oil circuit breakers were developed in Europe and the air circuit breaker and vacuum circuit breaker were developed. Finally the SF6gas circuit breakers are developed together with the gas insulated switchgear and what is next? The future research and development policy is also discussed.

  17. Equivalent Quantum Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Quantum algorithms and protocols are often presented as quantum circuits for a better understanding. We give a list of equivalence rules which can help in the analysis and design of quantum circuits. As example applications we study quantum teleportation and dense coding protocols in terms of a simple XOR swapping circuit and give an intuitive picture of a basic gate teleportation circuit.

  18. Laboratory work in teaching basic three-phase electrical circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Bachiller-Soler, Alfonso; Martínez-Lacañina, Pedro José; Monroy-Berjillos, Darío; Gómez Expósito, Antonio (Coordinador)

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory-based teaching proposal for the understanding of three-phase circuits at the undergraduate level of engineering degrees. The practical content of the proposed activities is oriented towards easing the students’ understanding of the main concepts involved in three-phase circuits. The subject of three-phase circuits forms the basis for an elementary undergraduate course on circuit analysis. This work proposes simple and didactic laboratory lessons for the long-...

  19. Universal Quantum Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Bera, Debajyoti; Fenner, Stephen; Green, Frederic; Homer, Steve

    2008-01-01

    We define and construct efficient depth-universal and almost-size-universal quantum circuits. Such circuits can be viewed as general-purpose simulators for central classes of quantum circuits and can be used to capture the computational power of the circuit class being simulated. For depth we construct universal circuits whose depth is the same order as the circuits being simulated. For size, there is a log factor blow-up in the universal circuits constructed here. We prove that this construc...

  20. Circuit analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago, John

    2013-01-01

    Circuits overloaded from electric circuit analysis? Many universities require that students pursuing a degree in electrical or computer engineering take an Electric Circuit Analysis course to determine who will ""make the cut"" and continue in the degree program. Circuit Analysis For Dummies will help these students to better understand electric circuit analysis by presenting the information in an effective and straightforward manner. Circuit Analysis For Dummies gives you clear-cut information about the topics covered in an electric circuit analysis courses to help

  1. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  2. Contribution to the design and realisation of a specific circuit to code the information coming from the calorimeter of the LHC; Contribution a la conception et a la realisation d`un circuit specifique de codage des informations issues du calorimetre d`une experience aupres du LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambert-Hermel, V

    1996-09-19

    LHC (Large Hadron Collider) signals required a sampling system with excess of 16 bit dynamic range and 8 hit precision. The sampling frequency is 40 MHz. The use of a floating point format which fits the precision of the calorimeter is proposed. The dynamic range is divided into 8 positive sub-ranges and 5 negative ones and so a conversion into 8 plus 1 (sign) bits mantissa and 4 bits exponent is proposed. The design is built around three main blocks: a range converter which computes the three exponent bits and the sign, a set of amplifiers controlled by the range converter and a classical 8 bit ADC for the mantissa. The main effort was concentrated on the range converter as this is the most sensitive part o the architecture which sees the whole dynamic range. To minimize the problems of perturbations on the signal and reference lines, we have chosen a fully differential sample and hold, differential latched comparators and the coding logic using the AMS BICMOS 1..2 micron technology. We present the floating point format we use, the converter architecture, the elementary circuits steps of conception, the simulation results, the layout and tests results on prototypes. (author) 17 refs.

  3. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2010-09-01

    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  4. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  5. Nonlinear Circuit Concepts -- An Elementary Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matolyak, J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes equipment and procedures for an experiment using diodes to introduce non-linear electronic devices in a freshman physics laboratory. The experiment involves calculation and plotting of the characteristic-curve and load-line to predict the operating point and compare prediction to experimentally determined values. Background information…

  6. Applied signal processing concepts, circuits, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamdy, Nadder

    2008-01-01

    Introduction What are Signals? Signal parameters Why Signal processing? Analog vs. Digital Signal processing Practical Signal processing Systems Analog Signal Processing Amplitude Shaping Frequency Spectrum Shaping Phase Errors Correction Waveform Generation Analog Filter Design Describing Equations Design Procedures Filter Specifications Approximations to the Ideal Response Realization Practical RC-Filters Design Switched Capacitor Filter Realization Design examples Data Converters Introduction A typical DSP System Specifications of Data Converters Sampling Samp

  7. Integrated cooling concepts for printed circuit boards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems

    2008-01-01

    Thermal management plays an increasingly dominant role in the design process of electronic products. Component sizes decrease while performance and functional demands increase, resulting in more power dissipation on smaller surfaces. In an effort to cope with these growing thermal challenges,

  8. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  9. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  10. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  11. Classical circuit theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wing, Omar

    2008-01-01

    Starting with the basic principles of circuits, this book derives their analytic properties in both the time and frequency domains. It develops an algorithmic method to design common and uncommon types of circuits, such as prototype filters, lumped delay lines, constant phase difference circuits, and delay equalizers.

  12. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  13. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  14. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  15. Exact Threshold Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    with the well-studied corresponding hierarchies defined using ordinary threshold gates. A major open problem in Boolean circuit complexity is to provide an explicit super-polynomial lower bound for depth two threshold circuits. We identify the class of depth two exact threshold circuits as a natural subclass...

  16. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  17. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  18. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  19. Advanced Microwave Circuits and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    as sufficient gain in a wide frequency range of operation, which is very difficult to achieve. Most circuits demonstrated are not stable across the frequency band, which makes these amplifiers prone to self-oscillations and therefore limit their applicability. The trade-off between noise figure, gain, linearity......This book is based on recent research work conducted by the authors dealing with the design and development of active and passive microwave components, integrated circuits and systems. It is divided into seven parts. In the first part comprising the first two chapters, alternative concepts...... and equations for multiport network analysis and characterization are provided. A thru-only de-embedding technique for accurate on-wafer characterization is introduced. The second part of the book corresponds to the analysis and design of ultra-wideband low-noise amplifiers (LNA). The LNA is the most critical...

  20. Smart Circuit Breaker Communication Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Mihai MACHIDON

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the Internet of Things has fostered the development of smart technologies in fields such as power transmission and distribution systems (as is the Smart Grid and also in regard to home automation (the Smart Home concept. This paper addresses the network communication infrastructure for a Smart Circuit Breaker system, a novel application at the edge of the two afore-mentioned systems (Smart Grid and Smart Home. Such a communication interface has high requirements from functionality, performance and security point of views, given the large amount of distributed connected elements and the real-time information transmission and system management. The paper describes the design and implementation of the data server, Web interface and the embedded networking capabilities of the smart circuit breakers, underlining the protocols and communication technologies used.

  1. Can modular psychological concepts like affect and emotion be assigned to a distinct subset of regional neural circuits?. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Herrmann, Manfred

    2015-06-01

    The proposed Quartet Theory of Human Emotions by Koelsch and co-workers [11] adumbrates evidence from various scientific sources to integrate and assign the psychological concepts of 'affect' and 'emotion' to four brain circuits or to four neuronal core systems for affect-processing in the brain. The authors differentiate between affect and emotion and assign several facultative, or to say modular, psychological domains and principles of information processing, such as learning and memory, antecedents of affective activity, emotion satiation, cognitive complexity, subjective quality feelings, degree of conscious appraisal, to different affect systems. Furthermore, they relate orbito-frontal brain structures to moral affects as uniquely human, and the hippocampus to attachment-related affects. An additional feature of the theory describes 'emotional effector-systems' for motor-related processes (e.g., emotion-related actions), physiological arousal, attention and memory that are assumed to be cross-linked with the four proposed affect systems. Thus, higher principles of emotional information processing, but also modular affect-related issues, such as moral and attachment related affects, are thought to be handled by these four different physiological sub-systems that are on the other side assumed to be highly interwoven at both physiological and functional levels. The authors also state that the proposed sub-systems have many features in common, such as the selection and modulation of biological processes related to behaviour, perception, attention and memory. The latter aspect challenges an ongoing discussion about the mind-body problem: To which degree do the proposed sub-systems 'sufficiently' cover the processing of complex modular or facultative emotional/affective and/or cognitive phenomena? There are current models and scientific positions that almost completely reject the idea that modular psychological phenomena are handled by a distinct selection of

  2. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  3. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  4. Principles of transistor circuits introduction to the design of amplifiers, receivers and digital circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, S W

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Transistor Circuits: Sixth Edition discusses the principles, concepts, and practices involved integrated circuits. The current edition includes up-to-date circuits, the section on thyristors has been revised to give more information on modern types, and dated information has been eliminated. The book covers related topics such as semiconductors and junction diodes; the principles behind transistors; and common amplifiers. The book also covers bias and DC stabilization; large-signal and small-signal AF amplifiers; DC and pulse amplifiers; sinusoidal oscillators; pulse and sawtooth

  5. CMOS circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1995-01-01

    CMOS Circuits Manual is a user's guide for CMOS. The book emphasizes the practical aspects of CMOS and provides circuits, tables, and graphs to further relate the fundamentals with the applications. The text first discusses the basic principles and characteristics of the CMOS devices. The succeeding chapters detail the types of CMOS IC, including simple inverter, gate and logic ICs and circuits, and complex counters and decoders. The last chapter presents a miscellaneous collection of two dozen useful CMOS circuits. The book will be useful to researchers and professionals who employ CMOS circu

  6. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  7. Nanoscale Microelectronic Circuit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    Project 3: Low-Power All-Digital Chip-to-Chip Interface Circuits by Pavan Kumar Hanumolu (OSU) CDADIC Project 4: Nanoscale Clock and Data Recovery...CDADIC Project 3: Low-Power All-Digital Chip-to-Chip Interface Circuits by Pavan Kumar Hanumolu (OSU) CDADIC Project 6: Stochastic and Passive A/D...Area 3: Reconfigurable Mixed-Signal Circuits CDADIC Project 3: Low-Power All-Digital Chip-to-Chip Interface Circuits by Pavan Kumar Hanumolu (OSU

  8. Timergenerator circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Timer/Generator Circuits Manual is an 11-chapter text that deals mainly with waveform generator techniques and circuits. Each chapter starts with an explanation of the basic principles of its subject followed by a wide range of practical circuit designs. This work presents a total of over 300 practical circuits, diagrams, and tables.Chapter 1 outlines the basic principles and the different types of generator. Chapters 2 to 9 deal with a specific type of waveform generator, including sine, square, triangular, sawtooth, and special waveform generators pulse. These chapters also include pulse gen

  9. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  10. Security electronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1998-01-01

    Security Electronics Circuits Manual is an invaluable guide for engineers and technicians in the security industry. It will also prove to be a useful guide for students and experimenters, as well as providing experienced amateurs and DIY enthusiasts with numerous ideas to protect their homes, businesses and properties.As with all Ray Marston's Circuits Manuals, the style is easy-to-read and non-mathematical, with the emphasis firmly on practical applications, circuits and design ideas. The ICs and other devices used in the practical circuits are modestly priced and readily available ty

  11. MOS integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfendale, E

    2013-01-01

    MOS Integral Circuit Design aims to help in the design of integrated circuits, especially large-scale ones, using MOS Technology through teaching of techniques, practical applications, and examples. The book covers topics such as design equation and process parameters; MOS static and dynamic circuits; logic design techniques, system partitioning, and layout techniques. Also featured are computer aids such as logic simulation and mask layout, as well as examples on simple MOS design. The text is recommended for electrical engineers who would like to know how to use MOS for integral circuit desi

  12. Standards for compatibility of printed circuit and component lead materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Study of packaging of microminiature electronic components reveals methods of improving compatibility of lead materials, joining techniques, transfer molding concepts, printed circuit board materials, and process and material specifications.

  13. Electrical Circuits in the Mathematics/Computer Science Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    Shows how, with little or no electrical background, students can apply Boolean algebra concepts to design and build integrated electrical circuits in the classroom that will reinforce important ideas in mathematics. (PK)

  14. Ultra-Low-Energy Sub-Threshold Circuits: Program Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chandrakasan, Anantha

    2007-01-01

    .... This concept was demonstrated with a UWB baseband processor. We have developed a DC-DC converter to efficiently deliver sub-threshold voltage and minimize the power dissipation of an arbitrary digital circuit...

  15. Offset cancelling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Remco J.; Seevinck, Evert; de Jager, Wim

    1989-01-01

    A monolithic offset cancelling circuit to reduce the offset voltage at an integrated audio-amplifier output is described. This offset voltage is detected using a low-pass filter with a very large time constant for which only one small on-chip capacitor is needed. The circuit was realized with a

  16. Synchronizing Hyperchaotic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamasevicius, Arunas; Cenys, Antanas; Namajunas, Audrius

    1997-01-01

    Regarding possible applications to secure communications the technique of synchronizing hyperchaotic circuits with a single dynamical variable is discussed. Several specific examples including the fourth-order circuits with two positive Lyapunov exponents as well as the oscillator with a delay line...

  17. A Virtual Circuits Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    The University of Colorado's Physics Education Technology (PhET) website offers free, high-quality simulations of many physics experiments that can be used in the classroom. The Circuit Construction Kit, for example, allows students to safely and constructively play with circuit components while learning the mathematics behind many circuit…

  18. CMOS analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Phillip E

    1987-01-01

    This text presents the principles and techniques for designing analog circuits to be implemented in a CMOS technology. The level is appropriate for seniors and graduate students familiar with basic electronics, including biasing, modeling, circuit analysis, and some familiarity with frequency response. Students learn the methodology of analog integrated circuit design through a hierarchically-oriented approach to the subject that provides thorough background and practical guidance for designing CMOS analog circuits, including modeling, simulation, and testing. The authors' vast industrial experience and knowledge is reflected in the circuits, techniques, and principles presented. They even identify the many common pitfalls that lie in the path of the beginning designer--expert advice from veteran designers. The text mixes the academic and practical viewpoints in a treatment that is neither superficial nor overly detailed, providing the perfect balance.

  19. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  20. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-12-22

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  1. Data readout system utilizing photonic integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopiński, S., E-mail: S.Stopinski@tue.nl [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2013-10-11

    We describe a novel optical solution for data readout systems. The core of the system is an Indium-Phosphide photonic integrated circuit performing as a front-end readout unit. It functions as an optical serializer in which the serialization of the input signal is provided by means of on-chip optical delay lines. The circuit employs electro-optic phase shifters to build amplitude modulators, power splitters for signal distribution, semiconductor optical amplifiers for signal amplification as well as on-chip reflectors. We present the concept of the system, the design and first characterization results of the devices that were fabricated in a multi-project wafer run.

  2. Associative Pattern Recognition In Analog VLSI Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1995-01-01

    Winner-take-all circuit selects best-match stored pattern. Prototype cascadable very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit chips built and tested to demonstrate concept of electronic associative pattern recognition. Based on low-power, sub-threshold analog complementary oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) VLSI circuitry, each chip can store 128 sets (vectors) of 16 analog values (vector components), vectors representing known patterns as diverse as spectra, histograms, graphs, or brightnesses of pixels in images. Chips exploit parallel nature of vector quantization architecture to implement highly parallel processing in relatively simple computational cells. Through collective action, cells classify input pattern in fraction of microsecond while consuming power of few microwatts.

  3. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  4. Circuit analysis with Multisim

    CERN Document Server

    Baez-Lopez, David

    2011-01-01

    This book is concerned with circuit simulation using National Instruments Multisim. It focuses on the use and comprehension of the working techniques for electrical and electronic circuit simulation. The first chapters are devoted to basic circuit analysis.It starts by describing in detail how to perform a DC analysis using only resistors and independent and controlled sources. Then, it introduces capacitors and inductors to make a transient analysis. In the case of transient analysis, it is possible to have an initial condition either in the capacitor voltage or in the inductor current, or bo

  5. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronics Circuits Manual covers the basic principles and characteristics of the best known types of optoelectronic devices, as well as the practical applications of many of these optoelectronic devices. The book describes LED display circuits and LED dot- and bar-graph circuits and discusses the applications of seven-segment displays, light-sensitive devices, optocouplers, and a variety of brightness control techniques. The text also tackles infrared light-beam alarms and multichannel remote control systems. The book provides practical user information and circuitry and illustrations.

  6. Plasmonic Nanoguides and Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Modern communication systems dealing with huge amounts of data at ever increasing speed try to utilize the best aspects of electronic and optical circuits. Electronic circuits are tiny but their operation speed is limited, whereas optical circuits are extremely fast but their sizes are limited by diffraction. Waveguide components utilizing surface plasmon (SP) modes were found to combine the huge optical bandwidth and compactness of electronics, and plasmonics thereby began to be considered as the next chip-scale technology. In this book, the authors concentrate on the SP waveguide configurati

  7. Modern TTL circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Modern TTL Circuits Manual provides an introduction to the basic principles of Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). This book outlines the major features of the 74 series of integrated circuits (ICs) and introduces the various sub-groups of the TTL family.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basics of digital ICs. This text then examines the symbology and mathematics of digital logic. Other chapters consider a variety of topics, including waveform generator circuitry, clocked flip-flop and counter circuits, special counter/dividers, registers, data latches, com

  8. On the SCTC-OCTC Method for the Analysis and Design of Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, S.; Conte, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses guidelines that emphasize the relevance of short-circuit- and open-circuit-time constant (SCTC and OCTC, respectively) methods in the analysis and design of electronic amplifiers. It is demonstrated that it is only necessary to grasp a few concepts in order to understand that the two short- and open-circuit cases fall into a…

  9. Quantum circuits for cryptanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amento, Brittanney Jaclyn

    Finite fields of the form F2 m play an important role in coding theory and cryptography. We show that the choice of how to represent the elements of these fields can have a significant impact on the resource requirements for quantum arithmetic. In particular, we show how the Gaussian normal basis representations and "ghost-bit basis" representations can be used to implement inverters with a quantum circuit of depth O(mlog(m)). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first construction with subquadratic depth reported in the literature. Our quantum circuit for the computation of multiplicative inverses is based on the Itoh-Tsujii algorithm which exploits the property that, in a normal basis representation, squaring corresponds to a permutation of the coefficients. We give resource estimates for the resulting quantum circuit for inversion over binary fields F2 m based on an elementary gate set that is useful for fault-tolerant implementation. Elliptic curves over finite fields F2 m play a prominent role in modern cryptography. Published quantum algorithms dealing with such curves build on a short Weierstrass form in combination with affine or projective coordinates. In this thesis we show that changing the curve representation allows a substantial reduction in the number of T-gates needed to implement the curve arithmetic. As a tool, we present a quantum circuit for computing multiplicative inverses in F2m in depth O(m log m) using a polynomial basis representation, which may be of independent interest. Finally, we change our focus from the design of circuits which aim at attacking computational assumptions on asymmetric cryptographic algorithms to the design of a circuit attacking a symmetric cryptographic algorithm. We consider a block cipher, SERPENT, and our design of a quantum circuit implementing this cipher to be used for a key attack using Grover's algorithm as in [18]. This quantum circuit is essential for understanding the complexity of Grover's algorithm.

  10. Color Coding of Circuit Quantities in Introductory Circuit Analysis Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Johnson, Amy M.; Reisslein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Learning the analysis of electrical circuits represented by circuit diagrams is often challenging for novice students. An open research question in electrical circuit analysis instruction is whether color coding of the mathematical symbols (variables) that denote electrical quantities can improve circuit analysis learning. The present study…

  11. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  12. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  13. Vibration Damping Circuit Card Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Ronald Allen (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vibration damping circuit card assembly includes a populated circuit card having a mass M. A closed metal container is coupled to a surface of the populated circuit card at approximately a geometric center of the populated circuit card. Tungsten balls fill approximately 90% of the metal container with a collective mass of the tungsten balls being approximately (0.07) M.

  14. Financial-real side interactions in the monetary circuit: loving or dangerous hugs?

    OpenAIRE

    Botta, Alberto; Caverzasi, Eugenio; Tori, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Monetary circuit theory is one of the most known attempts to formally describe the functioning of a monetary production economy as centered around the concept of flux-reflux of money. Endogenous money creation by commercial banks allows the circuit to open and firms to implement production processes. Financial markets ‘passively’ close the circuit by intermediating savings via bond and equity issuance. Despite its natural focus on financial-real side links, the monetary circuit literature has...

  15. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  16. An effective thermal circuit model for electro-thermal simulation of SOI analog circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-C.; Zhang, Kun

    2011-08-01

    A physics-based thermal circuit model is developed for electro-thermal simulation of SOI analog circuits. The circuit model integrates a non-isothermal device thermal circuit with interconnect thermal networks and is validated with high accuracy against finite element simulations in different layout structures. The non-isothermal circuit model is implemented in BSIMSOI to account for self-heating effect (SHE) in a Spice simulator, and applied to electro-thermal simulation of an SOI cascode current mirror constructed using different layouts. Effects of layout design on electric and thermal behaviors are investigated in detail. Influences of BOX thickness are also examined. It has been shown that the proposed non-isothermal approach is able to effectively account for influences of layout design, self-heating, high temperature gradients along the islands, interconnect temperature distributions, thermal coupling, and heat losses via BOX and interconnects, etc., in SOI current mirror structures. The model provides basic concepts and thermal circuits that can be extended to develop an effective model for electro-thermal simulation of SOI analog ICs.

  17. Offset cancelling circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegerink, Remco J.; Seevinck, Evert; de Jager, Wim

    1989-01-01

    A monolithic offset cancelling circuit to reduce the offset voltage at an integrated audio-amplifier output is described. This offset voltage is detected using a low-pass filter with a very large time constant for which only one small on-chip capacitor is needed. The circuit was realized with a bipolar cell-based semicustom array. Measurements have shown that a -3-dB bandwidth below 5 Hz can be realized with a capacitor value of 50 pF. The resulting offset voltage at the audio-amplifier outpu...

  18. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  19. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  20. Electrical Circuit Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Frank

    2006-04-18

    An electrical circuit testing device is provided, comprising a case, a digital voltage level testing circuit with a display means, a switch to initiate measurement using the device, a non-shorting switching means for selecting pre-determined electrical wiring configurations to be tested in an outlet, a terminal block, a five-pole electrical plug mounted on the case surface and a set of adapters that can be used for various multiple-pronged electrical outlet configurations for voltages from 100 600 VAC from 50 100 Hz.

  1. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  2. Principles of transistor circuits introduction to the design of amplifiers, receivers and digital circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, S W

    1990-01-01

    Principles of Transistor Circuits, Seventh Edition discusses the fundamental concepts of transistor circuits. The book is comprised of 16 chapters that cover amplifiers, oscillators, and generators. Chapter 1 discusses semiconductors and junction nodes, while Chapter 2 covers the basic principles of transistors. The subsequent chapters focus on amplifiers, where one of the chapters discusses bias and D.C. The book also talks about sinusoidal oscillators and covers modulators, demodulators, mixers, and receivers. Chapters 13 and 14 discuss pulse generators and sawtooth generators, respectively.

  3. Microwave RF antennas and circuits nonlinearity applications in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Aluf, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a new concept for analyzing RF/microwave circuits, which includes RF/microwave antennas. The book is unique in its emphasis on practical and innovative microwave RF engineering applications. The analysis is based on nonlinear dynamics and chaos models and shows comprehensive benefits and results. All conceptual RF microwave circuits and antennas are innovative and can be broadly implemented in engineering applications. Given the dynamics of RF microwave circuits and antennas, they are suitable for use in a broad range of applications. The book presents analytical methods for microwave RF antennas and circuit analysis, concrete examples, and geometric examples. The analysis is developed systematically, starting with basic differential equations and their bifurcations, and subsequently moving on to fixed point analysis, limit cycles and their bifurcations. Engineering applications include microwave RF circuits and antennas in a variety of topological structures, RFID ICs and antennas, micros...

  4. Power amplifier circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takeya, Hideaki; Nauta, Bram

    2015-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a power amplifier circuit which has high power efficiency while suppressing a fluctuation of output power relatively to a fluctuation of a power supply voltage in a high-efficiency switching amplifier which operates in a radio frequency band.SOLUTION: A duty ratio

  5. "Printed-circuit" rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Rectifying antenna is less bulky structure for absorbing transmitted microwave power and converting it into electrical current. Printed-circuit approach, using microstrip technology and circularly polarized antenna, makes polarization orientation unimportant and allows much smaller arrays for given performance. Innovation is particularly useful with proposed electric vehicles powered by beam microwaves.

  6. Superconducting Quantum Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majer, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes a number of experiments with superconducting cir- cuits containing small Josephson junctions. The circuits are made out of aluminum islands which are interconnected with a very thin insulating alu- minum oxide layer. The connections form a Josephson junction. The current trough

  7. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  8. Computational design of synthetic gene circuits with composable parts

    OpenAIRE

    Marchisio, M A; Stelling, J.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: In principle, novel genetic circuits can be engineered using standard parts with well-understood functionalities. However, no model based on the simple composition of these parts has become a standard, mainly because it is difficult to define signal exchanges between biological units as unambiguously as in electrical engineering. Corresponding concepts and computational tools for easy circuit design in biology are missing. Results: Taking inspiration from (and slightly modifying) ...

  9. Reducing energy with asynchronous circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas Barragan, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Reducing energy consumption using asynchronous circuits. The elastic clocks approach has been implemented along with a closed-feedback loop in order to achieve a lower energy consumption along with more reliability in integrated circuits.

  10. Diode, transistor & fet circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Diode, Transistor and FET Circuits Manual is a handbook of circuits based on discrete semiconductor components such as diodes, transistors, and FETS. The book also includes diagrams and practical circuits. The book describes basic and special diode characteristics, heat wave-rectifier circuits, transformers, filter capacitors, and rectifier ratings. The text also presents practical applications of associated devices, for example, zeners, varicaps, photodiodes, or LEDs, as well as it describes bipolar transistor characteristics. The transistor can be used in three basic amplifier configuration

  11. Circuit Bodging : Atari Punk Console

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, B.

    2009-01-01

    Circuit bodging is back! Maxwell is proud to present small, simple, but ultimately lovable little circuits to build for your own, personal pleasure. In this edition we are featuring: The Atari Punk Console. The Atari Punk Console (or APC) is a 555 timer IC based noise maker circuit. The original was

  12. Synthetic in vitro transcription circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Maximilian; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2012-01-01

    With the help of only two enzymes--an RNA polymerase and a ribonuclease--reduced versions of transcriptional regulatory circuits can be implemented in vitro. These circuits enable the emulation of naturally occurring biochemical networks, the exploration of biological circuit design principles and the biochemical implementation of powerful computational models.

  13. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  14. Quantum-circuit refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kuan Yen; Partanen, Matti; Lake, Russell E.; Govenius, Joonas; Masuda, Shumpei; Möttönen, Mikko

    2017-05-01

    Quantum technology promises revolutionizing applications in information processing, communications, sensing and modelling. However, efficient on-demand cooling of the functional quantum degrees of freedom remains challenging in many solid-state implementations, such as superconducting circuits. Here we demonstrate direct cooling of a superconducting resonator mode using voltage-controllable electron tunnelling in a nanoscale refrigerator. This result is revealed by a decreased electron temperature at a resonator-coupled probe resistor, even for an elevated electron temperature at the refrigerator. Our conclusions are verified by control experiments and by a good quantitative agreement between theory and experimental observations at various operation voltages and bath temperatures. In the future, we aim to remove spurious dissipation introduced by our refrigerator and to decrease the operational temperature. Such an ideal quantum-circuit refrigerator has potential applications in the initialization of quantum electric devices. In the superconducting quantum computer, for example, fast and accurate reset of the quantum memory is needed.

  15. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  16. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  17. Quantum-circuit refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kuan Yen; Partanen, Matti; Lake, Russell E.; Govenius, Joonas; Masuda, Shumpei; Möttönen, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Quantum technology promises revolutionizing applications in information processing, communications, sensing and modelling. However, efficient on-demand cooling of the functional quantum degrees of freedom remains challenging in many solid-state implementations, such as superconducting circuits. Here we demonstrate direct cooling of a superconducting resonator mode using voltage-controllable electron tunnelling in a nanoscale refrigerator. This result is revealed by a decreased electron temperature at a resonator-coupled probe resistor, even for an elevated electron temperature at the refrigerator. Our conclusions are verified by control experiments and by a good quantitative agreement between theory and experimental observations at various operation voltages and bath temperatures. In the future, we aim to remove spurious dissipation introduced by our refrigerator and to decrease the operational temperature. Such an ideal quantum-circuit refrigerator has potential applications in the initialization of quantum electric devices. In the superconducting quantum computer, for example, fast and accurate reset of the quantum memory is needed. PMID:28480900

  18. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  19. Cartography of serotonergic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparta, Dennis R; Stuber, Garret D

    2014-08-06

    Serotonin is an essential neuromodulator, but the precise circuit connectivity that regulates serotonergic neurons has not been well defined. Using rabies virus tracing strategies Weissbourd et al. (2014) and Pollak Dorocic et al. (2014) in this issue of Neuron and Ogawa et al. (2014) in Cell Reports provide a comprehensive map of the inputs to serotonergic neurons, highlighting the complexity and diversity of potential upstream cellular regulators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of an Early Three Phase Approach to Electric Circuit Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Turner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to the study of electric circuits: utilizing three phase electric power systems to introduce students to the techniques of circuit analysis beyond Kirchhoff’s and Ohm’s Laws. The efficacy of the pedagogy is evaluated by comparison of student performance on DC circuits assessment quiz pre and post intervention and by comparison to circuit analysis methods used by experts. Also discusses is how the curriculum effects students qualitative and quantitative conceptions of the behavior of voltage and current in DC resistive circuits.

  1. The brain's shared circuits of interpersonal understanding: implications for psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pally, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Social Neuroscience maintains that human survival depends on interpersonal relations, and that shared circuits evolved to enhance our ability to interact with and understand other people. Shared circuits operate by re-creating the Other’s experience in the same brain regions used for Self experience. The interpersonal understanding made possible by shared circuits is, for the most part, outside conscious awareness and plays a role in the transference-counter transference interaction. The brain mechanisms of shared circuits are presented and clinical vignettes illustrate the use of the concept of shared circuits in the clinical setting.

