WorldWideScience

Sample records for circuit controlling immune

  1. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  2. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    signal. The control unit comprises a first signal processing unit, a second signal processing unit, and a combiner unit. The first signal processing unit has an output and is supplied with a first carrier signal and an input signal. The second signal processing unit has an output and is supplied...... with a second carrier signal and the input signal. The combiner unit is connected to the first and second signal processing units combining the outputs of the first and the second signal processing units to form a signal representative of the control signal......A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  3. Immunometabolic circuits in trained immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, R.J.; Joosten, L.A.; Netea, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    The classical view that only adaptive immunity can build immunological memory has recently been challenged. Both in organisms lacking adaptive immunity as well as in mammals, the innate immune system can adapt to mount an increased resistance to reinfection, a de facto innate immune memory termed

  4. Immunometabolic circuits in trained immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Rob J W; Joosten, Leo A B; Netea, Mihai G

    2016-10-01

    The classical view that only adaptive immunity can build immunological memory has recently been challenged. Both in organisms lacking adaptive immunity as well as in mammals, the innate immune system can adapt to mount an increased resistance to reinfection, a de facto innate immune memory termed trained immunity. Recent studies have revealed that rewiring of cellular metabolism induced by different immunological signals is a crucial step for determining the epigenetic changes underlying trained immunity. Processes such as a shift of glucose metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, increased glutamine metabolism and cholesterol synthesis, play a crucial role in these processes. The discovery of trained immunity opens the door for the design of novel generations of vaccines, for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of immune deficiency states, and for modulation of exaggerated inflammation in autoinflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Optically controllable molecular logic circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Takahiro, E-mail: t-nishimura@ist.osaka-u.ac.jp; Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, 1-5 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-06

    Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals.

  6. Test results for SEU and SEL immune memory circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, D.; Canaris, J.; Whitaker, S.; Gambles, J.; Arave, K.; Arave, L.

    1993-01-01

    Test results for three SEU logic/circuit hardened CMOS memory circuits verify upset and latch-up immunity for two configurations to be in excess of 120 MeV cm(exp 2)/mg using a commercial, non-radiation hardened CMOS process. Test chips from three separate fabrication runs in two different process were evaluated.

  7. Progress in radiation immune thermionic integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B. (comps.)

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the results of a program directed at evaluating the thermionic integrated circuit (TIC) technology for applicability to military systems. Previous programs under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, have developed an initial TIC technology base and demonstrated operation in high-temperature and high-radiation environments. The program described in this report has two parts: (1) a technical portion in which experiments and analyses were conducted to refine perceptions of near-term as well as ultimate performance levels of the TIC technology and (2) an applications portion in which the technical conclusions were to be evaluated against potential military applications. This report draws several conclusions that strongly suggest that (1) useful radiation-hard/high-temperature operable integrated circuits can be developed using the TIC technology; (2) because of their ability to survive and operate in hostile environments, a variety of potential military applications have been projected for this technology; and (3) based on the above two conclusions, an aggressive TIC development program should be initiated to provide the designers of future systems with integrated circuits and devices with the unique features of the TICs.

  8. Artificial immune system algorithm in VLSI circuit configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Mohd. Asyraf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Kasihmuddin, Mohd Shareduwan Mohd

    2017-08-01

    In artificial intelligence, the artificial immune system is a robust bio-inspired heuristic method, extensively used in solving many constraint optimization problems, anomaly detection, and pattern recognition. This paper discusses the implementation and performance of artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm integrated with Hopfield neural networks for VLSI circuit configuration based on 3-Satisfiability problems. Specifically, we emphasized on the clonal selection technique in our binary artificial immune system algorithm. We restrict our logic construction to 3-Satisfiability (3-SAT) clauses in order to outfit with the transistor configuration in VLSI circuit. The core impetus of this research is to find an ideal hybrid model to assist in the VLSI circuit configuration. In this paper, we compared the artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm (HNN-3SATAIS) with the brute force algorithm incorporated with Hopfield neural network (HNN-3SATBF). Microsoft Visual C++ 2013 was used as a platform for training, simulating and validating the performances of the proposed network. The results depict that the HNN-3SATAIS outperformed HNN-3SATBF in terms of circuit accuracy and CPU time. Thus, HNN-3SATAIS can be used to detect an early error in the VLSI circuit design.

  9. 49 CFR 236.721 - Circuit, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, control. 236.721 Section 236.721..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.721 Circuit, control. An electrical circuit between a source of electric energy and a device which it operates. ...

  10. Circuit For Control Of Electromechanical Prosthetic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed circuit for control of electromechanical prosthetic hand derives electrical control signals from shoulder movements. Updated, electronic version of prosthesis, that includes two hooklike fingers actuated via cables from shoulder harness. Circuit built around favored shoulder harness, provides more dexterous movement, without incurring complexity of computer-controlled "bionic" or hydraulically actuated devices. Additional harness and potentiometer connected to similar control circuit mounted on other shoulder. Used to control stepping motor rotating hand about prosthetic wrist to one of number of angles consistent with number of digital outputs. Finger-control signals developed by circuit connected to first shoulder harness transmitted to prosthetic hand via sliprings at prosthetic wrist joint.

  11. Coherent-feedback control in nanophotonic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Hideo

    2012-06-01

    The emerging discipline of coherent-feedback quantum control provides core concepts and methods for nanopho- tonic circuit theory, which can be assimilated within modern approaches to computer-aided design. Current research in this area includes the development of software tools to enable a schematic capture workflow for compilation and analysis of quantum stochastic models for nanophotonic circuits, exploration of elementary coherent-feedback circuit motifs, and laboratory demonstrations of quantum nonlinear photonic devices.

  12. 49 CFR 236.5 - Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be designed on the closed circuit principle, except circuits for roadway equipment of intermittent... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle. 236.5 Section 236.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...

  13. Feedback control of superconducting quantum circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ristè, D.

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting circuits have recently risen to the forefront of the solid-state prototypes for quantum computing. Reaching the stage of robust quantum computing requires closing the loop between measurement and control of quantum bits (qubits). This thesis presents the realization of feedback

  14. Phase-controlled integrated photonic quantum circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian J; Kundys, Dmytro; Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Smith, P G R; Walmsley, I A

    2009-08-03

    Scalable photonic quantum technologies are based on multiple nested interferometers. To realize this architecture, integrated optical structures are needed to ensure stable, controllable, and repeatable operation. Here we show a key proof-of-principle demonstration of an externallycontrolled photonic quantum circuit based upon UV-written waveguide technology. In particular, we present non-classical interference of photon pairs in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer constructed with X couplers in an integrated optical circuit with a thermo-optic phase shifter in one of the interferometer arms.

  15. Packaging Of Control Circuits In A Robot Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, William

    1994-01-01

    Packaging system houses and connects control circuitry mounted on circuit boards within shoulder, upper section, and lower section of seven-degree-of-freedom robot arm. Has modular design that incorporates surface-mount technology, multilayer circuit boards, large-scale integrated circuits, and multi-layer flat cables between sections for compactness. Three sections of robot arm contain circuit modules in form of stardardized circuit boards. Each module contains two printed-circuit cards, one of each face.

  16. Controlled interactions in superconducting quantum circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulschner, Karl Friedrich

    2016-09-14

    This thesis deals with controlled interactions between superconducting circuit elements for quantum computation and simulation applications. First, the electrical design and measurements of transmon type qubits, which are coupled to superconducting resonators, are presented. Secondly the controllable coupling of superconducting microwave resonators via an rf SQUID is experimentally investigated. Thirdly, a theoretical discussion about interaction and entanglement of a microwave resonator with a nanomechanical beam via an rf SQUID is discussed.

  17. Controlled Limiter in the Synchronous Detection Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yauheni Bialetski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This variant of construction of the electrical circuit is aimed at reducing the effects of impulse noise. The measuring channels of the primary transducers are subject to interference of various types. In the case of a small ratio between a useful signal and noise level, synchronous detection is used. Impulse noise leaves a big mark even after using synchronous detection. To improve the performance of such measuring devices, it is proposed to use a controlled amplitude limiter at the input. Comparative analysis of solutions with controlled limiters is carried out in the article and conditions for its optimal operation are determined.

  18. Designer's handbook of instrumentation and control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph J

    1991-01-01

    Here is a comprehensive, practical guide to the entire process of analog instrumentation and control, from sensor input to data conversion circuitry and final output. This readable handbook avoids complex mathematical treatments, instead taking an applications-oriented approach and presenting many sample circuits and concrete examples. It is an essential reference for engineers and high-level technicians in a variety of scientific and engineering fields--anywhere data is collected electronically and where such data is used to control physical processes.Key Features* Covers design o

  19. Dissecting Immune Circuits by Linking CRISPR-Pooled Screens with Single-Cell RNA-Seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaitin, Diego Adhemar; Weiner, Assaf; Yofe, Ido; Lara-Astiaso, David; Keren-Shaul, Hadas; David, Eyal; Salame, Tomer Meir; Tanay, Amos; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Amit, Ido

    2016-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, dedicated regulatory circuits control cell type diversity and responses. The crosstalk and redundancies within these circuits and substantial cellular heterogeneity pose a major research challenge. Here, we present CRISP-seq, an integrated method for massively parallel

  20. 49 CFR 236.732 - Controller, circuit; switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controller, circuit; switch. 236.732 Section 236... § 236.732 Controller, circuit; switch. A device for opening and closing electric circuits, operated by a rod connected to a switch, derail or movable-point frog. ...

  1. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sozanski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Many digital control circuits in current literature are described using analog transmittance. This may not always be acceptable, especially if the sampling frequency and power transistor switching frequencies are close to the band of interest. Therefore, a digital circuit is considered as a digital controller rather than an analog circuit. This helps to avoid errors and instability in high frequency components. Digital Signal Processing in Power Electronics Control Circuits covers problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using

  2. Fast synaptic subcortical control of hippocampal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Viktor; Losonczy, Attila; Zemelman, Boris V; Borhegyi, Zsolt; Nyiri, Gábor; Domonkos, Andor; Hangya, Balázs; Holderith, Noémi; Magee, Jeffrey C; Freund, Tamás F

    2009-10-16

    Cortical information processing is under state-dependent control of subcortical neuromodulatory systems. Although this modulatory effect is thought to be mediated mainly by slow nonsynaptic metabotropic receptors, other mechanisms, such as direct synaptic transmission, are possible. Yet, it is currently unknown if any such form of subcortical control exists. Here, we present direct evidence of a strong, spatiotemporally precise excitatory input from an ascending neuromodulatory center. Selective stimulation of serotonergic median raphe neurons produced a rapid activation of hippocampal interneurons. At the network level, this subcortical drive was manifested as a pattern of effective disynaptic GABAergic inhibition that spread throughout the circuit. This form of subcortical network regulation should be incorporated into current concepts of normal and pathological cortical function.

  3. Wide-band polarization controller for Si photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velha, P; Sorianello, V; Preite, M V; De Angelis, G; Cassese, T; Bianchi, A; Testa, F; Romagnoli, M

    2016-12-15

    A circuit for the management of any arbitrary polarization state of light is demonstrated on an integrated silicon (Si) photonics platform. This circuit allows us to adapt any polarization into the standard fundamental TE mode of a Si waveguide and, conversely, to control the polarization and set it to any arbitrary polarization state. In addition, the integrated thermal tuning allows kilohertz speed which can be used to perform a polarization scrambler. The circuit was used in a WDM link and successfully used to adapt four channels into a standard Si photonic integrated circuit.

  4. Sampling and Control Circuit Board for an Inertial Measurement Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David T (Inventor); Powis, Richard T., Jr. (Inventor); Sands, Obed (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A circuit board that serves as a control and sampling interface to an inertial measurement unit ("IMU") is provided. The circuit board is also configured to interface with a local oscillator and an external trigger pulse. The circuit board is further configured to receive the external trigger pulse from an external source that time aligns the local oscillator and initiates sampling of the inertial measurement device for data at precise time intervals based on pulses from the local oscillator. The sampled data may be synchronized by the circuit board with other sensors of a navigation system via the trigger pulse.

  5. Circuit Formation by Spatio-Temporal Control of Messenger RNA ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Circuit Formation by Spatio-Temporal Control of Messenger RNA Translation. The connections inside the brain need to be wired in a precise manner during development to ensure its proper function. This project will provide insight into circuit formation to help us understand how axon regeneration can improve clinical ...

  6. Minimum energy control of fractional positive electrical circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczorek Tadeusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Minimum energy control problem for the fractional positive electrical circuits is formulated and solved. Sufficient conditions for the existence of solution to the problem are established. A procedure for solving of the problem is proposed and illustrated by an example of fractional positive electrical circuit.

  7. Control circuits in power electronics practical issues in design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Control circuits are a key element in the operation and performance of power electronics converters. This book describes practical issues related to the design and implementation of these control circuits, and is divided into three parts - analogue control circuits, digital control circuits, and new trends in control circuits.

  8. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Micevych

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH, activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN, which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH activity—the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa. While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  9. Integrated-Circuit Controller For Brushless dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dong Tuan

    1994-01-01

    Generic circuit performs commutation-logic and power-switching functions for control of brushless dc motor. Controller includes commutation-logic and associated control circuitry, power supply, and inverters containing power transistors. Major advantages of controller are size, weight, and power consumption can be made less than other brushless-dc-motor controllers.

  10. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sozański, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using digital signal processing (DSP) methods. It includes Matlab examples for illustration of considered problems.

  11. Optimal planning of series resistor to control time constant of test circuit for high-voltage AC circuit-breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The equivalent test circuit that can deliver both short-circuit current and recovery voltage is used to verify the performance of high-voltage circuit breakers. Most of the parameters in this circuit can be obtained by using a simple calculation or a simulation program. The ratings of the circuit breaker include rated short-circuit breaking current, rated short-circuit making current, rated operating sequence of the circuit breaker and rated short-time current. Among these ratings, the short-circuit making capacity of the circuit breaker is expressed in peak value and not in RMS value similar to breaking capacity. A series resistor or super-excitation is used to control the peak value of the short-circuit current in the equivalent test circuit. When using a series resistor, a higher rating of circuit breakers leads to a higher thermal capacity, thereby requiring additional space. Therefore, an effective, optimal design of the series resistor is essential. This paper proposes a method for reducing thermal capacity and selecting the optimal resistance to limit the making current by controlling the DC time constant of the test circuit.

  12. Neural Control of Energy Balance: Translating Circuits to Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Gautron, Laurent; Elmquist, Joel K.; Williams, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent insights into the neural circuits controlling energy balance and glucose homeostasis have rekindled the hope for development of novel treatments for obesity and diabetes. However, many therapies contribute relatively modest beneficial gains with accompanying side effects, and the mechanisms of action for other interventions remain undefined. This Review summarizes current knowledge linking the neural circuits regulating energy and glucose balance with current and potential pharmacother...

  13. Motor power control circuit for ac induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A motor power control of the type which functions by controlling the power factor wherein one of the parameters of power factor current on time is determined by the on time of a triac through which current is supplied to the motor. By means of a positive feedback circuit, a wider range of control is effected.

  14. Signaling Circuits and Regulation of Immune Suppression by Ovarian Tumor-Associated Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Cannon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The barriers presented by immune suppression in the ovarian tumor microenvironment present one of the biggest challenges to development of successful tumor vaccine strategies for prevention of disease recurrence and progression following primary surgery and chemotherapy. New insights gained over the last decade have revealed multiple mechanisms of immune regulation, with ovarian tumor-associated macrophages/DC likely to fulfill a central role in creating a highly immunosuppressive milieu that supports disease progression and blocks anti-tumor immunity. This review provides an appraisal of some of the key signaling pathways that may contribute to immune suppression in ovarian cancer, with a particular focus on the potential involvement of the c-KIT/PI3K/AKT, wnt/β-catenin, IL-6/STAT3 and AhR signaling pathways in regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in tumor-associated macrophages. Knowledge of intercellular and intracellular circuits that shape immune suppression may afford insights for development of adjuvant treatments that alleviate immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment and enhance the clinical efficacy of ovarian tumor vaccines.

  15. Spectral control of diode lasers using external waveguide circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Ruud

    2013-01-01

    We investigated spectral control of diode lasers using external waveguide circuits. The purpose of this work is to investigate such external control for providing a new class of diode lasers with technologically interesting properties, such as a narrow spectral bandwidth and spectrally tunable

  16. 49 CFR 236.103 - Switch circuit controller or point detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch circuit controller or point detector. 236... Rules and Instructions: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.103 Switch circuit controller or point detector. Switch circuit controller, circuit controller, or point detector operated by...

  17. A NEW CONTROL CIRCUIT AND COMPUTER SOFTWARE FOR CONTROLING PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Berkant SELEK

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new microcontroller circuit was designed and new computer software was implemented to control power flow currents of renewable energy system, which is established in Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey. PIC18F452 microcontroller based electronic circuit was designed to control another electronic circuit that includes power electronic switching components. Readily available standard control circuits are designed for switching single level inverters. In contrary, implemented circuit allows to switch multilevel inverters. In addition, because the efficiency of solar energy panels is considerably low, solar panels should be operated under the maximum power point (MPP. Therefore, MPP algorithm is included in the designed control circuit. Next, the control circuit also includes a serial communication interface based on RS232 standard. Using this interface enables the user to choose all functions available in the control circuit and take status report via computer software. Last, a general purpose command set was designed to establish communication between the computer software and the microcontroller-based control circuit. As a result, it is aimed that this study supply a basis for the researchers who want to develop own control circuits or more visual software.

  18. Automated tuning, control and stabilization of photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. De Aguiar, Douglas; Annoni, Andrea; Peserico, Nicola; Guglielmi, Emanuele; Carminati, Marco; Ferrari, Giorgio; Morichetti, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    The complexity scaling of silicon photonics circuits is raising novel needs related to control. Reconfigurable architectures need fast, accurate and robust procedures for the tuning and stabilization of their working point, counteracting temperature drifts originated by environmental fluctuations and mutual thermal crosstalk from surrounding integrated devices. In this contribution, we report on our recent achievements on the automated tuning, control and stabilization of silicon photonics architectures. The proposed control strategy exploits transparent integrated detectors to monitor non-invasively the light propagating in the silicon waveguides in key spots of the circuit. Local monitoring enables the partitioning of complex architectures in small photonic cells that can be easily tuned and controlled, with need for neither preliminary circuit calibration nor global optimization algorithms. The ability to monitor the Quality Of of Transmission (QoT) of the optical paths in Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) is also demonstrated with the use of channel labelling and non-invasive light monitoring. Several examples of applications are presented that include the automatic reconfiguration and feedback controlled stabilization of an 8×8 switch fabric based on Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) and the realization of a wavelength locking platform enabling feedback-control of silicon microring resonators (MRRs) for the realization of a 4×10 Gbit/s wavelength-division-multiplexing transmitter. The effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed approach for tuning and stabilization of the presented architectures is demonstrated by showing that no significant performance degradation is observed under uncooled operation for the silicon chip.

  19. Design of Threshold Controller Based Chaotic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, I. Raja; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2010-01-01

    We propose a very simple implementation of a second-order nonautonomous chaotic oscillator, using a threshold controller as the only source of nonlinearity. We demonstrate the efficacy and simplicity of our design through numerical and experimental results. Further, we show that this approach...

  20. 49 CFR 236.205 - Signal control circuits; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION... installed that each signal governing train movements into a block will display its most restrictive aspect... restrictive state; or when signal control circuit is deenergized. [33 FR 19684, Dec. 25, 1968, as amended at...

  1. Stabilization and Synchronization of Memristive Chaotic Circuits by Impulsive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Zou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this note is to study impulsive control and synchronization of memristor based chaotic circuits shown by Muthuswamy. We first establish a less conservative sufficient condition for the stability of memristor based chaotic circuits. After that, we discuss the effect of errors on stability. Meanwhile, we also discuss impulsive synchronization of two memristor based chaotic systems. Our results are more general and more applicable than the ones shown by Yang, Li, and Huang. Finally, several numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of our methods.

  2. Neural control of energy balance: translating circuits to therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautron, Laurent; Elmquist, Joel K; Williams, Kevin W

    2015-03-26

    Recent insights into the neural circuits controlling energy balance and glucose homeostasis have rekindled the hope for development of novel treatments for obesity and diabetes. However, many therapies contribute relatively modest beneficial gains with accompanying side effects, and the mechanisms of action for other interventions remain undefined. This Review summarizes current knowledge linking the neural circuits regulating energy and glucose balance with current and potential pharmacotherapeutic and surgical interventions for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reassessing Immune Control of Hepatitis A Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher M.; Feng, Zongdi; Lemon, Stanley M.

    2015-01-01

    There is renewed interest in hepatitis A virus (HAV) pathogenesis and immunity after 2–3 decades of limited progress. From a public health perspective, the average age at infection has increased in developing countries, resulting in more severe hepatitis that is poorly understood mechanistically. More fundamentally, there is interest in comparing immunity to HAV and hepatitis C virus (HCV): small, positive-strand RNA viruses with very different infection outcomes. Here, we review evidence that circulating HAV virions are cloaked in membranes, with consequences for induction of innate immunity and antibody-mediated neutralization. We also consider the contribution of CD4+ helper versus CD8+ cytotoxic T cells to antiviral immunity and liver injury, and present a model of non-cytotoxic immune control of HAV infection. PMID:25617494

  4. Pneumatic oscillator circuits for timing and control of integrated microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Philip N.; Nguyen, Transon V.; Hui, Elliot E.

    2013-01-01

    Frequency references are fundamental to most digital systems, providing the basis for process synchronization, timing of outputs, and waveform synthesis. Recently, there has been growing interest in digital logic systems that are constructed out of microfluidics rather than electronics, as a possible means toward fully integrated laboratory-on-a-chip systems that do not require any external control apparatus. However, the full realization of this goal has not been possible due to the lack of on-chip frequency references, thus requiring timing signals to be provided from off-chip. Although microfluidic oscillators have been demonstrated, there have been no reported efforts to characterize, model, or optimize timing accuracy, which is the fundamental metric of a clock. Here, we report pneumatic ring oscillator circuits built from microfluidic valves and channels. Further, we present a compressible-flow analysis that differs fundamentally from conventional circuit theory, and we show the utility of this physically based model for the optimization of oscillator stability. Finally, we leverage microfluidic clocks to demonstrate circuits for the generation of phase-shifted waveforms, self-driving peristaltic pumps, and frequency division. Thus, pneumatic oscillators can serve as on-chip frequency references for microfluidic digital logic circuits. On-chip clocks and pumps both constitute critical building blocks on the path toward achieving autonomous laboratory-on-a-chip devices. PMID:24145429

  5. Pneumatic oscillator circuits for timing and control of integrated microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Philip N; Nguyen, Transon V; Hui, Elliot E

    2013-11-05

    Frequency references are fundamental to most digital systems, providing the basis for process synchronization, timing of outputs, and waveform synthesis. Recently, there has been growing interest in digital logic systems that are constructed out of microfluidics rather than electronics, as a possible means toward fully integrated laboratory-on-a-chip systems that do not require any external control apparatus. However, the full realization of this goal has not been possible due to the lack of on-chip frequency references, thus requiring timing signals to be provided from off-chip. Although microfluidic oscillators have been demonstrated, there have been no reported efforts to characterize, model, or optimize timing accuracy, which is the fundamental metric of a clock. Here, we report pneumatic ring oscillator circuits built from microfluidic valves and channels. Further, we present a compressible-flow analysis that differs fundamentally from conventional circuit theory, and we show the utility of this physically based model for the optimization of oscillator stability. Finally, we leverage microfluidic clocks to demonstrate circuits for the generation of phase-shifted waveforms, self-driving peristaltic pumps, and frequency division. Thus, pneumatic oscillators can serve as on-chip frequency references for microfluidic digital logic circuits. On-chip clocks and pumps both constitute critical building blocks on the path toward achieving autonomous laboratory-on-a-chip devices.

  6. Switching regulator emission control circuit for ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, F. P., Jr.; Brock, F. J.; Melfi, L. T., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An electron emission control circuit of the switching regulator type operating at 100 kHz has been developed which maintains a constant emission current within 0.1% for a cathode power demand variation of approximately 100%. The power output stage has an efficiency of 67%, and the overall efficiency is 45% when driving a thoria-coated iridium cathode having a nominal resistance at operating temperature of 2.5 ohms. Under optimum conditions, the bus power demand is 1.75 W. The circuit is useful in controlling the electron emission current of ion sources in applications which involve a substantial variation of the cathode work function, such as oxygen partial pressure measurements over a large dynamic range.

  7. 46 CFR 111.70-7 - Remote control, interlock, and indicator circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote control, interlock, and indicator circuits. 111... Remote control, interlock, and indicator circuits. (a) Overcurrent protection. A conductor of a control, interlock, or indicator circuit of a motor controller must be protected against overcurrent unless: (1) The...

  8. Memory and cognitive control circuits in mathematical cognition and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, V

    2016-01-01

    Numerical cognition relies on interactions within and between multiple functional brain systems, including those subserving quantity processing, working memory, declarative memory, and cognitive control. This chapter describes recent advances in our understanding of memory and control circuits in mathematical cognition and learning. The working memory system involves multiple parietal-frontal circuits which create short-term representations that allow manipulation of discrete quantities over several seconds. In contrast, hippocampal-frontal circuits underlying the declarative memory system play an important role in formation of associative memories and binding of new and old information, leading to the formation of long-term memories that allow generalization beyond individual problem attributes. The flow of information across these systems is regulated by flexible cognitive control systems which facilitate the integration and manipulation of quantity and mnemonic information. The implications of recent research for formulating a more comprehensive systems neuroscience view of the neural basis of mathematical learning and knowledge acquisition in both children and adults are discussed. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. FPGA based control circuit for single phase inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M.I.; Husin, Z.; Abd Rahim, H.; Abu Hassan, M.S. [Malaysia Perlis Univ., Perlis (Malaysia). School of Computer and Communication Engineering; Ismail, B. [Malaysia Perlis Univ., Perlis (Malaysia). School of Microelectronic Engineering; Isa, M.N. [Malaysia Perlis Univ., Perlis (Malaysia). School of Power System Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted in which DC voltage was successfully converted to a pure sine wave AC source. This paper described the controller circuit for a single phase inverter, which was used to convert DC to AC voltage. Inverters typically have various switching techniques, depending on the application, such as emergency lighting systems, AC variable speed drives, uninterrupted power supplies and frequency converters. The techniques include pulse width modulation, sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) and modified SPWM. In this study, the circuitry of the SPWM inverter was constructed using power MOSFET. However, it could also be constructed using other power semiconductor devices such as a bipolar junction transistor or an insulated gate bipolar transistor. A low cost, field programmable gate array FPGA chip developed by Altera was used as the main controller unit to control the operation of the full bridge circuit and generate a control signal for SPWM. The whole control unit consisted of 1734 logic elements. The high logic density of the FPGA chip served as an efficient hardware for rapid prototyping. As such, the use of the FPGA increased signal accuracy. The output was a pure sine wave of 242 volt rms with low harmonics distortion which is less than 3 per cent. This is suitable for use in complex electrical equipment and frequency sensitive equipment. 4 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  10. DFB laser array driver circuit controlled by adjustable signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weikang; Du, Yinchao; Guo, Yu; Li, Wei; Wang, Hao

    2018-01-01

    In order to achieve the intelligent controlling of DFB laser array, this paper presents the design of an intelligence and high precision numerical controlling electric circuit. The system takes MCU and FPGA as the main control chip, with compact, high-efficiency, no impact, switching protection characteristics. The output of the DFB laser array can be determined by an external adjustable signal. The system transforms the analog control model into a digital control model, which improves the performance of the driver. The system can monitor the temperature and current of DFB laser array in real time. The output precision of the current can reach ± 0.1mA, which ensures the stable and reliable operation of the DFB laser array. Such a driver can benefit the flexible usage of the DFB laser array.

  11. Noise propagation in synthetic gene circuits for metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Diego A; Lugagne, Jean-Baptiste; Stan, Guy-Bart V

    2015-02-20

    Dynamic control of enzyme expression can be an effective strategy to engineer robust metabolic pathways. It allows a synthetic pathway to self-regulate in response to changes in bioreactor conditions or the metabolic state of the host. The implementation of this regulatory strategy requires gene circuits that couple metabolic signals with the genetic machinery, which is known to be noisy and one of the main sources of cell-to-cell variability. One of the unexplored design aspects of these circuits is the propagation of biochemical noise between enzyme expression and pathway activity. In this article, we quantify the impact of a synthetic feedback circuit on the noise in a metabolic product in order to propose design criteria to reduce cell-to-cell variability. We consider a stochastic model of a catalytic reaction under negative feedback from the product to enzyme expression. On the basis of stochastic simulations and analysis, we show that, depending on the repression strength and promoter strength, transcriptional repression of enzyme expression can amplify or attenuate the noise in the number of product molecules. We obtain analytic estimates for the metabolic noise as a function of the model parameters and show that noise amplification/attenuation is a structural property of the model. We derive an analytic condition on the parameters that lead to attenuation of metabolic noise, suggesting that a higher promoter sensitivity enlarges the parameter design space. In the theoretical case of a switch-like promoter, our analysis reveals that the ability of the circuit to attenuate noise is subject to a trade-off between the repression strength and promoter strength.

  12. Variable-pulse switching circuit accurately controls solenoid-valve actuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, J. D.

    1967-01-01

    Solid state circuit generating adjustable square wave pulses of sufficient power operates a 28 volt dc solenoid valve at precise time intervals. This circuit is used for precise time control of fluid flow in combustion experiments.