  2. Changes to the shuttle circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    To fit with passengers expectation, there will be some changes to the shuttle circuits as from Monday 10 October. See details on http://cern.ch/ShuttleService (on line on 7 October). Circuit No. 5 is cancelled as circuit No. 1 also stops at Bldg. 33. In order to guarantee shorter travel times, circuit No. 1 will circulate on Meyrin site only and circuit No. 2, with departures from Bldg. 33 and 500, on Prévessin site only. Site Services Section

  3. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  4. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1999-01-01

    This manual is a useful single-volume guide specifically aimed at the practical design engineer, technician, and experimenter, as well as the electronics student and amateur. It deals with the subject in an easy to read, down to earth, and non-mathematical yet comprehensive manner, explaining the basic principles and characteristics of the best known devices, and presenting the reader with many practical applications and over 200 circuits. Most of the ICs and other devices used are inexpensive and readily available types, with universally recognised type numbers.The second edition

  5. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  6. Integrated circuit cell library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    According to the invention, an ASIC cell library for use in creation of custom integrated circuits is disclosed. The ASIC cell library includes some first cells and some second cells. Each of the second cells includes two or more kernel cells. The ASIC cell library is at least 5% comprised of second cells. In various embodiments, the ASIC cell library could be 10% or more, 20% or more, 30% or more, 40% or more, 50% or more, 60% or more, 70% or more, 80% or more, 90% or more, or 95% or more comprised of second cells.

  7. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  8. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  9. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  10. Electric circuits problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of electric circuits currently av

  11. Digital Optical Circuit Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    avait donc pour but de dresser un bilan des recherches; et des raisations intiEressant la technologie des circuits optiques et d󈨁udier leurs...experiment. 3. EXPERIMENTAL WAVEGUIDE DEVICE Experiments were performed using carbon disulphide, CS2 , as the nonlinear medium. CS2 has a high non- linear...x 1.60- 1.595- S1.590 15514 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Temperature (I C) FIGURE 5 REFRACTIVE INDEX OF CARBON DISULPHIDE AT 1 .O6um AS A FUNCTION OF

  12. Digital Optical Circuit Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, B. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Proceedings for the 48th Meeting of the AGARD Avionics Panel contain the 18 papers presented a Technical Evaluation Report, and discussions that followed the presentations of papers. Seven papers were presented in the session devoted to optical bistability. Optical logic was addressed by three papers. The session on sources, modulators and demodulators presented three papers. Five papers were given in the final session on all optical systems. The purpose of this Specialists' Meeting was to present the research and development status of digital optical circuit technology and to examine its relevance in the broad context of digital processing, communication, radar, avionics and flight control systems implementation.

  13. Optically controllable molecular logic circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Takahiro, E-mail: t-nishimura@ist.osaka-u.ac.jp; Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, 1-5 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-06

    Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals.

  14. Reconfigurable CPLAG and Modified PFAL Adiabatic Logic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, authors have proposed CPLAG and MCPLAG circuits extracting benefits of CPL family implemented based upon semiadiabatic logic for low power VLSI circuit design along with gating concept. Also authors have communicated RCPLAG circuits adding another dimension of reconfigurability into CPLAG/MCPLAG circuits. Moving ahead, in this paper, authors have implemented/reconfigured RCPLAG universal Nand/And gate and universal Nor/Or gate for extracting behavior of dynamic positive edge triggered DFF. Authors have also implemented Adder/Subtractor circuit using different techniques. Authors have also reported modification in PFAL semiadiabatic circuit family to further reduce the power dissipation. Functionality of these is verified and found to be satisfactory. Further these are examined rigorously with voltage, Cload, temperature, and transistor size variation. Performance of these is examined with these variations with power dissipation, delays, rise, and fall times associated. From the analysis it is found that best operating condition for DFF based upon RCPLAG universal gate can be achieved at supply voltage lower than 3 V which can be used for different transistor size up to 36 μm. Average power dissipation is 0.2 μW at 1 V and 30 μW at 2 V at 100 ff Cload 25°C approximately. Average power dissipated by CPLAG Adder/Subtractot is 58 μW. Modified PFAL circuit reduces average power by 9% approximately.

  15. ZKBoo: Faster Zero-Knowledge for Boolean Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomelli, Irene; Madsen, Jesper; Orlandi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe ZKBoo, a proposal for practically efficient zero-knowledge arguments especially tailored for Boolean circuits and report on a proof-of- concept implementation. As an highlight, we can generate (resp. verify) a non-interactive proof for the SHA-1 circuit in approximately 13...... variants of IKOS, which highlights their pros and cons for practically rele- vant soundness parameters; ◦ A generalization and simplification of their approach, which leads to faster Σ-protocols (that can be made non-interactive using the Fiat-Shamir heuristic) for state- ments of the form “I know x...... such that y = φ (x)” (where φ is a circuit and y a public value); ◦ A case study, where we provide explicit protocols, implementations and benchmarking of zero-knowledge protocols for the SHA-1 and SHA-256 circuits....

  16. Noise in biological circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael L; Cox, Chris D; Allen, Michael S; McCollum, James M; Dar, Roy D; Karig, David K; Cooke, John F

    2009-01-01

    Noise biology focuses on the sources, processing, and biological consequences of the inherent stochastic fluctuations in molecular transitions or interactions that control cellular behavior. These fluctuations are especially pronounced in small systems where the magnitudes of the fluctuations approach or exceed the mean value of the molecular population. Noise biology is an essential component of nanomedicine where the communication of information is across a boundary that separates small synthetic and biological systems that are bound by their size to reside in environments of large fluctuations. Here we review the fundamentals of the computational, analytical, and experimental approaches to noise biology. We review results that show that the competition between the benefits of low noise and those of low population has resulted in the evolution of genetic system architectures that produce an uneven distribution of stochasticity across the molecular components of cells and, in some cases, use noise to drive biological function. We review the exact and approximate approaches to gene circuit noise analysis and simulation, and review many of the key experimental results obtained using flow cytometry and time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. In addition, we consider the probative value of noise with a discussion of using measured noise properties to elucidate the structure and function of the underlying gene circuit. We conclude with a discussion of the frontiers of and significant future challenges for noise biology. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Integrated circuit cooled turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Um, Jae Y.; Holloman, Harry; Koester, Steven

    2017-08-29

    A turbine rotor blade includes at least two integrated cooling circuits that are formed within the blade that include a leading edge circuit having a first cavity and a second cavity and a trailing edge circuit that includes at least a third cavity located aft of the second cavity. The trailing edge circuit flows aft with at least two substantially 180-degree turns at the tip end and the root end of the blade providing at least a penultimate cavity and a last cavity. The last cavity is located along a trailing edge of the blade. A tip axial cooling channel connects to the first cavity of the leading edge circuit and the penultimate cavity of the trailing edge circuit. At least one crossover hole connects the penultimate cavity to the last cavity substantially near the tip end of the blade.

  18. Automated Design of Quantum Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin P.; Gray, Alexander G.

    2000-01-01

    In order to design a quantum circuit that performs a desired quantum computation, it is necessary to find a decomposition of the unitary matrix that represents that computation in terms of a sequence of quantum gate operations. To date, such designs have either been found by hand or by exhaustive enumeration of all possible circuit topologies. In this paper we propose an automated approach to quantum circuit design using search heuristics based on principles abstracted from evolutionary genetics, i.e. using a genetic programming algorithm adapted specially for this problem. We demonstrate the method on the task of discovering quantum circuit designs for quantum teleportation. We show that to find a given known circuit design (one which was hand-crafted by a human), the method considers roughly an order of magnitude fewer designs than naive enumeration. In addition, the method finds novel circuit designs superior to those previously known.

  19. Thermoelectricity from wasted heat of integrated circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2012-05-22

    We demonstrate that waste heat from integrated circuits especially computer microprocessors can be recycled as valuable electricity to power up a portion of the circuitry or other important accessories such as on-chip cooling modules, etc. This gives a positive spin to a negative effect of ever increasing heat dissipation associated with increased power consumption aligned with shrinking down trend of transistor dimension. This concept can also be used as an important vehicle for self-powered systemson- chip. We provide theoretical analysis supported by simulation data followed by experimental verification of on-chip thermoelectricity generation from dissipated (otherwise wasted) heat of a microprocessor.

  20. Continuous computation in engineered gene circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Amos, Martyn

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of representation and measurement in genetic circuits, and investigate how they can affect the reliability of engineered systems. We propose a design scheme, based on the notion of continuous computation, which addresses these issues. We illustrate the methodology by showing how a concept from computer architecture (namely, branch prediction) may be implemented in vivo, using a distributed approach. Simulation results confirm the in-principle feasibility of our method, and offer valuable insights into its future laboratory validation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optoisolation circuits nonlinearity applications in engineering : optoisolation nonlinear dynamics and chaos, application in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Aluf, Ofer

    2012-01-01

    This book describes a new concept in analyzing circuits, which includes optoisolation elements. The analysis is based on nonlinear dynamics and chaos models and shows comprehensive benefits and results. All conceptual optoisolation circuits are innovative and can be broadly implemented in engineering applications. The dynamics of optoisolation circuits provides several ways to use them in a variety of applications covering wide areas. The presentation fills the gap of analytical methods for optoisolation circuits analysis, concrete examples, and geometric examples. The optoisolation circuits analysis is developed systematically, starting with basic optoisolation circuits differential equations and their bifurcations, followed by Fixed points analysis, limit cycles and their bifurcations. Optoisolation circuits can be characterized as Lorenz equations, chaos, iterated maps, period doubling and attractors. This book is aimed at electrical and electronic engineers, students and researchers in physics as well. A ...

  2. Synthetic biology: integrated gene circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandagopal, Nagarajan; Elowitz, Michael B

    2011-09-02

    A major goal of synthetic biology is to develop a deeper understanding of biological design principles from the bottom up, by building circuits and studying their behavior in cells. Investigators initially sought to design circuits "from scratch" that functioned as independently as possible from the underlying cellular system. More recently, researchers have begun to develop a new generation of synthetic circuits that integrate more closely with endogenous cellular processes. These approaches are providing fundamental insights into the regulatory architecture, dynamics, and evolution of genetic circuits and enabling new levels of control across diverse biological systems.

  3. Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...

  4. Teaching an Electrical Circuits Course Using a Virtual Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Zahidur

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes designing and implementing a scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) study in a basic electrical circuits course at LaGuardia Community College. Inspired by my understanding of Shulman's (2005) concept of "signature pedagogy" and Mazur's (2009) emphasis on student-centered approaches, and aware that our students…

  5. Stitching Circuits: Learning about Circuitry through E-Textile Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppler, Kylie; Glosson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Central to our understanding of learning is the relationship between various tools and technologies and the structuring of disciplinary subject matter. One of the staples of early science education curriculum is the use of electrical circuit toolkits to engage students in broader discussions of energy. Traditionally, these concepts are introduced…

  6. Students' Reasoning When Tackling Electric Field and Potential in Explanation of DC Resistive Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leniz, Ane; Zuza, Kristina; Guiasola, Jenaro

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the causal reasoning that university students use to explain how dc circuits work. We analyze how students use the concepts of electric field and potential difference in their explanatory models of dc circuits, and what kinds of reasoning they use at the macroscopic and microscopic levels in their explanations. This knowledge…

  7. Memristor Circuits and Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-05-01

    Current CMOS-based technologies are facing design challenges related to the continuous scaling down of the minimum feature size, according to Moore’s law. Moreover, conventional computing architecture is no longer an effective way of fulfilling modern applications demands, such as big data analysis, pattern recognition, and vector processing. Therefore, there is an exigent need to shift to new technologies, at both the architecture and the device levels. Recently, memristor devices and structures attracted attention for being promising candidates for this job. Memristor device adds a new dimension for designing novel circuits and systems. In addition, high-density memristor-based crossbar is widely considered to be the essential element for future memory and bio-inspired computing systems. However, numerous challenges need to be addressed before the memristor genuinely replaces current memory and computing technologies, which is the motivation behind this research effort. In order to address the technology challenges, we begin by fabricating and modeling the memristor device. The devices fabricated at our local clean room enriched our understanding of the memristive phenomenon and enabled the experimental testing for our memristor-based circuits. Moreover, our proposed mathematical modeling for memristor behavior is an essential element for the theoretical circuit design stage. Designing and addressing the challenges of memristor systems with practical complexity, however, requires an extra step, which takes the form of a reliable and modular simulation platform. We, therefore, built a new simulation platform for the resistive crossbar, which can simulate realistic size arrays filled with real memory data. In addition, this simulation platform includes various crossbar nonidealities in order to obtain accurate simulation results. Consequently, we were able to address the significant challenges facing the high density memristor crossbar, as the building block for

  8. A dishwasher for circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    You have always been told that electronic devices fear water. However, at the Surface Mount Devices (SMD) Workshop here at CERN all the electronic assemblies are cleaned with a machine that looks like a… dishwasher.   The circuit dishwasher. Credit: Clara Nellist.  If you think the image above shows a dishwasher, you wouldn’t be completely wrong. Apart from the fact that the whole pumping system and the case itself are made entirely from stainless steel and chemical resistant materials, and the fact that it washes electrical boards instead of dishes… it works exactly like a dishwasher. It’s a professional machine (mainly used in the pharmaceutical industry) designed to clean everything that can be washed with a water-based chemical soap. This type of treatment increases the lifetime of the electronic boards and therefore the LHC's reliability by preventing corrosion problems in the severe radiation and ozone environment of the LHC tunn...

  9. Hybrid winding concept for toroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid winding concept for toroids using the traces in a printed circuit board to make connection to bended copper foil cutouts. In a final product a number of strips with a certain thickness would be held by a former and the whole assembly could be placed by pick...

  10. Experimental study of natural circulation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian, E-mail: wlemos@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LASME/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Simulacao e Metodos Numericos; Faccini, Jose L.H., E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (LTE/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental

    2011-07-01

    This work presents an experimental study about fluid flows behavior in natural circulation, under conditions of single-phase flow. The experiment was performed through experimental thermal-hydraulic circuit built at IEN. This test equipment has performance similar to passive system of residual heat removal present in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (APWR). This experimental study aims to observing and analyzing the natural circulation phenomenon, using this experimental circuit that was dimensioned and built based on concepts of similarity and scale. This philosophy allows the analysis of natural circulation behavior in single-phase flow conditions proportionally to the functioning real conditions of a nuclear reactor. The experiment was performed through procedures to initialization of hydraulic feeding of primary and secondary circuits and electrical energizing of resistors installed inside heater. Power controller has availability to adjust values of electrical power to feeding resistors, in order to portray several conditions of energy decay of nuclear reactor in a steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and monitoring of the evolution of the temperature in various points through thermocouples installed in strategic points along hydraulic circuit. The behavior of the natural circulation phenomenon was monitored by graphical interface on computer screen, showing the temperature evolutions of measuring points and results stored in digital spreadsheets. The results stored in digital spreadsheets allowed the getting of data to graphic construction and discussion about natural circulation phenomenon. Finally, the calculus of Reynolds number allowed the establishment for a correlation of friction in function of geometric scales of length, heights and cross section of tubing, considering a natural circulation flow throughout in the region of hot leg. (author)

  11. Digital circuits using universal logic gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor); Cameron, Eric G. (Inventor); Donohoe, Gregory W. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    According to the invention, a digital circuit design embodied in at least one of a structural netlist, a behavioral netlist, a hardware description language netlist, a full-custom ASIC, a semi-custom ASIC, an IP core, an integrated circuit, a hybrid of chips, one or more masks, a FPGA, and a circuit card assembly is disclosed. The digital circuit design includes first and second sub-circuits. The first sub-circuits comprise a first percentage of the digital circuit design and the second sub-circuits comprise a second percentage of the digital circuit design. Each of the second sub-circuits is substantially comprised of one or more kernel circuits. The kernel circuits are comprised of selection circuits. The second percentage is at least 5%. In various embodiments, the second percentage could be at least 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, or 95%.

  12. Enhancement of Linear Circuit Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Dabu, Mihaela; Beldiman, Octavian

    1996-01-01

    In this report a preliminary user friendly interface has been added to the LCP2 program making it possible to describe an electronic circuit by actually drawing the circuit on the screen. Component values and other options and parameters can easily be set by the aid of the interface. The interface...

  13. Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

  14. Comminution circuits for compact itabirites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ferreira Pinto

    Full Text Available Abstract In the beneficiation of compact Itabirites, crushing and grinding account for major operational and capital costs. As such, the study and development of comminution circuits have a fundamental importance for feasibility and optimization of compact Itabirite beneficiation. This work makes a comparison between comminution circuits for compact Itabirites from the Iron Quadrangle. The circuits developed are: a crushing and ball mill circuit (CB, a SAG mill and ball mill circuit (SAB and a single stage SAG mill circuit (SSSAG. For the SAB circuit, the use of pebble crushing is analyzed (SABC. An industrial circuit for 25 million tons of run of mine was developed for each route from tests on a pilot scale (grinding and industrial scale. The energy consumption obtained for grinding in the pilot tests was compared with that reported by Donda and Bond. The SSSAG route had the lowest energy consumption, 11.8kWh/t and the SAB route had the highest energy consumption, 15.8kWh/t. The CB and SABC routes had a similar energy consumption of 14.4 kWh/t and 14.5 kWh/t respectively.

  15. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  16. Photodiode circuits for retinal prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, J D; Cogan, S F; Mathieson, K; Sher, A; Palanker, D V

    2011-10-01

    Photodiode circuits show promise for the development of high-resolution retinal prostheses. While several of these systems have been constructed and some even implanted in humans, existing descriptions of the complex optoelectronic interaction between light, photodiode, and the electrode/electrolyte load are limited. This study examines this interaction in depth with theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. Actively biased photoconductive and passive photovoltaic circuits are investigated, with the photovoltaic circuits consisting of one or more diodes connected in series, and the photoconductive circuits consisting of a single diode in series with a pulsed bias voltage. Circuit behavior and charge injection levels were markedly different for platinum and sputtered iridium-oxide film (SIROF) electrodes. Photovoltaic circuits were able to deliver 0.038 mC/cm(2) (0.75 nC/phase) per photodiode with 50- μm platinum electrodes, and 0.54-mC/cm(2) (11 nC/phase) per photodiode with 50-μ m SIROF electrodes driven with 0.5-ms pulses of light at 25 Hz. The same pulses applied to photoconductive circuits with the same electrodes were able to deliver charge injections as high as 0.38 and 7.6 mC/cm(2) (7.5 and 150 nC/phase), respectively. We demonstrate photovoltaic stimulation of rabbit retina in-vitro, with 0.5-ms pulses of 905-nm light using peak irradiance of 1 mW/mm(2). Based on the experimental data, we derive electrochemical and optical safety limits for pixel density and charge injection in various circuits. While photoconductive circuits offer smaller pixels, photovoltaic systems do not require an external bias voltage. Both classes of circuits show promise for the development of high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prostheses.

  17. CALCULATION OF TRANSIENT PROCESSES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC DEVICES BASED ON THE MAGNETOELECTRIC EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS CONTAINING MAGNETIC CAPACITORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Tykhovod

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For dynamic processes modeling in magnetic and electrical systems of transformers and other electromagnetic devices the effective method of electrical and magnetic circuits in united arrangement is used. The scheme of such circuits is termed as the magnetoelectric equivalent circuit of the electromagnetic device. The classical magnetoelectric equivalent circuit of electromagnetic devices denotes that the magnetic fluxes are flowing in magnetic branches, and the electric currents are flowing in electrical branches. The equivalent circuit choice essentially influences upon the efficiency of modeling. In this paper the original magnetoelectric equivalent circuit using concepts «magnetic currents» and «magnetic capacitors» (Shakirov method is considered. The computing process realized according to such model is unstable. Therefore the given method can’t be recommended for transient analyses in nonlinear magnetoelectric circuits. Modeling modification of Shakirov magnetoelectric equivalent circuit is offered with the purpose of efficiency improvement. «Magnetic currents» and «magnetic capacitors» with differential capacitance are used in the offered magnetoelectric equivalent circuit. The computing process according to such model has the best stability and fast operation than the computing process according to another magnetoelectric equivalent circuits. The merit of such method is possibility of joining-up magnetic resistance elements to equivalent circuit. The resistances of ones could be chosen taking into consideration the equivalence of losses in magnetic resistors end magnetic system. Modeling of transients at switch on regime of the power transformer is given as an example.

  18. Using Hydraulic Network Models to Teach Electric Circuit Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Irvin; EERC (Engineering Education Research Center) Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    Unlike other engineering disciplines, teaching electric circuit principles is difficult for some students because there isn't a visual context to rely on. So concepts such as electric potential, current, resistance, capacitance, and inductance have little meaning outside of their definition and the derived mathematical relationships. As a work in progress, we are developing a tool to support teaching, learning, and research of electric circuits. The tool will allow the user to design, build, and operate electric circuits in the form of hydraulic networks. We believe that this system will promote greater learning of electric circuit principles by visually realizing the conceptual and abstract concepts of electric circuits. Furthermore, as a teaching and learning tool, the hydraulic network system can be used to teach and improve comprehension of electrical principles in K through 12 classrooms and in cross-disciplinary environments such as Bioengineering, Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Engineering, and Aeronautical Engineering. As a research tool, the hydraulic network can model and simulate micro/nano bio-electro-chemical systems. Organization within the Swanson School of Engineering at the University of Pittsburgh.

  19. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of electrical circuits with variable load regime parameters projective geometry method

    CERN Document Server

    Penin, A

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces electric circuits with variable loads and voltage regulators. It allows to define invariant relationships for various parameters of regime and circuit sections and to prove the concepts characterizing these circuits. Generalized equivalent circuits are introduced. Projective geometry is used for the interpretation of changes of operating regime parameters. Expressions of normalized regime parameters and their changes are presented. Convenient formulas for the calculation of currents are given. Parallel voltage sources and the cascade connection of multi-port networks are d

  1. Nano-scale CMOS analog circuits models and CAD techniques for high-level design

    CERN Document Server

    Pandit, Soumya; Patra, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Reliability concerns and the limitations of process technology can sometimes restrict the innovation process involved in designing nano-scale analog circuits. The success of nano-scale analog circuit design requires repeat experimentation, correct analysis of the device physics, process technology, and adequate use of the knowledge database.Starting with the basics, Nano-Scale CMOS Analog Circuits: Models and CAD Techniques for High-Level Design introduces the essential fundamental concepts for designing analog circuits with optimal performances. This book explains the links between the physic

  2. On Polymorphic Circuits and Their Design Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Zebulum, Ricardo; Keymeulen, Didier; Lohn, Jason; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of polymorphic electronics (polytronics) - referring to electronics with superimposed built-in functionality. A function change does not require switches/reconfiguration as in traditional approaches. Instead the change comes from modifications in the characteristics of devices involved in the circuit, in response to controls such as temperature, power supply voltage (VDD), control signals, light, etc. The paper illustrates polytronic circuits in which the control is done by temperature, morphing signals, and VDD respectively. Polytronic circuits are obtained by evolutionary design/evolvable hardware techniques. These techniques are ideal for the polytronics design, a new area that lacks design guidelines, know-how,- yet the requirements/objectives are easy to specify and test. The circuits are evolved/synthesized in two different modes. The first mode explores an unstructured space, in which transistors can be interconnected freely in any arrangement (in simulations only). The second mode uses a Field Programmable Transistor Array (FPTA) model, and the circuit topology is sought as a mapping onto a programmable architecture (these experiments are performed both in simulations and on FPTA chips). The experiments demonstrated the synthesis. of polytronic circuits by evolution. The capacity of storing/hiding "extra" functions provides for watermark/invisible functionality, thus polytronics may find uses in intelligence/security applications.

  3. Variational integrators for electric circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ober-Blöbaum, Sina, E-mail: sinaob@math.upb.de [Computational Dynamics and Optimal Control, University of Paderborn (Germany); Tao, Molei [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Cheng, Mulin [Applied and Computational Mathematics, California Institute of Technology (United States); Owhadi, Houman; Marsden, Jerrold E. [Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology (United States); Applied and Computational Mathematics, California Institute of Technology (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In this contribution, we develop a variational integrator for the simulation of (stochastic and multiscale) electric circuits. When considering the dynamics of an electric circuit, one is faced with three special situations: 1. The system involves external (control) forcing through external (controlled) voltage sources and resistors. 2. The system is constrained via the Kirchhoff current (KCL) and voltage laws (KVL). 3. The Lagrangian is degenerate. Based on a geometric setting, an appropriate variational formulation is presented to model the circuit from which the equations of motion are derived. A time-discrete variational formulation provides an iteration scheme for the simulation of the electric circuit. Dependent on the discretization, the intrinsic degeneracy of the system can be canceled for the discrete variational scheme. In this way, a variational integrator is constructed that gains several advantages compared to standard integration tools for circuits; in particular, a comparison to BDF methods (which are usually the method of choice for the simulation of electric circuits) shows that even for simple LCR circuits, a better energy behavior and frequency spectrum preservation can be observed using the developed variational integrator.

  4. Experimental Device for Learning of Logical Circuit Design using Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    石橋, 孝昭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for learning of logical circuit design using integrated circuits and breadboards. The experimental device can be made at a low cost and can be used for many subjects such as logical circuits, computer engineering, basic electricity, electrical circuits and electronic circuits. The proposed device is effective to learn the logical circuits than the usual lecture.

  5. 30 CFR 77.800 - High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. 77.800... COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.800 High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. High-voltage circuits supplying power to portable or mobile equipment shall be protected by suitable circuit...

  6. The Maplin electronic circuits handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    1990-01-01

    The Maplin Electronic Circuits Handbook provides pertinent data, formula, explanation, practical guidance, theory and practical guidance in the design, testing, and construction of electronic circuits. This book discusses the developments in electronics technology techniques.Organized into 11 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the common types of passive component. This text then provides the reader with sufficient information to make a correct selection of passive components for use in the circuits. Other chapters consider the various types of the most commonly used semiconductor

  7. Accurate dynamic power estimation for CMOS combinational logic circuits with real gate delay model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia S. Fadl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic power estimation is essential in designing VLSI circuits where many parameters are involved but the only circuit parameter that is related to the circuit operation is the nodes’ toggle rate. This paper discusses a deterministic and fast method to estimate the dynamic power consumption for CMOS combinational logic circuits using gate-level descriptions based on the Logic Pictures concept to obtain the circuit nodes’ toggle rate. The delay model for the logic gates is the real-delay model. To validate the results, the method is applied to several circuits and compared against exhaustive, as well as Monte Carlo, simulations. The proposed technique was shown to save up to 96% processing time compared to exhaustive simulation.

  8. Accurate dynamic power estimation for CMOS combinational logic circuits with real gate delay model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadl, Omnia S; Abu-Elyazeed, Mohamed F; Abdelhalim, Mohamed B; Amer, Hassanein H; Madian, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic power estimation is essential in designing VLSI circuits where many parameters are involved but the only circuit parameter that is related to the circuit operation is the nodes' toggle rate. This paper discusses a deterministic and fast method to estimate the dynamic power consumption for CMOS combinational logic circuits using gate-level descriptions based on the Logic Pictures concept to obtain the circuit nodes' toggle rate. The delay model for the logic gates is the real-delay model. To validate the results, the method is applied to several circuits and compared against exhaustive, as well as Monte Carlo, simulations. The proposed technique was shown to save up to 96% processing time compared to exhaustive simulation.

  9. Circuit design on plastic foils

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, Daniele; Roermund, Arthur H M

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates a variety of circuit designs on plastic foils and provides all the information needed to undertake successful designs in large-area electronics.  The authors demonstrate architectural, circuit, layout, and device solutions and explain the reasons and the creative process behind each. Readers will learn how to keep under control large-area technologies and achieve robust, reliable circuit designs that can face the challenges imposed by low-cost low-temperature high-throughput manufacturing.   • Discusses implications of problems associated with large-area electronics and compares them to standard silicon; • Provides the basis for understanding physics and modeling of disordered material; • Includes guidelines to quickly setup the basic CAD tools enabling efficient and reliable designs; • Illustrates practical solutions to cope with hard/soft faults, variability, mismatch, aging and bias stress at architecture, circuit, layout, and device levels.

  10. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2005-01-01

    is idle. This reduces unnecessary switching activity in the individual functional units and therefore the energy consumption of the entire circuit. A collection of behavioral synthesis algorithms have been developed allowing the designer to perform time and power constrained design space exploration....... The datapath and control architecture is then expressed in the Balsa-language, and using syntax directed compilation a corresponding handshake circuit implementation (and eventually a layout) is produced....

  11. Noise-Reduction Circuit For Imaging Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Luis J.; Pain, Bedabrata; Staller, Craig; Hickok, Roger W.

    1995-01-01

    Developmental correlated-triple-sampling circuit suppresses capacitor reset noise and attenuates low frequency noise in integrated-and-sampled circuits of multiplexed photodiode arrays. Noise reduction circuit part of Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument to fly aboard Cassini spacecraft to explore Saturn and its moons. Modified versions of circuit also useful for reducing noise in terrestrial photosensor instruments.

  12. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  13. Automated Cell Synthesis of Analog Integrated Circuit Layout Anasyn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevich, Bob Srbislav

    This thesis describes a novel model to automate cell generation for the design of analog integrated circuits and the conclusions about important features that such automation should include. This research represents the first attempt to address this problem by analyzing relevant issues of what constitutes an analog cell and how a technique can be implemented to generate these cells automatically. Our motivation for doing this is the critical limitations to circuit performance which arise from cell design. This thesis defines unique construction properties for the layout of some commonly used analog circuit topologies or cells. This thesis defines the physical layout of analog circuit cells beyond simple geometrical description. Each cell is an independent object that can be interfaced and communicated with. This thesis has extended the concept of an analog cell even further by incorporating synthesis rules into the cell definition. These rules are used to dynamically construct the optimized layout that will satisfy many of the options encountered in actual analog circuit design such as area, matching, tolerance, element rationing and parasitic components. This model can construct complex geometric shapes such as common-centroids, waffles, interdigitated, cascode etc. that are optimized at device level with the precise models for parasitic components. Furthermore, Object-Oriented implementation used in this thesis allow for easy integration of this work into other CAD tools. To demonstrate the feasibility and correctness of the ideas described in this thesis, a CAD tool ANASYN has been written. To test and demonstrate the utility and the performance developed, a variety of test cells have been generated. Data presented clearly demonstrate the uniqueness, flexibility, and precision of the analog circuit layout cells implemented in this research thesis. In addition, one test chip and one design chip have been laid out using cells generated by ANASYN and fabricated at

  14. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  15. Radio frequency integrated circuit design for cognitive radio systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fahim, Amr

    2015-01-01

    This book fills a disconnect in the literature between Cognitive Radio systems and a detailed account of the circuit implementation and architectures required to implement such systems.  Throughout the book, requirements and constraints imposed by cognitive radio systems are emphasized when discussing the circuit implementation details.  In addition, this book details several novel concepts that advance state-of-the-art cognitive radio systems.  This is a valuable reference for anybody with background in analog and radio frequency (RF) integrated circuit design, needing to learn more about integrated circuits requirements and implementation for cognitive radio systems. ·         Describes in detail cognitive radio systems, as well as the circuit implementation and architectures required to implement them; ·         Serves as an excellent reference to state-of-the-art wideband transceiver design; ·         Emphasizes practical requirements and constraints imposed by cognitive radi...

  16. Computational design of synthetic gene circuits with composable parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisio, M A; Stelling, J

    2008-09-01

    In principle, novel genetic circuits can be engineered using standard parts with well-understood functionalities. However, no model based on the simple composition of these parts has become a standard, mainly because it is difficult to define signal exchanges between biological units as unambiguously as in electrical engineering. Corresponding concepts and computational tools for easy circuit design in biology are missing. Taking inspiration from (and slightly modifying) ideas in the 'MIT Registry of Standard Biological Parts', we developed a method for the design of genetic circuits with composable parts. Gene expression requires four kinds of signal carriers: RNA polymerases, ribosomes, transcription factors and environmental 'messages' (inducers or corepressors). The flux of each of these types of molecules is a quantifiable biological signal exchanged between parts. Here, each part is modeled independently by the ordinary differential equations (ODE) formalism and integrated into the software ProMoT (Process Modeling Tool). In this way, we realized a 'drag and drop' tool, where genetic circuits are built just by placing biological parts on a canvas and by connecting them through 'wires' that enable flow of signal carriers, as it happens in electrical engineering. Our simulations of well-known synthetic circuits agree well with published computational and experimental results. The code is available on request from the authors.

  17. Isocost Lines Describe the Cellular Economy of Genetic Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorgy, Andras; Jiménez, José I; Yazbek, John; Huang, Hsin-Ho; Chung, Hattie; Weiss, Ron; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    2015-08-04

    Genetic circuits in living cells share transcriptional and translational resources that are available in limited amounts. This leads to unexpected couplings among seemingly unconnected modules, which result in poorly predictable circuit behavior. In this study, we determine these interdependencies between products of different genes by characterizing the economy of how transcriptional and translational resources are allocated to the production of proteins in genetic circuits. We discover that, when expressed from the same plasmid, the combinations of attainable protein concentrations are constrained by a linear relationship, which can be interpreted as an isocost line, a concept used in microeconomics. We created a library of circuits with two reporter genes, one constitutive and the other inducible in the same plasmid, without a regulatory path between them. In agreement with the model predictions, experiments reveal that the isocost line rotates when changing the ribosome binding site strength of the inducible gene and shifts when modifying the plasmid copy number. These results demonstrate that isocost lines can be employed to predict how genetic circuits become coupled when sharing resources and provide design guidelines for minimizing the effects of such couplings. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fast synaptic subcortical control of hippocampal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Viktor; Losonczy, Attila; Zemelman, Boris V; Borhegyi, Zsolt; Nyiri, Gábor; Domonkos, Andor; Hangya, Balázs; Holderith, Noémi; Magee, Jeffrey C; Freund, Tamás F

    2009-10-16

    Cortical information processing is under state-dependent control of subcortical neuromodulatory systems. Although this modulatory effect is thought to be mediated mainly by slow nonsynaptic metabotropic receptors, other mechanisms, such as direct synaptic transmission, are possible. Yet, it is currently unknown if any such form of subcortical control exists. Here, we present direct evidence of a strong, spatiotemporally precise excitatory input from an ascending neuromodulatory center. Selective stimulation of serotonergic median raphe neurons produced a rapid activation of hippocampal interneurons. At the network level, this subcortical drive was manifested as a pattern of effective disynaptic GABAergic inhibition that spread throughout the circuit. This form of subcortical network regulation should be incorporated into current concepts of normal and pathological cortical function.

  19. Respiratory circuits: function, mechanisms, topology, and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Sergej

    2009-04-01

    Neuroscientists have long sought to understand how circuits in the nervous system are organized to generate the precise neural outputs that underlie particular behaviors. Recent studies deepened our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the generation of the rhythmic output for breathing. Here, the author focuses on issues that are pertinent for the respiratory network and considers its organization and how it derives the functional output. The author discusses pacemaker and network mechanisms of rhythm generation, which are now combined into a novel concept of emergent network activity due to coherent excitation of pacemaker groups. He discusses subcellular basis of this hypothesis and possible mechanisms of synchronization within respiratory network. These new findings in respiratory neuroscience are further applied to explain modifications in breathing during hypoxia and possible origins of respiratory disorders that may be acquired during neural development and aging.

  20. Deep learning with coherent nanophotonic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yichen; Harris, Nicholas C.; Skirlo, Scott; Prabhu, Mihika; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; Sun, Xin; Zhao, Shijie; Larochelle, Hugo; Englund, Dirk; Soljačić, Marin

    2017-07-01

    Artificial neural networks are computational network models inspired by signal processing in the brain. These models have dramatically improved performance for many machine-learning tasks, including speech and image recognition. However, today's computing hardware is inefficient at implementing neural networks, in large part because much of it was designed for von Neumann computing schemes. Significant effort has been made towards developing electronic architectures tuned to implement artificial neural networks that exhibit improved computational speed and accuracy. Here, we propose a new architecture for a fully optical neural network that, in principle, could offer an enhancement in computational speed and power efficiency over state-of-the-art electronics for conventional inference tasks. We experimentally demonstrate the essential part of the concept using a programmable nanophotonic processor featuring a cascaded array of 56 programmable Mach-Zehnder interferometers in a silicon photonic integrated circuit and show its utility for vowel recognition.

  1. Summary of Structural Concept Development and High Temperature Structural Integrity Evaluation Technology for a Gen-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Hyeong Yeon (and others)

    2008-04-15

    The economic improvement is a hot issue as one of Gen IV nuclear plant goals. It requires many researches and development works to meet the goal by securing the same level of plant safety. One of the key research items is the increase of the plant capacity with the minimum number of components and loops. Through the successful conceptual design experience for the KALIMER-600, the structural design study for a 1200MWe large capacity of sodium-cooled fast reactor has been performed to achieve the above plant size effects. The component number and reactor structural sizing were determined based on the core and fluid system design information. Several researches were performed to reduce the construction cost of NSSS in structural point of view, for example, a simplified component arrangement, concept proposals of integrated components, a high temperature LBB application technology, and an innovative in-service inspection (ISI) tool, and a computer program development of the ASME-NH design procedure of the class 1 structure and component under high temperature over 500 .deg. C. The IHTS piping arrangement was also proposed to minimize the length through the properly locating the SG and pump by 126m. Further studies of these concepts are required to confirm on the fabricability and the structural integrity for the operating and design loads. The proposed concepts will be optimized to a unified conceptual design through several trade-off studies.

  2. Bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuits (BBICs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael L.; Sayler, Gary S.; Nivens, David; Ripp, Steve; Paulus, Michael J.; Jellison, Gerald E.

    1998-07-01

    As the workhorse of the integrated circuit (IC) industry, the capabilities of CMOS have been expanded well beyond the original applications. The full spectrum of analog circuits from switched-capacitor filters to microwave circuit blocks, and from general-purpose operational amplifiers to sub- nanosecond analog timing circuits for nuclear physics experiments have been implemented in CMOS. This technology has also made in-roads into the growing area of monolithic sensors with devices such as active-pixel sensors and other electro-optical detection devices. While many of the processes used for MEMS fabrication are not compatible with the CMOS IC process, depositing a sensor material onto a previously fabricated CMOS circuit can create a very useful category of sensors. In this work we report a chemical sensor composed of bioluminescent bioreporters (genetically engineered bacteria) deposited onto a micro-luminometer fabricated in a standard CMOS IC process. The bioreporter used for this work emitted 490-nm light when exposed to toluene. This luminescence was detected by the micro- luminometer giving an indication of the concentration of toluene. Other bioluminescent bioreporters sensitive to explosives, mercury, and other organic chemicals and heavy metals have been reported. These could be incorporated (individually or in combination) with the micro-luminometer reported here to form a variety of chemical sensors.

  3. Instrumentation and test gear circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Instrumentation and Test Gear Circuits Manual provides diagrams, graphs, tables, and discussions of several types of practical circuits. The practical circuits covered in this book include attenuators, bridges, scope trace doublers, timebases, and digital frequency meters. Chapter 1 discusses the basic instrumentation and test gear principles. Chapter 2 deals with the design of passive attenuators, and Chapter 3 with passive and active filter circuits. The subsequent chapters tackle 'bridge' circuits, analogue and digital metering techniques and circuitry, signal and waveform generation, and p

  4. 30 CFR 75.800 - High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. 75.800... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.800 High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. High-voltage circuits entering the underground area...

  5. Development of 3-D Mechanical Models of Electric Circuits and Their Effect on Students' Understanding of Electric Potential Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Visualizing physical concepts through models is an essential method in many sciences. While students are mostly proficient in handling mathematical aspects of problems, they frequently lack the ability to visualize and interpret abstract physical concepts in a meaningful way. In this paper, initially the electric circuits and related concepts were…

  6. LBB application in Swedish BWR design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornfeldt, H.; Bjoerk, K.O.; Ekstroem, P. [ABB Atom, Vaesteras (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    The protection against dynamic effects in connection with potential pipe breaks has been implemented in different ways in the development of BWR reactor designs. First-generation plant designs reflect code requirements in effect at that time which means that no piping restraint systems were designed and built into those plants. Modern designs have, in contrast, implemented full protection against damage in connection with postulated pipe breaks, as required in current codes and regulations. Moderns standards and current regulatory demands can be met for the older plants by backfitting pipe whip restraint hardware. This could lead to several practical difficulties as these installations were not anticipated in the original plant design and layout. Meeting the new demands by analysis would in this situation have great advantages. Application of leak-before-break criteria gives an alternative opportunity of meeting modem standards in reactor safety design. Analysis takes into account data specific to BWR primary system operation, actual pipe material properties, piping loads and leak detection capability. Special attention must be given to ensure that the data used reflects actual plant conditions.

  7. Circuit modeling for electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    Darney, Ian B

    2013-01-01

    Very simply, electromagnetic interference (EMI) costs money, reduces profits, and generally wreaks havoc for circuit designers in all industries. This book shows how the analytic tools of circuit theory can be used to simulate the coupling of interference into, and out of, any signal link in the system being reviewed. The technique is simple, systematic and accurate. It enables the design of any equipment to be tailored to meet EMC requirements. Every electronic system consists of a number of functional modules interconnected by signal links and power supply lines. Electromagnetic interference

  8. Embedded systems circuits and programming

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Julio

    2012-01-01

    During the development of an engineered product, developers often need to create an embedded system--a prototype--that demonstrates the operation/function of the device and proves its viability. Offering practical tools for the development and prototyping phases, Embedded Systems Circuits and Programming provides a tutorial on microcontroller programming and the basics of embedded design. The book focuses on several development tools and resources: Standard and off-the-shelf components, such as input/output devices, integrated circuits, motors, and programmable microcontrollers The implementat

  9. Simplified design of filter circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1999-01-01

    Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets

  10. Programming languages for circuit design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Yordanov, Boyan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a programming language for Genetic Engineering of Cells (GEC). A GEC program specifies a genetic circuit at a high level of abstraction through constraints on otherwise unspecified DNA parts. The GEC compiler then selects parts which satisfy the constraints from a given parts database. GEC further provides more conventional programming language constructs for abstraction, e.g., through modularity. The GEC language and compiler is available through a Web tool which also provides functionality, e.g., for simulation of designed circuits.

  11. Arbitrary modeling of TSVs for 3D integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Salah, Khaled; El-Rouby, Alaa

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a wide-band and technology independent, SPICE-compatible RLC model for through-silicon vias (TSVs) in 3D integrated circuits. This model accounts for a variety of effects, including skin effect, depletion capacitance and nearby contact effects. Readers will benefit from in-depth coverage of concepts and technology such as 3D integration, Macro modeling, dimensional analysis and compact modeling, as well as closed form equations for the through silicon via parasitics. Concepts covered are demonstrated by using TSVs in applications such as a spiral inductor?and inductive-based

  12. A novel active T-type three-level converter with open-circuit fault-tolerant control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel active T-type three-level converter concept with fault-tolerant control. With the proposed topology, the converter can be operated continuously under open-circuit faults. It is shown that the proposed topology not only can keep its outputs under open-circuit fault cond...

  13. A method of reversible circuits synthesis based on s-maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupski, Andrzej

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an original method to designing reversible circuits. The main problem of reversible circuits synthesis is designing optimal reversible circuits i.e. circuits with minimal gates number implementing the given reversible function. To design reversible circuits a set of gates must be chosen. The most popular library is a set called CNT (Control, NOT and Toffoli) which contains three types of gates. The method presented in this paper is based on the CNT gates. A graphical representation of the reversible function called s-maps is introduced in the paper. This representation allows to find optimal solutions. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 recalls basic concepts of reversible logic. In Section 2 a graphical representation of the reversible functions is presented. Section 3 describes the algorithm whereby any optimal solutions of the given function could be obtained.

  14. Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)

  15. A Low Noise Electronic Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Leenaerts, Dominicus M.W.; de Vreede, Petrus W.H.

    2002-01-01

    An electronic circuit, which can be used as a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), comprises two complementary Field Effect Transistors (M1, M2; M5, M6), each having a gate, a source and a drain. The gates are connected together as a common input terminal, and the drains are connected together as a

  16. Invention of the Integrated Circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 11. Invention of the Integrated Circuit. Jack S Kilby. Classics Volume 17 Issue 11 November 2012 pp 1100-1115. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/11/1100-1115 ...

  17. Data assimilation with Chua's circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    noise and observational frequency, using both simulated observations and data obtained from an experimental realization of a commonly used low-dimensional dynamical system, namely, Chua circuit, in both the periodic as well as the chaotic regime. Keywords. Synchronization; ensemble Kalman filter; data assimilation.

  18. Circuit design for RF transceivers

    CERN Document Server

    Leenaerts, Domine; Vaucher, Cicero S

    2007-01-01

    Second edition of this successful 2001 RF Circuit Design book, has been updated, latest technology reviews have been added as well as several actual case studies. Due to the authors being active in industry as well as academia, this should prove to be an essential guide on RF Transceiver Design for students and engineers.

  19. Parallel circuit simulation on supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, R.A.; Gallivan, K.A. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Center for Supercomputing Research and Development); Chang, M.C. (Texas Instruments, Inc., Dallas, TX (USA)); Hajj, I.N.; Trick, T.N. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Coordinated Science Lab.); Smart, D. (Semiconductor Div., Analog Devices, Wilmington, MA (US))

    1989-12-01

    Circuit simulation is a very time-consuming and numerically intensive application, especially when the problem size is large as in the case of VLSI circuits. To improve the performance of circuit simulators without sacrificing accuracy, a variety of parallel processing algorithms have been investigated due to the recent availability of a number of commercial multiprocessor machines. In this paper, research in the field of parallel circuit simulation is surveyed and the ongoing research in this area at the University of Illinois is described. Both standard and relaxation-based approaches are considered. In particular, the forms of parallelism available within the direct method approach, used in programs such as SPICE2 and SLATE, and within the relaxation-based approaches, such as waveform relaxation, iterated timing analysis, and waveform-relaxation-Newton, are described. The specific implementation issues addressed here are primarily related to general-purpose multiprocessors with a shared-memory architecture having a limited number of processors, although many of the comments also apply to a number of other architectures.

  20. Designing analog circuits in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Nauta, Bram; van Langevelde, Ronald; Tuinhout, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The evolution in CMOS technology dictated by Moore's Law is clearly beneficial for designers of digital circuits, but it presents difficult challenges, such as lowered nominal supply voltages, for their peers in the analog world who want to keep pace with this rapid progression. This article

  1. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  2. Advanced circuit simulation using Multisim workbench

    CERN Document Server

    Báez-López, David; Cervantes-Villagómez, Ofelia Delfina

    2012-01-01

    Multisim is now the de facto standard for circuit simulation. It is a SPICE-based circuit simulator which combines analog, discrete-time, and mixed-mode circuits. In addition, it is the only simulator which incorporates microcontroller simulation in the same environment. It also includes a tool for printed circuit board design.Advanced Circuit Simulation Using Multisim Workbench is a companion book to Circuit Analysis Using Multisim, published by Morgan & Claypool in 2011. This new book covers advanced analyses and the creation of models and subcircuits. It also includes coverage of transmissi

  3. Digital circuit boards mach 1 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    A unique, practical approach to the design of high-speed digital circuit boards The demand for ever-faster digital circuit designs is beginning to render the circuit theory used by engineers ineffective. Digital Circuit Boards presents an alternative to the circuit theory approach, emphasizing energy flow rather than just signal interconnection to explain logic circuit behavior. The book shows how treating design in terms of transmission lines will ensure that the logic will function, addressing both storage and movement of electrical energy on these lines. It cove

  4. Zero-knowledge using garbled circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jawurek, Marek; Kerschbaum, Florian; Orlandi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Zero-knowledge protocols are one of the fundamental concepts in modern cryptography and have countless applications. However, after more than 30 years from their introduction, there are only very few languages (essentially those with a group structure) for which we can construct zero-knowledge pr......Zero-knowledge protocols are one of the fundamental concepts in modern cryptography and have countless applications. However, after more than 30 years from their introduction, there are only very few languages (essentially those with a group structure) for which we can construct zero......-knowledge protocols that are efficient enough to be used in practice. In this paper we address the problem of how to construct efficient zero-knowledge protocols for generic languages and we propose a protocol based on Yao's garbled circuit technique. The motivation for our work is that in many cryptographic......-party computation (i.e., any protocol for generic secure computation can be used to do zero-knowledge). The main contribution of this paper is to construct an efficient protocol for the special case of secure two-party computation where only one party has input (like in the zero-knowledge case). The protocol...

  5. Fabric circuits and method of manufacturing fabric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor); Trevino, Robert C. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible, fabric-based circuit comprises a non-conductive flexible layer of fabric and a conductive flexible layer of fabric adjacent thereto. A non-conductive thread, an adhesive, and/or other means may be used for attaching the conductive layer to the non-conductive layer. In some embodiments, the layers are attached by a computer-driven embroidery machine at pre-determined portions or locations in accordance with a pre-determined attachment layout before automated cutting. In some other embodiments, an automated milling machine or a computer-driven laser using a pre-designed circuit trace as a template cuts the conductive layer so as to separate an undesired portion of the conductive layer from a desired portion of the conductive layer. Additional layers of conductive fabric may be attached in some embodiments to form a multi-layer construct.

  6. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......). It is also argued that the historicist and pragmatist understandings of concepts are the most fruitful views and that this understanding may be part of a broader paradigm shift that is also beginning to take place in information science.  The importance of historicist and pragmatic theories of concepts...

  7. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    In nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) circuits of a proposed type, digital data would be stored in analog form in ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FFETs). This type of memory circuit would offer advantages over prior volatile and nonvolatile types: In a conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor static RAM, six transistors must be used to store one bit, and storage is volatile in that data are lost when power is turned off. In a conventional dynamic RAM, three transistors must be used to store one bit, and the stored bit must be refreshed every few milliseconds. In contrast, in a RAM according to the proposal, data would be retained when power was turned off, each memory cell would contain only two FFETs, and the cell could store multiple bits (the exact number of bits depending on the specific design). Conventional flash memory circuits afford nonvolatile storage, but they operate at reading and writing times of the order of thousands of conventional computer memory reading and writing times and, hence, are suitable for use only as off-line storage devices. In addition, flash memories cease to function after limited numbers of writing cycles. The proposed memory circuits would not be subject to either of these limitations. Prior developmental nonvolatile ferroelectric memories are limited to one bit per cell, whereas, as stated above, the proposed memories would not be so limited. The design of a memory circuit according to the proposal must reflect the fact that FFET storage is only partly nonvolatile, in that the signal stored in an FFET decays gradually over time. (Retention times of some advanced FFETs exceed ten years.) Instead of storing a single bit of data as either a positively or negatively saturated state in a ferroelectric device, each memory cell according to the proposal would store two values. The two FFETs in each cell would be denoted the storage FFET and the control FFET. The storage FFET would store an analog signal value

  8. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  9. Developing a Domain Model for Relay Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we stepwise develop a domain model for relay circuits as used in railway control systems. First we provide an abstract, property-oriented model of networks consisting of components that can be glued together with connectors. This model is strongly inspired by a network model...... for railways madeby Bjørner et.al., however our model is more general: the components can be of any kind and can later be refined to e.g. railway components or circuit components. Then we show how the abstract network model can be refined into an explicit model for relay circuits. The circuit model describes...... the statics as well as the dynamics of relay circuits, i.e. how a relay circuit can be composed legally from electrical components as well as how the components may change state over time. Finally the circuit model is transformed into an executable model, and we show how a concrete circuit can be defined...

  10. Model Order Reduction for Electronic Circuits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Shontz, Suzanne

    Electronic circuits are ubiquitous; they are used in numerous industries including: the semiconductor, communication, robotics, auto, and music industries (among many others). As products become more and more complicated, their electronic circuits also grow in size and complexity. This increased...

  11. Brain-machine interface circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zjajo, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a complete overview of significant design challenges in respect to circuit miniaturization and power reduction of the neural recording system, along with circuit topologies, architecture trends, and (post-silicon) circuit optimization algorithms. The introduced novel circuits for signal conditioning, quantization, and classification, as well as system configurations focus on optimized power-per-area performance, from the spatial resolution (i.e. number of channels), feasible wireless data bandwidth and information quality to the delivered power of implantable system.

  12. Circuit Tolerance Design Using Belief Rule Base

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Bin Xu; Zheng Liu; Yu-Wang Chen; Dong-Ling Xu; Cheng-Lin Wen

    2015-01-01

    A belief rule-based (BRB) system provides a generic nonlinear modeling and inference mechanism. It is capable of modeling complex causal relationships by utilizing both quantitative information and qualitative knowledge. In this paper, a BRB system is firstly developed to model the highly nonlinear relationship between circuit component parameters and the performance of the circuit by utilizing available knowledge from circuit simulations and circuit designers. By using rule inference in the ...

  13. Defining inhibitory neurone function in respiratory circuits: opportunities with optogenetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Ana Paula; Paton, Julian F R; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2015-07-15

    Pharmacological and mathematical modelling studies support the view that synaptic inhibition in mammalian brainstem respiratory circuits is essential for generating normal and stable breathing movements. GABAergic and glycinergic neurones are known components of these circuits but their precise functional roles have not been established, especially within key microcircuits of the respiratory pre-Bötzinger (pre-BötC) and Bötzinger (BötC) complexes involved in phasic control of respiratory pump and airway muscles. Here, we review briefly current concepts of relevant complexities of inhibitory synapses and the importance of synaptic inhibition in the operation of these microcircuits. We highlight results and limitations of classical pharmacological studies that have suggested critical functions of synaptic inhibition. We then explore the potential opportunities for optogenetic strategies that represent a promising new approach for interrogating function of inhibitory circuits, including a hypothetical wish list for optogenetic approaches to allow expedient application of this technology. We conclude that recent technical advances in optogenetics should provide a means to understand the role of functionally select and regionally confined subsets of inhibitory neurones in key respiratory circuits such as those in the pre-BötC and BötC. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  14. Nanoelectronic circuit design and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsir, Muzaffer Orkun

    Controlling power consumption in CMOS integrated circuits (ICs) during normal mode of operation is becoming one of the limiting factors to further scaling. In addition, it is a well known fact that during testing of a complex IC, power consumption can far exceed the values reached during its normal operation. High power consumption, combined with limited cooling support, leads to overheating of ICs. This can cause permanent damage to the chip or can invalidate test results due to the fact that extreme temperature variations lead to changes in path delays. Therefore, even good chips can fail the test. For these reasons, thermal problems during test need to be identified to prevent the loss of yield in CMOS ICs. In this thesis, we propose a methodology for thermally characterizing circuits under test. Using this methodology, it is possible to simulate the thermal profiles of the chips during test and prevent possible yield loss because of thermal problems. In addition to the problems associated with power and temperature, a more important barrier is the scaling limitations of the CMOS technology. It has been predicted that in next decade, it will not be possible to scale it further. In the near future, rather than a transition to a completely new technology, extensions to CMOS seem to be more realistic. Double-gate CMOS technology is one of the most promising alternatives that offers a simple extension to CMOS. The transistors of this technology are formed by adding a second gate across the conventional CMOS transistor gate. Designing circuits using this technology has attracted a lot of attention. However, as circuit design methods mature, there is a need to identify how these circuits can be tested. From a circuit testing viewpoint, it is unclear if CMOS fault models are comprehensive enough to model all defects in double-gate CMOS circuits. Therefore, fault models of this technology need to be defined to enable manufacturing-time testing. In this thesis, we

  15. CMOS digital integrated circuits a first course

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Charles; Zarkesh-Ha, Payman

    2016-01-01

    This book teaches the fundamentals of modern CMOS technology and covers equal treatment to both types of MOSFET transistors that make up computer circuits; power properties of logic circuits; physical and electrical properties of metals; introduction of timing circuit electronics and introduction of layout; real-world examples and problem sets.

  16. On dominating and spanning circuits in graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    An eulerian subgraph of a graph is called a circuit. As shown by Harary and Nash-Williams, the existence of a Hamilton cycle in the line graph L(G) of a graph G is equivalent to the existence of a dominating circuit in G, i.e., a circuit such that every edge of G is incident with a vertex of the

  17. An Equivalent Circuit for Landau Damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1976-01-01

    An equivalent circuit simulating the effect of Landau damping in a stable plasma‐loaded parallel‐plate capacitor is presented. The circuit contains a double infinity of LC components. The transition from stable to unstable plasmas is simulated by the introduction of active elements into the circuit....

  18. 49 CFR 236.721 - Circuit, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, control. 236.721 Section 236.721..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.721 Circuit, control. An electrical circuit between a source of electric energy and a device which it operates. ...

  19. Piezo pump and pressurized circuit provided therewith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, Johannes; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2015-01-01

    A piezo pump for use in a pressurized circuit includes a pump chamber with an inlet provided with a one way inlet valve, for connection to a feeding line of the pressurized circuit and an outlet provided with a one way outlet valve, for connection to a discharge line of the pressurized circuit and a

  20. Finding All Elementary Circuits Exploiting Transconductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Bruccoleri, F.; Nauta, Bram

    Commonly used elementary circuits like single transistor amplifier stages, the differential pair and current mirror basically exploit the transconductance of transistors. This paper aims at finding ALL elementary transconductance based circuits. For this purpose, all graphs of two-port circuits with

  1. New Logic Circuit with DC Parametric Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Masanori; Kaneda, Hisayoshi

    1982-12-01

    It is shown that dc parametric excitation is possible in a circuit named JUDO, which is composed of two resistively-connected Josephson junctions. Simulation study proves that the circuit has large gain and properties suitable for the construction of small, high-speed logic circuits.

  2. Integrated circuits for multimedia applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandi, Luca

    2007-01-01

    , and it is applied to a broad-band dual-loop receiver architecture in order to boost the linearity performances of the stage. A simplified noise- and linearity analysis of the circuit is derived, and a comparison is provided with a more traditional dual-loop topology (a broad-band stage based on shunt......This work presents several key aspects in the design of RF integrated circuits for portable multimedia devices. One chapter is dedicated to the application of negative-feedback topologies to receiver frontends. A novel feedback technique suitable for common multiplier-based mixers is described......-series feedback), showing a difference in compression point in the order of 10dBm for the same power consumption. The same principle is also applied to a more conventional narrow-band stage in which a single loop is employed in order to enhance noise performances. Noise analysis shows sensible improvements...

  3. Foundations for microstrip circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Building on the success of the previous three editions, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design offers extensive new, updated and revised material based upon the latest research. Strongly design-oriented, this fourth edition provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of this fast expanding field making it a definitive source for professional engineers and researchers and an indispensable reference for senior students in electronic engineering. Topics new to this edition: microwave substrates, multilayer transmission line structures, modern EM tools and techniques, microstrip and planar transmision line design, transmission line theory, substrates for planar transmission lines, Vias, wirebonds, 3D integrated interposer structures, computer-aided design, microstrip and power-dependent effects, circuit models, microwave network analysis, microstrip passive elements, and slotline design fundamentals.

  4. Quantum information with superconducting circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Huard, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Ce mémoire présente ma contribution à l'avènement des circuits supraconducteurs comme composant de base des systèmes d'information quantique. Les variables macroscopiques des circuits électriques, telles que la tension et le courant, obéissent aux lois de la mécanique quantique tant qu'elles sont suffisamment découplées de leur environnement. Depuis que les premiers qubits supraconducteurs ont été réalisés il y a 15 ans, leurs temps de cohérence ont augmenté de 5 ordres de gra...

  5. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J.S.; Peng, F.Z.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Ott, G.W. Jr.

    1998-01-20

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 36 figs.

  6. Monolithic readout circuits for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, P.; Harder, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Several CMOS ASICs have been developed for a proposed RHIC experiment. This paper discusses why ASIC implementation was chosen for certain functions, circuit specifications and the design techniques used to meet them, and results of simulations and early prototypes. By working closely together from an early stage in the planning process, in-house ASIC designers and detector and data acquisition experimenters can achieve optimal use of this important technology.

  7. Three-Dimensional Circuit Layouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    the models of VLSI layout theory renders the vertices of our circuits as unit-side squares or cubes . 4. Our method of extending the two-dimensional...model assumes isometry in all 4$ dimensions: a unit of height is eqivalent to a unit of width. It is worthwhile placing these assumptions in perspective...2,13]. 4. Aside from clerical simplification, the isometry assumption acknowledges the potential problem of cross-talk between parallel runs of wire

  8. 49 CFR 236.5 - Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be designed on the closed circuit principle, except circuits for roadway equipment of intermittent... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle. 236.5 Section 236.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...