  13. Dynamic phases in control and information processing biological circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan

    2015-03-01

    Recent work using the mathematical framework of large deviation theory has shown that fluctuations about the steady state can have a particularly rich structure even in extremely simple non-equilibrium systems [Phys. Rev. E. 89, 062108, 2014]. In certain instances the fluctuations can encode the presence of a dynamical phase with properties distinct from those of the steady state of the system. The transition between these two regimes is akin to a first order thermodynamic phase transition. Specifically, it implies an extreme sensitivity of the system to changes in certain sets of parameters. I will show that such dynamical phase transitions can serve as a general organizing principle to understand biological circuits that are involved in information processing and control. I will focus on two specific examples: adaptation control in E. coli chemotaxis and ultra sensitive response of the E. coli flagella motor, to illustrate these calculations. This work also elucidates the role played by energy dissipation in ensuring control and suggests general guidelines for the construction of robust non equilibrium circuits that perform various specified functions.

  14. Balanced calibration of resonant shunt circuits for piezoelectric vibration control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan; Krenk, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Shunting of piezoelectric transducers and suitable electric circuits constitutes an effective passive approach to resonant vibration damping of structures. Most common design concepts for resonant resistor-inductor (RL) shunt circuits rely on either maximization of the attainable modal damping...

  15. Design and implementation of a simple acousto optic dual control circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biqing; Li, Zhao

    2017-04-01

    This page proposed a simple light control circuit which designed by using power supply circuit, sonic circuits, electric circuit and delay circuit four parts. The main chip for CD4011, have inside of the four and to complete the sonic or circuit, electric, delay logic circuit. During the day, no matter how much a pedestrian voice, is ever shine light bulb. Dark night, circuit in a body to make the microphone as long as testing noise, and will automatically be bright for pedestrians lighting, several minutes after the automatic and put out, effective energy saving. Applicable scope and the working principle of the circuit principle diagram and given device parameters selection, power saving effect is obvious, at the same time greatly reduce the maintenance quantity, saving money, use effect is good.

  16. Circuit Implementation of Coronary Artery Chaos Phenomenon and Optimal PID Synchronization Controller Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yu Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at the implementation and synchronization control of cardiac circuit. First, the MATLAB-Simulink was used to simulate the dynamic behavior of cardiac chaotic circuit, and simple electronic modules were used to implement the cardiac system. Then the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO was used to seek for the proportional, integral, and derivative gains of optimal PID controller, and the PID controller which could synchronize the slave cardiac circuit and the master cardiac circuit was obtained, in order to synchronize the master/slave chaotic cardiac circuits. This method can be provided for cardiac doctors to diagnose and medicate cardiac abnormality.

  17. DQ reference frame modeling and control of single-phase active power decoupling circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    . This paper presents the dq synchronous reference frame modeling of single-phase power decoupling circuits and a complete model describing the dynamics of dc-link ripple voltage is presented. The proposed model is universal and valid for both inductive and capacitive decoupling circuits, and the input...... of decoupling circuits can be either dependent or independent of its front-end converters. Based on this model, a dq synchronous reference frame controller is designed which allows the decoupling circuit to operate in two different modes because of the circuit symmetry. Simulation and experimental results...... are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed modeling and control method....

  18. Controlling the elements: an optogenetic approach to understanding the neural circuits of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Joshua P; Wolff, Steffen B E; Lüthi, Andreas; LeDoux, Joseph E

    2012-06-15

    Neural circuits underlie our ability to interact in the world and to learn adaptively from experience. Understanding neural circuits and how circuit structure gives rise to neural firing patterns or computations is fundamental to our understanding of human experience and behavior. Fear conditioning is a powerful model system in which to study neural circuits and information processing and relate them to learning and behavior. Until recently, technological limitations have made it difficult to study the causal role of specific circuit elements during fear conditioning. However, newly developed optogenetic tools allow researchers to manipulate individual circuit components such as anatomically or molecularly defined cell populations, with high temporal precision. Applying these tools to the study of fear conditioning to control specific neural subpopulations in the fear circuit will facilitate a causal analysis of the role of these circuit elements in fear learning and memory. By combining this approach with in vivo electrophysiological recordings in awake, behaving animals, it will also be possible to determine the functional contribution of specific cell populations to neural processing in the fear circuit. As a result, the application of optogenetics to fear conditioning could shed light on how specific circuit elements contribute to neural coding and to fear learning and memory. Furthermore, this approach may reveal general rules for how circuit structure and neural coding within circuits gives rise to sensory experience and behavior. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Control of the Fractional-Order Chen Chaotic System via Fractional-Order Scalar Controller and Its Circuit Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Qiong Huang; Chunyang Dong; Qianbin Chen

    2014-01-01

    A fractional-order scalar controller which involves only one state variable is proposed. By this fractional-order scalar controller, the unstable equilibrium points in the fractional-order Chen chaotic system can be asymptotically stable. The present control strategy is theoretically rigorous. Some circuits are designed to realize these control schemes. The outputs of circuit agree with the results of theoretical results.

  20. Driver circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Raymond T. (Inventor); Higashi, Stanley T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A driver circuit which has low power requirements, a relatively small number of components and provides flexibility in output voltage setting. The driver circuit comprises, essentially, two portions which are selectively activated by the application of input signals. The output signal is determined by which of the two circuit portions is activated. While each of the two circuit portions operates in a manner similar to silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR), the circuit portions are on only when an input signal is supplied thereto.

  1. Synaptic Regulation of a Thalamocortical Circuit Controls Depression-Related Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Oliver H; Andreas Bruns; Imen Ben Ammar; Thomas Mueggler; Hall, Benjamin J

    2017-01-01

    The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine elicits a long-lasting antidepressant response in patients with treatment-resistant depression. Understanding how antagonism of NMDARs alters synapse and circuit function is pivotal to developing circuit-based therapies for depression. Using virally induced gene deletion, ex vivo optogenetic-assisted circuit analysis, and in vivo chemogenetics and fMRI, we assessed the role of NMDARs in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in controlling depression...

  2. Dendritic Cell Immune Responses in HIV-1 Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gayo, Enrique; Yu, Xu G

    2017-02-01

    Robust HIV-1-specific CD8 T cell responses are currently regarded as the main correlate of immune defense in rare individuals who achieve natural, drug-free control of HIV-1; however, the mechanisms that support evolution of such powerful immune responses are not well understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized innate immune cells critical for immune recognition, immune regulation, and immune induction, but their possible contribution to HIV-1 immune defense in controllers remains ill-defined. Recent studies suggest that myeloid DCs from controllers have improved abilities to recognize HIV-1 through cytoplasmic immune sensors, resulting in more potent, cell-intrinsic type I interferon secretion in response to viral infection. This innate immune response may facilitate DC-mediated induction of highly potent antiviral HIV-1-specific T cells. Moreover, protective HLA class I isotypes restricting HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells may influence DC function through specific interactions with innate myelomonocytic MHC class I receptors from the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor family. Bi-directional interactions between dendritic cells and HIV-1-specific T cells may contribute to natural HIV-1 immune control, highlighting the importance of a fine-tuned interplay between innate and adaptive immune activities for effective antiviral immune defense.

  3. Multi-channel control circuit for real-time control of events in Aditya tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edappala, Praveenlal, E-mail: praveen@ipr.res.in; Shah, Minsha; Rajpal, Rachana; Tanna, R.L.; Ghosh, Joydeep; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Jha, R.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Low cost microcontroller based control circuit. • The control hardware can be programmed/configured very easily for different applications. • Microcontroller programming is done in assembly language so that precise timing can be achieved with micro seconds resolution. • Successful implementation of this circuit in noisy tokamak environment. • Efficient noise and burst elimination. • Can be integrated in to the other subsystems. • Low cost solution for implementing feedback control in small and medium size tokamaks and other experiments requiring feedback control. - Abstract: Tokamak plasma is prone to many random events having potential for causing severe damages to the machine, such as disruptions, production and elimination of high-energy runaway electrons etc. These events can be mitigated by obtaining pre-cursor signal leading to these events and then taking proper measures just before their onset to avoid their happenings, like disruptions can be mitigated by massive gas injection or putting a bias voltage on an electrode placed inside the plasma, the runaways can be mitigated by gas injection and by applying specific magnetic fields. Hence for real time control of these events, the pre-cursors should be electronically recorded and the mitigation techniques should be initiated by sending triggers to their individual operational systems. To implement these methodologies of real-time controlling of events in Aditya Tokamak, a low cost multi-channel Micro-Controller based timing circuit is designed and developed in-house. This circuit first compares the precursor signals fed into it with the pre-set values and gives a trigger output whenever the signals overshoot the pre-set values. The circuit readies itself for operation along with start of the tokamak discharge and waits up to an initial pre-determined delay and then initiates a trigger at the time of overshooting of precursor signal. The circuit is fully integrated and assembled in

  4. The Signal Detection and Control Circuit Design for Confocal Auto-Focus System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the demands of Confocal Auto-Focus system, the implementation method of signal measurement circuit and control circuit is given. Using the high performance instrumental amplifier AD620BN, low noise precision FET Op amplifier AD795JRZ and ultralow offset voltage Op amplifier OP07EP, a signal measurement circuit used to converse the two differential light intensity signal to electric signal is designed. And a control circuit which takes MCU MSP430F149 as core processes the former signal and generate a control signal driving the platform for auto-focusing. The experimental results proved the feasibility and correctness of circuits. And the system meets the design requirement.

  5. An e-Learning System with MR for Experiments Involving Circuit Construction to Control a Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel e-Learning system for technological experiments involving electronic circuit-construction and controlling robot motion that are necessary in the field of technology. The proposed system performs automated recognition of circuit images transmitted from individual learners and automatically supplies the learner with…

  6. Optimized Second-Order Dynamical Systems and Their RLC Circuit Models with PWL Controlled Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brzobohaty

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Complementary active RLC circuit models with a voltage-controlledvoltage source (VCVS and a current-controlled current source (CCCSfor the second-order autonomous dynamical system realization areproposed. The main advantage of these equivalent circuits is the simplerelation between the state model parameters and their correspondingcircuit parameters, which leads also to simple design formulas.

  7. Circuit Formation by Spatio-Temporal Control of Messenger RNA ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The connections inside the brain need to be wired in a precise manner during development to ensure its proper function. This project will provide insight into circuit formation to help us understand how axon regeneration can improve clinical outcomes. Brain wiring, damage, and developmental defects Researchers have ...

  8. A New Mirroring Circuit for Power MOS Current Sensing Highly Immune to EMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Aiello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the monitoring of power transistor current subjected to radio-frequency interference. In particular, a new current sensor with no connection to the power transistor drain and with improved performance with respect to the existing current-sensing schemes is presented. The operation of the above mentioned current sensor is discussed referring to time-domain computer simulations. The susceptibility of the proposed circuit to radio-frequency interference is evaluated through time-domain computer simulations and the results are compared with those obtained for a conventional integrated current sensor.

  9. The rate of immune escape vanishes when multiple immune responses control an HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deutekom, Hanneke W M; Wijnker, Gilles; de Boer, Rob J

    2013-09-15

    During the first months of HIV infection, the virus typically evolves several immune escape mutations. These mutations are found in epitopes in viral proteins and reduce the impact of the CD8⁺ T cells specific for these epitopes. Recent data show that only a subset of the epitopes escapes, that most of these escapes evolve early, and that the rate of immune escape slows down considerably. To investigate why the evolution of immune escape slows down over the time of infection, we have extended a consensus mathematical model to allow several immune responses to control the virus together. In the extended model, most escapes also occur early, and the immune escape rate becomes small later, and typically only a minority of the epitopes escape. We show that escaping one of the many immune responses provides little advantage after viral setpoint has been approached because the total killing rate hardly depends on the breadth of the immune response. If the breadth of the immune response slowly wanes during disease progression, the model predicts an increase in the rate of immune escape at late stages of infection. Overall, the most striking prediction of the model is that HIV evolves a small number of immune escapes, in both relative and absolute terms, when the CTL immune response is broad.

  10. Hypothalamic and brainstem neuronal circuits controlling homeostatic energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Marc; Gomis, Ramon; Claret, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Alterations in adequate energy balance maintenance result in serious metabolic disturbances such as obesity. In mammals, this complex process is orchestrated by multiple and distributed neuronal circuits. Hypothalamic and brainstem neuronal circuits are critically involved in the sensing of circulating and local factors conveying information about the energy status of the organism. The integration of these signals culminates in the generation of specific and coordinated physiological responses aimed at regulating energy balance through the modulation of appetite and energy expenditure. In this article, we review current knowledge on the homeostatic regulation of energy balance, emphasizing recent advances in mouse genetics, electrophysiology, and optogenetic techniques that have greatly contributed to improving our understanding of this central process.

  11. Frontosubthalamic Circuits for Control of Action and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Damian M.; Brown, Peter; Forstmann, Birte U.; Zaghloul, Kareem

    2016-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia appears to have a potent role in action and cognition. Anatomical and imaging studies show that different frontal cortical areas directly project to the STN via so-called hyperdirect pathways. This review reports some of the latest findings about such circuits, including simultaneous recordings from cortex and the STN in humans, single-unit recordings in humans, high-resolution fMRI, and neurocomputational modeling. We argue that a major function of the STN is to broadly pause behavior and cognition when stop signals, conflict signals, or surprise signals occur, and that the fronto-STN circuits for doing this, at least for stopping and conflict, are dissociable anatomically and in terms of their spectral reactivity. We also highlight recent evidence for synchronization of oscillations between prefrontal cortex and the STN, which may provide a preferential “window in time” for single neuron communication via long-range connections. PMID:27911752

  12. Deconstruction and Control of Neural Circuits in Posttraumatic Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Holden and Frances Cho –received awards that allowed them to present their work at multiple national and international conferences. These awards...Stephanie Holden and Frances Cho – whose work focuses on this DoD-funded project, received multiple awards that allowed them to present their work at...epileptogenesis. Stephanie and Frances presented their work at multiple conferences: 8. Holden S, Paz JT (2017) Deconstruction of thalamic circuits in a mouse

  13. Control of the Fractional-Order Chen Chaotic System via Fractional-Order Scalar Controller and Its Circuit Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A fractional-order scalar controller which involves only one state variable is proposed. By this fractional-order scalar controller, the unstable equilibrium points in the fractional-order Chen chaotic system can be asymptotically stable. The present control strategy is theoretically rigorous. Some circuits are designed to realize these control schemes. The outputs of circuit agree with the results of theoretical results.

  14. Self-Organizing Neural Circuits for Sensory-Guided Motor Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grossberg, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    The reported projects developed mathematical models to explain how self-organizing neural circuits that operate under continuous or intermittent sensory guidance achieve flexible and accurate control of human movement...

  15. Design of Microcantilever-Based Biosensor with Digital Feedback Control Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayu P. Kalambe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the design of cantilever-based biosensors with new readout, which hold promises as fast and cheap “point of care” device as well as interesting research tools. The fabrication process and related issues of the cantilever based bio-sensor are discussed. Coventorware simulation is carried out to analyze the device behavior. A fully integrated control circuit has been designed to solve manufacturing challenge which will take care of positioning of the cantilever instead of creating nanometer gap between the electrodes. The control circuit will solve the manufacturing challenge faced by the readout methods where it is essential to maintain precise gap between the electrodes. The circuit can take care of variation obtained due to fabrication process and maintain the precise gap between the electrodes by electrostatic actuation. The control circuit consist of analog and digital modules. The reliability issues of the sensor are also discussed.

  16. Performance Comparison of Conventional Controller with Fuzzy Logic Controller using Chopper Circuit and Fuzzy Tuned PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shoeb Mohiuddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often difficult to develop an accurate mathematical model of DC motor due to unknown load variation, unknown and unavoidable parameter variations or nonlinearities due to saturation temperature variations and system disturbances. Fuzzy logic application can handle such nonlinearities so that the controller design is fundamentally robust which is not possible in conventional controllers. The knowledge base of a fuzzy logic controller (FLC encapsulates expert knowledge and consists of the Data base (membership functions and Rule-Base of the controller. Optimization of both these knowledge base components is critical to the performance of the controller and has traditionally been achieved through a process of trial and error. Such an approach is convenient for FLCs having low numbers of input variables however for greater numbers of inputs, more formal methods of knowledge base optimization are required. In this work, we study the challenging task of controlling the speed of DC motor. The feasibility of such controller design is evaluated by simulation in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. In this study Conventional Proportional Integral Derivative controller, Fuzzy logic controller using a chopper circuit and Fuzzy tuned PID controller are analyzed and compared. Simulation software like MATLAB with Simulink has been used for modeling and simulation purpose. The performance comparison of conventional controller with Fuzzy logic controller using chopper circuit and Fuzzy tuned PID controller has been done in terms of several performance measures Such as Settling time, Rise time and Overshoot.

  17. E-Learning System for Learning Virtual Circuit Making with a Microcontroller and Programming to Control a Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel e-Learning system for learning electronic circuit making and programming a microcontroller to control a robot. The proposed e-Learning system comprises a virtual-circuit-making function for the construction of circuits with a versatile, Arduino microcontroller and an educational system that can simulate behaviors of…

  18. A circuit scheme to control current surge for RFID-NVM pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ming; Kang Jinfeng; Wang Yangyuan [Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yang Liwu, E-mail: prettynecess@163.co [Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2010-02-15

    This paper presents a new circuit scheme to control the current surge in the boosting phase of an radio frequency idenfication-nonvolative memory pump. By introducing a circuit block consisting of a current reference and a current mirror, the new circuit scheme can keep the period-average current of the pump constantly below the desired level, for example, 2.5 {mu}A. Therefore, it can prevent the rectified supply of the RFID tag IC from collapsing in the boosting phase of the pump. The presented scheme could effectively reduce the voltage drop on the rectified supply from more than 50% to even zero, but could cost less area. Moreover, an analytical expression to calculate the boosting time of a pump in the new scheme is developed. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. Four quadrant control circuit for a brushless three-phase dc motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A control circuit is provided for a brushless three-phase dc motor which affords four quadrant control from a single command. The control circuit probes acceleration of the motor in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions and braking and generation in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. In addition to turning on individual transistors of the transistor pairs connected to the phase windings of the motor for 120 deg periods while the other transistor of that pair is off, the control circuit also provides, in a future mode of operation, turning the two transistors of each pair on and off alternately at a phase modulation frequency during such a 120 deg period. A feedback signal is derived which is proportional to the motor current and which has a polarity consistent with the command signal, such that negative feedback results.

  20. Dynorphin Controls the Gain of an Amygdalar Anxiety Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A. Crowley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kappa opioid receptors (KORs are involved in a variety of aversive behavioral states, including anxiety. To date, a circuit-based mechanism for KOR-driven anxiety has not been described. Here, we show that activation of KORs inhibits glutamate release from basolateral amygdala (BLA inputs to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST and occludes the anxiolytic phenotype seen with optogenetic activation of BLA-BNST projections. In addition, deletion of KORs from amygdala neurons results in an anxiolytic phenotype. Furthermore, we identify a frequency-dependent, optically evoked local dynorphin-induced heterosynaptic plasticity of glutamate inputs in the BNST. We also find that there is cell type specificity to the KOR modulation of the BLA-BNST input with greater KOR-mediated inhibition of BLA dynorphin-expressing neurons. Collectively, these results provide support for a model in which local dynorphin release can inhibit an anxiolytic pathway, providing a discrete therapeutic target for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  1. Intracellular metabolic pathways control immune tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccini, Claudio; Galgani, Mario; De Rosa, Veronica; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have been linked to immune dysfunction, raising the possibility that metabolic alterations can be induced by or be a consequence of alterations in immunological tolerance. Here, we describe how intracellular metabolic signalling pathways can 'sense' host energy/nutritional status, and in response, modulate regulatory T (Treg) cell function. In particular, we focus on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling, and how stimuli such as nutrients and leptin activate mTOR in an oscillatory manner to determine Treg cell proliferation status. We propose that metabolic changes such as nutritional deprivation or overload could dictate the characteristics of the Treg cell compartment and subsequent downstream immune reactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Generalized Analytical Program of Thyristor Phase Control Circuit with Series and Parallel Resonance Load

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanishi, Sen-ichiro; Ishida, Hideaki; Himei, Toyoji

    1981-01-01

    The systematic analytical method is reqUired for the ac phase control circuit by means of an inverse parallel thyristor pair which has a series and parallel L-C resonant load, because the phase control action causes abnormal and interesting phenomena, such as an extreme increase of voltage and current, an unique increase and decrease of contained higher harmonics, and a wide variation of power factor, etc. In this paper, the program for the analysis of the thyristor phase control circuit with...

  3. A universal gyroscope driving circuit with 70dB amplitude control range

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelghany, Mohamed A.

    2010-08-01

    A CMOS variable gain driving circuit with output signal amplitude control for gyroscopes with wide range of quality factors is presented. The driving circuit can be used for gyroscopes with Q values higher than 500. The circuit uses a current-commutating switching mixer to control the gyroscope driving signal level. Conventional driving circuits use automatic gain control (AGC) which suffers from limited linear range and the need for an off-chip capacitor for the peak detector and loop filter. Two stage variable gain amplifier is used in the proposed design to ensure enough gain for oscillation for such a wide range of quality factors. Analog and digital amplitude control methods are used to cover wide range of driving signal amplitude with enough accuracy to hit the maximum driving signal level without sacrificing gyroscope linearity. Due to the high DC gain of the amplifier chain, DC offset resulting from mismatches might saturate the amplifier output. DC offset correction is employed using a secondary negative feedback loop. The proposed driving circuit is being fabricated in 0.6μm CMOS technology. © 2010 IEEE.

  4. Synthesis of on-chip control circuits for mVLSI biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potluri, Seetal; Schneider, Alexander Rüdiger; Hørslev-Petersen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    them to laboratory environments. To address this issue, researchers have proposed methods to reduce the number of offchip pressure sources, through integration of on-chip pneumatic control logic circuits fabricated using three-layer monolithic membrane valve technology. Traditionally, mVLSI biochip...... applied to generate biochip layouts with integrated on-chip pneumatic control....

  5. Human intestinal dendritic cells as controllers of mucosal immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bernardo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are the most potent, professional antigen-presenting cells in the body; following antigen presentation they control the type (proinflammatory/regulatory of immune response that will take place, as well as its location. Given their high plasticity and maturation ability in response to local danger signals derived from innate immunity, dendritic cells are key actors in the connection between innate immunity and adaptive immunity responses. In the gut dendritic cells control immune tolerance mechanisms against food and/or commensal flora antigens, and are also capable of initiating an active immune response in the presence of invading pathogens. Dendritic cells are thus highly efficient in controlling the delicate balance between tolerance and immunity in an environment so rich in antigens as the gut, and any factor involving these cells may impact their function, ultimately leading to the development of bowel conditions such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease. In this review we shall summarize our understanding of human intestinal dendritic cells, their ability to express and induce migration markers, the various environmental factors modulating their properties, their subsets in the gut, and the problems entailed by their study, including identification strategies, differences between humans and murine models, and phenotypical variations along the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. Synaptic Regulation of a Thalamocortical Circuit Controls Depression-Related Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver H. Miller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The NMDA receptor (NMDAR antagonist ketamine elicits a long-lasting antidepressant response in patients with treatment-resistant depression. Understanding how antagonism of NMDARs alters synapse and circuit function is pivotal to developing circuit-based therapies for depression. Using virally induced gene deletion, ex vivo optogenetic-assisted circuit analysis, and in vivo chemogenetics and fMRI, we assessed the role of NMDARs in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in controlling depression-related behavior in mice. We demonstrate that post-developmental genetic deletion of the NMDAR subunit GluN2B from pyramidal neurons in the mPFC enhances connectivity between the mPFC and limbic thalamus, but not the ventral hippocampus, and reduces depression-like behavior. Using intersectional chemogenetics, we show that activation of this thalamocortical circuit is sufficient to elicit a decrease in despair-like behavior. Our findings reveal that GluN2B exerts input-specific control of pyramidal neuron innervation and identify a medial dorsal thalamus (MDT→mPFC circuit that controls depression-like behavior.

  7. Geometrically-controlled polarisation processing in femtosecond-laser-written photonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsios, Ioannis; Samara, Farid; Corrielli, Giacomo; Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto

    2017-09-12

    Polarisation of light is a powerful and widely used degree of freedom to encode information, both in classical and quantum applications. In particular, quantum information technologies based on photons are being revolutionised by the use of integrated photonic circuits. It is therefore very important to be able to manipulate the polarisation of photons in such circuits. We experimentally demonstrate the fabrication by femtosecond laser micromachining of components such as polarisation insensitive and polarising directional couplers, operating at 1550 nm wavelength, where the two opposite behaviours are achieved just by controlling the geometric layout of the photonic circuits, being the waveguides fabricated with the same irradiation recipe. We expect to employ this approach in complex integrated photonic devices, capable of a full control of the photons polarisation for quantum cryptography, quantum computation and quantum teleportation experiments.

  8. Scalable Quantum Circuit and Control for a Superconducting Surface Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versluis, R.; Poletto, S.; Khammassi, N.; Tarasinski, B.; Haider, N.; Michalak, D. J.; Bruno, A.; Bertels, K.; DiCarlo, L.

    2017-09-01

    We present a scalable scheme for executing the error-correction cycle of a monolithic surface-code fabric composed of fast-flux-tunable transmon qubits with nearest-neighbor coupling. An eight-qubit unit cell forms the basis for repeating both the quantum hardware and coherent control, enabling spatial multiplexing. This control uses three fixed frequencies for all single-qubit gates and a unique frequency-detuning pattern for each qubit in the cell. By pipelining the interaction and readout steps of ancilla-based X - and Z -type stabilizer measurements, we can engineer detuning patterns that avoid all second-order transmon-transmon interactions except those exploited in controlled-phase gates, regardless of fabric size. Our scheme is applicable to defect-based and planar logical qubits, including lattice surgery.

  9. FRICTION - WELDING MACHINE AUTOMATIC CONTROL CIRCUIT DESIGN AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan ATEŞ

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, automatic controllability of a laboratory-sized friction-welding machine has been investigated. The laboratory-sized friction-welding machine was composed of motor, brake, rotary and constant samples late pliers, and hydraulic unit. In automatic method, welding parameters such as friction time, friction pressure, forge time and forge pressure can be applied sensitively using time relays and contactors. At the end of the experimental study it's observed that automatic control system has been worked successfully.

  10. Controlled Conjugated Backbone Twisting for an Increased Open-Circuit Voltage while Having a High Short-Circuit Current in Poly(hexylthiophene) Derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Ko, Sangwon

    2012-03-21

    Conjugated polymers with nearly planar backbones have been the most commonly investigated materials for organic-based electronic devices. More twisted polymer backbones have been shown to achieve larger open-circuit voltages in solar cells, though with decreased short-circuit current densities. We systematically impose twists within a family of poly(hexylthiophene)s and examine their influence on the performance of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. A simple chemical modification concerning the number and placement of alkyl side chains along the conjugated backbone is used to control the degree of backbone twisting. Density functional theory calculations were carried out on a series of oligothiophene structures to provide insights on how the sterically induced twisting influences the geometric, electronic, and optical properties. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering measurements were performed to investigate how the thin-film packing structure was affected. The open-circuit voltage and charge-transfer state energy of the polymer:fullerene BHJ solar cells increased substantially with the degree of twist induced within the conjugated backbone-due to an increase in the polymer ionization potential-while the short-circuit current decreased as a result of a larger optical gap and lower hole mobility. A controlled, moderate degree of twist along the poly(3,4-dihexyl-2,2′:5′,2′′- terthiophene) (PDHTT) conjugated backbone led to a 19% enhancement in the open-circuit voltage (0.735 V) vs poly(3-hexylthiophene)-based devices, while similar short-circuit current densities, fill factors, and hole-carrier mobilities were maintained. These factors resulted in a power conversion efficiency of 4.2% for a PDHTT:[6,6]-phenyl-C 71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71BM) blend solar cell without thermal annealing. This simple approach reveals a molecular design avenue to increase open-circuit voltage while retaining the short-circuit current. © 2012 American

  11. Effect of Sensors on the Reliability and Control Performance of Power Circuits in the Web of Things (WoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Bae

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize a true WoT environment, a reliable power circuit is required to ensure interconnections among a range of WoT devices. This paper presents research on sensors and their effects on the reliability and response characteristics of power circuits in WoT devices. The presented research can be used in various power circuit applications, such as energy harvesting interfaces, photovoltaic systems, and battery management systems for the WoT devices. As power circuits rely on the feedback from voltage/current sensors, the system performance is likely to be affected by the sensor failure rates, sensor dynamic characteristics, and their interface circuits. This study investigated how the operational availability of the power circuits is affected by the sensor failure rates by performing a quantitative reliability analysis. In the analysis process, this paper also includes the effects of various reconstruction and estimation techniques used in power processing circuits (e.g., energy harvesting circuits and photovoltaic systems. This paper also reports how the transient control performance of power circuits is affected by sensor interface circuits. With the frequency domain stability analysis and circuit simulation, it was verified that the interface circuit dynamics may affect the transient response characteristics of power circuits. The verification results in this paper showed that the reliability and control performance of the power circuits can be affected by the sensor types, fault tolerant approaches against sensor failures, and the response characteristics of the sensor interfaces. The analysis results were also verified by experiments using a power circuit prototype.