  9. Ultra-low power integrated circuit design circuits, systems, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dongmei; Wang, Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the design of CMOS circuits for ultra-low power consumption including analog, radio frequency (RF), and digital signal processing circuits (DSP). The book addresses issues from circuit and system design to production design, and applies the ultra-low power circuits described to systems for digital hearing aids and capsule endoscope devices. Provides a valuable introduction to ultra-low power circuit design, aimed at practicing design engineers; Describes all key building blocks of ultra-low power circuits, from a systems perspective; Applies circuits and systems described to real product examples such as hearing aids and capsule endoscopes.

  10. Design of analog integrated circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Laker, Kenneth R

    1994-01-01

    This text is designed for senior or graduate level courses in analog integrated circuits or design of analog integrated circuits. This book combines consideration of CMOS and bipolar circuits into a unified treatment. Also included are CMOS-bipolar circuits made possible by BiCMOS technology. The text progresses from MOS and bipolar device modelling to simple one and two transistor building block circuits. The final two chapters present a unified coverage of sample-data and continuous-time signal processing systems.

  11. CMOS circuit design, layout and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, R Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Third Edition of CMOS Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation continues to cover the practical design of both analog and digital integrated circuits, offering a vital, contemporary view of a wide range of analog/digital circuit blocks including: phase-locked-loops, delta-sigma sensing circuits, voltage/current references, op-amps, the design of data converters, and much more. Regardless of one's integrated circuit (IC) design skill level, this book allows readers to experience both the theory behind, and the hands-on implementation of, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) IC design via detailed derivations, discussions, and hundreds of design, layout, and simulation examples.

  12. Integrated devices in digital circuit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, G. S.

    Aspects of combinational design are examined, taking into account logical operations, truth tables, Karnaugh maps as input output expressions, minimum forms, maximum forms, minterm forms, symbols, fundamental relationships, Karnaugh maps as design tools, the implementation of logic functions, logic and implementation, logic nor implementation, implementation examples, the exclusive or function, symmetrical forms, reduction, and practical circuits. Multiplexers and demultiplexers in combinational circuits are considered along with fundamental mode circuits, event-driven sequential circuits, event-driven circuit implementation using multiplexers, clock-driven sequential circuits, counters and multiplexers in clock-driven sequential circuits, state diagram construction, registers in logic design, a digital system, programming and programming aids, input and output techniques, operation and configuration of independent systems, and a definition of a Boolean algebra. Attention is also given to Intel's and Motorola's executable instructions.

  13. Universal Programmable Quantum Circuit Schemes to Emulate an Operator

    OpenAIRE

    Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kollias, Giorgos; Kais, Sabre

    2012-01-01

    Unlike fixed designs, programmable circuit designs support an infinite number of operators. The functionality of a programmable circuit can be altered by simply changing the angle values of the rotation gates in the circuit. Here, we present a new quantum circuit design technique resulting in two general programmable circuit schemes. The circuit schemes can be used to simulate any given operator by setting the angle values in the circuit. This provides a fixed circuit design whose angles are ...

  14. Cerebro-cerebellar circuits in autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, Anila M.; Stoodley, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum is one of the most consistent sites of abnormality in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and cerebellar damage is associated with an increased risk of ASD symptoms, suggesting that cerebellar dysfunction may play a crucial role in the etiology of ASD. The cerebellum forms multiple closed-loop circuits with cerebral cortical regions that underpin movement, language, and social processing. Through these circuits, cerebellar dysfunction could impact the core ASD symptoms of social and communication deficits and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. The emerging topography of sensorimotor, cognitive, and affective subregions in the cerebellum provides a new framework for interpreting the significance of regional cerebellar findings in ASD and their relationship to broader cerebro-cerebellar circuits. Further, recent research supports the idea that the integrity of cerebro-cerebellar loops might be important for early cortical development; disruptions in specific cerebro-cerebellar loops in ASD might impede the specialization of cortical regions involved in motor control, language, and social interaction, leading to impairments in these domains. Consistent with this concept, structural, and functional differences in sensorimotor regions of the cerebellum and sensorimotor cerebro-cerebellar circuits are associated with deficits in motor control and increased repetitive and stereotyped behaviors in ASD. Further, communication and social impairments are associated with atypical activation and structure in cerebro-cerebellar loops underpinning language and social cognition. Finally, there is converging evidence from structural, functional, and connectivity neuroimaging studies that cerebellar right Crus I/II abnormalities are related to more severe ASD impairments in all domains. We propose that cerebellar abnormalities may disrupt optimization of both structure and function in specific cerebro-cerebellar circuits in ASD. PMID:26594140

  15. From strong to ultrastrong coupling in circuit QED architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczyk, Thomas

    2011-08-10

    The field of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) studies the interaction between light and matter on a fundamental level: a single atom interacts with a single photon. If the atom-photon coupling is larger than any dissipative effects, the system enters the strong-coupling limit. A peculiarity of this regime is the possibility to form coherent superpositions of light and matter excitations - a kind of 'molecule' consisting of an atomic and a photonic contribution. The novel research field of circuit QED extends cavity QED concepts to solid-state based system. Here, a superconducting quantum bit is coupled to an on-chip superconducting one-dimensional waveguide resonator. Owing to the small mode-volume of the resonant cavity, the large dipole moment of the 'artificial atom' and the enormous engineering potential inherent to superconducting quantum circuits, remarkable atom-photon coupling strengths can be realized. This thesis describes the theoretical framework, the development of fabrication techniques and the implementation of experimental characterization techniques for superconducting quantum circuits for circuit QED applications. In particular, we study the interaction between superconducting flux quantum bits and high-quality coplanar waveguide resonators in the strong-coupling limit. Furthermore, we report on the first experimental realization of a circuit QED system operating in the ultrastrong-coupling regime, where the atom-photon coupling rate reaches a considerable fraction of the relevant system frequencies. In these experiments we could observe phenomena that can not be explained within the renowned Jaynes-Cummings model. (orig.)

  16. Cerebro-cerebellar circuits in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, Anila M; Stoodley, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum is one of the most consistent sites of abnormality in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and cerebellar damage is associated with an increased risk of ASD symptoms, suggesting that cerebellar dysfunction may play a crucial role in the etiology of ASD. The cerebellum forms multiple closed-loop circuits with cerebral cortical regions that underpin movement, language, and social processing. Through these circuits, cerebellar dysfunction could impact the core ASD symptoms of social and communication deficits and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. The emerging topography of sensorimotor, cognitive, and affective subregions in the cerebellum provides a new framework for interpreting the significance of regional cerebellar findings in ASD and their relationship to broader cerebro-cerebellar circuits. Further, recent research supports the idea that the integrity of cerebro-cerebellar loops might be important for early cortical development; disruptions in specific cerebro-cerebellar loops in ASD might impede the specialization of cortical regions involved in motor control, language, and social interaction, leading to impairments in these domains. Consistent with this concept, structural, and functional differences in sensorimotor regions of the cerebellum and sensorimotor cerebro-cerebellar circuits are associated with deficits in motor control and increased repetitive and stereotyped behaviors in ASD. Further, communication and social impairments are associated with atypical activation and structure in cerebro-cerebellar loops underpinning language and social cognition. Finally, there is converging evidence from structural, functional, and connectivity neuroimaging studies that cerebellar right Crus I/II abnormalities are related to more severe ASD impairments in all domains. We propose that cerebellar abnormalities may disrupt optimization of both structure and function in specific cerebro-cerebellar circuits in ASD.

  17. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  18. Circuit QED with transmon qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Puertas, Javier; Baust, Alexander; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Haeberlein, Max; Schwarz, Manuel; Xie, Edwar; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Marx, Achim; Menzel, Edwin; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Weides, Martin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting quantum bits are basic building blocks for circuit QED systems. Applications in the fields of quantum computation and quantum simulation require long coherence times. We have fabricated and characterized superconducting transmon qubits which are designed to operate at a high ratio of Josephson energy and charging energy. Due to their low sensitivity to charge noise transmon qubits show good coherence properties. We couple transmon qubits to coplanar waveguide resonators and coplanar slotline resonators and characterize the devices at mK-temperatures. From the experimental data we derive the qubit-resonator coupling strength, the qubit relaxation time and calibrate the photon number in the resonator via Stark shifts.

  19. Pragmatic circuits signals and filters

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2006-01-01

    Pragmatic Circuits: Signals and Filters is built around the processing of signals. Topics include spectra, a short introduction to the Fourier series, design of filters, and the properties of the Fourier transform. The focus is on signals rather than power. But the treatment is still pragmatic. For example, the author accepts the work of Butterworth and uses his results to design filters in a fairly methodical fashion. This third of three volumes finishes with a look at spectra by showing how to get a spectrum even if a signal is not periodic. The Fourier transform provides a way of dealing wi

  20. Quantum Memristors with Superconducting Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmilehto, J; Deppe, F; Di Ventra, M; Sanz, M; Solano, E

    2017-02-14

    Memristors are resistive elements retaining information of their past dynamics. They have garnered substantial interest due to their potential for representing a paradigm change in electronics, information processing and unconventional computing. Given the advent of quantum technologies, a design for a quantum memristor with superconducting circuits may be envisaged. Along these lines, we introduce such a quantum device whose memristive behavior arises from quasiparticle-induced tunneling when supercurrents are cancelled. For realistic parameters, we find that the relevant hysteretic behavior may be observed using current state-of-the-art measurements of the phase-driven tunneling current. Finally, we develop suitable methods to quantify memory retention in the system.

  1. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  2. HF radio systems and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, William

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive reference for the design of high frequency communications systems and equipment. This revised edition is loaded with practical data, much of which cannot be found in other reference books. Its approach to the subject follows the needs of an engineer from system definition and performance requirements down to the individual circuit elements that make up radio transmitters and receivers. The accompanying disk contains updated software on filters, matching networks and receiver analysis. SciTech Publishing also provides many other products related to Communication Systems Design.

  3. Changes in University Students' Explanation Models of DC Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi; Mäntylä, Terhi

    2017-04-01

    One well-known learning obstacle is that students rarely use the concepts in the way that scientists use them. Rather, students mix up closely related concepts and are inclined towards matter-based conceptualisations. Furthermore, some researchers have argued that certain difficulties are rooted in the student's limited repertoire of causal schemes. These two aspects are conveniently represented in the recent proposal of the systemic view of concept learning. We applied this framework in our analyses of university students' explanations of DC circuits and their use of concepts such as voltage, current and resistance. Our data consist of transcribed group interviews, which we analysed with content analysis. The results of our analysis are represented with directed graphs. Our results show that students had a rather refined ontological knowledge of the concepts. However, students relied on rather simple explanation models, but few students were able to modify their explanations during the interview. Based on the analysis, we identified three processes of change: model switch, model refinement and model elaboration. This emphasises the importance of relevant relational knowledge at a later stage of learning. This demonstrates how concept individuation and learning of relational structures occurs (and in which order) and sets forth interesting research questions for future research.

  4. Conceptual studies for a mercury target circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, B. [ETH Nuclear Engineering Lab., Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-06-01

    For the now favored target design of the European Spallation Source project, i.e. the version using mercury as target material, a basic concept of the primary system has been worked out. It does not include a detailed design of the various components of the target circuit, but tries to outline a feasible solution for the system. Besides the removal of the thermal power of about 3MW produced in the target by the proton beam, the primary system has to satisfy a number of other requirements related to processing, safety, and operation. The basic proposal uses an electromagnetic pump and a mercury-water intermediate heat excanger, but other alternatives are also being discussed. Basic safety requirements, i.e. protection against radiation and toxic mercury vapours, are satisfied by a design using an air-tight primary system containment, double-walled tubes in the intermediate heat exchanger, a fail-safe system for decay heat removal, and a remote handling facility for the active part of the system. Much engineering work has still to be done, because many details of the design of the mercury and gas processing systems remain to be clarified, the thermal-hydraulic components need further optimisation, the system for control and instrumentation is only known in outline and a through safety analysis will be required.

  5. High-Mixed-Voltage Analog and RF Circuit Techniques for Nanoscale CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Pui-In

    2012-01-01

    This book presents high-/mixed-voltage analog and radio frequency (RF) circuit techniques for developing low-cost multistandard wireless receivers in nm-length CMOS processes.  Key benefits of high-/mixed-voltage RF and analog CMOS circuits are explained, state-of-the-art examples are studied, and circuit solutions before and after voltage-conscious design are compared. Three real design examples are included, which demonstrate the feasibility of high-/mixed-voltage circuit techniques.    Provides a valuable summary and real case studies of the state-of-the-art in high-/mixed-voltage circuits and systems; Includes novel high-/mixed-voltage analog and RF circuit techniques – from concept to practice; Describes the first high-voltage-enabled mobile-TVRF front-end in 90nm CMOS and the first mixed-voltage full-band mobile-TV Receiver in 65nm CMOS; Demonstrates the feasibility of high-/mixed-voltage circuit techniques with real design examples.  

  6. Effect of a Diagram on Primary Students' Understanding About Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christine Margaret

    2017-09-01

    This article reports on the effect of using a diagram to develop primary students' conceptual understanding about electric circuits. Diagrammatic representations of electric circuits are used for teaching and assessment despite the absence of research on their pedagogical effectiveness with young learners. Individual interviews were used to closely analyse Years 3 and 5 (8-11-year-old) students' explanations about electric circuits. Data was collected from 20 students in the same school providing pre-, post- and delayed post-test dialogue. Students' thinking about electric circuits and changes in their explanations provide insights into the role of diagrams in understanding science concepts. Findings indicate that diagram interaction positively enhanced understanding, challenged non-scientific views and promoted scientific models of electric circuits. Differences in students' understanding about electric circuits were influenced by prior knowledge, meta-conceptual awareness and diagram conventions including a stylistic feature of the diagram used. A significant finding that students' conceptual models of electric circuits were energy rather than current based has implications for electricity instruction at the primary level.

  7. Compiler-aided systematic construction of large-scale DNA strand displacement circuits using unpurified components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thubagere, Anupama J; Thachuk, Chris; Berleant, Joseph; Johnson, Robert F; Ardelean, Diana A; Cherry, Kevin M; Qian, Lulu

    2017-02-23

    Biochemical circuits made of rationally designed DNA molecules are proofs of concept for embedding control within complex molecular environments. They hold promise for transforming the current technologies in chemistry, biology, medicine and material science by introducing programmable and responsive behaviour to diverse molecular systems. As the transformative power of a technology depends on its accessibility, two main challenges are an automated design process and simple experimental procedures. Here we demonstrate the use of circuit design software, combined with the use of unpurified strands and simplified experimental procedures, for creating a complex DNA strand displacement circuit that consists of 78 distinct species. We develop a systematic procedure for overcoming the challenges involved in using unpurified DNA strands. We also develop a model that takes synthesis errors into consideration and semi-quantitatively reproduces the experimental data. Our methods now enable even novice researchers to successfully design and construct complex DNA strand displacement circuits.

  8. Some didactical suggestions for a deeper embedding of DC circuits into electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavinato, M.; Giliberti, M.; Barbieri, S. R.

    2017-09-01

    Undergraduate students often encounter great difficulties in understanding Ohm’s law and electrical circuits. Considering the widespread students’ beliefs and their common mistakes, as they come out from the literature and our teaching experience, we think that a relevant source of these problems comes from the fact that electrical circuits are generally treated separately from the other topics of electromagnetism, with poor reference to the circulation of the electric field. We present here a way to deal with electrical circuits that could help students to overcome their difficulties. In our approach, the electric field is the protagonist and the mathematical tool the students are asked to use is its circulation. In the light of the circulation of the electric field, the experimental Ohm’s law is revisited, the concept of electromotive force is discussed and some suggestions to eliminate common misconceptions about the role of a battery in a circuit are presented.

  9. Designing and engineering evolutionary robust genetic circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieviant Jane A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One problem with engineered genetic circuits in synthetic microbes is their stability over evolutionary time in the absence of selective pressure. Since design of a selective environment for maintaining function of a circuit will be unique to every circuit, general design principles are needed for engineering evolutionary robust circuits that permit the long-term study or applied use of synthetic circuits. Results We first measured the stability of two BioBrick-assembled genetic circuits propagated in Escherichia coli over multiple generations and the mutations that caused their loss-of-function. The first circuit, T9002, loses function in less than 20 generations and the mutation that repeatedly causes its loss-of-function is a deletion between two homologous transcriptional terminators. To measure the effect between transcriptional terminator homology levels and evolutionary stability, we re-engineered six versions of T9002 with a different transcriptional terminator at the end of the circuit. When there is no homology between terminators, the evolutionary half-life of this circuit is significantly improved over 2-fold and is independent of the expression level. Removing homology between terminators and decreasing expression level 4-fold increases the evolutionary half-life over 17-fold. The second circuit, I7101, loses function in less than 50 generations due to a deletion between repeated operator sequences in the promoter. This circuit was re-engineered with different promoters from a promoter library and using a kanamycin resistance gene (kanR within the circuit to put a selective pressure on the promoter. The evolutionary stability dynamics and loss-of-function mutations in all these circuits are described. We also found that on average, evolutionary half-life exponentially decreases with increasing expression levels. Conclusions A wide variety of loss-of-function mutations are observed in BioBrick-assembled genetic

  10. Designing and engineering evolutionary robust genetic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, Sean C; Bartley, Bryan A; Lieviant, Jane A; Sauro, Herbert M

    2010-11-01

    One problem with engineered genetic circuits in synthetic microbes is their stability over evolutionary time in the absence of selective pressure. Since design of a selective environment for maintaining function of a circuit will be unique to every circuit, general design principles are needed for engineering evolutionary robust circuits that permit the long-term study or applied use of synthetic circuits. We first measured the stability of two BioBrick-assembled genetic circuits propagated in Escherichia coli over multiple generations and the mutations that caused their loss-of-function. The first circuit, T9002, loses function in less than 20 generations and the mutation that repeatedly causes its loss-of-function is a deletion between two homologous transcriptional terminators. To measure the effect between transcriptional terminator homology levels and evolutionary stability, we re-engineered six versions of T9002 with a different transcriptional terminator at the end of the circuit. When there is no homology between terminators, the evolutionary half-life of this circuit is significantly improved over 2-fold and is independent of the expression level. Removing homology between terminators and decreasing expression level 4-fold increases the evolutionary half-life over 17-fold. The second circuit, I7101, loses function in less than 50 generations due to a deletion between repeated operator sequences in the promoter. This circuit was re-engineered with different promoters from a promoter library and using a kanamycin resistance gene (kanR) within the circuit to put a selective pressure on the promoter. The evolutionary stability dynamics and loss-of-function mutations in all these circuits are described. We also found that on average, evolutionary half-life exponentially decreases with increasing expression levels. A wide variety of loss-of-function mutations are observed in BioBrick-assembled genetic circuits including point mutations, small insertions and

  11. Application of Leak-Before-Break concept in 316LN austenitic steel pipes welded using 316L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Giannini de Cunto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of the application of Leak-BeforeBreak (LBB concept in a relatively small-diameter high energy reactor coolant line, where it is proposed type AISI 316LN to be used as base material welded with type AISI 316L coated electrode considering a pipe with diameter of 273 mm. The pipe material was characterized in terms of tensile test with Ramberg-Osgood analyses and fracture toughness tests with J-Resistance curve determination, considering base material, weld joint and heat affected zones. For the mechanical properties found in tensile tests and using the PICEP software, were determined the leak rate curves versus crack sizes, to determine the size of a detectable leakage crack, and the critical crack sizes, considering failure by plastic collapse. For the critical crack sizes found in weld, which presented the lowest toughness, J-Integral analysis was performed considering failure by tearing instability. Results show a well-defined mechanical behavior where base material has a high toughness, weld has a low toughness, and HAZ showed intermediate properties. For the load limit analysis, the lowest critical crack size was found for base material presenting circumferential cracks. For J- Integral analysis, it was demonstrated that failure by tearing instability will not occur.

  12. Noise Analysis of Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retdian, Nicodimus; Takagi, Shigetaka

    Switched-capacitor (SC) circuit has been a well known analog circuit block. Since their characteristics are determined by capacitance ratio, SC circuits are suitable for on-chip implementations. Eventhough there are so many publications on the design of SC circuits, only a few of them discuss the property of noise in SC circuits. Linear noise analysis are common in continuous-time systems. However, SC circuits are operating in discrete-time domain and their noise properties are known to be a non-linear phenomenon and dificult to be analyzed by hand. This paper will show a noise analysis of an SC integrator as an example for a better understanding of the analysis method. It will be shown by simulation results that the proposed formula gives a better approximation of noise power spectral density (PSD).

  13. A concise guide to chaotic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buscarino, Arturo; Frasca, Mattia; Sciuto, Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides a source of instruction from which students can be taught about the practicalities of designing and using chaotic circuits. The text provides information on suitable materials, circuit design and schemes for design realization. Readers are then shown how to reproduce experiments on chaos and to design new ones. The text guides the reader easily from the basic idea of chaos to the laboratory test providing an experimental basis that can be developed for such applications as secure communications. This brief provides introductory information on sample chaotic circuits, includes coverage of their development, and the “gallery” section provides information on a wide range of circuits. Concise Guide to Chaotic Electronic Circuits will be useful to anyone running a laboratory class involving chaotic circuits and to students wishing to learn about them.

  14. A Singularity in the Kirchhoff's Circuit Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Harsha, N R Sree

    2016-01-01

    Students often have difficulty in understanding qualitatively the behaviour of simple electric circuits. In particular, as different studies have shown, they find multiple batteries connected in multiple loops difficult to analyse. In a recent paper [Phys. Educ. 50 568 (2015)], we showed such an electric circuit, which consists of ideal batteries connected in parallel, that couldn't be solved by the existing circuit analysis methods. In this paper, we shall introduce a new mathematical method of solving simple electric circuits from the solutions of more general circuits and show that the currents, in this particular circuit, take the indeterminate 0/0 form. We shall also present some of the implications of teaching the method. We believe that the description presented in this paper should help the instructors in teaching the behaviour of multiple batteries connected in parallel.

  15. Logarithmic current-measuring transistor circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Kristian Søe

    1967-01-01

    Describes two transistorized circuits for the logarithmic measurement of small currents suitable for nuclear reactor instrumentation. The logarithmic element is applied in the feedback path of an amplifier, and only one dual transistor is used as logarithmic diode and temperature compensating...... transistor. A simple one-amplifier circuit is compared with a two-amplifier system. The circuits presented have been developed in connexion with an amplifier using a dual m.o.s. transistor input stage with diode-protected gates....

  16. Hybrid Techniques for Quantum Circuit Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This report was cleared for public release by the 88th ABW, Wright-Patterson AFB...that, for any unitary stabilizer circuit, there exists an equivalent block-structured canonical circuit that applies a block of Hadamard (H) gates...operation, we map it to a conventional logic circuit that processes the SNs in an appropriate way. A quantum gate G corresponds to a 2n × 2n unitary

  17. Analog MOS integrated circuits for signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorian, R.; Temes, G. C.

    Theoretical and practical aspects of analog MOS integrated circuits are discussed. The basic properties of these circuits are described, providing necessary background material in mathematics and semiconductor device physics and technology. The operation and design of such important circuits as switched-capacitor filters, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, amplifiers, modulators, and oscillators. Practical problems encountered in design are discussed, solutions are provided, and some examples of actual system applications are given.

  18. The analysis and design of linear circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Roland E; Toussaint, Gregory J

    2009-01-01

    The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, 6e gives the reader the opportunity to not only analyze, but also design and evaluate linear circuits as early as possible. The text's abundance of problems, applications, pedagogical tools, and realistic examples helps engineers develop the skills needed to solve problems, design practical alternatives, and choose the best design from several competing solutions. Engineers searching for an accessible introduction to resistance circuits will benefit from this book that emphasizes the early development of engineering judgment.

  19. Inexact Subgraph Matching for Digital Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    circuit graph perspective. As a result, attempting to locate library structures within the larger circuit context via static analysis becomes an...e.g. imaging, biology, and large data set feature analysis ), however, and practical applications of it have been studied for some time. Many of...Digital Circuit Analysis Whitney Batchelor, Frederic Tuttle, Stephen Baka, Scott Harper Secure Computing & Communications Division MacAulay-Brown

  20. RF engineering basic concepts: S-parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F

    2011-01-01

    The concept of describing RF circuits in terms of waves is discussed and the S-matrix and related matrices are defined. The signal flow graph (SFG) is introduced as a graphical means to visualize how waves propagate in an RF network. The properties of the most relevant passive RF devices (hybrids, couplers, non-reciprocal elements, etc.) are delineated and the corresponding S-parameters are given. For microwave integrated circuits (MICs) planar transmission lines such as the microstrip line have become very important.

  1. High temperature superconducting digital circuits and subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, J.S.; Pance, A.; Whiteley, S.R.; Char, K.; Johansson, M.F.; Lee, L. [Conductus, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Hietala, V.M.; Wendt, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The advances in the fabrication of high temperature superconducting devices have enabled the demonstration of high performance and useful digital circuits and subsystems. The yield and uniformity of the devices is sufficient for circuit fabrication at the medium scale integration (MSI) level with performance not seen before at 77 K. The circuits demonstrated to date include simple gates, counters, analog to digital converters, and shift registers. All of these are mid-sized building blocks for potential applications in commercial and military systems. The processes used for these circuits and blocks will be discussed along with observed performance data.

  2. Ways to Optimize Analogue Switched Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hospodka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how analogue switched circuits (switched-capacitor and switched-current circuits can be optimized by means of a personal computer. The optimization of this kind of circuits is not so common and their analysis is more difficult in comparison with continuously working circuits. Firstly, the nonidealities occurring in these circuits whose effect on their characteristics should be optimized are discussed. Then a few ways to analyze analogue switched circuits are shown. From all optimization algorithms applicable for this kind of optimization, two ones that seem to be the most promising are proposed. The differential evolution (one of evolutionary algorithms combined with the simplex method was found to be most appropriate from these two ones. Two types of programs are required for the optimization of these circuits: a program for implementing calculations of the used optimization algorithm and a program for the analysis of the optimized circuit. Several suitable computer programs from both of the groups together with their proper settings according to authors’ experience are proposed. At the end of the paper, an example of a switched-current circuit optimization documenting the previous description is presented.

  3. Electric circuit theory applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yorke, R

    1981-01-01

    Electric Circuit Theory provides a concise coverage of the framework of electrical engineering. Comprised of six chapters, this book emphasizes the physical process of electrical engineering rather than abstract mathematics. Chapter 1 deals with files, circuits, and parameters, while Chapter 2 covers the natural and forced response of simple circuit. Chapter 3 talks about the sinusoidal steady state, and Chapter 4 discusses the circuit analysis. The fifth chapter tackles frequency response of networks, and the last chapter covers polyphase systems. This book will be of great help to electrical

  4. Circuit complexity in quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Robert A.; Myers, Robert C.

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by recent studies of holographic complexity, we examine the question of circuit complexity in quantum field theory. We provide a quantum circuit model for the preparation of Gaussian states, in particular the ground state, in a free scalar field theory for general dimensions. Applying the geometric approach of Nielsen to this quantum circuit model, the complexity of the state becomes the length of the shortest geodesic in the space of circuits. We compare the complexity of the ground state of the free scalar field to the analogous results from holographic complexity, and find some surprising similarities.

  5. Circuit For Control Of Electromechanical Prosthetic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed circuit for control of electromechanical prosthetic hand derives electrical control signals from shoulder movements. Updated, electronic version of prosthesis, that includes two hooklike fingers actuated via cables from shoulder harness. Circuit built around favored shoulder harness, provides more dexterous movement, without incurring complexity of computer-controlled "bionic" or hydraulically actuated devices. Additional harness and potentiometer connected to similar control circuit mounted on other shoulder. Used to control stepping motor rotating hand about prosthetic wrist to one of number of angles consistent with number of digital outputs. Finger-control signals developed by circuit connected to first shoulder harness transmitted to prosthetic hand via sliprings at prosthetic wrist joint.

  6. Analog circuit design art, science, and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and Personalities discusses the many approaches and styles in the practice of analog circuit design. The book is written in an informal yet informative manner, making it easily understandable to those new in the field. The selection covers the definition, history, current practice, and future direction of analog design; the practice proper; and the styles in analog circuit design. The book also includes the problems usually encountered in analog circuit design; approach to feedback loop design; and other different techniques and applications. The text is

  7. Hybrid stretchable circuits on silicone substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, A., E-mail: adam.1.robinson@nokia.com; Aziz, A., E-mail: a.aziz1@lancaster.ac.uk [Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB01FF (United Kingdom); Liu, Q.; Suo, Z. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Kavli Institute for Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Lacour, S. P., E-mail: stephanie.lacour@epfl.ch [Centre for Neuroprosthetics and Laboratory for Soft Bioelectronics Interfaces, School of Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland)

    2014-04-14

    When rigid and stretchable components are integrated onto a single elastic carrier substrate, large strain heterogeneities appear in the vicinity of the deformable-non-deformable interfaces. In this paper, we report on a generic approach to manufacture hybrid stretchable circuits where commercial electronic components can be mounted on a stretchable circuit board. Similar to printed circuit board development, the components are electrically bonded on the elastic substrate and interconnected with stretchable electrical traces. The substrate—a silicone matrix carrying concentric rigid disks—ensures both the circuit elasticity and the mechanical integrity of the most fragile materials.

  8. Short-Circuit Robustness Assessment in Power Electronic Modules for Megawatt Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, threats and opportunities in testing of megawatt power electronic modules under short circuit are presented and discussed, together with the introduction of some basic principles of non-destructive testing, a key technique to allow post-failure analysis. The non-destructive testing...... silicon carbide – and new concepts for nondestructive testing of ultrafast power modules adopting such a technology....

  9. Integrated Circuit Design of a Video Reconstructor for a Range-Gated Moving Target Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    processing concepts. The author expresses his gratitude to Professor Rudolf Panholzer who gave him the opportunity to meet the semi- conductor world...1976. 5. Clark- Hess , Communication Circuits, Prentice Hall, 1971. 6. Ferrel G. Stremler, Introduction to Communication Systems, McGraw Hill. 7. N. I

  10. An Educational Laboratory for Digital Control and Rapid Prototyping of Power Electronic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sanghun; Saeedifard, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new educational power electronics laboratory that was developed primarily to reinforce experimentally the fundamental concepts presented in a power electronics course. The developed laboratory combines theoretical design, simulation studies, digital control, fabrication, and verification of power-electronic circuits based on…

  11. Mental Models of Elementary and Middle School Students in Analyzing Simple Battery and Bulb Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabot, Michael; Henry, David

    2007-01-01

    Written assessment items were developed to probe students' understanding of a variety of direct current (DC) resistive electric circuit concepts. The items were used to explore the mental models that grade 3-8 students use in explaining the direction of electric current and how electric current is affected by different configurations of simple…

  12. Laser system for testing radiation imaging detector circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycka, Weronika; Kasinski, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Performance and functionality of radiation imaging detector circuits in charge and position measurement systems need to meet tight requirements. It is therefore necessary to thoroughly test sensors as well as read-out electronics. The major disadvantages of using radioactive sources or particle beams for testing are high financial expenses and limited accessibility. As an alternative short pulses of well-focused laser beam are often used for preliminary tests. There are number of laser-based devices available on the market, but very often their applicability in this field is limited. This paper describes concept, design and validation of laser system for testing silicon sensor based radiation imaging detector circuits. The emphasis is put on keeping overall costs low while achieving all required goals: mobility, flexible parameters, remote control and possibility of carrying out automated tests. The main part of the developed device is an optical pick-up unit (OPU) used in optical disc drives. The hardware includes FPGA-controlled circuits for laser positioning in 2 dimensions (horizontal and vertical), precision timing (frequency and number) and amplitude (diode current) of short ns-scale (3.2 ns) light pulses. The system is controlled via USB interface by a dedicated LabVIEW-based application enabling full manual or semi-automated test procedures.

  13. Dynamic Coding of Signed Quantities in Cortical Feedback Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eBallard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the early sensory and motor areas of the cortex, individual neurons transmit information about specific sensory features via a peaked response. This concept has been crystallized as `labeled lines,' to denote that axons communicate the specific properties of their sensory or motor parent cell. Such cells also can be characterized as being polarized, that is, as representing a signed quantity that is either positive or negative. We show in a model simulation that there are two important consequences when learning receptive fields using such signed codings in circuits that subtract different inputs. The first is that, in feedback circuits using labeled lines, such arithmetic operations need to be distributed across multiple distinct pathways. The second consequence is that such pathways must be necessarily dynamic, i.e. that synapses can grow and retract when forming receptive fields. The model monitors the breaking and growing of new circuit connections when their synapses need to change polarities and predicts that the rate of such changes should be inversely correlated with the progress of receptive field formation.

  14. Experimental study of two-phase natural circulation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley Freitas; Su, Jian, E-mail: wlemos@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio, E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), RIo de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on the behavior of fluid flow in natural circulation under single-and two-phase flow conditions. The natural circulation circuit was designed based on concepts of similarity and scale in proportion to the actual operating conditions of a nuclear reactor. This test equipment has similar performance to the passive system for removal of residual heat presents in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (A PWR). The experiment was carried out by supplying water to primary and secondary circuits, as well as electrical power resistors installed inside the heater. Power controller has available to adjust the values for supply of electrical power resistors, in order to simulate conditions of decay of power from the nuclear reactor in steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and control of the temperature at different points by means of thermocouples installed at several points along the circuit. The behavior of the phenomenon of natural circulation was monitored by a software with graphical interface, showing the evolution of temperature measurement points and the results stored in digital format spreadsheets. Besides, the natural circulation flow rate was measured by a flowmeter installed on the hot leg. A flow visualization technique was used the for identifying vertical flow regimes of two-phase natural circulation. Finally, the Reynolds Number was calculated for the establishment of a friction factor correlation dependent on the scale geometrical length, height and diameter of the pipe. (author)

  15. Concept Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Explains concept mapping as a heuristic device that is helpful in visualizing the relationships between and among ideas. Highlights include how to begin a map; brainstorming; map applications, including document or information summaries and writing composition; and mind mapping to strengthen note-taking. (LRW)

  16. Scaling of graphene integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Massimiliano; Guerriero, Erica; Fiocco, Marco; Alberti, Ruggero; Polloni, Laura; Behnam, Ashkan; Carrion, Enrique A; Pop, Eric; Sordan, Roman

    2015-05-07

    The influence of transistor size reduction (scaling) on the speed of realistic multi-stage integrated circuits (ICs) represents the main performance metric of a given transistor technology. Despite extensive interest in graphene electronics, scaling efforts have so far focused on individual transistors rather than multi-stage ICs. Here we study the scaling of graphene ICs based on transistors from 3.3 to 0.5 μm gate lengths and with different channel widths, access lengths, and lead thicknesses. The shortest gate delay of 31 ps per stage was obtained in sub-micron graphene ROs oscillating at 4.3 GHz, which is the highest oscillation frequency obtained in any strictly low-dimensional material to date. We also derived the fundamental Johnson limit, showing that scaled graphene ICs could be used at high frequencies in applications with small voltage swing.

  17. TIME CALIBRATED OSCILLOSCOPE SWEEP CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, V.L.; Carstensen, H.K.

    1959-11-24

    An improved time calibrated sweep circuit is presented, which extends the range of usefulness of conventional oscilloscopes as utilized for time calibrated display applications in accordance with U. S. Patent No. 2,832,002. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a pair of separate signal paths, each of which is phase and amplitude adjustable, to connect a high-frequency calibration oscillator to the output of a sawtooth generator also connected to the respective horizontal deflection plates of an oscilloscope cathode ray tube. The amplitude and phase of the calibration oscillator signals in the two signal paths are adjusted to balance out feedthrough currents capacitively coupled at high frequencies of the calibration oscillator from each horizontal deflection plate to the vertical plates of the cathode ray tube.

  18. Coulomb drag in quantum circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Alex; Kamenev, Alex

    2008-11-21

    We study the drag effect in a system of two electrically isolated quantum point contacts, coupled by Coulomb interactions. Drag current exhibits maxima as a function of quantum point contacts gate voltages when the latter are tuned to the transitions between quantized conductance plateaus. In the linear regime this behavior is due to enhanced electron-hole asymmetry near an opening of a new conductance channel. In the nonlinear regime the drag current is proportional to the shot noise of the driving circuit, suggesting that the Coulomb drag experiments may be a convenient way to measure the quantum shot noise. Remarkably, the transition to the nonlinear regime may occur at driving voltages substantially smaller than the temperature.

  19. Electrical circuit theory and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    This much-loved textbook explains the principles of electrical circuit theory and technology so that students of electrical and mechanical engineering can master the subject. Real-world situations and engineering examples put the theory into context. The inclusion of worked problems with solutions help you to learn and further problems then allow you to test and confirm you have fully understood each subject. In total the book contains 800 worked problems, 1000 further problems and 14 revision tests with answers online. This an ideal text for foundation and undergraduate degree students and those on upper level vocational engineering courses, in particular electrical and mechanical. It provides a sound understanding of the knowledge required by technicians in fields such as electrical engineering, electronics and telecommunications. This edition has been updated with developments in key areas such as semiconductors, transistors, and fuel cells, along with brand new material on ABCD parameters and Fourier's An...

  20. Short circuit in deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samura, Kazuhiro; Miyagi, Yasushi; Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Hayami, Takehito; Kishimoto, Junji; Katano, Mitsuo; Kamikaseda, Kazufumi

    2012-11-01

    The authors undertook this study to investigate the incidence, cause, and clinical influence of short circuits in patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). After the incidental identification of a short circuit during routine follow-up, the authors initiated a policy at their institution of routinely evaluating both therapeutic impedance and system impendence at every outpatient DBS follow-up visit, irrespective of the presence of symptoms suggesting possible system malfunction. This study represents a report of their findings after 1 year of this policy. Implanted DBS leads exhibiting short circuits were identified in 7 patients (8.9% of the patients seen for outpatient follow-up examinations during the 12-month study period). The mean duration from DBS lead implantation to the discovery of the short circuit was 64.7 months. The symptoms revealing short circuits included the wearing off of therapeutic effect, apraxia of eyelid opening, or dysarthria in 6 patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and dystonia deterioration in 1 patient with generalized dystonia. All DBS leads with short circuits had been anchored to the cranium using titanium miniplates. Altering electrode settings resulted in clinical improvement in the 2 PD cases in which patients had specific symptoms of short circuits (2.5%) but not in the other 4 cases. The patient with dystonia underwent repositioning and replacement of a lead because the previous lead was located too anteriorly, but did not experience symptom improvement. In contrast to the sudden loss of clinical efficacy of DBS caused by an open circuit, short circuits may arise due to a gradual decrease in impedance, causing the insidious development of neurological symptoms via limited or extended potential fields as well as shortened battery longevity. The incidence of short circuits in DBS may be higher than previously thought, especially in cases in which DBS leads are anchored with miniplates. The circuit impedance of DBS

  1. 30 CFR 75.518 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electric equipment and circuits against short circuit and overloads. Three-phase motors on all electric equipment shall be provided with overload protection that will deenergize all three phases in the event that... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and...

  2. Design of an improved RCD buffer circuit for full bridge circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyan; Wei, Xueye; Du, Yongbo; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Ou

    2017-05-01

    In the full bridge inverter circuit, when the switch tube suddenly opened or closed, the inductor current changes rapidly. Due to the existence of parasitic inductance of the main circuit. Therefore, the surge voltage between drain and source of the switch tube can be generated, which will have an impact on the switch and the output voltage. In order to ab sorb the surge voltage. An improve RCD buffer circuit is proposed in the paper. The peak energy will be absorbed through the buffer capacitor of the circuit. The part energy feedback to the power supply, another part release through the resistor in the form of heat, and the circuit can absorb the voltage spikes. This paper analyzes the process of the improved RCD snubber circuit, According to the specific parameters of the main circuit, a reasonable formula for calculating the resistance capacitance is given. A simulation model will be modulated in Multisim, which compared the waveform of tube voltage and the output waveform of the circuit without snubber circuit with the improved RCD snubber circuit. By comparing and analyzing, it is proved that the improved buffer circuit can absorb surge voltage. Finally, experiments are demonstrated to validate that the correctness of the RC formula and the improved RCD snubber circuit.

  3. Pupils' understanding of simple electrical circuits. Some implications for instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipstone, David

    1988-03-01

    There have been many studies worldwide of children's understanding of basic electrical concepts so that there is now quite a clear picture of many of their difficulties. By contrast, work on remediation is in its infancy. The article describes research findings concerning children's difficulties with the concepts of circuit, current and electrical energy and discusses some possible approaches to instruction which arise in the light of these findings. Much of the research carried out has been within the paradigm of constructivist psychology which views all human beings as prototypical scientists, constructing hypotheses and testing these against experience as their way of understanding the world around them. In seeking to understand electrical phenomena children construct a variety of explanatory conceptual models, some of which they then hold very tenaciously.

  4. Recent advances in silicon photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, John E.; Komljenovic, Tin; Davenport, Michael; Hulme, Jared; Liu, Alan Y.; Santis, Christos T.; Spott, Alexander; Srinivasan, Sudharsanan; Stanton, Eric J.; Zhang, Chong

    2016-02-01

    We review recent breakthroughs in silicon photonics technology and components and describe progress in silicon photonic integrated circuits. Heterogeneous silicon photonics has recently demonstrated performance that significantly outperforms native III-V components. The impact active silicon photonic integrated circuits could have on interconnects, telecommunications, sensors and silicon electronics is reviewed.

  5. CLASSICS Invention of the Integrated Circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    electrical functions being connected directly by cutting out areas of the various layers.” This remarkable ... In 1947 I graduated from the University of Illinois with a degree in electrical engineering. I was hired by A. S. .... first circuit attempted was a phase-shift oscillator, a favorite demonstration vehicle for linear circuits at that ...

  6. Approximability of Minimum AND-Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpe, J.; Manthey, Bodo

    Given a set of monomials, the {\\sc Minimum AND-Circuit} problem asks for a circuit that computes these monomials using AND-gates of fan-in two and being of minimum size. We prove that the problem is not polynomial-time approximable within a factor of less than 1.0051 unless {\\sc P = NP}, even if the

  7. Textbook Error: Short Circuiting on Electrochemical Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicamp, Judith M.; Clark, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    Short circuiting an electrochemical cell is an unreported but persistent error in the electrochemistry textbooks. It is suggested that diagrams depicting a cell delivering usable current to a load be postponed, the theory of open-circuit galvanic cells is explained, the voltages from the tables of standard reduction potentials is calculated and…

  8. F-Paris: integrated electronic circuits [Tender

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Fourniture, montage et tests des circuits imprimes et modules multi composants pour le trajectographe central de CMS. Maximum de 12 000 circuits imprimes et modules multi-composants necessaires au trajectographe central de l'experience CMS aupres du Large Hadron Collider" (1 page).

  9. Automatic design of digital synthetic gene circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Marchisio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available De novo computational design of synthetic gene circuits that achieve well-defined target functions is a hard task. Existing, brute-force approaches run optimization algorithms on the structure and on the kinetic parameter values of the network. However, more direct rational methods for automatic circuit design are lacking. Focusing on digital synthetic gene circuits, we developed a methodology and a corresponding tool for in silico automatic design. For a given truth table that specifies a circuit's input-output relations, our algorithm generates and ranks several possible circuit schemes without the need for any optimization. Logic behavior is reproduced by the action of regulatory factors and chemicals on the promoters and on the ribosome binding sites of biological Boolean gates. Simulations of circuits with up to four inputs show a faithful and unequivocal truth table representation, even under parametric perturbations and stochastic noise. A comparison with already implemented circuits, in addition, reveals the potential for simpler designs with the same function. Therefore, we expect the method to help both in devising new circuits and in simplifying existing solutions.

  10. RF Circuit Design in Nanometer CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    With CMOS technology entering the nanometer regime, the design of analog and RF circuits is complicated by low supply voltages, very non-linear (and nonquadratic) devices and large 1/f noise. At the same time, circuits are required to operate over increasingly wide bandwidths to implement modern

  11. Hyperchaotic circuit with damped harmonic oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.

    2001-01-01

    A simple fourth-order hyperchaotic circuit with damped harmonic oscillators is described. ANP3 and PSpice simulations including an eigenvalue study of the linearized Jacobian are presented together with a hardware implementation. The circuit contains two inductors with series resistance, two ideal...

  12. Understanding the Behaviour of Infinite Ladder Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.

    2008-01-01

    Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does…

  13. DEVICES FOR COOLING ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work described structural variants of devices for cooling electronic circuit boards, made on the basis of thermoelectric batteries and consumable working substances, implementing uneven process of removing heat from heat-generating components. A comparison of temperature fields of electronic circuit simulator with his uniform and non-uniform cooling. 

  14. Circuit prevents overcharging of secondary cell batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, T. J.; Potter, N. H.; Sizemore, K. O.

    1966-01-01

    Circuit prevents battery cell overcharging by detecting and reducing the charging voltage to the open-circuit voltage of the battery when this current falls to a predetermined value. The voltage control depends on the fact that the charging current falls significantly when the battery nears its fully charged state.

  15. 47 CFR 32.2232 - Circuit equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit equipment. 32.2232 Section 32.2232... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2232 Circuit equipment. (a) This account shall include the original cost of equipment which is used to reduce the number of...

  16. Dissipative in quantum mesoscopic RLC circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Pahlavani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantum theory for a mesoscopic electric circuit with charge discreteness is investigated. Taking the Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian in studding quantum mechanics of dissipative systems, we obtain the persistent current and the energy spectrum of a damped quantum LC-design mesoscopic circuit under the influence of a time-dependent external field.

  17. Circuits in the Sun: Solar Panel Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfroerer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Typical commercial solar panels consist of approximately 60 individual photovoltaic cells connected in series. Since the usual Kirchhoff rules apply, the current is uniform throughout the circuit, while the electric potential of the individual devices is cumulative. Hence, a solar panel is a good analog of a simple resistive series circuit, except…

  18. Hacking DNA copy number for circuit engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feilun; You, Lingchong

    2017-07-27

    DNA copy number represents an essential parameter in the dynamics of synthetic gene circuits but typically is not explicitly considered. A new study demonstrates how dynamic control of DNA copy number can serve as an effective strategy to program robust oscillations in gene expression circuits.

  19. Active components for integrated plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasavin, A.V.; Bolger, P.M.; Zayats, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides.......We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides....

  20. IMPORTANT NOTICE: Cancellation of shuttle Circuit 3

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Circuit 3 of the CERN Shuttle Service (Point 5), which has served CMS since the start of LS1, will be cancelled with effect from Tuesday 16 April. This decision has been taken in consultation with CMS, as the circuit was seldom used.   In response to increasing demand for Circuit 1 - Meyrin and feedback from passengers, the two Circuit 3 journeys will be switched to Circuit 1 – Meyrin (see new timetable below): Mornings: Four journeys instead of three. Circuit 1 now starts at 8:10 (instead of 8:19 a.m.) and runs until 9:27 a.m. (instead of 9:16 a.m.). Lunchtimes: Five journeys in place between 12:10 p.m. and 1:47 p.m. Evenings: Circuit starts at 5:23 p.m. (instead of 5:03 p.m.) and ends at 6:20 p.m. at Building 33. Please note that the circuit will depart from Building 13 instead of Building 33.  

  1. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L

    2010-01-01

    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...

  2. Piezoelectric pump and pressurised circuit provided therewith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, Johannes; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2015-01-01

    A piezoelectric pump for use in a pressurised circuit is provided, comprising a pump chamber (5) with an inlet (6) provided with a one way inlet valve (7), for connection to a feeding line (8) of the pressurised circuit and an outlet (9) provided with a one way outlet valve (10), for connection to a

  3. Two New Families of Floating FDNR Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Soliman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new configurations for realizing ideal floating frequency-dependent negative resistor elements (FDNR are introduced. The proposed circuits are symmetrical and are realizable by four CCII or ICCII or a combination of both. Each configuration is realizable by eight different circuits. Simulation results are included to support the theory.

  4. Design of drive circuit of laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yingying; Huang, Xuegong; Xu, Xiaobin

    2016-10-01

    Aiming at the difficult problem of high precision frequency stabilization of semiconductor laser diode, the laser frequency control is realized through the design of the semiconductor drive system. Above all, the relationship between the emission frequency and the temperature of LD is derived theoretically. Then the temperature corresponding to the stable frequency is obtained. According to the desired temperature stability of LD, temperature control system is designed, which is composed of a temperature setting circuit, temperature gathering circuit, the temperature display circuit, analog PID control circuit and a semiconductor refrigerator control circuit module. By sampling technology, voltage of platinum resistance is acquired, and the converted temperature is display on liquid crystal display. PID analog control circuit controls speed stability and precision of temperature control. The constant current source circuit is designed to provide the reference voltage by a voltage stabilizing chip, which is buffered by an operational amplifier. It is connected with the MOSFET to drive the semiconductor laser to provide stable current for the semiconductor laser. PCB circuit board was finished and the experimental was justified. The experimental results show that: the design of the temperature control system could achieve the goal of temperature monitoring. Meanwhile, temperature can be stabilized at 40°C +/- 0.1°C. The output voltage of the constant current source is 2 V. The current is 35 mA.

  5. Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Baldo, Gian Luca

    1995-01-01

    The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower...... the impacts on the external environment from recycling...

  6. Finding all elementary circuits exploiting transconductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Bruccoleri, F.; Nauta, Bram

    2001-01-01

    Commonly used elementary circuits like single-transistor amplifier stages, the differential pair, and current mirrors basically exploit the transconductance property of transistors. This paper aims at finding all elementary transconductance-based circuits. For this purpose, all graphs of two-port

  7. Electronic circuit realization of the logistic map

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An electronic circuit realization of the logistic difference equation is presented using analog electronics. The behaviour of the realized system is evalu- ated against computer simulations of the same. The circuit is found to exhibit the entire range of dynamics of the logistic equation: fixed points, periodicity, period.

  8. Astrophysical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harwit, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...

  9. Spin-Circuit Representation of Spin Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kuntal

    2017-07-01

    Circuit theory has been tremendously successful in translating physical equations into circuit elements in an organized form for further analysis and proposing creative designs for applications. With the advent of new materials and phenomena in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics, it is imperative to construct the spin-circuit representations for different materials and phenomena. Spin pumping is a phenomenon by which a pure spin current can be injected into the adjacent layers. If the adjacent layer is a material with a high spin-orbit coupling, a considerable amount of charge voltage can be generated via the inverse spin Hall effect allowing spin detection. Here we develop the spin-circuit representation of spin pumping. We then combine it with the spin-circuit representation for the materials having spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces the standard results as in the literature. We further show how complex multilayers can be analyzed by simply writing a netlist.

  10. Designing Novel Quaternary Quantum Reversible Subtractor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Monfared, Asma Taheri

    2018-01-01

    Reversible logic synthesis is an important area of current research because of its ability to reduce energy dissipation. In recent years, multiple valued logic has received great attention due to its ability to reduce the width of the reversible circuit which is a main requirement in quantum technology. Subtractor circuits are between major components used in quantum computers. In this paper, we will discuss the design of a quaternary quantum reversible half subtractor circuit using quaternary 1-qudit, 2-qudit Muthukrishnan-Stroud and 3-qudit controlled gates and a 2-qudit Generalized quaternary gate. Then a design of a quaternary quantum reversible full subtractor circuit based on the quaternary half subtractor will be presenting. The designs shall then be evaluated in terms of quantum cost, constant input, garbage output, and hardware complexity. The proposed quaternary quantum reversible circuits are the first attempt in the designing of the aforementioned subtractor.

  11. Designing Novel Quaternary Quantum Reversible Subtractor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Monfared, Asma Taheri

    2017-10-01

    Reversible logic synthesis is an important area of current research because of its ability to reduce energy dissipation. In recent years, multiple valued logic has received great attention due to its ability to reduce the width of the reversible circuit which is a main requirement in quantum technology. Subtractor circuits are between major components used in quantum computers. In this paper, we will discuss the design of a quaternary quantum reversible half subtractor circuit using quaternary 1-qudit, 2-qudit Muthukrishnan-Stroud and 3-qudit controlled gates and a 2-qudit Generalized quaternary gate. Then a design of a quaternary quantum reversible full subtractor circuit based on the quaternary half subtractor will be presenting. The designs shall then be evaluated in terms of quantum cost, constant input, garbage output, and hardware complexity. The proposed quaternary quantum reversible circuits are the first attempt in the designing of the aforementioned subtractor.

  12. Progress in organic integrated circuit manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D. Martin

    2016-02-01

    This review article focuses on the development of processes for the manufacture of organic electronic circuits. Beginning with the first report of an organic transistor it highlights the key developments leading to the successful manufacture of microprocessors and other complex circuits incorporating organic transistors. Both batch processing (based on silicon integrated circuit technology) as well as mass-printing, roll-to-roll (R2R) approaches are discussed. Currently, the best circuit performances are achieved using batch processing. It is suggested that an emerging, large mass-market for electronic tags may dictate that R2R manufacture will likely be required to meet the high throughput rates needed. However, significant improvements in resolution and registration are necessary to achieve increased circuit operating speeds.

  13. On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equivalent resistance of nontrivial electrical circuits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of the electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. We then derive a closed-form expression for the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. Additional proofs and technical details are provided in appendices.

  14. Grounding and shielding circuits and interference

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Applies basic field behavior in circuit design and demonstrates how it relates to grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design This book connects the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory to the problems of interference in all types of electronic design. The text covers power distribution in facilities, mixing of analog and digital circuitry, circuit board layout at high clock rates, and meeting radiation and susceptibility standards. The author examines the grounding and shielding requirements and techniques in circuit design and applies basic physics to circuit behavior. The sixth edition of this book has been updated with new material added throughout the chapters where appropriate. The presentation of the book has also been rearranged in order to reflect the current trends in the field.

  15. Test and diagnosis of analogue, mixed-signal and RF integrated circuits the system on chip approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yichuang

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive discussion of automatic testing, diagnosis and tuning of analogue, mixed-signal and RF integrated circuits, and systems in a single source. The book contains eleven chapters written by leading researchers worldwide. As well as fundamental concepts and techniques, the book reports systematically the state of the arts and future research directions of these areas. A complete range of circuit components are covered and test issues are also addressed from the SoC perspective.

  16. Light Sources and Ballast Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Sakai, Makoto; Yasuda, Takeo; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Gouriki, Takeshi; Mannami, Tomoaki

    discharge models were reported. Further, studies on ultra high-pressure mercury lamps as light sources for projectors are becoming the mainstream of HID lamp related researches. For high-pressure sodium lamps, many studies on plant growing and pest control utilizing low insect attracting aspects were also reported in 2006. Additionally, for discharge lamps, the minimum sustaining electric power for arc tubes employed in electrode-less compact fluorescent lamps was investigated. For Hg-free rare-gas fluorescent lamps, a luminance of 10,000cd/m2 was attained by a 1 meter-long external duplex spiral electrode prototype using Xe/Ne barrier discharge. As to startup circuits, the commercialization of energy saving and high value added products mainly associated with fluorescent lamps and HID lamps are becoming common. Further, the miniaturization of startup circuits for self electronic-ballasted lamps has advanced. Speaking of the overall light sources and startup circuits in 2006 and with the enforcement of RoHS in Europe in July, the momentum toward hazardous substance-free and energy saving initiatives has been enhanced from the perspective of protecting the global environment. It is anticipated that similar restrictions will be globally enforced in the future.

  17. Relationships among classes of self-oscillating transistor parallel inverters. [dc to square wave converter circuits for power conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. G.; Lee, F. C. Y.; Burns, W. W., III; Owen, H. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A procedure is developed for classifying dc-to-square-wave two-transistor parallel inverters used in power conditioning applications. The inverters are reduced to equivalent RLC networks and are then grouped with other inverters with the same basic equivalent circuit. Distinction between inverter classes is based on the topology characteristics of the equivalent circuits. Information about one class can then be extended to another class using the basic oscillation theory and the concept of duality. Oscillograms from test circuits confirm the validity of the procedure adopted.

  18. [Pleasure: Neurobiological conception and Freudian conception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, A; Tassin, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Despite many controversies the debate between psychoanalysis and neuroscience remains intense, all the more since the Freudian theory stands as a reference for a number of medical practitioners and faculty psychiatrists, at least in France. Instead of going on arguing we think that it may be more constructive to favour dialogue through the analysis of a precise concept developed in each discipline. The Freudian theory of pleasure, because it is based on biological principles, appears an appropriate topic to perform this task. In this paper, we aim at comparing Freud's propositions to those issued from recent findings in Neuroscience. Like all emotions, pleasure is acknowledged as a motivating factor in contemporary models. Pleasure can indeed be either rewarding when it follows satisfaction, or incentive when it reinforces behaviours. The Freudian concept of pleasure is more univocal. In Freud's theory, pleasure is assumed to be the result of the discharge of the accumulated excitation which will thus reduce the tension. This quantitative approach corresponds to the classical scheme that associates satisfaction and pleasure. Satisfaction of a need would induce both a decrease in tension and the development of pleasure. However, clinical contradictions to this model, such as the occasional co-existence between pleasure and excitation, drove Freud to suggest different theoretical reversals. Freud's 1905 publication, which describes how preliminary sexual pleasures contribute to an increased excitation and a sexual satisfaction, is the only analysis which provides an adapted answer to the apparent paradox of pleasure and excitation co-existence. Studies on the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the development of pleasure may help to fill this gap in the Freudian theory. Activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is strongly associated with the reward system. Experimental studies performed in animals have shown that increased dopaminergic activity in the

  19. Integrated electrofluidic circuits: pressure sensing with analog and digital operation functionalities for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chueh-Yu; Lu, Jau-Ching; Liu, Man-Chi; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2012-10-21

    Microfluidic technology plays an essential role in various lab on a chip devices due to its desired advantages. An automated microfluidic system integrated with actuators and sensors can further achieve better controllability. A number of microfluidic actuation schemes have been well developed. In contrast, most of the existing sensing methods still heavily rely on optical observations and external transducers, which have drawbacks including: costly instrumentation, professional operation, tedious interfacing, and difficulties of scaling up and further signal processing. This paper reports the concept of electrofluidic circuits - electrical circuits which are constructed using ionic liquid (IL)-filled fluidic channels. The developed electrofluidic circuits can be fabricated using a well-developed multi-layer soft lithography (MSL) process with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels. Electrofluidic circuits allow seamless integration of pressure sensors with analog and digital operation functions into microfluidic systems and provide electrical readouts for further signal processing. In the experiments, the analog operation device is constructed based on electrofluidic Wheatstone bridge circuits with electrical outputs of the addition and subtraction results of the applied pressures. The digital operation (AND, OR, and XOR) devices are constructed using the electrofluidic pressure controlled switches, and output electrical signals of digital operations of the applied pressures. The experimental results demonstrate the designed functions for analog and digital operations of applied pressures are successfully achieved using the developed electrofluidic circuits, making them promising to develop integrated microfluidic systems with capabilities of precise pressure monitoring and further feedback control for advanced lab on a chip applications.

  20. Digital switching in a biosensor circuit via programmable timing of gene availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapique, Nicolas; Benenson, Yaakov

    2014-12-01

    Transient delivery of gene circuits is required in many potential applications of synthetic biology, yet the pre-steady-state processes that dominate this delivery route pose major challenges for robust circuit deployment. Here we show that site-specific recombinases can rectify undesired effects by programmable timing of gene availability in multigene circuits. We exemplify the concept with a proportional sensor for endogenous microRNA (miRNA) and show a marked reduction in its ground state leakage due to desynchronization of the circuit's repressor components and their repression target. The new sensors display a dynamic range of up to 1,000-fold compared to 20-fold in the standard configuration. We applied the approach to classify cell types on the basis of miRNA expression profile and measured >200-fold output differential between positively and negatively identified cells. We also showed major improvements in specificity with cytotoxic output. Our study opens new venues in gene circuit design via judicious temporal control of circuits' genetic makeup.