  12. Optimal Control Strategy for Abnormal Innate Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinying Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune response plays an important role in control and clearance of pathogens following viral infection. However, in the majority of virus-infected individuals, the response is insufficient because viruses are known to use different evasion strategies to escape immune response. In this study, we use optimal control theory to investigate how to control the innate immune response. We present an optimal control model based on an ordinary-differential-equation system from a previous study, which investigated the dynamics and regulation of virus-triggered innate immune signaling pathways, and we prove the existence of a solution to the optimal control problem involving antiviral treatment or/and interferon therapy. We conduct numerical experiments to investigate the treatment effects of different control strategies through varying the cost function and control efficiency. The results show that a separate treatment, that is, only inhibiting viral replication (u1(t or enhancing interferon activity (u2(t, has more advantages for controlling viral infection than a mixed treatment, that is, controlling both (u1(t and (u2(t simultaneously, including the smallest cost and operability. These findings would provide new insight for developing effective strategies for treatment of viral infectious diseases.

  13. Charting the circuit QED design landscape using optimal control theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerz, Michael H.; Motzoi, Felix; Whaley, K. Birgitta; Koch, Christiane P.

    2017-09-01

    With recent improvements in coherence times, superconducting transmon qubits have become a promising platform for quantum computing. They can be flexibly engineered over a wide range of parameters, but also require us to identify an efficient operating regime. Using state-of-the-art quantum optimal control techniques, we exhaustively explore the landscape for creation and removal of entanglement over a wide range of design parameters. We identify an optimal operating region outside of the usually considered strongly dispersive regime, where multiple sources of entanglement interfere simultaneously, which we name the quasi-dispersive straddling qutrits regime. At a chosen point in this region, a universal gate set is realized by applying microwave fields for gate durations of 50 ns, with errors approaching the limit of intrinsic transmon coherence. Our systematic quantum optimal control approach is easily adapted to explore the parameter landscape of other quantum technology platforms.

  14. Charting the circuit QED design landscape using optimal control theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goerz, Michael H.; Motzoi, Felix; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2017-01-01

    control techniques, we exhaustively explore the landscape for creation and removal of entanglement over a wide range of design parameters. We identify an optimal operating region outside of the usually considered strongly dispersive regime, where multiple sources of entanglement interfere simultaneously......, which we name the quasi-dispersive straddling qutrits regime. At a chosen point in this region, a universal gate set is realized by applying microwave fields for gate durations of 50 ns, with errors approaching the limit of intrinsic transmon coherence. Our systematic quantum optimal control approach......With recent improvements in coherence times, superconducting transmon qubits have become a promising platform for quantum computing. They can be flexibly engineered over a wide range of parameters, but also require us to identify an efficient operating regime. Using state-of-the-art quantum optimal...

  15. Effects of circuit training as alternative to usual physiotherapy after stroke: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, I.G.L.; Wevers, L.E.G.; Lindeman, E.; Kwakkel, G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the effect of task oriented circuit training compared with usual physiotherapy in terms of self reported walking competency for patients with stroke discharged from a rehabilitation centre to their own home. Design: Randomised controlled trial with follow-up to 24 weeks.

  16. Ultraprecise parabolic interpolator for numerically controlled machine tools. [Digital differential analyzer circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, C. M.

    1977-02-01

    The mathematical basis for an ultraprecise digital differential analyzer circuit for use as a parabolic interpolator on numerically controlled machines has been established, and scaling and other error-reduction techniques have been developed. An exact computer model is included, along with typical results showing tracking to within an accuracy of one part per million.

  17. An Educational Laboratory for Digital Control and Rapid Prototyping of Power Electronic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sanghun; Saeedifard, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new educational power electronics laboratory that was developed primarily to reinforce experimentally the fundamental concepts presented in a power electronics course. The developed laboratory combines theoretical design, simulation studies, digital control, fabrication, and verification of power-electronic circuits based on…

  18. Design of programmable logic controller auto power reset circuit for FM transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Pattanajakr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mono-stereo controller using audio mute clock is used at the International Broadcasting Bureau (IBB FM 106.6 MHz transmitter in Ulaan Baatar, Mongolia since 2010. The major problem of the FM broadcast station was from the frozen Programmable Logic Controller, PLC, which must be manually reset and the report by the VOA listeners. Then, the PLC auto power reset circuit is proposed and built in mono-stereo controller to monitor the operation of the PLC. The circuit is also used to restart the PLC whenever, it is frozen. The cloud router and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP to Recommended Standard number 232 (RS-232 converter are used to synchronize the PLC time. From the results, this circuit can improve the transmitter availability and quality of the 24 hours/day broadcast program without affection to the listeners. The reliability of the cloud router is acceptable with low delay of data transfer via the internet connection between Thailand to Mongolia. The cloud router which the IBB leases cloud service from the provider that offers high speed internet up to 1000 Mb/s, via the remote terminal is used for the schedule program and the time synchronization of the PLC correctly. The proposed system is very stable and there is no problem of the frozen PLC whether it connects to the internet or not. Hence, the designed PLC auto power reset circuit can be used to eliminate the frozen PLC problem.

  19. Monolithically integrated light feedback control circuit for blue/UV LED smart package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolahdouz Esfahani, Zahra; Tohidian, M.; van Zeijl, H.W.; Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza; Zhang, G.Q.

    2017-01-01

    Given the performance decay of high-power light-emitting diode (LED) chips over time and package condition changes, having a reliable output light for sensitive applications is a point of concern. In this study, a light feedback control circuit, including blue-selective photodiodes, for

  20. Effects of circuit training as alternative to usual physiotherapy after stroke: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Port, Ingrid G L; Wevers, Lotte E G; Lindeman, Eline; Kwakkel, Gert

    2012-05-10

    To analyse the effect of task oriented circuit training compared with usual physiotherapy in terms of self reported walking competency for patients with stroke discharged from a rehabilitation centre to their own home. Randomised controlled trial with follow-up to 24 weeks. Multicentre trial in nine outpatient rehabilitation centres in the Netherlands Patients with stroke who were able to walk a minimum of 10 m without physical assistance and were discharged from inpatient rehabilitation to an outpatient rehabilitation clinic. Patients were randomly allocated to circuit training or usual physiotherapy, after stratification by rehabilitation centre, with an online randomisation procedure. Patients in the intervention group received circuit training in 90 minute sessions twice a week for 12 weeks. The training included eight different workstations in a gym and was intended to improve performance in tasks relating to walking competency. The control group received usual outpatient physiotherapy. The primary outcome was the mobility domain of the stroke impact scale (SIS, version 3.0). Secondary outcomes were standing balance, self reported abilities, gait speed, walking distance, stair climbing, instrumental activities of daily living, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Differences between groups were analysed according to the intention to treat principle. All outcomes were assessed by blinded observers in a repeated measurement design lasting 24 weeks. 126 patients were included in the circuit training group and 124 in the usual care group (control), with data from 125 and 117, respectively, available for analysis. One patient from the circuit training group and seven from the control group dropped out. Circuit training was a safe intervention, and no serious adverse events were reported. There were no significant differences between groups for the stroke impact scale mobility domain (β=0.05 (SE 0.68), P=0.943) at 12 weeks. Circuit training was associated with

  1. Neuromodulation of the neural circuits controlling the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Parag N; Roy, Roland R; Zhong, Hui; Gerasimenko, Yury P; Taccola, Giuliano; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2016-11-01

    The inability to control timely bladder emptying is one of the most serious challenges among the many functional deficits that occur after a spinal cord injury. We previously demonstrated that electrodes placed epidurally on the dorsum of the spinal cord can be used in animals and humans to recover postural and locomotor function after complete paralysis and can be used to enable voiding in spinal rats. In the present study, we examined the neuromodulation of lower urinary tract function associated with acute epidural spinal cord stimulation, locomotion, and peripheral nerve stimulation in adult rats. Herein we demonstrate that electrically evoked potentials in the hindlimb muscles and external urethral sphincter are modulated uniquely when the rat is stepping bipedally and not voiding, immediately pre-voiding, or when voiding. We also show that spinal cord stimulation can effectively neuromodulate the lower urinary tract via frequency-dependent stimulation patterns and that neural peripheral nerve stimulation can activate the external urethral sphincter both directly and via relays in the spinal cord. The data demonstrate that the sensorimotor networks controlling bladder and locomotion are highly integrated neurophysiologically and behaviorally and demonstrate how these two functions are modulated by sensory input from the tibial and pudental nerves. A more detailed understanding of the high level of interaction between these networks could lead to the integration of multiple neurophysiological strategies to improve bladder function. These data suggest that the development of strategies to improve bladder function should simultaneously engage these highly integrated networks in an activity-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. In vivo gene regulation in Salmonella spp. by a salicylate-dependent control circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo, José Luis; Becker, Pablo Daniel; Camacho, Eva María; Cebolla, Angel; Link, Claudia; Santero, Eduardo; Guzmán, Carlos Alberto

    2007-11-01

    Systems allowing tightly regulated expression of prokaryotic genes in vivo are important for performing functional studies of bacterial genes in host-pathogen interactions and establishing bacteria-based therapies. We integrated a regulatory control circuit activated by acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) in attenuated Salmonella enterica that carries an expression module with a gene of interest under control of the XylS2-dependent Pm promoter. This resulted in 20-150-fold induction ex vivo. The regulatory circuit was also efficiently induced by ASA when the bacteria resided in eukaryotic cells, both in vitro and in vivo. To validate the circuit, we administered Salmonella spp., carrying an expression module encoding the 5-fluorocytosine-converting enzyme cytosine deaminase in the bacterial chromosome or in a plasmid, to mice with tumors. Induction with ASA before 5-fluorocytosine administration resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the regulatory control circuit to selectively switch on gene expression during bacterial infection.

  3. Predictive Direct Torque Control Application-Specific Integrated Circuit of an Induction Motor Drive with a Fuzzy Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Guo-Ming Sung; Wei-Yu Wang; Wen-Sheng Lin; Chih-Ping Yu

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a modified predictive direct torque control (PDTC) application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) of a motor drive with a fuzzy controller for eliminating sampling and calculating delay times in hysteresis controllers. These delay times degrade the control quality and increase both torque and flux ripples in a motor drive. The proposed fuzzy PDTC ASIC calculates the stator’s magnetic flux and torque by detecting the three-phase current, three-phase voltage, and rotor speed...

  4. Design of a High Performance Green-Mode PWM Controller IC with Smart Sensing Protection Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Li Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A design of high performance green-mode pulse-width-modulation (PWM controller IC with smart sensing protection circuits for the application of lithium-ion battery charger (1.52 V ~ 7.5 V is investigated in this paper. The protection circuits architecture of this system mainly bases on the lithium battery function and does for the system design standard of control circuit. In this work, the PWM controller will be with an automatic load sensing and judges the system operated in the operating mode or in the standby mode. Therefore, it reduces system’s power dissipation effectively and achieves the saving power target. In the same time, many protection sensing circuits such as: (1 over current protection (OCP and under current protection (UCP, (2 over voltage protection (OVP and under voltage protection (UVP, (3 loading determintion and short circuit protection (SCP, (4 over temperature protection (OTP, (5 VDD surge-spiking protection are included. Then, it has the characteristics of an effective monitoring the output loading and the harm prevention as a battery charging. Eventually, this green-mode pulse-width-modulation (PWM controller IC will be that the operation voltage is 3.3 V, the operation frequency is 0.98 MHz, and the output current range is from 454 mA to 500 mA. Meanwhile, the output convert efficiency is range from 74.8 % to 91 %, the power dissipation efficiency in green-mode is 25 %, and the operation temperature range is between -20 0C ~ 114 0C.

  5. Eicosanoids: Exploiting Insect Immunity to Improve Biological Control Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, David; Haas, Eric; Miller, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Insects, like all invertebrates, express robust innate, but not adaptive, immune reactions to infection and invasion. Insect immunity is usually resolved into three major components. The integument serves as a physical barrier to infections. Within the hemocoel, the circulating hemocytes are the temporal first line of defense, responsible for clearing the majority of infecting bacterial cells from circulation. Specific cellular defenses include phagocytosis, microaggregation of hemocytes with adhering bacteria, nodulation and encapsulation. Infections also stimulate the humoral component of immunity, which involves the induced expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and activation of prophenoloxidase. These peptides appear in the hemolymph of challenged insects 6–12 hours after the challenge. Prostaglandins and other eicosanoids are crucial mediators of innate immune responses. Eicosanoid biosynthesis is stimulated by infection in insects. Inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis lethally renders experimental insects unable to clear bacterial infection from hemolymph. Eicosanoids mediate specific cell actions, including phagocytosis, microaggregation, nodulation, hemocyte migration, hemocyte spreading and the release of prophenoloxidase from oenocytoids. Some invaders have evolved mechanisms to suppress insect immunity; a few of them suppress immunity by targeting the first step in the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathways, the enzyme phospholipase A2. We proposed research designed to cripple insect immunity as a technology to improve biological control of insects. We used dsRNA to silence insect genes encoding phospholipase A2, and thereby inhibited the nodulation reaction to infection. The purpose of this article is to place our view of applying dsRNA technologies into the context of eicosanoid actions in insect immunity. The long-term significance of research in this area lies in developing new pest management technologies to contribute to food security in

  6. An Automatic Design of the Artificial Ant Control Circuit Using Genetic Algorithm Based on the Coexistence of Heterogeneous Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Yasumiki

    We have already proposed a new automatic logic circuit design method using genetic algorithm based on the coexistence of heterogeneous populations. In this letter, we apply the proposed method to the design of the artificial ant control circuit, and clarify that the proposed method is effective also to the design of the logic circuit of which the I/O specification is not given beforehand.

  7. Field Effect Transistor /FET/ circuit for variable gin amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaid, G. H.

    1969-01-01

    Amplifier circuit using two FETs combines improved input and output impedances with relatively large signal handling capability and an immunity from adverse effects of automatic gain control. Circuit has sources and drains in parallel plus a resistive divider for signal and bias to either of the gate terminals.

  8. A noise immunity controlled quantum teleportation protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-fen; Wang, Rui-jin; Zhang, Feng-li; Baagyere, Edward; Qin, Zhen; Xiong, Hu; Zhan, Huayi

    2016-11-01

    With the advent of the Internet and information and communication technology, quantum teleportation has become an important field in information security and its application areas. This is because quantum teleportation has the ability to attain a timely secret information delivery and offers unconditional security. And as such, the field of quantum teleportation has become a hot research topic in recent years. However, noise has serious effect on the safety of quantum teleportation within the aspects of information fidelity, channel capacity and information transfer. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to address these problems of quantum teleportation. Firstly, in order to resist collective noise, we construct a decoherence-free subspace under different noise scenarios to establish a two-dimensional fidelity quantum teleportation models. And also create quantum teleportation of multiple degree of freedom, and these models ensure the accuracy and availability of the exchange of information and in multiple degree of freedom. Secondly, for easy preparation, measurement and implementation, we use super dense coding features to build an entangled quantum secret exchange channel. To improve the channel utilization and capacity, an efficient super dense coding method based on ultra-entanglement exchange is used. Thirdly, continuous variables of the controlled quantum key distribution were designed for quantum teleportation; in addition, we perform Bell-basis measurement under the collective noise and also prepare the storage technology of quantum states to achieve one-bit key by three-photon encoding to improve its security and efficiency. We use these two methods because they conceal information, resist a third party attack and can detect eavesdropping. Our proposed methods, according to the security analysis, are able to solve the problems associated with the quantum teleportation under various noise environments.

  9. A voltage control method for an active capacitive DC-link module with series-connected circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    capacitive DC-link module is proposed. Current sensor at the DC-link will be cancel from the circuit. The controller of the series-connected circuit requires internal voltage signals of the DC-link module only, making it possible to be fully independent without any additional connection to the main circuit......Many efforts have been made to improve the performance of power electronic systems with active capacitive DC-link module in terms of power density as well as reliability. One of the attractive solution is an active capacitive DC-link with the series-connected circuit because of handling small...

  10. Post-Translational Modification Control of Innate Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Qian, Cheng; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-07-19

    A coordinated balance between the positive and negative regulation of pattern-recognition receptor (PRR)-initiated innate inflammatory responses is required to ensure the most favorable outcome for the host. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of innate sensors and downstream signaling molecules influence their activity and function by inducing their covalent linkage to new functional groups. PTMs including phosphorylation and polyubiquitination have been shown to potently regulate innate inflammatory responses through the activation, cellular translocation, and interaction of innate receptors, adaptors, and downstream signaling molecules in response to infectious and dangerous signals. Other PTMs such as methylation, acetylation, SUMOylation, and succinylation are increasingly implicated in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammation. In this review, we focus on the roles of PTMs in controlling PRR-triggered innate immunity and inflammatory responses. The emerging roles of PTMs in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of infectious and inflammatory immune diseases are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Foxp2 Controls Synaptic Wiring of Corticostriatal Circuits and Vocal Communication by Opposing Mef2C

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Kuo, Hsiao-Ying; Bornschein, Ulrich; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Chen, Shih-Yun; Lu, Kuan-Ming; Yang, Hao-Yu; Chen, Gui-May; Lin, Jing-Ruei; Lee, Yi-Hsin; Chou, Yun-Chia; Cheng, Sin-Jhong; Chien, Cheng-Ting; Enard, Wolfgang; Hevers, Wulf

    2016-01-01

    Cortico-basal ganglia circuits are critical for speech and language and are implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in which language function can be severely affected. We demonstrate that in the striatum, the gene, Foxp2, negatively interacts with the synapse suppressor, Mef2C. We present causal evidence that Mef2C inhibition by Foxp2 in neonatal mouse striatum controls synaptogenesis of corticostriatal inputs and vocalization in neonates. Mef2C suppresses corticostriatal synapse forma...

  12. A novel active T-type three-level converter with open-circuit fault-tolerant control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel active T-type three-level converter concept with fault-tolerant control. With the proposed topology, the converter can be operated continuously under open-circuit faults. It is shown that the proposed topology not only can keep its outputs under open-circuit fault cond...

  13. Designing an Electro-Hydraulic Control Module for an Open-Circuit Variable Displacement Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing an electric control module for a Sauer-Danfoss Series 45 H-frame open circuit axial piston pump. The purpose of the electric control module is to replace the existing hydro-mechanical (LS) regulator, and enable the pump to follow a reference pressure...... consideration. Based on the initial topology experimental results are presented and a simulation comparison is made with the original hydro-mechanical controlled pump. Based on these results, improvements for a second prototype are presented along with a simulation result for this....

  14. Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  15. Controllable pulse parameter transcranial magnetic stimulator with enhanced circuit topology and pulse shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterchev, Angel V.; DʼOstilio, Kevin; Rothwell, John C.; Murphy, David L.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. This work aims at flexible and practical pulse parameter control in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which is currently very limited in commercial devices. Approach. We present a third generation controllable pulse parameter device (cTMS3) that uses a novel circuit topology with two energy-storage capacitors. It incorporates several implementation and functionality advantages over conventional TMS devices and other devices with advanced pulse shape control. cTMS3 generates lower internal voltage differences and is implemented with transistors with a lower voltage rating than prior cTMS devices. Main results. cTMS3 provides more flexible pulse shaping since the circuit topology allows four coil-voltage levels during a pulse, including approximately zero voltage. The near-zero coil voltage enables snubbing of the ringing at the end of the pulse without the need for a separate active snubber circuit. cTMS3 can generate powerful rapid pulse sequences (\\lt 10 ms inter pulse interval) by increasing the width of each subsequent pulse and utilizing the large capacitor energy storage, allowing the implementation of paradigms such as paired-pulse and quadripulse TMS with a single pulse generation circuit. cTMS3 can also generate theta (50 Hz) burst stimulation with predominantly unidirectional electric field pulses. The cTMS3 device functionality and output strength are illustrated with electrical output measurements as well as a study of the effect of pulse width and polarity on the active motor threshold in ten healthy volunteers. Significance. The cTMS3 features could extend the utility of TMS as a research, diagnostic, and therapeutic tool.

  16. Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Exercise Is Wise Are Detox Diets Safe? Immunizations KidsHealth > For Teens > Immunizations Print A A A What's in this article? ... fault if you don't have all the immunizations (vaccinations) you need. Shots that doctors recommend today ...

  17. Augmenting Plant Immune Responses and Biological Control by Microbial Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Moo Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant have developed sophisticated defence mechanisms against microbial pathogens. The recent accumulated information allow us to understand the nature of plant immune responses followed by recognition of microbial factors/determinants through cutting-edge genomics and multi-omics techniques. However, the practical approaches to sustain plant health using enhancement of plant immunity is yet to be fully appreciated. Here, we overviewed the general concept and representative examples on the plant immunity. The fungal, bacterial, and viral determinants that was previously reported as the triggers of plant immune responses are introduced and described as the potential protocol of biological control. Specifically, the role of chitin, glucan, lipopolysaccharides/extracellular polysaccharides, microbe/pathogen-associated molecular pattern, antibiotics, mimic-phytohormones, N-acyl homoserine lactone, harpin, vitamins, and volatile organic compounds are considered. We hope that this review stimulates scientific community and farmers to broaden their knowledge on the microbial determinant-based biological control and to apply the technology on the integrated pest management program.

  18. Lithium-ion battery cell-level control using constrained model predictive control and equivalent circuit models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, MA; Trimboli, MS

    2015-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel application of model predictive control (MPC) to cell-level charging of a lithium-ion battery utilizing an equivalent circuit model of battery dynamics. The approach employs a modified form of the MPC algorithm that caters for direct feed-though signals in order to model near-instantaneous battery ohmic resistance. The implementation utilizes a 2nd-order equivalent circuit discrete-time state-space model based on actual cell parameters; the control methodology is used to compute a fast charging profile that respects input, output, and state constraints. Results show that MPC is well-suited to the dynamics of the battery control problem and further suggest significant performance improvements might be achieved by extending the result to electrochemical models. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Flux qubit interaction with rapid single-flux quantum logic circuits: Control and readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenov, N. V.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Soloviev, I. I.; Bakurskiy, S. V.; Denisenko, M. V.; Satanin, A. M.

    2017-07-01

    We present the results of an analytical study and numerical simulation of the dynamics of a superconducting three-Josephson-junction (3JJ) flux qubit magnetically coupled with rapid single-flux quantum (RSFQ) logic circuit, which demonstrate the fundamental possibility of implementing the simplest logic operations at picosecond times, as well as rapid non-destructive readout. It is shown that when solving optimization problems, the qubit dynamics can be conveniently interpreted as a precession of the magnetic moment vector around the direction of the magnetic field. In this case, the role of magnetic field components is played by combinations of the Hamiltonian matrix elements, and the role of the magnetic moment is played by the Bloch vector. Features of the 3JJ qubit model are discussed during the analysis of how the qubit is affected by exposure to a short control pulse, as are the similarities between the Bloch and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations. An analysis of solutions to the Bloch equations made it possible to develop recommendations for the use of readout RSFQ circuits in implementing an optimal interface between the classical and quantum parts of the computer system, as well as to justify the use of single-quantum logic in order to control superconducting quantum circuits on a chip.

  20. Implementation of a quantum controlled-SWAP gate with photonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takafumi; Okamoto, Ryo; Tanida, Masato; Hofmann, Holger F; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2017-03-31

    Quantum information science addresses how the processing and transmission of information are affected by uniquely quantum mechanical phenomena. Combination of two-qubit gates has been used to realize quantum circuits, however, scalability is becoming a critical problem. The use of three-qubit gates may simplify the structure of quantum circuits dramatically. Among them, the controlled-SWAP (Fredkin) gates are essential since they can be directly applied to important protocols, e.g., error correction, fingerprinting, and optimal cloning. Here we report a realization of the Fredkin gate for photonic qubits. We achieve a fidelity of 0.85 in the computational basis and an output state fidelity of 0.81 for a 3-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. The estimated process fidelity of 0.77 indicates that our Fredkin gate can be applied to various quantum tasks.

  1. Cell biology in neuroscience: Architects in neural circuit design: glia control neuron numbers and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corty, Megan M; Freeman, Marc R

    2013-11-11

    Glia serve many important functions in the mature nervous system. In addition, these diverse cells have emerged as essential participants in nearly all aspects of neural development. Improved techniques to study neurons in the absence of glia, and to visualize and manipulate glia in vivo, have greatly expanded our knowledge of glial biology and neuron-glia interactions during development. Exciting studies in the last decade have begun to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which glia exert control over neuronal circuit formation. Recent findings illustrate the importance of glial cells in shaping the nervous system by controlling the number and connectivity of neurons.

  2. Molecular networks involved in the immune control of BK polyomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmanova, Eva; Brabcova, Irena; Klema, Jiri; Hribova, Petra; Wohlfartova, Mariana; Skibova, Jelena; Viklicky, Ondrej

    2012-01-01

    BK polyomavirus infection is the important cause of virus-related nephropathy following kidney transplantation. BK virus reactivates in 30%-80% of kidney transplant recipients resulting in BK virus-related nephropathy in 1%-10% of cases. Currently, the molecular processes associated with asymptomatic infections in transplant patients infected with BK virus remain unclear. In this study we evaluate intrarenal molecular processes during different stages of BKV infection. The gene expression profiles of 90 target genes known to be associated with immune response were evaluated in kidney graft biopsy material using TaqMan low density array. Three patient groups were examined: control patients with no evidence of BK virus reactivation (n = 11), infected asymptomatic patients (n = 9), and patients with BK virus nephropathy (n = 10). Analysis of biopsies from asymptomatic viruria patients resulted in the identification of 5 differentially expressed genes (CD3E, CD68, CCR2, ICAM-1, and SKI) (P < 0.05), and functional analysis showed a significantly heightened presence of costimulatory signals (e.g., CD40/CD40L; P < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis revealed several biological networks associated with BKV immune control in comparison to the control group. This study demonstrated that asymptomatic BK viruria is associated with a different intrarenal regulation of several genes implicating in antiviral immune response.

  3. Molecular Networks Involved in the Immune Control of BK Polyomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Girmanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BK polyomavirus infection is the important cause of virus-related nephropathy following kidney transplantation. BK virus reactivates in 30%–80% of kidney transplant recipients resulting in BK virus-related nephropathy in 1%–10% of cases. Currently, the molecular processes associated with asymptomatic infections in transplant patients infected with BK virus remain unclear. In this study we evaluate intrarenal molecular processes during different stages of BKV infection. The gene expression profiles of 90 target genes known to be associated with immune response were evaluated in kidney graft biopsy material using TaqMan low density array. Three patient groups were examined: control patients with no evidence of BK virus reactivation (n=11, infected asymptomatic patients (n=9, and patients with BK virus nephropathy (n=10. Analysis of biopsies from asymptomatic viruria patients resulted in the identification of 5 differentially expressed genes (CD3E, CD68, CCR2, ICAM-1, and SKI (P<0.05, and functional analysis showed a significantly heightened presence of costimulatory signals (e.g., CD40/CD40L; P<0.05. Gene ontology analysis revealed several biological networks associated with BKV immune control in comparison to the control group. This study demonstrated that asymptomatic BK viruria is associated with a different intrarenal regulation of several genes implicating in antiviral immune response.

  4. Spiking control by means of “phase feedback” in FitzHugh–Nagumo circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meucci, R., E-mail: riccardo.meucci@ino.it [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, CNR, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Euzzor, S.; Geltrude, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, CNR, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Al-Naimee, K. [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, CNR, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Dept. of Physics, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad (Iraq); De Nicola, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, CNR, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Arecchi, F.T. [Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, CNR, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2012-01-30

    We investigate the feedback control of a periodically driven FitzHugh–Nagumo circuit (FHN), which displays both spiking and non-spiking behaviors in chaotic or periodic regimes. The simple high pass filter (washout filter) is compared with an all pass filter which only affects the phase characteristics of the input signal. Experimental measurements performed on the electronic implementation of the FHN are in good agreement with numerical simulations. Apart a small difference in their amplitude corrections that remain in both cases within a few percent with respect to the unperturbed spiking signal, we prove the key role of the phase characteristics of the two filters in achieving control. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the feedback control of a periodically driven FitzHugh–Nagumo circuit. ► We proved the key role of the phase in achieving control. ► The feedback control can be used both to tame or enhance the spiking regimes. ► Performances of the filters are numerically and experimentally demonstrated.

  5. Intraspinal Sensory Neurons Provide Powerful Inhibition to Motor Circuits Ensuring Postural Control during Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Jeffrey Michael; Böhm, Urs Lucas; Prendergast, Andrew; Tseng, Po-En Brian; Newman, Morgan; Stokes, Caleb; Wyart, Claire

    2016-11-07

    In the vertebrate spinal cord, cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (CSF-cNs) are GABAergic neurons whose functions are only beginning to unfold. Recent evidence indicates that CSF-cNs detect local spinal bending and relay this mechanosensory feedback information to motor circuits, yet many CSF-cN targets remain unknown. Using optogenetics, patterned illumination, and in vivo electrophysiology, we show here that CSF-cNs provide somatic inhibition to fast motor neurons and excitatory sensory interneurons involved in the escape circuit. Ventral CSF-cNs respond to longitudinal spinal contractions and induce large inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) sufficient to silence spiking of their targets. Upon repetitive stimulation, these IPSCs promptly depress, enabling the mechanosensory response to the first bend to be the most effective. When CSF-cNs are silenced, postural control is compromised, resulting in rollovers during escapes. Altogether, our data demonstrate how GABAergic sensory neurons provide powerful inhibitory feedback to the escape circuit to maintain balance during active locomotion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simple voltage-controlled current source for wideband electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy: circuit dependences and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, F.; Macías, R.; Bragós, R.; Lindecrantz, K.