  1. EMI-resilient amplifier circuits

    CERN Document Server

    van der Horst, Marcel J; Linnenbank, André C

    2014-01-01

    This book enables circuit designers to reduce the errors introduced by the fundamental limitations and electromagnetic interference (EMI) in negative-feedback amplifiers.  The authors describe a systematic design approach for application specific negative-feedback amplifiers, with specified signal-to-error ratio (SER).  This approach enables designers to calculate noise, bandwidth, EMI, and the required bias parameters of the transistors used in  application specific amplifiers in order to meet the SER requirements.   ·         Describes design methods that incorporate electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the design of application specific negative-feedback amplifiers; ·         Provides designers with a structured methodology to avoid the use of trial and error in meeting signal-to-error ratio (SER) requirements; ·         Equips designers to increase EMI immunity of the amplifier itself, thus avoiding filtering at the input, reducing the number of components and avoiding detr...

  2. Quantum interference in plasmonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeres, Reinier W; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; Zwiller, Valery

    2013-10-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (plasmons) are a combination of light and a collective oscillation of the free electron plasma at metal/dielectric interfaces. This interaction allows subwavelength confinement of light beyond the diffraction limit inherent to dielectric structures. As a result, the intensity of the electromagnetic field is enhanced, with the possibility to increase the strength of the optical interactions between waveguides, light sources and detectors. Plasmons maintain non-classical photon statistics and preserve entanglement upon transmission through thin, patterned metallic films or weakly confining waveguides. For quantum applications, it is essential that plasmons behave as indistinguishable quantum particles. Here we report on a quantum interference experiment in a nanoscale plasmonic circuit consisting of an on-chip plasmon beamsplitter with integrated superconducting single-photon detectors to allow efficient single plasmon detection. We demonstrate a quantum-mechanical interaction between pairs of indistinguishable surface plasmons by observing Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference, a hallmark non-classical interference effect that is the basis of linear optics-based quantum computation. Our work shows that it is feasible to shrink quantum optical experiments to the nanoscale and offers a promising route towards subwavelength quantum optical networks.

  3. Flexible printed circuit board actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junseok; Cha, Youngsu

    2017-12-01

    Out-of-plane actuators are made possible by the breaking of planar symmetry. In this paper, we present a thin-film out-of-plane electrostatic actuator for a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) that can be fabricated with a single step of the conventional manufacturing process. No other components are required for actuation except a single sheet of the FPCB, and it works based on the planar asymmetry resulting from asymmetrically patterned top and bottom electrodes on each side of the polyimide film. With the structural asymmetry, the application of a high voltage in the order of kilovolts results in the asymmetry of the electric fields and the body force density, which generates the bending moment that leads to macroscopic deformations. We applied the finite element method to examine the asymmetry induced by the difference in the electrodes. In the experiment, the displacement responses to step input and square wave input of various frequencies were analyzed. It was found that our actuator constitutes an underdamped system, exhibiting resonance characteristics. The maximum oscillatory amplitude was determined at resonance, and the relationship between the displacement and the applied voltage was investigated.

  4. A novel interface circuit for triboelectric nanogenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wuqi; Ma, Jiahao; Zhang, Zhaohua; Ren, Tianling

    2017-10-01

    For most triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), the electric output should be a short AC pulse, which has the common characteristic of high voltage but low current. Thus it is necessary to convert the AC to DC and store the electric energy before driving conventional electronics. The traditional AC voltage regulator circuit which commonly consists of transformer, rectifier bridge, filter capacitor, and voltage regulator diode is not suitable for the TENG because the transformer’s consumption of power is appreciable if the TENG output is small. This article describes an innovative design of an interface circuit for a triboelectric nanogenerator that is transformerless and easily integrated. The circuit consists of large-capacity electrolytic capacitors that can realize to intermittently charge lithium-ion batteries and the control section contains the charging chip, the rectifying circuit, a comparator chip and switch chip. More important, the whole interface circuit is completely self-powered and self-controlled. Meanwhile, the chip is widely used in the circuit, so it is convenient to integrate into PCB. In short, this work presents a novel interface circuit for TENGs and makes progress to the practical application and industrialization of nanogenerators. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61434001) and the ‘Thousands Talents’ Program for Pioneer Researchers and Its Innovation Team, China.

  5. Negative inductance circuits for metamaterial bandwidth enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avignon-Meseldzija, Emilie; Lepetit, Thomas; Ferreira, Pietro Maris; Boust, Fabrice

    2017-12-01

    Passive metamaterials have yet to be translated into applications on a large scale due in large part to their limited bandwidth. To overcome this limitation many authors have suggested coupling metamaterials to non-Foster circuits. However, up to now, the number of convincing demonstrations based on non-Foster metamaterials has been very limited. This paper intends to clarify why progress has been so slow, i.e., the fundamental difficulty in making a truly broadband and efficient non-Foster metamaterial. To this end, we consider two families of metamaterials, namely Artificial Magnetic Media and Artificial Magnetic Conductors. In both cases, it turns out that bandwidth enhancement requires negative inductance with almost zero resistance. To estimate bandwidth enhancement with actual non-Foster circuits, we consider two classes of such circuits, namely Linvill and gyrator. The issue of stability being critical, both metamaterial families are studied with equivalent circuits that include advanced models of these non-Foster circuits. Conclusions are different for Artificial Magnetic Media coupled to Linvill circuits and Artificial Magnetic Conductors coupled to gyrator circuits. In the first case, requirements for bandwidth enhancement and stability are very hard to meet simultaneously whereas, in the second case, an adjustment of the transistor gain does significantly increase bandwidth.

  6. Displacement Damage in Bipolar Linear Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rax, B. G.; Johnston, A. H.; Miyahira, T.

    2000-01-01

    Although many different processes can be used to manufacture linear integrated circuits, the process that is used for most circuits is optimized for high voltage -- a total power supply voltage of about 40 V -- and low cost. This process, which has changed little during the last twenty years, uses lateral and substrate p-n-p transistors. These p-n-p transistors have very wide base regions, increasing their sensitivity to displacement damage from electrons and protons. Although displacement damage effects can be easily treated for individual transistors, the net effect on linear circuits can be far more complex because circuit operation often depends on the interaction of several internal transistors. Note also that some circuits are made with more advanced processes with much narrower base widths. Devices fabricated with these newer processes are not expected to be significantly affected by displacement damage for proton fluences below 1 x 10(exp 12) p/sq cm. This paper discusses displacement damage in linear integrated circuits with more complex failure modes than those exhibited by simpler devices, such as the LM111 comparator, where the dominant response mode is gain degradation of the input transistor. Some circuits fail catastrophically at much lower equivalent total dose levels compared to tests with gamma rays. The device works satisfactorily up to nearly 1 Mrad(Si) when it is irradiated with gamma rays, but fails catastrophically between 50 and 70 krad(Si) when it is irradiated with protons.

  7. Negative inductance circuits for metamaterial bandwidth enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avignon-Meseldzija Emilie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive metamaterials have yet to be translated into applications on a large scale due in large part to their limited bandwidth. To overcome this limitation many authors have suggested coupling metamaterials to non-Foster circuits. However, up to now, the number of convincing demonstrations based on non-Foster metamaterials has been very limited. This paper intends to clarify why progress has been so slow, i.e., the fundamental difficulty in making a truly broadband and efficient non-Foster metamaterial. To this end, we consider two families of metamaterials, namely Artificial Magnetic Media and Artificial Magnetic Conductors. In both cases, it turns out that bandwidth enhancement requires negative inductance with almost zero resistance. To estimate bandwidth enhancement with actual non-Foster circuits, we consider two classes of such circuits, namely Linvill and gyrator. The issue of stability being critical, both metamaterial families are studied with equivalent circuits that include advanced models of these non-Foster circuits. Conclusions are different for Artificial Magnetic Media coupled to Linvill circuits and Artificial Magnetic Conductors coupled to gyrator circuits. In the first case, requirements for bandwidth enhancement and stability are very hard to meet simultaneously whereas, in the second case, an adjustment of the transistor gain does significantly increase bandwidth.

  8. Insulation coordination for 38 KV circuit breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Few, R.A.; Harder, J.E.

    1985-09-01

    Based on a review of the impulse insulation requirements for 38 kV circuit breakers and the impact of insulation coordination using modern arresters, a change is suggested in the way the impulse requirements are stated for the circuit breaker. The facets of circuit breaker design which may be affected are indicated. While the general principles of this paper apply to the insulation coordination of all ratings of circuit breakers, a number of factors seem to make the 38 kV vaccum circuit breaker a particularly attractive candidate to consider for revision. Most of these factors are outlined to provide a basis for the consideration of other ratings and types of circuit breakers. Specifically it is suggested that in the present state of the art, circuit breakers for general application at 34.5 kV should have a standard requirement for 150 kV BIL phase to ground, and 200 kV BIL phase to phase and across the open break.

  9. A programming language for composable DNA circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew; Cardelli, Luca

    2009-08-06

    Recently, a range of information-processing circuits have been implemented in DNA by using strand displacement as their main computational mechanism. Examples include digital logic circuits and catalytic signal amplification circuits that function as efficient molecular detectors. As new paradigms for DNA computation emerge, the development of corresponding languages and tools for these paradigms will help to facilitate the design of DNA circuits and their automatic compilation to nucleotide sequences. We present a programming language for designing and simulating DNA circuits in which strand displacement is the main computational mechanism. The language includes basic elements of sequence domains, toeholds and branch migration, and assumes that strands do not possess any secondary structure. The language is used to model and simulate a variety of circuits, including an entropy-driven catalytic gate, a simple gate motif for synthesizing large-scale circuits and a scheme for implementing an arbitrary system of chemical reactions. The language is a first step towards the design of modelling and simulation tools for DNA strand displacement, which complements the emergence of novel implementation strategies for DNA computing.

  10. Packaging Of Control Circuits In A Robot Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, William

    1994-01-01

    Packaging system houses and connects control circuitry mounted on circuit boards within shoulder, upper section, and lower section of seven-degree-of-freedom robot arm. Has modular design that incorporates surface-mount technology, multilayer circuit boards, large-scale integrated circuits, and multi-layer flat cables between sections for compactness. Three sections of robot arm contain circuit modules in form of stardardized circuit boards. Each module contains two printed-circuit cards, one of each face.

  11. Reversible and quantum circuits optimization and complexity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abdessaied, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new optimization flow for quantum circuits realization. At the reversible level, optimization algorithms are presented to reduce the quantum cost. Then, new mapping approaches to decompose reversible circuits to quantum circuits using different quantum libraries are described. Finally, optimization techniques to reduce the quantum cost or the delay are applied to the resulting quantum circuits. Furthermore, this book studies the complexity of reversible circuits and quantum circuits from a theoretical perspective.

  12. No tradeoff between versatility and robustness in gene circuit motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Payne Joshua L.

    2016-01-01

    Circuit motifs are small directed subgraphs that appear in real world networks significantly more often than in randomized networks. In the Boolean model of gene circuits most motifs are realized by multiple circuit genotypes. Each of a motif’s constituent circuit genotypes may have one or more functions which are embodied in the expression patterns the circuit forms in response to specific initial conditions. Recent enumeration of a space of nearly 17 million three gene circuit genotypes rev...

  13. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2011-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.

  14. Power electronics handbook components, circuits and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1993-01-01

    Power Electronics Handbook: Components, Circuits, and Applications is a collection of materials about power components, circuit design, and applications. Presented in a practical form, theoretical information is given as formulae. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 deals with the usual components found in power electronics such as semiconductor devices and power semiconductor control components, their electronic compatibility, and protection. Part 2 tackles parts and principles related to circuits such as switches; link frequency chargers; converters; and AC line control, and Part 3

  15. Multi-qubit circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehmann, Oliver

    2013-09-03

    Circuit QED systems are macroscopic, man-made quantum systems in which superconducting artificial atoms, also called Josephson qubits, interact with a quantized electromagnetic field. These systems have been devised to mimic the physics of elementary quantum optical systems with real atoms in a scalable and more flexible framework. This opens up a variety of possible applications of circuit QED systems. For instance, they provide a promising platform for processing quantum information. Recent years have seen rapid experimental progress on these systems, and experiments with multi-component circuit QED architectures are currently starting to come within reach. In this thesis, circuit QED systems with multiple Josephson qubits are studied theoretically. We focus on simple and experimentally realistic extensions of the currently operated circuit QED setups and pursue investigations in two main directions. First, we consider the equilibrium behavior of circuit QED systems containing a large number of mutually noninteracting Josephson charge qubits. The currently accepted standard description of circuit QED predicts the possibility of superradiant phase transitions in such systems. However, a full microscopic treatment shows that a no-go theorem for superradiant phase transitions known from atomic physics applies to circuit QED systems as well. This reveals previously unknown limitations of the applicability of the standard theory of circuit QED to multi-qubit systems. Second, we explore the potential of circuit QED for quantum simulations of interacting quantum many-body systems. We propose and analyze a circuit QED architecture that implements the quantum Ising chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field. Our setup can be used to study quench dynamics, the propagation of localized excitations, and other non-equilibrium features in this paradigmatic model in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantumcritical phenomena. The setup is based on a

  16. Microelectronic circuit design for energy harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the design of microelectronic circuits for energy harvesting, broadband energy conversion, new methods and technologies for energy conversion. The author also discusses the design of power management circuits and the implementation of voltage regulators. Coverage includes advanced methods in low and high power electronics, as well as principles of micro-scale design based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies with control and conditioning circuit design. Provides a single-source reference to energy harvesting and its applications; Serves as a practical guide to microelectronics design for energy harvesting, with application to mobile power supplies; Enables readers to develop energy harvesting systems for wearable/mobile electronics.

  17. Operational amplifier circuits analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, J C C

    1995-01-01

    This book, a revised and updated version of the author's Basic Operational Amplifiers (Butterworths 1986), enables the non-specialist to make effective use of readily available integrated circuit operational amplifiers for a range of applications, including instrumentation, signal generation and processing.It is assumed the reader has a background in the basic techniques of circuit analysis, particularly the use of j notation for reactive circuits, with a corresponding level of mathematical ability. The underlying theory is explained with sufficient but not excessive, detail. A range of compu

  18. Radio-frequency integrated-circuit engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Cam

    2015-01-01

    Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering addresses the theory, analysis and design of passive and active RFIC's using Si-based CMOS and Bi-CMOS technologies, and other non-silicon based technologies. The materials covered are self-contained and presented in such detail that allows readers with only undergraduate electrical engineering knowledge in EM, RF, and circuits to understand and design RFICs. Organized into sixteen chapters, blending analog and microwave engineering, Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering emphasizes the microwave engineering approach for RFICs. Provide

  19. Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Graham D; Politi, Alberto; Matthews, Jonathan C F; Dekker, Peter; Ams, Martin; Withford, Michael J; O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2009-07-20

    We report photonic quantum circuits created using an ultrafast laser processing technique that is rapid, requires no lithographic mask and can be used to create three-dimensional networks of waveguide devices. We have characterized directional couplers--the key functional elements of photonic quantum circuits--and found that they perform as well as lithographically produced waveguide devices. We further demonstrate high-performance interferometers and an important multi-photon quantum interference phenomenon for the first time in integrated optics. This direct-write approach will enable the rapid development of sophisticated quantum optical circuits and their scaling into three-dimensions.

  20. Digital Pulse-Width-Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, Carl J.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    1995-01-01

    Digital pulse-width-modulation circuit provides programmable duration from 1 microsecond to full on, at repetition rate of 1 kHz. Designed for use in controlling CO2 laser, also used in applications in which precision and flexibility of digital control of pulse durations needed. Circuit incorporates low-power Schottky transistor/transistor-logic (TTL) devices in critical high-speed parts. Designed in TTL to make it compatible with Pro-Log 7914 (or equivalent) decoder input/output (I/O) utility printed-circuit card.

  1. An introduction to logic circuit testing

    CERN Document Server

    Lala, Parag K

    2008-01-01

    An Introduction to Logic Circuit Testing provides a detailed coverage of techniques for test generation and testable design of digital electronic circuits/systems. The material covered in the book should be sufficient for a course, or part of a course, in digital circuit testing for senior-level undergraduate and first-year graduate students in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. The book will also be a valuable resource for engineers working in the industry. This book has four chapters. Chapter 1 deals with various types of faults that may occur in very large scale integration (VLSI)

  2. Newnes passive and discrete circuits pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    2000-01-01

    Newnes Passive and Discrete Circuits Pocket Book is aimed at all engineers, technicians, students and experimenters who can build a design directly from a circuit diagram. In a highly concise form Ray Marston presents a huge compendium of circuits that can be built as they appear, adapted or used as building blocks. The devices used have been carefully chosen for their ease of availability and reasonable price. The selection of devices has been thoroughly updated for the second edition, which has also been expanded to cover the latest ICs.The three sections of the book cover: Moder

  3. A guide to printed circuit board design

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Charles

    1984-01-01

    A Guide to Printed Circuit Board Design discusses the basic design principles of printed circuit board (PCB). The book consists of nine chapters; each chapter provides both text discussion and illustration relevant to the topic being discussed. Chapter 1 talks about understanding the circuit diagram, and Chapter 2 covers how to compile component information file. Chapter 3 deals with the design layout, while Chapter 4 talks about preparing the master artworks. The book also covers generating computer aided design (CAD) master patterns, and then discusses how to prepare the production drawing a

  4. Silicon integrated circuits part A : supplement 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kahng, Dawon

    1981-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science, Supplement 2: Silicon Integrated Circuits, Part A focuses on MOS device physics. This book is divided into three chapters-physics of the MOS transistor; nonvolatile memories; and properties of silicon-on-sapphire substrates devices, and integrated circuits. The topics covered include the short channel effects, MOSFET structures, floating gate devices, technology for nonvolatile semiconductor memories, sapphire substrates, and SOS integrated circuits and systems. The MOS capacitor, MIOS devices, and SOS process and device technology are also deliberated. This public

  5. Tool for Crimping Flexible Circuit Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Aaron; Diftler, Myron A.

    2009-01-01

    A hand tool has been developed for crimping leads in flexible tails that are parts of some electronic circuits -- especially some sensor circuits. The tool is used to cut the tails to desired lengths and attach solder tabs to the leads. For tailoring small numbers of circuits for special applications, this hand tool is a less expensive alternative to a commercially available automated crimping tool. The crimping tool consists of an off-the-shelf hand crimping tool plus a specialized crimping insert designed specifically for the intended application.

  6. Model Comparison Exercise Circuit Training Game and Circuit Ladder Drills to Improve Agility and Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilaturochman Hendrawan Koestanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare: (1 the effect of circuit training game and circuit ladder drill for the agility; (2 the effect of circuit training game and circuit ladder drill on speed; (3 the difference effect of circuit training game and circuit ladder drill for the speed (4 the difference effect of circuit training game and circuit ladder drill on agility. The type of this research was quantitative with quasi-experimental methods. The design of this research was Factorial Design, with analysing data using ANOVA. The process of data collection was done by using 30 meters sprint speed test and shuttle run test during the pretest and posttest. Furthermore, the data was analyzed by using SPSS 22.0 series. Result: The circuit training game exercise program and circuit ladder drill were significant to increase agility and speed (sig 0.000 < α = 0.005 Group I, II, III had significant differences (sig 0.000 < α = 0.005. The mean of increase in speed of group I = 0.20 seconds, group II = 0.31 seconds, and group III = 0.11 seconds. The average increase agility to group I = 0.34 seconds group II = 0.60 seconds, group III = 0.13 seconds. Based on the analysis above, it could be concluded that there was an increase in the speed and agility of each group after being given a training.

  7. Integrated diode circuits for greater than 1 THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthal, Gerhard Siegbert

    The terahertz frequency band, spanning from roughly 100 GHz to 10 THz, forms the transition from electronics to photonics. This band is often referred to as the "terahertz technology gap" because it lacks typical microwave and optical components. The deficit of terahertz devices makes it difficult to conduct important scientific measurements that are exclusive to this band in fields such as radio astronomy and chemical spectroscopy. In addition, a number of scientific, military and commercial applications will become more practical when a suitable terahertz technology is developed. UVa's Applied Electrophysics Laboratory has extended non-linear microwave diode technology into the terahertz region. Initial success was achieved with whisker-contacted diodes and then discrete planar Schottky diodes soldered onto quartz circuits. Work at UVa and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory succeeded in integrating this diode technology onto low dielectric substrates, thereby producing more practical components with greater yield and improved performance. However, the development of circuit integration technologies for greater than 1 THz and the development of broadly tunable sources of terahertz power remain as major research goals. Meeting these critical needs is the primary motivation for this research. To achieve this goal and demonstrate a useful prototype for one of our sponsors, this research project has focused on the development of a Sideband Generator at 1.6 THz. This component allows use of a fixed narrow band source as a tunable power source for terahertz spectroscopy and compact range radar. To prove the new fabrication and circuit technologies, initial devices were fabricated and tested at 200 and 600 GHz. These circuits included non-ohmic cathodes, air-bridged fingers, oxideless anode formation, and improved quartz integration processes. The excellent performance of these components validated these new concepts. The prototype process was then further optimized to

  8. Fast frequency divider circuit using combinational logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, Ryan

    2017-05-30

    The various technologies presented herein relate to performing on-chip frequency division of an operating frequency of a ring oscillator (RO). Per the various embodiments herein, a conflict between RO size versus operational frequency can be addressed by dividing the output frequency of the RO to a frequency that can be measured on-chip. A frequency divider circuit (comprising NOR gates and latches, for example) can be utilized in conjunction with the RO on the chip. In an embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include a pair of latches coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 2. In another embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include four latches (operating in pairs) coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 4. A plurality of ROs can be MUXed to the plurality of ROs by a single oscillation-counting circuit.

  9. CMOS circuits for passive wireless microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Here is a comprehensive examination of CMOS circuits for passive wireless microsystems. Covers design challenges, fundamental issues of ultra-low power wireless communications, radio-frequency power harvesting, and advanced design techniques, and more.

  10. Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graham D. Marshall; Alberto Politi; Jonathan C. F. Matthews; Peter Dekker; Martin Ams; Michael J. Withford; Jeremy L. O'Brien

    2009-01-01

    We report photonic quantum circuits created using an ultrafast laser processing technique that is rapid, requires no lithographic mask and can be used to create three-dimensional networks of waveguide devices...

  11. Magnetic Logic Circuits for Extreme Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program aims to demonstrate a new genre of all-magnetic logic circuits which are radiation-tolerant and capable of reliable operation in extreme environmental...

  12. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Laura K.; Brownson, Ross C.; Kelly, Cheryl; Ivey, Melissa K.; Leviton, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background From 2003 to 2008, 25 cross-sector, multidisciplinary community partnerships funded through the Active Living by Design (ALbD) national program designed, planned, and implemented policy and environmental changes, with complementary programs and promotions. This paper describes the use of concept-mapping methods to gain insights into promising active living intervention strategies based on the collective experience of community representatives implementing ALbD initiatives. Methods Using Concept Systems software, community representatives (n=43) anonymously generated actions and changes in their communities to support active living (183 original statements, 79 condensed statements). Next, respondents (n=26, from 23 partnerships) sorted the 79 statements into self-created categories, or active living intervention approaches. Respondents then rated statements based on their perceptions of the most important strategies for creating community changes (n=25, from 22 partnerships) and increasing community rates of physical activity (n=23, from 20 partnerships). Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to describe data patterns. Results ALbD community partnerships identified three active living intervention approaches with the greatest perceived importance to create community change and increase population levels of physical activity: changes to the built and natural environment, partnership and collaboration efforts, and land-use and transportation policies. The relative importance of intervention approaches varied according to subgroups of partnerships working with different populations. Conclusions Decision makers, practitioners, and community residents can incorporate what has been learned from the 25 community partnerships to prioritize active living policy, physical project, promotional, and programmatic strategies for work in different populations and settings. PMID:23079266

  13. Breakdown of transistors in Marx bank circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Amitabh

    2000-09-01

    We reconsider the mode of operation of a Marx bank circuit and analyze the secondary breakdown of transistors with shorted emitter-base. The mechanism of breakdown of the transistor when a fast rising voltage pulse is applied across is investigated. The device exhibits chaotic behavior at the breakdown point where it can go into two possible modes of breakdown. A new explanation for the working of the circuit consistent with the experimental observations is proposed.

  14. Effects of smoke on functional circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are converting to digital instrumentation and control systems; however, the effects of abnormal environments such as fire and smoke on such systems are not known. There are no standard tests for smoke, but previous smoke exposure tests at Sandia National Laboratories have shown that digital communications can be temporarily interrupted during a smoke exposure. Another concern is the long-term corrosion of metals exposed to the acidic gases produced by a cable fire. This report documents measurements of basic functional circuits during and up to 1 day after exposure to smoke created by burning cable insulation. Printed wiring boards were exposed to the smoke in an enclosed chamber for 1 hour. For high-resistance circuits, the smoke lowered the resistance of the surface of the board and caused the circuits to short during the exposure. These circuits recovered after the smoke was vented. For low-resistance circuits, the smoke caused their resistance to increase slightly. A polyurethane conformal coating substantially reduced the effects of smoke. A high-speed digital circuit was unaffected. A second experiment on different logic chip technologies showed that the critical shunt resistance that would cause failure was dependent on the chip technology and that the components used in the smoke exposures were some of the most smoke tolerant. The smoke densities in these tests were high enough to cause changes in high impedance (resistance) circuits during exposure, but did not affect most of the other circuits. Conformal coatings and the characteristics of chip technologies should be considered when designing circuitry for nuclear power plant safety systems, which must be highly reliable under a variety of operating and accident conditions. 10 refs., 34 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. Supply Voltage Glitches Effects on CMOS Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Djellid-Ouar, Anissa; Cathébras, Guy; Bancel, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Among the attacks applied on secure circuits, fault injection techniques consist in the use of a combination of environmental conditions that induce computational errors in the chip that can leak protected informations. The purpose of our study is to build an accurate model able to describe the behaviour of CMOS circuits in presence of deliberated short supply voltage variations. This behaviour depends strongly on the basic gates (combinational logic, registers. . . ) ...

  16. From circuits to behaviour in the amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janak, Patricia H.; Tye, Kay M.

    2015-01-01

    The amygdala has long been associated with emotion and motivation, playing an essential part in processing both fearful and rewarding environmental stimuli. How can a single structure be crucial for such different functions? With recent technological advances that allow for causal investigations of specific neural circuit elements, we can now begin to map the complex anatomical connections of the amygdala onto behavioural function. Understanding how the amygdala contributes to a wide array of behaviours requires the study of distinct amygdala circuits. PMID:25592533

  17. Closed circuit television welding alignment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darner, G.S.

    1976-09-01

    Closed circuit television (CCTV) weld targeting systems were developed to provide accurate and repeatable positioning of the electrode of an electronic arc welder with respect to the parts being joined. A sliding mirror electrode holder was developed for use with closed circuit television equipment on existing weld fixturing. A complete motorized CCTV weld alignment system was developed to provide weld targeting for even the most critical positioning requirements.

  18. Pulsed-Power Burnout of Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of pulsed-power burnout testing the Fairchild 9046 quad dual-input nand gate and the Amelco 6041 three-input nand gate showed the circuits to...be vulnerable to junction burnout for pulses of less than 100 V and pulse widths on the order of 100 nsec. Calculations based on Wunsch-Bell junction... burnout theory showed good agreement with the experimental results. Sample calculations applying Wunsch-Bell theory to integrated circuits are given.

  19. Evolvable designs of experiments applications for circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2009-01-01

    Adopting a groundbreaking approach, the highly regarded author shows how to design methods for planning increasingly complex experiments. He begins with a brief introduction to standard quality methods and the technology in standard electric circuits. The book then gives numerous examples of how to apply the proposed methodology in a series of real-life case studies. Although these case studies are taken from the printed circuit board industry, the methods are equally applicable to other fields of engineering.

  20. Hysteresis in a quantized superfluid `atomtronic' circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Stephen; Lee, Jeffrey G.; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Murray, Noel; Clark, Charles W.; Lobb, Christopher J.; Phillips, William D.; Edwards, Mark; Campbell, Gretchen K.

    2014-02-01

    Atomtronics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that seeks to develop new functional methods by creating devices and circuits where ultracold atoms, often superfluids, have a role analogous to that of electrons in electronics. Hysteresis is widely used in electronic circuits--it is routinely observed in superconducting circuits and is essential in radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices. Furthermore, it is as fundamental to superfluidity (and superconductivity) as quantized persistent currents, critical velocity and Josephson effects. Nevertheless, despite multiple theoretical predictions, hysteresis has not been previously observed in any superfluid, atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. Here we directly detect hysteresis between quantized circulation states in an atomtronic circuit formed from a ring of superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate obstructed by a rotating weak link (a region of low atomic density). This contrasts with previous experiments on superfluid liquid helium where hysteresis was observed directly in systems in which the quantization of flow could not be observed, and indirectly in systems that showed quantized flow. Our techniques allow us to tune the size of the hysteresis loop and to consider the fundamental excitations that accompany hysteresis. The results suggest that the relevant excitations involved in hysteresis are vortices, and indicate that dissipation has an important role in the dynamics. Controlled hysteresis in atomtronic circuits may prove to be a crucial feature for the development of practical devices, just as it has in electronic circuits such as memories, digital noise filters (for example Schmitt triggers) and magnetometers (for example superconducting quantum interference devices).

  1. A Simple Memristor Model for Circuit Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Farrah-Amoy; Joe, Aaleyah; Gergel-Hackett, Nadine; Department of Chemistry; Physics Team

    This work describes the development of a model for the memristor, a novel nanoelectronic technology. The model was designed to replicate the real-world electrical characteristics of previously fabricated memristor devices, but was constructed with basic circuit elements using a free widely available circuit simulator, LT Spice. The modeled memrsistors were then used to construct a circuit that performs material implication. Material implication is a digital logic that can be used to perform all of the same basic functions as traditional CMOS gates, but with fewer nanoelectronic devices. This memristor-based digital logic could enable memristors' use in new paradigms of computer architecture with advantages in size, speed, and power over traditional computing circuits. Additionally, the ability to model the real-world electrical characteristics of memristors in a free circuit simulator using its standard library of elements could enable not only the development of memristor material implication, but also the development of a virtually unlimited array of other memristor-based circuits.

  2. A diagnostic expert system for digital circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, R. W.; Wilson, J. D.