    2011-11-01

    In this work, the single Op-Amp with load-in-the-loop topology as a current source is revisited. This circuit topology was already used as a voltage-controlled current source (VCCS) in the 1960s but was left unused when the requirements for higher frequency arose among the applications of electrical bioimpedance (EBI). The aim of the authors is not only limited to show that with the currently available electronic devices it is perfectly viable to use this simple VCCS topology as a working current source for wideband spectroscopy applications of EBI, but also to identify the limitations and the role of each of the circuit components in the most important parameter of a current for wideband applications: the output impedance. The study includes the eventual presence of a stray capacitance and also an original enhancement, driving with current the VCCS. Based on the theoretical analysis and experimental measurements, an accurate model of the output impedance is provided, explaining the role of the main constitutive elements of the circuit in the source's output impedance. Using the topologies presented in this work and the proposed model, any electronic designer can easily implement a simple and efficient current source for wideband EBI spectroscopy applications, e.g. in this study, values above 150 kΩ at 1 MHz have been obtained, which to the knowledge of the authors are the largest values experimentally measured and reported for a current source in EBI at this frequency.

  7. Improving reliability of non-volatile memory technologies through circuit level techniques and error control coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengen; Emre, Yunus; Cao, Yu; Chakrabarti, Chaitali

    2012-12-01

    Non-volatile resistive memories, such as phase-change RAM (PRAM) and spin transfer torque RAM (STT-RAM), have emerged as promising candidates because of their fast read access, high storage density, and very low standby power. Unfortunately, in scaled technologies, high storage density comes at a price of lower reliability. In this article, we first study in detail the causes of errors for PRAM and STT-RAM. We see that while for multi-level cell (MLC) PRAM, the errors are due to resistance drift, in STT-RAM they are due to process variations and variations in the device geometry. We develop error models to capture these effects and propose techniques based on tuning of circuit level parameters to mitigate some of these errors. Unfortunately for reliable memory operation, only circuit-level techniques are not sufficient and so we propose error control coding (ECC) techniques that can be used on top of circuit-level techniques. We show that for STT-RAM, a combination of voltage boosting and write pulse width adjustment at the circuit-level followed by a BCH-based ECC scheme can reduce the block failure rate (BFR) to 10-8. For MLC-PRAM, a combination of threshold resistance tuning and BCH-based product code ECC scheme can achieve the same target BFR of 10-8. The product code scheme is flexible; it allows migration to a stronger code to guarantee the same target BFR when the raw bit error rate increases with increase in the number of programming cycles.

  8. In vitro compound A formation in a computer-controlled closed-circuit anesthetic apparatus. Comparison with a classical valve circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versichelen, L F; Rolly, G; Bouche, M P; Van Bocxlaer, J F; Struys, M M; Van Der Herten, C; De Leenheer, A P; Mortier, E P

    2000-10-01

    Few data exist on compound A during sevoflurane anesthesia when using closed-circuit conditions and sodalime with modern computer-controlled liquid injection. A PhysioFlex apparatus (Dräger, Lübeck, Germany) was connected to an artificial test lung (inflow approximately 160 ml/min carbon dioxide, outflow approximately 200 ml/min, simulating oxygen consumption). Ventilation was set to obtain an end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (Petco2) approximately 40 mmHg. Canister inflow (T degrees in) and outflow (T degrees out) temperatures were measured. Fresh sodalime and charcoal were used. After baseline analysis, sevoflurane concentration was set at 2.1% end-tidal for 120 min. At baseline and at regular intervals thereafter, Petco2, end-tidal sevoflurane, T degrees in, and T degrees out were measured. For inspiratory and expiratory compound A determination, samples of 2-ml gas were taken. These data were compared with those of a classical valve-containing closed-circuit machine. Ten runs were performed in each set-up. Inspired compound A concentrations increased from undetectable to peak at 6.0 (SD 1.3) and 14.3 (SD 2.5) ppm (P temperature in the upper outflow part of the absorbent canister was 24.3 degrees C (SD 3.6) and 39.8 degrees C (SD 1.2) (P valve circuit machines, respectively. Differences between the two machines in compound A concentrations and absorbent canister temperature at the inflow and outflow regions were significantly different (P flow (70 l/min), closed-circuit PhysioFlex machine were significantly lower than in conventional, valve-based machines during closed-circuit conditions. Lower absorbent temperatures, resulting from the high flow, appear to account for the lower compound A formation.

  9. Spinal sensory projection neuron responses to spinal cord stimulation are mediated by circuits beyond gate control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhe C; Janik, John J; Peters, Ryan V; Chen, Gang; Ji, Ru-Rong; Grill, Warren M

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a therapy used to treat intractable pain with a putative mechanism of action based on the Gate Control Theory. We hypothesized that sensory projection neuron responses to SCS would follow a single stereotyped response curve as a function of SCS frequency, as predicted by the Gate Control circuit. We recorded the responses of antidromically identified sensory projection neurons in the lumbar spinal cord during 1- to 150-Hz SCS in both healthy rats and neuropathic rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI). The relationship between SCS frequency and projection neuron activity predicted by the Gate Control circuit accounted for a subset of neuronal responses to SCS but could not account for the full range of observed responses. Heterogeneous responses were classifiable into three additional groups and were reproduced using computational models of spinal microcircuits representing other interactions between nociceptive and nonnociceptive sensory inputs. Intrathecal administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, increased spontaneous and evoked activity in projection neurons, enhanced excitatory responses to SCS, and reduced inhibitory responses to SCS, suggesting that GABAA neurotransmission plays a broad role in regulating projection neuron activity. These in vivo and computational results challenge the Gate Control Theory as the only mechanism underlying SCS and refine our understanding of the effects of SCS on spinal sensory neurons within the framework of contemporary understanding of dorsal horn circuitry. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. WPG-Controlled Quantum BDD Circuits with BDD Architecture on GaAs-Based Hexagonal Nanowire Network Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Quan ZHao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional nanowire quantum devices and basic quantum logic AND and OR unit on hexagonal nanowire units controlled by wrap gate (WPG were designed and fabricated on GaAs-based one-dimensional electron gas (1-DEG regular nanowire network with hexagonal topology. These basic quantum logic units worked correctly at 35 K, and clear quantum conductance was achieved on the node device, logic AND circuit unit, and logic OR circuit unit. Binary-decision-diagram- (BDD- based arithmetic logic unit (ALU is realized on GaAs-based regular nanowire network with hexagonal topology by the same fabrication method as that of the quantum devices and basic circuits. This BDD-based ALU circuit worked correctly at room temperature. Since these quantum devices and circuits are basic units of the BDD ALU combinational circuit, the possibility of integrating these quantum devices and basic quantum circuits into the BDD-based quantum circuit with more complicated structures was discussed. We are prospecting the realization of quantum BDD combinational circuitries with very small of energy consumption and very high density of integration.

  11. A Nanostructured Composites Thermal Switch Controls Internal and External Short Circuit in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert C.; VanBlarcom, Shelly L.; Kwasnik, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses a thin layer of composite material, made from nano scale particles of nickel and Teflon, placed within a battery cell as a layer within the anode and/or the cathode. There it conducts electrons at room temperature, then switches to an insulator at an elevated temperature to prevent thermal runaway caused by internal short circuits. The material layer controls excess currents from metal-to-metal or metal-to-carbon shorts that might result from cell crush or a manufacturing defect

  12. Designing quantum memories with embedded control: photonic circuits for autonomous quantum error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerckhoff, Joseph; Nurdin, Hendra I; Pavlichin, Dmitri S; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2010-07-23

    We propose an approach to quantum error correction based on coding and continuous syndrome readout via scattering of coherent probe fields, in which the usual steps of measurement and discrete restoration are replaced by direct physical processing of the probe beams and coherent feedback to the register qubits. Our approach is well matched to physical implementations that feature solid-state qubits embedded in planar electromagnetic circuits, providing an autonomous and "on-chip" quantum memory design requiring no external clocking or control logic.

  13. Modeling suggests that gene circuit architecture controls phenotypic variability in a bacterial persistence network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Rachel S; Dunlop, Mary J

    2012-05-20

    Bacterial persistence is a non-inherited bet-hedging mechanism where a subpopulation of cells enters a dormant state, allowing those cells to survive environmental stress such as treatment with antibiotics. Persister cells are not mutants; they are formed by natural stochastic variation in gene expression. Understanding how regulatory architecture influences the level of phenotypic variability can help us explain how the frequency of persistence events can be tuned. We present a model of the regulatory network controlling the HipBA toxin-antitoxin system from Escherichia coli. Using a biologically realistic model we first determine that the persistence phenotype is not the result of bistability within the network. Next, we develop a stochastic model and show that cells can enter persistence due to random fluctuations in transcription, translation, degradation, and complex formation. We then examine alternative gene circuit architectures for controlling hipBA expression and show that networks with more noise (more persisters) and less noise (fewer persisters) are straightforward to achieve. Thus, we propose that the gene circuit architecture can be used to tune the frequency of persistence, a trait that can be selected for by evolution. We develop deterministic and stochastic models describing how the regulation of toxin and antitoxin expression influences phenotypic variation within a population. Persistence events are the result of stochastic fluctuations in toxin levels that cross a threshold, and their frequency is controlled by the regulatory topology governing gene expression.

  14. Modeling suggests that gene circuit architecture controls phenotypic variability in a bacterial persistence network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Rachel S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial persistence is a non-inherited bet-hedging mechanism where a subpopulation of cells enters a dormant state, allowing those cells to survive environmental stress such as treatment with antibiotics. Persister cells are not mutants; they are formed by natural stochastic variation in gene expression. Understanding how regulatory architecture influences the level of phenotypic variability can help us explain how the frequency of persistence events can be tuned. Results We present a model of the regulatory network controlling the HipBA toxin-antitoxin system from Escherichia coli. Using a biologically realistic model we first determine that the persistence phenotype is not the result of bistability within the network. Next, we develop a stochastic model and show that cells can enter persistence due to random fluctuations in transcription, translation, degradation, and complex formation. We then examine alternative gene circuit architectures for controlling hipBA expression and show that networks with more noise (more persisters and less noise (fewer persisters are straightforward to achieve. Thus, we propose that the gene circuit architecture can be used to tune the frequency of persistence, a trait that can be selected for by evolution. Conclusions We develop deterministic and stochastic models describing how the regulation of toxin and antitoxin expression influences phenotypic variation within a population. Persistence events are the result of stochastic fluctuations in toxin levels that cross a threshold, and their frequency is controlled by the regulatory topology governing gene expression.

  15. Software-Controlled Next Generation Optical Circuit Switching for HPC and Cloud Computing Datacenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the performance of optical circuit switching (OCS systems designed for data center networks by using network-level simulation. Recent proposals have used OCS in data center networks but the relatively slow switching times of OCS-MEMS switches (10–100 ms and the latencies of control planes in these approaches have limited their use to the largest data center networks with workloads that last several seconds. Herein, we extend the applicability and generality of these studies by considering dynamically changing short-lived circuits in software-controlled OCS switches, using the faster switching technologies that are now available. The modelled switch architecture features fast optical switches in a single hop topology with a centralized, software-defined optical control plane. We model different workloads with various traffic aggregation parameters to investigate the performance of such designs across usage patterns. Our results show that, with suitable choices for the OCS system parameters, delay performance comparable to that of electrical data center networks can be obtained.

  16. Advances in quantum control of three-level superconducting circuit architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falci, G.; Paladino, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania (Italy); CNR-IMM UOS Universita (MATIS), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy); Di Stefano, P.G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania (Italy); Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast(United Kingdom); Ridolfo, A.; D' Arrigo, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania (Italy); Paraoanu, G.S. [Low Temperature Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science (Finland)

    2017-06-15

    Advanced control in Lambda (Λ) scheme of a solid state architecture of artificial atoms and quantized modes would allow the translation to the solid-state realm of a whole class of phenomena from quantum optics, thus exploiting new physics emerging in larger integrated quantum networks and for stronger couplings. However control solid-state devices has constraints coming from selection rules, due to symmetries which on the other hand yield protection from decoherence, and from design issues, for instance that coupling to microwave cavities is not directly switchable. We present two new schemes for the Λ-STIRAP control problem with the constraint of one or two classical driving fields being always-on. We show how these protocols are converted to apply to circuit-QED architectures. We finally illustrate an application to coherent spectroscopy of the so called ultrastrong atom-cavity coupling regime. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Neuronal systems and circuits involved in the control of food intake and adaptive thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alexandre; Richard, Denis

    2017-03-01

    With the still-growing prevalence of obesity worldwide, major efforts are made to understand the various behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors that promote excess fat gain. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, which emphasizes the importance of deciphering the mechanisms behind energy balance regulation to understand its physiopathology. The control of energy balance is assured by brain systems/circuits capable of generating adequate ingestive and thermogenic responses to maintain the stability of energy reserves, which implies a proper integration of the homeostatic signals that inform about the status of the energy stores. In this article, we overview the organization and functionality of key neuronal circuits or pathways involved in the control of food intake and energy expenditure. We review the role of the corticolimbic (executive and reward) and autonomic systems that integrate their activities to regulate energy balance. We also describe the mechanisms and pathways whereby homeostatic sensing is achieved in response to variations of homeostatic hormones, such as leptin, insulin, and ghrelin, while putting some emphasis on the prominent importance of the mechanistic target of the rapamycin signaling pathway in coordinating the homeostatic sensing process. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Transient spark: a dc-driven repetitively pulsed discharge and its control by electric circuit parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Mario; Martišovitš, Viktor; Machala, Zdenko

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents an analysis of electrical characteristics of streamer-to-spark transition discharge in air at atmospheric pressure named transient spark (TS). The TS is applicable for flue gas cleaning or bio-decontamination and has potential in plasma shielding, combustion and flow control applications. Despite the dc applied voltage, TS has a pulsed character with short (~10-100 ns) high current (>1 A) pulses, with repetitive frequencies 1-20 kHz. Estimation of the temporal evolution of electron density shows that ne ≈ 1016 cm-3 at maximum and ~1011 cm-3 on average are reached using relatively low power delivered to the plasma (0.2-3 W). Thanks to the high repetition frequency, ne between two current pulses does not fall below a critical value and therefore plasma exists during the whole time. A detailed analysis of the TS control by electrical circuit parameters is presented. With appropriate circuit components, the current pulse tail (>1 mA) can be extended and the electron density can be held above ~1013 cm-3 for several tens of μs.

  19. Transient spark: a dc-driven repetitively pulsed discharge and its control by electric circuit parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janda, Mario; Martisovits, Viktor; Machala, Zdenko, E-mail: janda@fmph.uniba.sk [Division of Environmental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F2, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents an analysis of electrical characteristics of streamer-to-spark transition discharge in air at atmospheric pressure named transient spark (TS). The TS is applicable for flue gas cleaning or bio-decontamination and has potential in plasma shielding, combustion and flow control applications. Despite the dc applied voltage, TS has a pulsed character with short ({approx}10-100 ns) high current (>1 A) pulses, with repetitive frequencies 1-20 kHz. Estimation of the temporal evolution of electron density shows that n{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} at maximum and {approx}10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} on average are reached using relatively low power delivered to the plasma (0.2-3 W). Thanks to the high repetition frequency, n{sub e} between two current pulses does not fall below a critical value and therefore plasma exists during the whole time. A detailed analysis of the TS control by electrical circuit parameters is presented. With appropriate circuit components, the current pulse tail (>1 mA) can be extended and the electron density can be held above {approx}10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} for several tens of {mu}s.

  20. Pressure Pump Power Control in the Primary Circuit of the Heat Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilin Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the problem of speed in hot water systems where highly efficient plate heat exchanger is used. Especially marked the problem which is connected with long transition drive of constant speed exceeding the time of the heat exchanger accumulative tank emptying more than twice. As a regulating element in the heat exchange system there was proposed to use asynchronous electric drive of pressure pump in the primary circuit of the heat exchanger. For correct use of such electric drive we solved the problem of control object mathematical model synthesis, which has non-linear properties, in particular, the transfer coefficient of the circuit can vary in more than 6 times. At the same time there was revealed the dependence of the transfer coefficient on the motor speed, which must be considered in the controller synthesis. In conclusion we suggested the solutions of regulators synthesis tasks with customizable settings for speed and switchable structure between relay λ and PI regulators.

  1. THE CHOICE OF PARAMETERS AND CRITERIA FOR AUTOMATIZATION OF CONTROL TONE TRACK CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Romantsev

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of existing methods of checking the tonal frequency track circuits, the choice of parameters and options for check automation of tonal frequency track circuits is conducted.

  2. Addiction: Decreased reward sensitivity and increased expectation sensitivity conspire to overwhelm the brain’s control circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.; Baler, R.

    2010-07-01

    Based on brain imaging findings, we present a model according to which addiction emerges as an imbalance in the information processing and integration among various brain circuits and functions. The dysfunctions reflect (a) decreased sensitivity of reward circuits, (b) enhanced sensitivity of memory circuits to conditioned expectations to drugs and drug cues, stress reactivity, and (c) negative mood, and a weakened control circuit. Although initial experimentation with a drug of abuse is largely a voluntary behavior, continued drug use can eventually impair neuronal circuits in the brain that are involved in free will, turning drug use into an automatic compulsive behavior. The ability of addictive drugs to co-opt neurotransmitter signals between neurons (including dopamine, glutamate, and GABA) modifies the function of different neuronal circuits, which begin to falter at different stages of an addiction trajectory. Upon exposure to the drug, drug cues or stress this results in unrestrained hyperactivation of the motivation/drive circuit that results in the compulsive drug intake that characterizes addiction.

  3. Generating and checking control logic in the HDL-based design of reversible circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Robert; Keszocze, Oliver; Othmer, Lars

    2017-01-01

    the required fi-conditions and check whether a reversible control flow indeed can be realized. The solution utilizes predicate transformer semantics based on Hoare logic. This has exemplary been implemented for the reversible HDL SyReC and evaluated with a variety of circuit description examples. The proposed......Although different from the conventional computing paradigm, reversible computation received significant interest due to its applications in various (emerging) technologies. Here, computations can be executed not only from the inputs to the outputs, but also in the reverse direction. This leads......, be provided with an additional fi-condition for backward computation. Unfortunately, deriving correct and consistent fi-conditions is often not obvious. Moreover, HDL descriptions exist which may not be realized with a reversible control flow at all. In this work, we propose automatic solutions which generate...

  4. Adaptive pinning control of deteriorated nonlinear coupling networks with circuit realization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao-Zheng; Yang, Guang-Hong; Che, Wei-Wei

    2012-09-01

    This paper deals with a class of complex networks with nonideal coupling networks, and addresses the problem of asymptotic synchronization of the complex network through designing adaptive pinning control and coupling adjustment strategies. A more general coupled nonlinearity is considered as perturbations of the network, while a serious faulty network named deteriorated network is also proposed to be further study. For the sake of eliminating these adverse impacts for synchronization, indirect adaptive schemes are designed to construct controllers and adjusters on pinned nodes and nonuniform couplings of un-pinned nodes, respectively. According to Lyapunov stability theory, the proposed adaptive strategies are successful in ensuring the achievement of asymptotic synchronization of the complex network even in the presence of perturbed and deteriorated networks. The proposed schemes are physically implemented by circuitries and tested by simulation on a Chua's circuit network.

  5. OPEN-LOOP CONTROL OF A BIPOLAR STEPPER MOTORS USING THE SPECIALIZED INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BALUTA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the open-loop control of a stepper motors. Bipolar stepper motors can be driven with an L297, an L298N bridge driver and very few external components. With an L298N this configuration drives motors with winding currents up to 2.5A. If very high powers are required an equivalent circuit made with discrete transistors replaces the bridge driver. Together these two chips form a complete microprocessor-to-stepper motor interface. The command signals for the controller L297 are generated through an IBM-PC486 interface. It was developed an open-loop command program written in BorlandC programming language.

  6. Innate Control of Adaptive Immunity: Beyond the Three-Signal Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aakanksha; Pasare, Chandrashekhar

    2017-05-15

    Activation of cells in the adaptive immune system is a highly orchestrated process dictated by multiples cues from the innate immune system. Although the fundamental principles of innate control of adaptive immunity are well established, it is not fully understood how innate cells integrate qualitative pathogenic information to generate tailored protective adaptive immune responses. In this review, we discuss complexities involved in the innate control of adaptive immunity that extend beyond TCR engagement, costimulation, and priming cytokine production but are critical for the generation of protective T cell immunity. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Developmental programming of hypothalamic neuronal circuits: impact on energy balance control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali Ramamoorthy, Thanuja; Begum, Ghazala; Harno, Erika; White, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in adults and children has increased globally at an alarming rate. Mounting evidence from both epidemiological studies and animal models indicates that adult obesity and associated metabolic disorders can be programmed by intrauterine and early postnatal environment- a phenomenon known as “fetal programming of adult disease.” Data from nutritional intervention studies in animals including maternal under- and over-nutrition support the developmental origins of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The hypothalamic neuronal circuits located in the arcuate nucleus controlling appetite and energy expenditure are set early in life and are perturbed by maternal nutritional insults. In this review, we focus on the effects of maternal nutrition in programming permanent changes in these hypothalamic circuits, with experimental evidence from animal models of maternal under- and over-nutrition. We discuss the epigenetic modifications which regulate hypothalamic gene expression as potential molecular mechanisms linking maternal diet during pregnancy to the offspring's risk of obesity at a later age. Understanding these mechanisms in key metabolic genes may provide insights into the development of preventative intervention strategies. PMID:25954145

  8. Developmental programming of hypothalamic neuronal circuits: impact on energy balance control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanuja eGali Ramamoorthy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in adults and children has increased globally at an alarming rate. Mounting evidence from both epidemiological studies and animal models indicates that adult obesity and associated metabolic disorders can be programmed by intrauterine and early postnatal environment- a phenomenon known as fetal programming of adult disease. Data from nutritional intervention studies in animals including maternal under- and over-nutrition support the developmental origins of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The hypothalamic neuronal circuits located in the arcuate nucleus controlling appetite and energy expenditure are set early in life and are perturbed by maternal nutritional insults. In this review, we focus on the effects of maternal nutrition in programming permanent changes in these hypothalamic circuits, with experimental evidence from animal models of maternal under- and over-nutrition. We discuss the epigenetic modifications which regulate hypothalamic gene expression as potential molecular mechanisms linking maternal diet during pregnancy to the offspring’s risk of obesity at a later age. Understanding these mechanisms in key metabolic genes may provide insights into the development of preventative intervention strategies.

  9. Native and aspirin-triggered lipoxins control innate immunity by inducing proteasomal degradation of TRAF6

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Fabiana S.; Esper, L?sia; Dias, Alexandra; Madan, Rajat; Gu, YuanYuan; Hildeman, David; Serhan, Charles N.; Karp, Christopher L.; Aliberti, J?lio

    2008-01-01

    Innate immune signaling is critical for the development of protective immunity. Such signaling is, perforce, tightly controlled. Lipoxins (LXs) are eicosanoid mediators that play key counterregulatory roles during infection. The molecular mechanisms underlying LX-mediated control of innate immune signaling are of interest. In this study, we show that LX and aspirin (ASA)-triggered LX (ATL) inhibit innate immune signaling by inducing suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 2–dependent ubiquiti...

  10. Infrared vision techniques in quality control of surface-mount circuit board solder paste printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alander, Jarmo T.; Huusko, Mikko; Karonen, Aimo; Kuusrainen, Jari; Unonius, Lars

    1995-01-01

    In this work we have applied infrared camera techniques in a prototype of a quality control system for surface mount circuit board solder paste printing. The prototype system consists of a stepper motor controlled conveyor for board transportation and indexing, an infrared camera for paste pad temperature profile recording, a CCD camera for board and pad registration and recording, a pulse heating set-up, a video frame grabber and signal processor unit for preliminary image processing, and a PC for operator control, high level autonomous control and processing of preprocessed infrared and visual image data and communications with the other shop floor information and quality control systems. The operator interface is built on top of Windows 3.1, which makes it easy to operate and to connect to other programs at will. The prototype system was capable to process the locations and areas at over 100 solder paste pads per second speed and to evaluate the volumes of the pads within error tolerance of approximately equals 20%. The most severe obstacle in applying IR techniques in SMT product lines seems to be the current high cost of suitable IR scanning devices. Only slightly modified, the developed infrared quality control and testing system prototype can be used also in other electronics assembly line applications like solder checking and functional checking of boards by monitoring the thermal properties of solders and components correspondingly.

  11. Antigens with application toward immune control of blood-feeding parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, D P; McGuire, T C

    1996-05-01

    This review considers progress toward immune control of nematode parasites that feed on mammalian host blood. Approaches to identify relevant parasite antigens include use of irradiated larvae, somatic antigens, metabolites, enzymes and gut antigens. Because significant immune protection has more recently been achieved using gut antigens of the blood-feeding parasite Haemonchus contortus, these antigens are considered in greater detail. Issues discussed are implications of gut antigens in immune control, potential mechanisms involved in this immunity, biochemical characteristics of gut antigens and potential application of gut antigens to immune control of other blood-feeding nematodes.

  12. Full control of far-field radiation via photonic integrated circuits decorated with plasmonic nanoantennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Zhi; Feng, Li-Shuang; Bachelot, Renaud; Blaize, Sylvain; Ding, Wei

    2017-07-24

    We theoretically develop a hybrid architecture consisting of photonic integrated circuit and plasmonic nanoantennas to fully control optical far-field radiation with unprecedented flexibility. By exploiting asymmetric and lateral excitation from silicon waveguides, single gold nanorod and cascaded nanorod pair can function as component radiation pixels, featured by full 2π phase coverage and nanoscale footprint. These radiation pixels allow us to design scalable on-chip devices in a wavefront engineering fashion. We numerically demonstrate beam collimation with 30° out of the incident plane and nearly diffraction limited divergence angle. We also present high-numerical-aperture (NA) beam focusing with NA ≈0.65 and vector beam generation (the radially-polarized mode) with the mode similarity greater than 44%. This concept and approach constitutes a designable optical platform, which might be a future bridge between integrated photonics and metasurface functionalities.

  13. Controllable high-fidelity quantum state transfer and entanglement generation in circuit QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Yang, Xu-Chen; Mei, Feng; Xue, Zheng-Yuan

    2016-01-25

    We propose a scheme to realize controllable quantum state transfer and entanglement generation among transmon qubits in the typical circuit QED setup based on adiabatic passage. Through designing the time-dependent driven pulses applied on the transmon qubits, we find that fast quantum sate transfer can be achieved between arbitrary two qubits and quantum entanglement among the qubits also can also be engineered. Furthermore, we numerically analyzed the influence of the decoherence on our scheme with the current experimental accessible systematical parameters. The result shows that our scheme is very robust against both the cavity decay and qubit relaxation, the fidelities of the state transfer and entanglement preparation process could be very high. In addition, our scheme is also shown to be insensitive to the inhomogeneous of qubit-resonator coupling strengths.

  14. Controllable high-fidelity quantum state transfer and entanglement generation in circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Yang, Xu-Chen; Mei, Feng; Xue, Zheng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize controllable quantum state transfer and entanglement generation among transmon qubits in the typical circuit QED setup based on adiabatic passage. Through designing the time-dependent driven pulses applied on the transmon qubits, we find that fast quantum sate transfer can be achieved between arbitrary two qubits and quantum entanglement among the qubits also can also be engineered. Furthermore, we numerically analyzed the influence of the decoherence on our scheme with the current experimental accessible systematical parameters. The result shows that our scheme is very robust against both the cavity decay and qubit relaxation, the fidelities of the state transfer and entanglement preparation process could be very high. In addition, our scheme is also shown to be insensitive to the inhomogeneous of qubit-resonator coupling strengths. PMID:26804326

  15. Resonator reset in circuit QED by optimal control for large open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Samuel; Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Venkatraman, Jayameenakshi; Ferris, Andrew J.; Blais, Alexandre

    2017-10-01

    We study an implementation of the open GRAPE (gradient ascent pulse engineering) algorithm well suited for large open quantum systems. While typical implementations of optimal control algorithms for open quantum systems rely on explicit matrix exponential calculations, our implementation avoids these operations, leading to a polynomial speedup of the open GRAPE algorithm in cases of interest. This speedup, as well as the reduced memory requirements of our implementation, are illustrated by comparison to a standard implementation of open GRAPE. As a practical example, we apply this open-system optimization method to active reset of a readout resonator in circuit QED. In this problem, the shape of a microwave pulse is optimized such as to empty the cavity from measurement photons as fast as possible. Using our open GRAPE implementation, we obtain pulse shapes, leading to a reset time over 4 times faster than passive reset.

  16. Idiotypic immune networks in mobile-robot control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbrook, Amanda M; Aickelin, Uwe; Garibaldi, Jonathan M

    2007-12-01

    Jerne's idiotypic-network theory postulates that the immune response involves interantibody stimulation and suppression, as well as matching to antigens. The theory has proved the most popular artificial immune system (AIS) model for incorporation into behavior-based robotics, but guidelines for implementing idiotypic selection are scarce. Furthermore, the direct effects of employing the technique have not been demonstrated in the form of a comparison with nonidiotypic systems. This paper aims to address these issues. A method for integrating an idiotypic AIS network with a reinforcement-learning (RL)-based control system is described, and the mechanisms underlying antibody stimulation and suppression are explained in detail. Some hypotheses that account for the network advantage are put forward and tested using three systems with increasing idiotypic complexity. The basic RL, a simplified hybrid AIS-RL that implements idiotypic selection independently of derived concentration levels, and a full hybrid AIS-RL scheme are examined. The test bed takes the form of a simulated Pioneer robot that is required to navigate through maze worlds detecting and tracking door markers.

  17. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%.

  18. The shared circuits model (SCM): how control, mirroring, and simulation can enable imitation, deliberation, and mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Susan

    2008-02-01

    Imitation, deliberation, and mindreading are characteristically human sociocognitive skills. Research on imitation and its role in social cognition is flourishing across various disciplines. Imitation is surveyed in this target article under headings of behavior, subpersonal mechanisms, and functions of imitation. A model is then advanced within which many of the developments surveyed can be located and explained. The shared circuits model (SCM) explains how imitation, deliberation, and mindreading can be enabled by subpersonal mechanisms of control, mirroring, and simulation. It is cast at a middle, functional level of description, that is, between the level of neural implementation and the level of conscious perceptions and intentional actions. The SCM connects shared informational dynamics for perception and action with shared informational dynamics for self and other, while also showing how the action/perception, self/other, and actual/possible distinctions can be overlaid on these shared informational dynamics. It avoids the common conception of perception and action as separate and peripheral to central cognition. Rather, it contributes to the situated cognition movement by showing how mechanisms for perceiving action can be built on those for active perception.;>;>The SCM is developed heuristically, in five layers that can be combined in various ways to frame specific ontogenetic or phylogenetic hypotheses. The starting point is dynamic online motor control, whereby an organism is closely attuned to its embedding environment through sensorimotor feedback. Onto this are layered functions of prediction and simulation of feedback, mirroring, simulation of mirroring, monitored inhibition of motor output, and monitored simulation of input. Finally, monitored simulation of input specifying possible actions plus inhibited mirroring of such possible actions can generate information about the possible as opposed to actual instrumental actions of others, and the

  19. Republished research: Effects of circuit training as alternative to usual physiotherapy after stroke: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, I.G.L.; Wevers, L.E.G.; Lindeman, E.; Kwakkel, G.

    2013-01-01

    Study question What is the effect of task oriented circuit training compared with usual physiotherapy in terms of self reported walking competency for patients with stroke discharged from a rehabilitation centre to their own home? Summary answer Task oriented circuit training started in the first

  20. A Class of Nonlinear RLC Circuits Globally Stabilizable by Proportional plus Integral Controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castanos, F.; Jayawardhana, B.; Ortega, R.; Garcia-Canseco, E.

    In this note we identify graph-theoretic conditions which allow to write an RLC circuit as port-Hamiltonian with constant input matrices. We show that under additional monotonicity conditions of the network’s components, the circuit enjoys the property of relative passivity, an extended notion of

  1. Synchronic, optical transmission data link integrated with FPGA circuits (for TESLA LLRF control system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielinski, J.S.

    2006-07-15

    The X-ray free-electron laser X-FEL that is being planned at the DESY research center in cooperation with European partners will produce high-intensity ultra-short X-ray flashes with the properties of laser light. This new light source, which can only be described in terms of superlatives, will open up a whole range of new possibilities for the natural sciences. It could also offer very promising opportunities for industrial users. SIMCON (SIMulator and CONtroller) is the project of the fast, low latency digital controller dedicated to the LLRF1 system in VUV FEL experiment It is being developed by the ELHEP2 group in the Institute of Electronic Systems at Warsaw University of Technology. The main purpose of the project is to create a controller to stabilize the vector sum of fields in cavities of one cryo-module in the experiment. The device can be also used as the simulator of the cavity and test bench for other devices. The synchronic, optical link project was made for the accelerator X-FEL laser TESLA, the LLRF control system experiment at DESY, Hamburg. The control and diagnostic data is transmitted up to 2.5Gbit/s through a plastic fiber in a distance up to a few hundred meters. The link is synchronized once after power up, and never resynchronized when data is transmitted with maximum speed. The one way link bit error rate is less then 10{sup -15}. The transceiver component written in VHDL that works in the dedicated Altera registered Stratix registered GX FPGA circuit. During the work in the PERG laboratory a 2,5Gbit/s serial link with the long vector parallel interface transceiver was created. Long-Data-Vector transceiver transmits 16bit vector each 8ns with 120ns latency. (orig.)

  2. Temperature control of molecular circuit switch responsible for virulent phenotype expression in uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoilov, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The behavior and fate of biological organisms are to a large extent dictated by their environment, which can be often viewed as a collection of features and constraints governed by physics laws. Since biological systems comprise networks of molecular interactions, one such key physical property is temperature, whose variations directly affect the rates of biochemical reactions involved. For instance, temperature is known to control many gene regulatory circuits responsible for pathogenicity in bacteria. One such example is type 1 fimbriae (T1F) -- the foremost virulence factor in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which accounts for 80-90% of all community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). The expression of T1F is randomly `phase variable', i.e. individual cells switch between virulent/fimbriate and avirulent/afimbriate phenotypes, with rates regulated by temperature. Our computational investigation of this process, which is based on FimB/FimE recombinase-mediated inversion of fimS DNA element, offers new insights into its discrete-stochastic kinetics. In particular, it elucidates the logic of T1F control optimization to the host temperature and contributes further understanding toward the development of novel therapeutic approaches to UPEC-caused UTIs.

  3. Depressive rumination and the emotional control circuit: An EEG localization and effective connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdek, Magdalena A; van Rijn, Clementina M; Wyczesany, Miroslaw

    2016-12-01

    Ruminations are repetitive thoughts associated with symptoms, causes, and consequences of one's negative feelings. The objective of this study was to explore the neuronal basis of depressive rumination in a non-clinical population within the context of emotional control. Participants scoring high or low on the tendency to ruminate scale took part in the EEG experiment. Their EEG data were collected during a state of induced depressive ruminations and compared with positive and neutral conditions. We hypothesized that both groups would differ according to the level of activation and effective connectivity among the structures involved in the emotional control circuit. Clustering of independent components, together with effective connectivity (Directed Transfer Function), was performed using the EEG signal. The main findings involved decreased activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and increased activation of the left temporal lobe structures in the highly ruminating group. The latter result was most pronounced during the ruminative condition. Decreased information from the left DLPFC to the left temporal lobe structures was also found, leading to the conclusion that hypoactivation of the left DLPFC and its inability to modulate the activation of the left temporal lobe structures is crucial for the ruminative tendencies.

  4. Chaos Synchronization of the Modified Autonomous Van der Pol-Duffing Circuits via Active Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, Ahmed Sadek; Matouk, Ahmed Ezzat

    In this work, we study the dynamics and synchronization of a chaotic system describes the Modified Autonomous Van der Pol-Duffing (MAVPD) circuit. The detailed bifurcation diagrams are given to show the rich dynamics of the proposed system. Lyapunov exponents are calculated to verify the existence of chaos in this system. Chaos synchronization of MAVPD system is obtained using active control method. According to the qualitative theory of fractional differential equations, the existence and uniqueness of solutions for a class of commensurate fractional-order MAVPD systems are investigated. Furthermore, based on the stability theory of fractional-order systems, the conditions of local stability of linear fractional-order system are discussed. Moreover, the existence of chaotic behaviors in the fractional-order MAVPD system is shown. A necessary condition for this system to remain chaotic is obtained. It is found that chaos exists in this system with order less than three. Phase synchronization of the fractional-order MAVPD system is also achieved using an active control technique. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization schemes.

  5. Technical Study on Improvement of Endurance Capability of Limit Short-circuit Current of Charge Control SMART Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. W.; Du, Z. Z.; Yuan, R. m.; Xiong, D. Z.; Shi, E. W.; Lu, G. N.; Dai, Z. Y.; Chen, X. Q.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Lv, Y. G.

    2017-10-01

    Smart meter represents the development direction of energy-saving smart grid in the future. The load switch, one of the core parts of smart meter, should be of high reliability, safety and endurance capability of limit short-circuit current. For this reason, this paper discusses the quick simulation of relationship between attraction and counterforce of load switch without iteration, establishes dual response surface model of attraction and counterforce and optimizes the design scheme of load switch for charge control smart meter, thus increasing electromagnetic attraction and spring counterforce. In this way, this paper puts forward a method to improve the withstand capacity of limit short-circuit current.

  6. Predictive Direct Torque Control Application-Specific Integrated Circuit of an Induction Motor Drive with a Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Ming Sung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a modified predictive direct torque control (PDTC application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC of a motor drive with a fuzzy controller for eliminating sampling and calculating delay times in hysteresis controllers. These delay times degrade the control quality and increase both torque and flux ripples in a motor drive. The proposed fuzzy PDTC ASIC calculates the stator’s magnetic flux and torque by detecting the three-phase current, three-phase voltage, and rotor speed, and eliminates the ripples in the torque and flux by using a fuzzy controller and predictive scheme. The Verilog hardware description language was used to implement the hardware architecture, and the ASIC was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company through a 0.18-μm 1P6M CMOS process that involved a cell-based design method. The measurements revealed that the proposed fuzzy PDTC ASIC of the three-phase induction motor yielded a test coverage of 96.03%, fault coverage of 95.06%, chip area of 1.81 × 1.81 mm2, and power consumption of 296 mW, at an operating frequency of 50 MHz and a supply voltage of 1.8 V.

  7. A Hybrid Circuit for Spoof Surface Plasmons and Spatial Waveguide Modes to Reach Controllable Band-Pass Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Hao Chi; Wu, Han; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-11-10

    We propose a hybrid circuit for spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and spatial waveguide modes to develop new microwave devices. The hybrid circuit includes a spoof SPP waveguide made of two anti-symmetric corrugated metallic strips and a traditional substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). From dispersion relations, we show that the electromagnetic waves only can propagate through the hybrid circuit when the operating frequency is less than the cut-off frequency of the SPP waveguide and greater than the cut-off frequency of SIW, generating efficient band-pass filters. We demonstrate that the pass band is controllable in a large range by designing the geometrical parameters of SPP waveguide and SIW. Full-wave simulations are provided to show the large adjustability of filters, including ultra wideband and narrowband filters. We fabricate a sample of the new hybrid device in the microwave frequencies, and measurement results have excellent agreements to numerical simulations, demonstrating excellent filtering characteristics such as low loss, high efficiency, and good square ratio. The proposed hybrid circuit gives important potential to accelerate the development of plasmonic integrated functional devices and circuits in both microwave and terahertz frequencies.

  8. Economic Analysis of Immunization Strategies for PRRS Control [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C L Linhares

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv is a swine-specific pathogen that causes significant increases in production costs. When a breeding herd becomes infected, in an attempt to hasten control and elimination of PRRSv, some veterinarians have adopted a strategy called load-close-expose which consists of interrupting replacement pig introductions into the herd for several weeks (herd closure and exposing the whole herd to a replicating PRRSv to boost herd immunity. Either modified-live virus (MLV vaccine or live field-virus inoculation (FVI is used. This study consisted of partial budget analyses to compare MLV to FVI as the exposure method of load-close-expose program to control and eliminate PRRSv from infected breeding herds, and secondly to estimate benefit / cost of vaccinating sow herds preventatively. Under the assumptions used in this study, MLV held economic advantage over FVI. However, sensitivity analysis revealed that decreasing margin over variable costs below $ 47.32, or increasing PRRSv-attributed cost above $18.89 or achieving time-to-stability before 25 weeks resulted in advantage of FVI over MLV. Preventive vaccination of sow herds was beneficial when the frequency of PRRSv infection was at least every 1 year and 9 months [corrected]. The economics of preventative vaccination was minimally affected by cost attributed to field-type PRRSv infection on growing pigs or by the breeding herd productivity level. The models developed and described in this paper provide valuable tools to assist veterinarians in their efforts to control PRRSv.

  9. Role of antibody in immunity and control of chicken coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Research has been carried out worldwide to try to elucidate the mechanism of protective immunity against coccidiosis. It was concluded from early studies that cellular immunity is the key to protection against Eimeria, whereas humoral immunity plays a very minor role in resistance against infection. By contrast, other studies have pointed towards the ability of antibody to block parasite invasion, development and transmission and to provide passive and maternal immunity against challenge infection. Herein, recent results demonstrate the ability of antibodies (raised by live immunization or against purified stage-specific Eimeria antigens) to inhibit parasite development in vitro and in vivo and readdress the question of the role of antibody in protection against coccidiosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibitory Control of Feature Selectivity in an Object Motion Sensitive Circuit of the Retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahnbee Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Object motion sensitive (OMS W3-retinal ganglion cells (W3-RGCs in mice respond to local movements in a visual scene but remain silent during self-generated global image motion. The excitatory inputs that drive responses of W3-RGCs to local motion were recently characterized, but which inhibitory neurons suppress W3-RGCs’ responses to global motion, how these neurons encode motion information, and how their connections are organized along the excitatory circuit axis remains unknown. Here, we find that a genetically identified amacrine cell (AC type, TH2-AC, exhibits fast responses to global motion and slow responses to local motion. Optogenetic stimulation shows that TH2-ACs provide strong GABAA receptor-mediated input to W3-RGCs but only weak input to upstream excitatory neurons. Cell-type-specific silencing reveals that temporally coded inhibition from TH2-ACs cancels W3-RGC spike responses to global but not local motion stimuli and, thus, controls the feature selectivity of OMS signals sent to the brain.

  11. Control of Amygdala Circuits by 5-HT Neurons via 5-HT and Glutamate Cotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ayesha; Bocchio, Marco; Bannerman, David M; Sharp, Trevor; Capogna, Marco

    2017-02-15

    The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Therefore, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons. Optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals at low frequencies (≤1 Hz) evoked a short-latency excitation of BA interneurons (INs) that was depressed at higher frequencies. Pharmacological analysis revealed that this effect was mediated by glutamate and not 5-HT because it was abolished by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. Optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals at higher frequencies (10-20 Hz) evoked both slow excitation and slow inhibition of INs. These effects were mediated by 5-HT because they were blocked by antagonists of 5-HT 2A and 5-HT 1A receptors, respectively. These fast glutamate- and slow 5-HT-mediated responses often coexisted in the same neuron. Interestingly, fast-spiking and non-fast-spiking INs displayed differential modulation by glutamate and 5-HT. Furthermore, optical stimulation of 5-HT terminals did not evoke glutamate release onto BA principal neurons, but inhibited these cells directly via activation of 5-HT 1A receptors and indirectly via enhanced GABA release. Collectively, these findings suggest that 5-HT neurons exert a frequency-dependent, cell-type-specific control over BA circuitry via 5-HT and glutamate co-release to inhibit the BA output. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The modulation of the amygdala by serotonin (5-HT) is important for emotional regulation and is implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of affective disorders

  12. Circuit performance of a parasitic-loading digital speed controller for a 400-hertz turbine-driven alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. P.; Ingle, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    Parasitic speed controllers are used in space power electrical generating systems to maintain the speed of the turbine-driven alternators within specified limits. Selected subcircuits for a solid state parasitic-loading speed controller were assembled and tested. The test results as obtained to date consist of the performance evaluation of the frequency reference and the period counter subcircuits. These circuits performed as expected.

  13. Measuring circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for measuring circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listings

  14. Oscillator circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for oscillator circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listing

  15. Insights into innate immune signalling in controlling cardiac remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaxing; Huang, Zan; Li, Hongliang

    2017-11-01

    Canonical innate immune signalling involves complex cascades: multiple germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors rapidly recognize pathogen-associated or damage-associated molecular patterns to induce the production of cytokines, which bind to their corresponding receptors to orchestrate subsequent host defense phases. Inflammation is a healthy response to pathogenic signals, which are typically rapid and specific, and they terminate once the threat has passed. However, excessive activation or suppression of innate immune or inflammatory responses can lead to considerable human suffering, such as cardiac remodelling. Interestingly, recent studies have revealed that innate immune molecules in the parenchymal cells of the heart influence cardiac homeostasis not only by directly regulating innate immune responses but also through reprogrammed signalling pathways, which are independent of conventional innate immune signalling. Elucidating 'innate immune signalling reprogramming' events will help us better understand the functions of innate immune molecules and, moreover, the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Parameter space of experimental chaotic circuits with high-precision control parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Francisco F. G. de; Rubinger, Rero M. [Instituto de Física e Química, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Sartorelli, José C., E-mail: sartorelli@if.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, Holokx A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Joinville, SC (Brazil); Baptista, Murilo S. [Institute of Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology, SUPA, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    We report high-resolution measurements that experimentally confirm a spiral cascade structure and a scaling relationship of shrimps in the Chua's circuit. Circuits constructed using this component allow for a comprehensive characterization of the circuit behaviors through high resolution parameter spaces. To illustrate the power of our technological development for the creation and the study of chaotic circuits, we constructed a Chua circuit and study its high resolution parameter space. The reliability and stability of the designed component allowed us to obtain data for long periods of time (∼21 weeks), a data set from which an accurate estimation of Lyapunov exponents for the circuit characterization was possible. Moreover, this data, rigorously characterized by the Lyapunov exponents, allows us to reassure experimentally that the shrimps, stable islands embedded in a domain of chaos in the parameter spaces, can be observed in the laboratory. Finally, we confirm that their sizes decay exponentially with the period of the attractor, a result expected to be found in maps of the quadratic family.

  17. The rate of immune escape vanishes when multiple immune responses control an HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deutekom, Hanneke W. M.; Wijnker, Gilles; de Boer, Rob J.

    2013-01-01

    During the first months of HIV infection, the virus typically evolves several immune escape mutations. These mutations are found in epitopes in viral proteins and reduce the impact of the CD8⁺ T cells specific for these epitopes. Recent data show that only a subset of the epitopes escapes, that most

  18. A case of MRSA controlled: predisposing factors and immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamson, Davis W; Sadlon, Angela E

    2010-07-01

    Most treatments for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) focus on agents to eliminate the bacterium. Since MRSA infection is not universal, susceptibility factors are possible. Immune resistance could be lowered in such individuals; therefore, locating immune-inhibiting or immune-enhancing factors might decrease susceptibility. Such seemed to be the case in a 48-year-old female who presented with recurring MRSA despite multiple rounds of a variety of antibiotics. When the patient encountered an intensely stressful situation an outbreak of MRSA occurred. The patient had additional underlying health issues that suppressed her immune system and made her more susceptible to stress. Gluten allergy and hypothyroidism were discovered and alleviated but did not end the MRSA outbreaks. Implementation of a popular treatment from the 1930s, intravenous dilute hydrochloric acid (for immune stimulation), prevented most MRSA outbreaks when administered frequently. This case provides anecdotal support for the proposition that immune enhancement is a viable approach to forestall or clear recurring MRSA.

  19. Flatness-based linear output feedback control for disturbance rejection and tracking tasks on a Chua's circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sira-Ramírez, H.; Luviano-Juárez, A.; Cortés-Romero, J.

    2012-05-01

    A linear output feedback controller is developed for trajectory tracking problems defined on a modified version of Chua's circuit. The circuit modification considers the introduction of a flat input, i.e. a suitable external control input channel guided by (a) the induction of the flatness property on a measurable output signal of the circuit and (b) the physical viability of the control input. A linear active disturbance rejection control based on a high-gain linear disturbance observer, is implemented on a laboratory prototype. We show that the state-dependent disturbance can be approximately, but arbitrarily closely, estimated through a linear high-gain observer, called a generalised proportional integral (GPI) observer, which contains a linear combination of a sufficient number of extra iterated integrals of the output estimation error. Experimental results are presented in the output reference trajectory tracking of a signal generated by an unrelated chaotic system of the Lorenz type. Laboratory experiments illustrate the proposed linear methodology for effectively controlling chaos.

  20. Development of a GA-fuzzy-immune PID controller with incomplete derivation for robot dexterous hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-hua; Chen, Xiao-hu; Zheng, Xian-hua; Li, Sheng-peng; Wang, Zhong-bin

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of robot dexterous hand, a controller based on GA-fuzzy-immune PID was designed. The control system of a robot dexterous hand and mathematical model of an index finger were presented. Moreover, immune mechanism was applied to the controller design and an improved approach through integration of GA and fuzzy inference was proposed to realize parameters' optimization. Finally, a simulation example was provided and the designed controller was proved ideal.

  1. Development of a GA-Fuzzy-Immune PID Controller with Incomplete Derivation for Robot Dexterous Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-hua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of robot dexterous hand, a controller based on GA-fuzzy-immune PID was designed. The control system of a robot dexterous hand and mathematical model of an index finger were presented. Moreover, immune mechanism was applied to the controller design and an improved approach through integration of GA and fuzzy inference was proposed to realize parameters’ optimization. Finally, a simulation example was provided and the designed controller was proved ideal.

  2. Development of a GA-Fuzzy-Immune PID Controller with Incomplete Derivation for Robot Dexterous Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-hua; Chen, Xiao-hu; Zheng, Xian-hua; Li, Sheng-peng; Wang, Zhong-bin

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of robot dexterous hand, a controller based on GA-fuzzy-immune PID was designed. The control system of a robot dexterous hand and mathematical model of an index finger were presented. Moreover, immune mechanism was applied to the controller design and an improved approach through integration of GA and fuzzy inference was proposed to realize parameters' optimization. Finally, a simulation example was provided and the designed controller was proved ideal. PMID:25097881

  3. arXiv Application of the Waveform Relaxation Technique to the Co-Simulation of Power Converter Controller and Electrical Circuit Models

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, Michał; Schöps, Sebastian; Auchmann, Bernhard; Bortot, Lorenzo; Prioli, Marco; Verweij, Arjan P.

    In this paper we present the co-simulation of a PID class power converter controller and an electrical circuit by means of the waveform relaxation technique. The simulation of the controller model is characterized by a fixed-time stepping scheme reflecting its digital implementation, whereas a circuit simulation usually employs an adaptive time stepping scheme in order to account for a wide range of time constants within the circuit model. In order to maintain the characteristic of both models as well as to facilitate model replacement, we treat them separately by means of input/output relations and propose an application of a waveform relaxation algorithm. Furthermore, the maximum and minimum number of iterations of the proposed algorithm are mathematically analyzed. The concept of controller/circuit coupling is illustrated by an example of the co-simulation of a PI power converter controller and a model of the main dipole circuit of the Large Hadron Collider.

  4. Intersegmental coordination of cockroach locomotion: adaptive control of centrally coupled pattern generator circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat eFuchs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals’ ability to demonstrate both stereotyped and adaptive locomotor behavior is largely dependent on the interplay between centrally-generated motor patterns and the sensory inputs that shape them. We utilized a combined experimental and theoretical approach to investigate the relative importance of CPG interconnections vs. intersegmental afferents in the cockroach: an animal that is renowned for rapid and stable locomotion. We simultaneously recorded coxal levator and depressor motor neurons (MN in the thoracic ganglia of Periplaneta americana, while sensory feedback was completely blocked or allowed only from one intact stepping leg. In the absence of sensory feedback, we observed a coordination pattern with consistent phase relationship that shares similarities with a double tripod gait, suggesting central, feedforward control. This intersegmental coordination pattern was then reinforced in the presence of sensory feedback from a single stepping leg. Specifically, we report on transient stabilization of phase differences between activity recorded in the middle and hind thoracic MN following individual front-leg steps, suggesting a role for afferent phasic information in the coordination of motor circuits at the different hemiganglia. Data were further analyzed using stochastic models of coupled oscillators and maximum likelihood techniques to estimate underlying physiological parameters, such as uncoupled endogenous frequencies of hemisegmental oscillators and coupling strengths and directions. We found that descending ipsilateral coupling is stronger than ascending coupling, while left-right coupling in both the meso- and meta-thoracic ganglia appear to be symmetrical. We discuss our results in comparison with recent findings in stick insects that share similar neural and body architectures, and argue that the two species may exemplify opposite extremes of a fast-slow locomotion continuum, mediated through different intersegmental

  5. The Immune Response in Measles: Virus Control, Clearance and Protective Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Diane E

    2016-10-12

    Measles is an acute systemic viral infection with immune system interactions that play essential roles in multiple stages of infection and disease. Measles virus (MeV) infection does not induce type 1 interferons, but leads to production of cytokines and chemokines associated with nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) signaling and activation of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NLRP3) inflammasome. This restricted response allows extensive virus replication and spread during a clinically silent latent period of 10-14 days. The first appearance of the disease is a 2-3 day prodrome of fever, runny nose, cough, and conjunctivitis that is followed by a characteristic maculopapular rash that spreads from the face and trunk to the extremities. The rash is a manifestation of the MeV-specific type 1 CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cell adaptive immune response with lymphocyte infiltration into tissue sites of MeV replication and coincides with clearance of infectious virus. However, clearance of viral RNA from blood and tissues occurs over weeks to months after resolution of the rash and is associated with a period of immunosuppression. However, during viral RNA clearance, MeV-specific antibody also matures in type and avidity and T cell functions evolve from type 1 to type 2 and 17 responses that promote B cell development. Recovery is associated with sustained levels of neutralizing antibody and life-long protective immunity.

  6. Self-control of chaos in neural circuits with plastic electrical synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigulin, V. P.; Rabinovich, M. I.

    2004-10-01

    Two kinds of connections are known to exist in neural circuits: electrical (also called gap junctions) and chemical. Whereas chemical synapses are known to be plastic (i. e., modifiable), but slow, electrical transmission through gap junctions is not modifiable, but is very fast. We suggest the new artificial synapse that combines the best properties of both: the fast reaction of a gap junction and the plasticity of a chemical synapse. Such a plastic electrical synapse can be used in hybrid neural circuits and for the development of neural prosthetics, i.e., implanted devices that can interact with the real nervous system. Based on the computer modelling we show that such a plastic electrical synapse regularizes chaos in the minimal neural circuit consisting of two chaotic bursting neurons.

  7. Short-Circuit Calculations for a Transmission Line in the Algerian Power Network Compensated by Thyristor Controlled Voltage Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZELLAGUI Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the impact of using the Thyristor Controlled Voltage Regulator (TCVR on short-circuit calculations is studied for a high voltage transmission line in case of a phase to earth fault in the presence of a fault resistance (RF. A 400 kV single transmission line, in the Algerian power network, is used for this study where the line is compensated by TCVR FACTS device to control the voltage and active power of the line. The impact of the fault resistance is studied to reflect its effect on short-circuit calculations including symmetrical current components, transmission line currents, voltage symmetrical components, and transmission line voltages, without and with TCVR. The obtained simulation results match the presented theoretical analysis.

  8. New insights into innate immune control of systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionakis, Michail S

    2014-08-01

    Systemic infection caused by Candida species is the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in modern hospitals and carries high morbidity and mortality despite antifungal therapy. A recent surge of immunological studies in the mouse models of systemic candidiasis and the parallel discovery and phenotypic characterization of inherited genetic disorders in antifungal immune factors that are associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to the infection have provided new insights into the cellular and molecular basis of protective innate immune responses against Candida. In this review, the new developments in our understanding of how the mammalian immune system responds to systemic Candida challenge are synthesized and important future research directions are highlighted. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. New insights into innate immune control of systemic candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionakis, Michail S.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic infection caused by Candida species is the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in modern hospitals and carries high morbidity and mortality despite antifungal therapy. A recent surge of immunological studies in the mouse models of systemic candidiasis and the parallel discovery and phenotypic characterization of inherited genetic disorders in antifungal immune factors that are associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to the infection have provided new insights into the cellular and molecular basis of protective innate immune responses against Candida. In this review, the new developments in our understanding of how the mammalian immune system responds to systemic Candida challenge are synthesized and important future research directions are highlighted. PMID:25023483

  10. Boosting innate immunity to sustainably control diseases in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Valerie

    2017-10-01

    Viruses cause epidemics in all major crops, threatening global food security. The development of efficient and durable resistance able to withstand viral attacks represents a major challenge for agronomy, and relies greatly on the understanding of the molecular dialogue between viral pathogens and their hosts. Research over the last decades provided substantial advances in the field of plant-virus interactions. Remarkably, the advent of studies of plant innate immunity has recently offered new strategies exploitable in the field. This review summarizes the recent breakthroughs that define the mechanisms underlying antiviral innate immunity in plants, and emphasizes the importance of integrating that knowledge into crop improvement actions, particularly by exploiting the insights related to immune receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway required for immune homeostasis is neurally controlled by arrestin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varsha; Aballay, Alejandro

    2012-09-28

    In response to pathogen infection, the host innate immune system activates microbial killing pathways and cellular stress pathways that need to be balanced because insufficient or excessive immune responses have deleterious consequences. Recent studies demonstrate that two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans control immune homeostasis. To investigate further how GPCR signaling controls immune homeostasis at the organismal level, we studied arrestin-1 (ARR-1), which is the only GPCR adaptor protein in C. elegans. The results indicate that ARR-1 is required for GPCR signaling in ASH, ASI, AQR, PQR, and URX neurons, which control the unfolded protein response and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway required for innate immunity. ARR-1 activity also controlled immunity through ADF chemosensory and AFD thermosensory neurons that regulate longevity. Furthermore, we found that although ARR-1 played a key role in the control of immunity by AFD thermosensory neurons, it did not control longevity through these cells. However, ARR-1 partially controlled longevity through ADF neurons.

  12. Control of DFIG Wind Turbines Based on Indirect Matrix Converters in Short Circuit Mode to Improve the LVRT Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Khajeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs based wind turbines (WTs are the dominant type of WTs. Traditionally, the back-to-back converters are used to excite the rotor circuit of DFIG. In this paper, an indirect matrix converter (IMC is proposed to control the generator. Compared with back-to-back converters, IMCs have numerous advantages such as higher level of robustness, reliability, and reduced size and weight due to the absence of bulky electrolytic capacitor. According to the recent grid codes wind turbines must have low voltage ride-through (LVRT capability. In this paper a new crowbar system is proposed so that along with the control system it protects the IMC from large fault currents and supports the grid voltage dips during grid faults. This crowbar system is provided using the existing converter switches to establish a short circuit mode without any extra circuitry. Even in severe fault conditions, the duration of short circuit mode is quite small so the control system will be activated shortly after the fault to inject reactive power as required by new LVRT standards. Therefore, the new LVRT standards are well satisfied without any extra costs. PSIM simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed method.