    1992-04-01

    A scheme is presented for a diagnostic expert system which is capable of troubleshooting a faulty digital circuit or producing a reduced test vector set for a non-faulty digital circuit. It is based on practical fault-finding logic and utilizes artificial intelligence techniques. The program uses expert knowledge comprised of two components: that which is contained within the program in the form of rules and heuristics, and that which is derived from the circuit under test in the form of specific device information. Using both forward and backward tracking algorithms, signal paths comprised of device and gate interconnections are identified from each output pin to the primary input pins which have effect on them. Beginning at the output, the program proceeds to validate each device in each signal path by forward propagating test values through the device to the output, and backward propagating the same values to the primary inputs. All devices in the circuit are monitored for each test applied and their performance is recorded. Device or gate validation occurs when the recorded history shows that a device has been toggled successfully through all necessary states. When run on a circuit which does not contain a fault, the program determines a reduced test vector set for that circuit.

  3. New circuit theory of multiconductor transmission lines resulting from a new practice of noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Hiroshi; Sato, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    In modern life, we are surrounded by and filled with electromagnetic noise caused by the dominant use of energy in the form of electricity. This situation is brought about by the fact that the noise is not understood theoretically. A new practice of noise reduction was introduced for the construction of Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). The key concept is a symmetric three-line circuit that arranges power supplies, noise filters and magnets around a third central ground line. A continuous theoretical effort forced us to find a new circuit theory involving a multiconductor transmission-line system starting from Maxwell's equations without any approximation. We discuss the essence of all of these experimental and theoretical developments with the hope to remove unnecessary electromagnetic noise not only from power supplies, but also from all electric devices. The newly derived circuit theory of multiconductor transmission lines is universal, and establishes the validity of the practice of noise reduction.

  4. The stochastic behavior of a molecular switching circuit with feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Eric

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a statistical physics approach, we study the stochastic switching behavior of a model circuit of multisite phosphorylation and dephosphorylation with feedback. The circuit consists of a kinase and phosphatase acting on multiple sites of a substrate that, contingent on its modification state, catalyzes its own phosphorylation and, in a symmetric scenario, dephosphorylation. The symmetric case is viewed as a cartoon of conflicting feedback that could result from antagonistic pathways impinging on the state of a shared component. Results Multisite phosphorylation is sufficient for bistable behavior under feedback even when catalysis is linear in substrate concentration, which is the case we consider. We compute the phase diagram, fluctuation spectrum and large-deviation properties related to switch memory within a statistical mechanics framework. Bistability occurs as either a first-order or second-order non-equilibrium phase transition, depending on the network symmetries and the ratio of phosphatase to kinase numbers. In the second-order case, the circuit never leaves the bistable regime upon increasing the number of substrate molecules at constant kinase to phosphatase ratio. Conclusion The number of substrate molecules is a key parameter controlling both the onset of the bistable regime, fluctuation intensity, and the residence time in a switched state. The relevance of the concept of memory depends on the degree of switch symmetry, as memory presupposes information to be remembered, which is highest for equal residence times in the switched states. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Artem Novozhilov (nominated by Eugene Koonin, Sergei Maslov, and Ned Wingreen.

  5. Miners' Misconceptions of Flow Distribution Within Circuits as a Factor Influencing Underground Mining Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Perry David

    Misconceptions can be thought of as naive approaches to problem solving that are perceptually appealing but incorrect and inconsistent with scientific evidence (Piaget, 1929). One type of misconception involves flow distributions within circuits. This concept is important because miners' conceptual errors about flow distribution changes within complex circuits may be in part responsible for fatal mine disasters. Based on the theory that misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits were responsible for underground mine disasters involving mine ventilation circuits, a series of studies was undertaken with mining engineering students, professional mining engineers, as well as mine foremen, mine supervisors, mine rescue members, mine maintenance personnel, mining researchers and working miners to identify these conceptual errors and errors in mine ventilation procedures. Results indicate that misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits exist in over 70 percent of the subjects sampled. It is assumed that these misconceptions of flow distribution changes within circuits result in errors of judgment when miners are faced with inferring and changing ventilation arrangements when two or more mine sections are connected. Furthermore, it is assumed that these misconceptions are pervasive in the mining industry and may be responsible for at least two mine ventilation disasters. The findings of this study are consistent with Piaget's (1929) model of figurative and operative knowledge. This model states that misconceptions are in part due to a lack of knowledge of dynamic transformations and how to apply content information. Recommendations for future research include the development of an interactive expert system for training miners with ventilation arrangements. Such a system would meet the educational recommendations made by Piaget (1973b) by involving a hands-on approach that allows discovery, interaction, the opportunity to make mistakes and

  6. Mathematical concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The main intention of this book is to describe and develop the conceptual, structural and abstract thinking of mathematics. Specific mathematical structures are used to illustrate the conceptual approach; providing a deeper insight into mutual relationships and abstract common features. These ideas are carefully motivated, explained and illustrated by examples so that many of the more technical proofs can be omitted. The book can therefore be used: ·         simply as an overview of the panorama of mathematical structures and the relations between them, to be supplemented by more detailed texts whenever you want to acquire a working knowledge of some structure ·         by itself as a first introduction to abstract mathematics ·         together with existing textbooks, to put their results into a more general perspective ·         to gain a new and hopefully deeper perspective after having studied such textbooks Mathematical Concepts has a broader scope and is less detaile...

  7. Submicrosecond Power-Switching Test Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Eric N.

    2006-01-01

    A circuit that changes an electrical load in a switching time shorter than 0.3 microsecond has been devised. This circuit can be used in testing the regulation characteristics of power-supply circuits . especially switching power-converter circuits that are supposed to be able to provide acceptably high degrees of regulation in response to rapid load transients. The combination of this power-switching circuit and a known passive constant load could be an attractive alternative to a typical commercially available load-bank circuit that can be made to operate in nominal constant-voltage, constant-current, and constant-resistance modes. The switching provided by a typical commercial load-bank circuit in the constant-resistance mode is not fast enough for testing of regulation in response to load transients. Moreover, some test engineers do not trust the test results obtained when using commercial load-bank circuits because the dynamic responses of those circuits are, variously, partly unknown and/or excessively complex. In contrast, the combination of this circuit and a passive constant load offers both rapid switching and known (or at least better known) load dynamics. The power-switching circuit (see figure) includes a signal-input section, a wide-hysteresis Schmitt trigger that prevents false triggering in the event of switch-contact bounce, a dual-bipolar-transistor power stage that drives the gate of a metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), and the MOSFET, which is the output device that performs the switching of the load. The MOSFET in the specific version of the circuit shown in the figure is rated to stand off a potential of 100 V in the "off" state and to pass a current of 20 A in the "on" state. The switching time of this circuit (the characteristic time of rise or fall of the potential at the drain of the MOSFET) is .300 ns. The circuit can accept any of three control inputs . which one depending on the test that one seeks to perform: a

  8. 30 CFR 75.900-2 - Approved circuit schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... device installed in the main secondary circuit at the source transformer may be used to provide undervoltage protection for each circuit that receives power from that transformer. (c) One circuit breaker may... may be used for undervoltage protection if the relay coils are designed to trip the circuit breaker...

  9. 46 CFR 111.75-5 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 111.75-5 Section 111.75-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-5 Lighting branch circuits. (a) Loads. A lighting distribution panel must not supply branch circuits rated at over 30 amperes. (b) Connected Load...

  10. 49 CFR 236.723 - Circuit, double wire; line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, double wire; line. 236.723 Section 236.723 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.723 Circuit, double wire; line. An electric circuit not employing a common return wire; a circuit...

  11. 49 CFR 236.725 - Circuit, switch shunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, switch shunting. 236.725 Section 236.725 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, switch shunting. A shunting circuit which is closed through contacts of a switch circuit...

  12. 49 CFR 236.786 - Principle, closed circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principle, closed circuit. 236.786 Section 236.786 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Principle, closed circuit. The principle of circuit design where a normally energized electric circuit which...

  13. Make a Mystery Circuit with a Bar Light Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Teachers have been building mystery circuits or so-called "black box circuits" to use as a demonstration with their students for years. This paper presents an easy way to make simple mystery circuits using inexpensive light fixtures (see Fig. 1) available at almost any home improvement store. In a black box circuit, only the lightbulbs are visible…

  14. Electromagnetic Field Detector Circuit for Low- Frequency Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Bait-Suwailam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study details an electromagnetic (EM field radiation detector system that was developed for near-field low-frequency energy applications. The prototype constitutes the use of a dual-band monopole antenna system as a probe along with a detecting circuit. Furthermore, the prototype was equipped with a qualitative EM radiation strength display unit at its output stage. For proof of concept, the detecting probe was implemented on a printed-circuit board. Both numerical simulations were based on PSpice software (Cadence Design Systems, Inc., San Jose, California, USA and measurements are presented and discussed. The EM field detector aimed to sense any potential sources of EM radiation from mobile phone units as well as WiFi access points, simultaneously, which is accomplished with the use of the dual-band antenna system. Such a sensitive detector has useful application as a stand-alone monitoring probe for troubleshooting as well as to identify sources of EM radiation interference threats for industrial high-speed electronic devices. Additionally, such a sensor is a potentially useful tool for site testing and scanning for optimal locations of base station masks for telecommunication service providers.  Other prototypes are also presented to illustrate the usefulness of such detectors in some of the aforementioned applications.

  15. Reliability centered maintenance of power transformers and circuit breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purucker, S.L.; Goeltz, R.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hemmelman, K.; Price, R. [Bonneville Power Administration, Van Couver, WA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    At the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), we have historically maintained high voltage equipment. Including transformers and power circuit breakers, on a time driven basis. While this has served our needs in the past, newer methods are needed to effectively maintain the power system in future years. Today aging equipment, maintenance backlogs, and budget constraints are a reality. BPA has initiated a research and development project to examine reliability centered maintenance (RCM) as an alternative to time based maintenance on high voltage equipment. Under RCM, the performance of each place of equipment is to be monitored by observing many operating parameters. For example, with circuit breakers we will observe (measure) the trip time, accumulated contact wear using I{sup 2}T, timing of the mechanism, plus several other parameters. Equipment performing below a predetermined level, or equipment having accumulated a large amount of ``usage`` will receive maintenance. The maintenance will restore full performance and preserve an acceptable service life for that piece of equipment. To develop and evaluate RCM concepts, BPA is installing a prototype system at our Alvey Substation on 4 transformers and 25 breakers.

  16. Rethinking care through social reproduction: articulating circuits of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, Eleonore

    2012-01-01

    Care has come to dominate much feminist research on globalized migrations and the transfer of labor from the South to the North, while the older concept of reproduction had been pushed into the background but is now becoming the subject of debates on the commodification of care in the household and changes in welfare state policies. This article argues that we could achieve a better understanding of the different modalities and trajectories of care in the reproduction of individuals, families, and communities, both of migrant and nonmigrant populations by articulating the diverse circuits of migration, in particular that of labor and the family. In doing this, I go back to the earlier North American writing on racialized minorities and migrants and stratified social reproduction. I also explore insights from current Asian studies of gendered circuits of migration connecting labor and marriage migrations as well as the notion of global householding that highlights the gender politics of social reproduction operating within and beyond households in institutional and welfare architectures. In contrast to Asia, there has relatively been little exploration in European studies of the articulation of labor and family migrations through the lens of social reproduction. However, connecting the different types of migration enables us to achieve a more complex understanding of care trajectories and their contribution to social reproduction.

  17. Text Based Analogy in Overcoming Student Misconception on Simple Electricity Circuit Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesti, R.; Maknun, J.; Feranie, S.

    2017-09-01

    Some researcher have found that the use of analogy in learning and teaching physics was effective enough in giving comprehension in a complicated physics concept such as electrical circuits. Meanwhile, misconception become main cause that makes students failed when learning physics. To provide teaching physics effectively, the misconception should be resolved. Using Text Based Analogy is one of the way to identifying misconceptions and it is enough to assist teachers in conveying scientific truths in order to overcome misconceptions. The purpose of the study to investigate the use of text based analogy in overcoming students misconception on simple electrical circuit material. The samples of this research were 28 of junior high school students taken purposively from one high school in South Jakarta. The method use in this research is pre-experimental and design in one shot case study. Students who are the participants of sample have been identified misconception on the electrical circuit material by using the Diagnostic Test of Simple Electricity Circuit. The results of this study found that TBA can replace the misconceptions of the concept possessed by students with scientific truths conveyed in the text in a way that is easily understood so that TBA is strongly recommended to use in other physics materials.

  18. E-learning platform for automated testing of electronic circuits using signature analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherghina, Cǎtǎlina; Bacivarov, Angelica; Bacivarov, Ioan C.; Petricǎ, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    Dependability of electronic circuits can be ensured only through testing of circuit modules. This is done by generating test vectors and their application to the circuit. Testability should be viewed as a concerted effort to ensure maximum efficiency throughout the product life cycle, from conception and design stage, through production to repairs during products operating. In this paper, is presented the platform developed by authors for training for testability in electronics, in general and in using signature analysis method, in particular. The platform allows highlighting the two approaches in the field namely analog and digital signature of circuits. As a part of this e-learning platform, it has been developed a database for signatures of different electronic components meant to put into the spotlight different techniques implying fault detection, and from this there were also self-repairing techniques of the systems with this kind of components. An approach for realizing self-testing circuits based on MATLAB environment and using signature analysis method is proposed. This paper analyses the benefits of signature analysis method and simulates signature analyzer performance based on the use of pseudo-random sequences, too.

  19. Neural circuit remodeling and structural plasticity in the cortex during chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woojin; Kim, Sun Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Damage in the periphery or spinal cord induces maladaptive plastic changes along the somatosensory nervous system from the periphery to the cortex, often leading to chronic pain. Although the role of neural circuit remodeling and structural synaptic plasticity in the 'pain matrix' cortices in chronic pain has been thought as a secondary epiphenomenon to altered nociceptive signaling in the spinal cord, progress in whole brain imaging studies on human patients and animal models has suggested a possibility that plastic changes in cortical neural circuits may actively contribute to chronic pain symptoms. Furthermore, recent development in two-photon microscopy and fluorescence labeling techniques have enabled us to longitudinally trace the structural and functional changes in local circuits, single neurons and even individual synapses in the brain of living animals. These technical advances has started to reveal that cortical structural remodeling following tissue or nerve damage could rapidly occur within days, which are temporally correlated with functional plasticity of cortical circuits as well as the development and maintenance of chronic pain behavior, thereby modifying the previous concept that it takes much longer periods (e.g. months or years). In this review, we discuss the relation of neural circuit plasticity in the 'pain matrix' cortices, such as the anterior cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, with chronic pain. We also introduce how to apply long-term in vivo two-photon imaging approaches for the study of pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic pain.

  20. Fingerprinted circuits and methods of making and identifying the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Michael Ian (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A circuit having a fingerprint for identification of a particular instantiation of the circuit is disclosed. The circuit may include a plurality of digital circuits or gates. Each of the digital circuits or gates is responsive to a configuration voltage applied to its analog input for controlling whether or not the digital circuit or gate performs its intended digital function and each of the digital circuits or gates transitioning between its functional state and its at least one other state when the configuration voltage equals a boundary voltage. The boundary voltage varies between different instantiations of the circuit for a majority of the digital circuits or gates and these differing boundary voltages serving to identify (or fingerprint) different instantiations of the same circuit.

  1. A comparison of modified Howland circuits as current generators with current mirror type circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertemes-Filho, P; Brown, B H; Wilson, A J

    2000-02-01

    Multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (EIT) systems require stable voltage controlled current generators that will work over a wide frequency range and with a large variation in load impedance. In this paper we compare the performance of two commonly used designs: the first is a modified Howland circuit whilst the second is based on a current mirror. The output current and the output impedance of both circuits were determined through PSPICE simulation and through measurement. Both circuits were stable over the frequency ranges 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The maximum variation of output current with frequency for the modified Howland circuit was 2.0% and for the circuit based on a current mirror 1.6%. The output impedance for both circuits was greater than 100 kohms for frequencies up to 100 kHz. However, neither circuit achieved this output impedance at 1 MHz. Comparing the results from the two circuits suggests that there is little to choose between them in terms of a practical implementation.

  2. Layout to circuit extraction for three-dimensional thermal-electrical circuit simulation of device structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbenborg, B.H.; Krabbenborg, B.H.; Bosma, A.; de Graaff, H.C.; de Graaff, H.C.; Mouthaan, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a method is proposed for extraction of coupled networks from layout information for simulation of electrothermal device behavior. The networks represent a three-dimensional (3-D) device structure with circuit elements. The electrical and thermal characteristics of this circuit

  3. 30 CFR 75.900 - Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving three-phase alternating current equipment; circuit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving three... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.900 Low- and medium-voltage circuits serving three-phase alternating current equipment; circuit breakers...

  4. Tuned-circuit Johnson noise thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M. J.; Blalock, T. V.; Shepard, R. L.

    Three tuned circuits that can be used in Johnson noise thermometry have been analyzed; series resistance-inductance-capacitance (RLC), parallel RLC, and transformer coupled. Tuned circuits allow the temperature of the sensor to be determined by a single noise voltage, which is ideally independent of the resistance of the sensor, thereby reducing the complexity of temperature-measuring systems for space applications. Direct-coupled and transformer-coupled tuned circuits may offer advantage to the SP-100 system designer interfacing with data systems. A study was performed to establish whether the advantages of the ideal tuned circuits would be obtained with real, lossy inductive components and would provide a measurement system independent of aging and temperature effects on sensor resistance. Theoretical mean-squared output voltage dependence on sensor temperature and resistance, output capacitor value, and inductor temperature and resistance are derived for the series and parallel RLC cases. It is shown for tuned circuits using lossless inductors that the mean squared voltage is kT sub R/C, where T sub R is the sensor temperature and C is the capacitance of the capacitor. For lossy inductors and transformers, the mean-squared capacitor voltage is a function of sensor resistance, which may change in an unknown manner during an extended mission.

  5. Document analysis with neural net circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Hans Peter

    1994-01-01

    Document analysis is one of the main applications of machine vision today and offers great opportunities for neural net circuits. Despite more and more data processing with computers, the number of paper documents is still increasing rapidly. A fast translation of data from paper into electronic format is needed almost everywhere, and when done manually, this is a time consuming process. Markets range from small scanners for personal use to high-volume document analysis systems, such as address readers for the postal service or check processing systems for banks. A major concern with present systems is the accuracy of the automatic interpretation. Today's algorithms fail miserably when noise is present, when print quality is poor, or when the layout is complex. A common approach to circumvent these problems is to restrict the variations of the documents handled by a system. In our laboratory, we had the best luck with circuits implementing basic functions, such as convolutions, that can be used in many different algorithms. To illustrate the flexibility of this approach, three applications of the NET32K circuit are described in this short viewgraph presentation: locating address blocks, cleaning document images by removing noise, and locating areas of interest in personal checks to improve image compression. Several of the ideas realized in this circuit that were inspired by neural nets, such as analog computation with a low resolution, resulted in a chip that is well suited for real-world document analysis applications and that compares favorably with alternative, 'conventional' circuits.

  6. Communication and Sensing Circuits on Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Alimenti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a review of several circuits for communication and wireless sensing applications implemented on cellulose-based materials. These circuits have been developed during the last years exploiting the adhesive copper laminate method. Such a technique relies on a copper adhesive tape that is shaped by a photo-lithographic process and then transferred to the hosting substrate (i.e., paper by means of a sacrificial layer. The presented circuits span from UHF oscillators to a mixer working at 24 GHz and constitute an almost complete set of building blocks that can be applied to a huge variety communication apparatuses. Each circuit is validated experimentally showing performance comparable with the state-of-the-art. This paper demonstrates that circuits on cellulose are capable of operating at record frequencies and that ultra- low cost, green i.e., recyclable and biodegradable materials can be a viable solution to realize high frequency hardware for the upcoming Internet of Things (IoT era.

  7. Advances in Analog Circuit Design 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Baschirotto, Andrea; Harpe, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 24th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, including low-power and energy-efficient analog electronics, with specific contributions focusing on the design of efficient sensor interfaces and low-power RF systems. This book serves as a valuable reference to the state-of-the-art, for anyone involved in analog circuit research and development. ·         Provides a state-of-the-art reference in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; ·         Presents material in a tutorial-based format; ·         Includes coverage of high-performance analog-to-digital and digital to analog converters, integrated circuit design in scaled technologies, and time-domain signal processing.

  8. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  9. Test setups for the development of high voltage circuit breakers for high short circuit capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, R.; Ruhnau, W.; Zemann, E.

    1981-10-01

    A number of test setups and procedures are described for measuring and simulating the current and voltage conditions prevailing in short circuit breakers designed to interrupt short circuit currents from 80 to 100 kA. A synthetic test circuit was successfully developed, using the principles of both voltage and current injection. A capacitance current injection procedure allows for the establishment of the influence of iron in the magnetic circuit on the prospective transient recovery voltage of the breaker. Methods for measuring the post-arc current are indicated, and developed meshed grid and tube shunts are described. Synthetic test circuits are presented which are suitable for testing the capacitive switching capabilities of breakers.

  10. Research of Driving Circuit in Coaxial Induction Coilgun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Power supply is crucial equipment in coaxial induction coil launcher.Configuration of the driving circuit influences the efficiency of the coil launcher directly.This paper gives a detailed analysis of the properties of the driving circuit construction based on the capacitor source. Three topologies of the driving circuit are compared including oscillation circuit, crowbar circuit and half-wave circuit. It is proved that which circuit has the better efficiency depends on the detailed parameters of the experiment, especially the crowbar resistance. Crowbar resistor regulates not only efficiency of the system, but also temperature rise of the coil. Electromagnetic force (EMF applied on the armature will be another question which influences service condition of the driving circuits. Oscillation circuit and crowbar circuit should apply to the asynchronous induction coil launcher and synchronous induction coil launcher, respectively. Half-wave circuit is seldom used in the experiment. Although efficiency of the half-wave circuit is very high, the speed of the armature is low. A simple independent half-wave circuit is suggested in this paper. Generally speaking, the comprehensive property of crowbar circuit is the most practical in the three typical circuits. Conclusions of the paper could provide guidelines for practice.

  11. Microwave engineering concepts and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Ahmad Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Detailing the active and passive aspects of microwaves, Microwave Engineering: Concepts and Fundamentals covers everything from wave propagation to reflection and refraction, guided waves, and transmission lines, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying principles at the core of microwave engineering. This encyclopedic text not only encompasses nearly all facets of microwave engineering, but also gives all topics—including microwave generation, measurement, and processing—equal emphasis. Packed with illustrations to aid in comprehension, the book: •Describes the mathematical theory of waveguides and ferrite devices, devoting an entire chapter to the Smith chart and its applications •Discusses different types of microwave components, antennas, tubes, transistors, diodes, and parametric devices •Examines various attributes of cavity resonators, semiconductor and RF/microwave devices, and microwave integrated circuits •Addresses scattering parameters and their properties, as well a...

  12. IR-Drop Reduction in Sub-VT Circuits by De-synchronization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Andreas; Andersson, Oskar; Sparsø, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes IR-drop reduction of sub-VT circuits by de-synchronization. The de-synchronization concept is briefly demonstrated and analyzed by a case study. Extensive IR-drop analysis’ of various technology options of a 65nm CMOS family demonstrate how the noise margins are reduced due...... to switching noise on the supply rails. It is shown that a desynchronized implementation reduces severe voltage drops on the supply rails by approximately 50 %, compared to a clocked design....

  13. Application of Memristors in Microwave Passive Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Potrebic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent implementation of the fourth fundamental electric circuit element, the memristor, opened new vistas in many fields of engineering applications. In this paper, we explore several RF/microwave passive circuits that might benefit from the memristor salient characteristics. We consider a power divider, coupled resonator bandpass filters, and a low-reflection quasi-Gaussian lowpass filter with lossy elements. We utilize memristors as configurable linear resistors and we propose memristor-based bandpass filters that feature suppression of parasitic frequency pass bands and widening of the desired rejection band. The simulations are performed in the time domain, using LTspice, and the RF/microwave circuits under consideration are modeled by ideal elements available in LTspice.

  14. INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATORS AND APPLICATION CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa GÖLCÜ

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Important developments in industrial hydraulic technologies extended their application areas including big power transmission systems. Efficient and powerful systems have been developed using sensitive control units. However, it is necessary to provide safe operating working conditions since some systems can not work properly in some situations. For instance, lack of the fluid in the system or leakage of the fluid from the system may cause serious damage in the circuit. When the pressure reaches the high levels, instantaneous shock strokes may also occur. Hydraulic accumulators are used to prevent such kind of problems. In this study, types of accumulators used in hydraulic circuits are introduced and necessary formulas for selection of the accumulators are presented with an example. The usage of accumulators in different circuits is shown with figures.

  15. The Circuit Ideal of a Vector Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Bogart, Tristram; Thomas, Rekha

    The circuit ideal, $\\ica$, of a configuration $\\A = \\{\\a_1, ..., \\a_n\\} \\subset \\Z^d$ is the ideal generated by the binomials ${\\x}^{\\cc^+} - {\\x}^{\\cc^-} \\in \\k[x_1, ..., x_n]$ as $\\cc = \\cc^+ - \\cc^- \\in \\Z^n$ varies over the circuits of $\\A$. This ideal is contained in the toric ideal, $\\ia......$, of $\\A$ which has numerous applications and is nontrivial to compute. Since circuits can be computed using linear algebra and the two ideals often coincide, it is worthwhile to understand when equality occurs. In this paper we study $\\ica$ in relation to $\\ia$ from various algebraic and combinatorial...... perspectives. We prove that the obstruction to equality of the ideals is the existence of certain polytopes. This result is based on a complete characterization of the standard pairs/associated primes of a monomial initial ideal of $\\ica$ and their differences from those for the corresponding toric initial...

  16. Radiation-hardened transistor and integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kwok K.

    2007-11-20

    A composite transistor is disclosed for use in radiation hardening a CMOS IC formed on an SOI or bulk semiconductor substrate. The composite transistor has a circuit transistor and a blocking transistor connected in series with a common gate connection. A body terminal of the blocking transistor is connected only to a source terminal thereof, and to no other connection point. The blocking transistor acts to prevent a single-event transient (SET) occurring in the circuit transistor from being coupled outside the composite transistor. Similarly, when a SET occurs in the blocking transistor, the circuit transistor prevents the SET from being coupled outside the composite transistor. N-type and P-type composite transistors can be used for each and every transistor in the CMOS IC to radiation harden the IC, and can be used to form inverters and transmission gates which are the building blocks of CMOS ICs.

  17. Peak holding circuit for extremely narrow pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneill, R. W. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An improved pulse stretching circuit comprising: a high speed wide-band amplifier connected in a fast charge integrator configuration; a holding circuit including a capacitor connected in parallel with a discharging network which employs a resistor and an FET; and an output buffer amplifier. Input pulses of very short duration are applied to the integrator charging the capacitor to a value proportional to the input pulse amplitude. After a predetermined period of time, conventional circuitry generates a dump pulse which is applied to the gate of the FET making a low resistance path to ground which discharges the capacitor. When the dump pulse terminates, the circuit is ready to accept another pulse to be stretched. The very short input pulses are thus stretched in width so that they may be analyzed by conventional pulse height analyzers.

  18. Fractional-order RC and RL circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2012-05-30

    This paper is a step forward to generalize the fundamentals of the conventional RC and RL circuits in fractional-order sense. The effect of fractional orders is the key factor for extra freedom, more flexibility, and novelty. The conditions for RC and RL circuits to act as pure imaginary impedances are derived, which are unrealizable in the conventional case. In addition, the sensitivity analyses of the magnitude and phase response with respect to all parameters showing the locations of these critical values are discussed. A qualitative revision for the fractional RC and RL circuits in the frequency domain is provided. Numerical and PSpice simulations are included to validate this study. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

  19. A dual relation between port-Hamiltonian systems and the Brayton–Moser equations for nonlinear switched RLC circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltsema, Dimitri; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decades, several researchers have concentrated on the dynamic modeling of nonlinear electrical circuits from an energy-based perspective. A recent perspective is based on the concept of port-Hamiltonian (PH) systems. In this paper, we discuss the relations between the classical

  20. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  1. The algebraic theory of switching circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Moisil, G G

    1969-01-01

    The Algebraic Theory of Switching Circuits covers the application of various algebraic tools to the delineation of the algebraic theory of switching circuits for automation with contacts and relays.This book is organized into five parts encompassing 31 chapters. Part I deals with the principles and application of Boolean algebra and the theory of finite fields (Galois fields). Part II emphasizes the importance of the sequential operation of the automata and the variables associated to the current and to the contacts. This part also tackles the recurrence relations that describe operations of t

  2. Symbolic Analysis of OTRAs-Based Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sánchez-López

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new nullor-based model to describe the behavior of Operational Transresistance Amplifiers (OTRAs is introduced.The new model is composed of four nullors and three grounded resistors. As a consequence, standard nodal analysiscan be applied to compute fully-symbolic small-signal characteristics of OTRA-based analog circuits, and the nullorbasedOTRAs model can be used in CAD tools. In this manner, the fully-symbolic transfer functions of severalapplication circuits, such as filters and oscillators can easily be approximated.