  13. Neurobiological Circuits Regulating Attention, Cognitive Control, Motivation, and Emotion: Disruptions in Neurodevelopmental Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnsten, Amy F. T.; Rubia, Katya

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article aims to review basic and clinical studies outlining the roles of prefrontal cortical (PFC) networks in the behavior and cognitive functions that are compromised in childhood neurodevelopmental disorders and how these map into the neuroimaging evidence of circuit abnormalities in these disorders. Method: Studies of animals,…

  14. Controlling Cytomegalovirus: Helping the Immune System Take the Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Hanley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus, of the Herpesviridae family, has evolved alongside humans for thousands of years with an intricate balance of latency, immune evasion, and transmission. While upwards of 70% of humans have evidence of CMV infection, the majority of healthy people show little to no clinical symptoms of primary infection and CMV disease is rarely observed during persistent infection in immunocompetent hosts. Despite the fact that the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic, immunologically, CMV hijacks the immune system by infecting and remaining latent in antigen-presenting cells that occasionally reactivate subclinically and present antigen to T cells, eventually causing the inflation of CMV-specific T cells until they can compromise up to 10% of the entire T cell repertoire. Because of this impact on the immune system, as well as its importance in fields such as stem cell and organ transplant, the relationship between CMV and the immune response has been studied in depth. Here we provide a review of many of these studies and insights into how CMV-specific T cells are currently being used therapeutically.

  15. Controlling Cytomegalovirus: Helping the Immune System Take the Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Patrick J.; Bollard, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus, of the Herpesviridae family, has evolved alongside humans for thousands of years with an intricate balance of latency, immune evasion, and transmission. While upwards of 70% of humans have evidence of CMV infection, the majority of healthy people show little to no clinical symptoms of primary infection and CMV disease is rarely observed during persistent infection in immunocompetent hosts. Despite the fact that the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic, immunologically, CMV hijacks the immune system by infecting and remaining latent in antigen-presenting cells that occasionally reactivate subclinically and present antigen to T cells, eventually causing the inflation of CMV-specific T cells until they can compromise up to 10% of the entire T cell repertoire. Because of this impact on the immune system, as well as its importance in fields such as stem cell and organ transplant, the relationship between CMV and the immune response has been studied in depth. Here we provide a review of many of these studies and insights into how CMV-specific T cells are currently being used therapeutically. PMID:24872114

  16. LOGIC CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, G.H.; Faught, M.L.

    1963-12-24

    A device for safety rod counting in a nuclear reactor is described. A Wheatstone bridge circuit is adapted to prevent de-energizing the hopper coils of a ball backup system if safety rods, sufficient in total control effect, properly enter the reactor core to effect shut down. A plurality of resistances form one arm of the bridge, each resistance being associated with a particular safety rod and weighted in value according to the control effect of the particular safety rod. Switching means are used to switch each of the resistances in and out of the bridge circuit responsive to the presence of a particular safety rod in its effective position in the reactor core and responsive to the attainment of a predetermined velocity by a particular safety rod enroute to its effective position. The bridge is unbalanced in one direction during normal reactor operation prior to the generation of a scram signal and the switching means and resistances are adapted to unbalance the bridge in the opposite direction if the safety rods produce a predetermined amount of control effect in response to the scram signal. The bridge unbalance reversal is then utilized to prevent the actuation of the ball backup system, or, conversely, a failure of the safety rods to produce the predetermined effect produces no unbalance reversal and the ball backup system is actuated. (AEC)

  17. Optimization of Comminution Circuit Throughput and Product Size Distribution by Simulation and Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; T. Weldum; D. Larsen; R. Mariani; J. Pletka

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this project was to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process were used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced could be minimized. The goal was to save energy by reducing the amount of material that was ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that were too fine to be useful. Extensive plant sampling and mathematical modeling of the grinding circuits was carried out to determine how to correct this problem. The approaches taken included (1) Modeling of the circuit to determine process bottlenecks that restrict flowrates in one area while forcing other parts of the circuit to overgrind the material; (2) Modeling of hydrocyclones to determine the mechanisms responsible for retaining fine, high-density particles in the circuit until they are overground, and improving existing models to accurately account for this behavior; and (3) Evaluation of the potential of advanced technologies to improve comminution efficiency and produce sharper product size distributions with less overgrinding. The mathematical models were used to simulate novel circuits for minimizing overgrinding and increasing throughput, and it is estimated that a single plant grinding 15 million tons of ore per year saves up to 82.5 million kWhr/year, or 8.6 x 10{sup 11} BTU/year. Implementation of this technology in the midwestern iron ore industry, which grinds an estimated 150 million tons of ore annually to produce over 50 million tons of iron ore concentrate, would save an estimated 1 x 10{sup 13} BTU/year.

  18. Synthetic dual-input mammalian genetic circuits enable tunable and stringent transcription control by chemical and light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianjun; Li, Ting; Wang, Xue; Du, Zengmin; Liu, Renmei; Yang, Yi

    2016-04-07

    Programmable transcription factors can enable precise control of gene expression triggered by a chemical inducer or light. To obtain versatile transgene system with combined benefits of a chemical inducer and light inducer, we created various chimeric promoters through the assembly of different copies of the tet operator and Gal4 operator module, which simultaneously responded to a tetracycline-responsive transcription factor and a light-switchable transactivator. The activities of these chimeric promoters can be regulated by tetracycline and blue light synergistically or antagonistically. Further studies of the antagonistic genetic circuit exhibited high spatiotemporal resolution and extremely low leaky expression, which therefore could be used to spatially and stringently control the expression of highly toxic protein Diphtheria toxin A for light regulated gene therapy. When transferring plasmids engineered for the gene switch-driven expression of a firefly luciferase (Fluc) into mice, the Fluc expression levels of the treated animals directly correlated with the tetracycline and light input program. We suggest that dual-input genetic circuits using TET and light that serve as triggers to achieve expression profiles may enable the design of robust therapeutic gene circuits for gene- and cell-based therapies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. REGULATION OF IMMUNE RESPONSE OF PATIENTS WITH PARTIALLY CONTROLLED vs CONTROLLED BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Barabash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A control group included seventeen conditionally healthy people (Group 1. Eighty-eight patients with proven bronchial asthma (BA at the age of 22 to 48 were enrolled into the study. I.e., Group 2 included nine patients with well-controlled BA. Group 3 included persons with partially controlled BA (n=79. There were 8 people with easily treated BA in group 2, and 57 such cases in Group 3. The levels of interleukins (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17A, interferon-γ (IFNγ, and tumor-α necrosis factor (TNFα were monitored by means of flow cytometry technique. The parameters of cellular immunity were registered by flow cytofluorimetry assays. Phagocytosis indicators were studied by means of D. Mayansky method, metabolic activity of neutrophils, by the B.Park method, as modified by E.Shmelev. Evaluation of cellular immunity did not reveal statistically significant differences for distinct CD subpopulations between healthy controls and BA patients. The patients with controlled and partially controlled BA exhibited some changes in cytokine concentrations, i.e., increased IL-4, IL-17А, IL-10 and TNFα levels; changes in phagocytosis and oxygen dependent bactericidal activities of neutrophils. We have revealed higher concentrations of IL-4, IL-17А in the less controlled BA (group 3 , as compared with group 2. TNFα induction remained at significantly higher level in both groups of BA patients, exceeding mean control values by 2.3 times. The degree of IL-10 production in group 2 with controlled BA was significantly higher than in group with partial disease control (group 3, p < 0.001, thus suggesting application of IL-10 levels as an index of active inflammation control. Patients with BA (groups 2, 3 exhibited a decrease of basal IFNγ, as compared to healthy people (p < 0.001. In group 3 (partial control, this parameter was 3-fold lower than in healthy persons. Evaluation of monocyte/phagocyte functions showed statistically significant differences between BA

  20. Innate immune control of West Nile virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Alvaro; Wang, Penghua; Montgomery, Ruth R; Fikrig, Erol

    2011-11-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), from the Flaviviridae family, is a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen of medical importance. In humans, WNV infection may cause life-threatening meningoencephalitis or long-term neurologic sequelae. WNV is transmitted by Culex spp. mosquitoes and both the arthropod vector and the mammalian host are equipped with antiviral innate immune mechanisms sharing a common phylogeny. As far as the current evidence is able to demonstrate, mosquitoes primarily rely on RNA interference, Toll, Imd and JAK-STAT signalling pathways for limiting viral infection, while mammals are provided with these and other more complex antiviral mechanisms involving antiviral effectors, inflammatory mediators, and cellular responses triggered by highly specialized pathogen detection mechanisms that often resemble their invertebrate ancestry. This mini-review summarizes our current understanding of how the innate immune systems of the vector and the mammalian host react to WNV infection and shape its pathogenesis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Immune response to Varicella vaccine in children with atopic dermatitis compared to non-atopic controls

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Lynda; Weinberg, Adriana; Boguniewicz, Mark; Taylor, Patricia; Oettgen, Hans; Heughan, Lisa; Zaccaro, Daniel; Armstrong, Brian; Holliday, Aaron; Leung, Donald Y. M.

    2010-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis subjects and controls had similar cellular immune responses to Varicella vaccine. Atopic dermatitis subjects with a history of eczema herpeticum made high levels of Varicella specific IgE.

  2. Mindfulness meditation and the immune system: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Black, David S; Slavich, George M

    2016-01-01

    .... To address this issue, we conducted the first comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of mindfulness meditation on immune system parameters, with a specific focus on five outcomes: (1...

  3. Mechanisms of Cell Polarity-Controlled Epithelial Homeostasis and Immunity in the Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, Leon J.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Dijkstra, Gerard; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    Intestinal epithelial cell polarity is instrumental to maintain epithelial homeostasis and balance communications between the gut lumen and bodily tissue, thereby controlling the defense against gastrointestinal pathogens and maintenance of immune tolerance to commensal bacteria. In this review, we

  4. Control of internal and external short circuits in lithium batteries using a composite thermal switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Robert C.; Pickett, Jerome; Goebel, Franz

    1991-01-01

    A composite material has been developed, consisting of a blend of metal and fluorocarbon particles, which behaves as an electronic conductor at room temperature and which abruptly becomes an insulator at a predetermined temperature. This switching behavior results from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the conductive and non-conductive portions of the composite. This material was applied as a thin film between the carbon cathode in Li/SOCl2 cells, and the metallic cathode current collector. Using test articles incorporating this feature it was shown that lithium cells externally heated or internally heated during a short circuit lost rate capability and the ability to overheat well below the melting point of lithium (180 C). Thus, during an internal or external cell short circuit, the potential for thermal runaway involving reactions of molten lithium is avoided.

  5. Coupling Spatial Segregation with Synthetic Circuits to Control Bacterial Survival (Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Hancock REW (2013) Bacterial biofilm development as a multicellular adaptation : antibiotic resistance and new therapeutic strategies. Curr Opin...based synthetic gene networks. Cell 159: 940 – 954 Purcell O, Lu TK (2014) Synthetic analog and digital circuits for cellular computation and memory...Curr Opin Biotechnol 29: 146 – 155 Riccione KA, Smith RP, Lee AJ, You LC (2012) A synthetic biology approach to understanding cellular information

  6. Field Experiments on 10 kV Switching Shunt Capacitor Banks Using Ordinary and Phase-Controlled Vacuum Circuit Breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Sima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the switching on/off of shunt capacitor banks in substations, vacuum circuit breakers (VCBs are required to switch off or to switch on the capacitive current. Therefore, the VCBs have to be operated under a harsh condition to ensure the reliability of the equipment. This study presents a complete comparison study of ordinary and phase-controlled VCBs on switching 10 kV shunt capacitor banks. An analytical analysis for switching 10 kV shunt capacitor banks is presented on the basis of a reduced circuit with an ungrounded neutral. A phase selection strategy for VCBs to switch 10 kV shunt capacitor banks is proposed. Switching on current waveforms and switching off overvoltage waveforms with, and without, phase selection were measured and discussed by field experiments in a 110 kV substation in Chongqing, China. Results show that the operation of phase-controlled VCBs for 10 kV switching shunt capacitor banks is stable, and phase-controlled VCBs can be used to implement the 10 kV switching on/off shunt capacitor banks to limit the transient overvoltage and overcurrent. The values of overvoltage and inrush current using phase-controlled VCBs are all below those with ordinary VCBs.

  7. Antiviral immunity following smallpox virus infection: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Erika; Lewis, Matthew W; Hanifin, Jon M; Mori, Motomi; Koudelka, Caroline W; Slifka, Mark K

    2010-12-01

    Outbreaks of smallpox (i.e., caused by variola virus) resulted in up to 30% mortality, but those who survived smallpox infection were regarded as immune for life. Early studies described the levels of neutralizing antibodies induced after infection, but smallpox was eradicated before contemporary methods for quantifying T-cell memory were developed. To better understand the levels and duration of immunity after smallpox infection, we performed a case-control study comparing antiviral CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses and neutralizing antibody levels of 24 smallpox survivors with the antiviral immunity observed in 60 smallpox-vaccinated (i.e., vaccinia virus-immune) control subjects. We found that the duration of immunity following smallpox infection was remarkably similar to that observed after smallpox vaccination, with antiviral T-cell responses that declined slowly over time and antiviral antibody responses that remained stable for decades after recovery from infection. These results indicate that severe, potentially life-threatening disease is not required for the development of sustainable long-term immunity. This study shows that the levels of immunity induced following smallpox vaccination are comparable in magnitude to that achieved through natural variola virus infection, and this may explain the notable success of vaccination in eradicating smallpox, one of the world's most lethal diseases.

  8. Antiviral Immunity following Smallpox Virus Infection: a Case-Control Study▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Erika; Lewis, Matthew W.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Mori, Motomi; Koudelka, Caroline W.; Slifka, Mark K.

    2010-01-01

    Outbreaks of smallpox (i.e., caused by variola virus) resulted in up to 30% mortality, but those who survived smallpox infection were regarded as immune for life. Early studies described the levels of neutralizing antibodies induced after infection, but smallpox was eradicated before contemporary methods for quantifying T-cell memory were developed. To better understand the levels and duration of immunity after smallpox infection, we performed a case-control study comparing antiviral CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses and neutralizing antibody levels of 24 smallpox survivors with the antiviral immunity observed in 60 smallpox-vaccinated (i.e., vaccinia virus-immune) control subjects. We found that the duration of immunity following smallpox infection was remarkably similar to that observed after smallpox vaccination, with antiviral T-cell responses that declined slowly over time and antiviral antibody responses that remained stable for decades after recovery from infection. These results indicate that severe, potentially life-threatening disease is not required for the development of sustainable long-term immunity. This study shows that the levels of immunity induced following smallpox vaccination are comparable in magnitude to that achieved through natural variola virus infection, and this may explain the notable success of vaccination in eradicating smallpox, one of the world's most lethal diseases. PMID:20926574

  9. Native and aspirin-triggered lipoxins control innate immunity by inducing proteasomal degradation of TRAF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fabiana S; Esper, Lísia; Dias, Alexandra; Madan, Rajat; Gu, YuanYuan; Hildeman, David; Serhan, Charles N; Karp, Christopher L; Aliberti, Júlio

    2008-05-12

    Innate immune signaling is critical for the development of protective immunity. Such signaling is, perforce, tightly controlled. Lipoxins (LXs) are eicosanoid mediators that play key counterregulatory roles during infection. The molecular mechanisms underlying LX-mediated control of innate immune signaling are of interest. In this study, we show that LX and aspirin (ASA)-triggered LX (ATL) inhibit innate immune signaling by inducing suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 2-dependent ubiquitinylation and proteasome-mediated degradation of TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 2 and TRAF6, which are adaptor molecules that couple TNF and interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor family members to intracellular signaling events. LX-mediated degradation of TRAF6 inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production by dendritic cells. This restraint of innate immune signaling can be ablated by inhibition of proteasome function. In vivo, this leads to dysregulated immune responses, accompanied by increased mortality during infection. Proteasomal degradation of TRAF6 is a central mechanism underlying LX-driven immune counterregulation, and a hitherto unappreciated mechanism of action of ASA. These findings suggest a new molecular target for drug development for diseases marked by dysregulated inflammatory responses.

  10. The Immune Self-adjusting Contour Error Coupled Control in Machining Based on Grating Ruler Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyong Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The actual dynamic performance of each feed axis can’t match well usually, which will destroy machine tool contour accuracy seriously. The immune self-adjusting contour error coupled control method based on grating ruler sensors is developed to improve machine tool contour accuracy in the paper. Firstly, measure and convert the feed axis actual displacement into pulse signals with grating ruler sensors on each sampling period; then calculate the contour error and contour error compensation control quantity. The method combines the advantages of immune mechanism and classical Proportion Integration Differentiation (PID control algorithm. The introduced method is testified on the three-axis computer numerical control (CNC milling machine with three high precision grating ruler sensors. And the experimental results show that the proposed immune self-adjusting contour error coupled control method can improve machine tool contour accuracy remarkably.

  11. EFFECT OF NEBULIZED COLISTIN ON THE VENTILATOR CIRCUIT: A PROSPECTIVE PILOT CASE-CONTROL STUDY FROM A SINGLE CANCER CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad M Ghonimat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nebulized colistin (NC is used for the treatment of pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In this one-year case-control study, our objective was to evaluate the effect of NC on the ventilator circuit (VC components. The case group consisted of 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who received NC, while the control group was 25 mechanically-ventilated patients who did not receive NC. Respiratory therapists inspected the VC every 4 hrs and whenever a ventilator alarm was reported. The VC component was changed if the alarm did not subside after necessary measures were performed. Patients from both groups were treated at the adult ICU in King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC. In the case group, 22(88% patients required changing at least one of the circuit components (flow sensor, exhalation membrane, or nebulizer kit. The median number of changes (range per patient of the flow sensor, exhalation membrane, and nebulizer kit were: 2(1-3, 2(1-6, and 1(1-2, respectively. Large amounts of white crystals, which resembled the colistin powder, were reported on the replaced VC components. The flow sensor was changed in 2 control patients, but white crystals were absent. Crystals obtained from one case subject were confirmed to be colistin by chromatographic mass spectroscopy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of crystal formation on the efficacy of NC and clinical outcomes.

  12. Aggression and social experience: genetic analysis of visual circuit activity in the control of aggressiveness in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Mahmoudreza; Domocos, Claudiu; Slawaska-Eng, David; Rao, Yong

    2014-08-13

    Animal aggressiveness is controlled by genetic and environmental factors. Among environmental factors, social experience plays an important role in modulating aggression in vertebrates and invertebrates. In Drosophila, pheromonal activation of olfactory neurons contributes to social suppression of aggression. While it was reported that impairment in vision decreases the level of aggression in Drosophila, it remains unknown if visual perception also contributes to the modulation of aggression by social experience. In this study, we investigate the role of visual perception in the control of aggression in Drosophila. We took several genetic approaches to examine the effects of blocking visual circuit activity on fly aggressive behaviors. In wild type, group housing greatly suppresses aggressiveness. Loss of vision by mutating the ninaB gene does not affect social suppression of fly aggression. Similar suppression of aggressiveness by group housing is observed in fly mutants carrying a mutation in the eya gene leading to complete loss of eye. Chronic visual loss does not affect the level of aggressiveness of single-housed flies that lack social experience prior to behavioral tests. When visual circuit activity is acutely blocked during behavioral test, however, single-housed flies display higher levels of aggressiveness than that of control flies. Visual perception does not play a major role in social suppression of aggression in Drosophila. For single-housed individuals lacking social experience prior to behavioral tests, visual perception decreases the level of aggressiveness.

  13. An adaptive metamaterial beam with hybrid shunting circuits for extremely broadband control of flexural wave (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangyang; Huang, Guoliang

    2017-04-01

    A great deal of research has been devoted to controlling the dynamic behaviors of phononic crystals and metamaterials by directly tuning the frequency regions and/or widths of their inherent band gaps. Here, we present a novel approach to achieve extremely broadband flexural wave/vibration attenuation based on tunable local resonators made of piezoelectric stacks shunted by hybrid negative capacitance and negative inductance circuits with proof masses attached on a host beam. First, wave dispersion relations of the adaptive metamaterial beam are calculated analytically by using the transfer matrix method. The unique modulus tuning properties induced by the hybrid shunting circuits are then characterized conceptually, from which the frequency dependent modulus tuning curves of the piezoelectric stack located within wave attenuation frequency regions are quantitatively identified. As an example, a flexural wave high-pass band filter with a wave attenuation region from 0 to 23.0 kHz is demonstrated analytically and numerically by using the hybrid shunting circuit, in which the two electric components are connected in series. By changing the connection pattern to be parallel, another super wide wave attenuation region from 13.5 to 73.0 kHz is demonstrated to function as a low-pass filter at a subwavelength scale. The proposed adaptive metamaterial possesses a super wide band gap created both naturally and artificially. Therefore, it can be used for the transient wave mitigation at extremely broadband frequencies such as blast or impact loadings. We envision that the proposed design and approach can open many possibilities in broadband vibration and wave control.

  14. Ex vivo engineered immune organoids for controlled germinal center reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwada, Alberto; Jaiswal, Manish K; Ahn, Haelee; Nojima, Takuya; Kitamura, Daisuke; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K; Cerchietti, Leandro; Singh, Ankur

    2015-09-01

    Ex vivo engineered three-dimensional organotypic cultures have enabled the real-time study and control of biological functioning of mammalian tissues. Organs of broad interest where its architectural, cellular, and molecular complexity has prevented progress in ex vivo engineering are the secondary immune organs. Ex vivo immune organs can enable mechanistic understanding of the immune system and more importantly, accelerate the translation of immunotherapies as well as a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that lead to their malignant transformation into a variety of B and T cell malignancies. However, till date, no modular ex vivo immune organ has been developed with an ability to control the rate of immune reaction through tunable design parameter. Here we describe a B cell follicle organoid made of nanocomposite biomaterials, which recapitulates the anatomical microenvironment of a lymphoid tissue that provides the basis to induce an accelerated germinal center (GC) reaction by continuously providing extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-cell signals to naïve B cells. Compared to existing co-cultures, immune organoids provide a control over primary B cell proliferation with ∼100-fold higher and rapid differentiation to the GC phenotype with robust antibody class switching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The actin-MRTF-SRF transcriptional circuit controls tubulin acetylation via α-TAT1 gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Barrera, Jaime; Bernabé-Rubio, Miguel; Casares-Arias, Javier; Rangel, Laura; Fernández-Martín, Laura; Correas, Isabel; Alonso, Miguel A

    2018-01-10

    The role of formins in microtubules is not well understood. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism by which INF2, a formin mutated in degenerative renal and neurological hereditary disorders, controls microtubule acetylation. We found that silencing of INF2 in epithelial RPE-1 cells produced a dramatic drop in tubulin acetylation, increased the G-actin/F-actin ratio, and impaired myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)/serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription, which is known to be repressed by increased levels of G-actin. The effect on tubulin acetylation was caused by the almost complete absence of α-tubulin acetyltransferase 1 (α-TAT1) messenger RNA (mRNA). Activation of the MRTF-SRF transcriptional complex restored α-TAT1 mRNA levels and tubulin acetylation. Several functional MRTF-SRF-responsive elements were consistently identified in the α-TAT1 gene. The effect of INF2 silencing on microtubule acetylation was also observed in epithelial ECV304 cells, but not in Jurkat T cells. Therefore, the actin-MRTF-SRF circuit controls α-TAT1 transcription. INF2 regulates the circuit, and hence microtubule acetylation, in cell types where it has a prominent role in actin polymerization. © 2018 Fernández-Barrera et al.

  16. Remote Query Resonant-Circuit Sensors for Monitoring of Bacteria Growth: Application to Food Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas G. Bachas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique for in-situ remote query monitoring of bacteria growth utilizing a printed thin or thick-film sensor comprised of an inductor-capacitor (LC resonant circuit. The sensor, which is placed within the biological medium of interest and remotely detected using a loop antenna, measures the complex permittivity of the medium. Since bacteria growth increases the complex permittivity of a biological medium the LC sensor can be used to determine bacteria concentration. This paper presents results on monitoring of three different bacteria strains, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli JM109, and Pseudomonas putida, demonstrating application of the sensor for monitoring bacteria growth in milk, meat, and beer. Due to its low unit cost and remote query detection, the sensor is potentially useful for commercial scale monitoring of food quality.

  17. Control method of high-speed switched reluctance motor with an asymmetric rotor magnetic circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusz Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the modified (compared to the classical asymmetric half-bridge converter for a switched reluctance machine with an asymmetric rotor magnetic circuit was analysed. An analysis for two various structures of switched reluctance motors was conducted. The rotor shaping was used to obtain required start-up torque or/and to obtain less electromagnetic torque ripple. The discussed converter gives a possibility to turn a phase off much later while reduced time of a current flows in a negative slope of inductance. The results of the research in the form of waveforms of currents, voltages and electromagnetic torque were presented. Conclusions were formulated concerning the comparison of the characteristics of SRM supplied by the classic converter and by the one supplied by the analysed converter.

  18. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronics Circuits Manual covers the basic principles and characteristics of the best known types of optoelectronic devices, as well as the practical applications of many of these optoelectronic devices. The book describes LED display circuits and LED dot- and bar-graph circuits and discusses the applications of seven-segment displays, light-sensitive devices, optocouplers, and a variety of brightness control techniques. The text also tackles infrared light-beam alarms and multichannel remote control systems. The book provides practical user information and circuitry and illustrations.

  19. Circadian Control of the Estrogenic Circuits Regulating GnRH Secretion and the Preovulatory Luteinizing Hormone Surge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance J Kriegsfeld

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Female reproduction requires the precise temporal organization of interacting, estradiol-sensitive neural circuits that converge to optimally drive hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis functioning. In mammals, the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachaismatic nucleus (SCN of the anterior hypothalamus coordinates reproductively-relevant neuroendocrine events necessary to maximize reproductive success. Likewise, in species where periods of fertility are brief, circadian oversight of reproductive function ensures that estradiol-dependent increases in sexual motivation coincide with ovulation. Across species, including humans, disruptions to circadian timing (e.g., through rotating shift work, night shift work, poor sleep hygiene lead to pronounced deficits in ovulation and fecundity. Despite the well-established roles for the circadian system in female reproductive functioning, the specific neural circuits and neurochemical mediators underlying these interactions are not fully understood. Most work to date has focused on the direct and indirect communication from the SCN to the GnRH system in control of the preovulatory LH surge. However, the same clock genes underlying circadian rhythms at the cellular level in SCN cells are also common to target cell populations of the SCN, including the GnRH neuronal network. Exploring the means by which the master clock synergizes with subordinate clocks in GnRH cells and its upstream modulatory systems represents an exciting opportunity to further understand the role of endogenous timing systems in female reproduction. Herein we provide an overview of the state of knowledge regarding interactions between the circadian timing system and estradiol-sensitive neural circuits driving GnRH secretion and the preovulatory LH surge.

  20. Comparison of the efficiency control of mycotoxins by some optical immune biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyshyk, N. F.; Starodub, N. F.

    2013-11-01

    It was compared the efficiency of patulin control at the application of such optical biosensors which were based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and nano-porous silicon (sNPS). In last case the intensity of the immune reaction was registered by measuring level of chemiluminescence (ChL) or photocurrent of nPS. The sensitivity of this mycotoxin determination by first type of immune biosensor was 0.05-10 mg/L Approximately the same sensitivity as well as the overall time analysis were demonstrated by the immune biosensor based on the nPS too. Nevertheless, the last type of biosensor was simpler in technical aspect and the cost of analysis was cheapest. That is why, it was recommend the nPS based immune biosensor for wide screening application and SPR one for some additional control or verification of preliminary obtained results. In this article a special attention was given to condition of sample preparation for analysis, in particular, micotoxin extraction from potao and some juices. Moreover, it was compared the efficiency of the above mentioned immune biosensors with such traditional approach of mycotoxin determination as the ELISA-method. In the result of investigation and discussion of obtained data it was concluded that both type of the immune biosensors are able to fulfill modern practice demand in respect sensitivity, rapidity, simplicity and cheapness of analysis.

  1. Cancer Control Related to Stimulation of Immunity by Low-Dose Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies showed that low dose radiation (LDR) could stimulate the immune system in both animal and human populations. This paper reviews the present status of relevant research as support to the use of LDR in clinical practice for cancer prevention and treatment. It has been demonstrated that radiation-induced changes in immune activity follows an inverse J-shaped curve, i.e., low dose stimulation and high dose suppression. The stimulation of immunity by LDR concerns most anticancer parameters, including antibody formation, natural killer activity, secretion of interferon and other cytokines as well as other cellular changes. Animal studies have revealed that LDR retards tumor growth, decreases cancer metastasis, and inhibits carcinogenesis induced by high dose radiation. These effects of LDR on cancer control were found to be related to its stimulation on immunity. The experimental data may well explain the efficacy of the clinical trial of LDR in the treatment of cancer. PMID:18648611

  2. Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage in Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics via Reactivity-Controlled Solution-Phase Ligand Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Jo, Jea Woong

    2017-10-09

    The energy disorder that arises from colloidal quantum dot (CQD) polydispersity limits the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and efficiency of CQD photovoltaics. This energy broadening is significantly deteriorated today during CQD ligand exchange and film assembly. Here, a new solution-phase ligand exchange that, via judicious incorporation of reactivity-engineered additives, provides improved monodispersity in final CQD films is reported. It has been found that increasing the concentration of the less reactive species prevents CQD fusion and etching. As a result, CQD solar cells with a VOC of 0.7 V (vs 0.61 V for the control) for CQD films with exciton peak at 1.28 eV and a power conversion efficiency of 10.9% (vs 10.1% for the control) is achieved.

  3. Adaptive backstepping control, synchronization and circuit simulation of a 3-D novel jerk chaotic system with two hyperbolic sinusoidal nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidyanathan Sundarapandian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, a six-term 3-D novel jerk chaotic system with two hyperbolic sinusoidal nonlinearities has been proposed, and its qualitative properties have been detailed. The Lyapunov exponents of the novel jerk system are obtained as L1 = 0.07765,L2 = 0, and L3 = −0.87912. The Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the novel jerk system is obtained as DKY = 2.08833. Next, an adaptive backstepping controller is designed to stabilize the novel jerk chaotic system with two unknown parameters. Moreover, an adaptive backstepping controller is designed to achieve complete chaos synchronization of the identical novel jerk chaotic systems with two unknown parameters. Finally, an electronic circuit realization of the novel jerk chaotic system using Spice is presented in detail to confirm the feasibility of the theoretical model

  4. Host control of malaria infections: constraints on immune and erythropoeitic response kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip G McQueen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The two main agents of human malaria, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, can induce severe anemia and provoke strong, complex immune reactions. Which dynamical behaviors of host immune and erythropoietic responses would foster control of infection, and which would lead to runaway parasitemia and/or severe anemia? To answer these questions, we developed differential equation models of interacting parasite and red blood cell (RBC populations modulated by host immune and erythropoietic responses. The model immune responses incorporate both a rapidly responding innate component and a slower-responding, long-term antibody component, with several parasite developmental stages considered as targets for each type of immune response. We found that simulated infections with the highest parasitemia tended to be those with ineffective innate immunity even if antibodies were present. We also compared infections with dyserythropoiesis (reduced RBC production during infection to those with compensatory erythropoiesis (boosted RBC production or a fixed basal RBC production rate. Dyserythropoiesis tended to reduce parasitemia slightly but at a cost to the host of aggravating anemia. On the other hand, compensatory erythropoiesis tended to reduce the severity of anemia but with enhanced parasitemia if the innate response was ineffective. For both parasite species, sharp transitions between the schizont and the merozoite stages of development (i.e., with standard deviation in intra-RBC development time control parasitemia. Finally, our simulations suggest that P. vivax can induce severe anemia as readily as P. falciparum for the same type of immune response, though P. vivax attacks a much smaller subset of RBCs. Since most P. vivax infections are nonlethal (if debilitating clinically, this suggests that P

  5. Dopaminergic control of motivation and reinforcement learning: a closed-circuit account for reward-oriented behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kenji; Morishima, Mieko; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Kawaguchi, Yasuo

    2013-05-15

    Humans and animals take actions quickly when they expect that the actions lead to reward, reflecting their motivation. Injection of dopamine receptor antagonists into the striatum has been shown to slow such reward-seeking behavior, suggesting that dopamine is involved in the control of motivational processes. Meanwhile, neurophysiological studies have revealed that phasic response of dopamine neurons appears to represent reward prediction error, indicating that dopamine plays central roles in reinforcement learning. However, previous attempts to elucidate the mechanisms of these dopaminergic controls have not fully explained how the motivational and learning aspects are related and whether they can be understood by the way the activity of dopamine neurons itself is controlled by their upstream circuitries. To address this issue, we constructed a closed-circuit model of the corticobasal ganglia system based on recent findings regarding intracortical and corticostriatal circuit architectures. Simulations show that the model could reproduce the observed distinct motivational effects of D1- and D2-type dopamine receptor antagonists. Simultaneously, our model successfully explains the dopaminergic representation of reward prediction error as observed in behaving animals during learning tasks and could also explain distinct choice biases induced by optogenetic stimulation of the D1 and D2 receptor-expressing striatal neurons. These results indicate that the suggested roles of dopamine in motivational control and reinforcement learning can be understood in a unified manner through a notion that the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia represents the value of states/actions at a previous time point, an empirically driven key assumption of our model.

  6. Realization of a Knill-Laflamme-Milburn controlled-NOT photonic quantum circuit combining effective optical nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryo; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Hofmann, Holger F; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2011-06-21

    Quantum information science addresses how uniquely quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement can enhance communication, information processing, and precision measurement. Photons are appealing for their low-noise, light-speed transmission and ease of manipulation using conventional optical components. However, the lack of highly efficient optical Kerr nonlinearities at the single photon level was a major obstacle. In a breakthrough, Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn (KLM) showed that such an efficient nonlinearity can be achieved using only linear optical elements, auxiliary photons, and measurement [Knill E, Laflamme R, Milburn GJ (2001) Nature 409:46-52]. KLM proposed a heralded controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate for scalable quantum computation using a photonic quantum circuit to combine two such nonlinear elements. Here we experimentally demonstrate a KLM CNOT gate. We developed a stable architecture to realize the required four-photon network of nested multiple interferometers based on a displaced-Sagnac interferometer and several partially polarizing beamsplitters. This result confirms the first step in the original KLM "recipe" for all-optical quantum computation, and should be useful for on-demand entanglement generation and purification. Optical quantum circuits combining giant optical nonlinearities may find wide applications in quantum information processing, communication, and sensing.

  7. The Drosophila TRPA1 Channel and Neuronal Circuits Controlling Rhythmic Behaviours and Sleep in Response to Environmental Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Roessingh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available trpA1 encodes a thermosensitive transient receptor potential channel (TRP channel that functions in selection of preferred temperatures and noxious heat avoidance. In this review, we discuss the evidence for a role of TRPA1 in the control of rhythmic behaviours in Drosophila melanogaster. Activity levels during the afternoon and rhythmic temperature preference are both regulated by TRPA1. In contrast, TRPA1 is dispensable for temperature synchronisation of circadian clocks. We discuss the neuronal basis of TRPA1-mediated temperature effects on rhythmic behaviours, and conclude that they are mediated by partly overlapping but distinct neuronal circuits. We have previously shown that TRPA1 is required to maintain siesta sleep under warm temperature cycles. Here, we present new data investigating the neuronal circuit responsible for this regulation. First, we discuss the difficulties that remain in identifying the responsible neurons. Second, we discuss the role of clock neurons (s-LNv/DN1 network in temperature-driven regulation of siesta sleep, and highlight the role of TRPA1 therein. Finally, we discuss the sexual dimorphic nature of siesta sleep and propose that the s-LNv/DN1 clock network could play a role in the integration of environmental information, mating status and other internal drives, to appropriately drive adaptive sleep/wake behaviour.

  8. Realization of a Knill-Laflamme-Milburn controlled-NOT photonic quantum circuit combining effective optical nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryo; O’Brien, Jeremy L.; Hofmann, Holger F.; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    Quantum information science addresses how uniquely quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement can enhance communication, information processing, and precision measurement. Photons are appealing for their low-noise, light-speed transmission and ease of manipulation using conventional optical components. However, the lack of highly efficient optical Kerr nonlinearities at the single photon level was a major obstacle. In a breakthrough, Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn (KLM) showed that such an efficient nonlinearity can be achieved using only linear optical elements, auxiliary photons, and measurement [Knill E, Laflamme R, Milburn GJ (2001) Nature 409:46–52]. KLM proposed a heralded controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate for scalable quantum computation using a photonic quantum circuit to combine two such nonlinear elements. Here we experimentally demonstrate a KLM CNOT gate. We developed a stable architecture to realize the required four-photon network of nested multiple interferometers based on a displaced-Sagnac interferometer and several partially polarizing beamsplitters. This result confirms the first step in the original KLM “recipe” for all-optical quantum computation, and should be useful for on-demand entanglement generation and purification. Optical quantum circuits combining giant optical nonlinearities may find wide applications in quantum information processing, communication, and sensing. PMID:21646543

  9. A tweaking principle for executive control: neuronal circuit mechanism for rule-based task switching and conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardid, Salva; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2013-12-11

    A hallmark of executive control is the brain's agility to shift between different tasks depending on the behavioral rule currently in play. In this work, we propose a "tweaking hypothesis" for task switching: a weak rule signal provides a small bias that is dramatically amplified by reverberating attractor dynamics in neural circuits for stimulus categorization and action selection, leading to an all-or-none reconfiguration of sensory-motor mapping. Based on this principle, we developed a biologically realistic model with multiple modules for task switching. We found that the model quantitatively accounts for complex task switching behavior: switch cost, congruency effect, and task-response interaction; as well as monkey's single-neuron activity associated with task switching. The model yields several testable predictions, in particular, that category-selective neurons play a key role in resolving sensory-motor conflict. This work represents a neural circuit model for task switching and sheds insights in the brain mechanism of a fundamental cognitive capability.

  10. Disposing and recycling waste printed circuit boards: disconnecting, resource recovery, and pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbo; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-20

    Over the past decades, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered e-waste recycling activities. After a decade of effort, disassembly and raw materials recycling of environmentally friendly e-waste have been realized in specialized companies, in China, and law enforcement for illegal activities of e-waste recycling has also been made more and more strict. So up to now, the e-waste recycling in China should be developed toward more depth and refinement to promote industrial production of e-waste resource recovery. Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs), which are the most complex, hazardous, and valuable components of e-waste, are selected as one typical example in this article that reviews the status of related regulations and technologies of WPCBs recycling, then optimizes, and integrates the proper approaches in existence, while the bottlenecks in the WPCBs recycling system are analyzed, and some preliminary experiments of pinch technologies are also conducted. Finally, in order to provide directional guidance for future development of WPCBs recycling, some key points in the WPCBs recycling system are proposed to point towards a future trend in the e-waste recycling industry.

  11. Achilles is a circadian clock-controlled gene that regulates immune function in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Terry, Erin E; Fejer, Edith; Gamba, Diana; Hartmann, Natalie; Logsdon, Joseph; Michalski, Daniel; Rois, Lisa E; Scuderi, Maria J; Kunst, Michael; Hughes, Michael E

    2017-03-01

    The circadian clock is a transcriptional/translational feedback loop that drives the rhythmic expression of downstream mRNAs. Termed "clock-controlled genes," these molecular outputs of the circadian clock orchestrate cellular, metabolic, and behavioral rhythms. As part of our on-going work to characterize key upstream regulators of circadian mRNA expression, we have identified a novel clock-controlled gene in Drosophila melanogaster, Achilles (Achl), which is rhythmic at the mRNA level in the brain and which represses expression of antimicrobial peptides in the immune system. Achilles knock-down in neurons dramatically elevates expression of crucial immune response genes, including IM1 (Immune induced molecule 1), Mtk (Metchnikowin), and Drs (Drosomysin). As a result, flies with knocked-down Achilles expression are resistant to bacterial challenges. Meanwhile, no significant change in core clock gene expression and locomotor activity is observed, suggesting that Achilles influences rhythmic mRNA outputs rather than directly regulating the core timekeeping mechanism. Notably, Achilles knock-down in the absence of immune challenge significantly diminishes the fly's overall lifespan, indicating a behavioral or metabolic cost of constitutively activating this pathway. Together, our data demonstrate that (1) Achilles is a novel clock-controlled gene that (2) regulates the immune system, and (3) participates in signaling from neurons to immunological tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chaos, feedback control and synchronization of a fractional-order modified Autonomous Van der Pol-Duffing circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matouk, A. E.

    2011-02-01

    In this work, stability analysis of the fractional-order modified Autonomous Van der Pol-Duffing (MAVPD) circuit is studied using the fractional Routh-Hurwitz criteria. A necessary condition for this system to remain chaotic is obtained. It is found that chaos exists in this system with order less than 3. Furthermore, the fractional Routh-Hurwitz conditions are used to control chaos in the proposed fractional-order system to its equilibria. Based on the fractional Routh-Hurwitz conditions and using specific choice of linear controllers, it is shown that the fractional-order MAVPD system is controlled to its equilibrium points; however, its integer-order counterpart is not controlled. Moreover, chaos synchronization of MAVPD system is found only in the fractional-order case when using a specific choice of nonlinear control functions. This shows the effect of fractional order on chaos control and synchronization. Synchronization is also achieved using the unidirectional linear error feedback coupling approach. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  13. The importance of transmission-blocking immunity in the control of infections by apicomplexan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, M

    1997-10-01

    Transmission-blocking immunity may have great potential for use in the control of diseases caused by apicomplexan parasites. In this review I will describe our work on the application of transmission-blocking immunity to the control of the Eimeria parasite and compare our results to those working on transmission-blocking immunity against Cryptosporidium and Plasmodium. Eimeria causes the disease known as coccidiosis in domestic animals. Coccidiosis is particularly problematic in the chicken industry, mainly due to the crowded rearing conditions under which chicks are raised. In our work we identified, isolated and characterized 3 major gametocyte antigens (230 kDa, 82 kDa and 56/54 kDa) of Eimeria maxima. We used these native glycoproteins to immunize laying hens that, via the egg yolk, provide large amounts of transmission-blocking maternal antibodies to offspring chicks. We demonstrated that hatchlings from immunized hens shed 60-80% fewer oocysts (i.e. the infective stage of the life-cycle of Eimeria) than those from control hens. Such a reduction in oocyst output acts to significantly reduce parasite numbers in the litter of chicks raised in floor pens. This reduction in oocyst output is comparable to that seen using the most effective coccidiostat drugs and is probably sufficient to control coccidiosis under field conditions. Based on our results together with those of other groups working on transmission-blocking immunity against Cryptosporidium and Plasmodium, it appears that this immunological approach holds great promise for the control of apicomplexan parasites that cause diseases in both animals and man.

  14. Study of fuzzy PID controller for velocity circuit of optical-electronic theodolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, GengXin; Yang, XiaoJun; He, SaiXian

    2017-02-01

    Two-axis stabilized turntable is an important part of optical-electronic theodolite, it carries various of measuring instruments. In order to improve the response speed of the optical-electronic theodolite when tracking high speed target. In the same time, improve the stability and precision when tracking low speed target. The traditional servo controller is double close-loop structure. On the basis of traditional structure, we use the fuzzy control theory to design the servo control speed loop adjuster as a fuzzy PID controller, and the position loop is designed as a traditional first order adjuster. We introduce the theory and characteristics of PID control and fuzzy control, and discussed the structure of the speed loop fussy controller and the tuning method of the PID parameters. The fuzzy PID controller was studied with simulation on the MATLAB/Simulink platform, the performance indexes and the anti-jamming abilities of the fussy PID controller and the traditional PID controller were compared. The experiment results show that the fussy PID controller has the ability of parameter self-tuning, and its tacking ability is much better than the traditional PID controller.

  15. Enabling Passive Immunization as an Alternative to Antibiotics for Controlling Enteric Infections in Production Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hald, Birthe; Madsen, M.

    . To control enteric infections by passive immunization a bolus of immunoglobulin may simply be administered orally. For this to work, large amounts of active immunoglobulins are needed. To be a real alternative to antibiotics the price of the immunoglobulin product needs to be low. We combined an efficient......Enteric infections cause major problems in most intensive animal production sectors, including poultry, pigs and cattle, leading to disease, reduced production and compromised welfare. In addition some of these infections are zoonotic, and they are to a large extent responsible for the continued...... massive use of antibiotics in food animals. Thus there is a pressing need for economically feasible, efficient, non-antibiotics based means for controlling the problem. Passive immunization has been known for decades as an efficient way of endowing humans or animals with short-term (weeks) immunity...

  16. Circuit analysis with Multisim

    CERN Document Server

    Baez-Lopez, David

    2011-01-01

    This book is concerned with circuit simulation using National Instruments Multisim. It focuses on the use and comprehension of the working techniques for electrical and electronic circuit simulation. The first chapters are devoted to basic circuit analysis.It starts by describing in detail how to perform a DC analysis using only resistors and independent and controlled sources. Then, it introduces capacitors and inductors to make a transient analysis. In the case of transient analysis, it is possible to have an initial condition either in the capacitor voltage or in the inductor current, or bo

  17. Autophagy controls plant basal immunity in a pathogenic lifestyle-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Heike D; Haller, Eva; Melzer, Eric; Gust, Andrea A; Nürnberger, Thorsten

    2011-07-01

    Plant genomes harbor autophagy-related (ATG) genes that encode major components of the eukaryotic autophagic machinery. Autophagy in plants has been functionally linked to senescence, oxidative stress adaptation and the nutrient starvation response. In addition, plant autophagy has been assigned negative ('anti-death') and positive ('pro-death') regulatory functions in controlling cell death programs that establish sufficient immunity to microbial infection. The role of autophagy in plant disease and basal immunity to microbial infection has, however, not been studied in detail. We have employed a series of autophagy-deficient genotypes of the genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana in various infection systems. Genotypes lacking ATG5, ATG10 or ATG18a develop spreading necrosis and enhanced disease susceptibility upon infection with toxin-producing pathogens preferring a necrotrophic lifestyle. These findings suggest that autophagy positively controls the containment of host tissue integrity upon infections by host-destructive microbes. In contrast, autophagy-deficient genotypes exhibit markedly increased immunity to infections by biotrophic pathogens through altered homeostasis of the plant hormone salicylic acid, thus suggesting an additional negative regulatory role of autophagy in plant basal immunity. In sum, our findings suggest that the role of plant autophagy in immunity cannot be generalized, and depends critically on the lifestyle and infection strategy of invading microbes.

  18. Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest levels in history, thanks to years of immunization. Children must get at least some vaccines before ... child provide protection for many years, adults need immunizations too. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  19. Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pavert, Serge A.; Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G.; Ribeiro, Hélder; Molenaar, Rosalie; Moreira-Santos, Lara; Almeida, Francisca F.; Ibiza, Sales; Barbosa, Inês; Goverse, Gera; Labão-Almeida, Carlos; Godinho-Silva, Cristina; Konijn, Tanja; Schooneman, Dennis; O'Toole, Tom; Mizee, Mark R.; Habani, Yasmin; Haak, Esther; Santori, Fabio R.; Littman, Dan R.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Dzierzak, Elaine; Simas, J. Pedro; Mebius, Reina E.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2014-04-01

    The impact of nutritional status during fetal life on the overall health of adults has been recognized; however, dietary effects on the developing immune system are largely unknown. Development of secondary lymphoid organs occurs during embryogenesis and is considered to be developmentally programmed. Secondary lymphoid organ formation depends on a subset of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) named lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Here we show that mouse fetal ILC3s are controlled by cell-autonomous retinoic acid (RA) signalling in utero, which pre-sets the immune fitness in adulthood. We found that embryonic lymphoid organs contain ILC progenitors that differentiate locally into mature LTi cells. Local LTi cell differentiation was controlled by maternal retinoid intake and fetal RA signalling acting in a haematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. RA controlled LTi cell maturation upstream of the transcription factor RORγt. Accordingly, enforced expression of Rorgt restored maturation of LTi cells with impaired RA signalling, whereas RA receptors directly regulated the Rorgt locus. Finally, we established that maternal levels of dietary retinoids control the size of secondary lymphoid organs and the efficiency of immune responses in the adult offspring. Our results reveal a molecular link between maternal nutrients and the formation of immune structures required for resistance to infection in the offspring.

  20. Immunity induced by a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials is directly controlled by their chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Williams (Gareth); K. Fierens (Kaat); S.G. Preston (Stephen); A.C. Lunn; O. Rysnik (Oliwia); S. de Prijck (Sofie); M. Kool (Mirjam); H.C. Buckley (Hannah); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart); D. O'Hare (Dermot); J.M. Austyn (Jonathan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThere is currently no paradigm in immunology that enables an accurate prediction of how the immune system will respond to any given agent. Here we show that the immunological responses induced by members of a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials are controlled purely by their

  1. Studies on the prevention and control of human immune deficiency virus associated tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakezha, T.

    2014-01-01

    The overall question the thesis intended to answer was how to optimise interventions for the prevention and control of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) -associated tuberculosis (TB) in high TB and HIV burden settings such as South Africa. In these settings the incidence of and mortality from TB

  2. Immune activation and induction of memory: lessons learned from controlled human malaria infection with Plasmodium falciparum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholzen, A.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infections (CHMIs) are a powerful tool to assess the efficacy of drugs and/or vaccine candidates, but also to study anti-malarial immune responses at well-defined time points after infection. In this review, we discuss the insights that CHMI trials have provided into early

  3. Comparing immune-tumor growth models with drug therapy using optimal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marisa C.; Rocha, Ana Maria A. C.; Costa, M. Fernanda P.; Fernandes, Edite M. G. P.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we compare the dynamics of three tumor growth models that include an immune system and a drug administration therapy using optimal control. The objective is to minimize a combined function of the total of tumor cells over time and a chemotherapeutic drug administration.

  4. Control strategy and hardware implementation for DC–DC boost power circuit based on proportional–integral compensator for high voltage application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For high-voltage (HV applications, the designers mostly prefer the classical DC–DC boost converter. However, it lacks due to the limitation of the output voltage by the gain transfer ratio, decreased efficiency and its requirement of two sensors for feedback signals, which creates complex control scheme with increased overall cost. Furthermore, the output voltage and efficiency are reduced due to the self-parasitic behavior of power circuit components. To overcome these drawbacks, this manuscript provides, the theoretical development and hardware implementation of DC–DC step-up (boost power converter circuit for obtaining extra output-voltage high-performance. The proposed circuit substantially improves the high output-voltage by voltage-lift technology with a closed loop proportional–integral controller. This complete numerical model of the converter circuit including closed loop P-I controller is developed in simulation (Matlab/Simulink software and the hardware prototype model is implemented with digital signal processor (DSP TMS320F2812. A detailed performance analysis was carried out under both line and load regulation conditions. Numerical simulation and its verification results provided in this paper, prove the good agreement of the circuit with theoretical background.

  5. Brain circuit for cognitive control is shared by task and language switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Baene, W.; Duyck, Wouter; Brass, Marcel; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Controlling multiple languages during speech production is believed to rely on functional mechanisms that are (at least partly) shared with domain-general cognitive control in early, highly proficient bilinguals. Recent neuroimaging results have indeed suggested a certain degree of neural overlap

  6. THE FUZZY LOGIC BASED POWER INJECTION INTO ROTOR CIRCUIT FOR INSTANTANEOUS HIGH TORQUE AND SPEED CONTROL IN INDUCTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami KESLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The power flow of the rotor circuit is controlled by different methods in induction machines used for producing high torque in applications involved great power and constant output power with constant frequency in wind turbines. The voltage with slip frequency can be applied on rotor windings to produce controlled high torque and obtain optimal power factor and speed control. In this study, firstly, the dynamic effects of the voltage applying on rotor windings through the rings in slip-ring induction machines are researched and undesirable aspects of the method are exposed with simulations supported by experiments. Afterwards, a fuzzy logic based inverter model on rotor side is proposed with a view to improving the dynamic effects, controlling high torque producing and adjusting machine speed in instantaneous forced conditions. For the simulation model of the system in which the stator side is directly connected to the grid in steady state operation, a C/C++ algorithm is developed and the results obtained for different load conditions are discussed.

  7. Short-Circuit Fault Tolerant Control of a Wind Turbine Driven Induction Generator Based on Sliding Mode Observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takwa Sellami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The installed energy production capacity of wind turbines is growing intensely on a global scale, making the reliability of wind turbine subsystems of greater significance. However, many faults like Inter-Turn Short-Circuit (ITSC may affect the turbine generator and quickly lead to a decline in supplied power quality. In this framework, this paper proposes a Sliding Mode Observer (SMO-based Fault Tolerant Control (FTC scheme for Induction Generator (IG-based variable-speed grid-connected wind turbines. First, the dynamic models of the wind turbine subsystems were developed. The control schemes were elaborated based on the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method and Indirect Rotor Flux Oriented Control (IRFOC method. The grid control was also established by regulating the active and reactive powers. The performance of the wind turbine system and the stability of injected power to the grid were hence analyzed under both healthy and faulty conditions. The robust developed SMO-based Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI scheme was proved to be fast and efficient for ITSC detection and localization.Afterwards, SMO were involved in scheming the FTC technique. Accordingly, simulation results assert the efficacy of the proposed ITSC FTC method for variable-speed wind turbines with faulty IG in protecting the subsystems from damage and ensuring continuous connection of the wind turbine to the grid during ITSC faults, hence maintaining power quality.

  8. Active random noise control using adaptive learning rate neural networks with an immune feedback law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Minoru; Kuribayashi, Takumi; Ito, Satoshi

    2005-12-01

    In this paper an active random noise control using adaptive learning rate neural networks with an immune feedback law is presented. The adaptive learning rate strategy increases the learning rate by a small constant if the current partial derivative of the objective function with respect to the weight and the exponential average of the previous derivatives have the same sign, otherwise the learning rate is decreased by a proportion of its value. The use of an adaptive learning rate attempts to keep the learning step size as large as possible without leading to oscillation. In the proposed method, because of the immune feedback law change a learning rate of the neural networks individually and adaptively, it is expected that a cost function minimize rapidly and training time is decreased. Numerical simulations and experiments of active random noise control with the transfer function of the error path will be performed, to validate the convergence properties of the adaptive learning rate Neural Networks with the immune feedback law. Control results show that adaptive learning rate Neural Networks control structure can outperform linear controllers and conventional neural network controller for the active random noise control.

  9. The Ly49E receptor inhibits the immune control of acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Filtjens

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi circulates in the blood upon infection and invades a variety of cells. Parasites intensively multiply during the acute phase of infection and persist lifelong at low levels in tissues and blood during the chronic phase. Natural killer (NK and NKT cells play an important role in the immune control of T. cruzi infection, mainly by releasing the cytokine IFN-γ that activates the microbicidal action of macrophages and other cells and shapes a protective type 1 immune response. The mechanisms by which immune cells are regulated to produce IFN-γ during T. cruzi infection are still incompletely understood. Here, we show that urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA is induced early upon T. cruzi infection, and remains elevated until day 20 post inoculation. We previously demonstrated that the inhibitory receptor Ly49E, which is expressed, among others, on NK and NKT cells, is triggered by uPA. Therefore, we compared wild type (WT to Ly49E knockout (KO mice for their control of experimental T. cruzi infection. Our results show that young, i.e. 4- and 6-week-old, Ly49E KO mice control the infection better than WT mice, indicated by a lower parasite load and less cachexia. The beneficial effect of Ly49E depletion is more obvious in 4-week-old male than in female mice and weakens in 8-week-old mice. In young mice, the lower T. cruzi parasitemia in Ly49E KO mice is paralleled by higher IFN-γ production compared to their WT controls. Our data indicate that Ly49E receptor expression inhibits the immune control of T. cruzi infection. This is the first demonstration that the inhibitory Ly49E receptor can interfere with the immune response to a pathogen in vivo.

  10. Design and implementation of EP-based PID controller for chaos synchronization of Rikitake circuit systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yi-You

    2017-09-01

    This article addresses an evolutionary programming (EP) algorithm technique-based and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control methods are established to guarantee synchronization of the master and slave Rikitake chaotic systems. For PID synchronous control, the evolutionary programming (EP) algorithm is used to find the optimal PID controller parameters kp, ki, kd by integrated absolute error (IAE) method for the convergence conditions. In order to verify the system performance, the basic electronic components containing operational amplifiers (OPAs), resistors, and capacitors are used to implement the proposed chaotic Rikitake systems. Finally, the experimental results validate the proposed Rikitake chaotic synchronization approach. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Nucleic acid sensing and innate immunity: signaling pathways controlling viral pathogenesis and autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Laura R. H.; Goodman, Alan G.

    2016-01-01

    Innate immunity refers to the body’s initial response to curb infection upon exposure to invading organisms. While the detection of pathogen-associated molecules is an ancient form of host defense, if dysfunctional, autoimmune disease may result. The innate immune response during pathogenic infection is initiated through the activation of receptors recognizing conserved molecular patterns, such as nucleic acids from a virus’ genome or replicative cycle. Additionally, the host’s own nucleic acids are capable of activating an immune response. Therefore, it follows that the nucleic acid-sensing pathways must be tightly controlled to avoid an autoimmune response from recognition of self, yet still be unimpeded to respond to viral infections. In this review, we will describe the nucleic acid sensing pathways and how they respond to virus infection. Moreover, we will discuss autoimmune diseases that develop when these pathways fail to signal properly and identify knowledge gaps that are prime for interrogation. PMID:27857881

  12. Induction of Intestinal Immunity by Mucosal Vaccines As a Means of Controlling HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poles, Jordan; Alvarez, Yelina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract CD4+ T cells in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are preferentially targeted and depleted by HIV. As such, the induction of an effective anti-HIV immune response in the mucosa of the GI tract—through vaccination—could protect this vulnerable population of cells. Mucosal vaccination provides a promising means of inducing robust humoral and cellular responses in the GI tract. Here we review data from the literature about the effectiveness of various mucosal vaccination routes—oral (intraintestinal/tonsilar/sublingual), intranasal, and intrarectal—with regard to the induction of immune responses mediated by cytotoxic T cells and antibodies in the GI mucosa, as well as protective efficacy in challenge models. We present data from the literature indicating that mucosal routes have the potential to effectively elicit GI mucosal immunity and protect against challenge. Given their capacity for the induction of anti-HIV immune responses in the GI mucosa, we propose that mucosal routes, including the nonconventional sublingual, tonsilar, and intrarectal routes, be considered for the delivery of the next generation HIV vaccines. However, further studies are necessary to determine the ideal vectors and vaccination regimens for these routes of immunization and to validate their efficacy in controlling HIV infection. PMID:25354023

  13. ER-mediated control for abundance, quality, and signaling of transmembrane immune receptors in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico eTintor

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants recognize a wide range of microbes with cell-surface and intracellular immune receptors. Transmembrane pattern recognition receptors (PRRs initiate immune responses upon recognition of cognate ligands characteristic of microbes or aberrant cellular states, designated microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, respectively. Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI provides a first line of defense that restricts the invasion and propagation of both adapted and non-adapted pathogens. Receptor kinases (RKs and receptor-like proteins (RLPs with an extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR or lysine-motif (LysM domain are extensively used as PRRs. The correct folding of the extracellular domain of these receptors is under quality control (QC in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, which thus provides a critical step in plant immunity. Genetic and structural insight suggests that ERQC regulates not only the abundance and quality of transmembrane receptors but also affects signal sorting between multi-branched pathways downstream of the receptor. However, ERQC dysfunction can also positively stimulate plant immunity, possibly through cell death and DAMP signaling pathways.