  3. Modeling digital switching circuits with linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Mitchell A

    2014-01-01

    Modeling Digital Switching Circuits with Linear Algebra describes an approach for modeling digital information and circuitry that is an alternative to Boolean algebra. While the Boolean algebraic model has been wildly successful and is responsible for many advances in modern information technology, the approach described in this book offers new insight and different ways of solving problems. Modeling the bit as a vector instead of a scalar value in the set {0, 1} allows digital circuits to be characterized with transfer functions in the form of a linear transformation matrix. The use of transf

  4. RF microwave circuit design for wireless applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L

    2012-01-01

    Provides researchers and engineers with a complete set of modeling, design, and implementation tools for tackling the newest IC technologies Revised and completely updated, RF/Microwave Circuit Design for Wireless Applications, Second Edition is a unique, state-of-the-art guide to wireless integrated circuit design that provides researchers and engineers with a complete set of modeling, design, and implementation tools for tackling even the newest IC technologies. It emphasizes practical design solutions for high-performance devices and circuitry, incorporating ample exa

  5. Lumped elements for RF and microwave circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Bahl, Inder

    2003-01-01

    Due to the unprecedented growth in wireless applications over the past decade, development of low-cost solutions for RF and microwave communication systems has become of great importance. This practical new book is the first comprehensive treatment of lumped elements, which are playing a critical role in the development of the circuits that make these cost-effective systems possible. The books offers you an in-depth understanding of the different types of RF and microwave circuit elements, including inductors, capacitors, resistors, transformers, via holes, airbridges, and crossovers. Support

  6. Basic matrix algebra and transistor circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Zelinger, G

    1963-01-01

    Basic Matrix Algebra and Transistor Circuits deals with mastering the techniques of matrix algebra for application in transistors. This book attempts to unify fundamental subjects, such as matrix algebra, four-terminal network theory, transistor equivalent circuits, and pertinent design matters. Part I of this book focuses on basic matrix algebra of four-terminal networks, with descriptions of the different systems of matrices. This part also discusses both simple and complex network configurations and their associated transmission. This discussion is followed by the alternative methods of de

  7. Artwork Analysis Tools for VLSI Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    derived frcm the art- work.i~nFo :.- Is zr Code DI t pecal Sculnfv CLA a uPICAT OP T0416 PA*6WM Dine Bftee AMA& -’M Artwork Analysis Tools for VLSI Circuits... code of the program and in pre-generated bit tables. The design rules thcmselves are not input directly into the checker. The rules were interpreted...circuit simulation is swich -level sintulation. In this type, transistors are modeled as switches that are either on or off. Fixed delays are a%.ociated

  8. RF and microwave coupled-line circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Mongia, R K; Bhartia, P; Hong, J; Gupta, K C

    2007-01-01

    This extensively revised edition of the 1999 Artech House classic, RF and Microwave Coupled-Line Circuits, offers you a thoroughly up-to-date understanding of coupled line fundamentals, explaining their applications in designing microwave and millimeter-wave components used in today's communications, microwave, and radar systems. The Second Edition includes a wealth of new material, particularly relating to applications. You find brand new discussions on a novel simple design technique for multilayer coupled circuits, high pass filters using coupled lines, software packages used for filter des

  9. Microwave filters and circuits contributions from Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Akio

    1970-01-01

    Microwave Filters and Circuits: Contributions from Japan covers ideas and novel circuits used to design microwave filter that have been developed in Japan, as well as network theory into the field of microwave transmission networks. The book discusses the general properties and synthesis of transmission-line networks; transmission-line filters on the image-parameter basis; and experimental results on a class of transmission-line filter constructed only with commensurate TEM lossless transmission lines. The text describes lines constants, approximation problems in transmission-line networks, as

  10. Simplified design of micropower and battery circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1995-01-01

    'Simplified Design of Micropower and Battery Circuits' provides a simplified, step-by-step approach to micropower and supply cell circuit design. No previous experience in design is required to use the techniques described, thus making the book well suited for the beginner, student, or experimenter as well as the design professional.The book concentrates on the use of commercial micropower ICs by discussing selections of external components that modify the IC-package characteristics. The basic approach is to start design problems with approximations for trial-value components in expe

  11. Thermal rectification in nonlinear quantum circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruokola, T.; Ojanen, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2009-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of radiative heat transport in nonlinear solid-state quantum circuits. We give a detailed account of heat rectification effects, i.e., the asymmetry of heat current with respect to a reversal of the thermal gradient, in a system consisting of two reservoirs at finite...... temperatures coupled through a nonlinear resonator. We suggest an experimentally feasible superconducting circuit employing the Josephson nonlinearity to realize a controllable low-temperature heat rectifier with a maximal asymmetry of the order of 10%. We also discover a parameter regime where...

  12. Phase-controlled integrated photonic quantum circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian J; Kundys, Dmytro; Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Smith, P G R; Walmsley, I A

    2009-08-03

    Scalable photonic quantum technologies are based on multiple nested interferometers. To realize this architecture, integrated optical structures are needed to ensure stable, controllable, and repeatable operation. Here we show a key proof-of-principle demonstration of an externallycontrolled photonic quantum circuit based upon UV-written waveguide technology. In particular, we present non-classical interference of photon pairs in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer constructed with X couplers in an integrated optical circuit with a thermo-optic phase shifter in one of the interferometer arms.

  13. Printed-Circuit Cross-Slot Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Wong; Chung, Hsien-Hsien; Peng, Sheng Y.

    1990-01-01

    Coupling between perpendicular slots suppressed. Balanced feed configuration minimizes coupling between slots of printed-circuit cross-slot antenna unit. Unit and array have conventional cavity-backed-printed-circuit, crossed-slot antenna design. Strip-line feeders behind planar conductive antenna element deliver power to horizontal slot in opposite phase. As result, little or no power propagates into vertical slot. Similar considerations apply to strip lines that feed vertical slot. Units of this type elements of phased-array antennas for radar, mobile/satellite communications, and other applications requiring flush mounting and/or rapid steering of beams with circular polarization.

  14. Resonant circuit model for efficient metamaterial absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, Alexandre; Teperik, Tatiana V; de Lustrac, André

    2013-11-04

    The resonant absorption in a planar metamaterial is studied theoretically. We present a simple physical model describing this phenomenon in terms of equivalent resonant circuit. We discuss the role of radiative and dissipative damping of resonant mode supported by a metamaterial in the formation of absorption spectra. We show that the results of rigorous calculations of Maxwell equations can be fully retrieved with simple model describing the system in terms of equivalent resonant circuit. This simple model allows us to explain the total absorption effect observed in the system on a common physical ground by referring it to the impedance matching condition at the resonance.

  15. Analog circuit design art, science and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This book is far more than just another tutorial or reference guide - it's a tour through the world of analog design, combining theory and applications with the philosophies behind the design process. Readers will learn how leading analog circuit designers approach problems and how they think about solutions to those problems. They'll also learn about the `analog way' - a broad, flexible method of thinking about analog design tasks.A comprehensive and useful guide to analog theory and applications. Covers visualizing the operation of analog circuits. Looks at how to rap

  16. Inter digital transducer modelling through Mason equivalent circuit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Dipti; Singh, Abhishek; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    The frequency reliance of inter-digital transducer is analyzed with the help of MASON's Equivalent circuit which is based on Smith's Equivalent circuit which is further based on Foster's Network. An inter-digital transducer has been demonstrated as a RLC network. The circuit is simulated by Simul......The frequency reliance of inter-digital transducer is analyzed with the help of MASON's Equivalent circuit which is based on Smith's Equivalent circuit which is further based on Foster's Network. An inter-digital transducer has been demonstrated as a RLC network. The circuit is simulated...... by Simulation program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (HSPICE), a well-liked electronic path simulator. The acoustic wave devices are not suitable to simulation through circuit simulator. In this paper, an electrical model of Mason's Equivalent electrical circuit for an inter-digital transducer (IDT...

  17. Synthesis for Negative Group Delay Circuits Using Distributed and Second-Order RC Circuit Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kyoung-Pyo; Ishikawa, Ryo; Saitou, Akira; Honjo, Kazuhiko

    This paper describes the characteristic of negative group delay (NGD) circuits for various configurations including first-order, distributed, and second-order RC circuit configurations. This study includes locus, magnitude, and phase characteristics of the NGD circuits. The simplest NGD circuit is available using first-order RC or RL configuration. As an example of distributed circuit configuration, it is verified that losses in a distributed line causes NGD characteristic at higher cut-off band of a coupled four-line bandpass filter. Also, novel wideband NGD circuits using second-order RC configuration, instead of conventional RLC configuration, are proposed. Adding a parallel resistor to a parallel-T filter enables NGD characteristic to it. Also, a Wien-Robinson bridge is modified to have NGD characteristic by controlling the voltage division ratio. They are fabricated on MMIC substrate, and their NGD characteristics are verified with measured results. They have larger insertion loss than multi-stage RLC NGD circuits, however they can realize second-order NGD characteristic without practical implementation of inductors.

  18. The Influence of Vacuum Circuit Breakers and Different Motor Models on Switching Overvoltages in Motor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Cat S. M.; Snider, L. A.; Lo, Edward W. C.; Chung, T. S.

    Switching of induction motors with vacuum circuit breakers continues to be a concern. In this paper the influence on statistical overvoltages of the stochastic characteristics of vacuum circuit breakers, high frequency models of motors and transformers, and network characteristics, including cable lengths and network topology are evaluated and a general view of the overvoltages phenomena is presented. Finally, a real case study on the statistical voltage levels and risk-of-failure resulting from switching of a vacuum circuit breaker in an industrial installation in Hong Kong is presented.

  19. arXiv Application of the Waveform Relaxation Technique to the Co-Simulation of Power Converter Controller and Electrical Circuit Models

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, Michał; Schöps, Sebastian; Auchmann, Bernhard; Bortot, Lorenzo; Prioli, Marco; Verweij, Arjan P.

    In this paper we present the co-simulation of a PID class power converter controller and an electrical circuit by means of the waveform relaxation technique. The simulation of the controller model is characterized by a fixed-time stepping scheme reflecting its digital implementation, whereas a circuit simulation usually employs an adaptive time stepping scheme in order to account for a wide range of time constants within the circuit model. In order to maintain the characteristic of both models as well as to facilitate model replacement, we treat them separately by means of input/output relations and propose an application of a waveform relaxation algorithm. Furthermore, the maximum and minimum number of iterations of the proposed algorithm are mathematically analyzed. The concept of controller/circuit coupling is illustrated by an example of the co-simulation of a PI power converter controller and a model of the main dipole circuit of the Large Hadron Collider.

  20. Estimating the short-circuit impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1997-01-01

    and current are derived each period, and the short-circuit impedance is estimated from variations in these components created by load changes in the grid. Due to the noisy and dynamic grid with high harmonic distortion it is necessary to threat the calculated values statistical. This is done recursively...

  1. Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters can...

  2. Diode and Diode Circuits, a Programmed Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanian, Norman; Kirwin, Gerald J.

    This programed text on diode and diode circuits was developed under contract with the United States Office of Education as Number 4 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is intended as a supplement to a regular text and other instructional material. (DH)

  3. An Unsolved Electric Circuit: A Common Misconception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, N. R. Sree; Sreedevi, A.; Prakash, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    Despite a number of theories in circuit analysis, little is known about the behaviour of ideal equal voltage sources in parallel, connected across a resistive load. We neither have any theory that can predict the voltage source that provides the load current, nor is there any method to test it experimentally. In a series of experiments performed…

  4. Programmable delay circuit for sparker signal analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, D.

    on it to classify the seafloor sediment properties. A specific purpose oriented programmable delay circuit was developed to generate the necessary delay so that the A/D conversion could start just before the arrival of the echo from the water bottom interface...

  5. Integrated Circuits in the Introductory Electronics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Thomas C.; Lind, David A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of an integrated circuit operational amplifier in an introductory electronics laboratory course for undergraduate science majors. The advantages of this approach and the implications for scientific instrumentation are identified. Describes a number of experiments suitable for the undergraduate laboratory. (Author/DF)

  6. Creating Single-Copy Genetic Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Wook; Gyorgy, Andras; Cameron, D Ewen; Pyenson, Nora; Choi, Kyeong Rok; Way, Jeffrey C; Silver, Pamela A; Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Collins, James J

    2016-07-21

    Synthetic biology is increasingly used to develop sophisticated living devices for basic and applied research. Many of these genetic devices are engineered using multi-copy plasmids, but as the field progresses from proof-of-principle demonstrations to practical applications, it is important to develop single-copy synthetic modules that minimize consumption of cellular resources and can be stably maintained as genomic integrants. Here we use empirical design, mathematical modeling, and iterative construction and testing to build single-copy, bistable toggle switches with improved performance and reduced metabolic load that can be stably integrated into the host genome. Deterministic and stochastic models led us to focus on basal transcription to optimize circuit performance and helped to explain the resulting circuit robustness across a large range of component expression levels. The design parameters developed here provide important guidance for future efforts to convert functional multi-copy gene circuits into optimized single-copy circuits for practical, real-world use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Large Scale Integrated Circuits for Military Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    film formation, etching of numerous openings in the oxide film at locations precisely defined by photolitho - graphy, chemical treatment of the...circuit speed inversely with the linear dimensions. The practical implication is that improvements in photolitho - graphy, or the use of electron beam

  8. Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit Mode Multiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan; Xu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel silicon photonic integrated circuit enabling multiplexing of orthogonal modes in a few-mode fiber (FMF). By selectively launching light to four vertical grating couplers, all six orthogonal spatial and polarization modes supported by the FMF are successfully exc...

  9. LC Quadrature Generation in Integrated Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais

    2001-01-01

    Today quadrature signals for IQ demodulation are provided through RC polyphase networks, quadrature oscillators or double frequency VCOs. This paper presents a new method for generating quadrature signals in integrated circuits using only inductors and capacitors. This LC quadrature generation...... method enables significantly reduced noise and power consumption....

  10. PRANC: Program for Analyzing Nonlinear Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    bipolar junction transistor description, the following sequence of cards are used: First Card: The format of the first card for the description of a BJT is...Analysis ............... 54 4-1. PRANC element definitions .................................... 63,64 4-2. Transistor equivalent model...75 4-5. A transistor amplifier circuit ............................... 91 4-6. Data preparation for Example 4-1

  11. Accurate Electromagnetic Modeling Methods for Integrated Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheng, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The present development of modern integrated circuits (IC’s) is characterized by a number of critical factors that make their design and verification considerably more difficult than before. This dissertation addresses the important questions of modeling all electromagnetic behavior of features on

  12. The Drosophila melanogaster circadian pacemaker circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-07

    Dec 7, 2008 ... communication between the two brain hemispheres (Kaneko and Hall 2000; Helfrich-Förster et al. 2007). ... that PDF is essential for communication among and between the LNv and other circadian neurons ..... treat circadian rhythm disorders in more complex circuits. Acknowledgements. I thank Todd ...

  13. The Drosophila melanogaster circadian pacemaker circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More recently, detailed investigation leading to the anatomical, neurochemical and electrophysiological characterization of the various neuronal subgroups that comprise the circadian machinery has revealed pathways through which these neurons come together to act as a neuronal circuit. Thus the D. melanogaster ...

  14. LS1 Report: short-circuit tests

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    As the LS1 draws to an end, teams move from installation projects to a phase of intense testing. Among these are the so-called 'short-circuit tests'. Currently under way at Point 7, these tests verify the cables, the interlocks, the energy extraction systems, the power converters that provide current to the superconducting magnets and the cooling system.   Thermal camera images taken during tests at point 4 (IP4). Before putting beam into the LHC, all of the machine's hardware components need to be put to the test. Out of these, the most complicated are the superconducting circuits, which have a myriad of different failure modes with interlock and control systems. While these will be tested at cold - during powering tests to be done in August - work can still be done beforehand. "While the circuits in the magnets themselves cannot be tested at warm, what we can do is verify the power converter and the circuits right up to the place the cables go into the magn...

  15. Palladio: An Exploratory Environment for Circuit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    6 Designing an integrated circuit requires a significant body of expert knowledge, taking a wide variety of forms and often technology specific or...that the recomposition process is tractable. The design paradigm supported by Palladio is incremental refinement of design specifications...appropriate perspectives helps ensure that the recomposition process is tractable. Examples of Structural Perspectives We now present two examples of

  16. Circuit Analysis in Metal-Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Staffaroni, Matteo; Vedantam, Shantha; Tang, Japeck; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2010-01-01

    We provide electrical circuit descriptions for bulk plasmons, single surface plasmons, and parallel-plate plasmons. Simple circuits can reproduce the exactly known frequency versus wave-vector dispersion relations for all these cases, with reasonable accuracy. The circuit paradigm directly provides a characteristic wave-impedance, Zo, that is rarely discussed in the context of plasmonics. The case of a single-surface-plasmon is particularly interesting since it can be modeled as a transmission line, even though there is no return current conductor. The capacitance/unit length and the Faraday inductance/unit length, of a flat metal surface, are C'=2epsilon_okW, and L'=epsilon_o/2kW respectively, (where k is wave-vector, and W is the width of the flat metal surface). We believe that many other metal-optic geometries can be described within the circuit paradigm, with the prerequisite that the distributed capacitance and inductance must be calculated for each particular geometry

  17. Circuit analysis in metal-optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffaroni, M.; Conway, J.; Vedantam, S.; Tang, J.; Yablonovitch, E.

    2012-01-01

    We provide electrical circuit descriptions for bulk plasmons, single surface plasmons, and parallel-plate plasmons. Simple circuits can reproduce the exactly known frequency versus wave-vector dispersion relations for all these cases, with reasonable accuracy. The circuit paradigm directly provides a characteristic wave-impedance, Zo, that is rarely discussed in the context of plasmonics. The case of a single-surface-plasmon is particularly interesting since it can be modeled as a transmission line, even though there is no return current conductor. The capacitance/unit length and the Faraday inductance/unit length, of a flat metal surface, are C‧ = 2ɛokW, and L‧ = μo/2kW, respectively (where k is the wave-vector, and W is the width of the flat metal surface). We believe that many other metal-optic geometries can be described within the circuit paradigm, with the prerequisite that the distributed capacitance and inductance must be calculated for each particular geometry.

  18. Microwave photonics with superconducting quantum circuits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gu, Xiu; Kockum, Anton Frisk; Miranowicz, Adam; Liu, Yu-xi; Nori, Franco

    2017-01-01

    ... ], the last two decades have seen a greatly increased interest in using superconducting quantum circuits (SQCs), based on Josephson junctions, for implementing quantum bits — the basic units of quantum information processing. It has also been demonstrated that SQCs possess discrete energy levels and behave like atoms. For this reason, SQCs are oft...

  19. Feedback control of superconducting quantum circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ristè, D.

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting circuits have recently risen to the forefront of the solid-state prototypes for quantum computing. Reaching the stage of robust quantum computing requires closing the loop between measurement and control of quantum bits (qubits). This thesis presents the realization of feedback

  20. Display-And-Alarm Circuit For Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Compact accelerometer assembly consists of commercial accelerometer retrofit with display-and-alarm circuit. Provides simple means for technician attending machine to monitor vibrations. Also simpifies automatic safety shutdown by providing local alarm or shutdown signal when vibration exceeds preset level.

  1. Physiological alterations consequent to circuit weight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, J H; Parr, R B; Girandola, R N; Ward, P; Vodak, P A; Barstow, T J; Pipes, T V; Romero, G T; Leslie, P

    1978-01-01

    The efficacy of a 10-week program of circuit weight training to elicit specific physiological alterations was evaluated in a group of men (n = 16) and a group of women (n = 12), with an additional group of men (n = 10) and a group of women (n = 11) serving as controls. The circuit consisted of 10 stations performed on a Universal Gym, 3 circuits per day (approximately 22.5 min/day), 3 days/week. The subjects exercised at 40-55% of 1-RM, executing as many repetitions as possible in 30 sec on each of the lifts, followed by a 15 sec rest as the subject moved to the next station. Following the training program, the experimental groups demonstrated significant increases in lean body weight, flexed biceps girth, treadmill endurance time, VEmax (women only), Vo2max in ml/kg-min (women only), flexibility and strength. Significant decreases were found in selected skinfold measurements, and in resting heart rate (control group showed similar decreases). No change was found in body weight or in relative or absolute body fat. Generally, the women exhibited equal or greater changes when compared to the men for all variables assessed, which could be a function of their lower initial starting levels, or a more intense training program. It was concluded that circuit weight training is a good general conditioning activity, i.e., attends to more than one component of fitness.

  2. A note on monotone real circuits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, Pavel; Pudlák, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 131, March (2018), s. 15-19 ISSN 0020-0190 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : computational complexity * monotone real circuit * Karchmer-Wigderson game Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.748, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020019017301965?via%3Dihub

  3. Circuit bridging of components by smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.J.; Nowlen, S.P.; Anderson, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Smoke can adversely affect digital electronics; in the short term, it can lead to circuit bridging and in the long term to corrosion of metal parts. This report is a summary of the work to date and component-level tests by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control equipment. The component tests focused on short-term effects such as circuit bridging in typical components and the factors that can influence how much the smoke will affect them. These factors include the component technology and packaging, physical board protection, and environmental conditions such as the amount of smoke, temperature of burn, and humidity level. The likelihood of circuit bridging was tested by measuring leakage currents and converting those currents to resistance in ohms. Hermetically sealed ceramic packages were more resistant to smoke than plastic packages. Coating the boards with an acrylic spray provided some protection against circuit bridging. The smoke generation factors that affect the resistance the most are humidity, fuel level, and burn temperature. The use of CO{sub 2} as a fire suppressant, the presence of galvanic metal, and the presence of PVC did not significantly affect the outcome of these results.

  4. Driver Circuit For High-Power MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzer, Kevin A.

    1991-01-01

    Driver circuit generates rapid-voltage-transition pulses needed to switch high-power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) modules rapidly between full "on" and full "off". Rapid switching reduces time of overlap between appreciable current through and appreciable voltage across such modules, thereby increasing power efficiency.

  5. Basics of Verilog HDL and design of digital logic circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Ju Gi

    2008-03-15

    This book explains of the basic of Verilog HDL and design of digital logic circuit with ALTERA Quartus II and MAX + PLUS II. It comprised four charters, which include four chapters, introduction of ASIC, ALTERA design software and introduction, basic of Verilog HDL and making of download cable like parallel download, MAX 7000s device and FPGA circuit constitution and test, design of digital logic circuit with basic of Verilog HDL, design of combination logic circuit and order logic circuit, application circuit design such as 7 segment LED display design, LCD display device design and digital clocks.

  6. A Simple Short Circuit Analysis for Power Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koşalay İlhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the transient behavior of short circuits in power circuits. The circuit consists of two part; input part and load part. These two parts are connected with a circuit breaker switch. The circuit works in two modes; first mode is when the switch is open and second mode is when the switch is closed. This study analyses the circuit when the switch is closed. The analysis is done with different types of closing angle. The analysis is done by forming state equations and those equations are solved numerically by using Matlab. The analysis and conclusion is performed by observing the behaviors of the graphs.

  7. CMOS RF circuit design for reliability and variability

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Jiann-Shiun

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this book is CMOS RF circuit design for reliability. The device reliability and process variation issues on RF transmitter and receiver circuits will be particular interest to the readers in the field of semiconductor devices and circuits. This proposed book is unique to explore typical reliability issues in the device and technology level and then to examine their impact on RF wireless transceiver circuit performance. Analytical equations, experimental data, device and circuit simulation results will be given for clear explanation. The main benefit the reader derive from this book will be clear understanding on how device reliability issues affects the RF circuit performance subjected to operation aging and process variations.

  8. High Q-factor tunable superconducting HF circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Vopilkin, E A; Pavlov, S A; Ponomarev, L I; Ganitsev, A Y; Zhukov, A S; Vladimirov, V V; Letyago, A G; Parshikov, V V

    2001-01-01

    Feasibility of constructing a high Q-factor (Q approx 10 sup 5) mechanically tunable in a wide range of frequencies (12-63 MHz) vibration circuit of HF range was considered. The tunable circuit integrates two single circuits made using YBaCuO films. The circuit frequency is tuned by changing distance X (capacity) between substrates. Potentiality of using substrates of lanthanum aluminate, neodymium gallate and strontium titanate for manufacture of single circuits was considered. Q-factor of the circuit amounted to 68000 at resonance frequency of 6.88 MHz

  9. Test set-ups for developing high voltage circuit-breaker for high short-circuit capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzelt, R.; Ruhnau, W.; Zemann, E.

    1981-10-01

    The increasing short-circuit power in networks requires short-circuit breakers which are capable of interrupting short-circuit currents from 80 to 100 kA. The investigation and research development of a synthetic test circuit according to the principles of voltage- and current-injection respectively for short-circuit currents stated above comprises the first part of this report. The second part deals with the influence of Ferrum in the magnetic circuit on the transient recovery voltage wave form which is not influenced by the arc voltage. Investigations on the measurement of the post-arc current is described in the third chapter. In this case the construction and measurement of meshed grid- and tube shunts represent the major constituent. The fourth and last chapter deals with the investigation of synthetic test circuits in order to prove the capacitive switching capabilities of circuit-breakers. Two different switching circuits were subjected to test and subsequently developed for service.

  10. Optimal planning of series resistor to control time constant of test circuit for high-voltage AC circuit-breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The equivalent test circuit that can deliver both short-circuit current and recovery voltage is used to verify the performance of high-voltage circuit breakers. Most of the parameters in this circuit can be obtained by using a simple calculation or a simulation program. The ratings of the circuit breaker include rated short-circuit breaking current, rated short-circuit making current, rated operating sequence of the circuit breaker and rated short-time current. Among these ratings, the short-circuit making capacity of the circuit breaker is expressed in peak value and not in RMS value similar to breaking capacity. A series resistor or super-excitation is used to control the peak value of the short-circuit current in the equivalent test circuit. When using a series resistor, a higher rating of circuit breakers leads to a higher thermal capacity, thereby requiring additional space. Therefore, an effective, optimal design of the series resistor is essential. This paper proposes a method for reducing thermal capacity and selecting the optimal resistance to limit the making current by controlling the DC time constant of the test circuit.

  11. Mobilising the Commodity Chain Concept in the Politics of Food and Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Peter; Ward, Neil; Russell, Polly

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on the concept of "commodity chains" within the food industry, this paper analyses the term's widespread and variable usage in both academic and policy-orientated work. Despite recent criticisms, the concept has retained its popular appeal alongside competing metaphors such as networks, circuits and assemblages. Examining the…

  12. Notes on basis band-pass circuits; Notes sur les circuits de base passe-bande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailloud, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Resistor load amplifier stages, basic band-pass RC networks, conventional single-tuned circuits, have the same transfer function. Common properties and differences because diverse magnitude of parameters with proposed problems are exposed. Next the case of several cascaded stages (or networks) is examined when there is no reaction ones to another. (author) [French] Les etages amplificateurs a resistances, les circuits passe-bande RC elementaires, le circuit resonnant classique possedent la meme fonction de transfert. On fait ressortir les proprietes communes et les differences de comportement dues aux ordres de grandeur qu'il est possible de donner aux parametres en fonction des problemes a resoudre. On examine ensuite le cas de plusieurs etages (ou de plusieurs circuits) en cascade lorsqu'ils ne reagissent pas les uns sur les autres. (auteur)

  13. Astrocytes: Tailored to Support the Demand of Neural Circuits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Anatomy, physiology, proteomics, and genomics reveal the prospect of distinct highly specialized astrocyte subtypes within neural circuits.......Anatomy, physiology, proteomics, and genomics reveal the prospect of distinct highly specialized astrocyte subtypes within neural circuits....

  14. TEACHING RLC PARALLEL CIRCUITS IN HIGH-SCHOOL PHYSICS CLASS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alpár Simon

    2015-01-01

      This paper will try to give an alternative treatment of the subject "parallel RLC circuits" and "resonance in parallel RLC circuits" from the Physics curricula for the XIth grade from Romanian high...

  15. Using noise to probe and characterize gene circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Chris D; McCollum, James M; Allen, Michael S; Dar, Roy D; Simpson, Michael L

    2008-08-05

    Stochastic fluctuations (or "noise") in the single-cell populations of molecular species are shaped by the structure and biokinetic rates of the underlying gene circuit. The structure of the noise is summarized by its autocorrelation function. In this article, we introduce the noise regulatory vector as a generalized framework for making inferences concerning the structure and biokinetic rates of a gene circuit from its noise autocorrelation function. Although most previous studies have focused primarily on the magnitude component of the noise (given by the zero-lag autocorrelation function), our approach also considers the correlation component, which encodes additional information concerning the circuit. Theoretical analyses and simulations of various gene circuits show that the noise regulatory vector is characteristic of the composition of the circuit. Although a particular noise regulatory vector does not map uniquely to a single underlying circuit, it does suggest possible candidate circuits, while excluding others, thereby demonstrating the probative value of noise in gene circuit analysis.

  16. Four-terminal circuit element with photonic core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampayan, Stephen

    2017-08-29

    A four-terminal circuit element is described that includes a photonic core inside of the circuit element that uses a wide bandgap semiconductor material that exhibits photoconductivity and allows current flow through the material in response to the light that is incident on the wide bandgap material. The four-terminal circuit element can be configured based on various hardware structures using a single piece or multiple pieces or layers of a wide bandgap semiconductor material to achieve various designed electrical properties such as high switching voltages by using the photoconductive feature beyond the breakdown voltages of semiconductor devices or circuits operated based on electrical bias or control designs. The photonic core aspect of the four-terminal circuit element provides unique features that enable versatile circuit applications to either replace the semiconductor transistor-based circuit elements or semiconductor diode-based circuit elements.

  17. Reverse Engineering Integrated Circuits Using Finite State Machine Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oler, Kiri J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Carl H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-12

    In this paper, we present a methodology for reverse engineering integrated circuits, including a mathematical verification of a scalable algorithm used to generate minimal finite state machine representations of integrated circuits.

  18. Minimal transient modes for faults detection in analogue VLSI circuits

    OpenAIRE

    KADIM H.J.

    2003-01-01

    The method introduced here uses an investigation of the dominant natural mode to identify possible abnormalities in analogue circuits due to faults and parameter variations, and determining the reliability of circuits when operating in the presence of faults.

  19. Typical patterns of oscillations in three-phase circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisakado, Takashi; Ukai, Shota

    Symmetrical three-phase circuits are fundamental models of power systems. Although the circuits have structural symmetry, asymmetric patterns of oscillations have been observed in real power systems. This paper describes an approach to understanding typical patterns of oscillations in the three-phase circuits using symmetry. In order to figure out oscillation patterns, we introduce a three LC ladder circuit which has a higher symmetry than the three-phase circuit. Using only the symmetries of the three LC ladder circuit, we classify periodic oscillations and construct a lattice of those modes. Further, extending the method to almost periodic oscillations, we decompose and characterize typical almost periodic oscillations by their symmetry. Finally, by observing a global phase space in the three LC ladder circuit, we confirm typical oscillations in the three-phase circuit.

  20. Nonintrusive System for Replication of interlayer Printed Circuit Patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chai, M

    1998-01-01

    ... verified the feasibility of reverse engineering the circuit board. An algorithm using 2-D projection and Compton scattering data was proposed for image reconstruction of the layout of the printed circuit board, layer by layer...