  14. Effects of prenatal yoga on women's stress and immune function across pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pao-Ju; Yang, Luke; Chou, Cheng-Chen; Li, Chia-Chi; Chang, Yu-Cune; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of prenatal yoga on biological indicators have not been widely studied. Thus, we compared changes in stress and immunity salivary biomarkers from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation between women receiving prenatal yoga and those receiving routine prenatal care. For this longitudinal, prospective, randomized controlled trial, we recruited 94 healthy pregnant women at 16 weeks' gestation through convenience sampling from a prenatal clinic in Taipei. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=48) or control (n=46) groups using Clinstat block randomization. The 20-week intervention comprised two weekly 70-min yoga sessions led by a midwife certified as a yoga instructor; the control group received only routine prenatal care. In both groups, participants' salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A levels were collected before and after yoga every 4 weeks from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation. The intervention group had lower salivary cortisol (pyoga than the control group. Specifically, the intervention group had significantly higher long-term salivary immunoglobulin A levels than the control group (p=0.018), and infants born to women in the intervention group weighed more than those born to the control group (pyoga significantly reduced pregnant women's stress and enhanced their immune function. Clinicians should learn the mechanisms of yoga and its effects on pregnant women. Our findings can guide clinicians to help pregnant women alleviate their stress and enhance their immune function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Estimating neural background input with controlled and fast perturbations: A bandwidth comparison between inhibitory opsins and neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eriksson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To test the importance of a certain cell type or brain area it is common to make a lack of function experiment in which the neuronal population of interest is inhibited. Here we review physiological and methodological constraints for making controlled perturbations using the corticothalamic circuit as an example. The brain with its many types of cells and rich interconnectivity offers many paths through which a perturbation can spread within a short time. To understand the side effects of the perturbation one should record from those paths. We find that ephaptic effects, gap-junctions, and fast chemical synapses are so fast that they can react to the perturbation during the few milliseconds it takes for an opsin to change the membrane potential. The slow chemical synapses, astrocytes, extracellular ions and vascular signals, will continue to give their physiological input for around 20 milliseconds before they also react to the perturbation. Although we show that some pathways can react within milliseconds the strength/speed reported in this review should be seen as an upper bound since we have omitted how polysynaptic signals are attenuated. Thus the number of additional recordings that has to be made to control for the perturbation side effects is expected to be fewer than proposed here. To summarize, the reviewed literature not only suggests that it is possible to make controlled lack of function experiments, but, it also suggests that such a lack of function experiment can be used to measure the context of local neural computations.

  16. (Submitted) Scalable quantum circuit and control for a superconducting surface code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, R.; Poletto, S.; Khammassi, N.; Haider, N.; Michalak, D.J.; Bruno, A.; Bertels, K.; DiCarlo, L.

    2016-01-01

    We present a scalable scheme for executing the error-correction cycle of a monolithic surface-code fabric composed of fast-flux-tuneable transmon qubits with nearest-neighbor coupling. An eight-qubit unit cell forms the basis for repeating both the quantum hardware and coherent control, enabling

  17. The Design of a Manual Numerical-Control Circuit for Stepping Motors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The successful application of a stepping motor to drive an indexing or positioning machine depends on the accurate knowledge of the machines components, resolutions and dynamic behaviour. This paper describes the design of an electronic numerical control system used to measure the necessary mechanical ...

  18. Individual Differences in Cognitive Control Circuit Anatomy Link Sensation Seeking, Impulsivity, and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Avram J; Hollinshead, Marisa O; Roffman, Joshua L; Smoller, Jordan W; Buckner, Randy L

    2016-04-06

    Individuals vary widely in their tendency to seek stimulation and act impulsively, early developing traits with genetic origins. Failures to regulate these behaviors increase risk for maladaptive outcomes including substance abuse. Here, we explored the neuroanatomical correlates of sensation seeking and impulsivity in healthy young adults. Our analyses revealed links between sensation seeking and reduced cortical thickness that were preferentially localized to regions implicated in cognitive control, including anterior cingulate and middle frontal gyrus (n = 1015). These associations generalized to self-reported motor impulsivity, replicated in an independent group (n = 219), and correlated with heightened alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine use. Critically, the relations between sensation seeking and brain structure were evident in participants without a history of alcohol or tobacco use, suggesting that observed associations with anatomy are not solely a consequence of substance use. These results demonstrate that individual differences in the tendency to seek stimulation, act on impulse, and engage in substance use are correlated with the anatomical structure of cognitive control circuitry. Our findings suggest that, in healthy populations, covariation across these complex multidimensional behaviors may in part originate from a common underlying biology. Impaired cognitive control may result in a tendency to seek stimulation impulsively and an increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, including substance abuse. Here, we examined the structural correlates of sensation seeking and impulsivity in a large cohort of healthy young adults. Our analyses revealed links between sensation seeking and reduced cortical thickness that were preferentially localized to regions implicated in cognitive control, including anterior cingulate and middle frontal gyrus. The observed associations generalized to motor impulsivity, replicated in an independent group, and predicted heightened

  19. Design of Immune-Algorithm-Based Adaptive Fuzzy Controllers for Active Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Shieh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to integrate the artificial immune systems and adaptive fuzzy control for the automobile suspension system, which is regarded as a multiobjective optimization problem. Moreover, the fuzzy control rules and membership controls are then introduced for identification and memorization. It leads fast convergence in the search process. Afterwards, by using the diversity of the antibody group, trapping into local optimum can be avoided, and the system possesses a global search capacity and a faster local search for finding a global optimal solution. Experimental results show that the artificial immune system with the recognition and memory functions allows the system to rapidly converge and search for the global optimal approximate solutions.

  20. Reversible gates and circuits descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracki, Krzystof

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents basic methods of reversible circuit description. To design reversible circuit a set of gates has to be chosen. Most popular libraries are composed of three types of gates so called CNT gates (Control, NOT and Toffoli). The gate indexing method presented in this paper is based on the CNT gates set. It introduces a uniform indexing of the gates used during synthesis process of reversible circuits. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 recalls basic concepts of reversible logic. In Section 2 and 3 a graphical representation of the reversible gates and circuits is described. Section 4 describes proposed uniform NCT gates indexing. The presented gate indexing method provides gate numbering scheme independent of lines number of the designed circuit. The solution for a circuit consisting of smaller number of lines is a subset of solution for a larger circuit.

  1. Immune Abnormalities in Fontan Protein-Losing Enteropathy: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdo, H Sonali; Stillwell, Terri L; Greenhawt, Matthew J; Stringer, Kathleen A; Yu, Sunkyung; Fifer, Carlen G; Russell, Mark W; Schumacher, Kurt R

    2015-08-01

    To comprehensively characterize the immunologic characteristics of patients with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) post-Fontan and compare them with patients without PLE post-Fontan. Patients with PLE post-Fontan and age-matched controls post-Fontan were prospectively studied with laboratory markers of immune function. Infectious history was obtained by interview and chart review. The groups' demographics, cardiac history, immune characteristics, and infection history were compared using appropriate 2-group statistics. A total of 16 patients enrolled (8 patients with PLE and 8 controls). All patients with PLE had lymphopenia compared with 25% of controls (P = .01). All patients with PLE had markedly depressed CD4 T cell counts (median 58 cells/μL) compared with controls (median 450 cells/μL, P = .0002); CD4% was also low in the PLE group (12.3%) and normal in control (36.9%, P = .004). Both groups had mildly depressed CD8 T cells and normal to slightly elevated natural killer and B-cell subsets. A majority of patients with PLE (62.5%) had negative titers to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination, compared with no control Fontan with a negative titer (P = .03). Despite profoundly low CD4 counts, the frequency of infection was not different between groups with no reported opportunistic infections. Patients with Fontan-associated PLE have extensive quantitative immune abnormalities, particularly CD4 deficiency. These immune abnormalities are similar to those found in non-Fontan patients with PLE caused by intestinal lymphangiectasia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Controllable V-Shape Multi-Scroll Butterfly Attractor: System and Circuit Implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-07-23

    In this paper, a new controllable V-shape multiscroll attractor is presented, where a variety of symmetrical and unsymmetrical attractors with a variable number of scrolls can be controlled using new staircase nonlinear function and the parameters of the system. This attractor can be used to generate random signals with a variety of symbol distribution. Digital implementation of the proposed generator is also presented using a Xilinx Virtex® 4 Field Programmable Gate Array and experimental results are provided. The digital realization easily fits into a small area (<1.5% of the total area) and expresses a high throughput (4.3 Gbit/sec per state variable). © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  3. Beyond simple models of self-control to circuit-based accounts of adolescent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, B J

    2015-01-03

    Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood that begins around the onset of puberty and ends with relative independence from the parent. This developmental period is one when an individual is probably stronger, of higher reasoning capacity, and more resistant to disease than ever before, yet when mortality rates increase by 200%. These untimely deaths are not due to disease but to preventable deaths associated with adolescents putting themselves in harm's way (e.g., accidental fatalities). We present evidence that these alarming health statistics are in part due to diminished self-control--the ability to inhibit inappropriate desires, emotions, and actions in favor of appropriate ones. Findings of adolescent-specific changes in self-control and underlying brain circuitry are considered in terms of how evolutionarily based biological constraints and experiences shape the brain to adapt to the unique intellectual, physical, sexual, and social challenges of adolescence.

  4. Research on Multi Position and Parallel Detection Device for Universal Circuit Breaker Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiang Fei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design scheme of the residual current electrical fire monitoring detector performance test system based on virtual instrument technology. In order to test different current specifications monitor detector compatiblly,the system combines virtual instrument technology and computer control technology to improve the accuracy of output current of the current generator with electric voltage compensation technology and the way of closed-loop control ,and designs two sets of different size and the same type of pneumatic fixture to solve the connection of different specifications monitoring detector, software design adopts layered structure and the method based on configuration files, to better satisfy all kinds of test requirements for different products. Practical application shows that the system has the testing results of accurate, high efficiency and convenient operation.

  5. Phased-array antenna control by a monolithic photonic integrated circuit, COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravitz, S.H.; Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.; Meyer, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    Phased-array antenna systems are well known for rapid beam steering and their ability to bring high power to the target. Such systems are also quite complex and heavy, which have limited their usefulness. The issues of weight, size, power use, and complexity have been addressed through a system named COMPASS (Coherent Optical Monolithic Phased Array Steering System). All phased-array antenna systems need: (1) small size; (2) low power use; (3) high-speed beam steering; and (4) digitally-controlled phase shifting. COMPASS meets these basic requirements, and provides some very desirable additional features. These are: (1) phase control separate from the transmit/receive module; (2) simple expansion to large arrays; (3) fiber optic interconnect for reduced sensitivity to EMI; (4) an intrinsically radiation-hard GaAs chip; and (5) optical power provided by a commercially available continuous wave (CW) laser. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Implementation of the Algorithm for Congestion control in the Dynamic Circuit Network (DCN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalamwar, H. S.; Ivanov, M. A.; Buddhawar, G. U.

    2017-01-01

    Transport Control Protocol (TCP) incast congestion happens when a number of senders work in parallel with the same server where the high bandwidth and low latency network problem occurs. For many data center network applications such as a search engine, heavy traffic is present on such a server. Incast congestion degrades the entire performance as packets are lost at a server side due to buffer overflow, and as a result, the response time becomes longer. In this work, we focus on TCP throughput, round-trip time (RTT), receive window and retransmission. Our method is based on the proactive adjust of the TCP receive window before the packet loss occurs. We aim to avoid the wastage of the bandwidth by adjusting its size as per the number of packets. To avoid the packet loss, the ICTCP algorithm has been implemented in the data center network (ToR).

  7. Music Therapy as Procedural Support for Young Children Undergoing Immunizations: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg

    2016-01-01

    Children undergoing routine immunizations frequently experience severe distress, which may be improved through music therapy as procedural support. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of live, cognitive-behavioral music therapy during immunizations on (a) the behaviors of children, their parents, and their nurses; and (b) parental perceptions. Participants were children between the ages of 4 and 6 years (N = 58) who underwent immunizations, their parents (N = 62), and the nurses who administered the procedure (N = 19). Parent/child dyads were randomly assigned to receive music therapy (n = 29) or standard care (n = 29) during their immunization. Afterward, each parent rated their child's level of pain and the distress their child experienced compared to previous medical experiences. All procedures were videotaped and later viewed by trained observers, who classified child, parent, and nurse behaviors using the categories of the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised (CAMPIS-R). Significant differences between the music therapy and control groups were found in rates of child coping and distress behaviors and parent distress-promoting behaviors. Parents of children who received music therapy reported that their child's level of distress was less than during previous medical experiences, whereas parents of children in the control group reported that their child's level of distress was greater. No significant differences between groups were found in parents' ratings of children's pain or in rates of nurse behavior. Live, cognitive-behavioral music therapy has potential benefits for young children and their parents during immunizations. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A leptin-regulated circuit controls glucose mobilization during noxious stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flak, Jonathan N; Arble, Deanna; Pan, Warren; Patterson, Christa; Lanigan, Thomas; Goforth, Paulette B; Sacksner, Jamie; Joosten, Maja; Morgan, Donald A; Allison, Margaret B; Hayes, John; Feldman, Eva; Seeley, Randy J; Olson, David P; Rahmouni, Kamal; Myers, Martin G

    2017-08-01

    Adipocytes secrete the hormone leptin to signal the sufficiency of energy stores. Reductions in circulating leptin concentrations reflect a negative energy balance, which augments sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation in response to metabolically demanding emergencies. This process ensures adequate glucose mobilization despite low energy stores. We report that leptin receptor-expressing neurons (LepRb neurons) in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the largest population of LepRb neurons in the brain stem, mediate this process. Application of noxious stimuli, which often signal the need to mobilize glucose to support an appropriate response, activated PAG LepRb neurons, which project to and activate parabrachial nucleus (PBN) neurons that control SNS activation and glucose mobilization. Furthermore, activating PAG LepRb neurons increased SNS activity and blood glucose concentrations, while ablating LepRb in PAG neurons augmented glucose mobilization in response to noxious stimuli. Thus, decreased leptin action on PAG LepRb neurons augments the autonomic response to noxious stimuli, ensuring sufficient glucose mobilization during periods of acute demand in the face of diminished energy stores.

  9. Artificially constructed quorum-sensing circuits are used for subtle control of bacterial population density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoshou Wang

    Full Text Available Vibrio fischeri is a typical quorum-sensing bacterium for which lux box, luxR, and luxI have been identified as the key elements involved in quorum sensing. To decode the quorum-sensing mechanism, an artificially constructed cell-cell communication system has been built. In brief, the system expresses several programmed cell-death BioBricks and quorum-sensing genes driven by the promoters lux pR and PlacO-1 in Escherichia coli cells. Their transformation and expression was confirmed by gel electrophoresis and sequencing. To evaluate its performance, viable cell numbers at various time periods were investigated. Our results showed that bacteria expressing killer proteins corresponding to ribosome binding site efficiency of 0.07, 0.3, 0.6, or 1.0 successfully sensed each other in a population-dependent manner and communicated with each other to subtly control their population density. This was also validated using a proposed simple mathematical model.

  10. Artificially Constructed Quorum-Sensing Circuits Are Used for Subtle Control of Bacterial Population Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoshou; Wu, Xin; Peng, Jianghai; Hu, Yidan; Fang, Baishan; Huang, Shiyang

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri is a typical quorum-sensing bacterium for which lux box, luxR, and luxI have been identified as the key elements involved in quorum sensing. To decode the quorum-sensing mechanism, an artificially constructed cell–cell communication system has been built. In brief, the system expresses several programmed cell-death BioBricks and quorum-sensing genes driven by the promoters lux pR and PlacO-1 in Escherichia coli cells. Their transformation and expression was confirmed by gel electrophoresis and sequencing. To evaluate its performance, viable cell numbers at various time periods were investigated. Our results showed that bacteria expressing killer proteins corresponding to ribosome binding site efficiency of 0.07, 0.3, 0.6, or 1.0 successfully sensed each other in a population-dependent manner and communicated with each other to subtly control their population density. This was also validated using a proposed simple mathematical model. PMID:25119347

  11. Molecular Control of Steady-State Dendritic Cell Maturation and Immune Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Gianna Elena; Ma, Averil

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized sentinels responsible for coordinating adaptive immunity. This function is dependent upon coupled sensitivity to environmental signs of inflammation and infection to cellular maturation—the programmed alteration of DC phenotype and function to enhance immune cell activation. Although DCs are thus well equipped to respond to pathogens, maturation triggers are not unique to infection. Given that immune cells are exquisitely sensitive to the biological functions of DCs, we now appreciate that multiple layers of suppression are required to restrict the environmental sensitivity, cellular maturation, and even life span of DCs to prevent aberrant immune activation during the steady state. At the same time, steady-state DCs are not quiescent but rather perform key functions that support homeostasis of numerous cell types. Here we review these functions and molecular mechanisms of suppression that control steady-state DC maturation. Corruption of these steady-state operatives has diverse immunological consequences and pinpoints DCs as potent drivers of autoimmune and inflammatory disease. PMID:23330953

  12. Linear analysis near a steady-state of biochemical networks: control analysis, correlation metrics and circuit theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Hong

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Several approaches, including metabolic control analysis (MCA, flux balance analysis (FBA, correlation metric construction (CMC, and biochemical circuit theory (BCT, have been developed for the quantitative analysis of complex biochemical networks. Here, we present a comprehensive theory of linear analysis for nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS biochemical reaction networks that unites these disparate approaches in a common mathematical framework and thermodynamic basis. Results: In this theory a number of relationships between key matrices are introduced: the matrix A obtained in the standard, linear-dynamic-stability analysis of the steady-state can be decomposed as A = SRT where R and S are directly related to the elasticity-coefficient matrix for the fluxes and chemical potentials in MCA, respectively; the control-coefficients for the fluxes and chemical potentials can be written in terms of RT BS and ST BS respectively where matrix B is the inverse of A; the matrix S is precisely the stoichiometric matrix in FBA; and the matrix eAt plays a central role in CMC. Conclusion: One key finding that emerges from this analysis is that the well-known summation theorems in MCA take different forms depending on whether metabolic steady-state is maintained by flux injection or concentration clamping. We demonstrate that if rate-limiting steps exist in a biochemical pathway, they are the steps with smallest biochemical conductances and largest flux control-coefficients. We hypothesize that biochemical networks for cellular signaling have a different strategy for minimizing energy waste and being efficient than do biochemical networks for biosynthesis. We also discuss the intimate relationship between MCA and biochemical systems analysis (BSA.

  13. FGF/MAPK signaling sets the switching threshold of a bistable circuit controlling cell fate decisions in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Christian; Rué, Pau; Mackenzie, Jonathan Peter; Martinez Arias, Alfonso

    2015-12-15

    Intracellular transcriptional regulators and extracellular signaling pathways together regulate the allocation of cell fates during development, but how their molecular activities are integrated to establish the correct proportions of cells with particular fates is not known. Here we study this question in the context of the decision between the epiblast (Epi) and the primitive endoderm (PrE) fate that occurs in the mammalian preimplantation embryo. Using an embryonic stem cell (ESC) model, we discover two successive functions of FGF/MAPK signaling in this decision. First, the pathway needs to be inhibited to make the PrE-like gene expression program accessible for activation by GATA transcription factors in ESCs. In a second step, MAPK signaling levels determine the threshold concentration of GATA factors required for PrE-like differentiation, and thereby control the proportion of cells differentiating along this lineage. Our findings can be explained by a simple mutual repression circuit modulated by FGF/MAPK signaling. This might be a general network architecture to integrate the activity of signal transduction pathways and transcriptional regulators, and serve to balance proportions of cell fates in several contexts. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. A short receptor downregulates JAK/STAT signalling to control the Drosophila cellular immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Makki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The posterior signalling centre (PSC, a small group of specialised cells, controls hemocyte (blood cell homeostasis in the Drosophila larval hematopoietic organ, the lymph gland. This role of the PSC is very reminiscent of the "niche," the micro-environment of hematopoietic stem cells in vertebrates. We have recently shown that the PSC acts in a non-cell-autonomous manner to maintain janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT signalling in hematopoietic progenitors (prohemocytes, thereby preserving the multipotent character necessary for their differentiation into lamellocytes, a cryptic and dedicated immune cell type required to fight specific immune threats such as wasp parasitism. In this report, on the basis of a knock out generated by homologous recombination, we show that a short type I cytokine-related receptor CG14225/Latran is required for switching off JAK/STAT signalling in prohemocytes. This is a prerequisite to massive differentiation of lamellocytes upon wasp parasitisation. In vivo and cell culture assays indicate that Latran forms heteromers with Domeless, the Drosophila type I cytokine signalling receptor related to mammalian GP130, and antagonises Domeless activity in a dose-dependent manner. Our analysis further shows that a primary immune response to wasp parasitism is a strong decrease in cytokine mRNA levels in the lymph gland, followed by an increase in the latran/domeless ratio. We propose that this sequence of events culminates in the complete inhibition of residual JAK/STAT signalling by Latran. JAK/STAT activity has been associated with several human diseases including leukaemia while knock-out studies in mice point to a central role of this pathway in hematopoiesis and regulation of immune functions. The specific function of Drosophila Latran is, to our knowledge, the first in vivo example of a role for a nonsignalling receptor in controlling a dedicated immune response, and

  15. Circuit class therapy or seven-day week therapy for increasing rehabilitation intensity of therapy after stroke (CIRCIT): a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Coralie; Bernhardt, Julie; Crotty, Maria; Esterman, Adrian; Segal, Leonie; Hillier, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Increased therapy has been linked to improvements in functional ability of people with stroke. To determine the effectiveness of two alternative models of increased physiotherapy service delivery (seven-day week therapy or group circuit class therapy five days a week) to usual care. Three-armed randomized controlled trial with blinded assessment of outcome. People admitted with a diagnosis of stroke, previously independently ambulant and with a moderate level of disability were recruited. 'Usual care' was individual physiotherapy provided five-days a week. Seven-day week therapy was usual care physiotherapy provided seven-days a week. Participants in the circuit class therapy arm of the trial received physiotherapy in group circuit classes in two 90-min sessions, five-days a week. Primary outcome was distance walked on the six-minute walk test at four-weeks post-randomization. Two hundred eighty-three participants were randomized; primary outcome data were available for 259 (92%). In the seven-day arm participants received an additional three hours of physiotherapy and those in the circuit class arm an additional 22 h. There were no significant between-group differences at four-weeks in walking distance (P = 0.72). Length of stay was shorter for seven-day (mean difference -2.9 days, 95% confidence interval -17.9 to 12.0) and circuit class participants (mean difference -9.2 days, 95% confidence interval -24.2 to 5.8) compared to usual care, but this was not significant. Both seven-day therapy and group circuit class therapy increased physiotherapy time, but walking outcomes were equivalent to usual care. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  16. Transcriptional Control of Drug Resistance, Virulence and Immune System Evasion in Pathogenic Fungi: A Cross-Species Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Pedro; Costa, Catarina; Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Romão, Daniela; Teixeira, Miguel C

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors are key players in the control of the activation or repression of gene expression programs in response to environmental stimuli. The study of regulatory networks taking place in fungal pathogens is a promising research topic that can help in the fight against these pathogens by targeting specific fungal pathways as a whole, instead of targeting more specific effectors of virulence or drug resistance. This review is focused on the analysis of regulatory networks playing a central role in the referred mechanisms in the human fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis. Current knowledge on the activity of the transcription factors characterized in each of these pathogenic fungal species will be addressed. Particular focus is given to their mechanisms of activation, regulatory targets and phenotypic outcome. The review further provides an evaluation on the conservation of transcriptional circuits among different fungal pathogens, highlighting the pathways that translate common or divergent traits among these species in what concerns their drug resistance, virulence and host immune evasion features. It becomes evident that the regulation of transcriptional networks is complex and presents significant variations among different fungal pathogens. Only the oxidative stress regulators Yap1 and Skn7 are conserved among all studied species; while some transcription factors, involved in nutrient homeostasis, pH adaptation, drug resistance and morphological switching are present in several, though not all species. Interestingly, in some cases not very homologous transcription factors display orthologous functions, whereas some homologous proteins have diverged in terms of their function in different species. A few cases of species specific transcription factors are also observed.

  17. Single axis controlled hybrid magnetic bearing for left ventricular assist device: hybrid core and closed magnetic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Isaias; Horikawa, Oswaldo; Cardoso, Jose R; Camargo, Fernando A; Andrade, Aron J P; Bock, Eduardo G P

    2011-05-01

    In previous studies, we presented main strategies for suspending the rotor of a mixed-flow type (centrifugal and axial) ventricular assist device (VAD), originally presented by the Institute Dante Pazzanese of Cardiology (IDPC), Brazil. Magnetic suspension is achieved by the use of a magnetic bearing architecture in which the active control is executed in only one degree of freedom, in the axial direction of the rotor. Remaining degrees of freedom, excepting the rotation, are restricted only by the attraction force between pairs of permanent magnets. This study is part of a joint project in development by IDPC and Escola Politecnica of São Paulo University, Brazil. This article shows advances in that project, presenting two promising solutions for magnetic bearings. One solution uses hybrid cores as electromagnetic actuators, that is, cores that combine iron and permanent magnets. The other solution uses actuators, also of hybrid type, but with the magnetic circuit closed by an iron core. After preliminary analysis, a pump prototype has been developed for each solution and has been tested. For each prototype, a brushless DC motor has been developed as the rotor driver. Each solution was evaluated by in vitro experiments and guidelines are extracted for future improvements. Tests have shown good results and demonstrated that one solution is not isolated from the other. One complements the other for the development of a single-axis-controlled, hybrid-type magnetic bearing for a mixed-flow type VAD. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Predictors of incompletion of immunization among children residing in the slums of Kathmandu valley, Nepal: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumina Shrestha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunization is one of the most effective health interventions averting an estimated 2–3 million deaths every year. In Nepal, as in most low-income countries, infants are immunized with standard WHO recommended vaccines. However, 16.4 % of children did not receive complete immunization by 12 months of age in Nepal in 2011. Studies from different parts of the world showed that incomplete immunization is even higher in slums. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of incompletion of immunization among children aged 12–23 months living in the slums of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Methods The unmatched case-control study was conducted in 22 randomly selected slums of Kathmandu Valley. The sampling frame was first identified by complete enumeration of entire households of the study area from which 59 incompletely immunized children as cases and 177 completely immunized children as controls were chosen randomly in 1:3 ratio. Data were collected from the primary caretakers of the children. Backward logistic regression with 95 % confidence interval and adjusted odds ratio (AOR were applied to assess the factors independently associated with incomplete immunization. Result Twenty-six percent of the children were incompletely vaccinated. The coverage of BCG vaccine was 95.0 % while it was 80.5 % for measles vaccine. The significant predictors of incomplete immunization were the home delivery of a child, the family residing on rent, a primary caretaker with poor knowledge about the schedule of vaccination and negative perception towards vaccinating a sick child, conflicting priorities, and development of abscess following immunization. Conclusion Reduction of abscess formation rate can be a potential way to improve immunization rates. Community health volunteers should increase their follow-up on children born at home and those living in rent. Health institutions and volunteers should be influential in creating

  19. Predictors of incompletion of immunization among children residing in the slums of Kathmandu valley, Nepal: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sumina; Shrestha, Monika; Wagle, Rajendra Raj; Bhandari, Gita

    2016-09-13

    Immunization is one of the most effective health interventions averting an estimated 2-3 million deaths every year. In Nepal, as in most low-income countries, infants are immunized with standard WHO recommended vaccines. However, 16.4 % of children did not receive complete immunization by 12 months of age in Nepal in 2011. Studies from different parts of the world showed that incomplete immunization is even higher in slums. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of incompletion of immunization among children aged 12-23 months living in the slums of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The unmatched case-control study was conducted in 22 randomly selected slums of Kathmandu Valley. The sampling frame was first identified by complete enumeration of entire households of the study area from which 59 incompletely immunized children as cases and 177 completely immunized children as controls were chosen randomly in 1:3 ratio. Data were collected from the primary caretakers of the children. Backward logistic regression with 95 % confidence interval and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) were applied to assess the factors independently associated with incomplete immunization. Twenty-six percent of the children were incompletely vaccinated. The coverage of BCG vaccine was 95.0 % while it was 80.5 % for measles vaccine. The significant predictors of incomplete immunization were the home delivery of a child, the family residing on rent, a primary caretaker with poor knowledge about the schedule of vaccination and negative perception towards vaccinating a sick child, conflicting priorities, and development of abscess following immunization. Reduction of abscess formation rate can be a potential way to improve immunization rates. Community health volunteers should increase their follow-up on children born at home and those living in rent. Health institutions and volunteers should be influential in creating awareness about immunization, its schedule, and post-vaccination side

  20. Functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles for controlling the movement of immune cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ethan E.; Pai, Alex; Weng, Yiming; Suresh, Anil K.; van Haute, Desiree; Pailevanian, Torkom; Alizadeh, Darya; Hajimiri, Ali; Badie, Behnam; Berlin, Jacob M.

    2015-04-01

    Immunotherapy is currently being investigated for the treatment of many diseases, including cancer. The ability to control the location of immune cells during or following activation would represent a powerful new technique for this field. Targeted magnetic delivery is emerging as a technique for controlling cell movement and localization. Here we show that this technique can be extended to microglia, the primary phagocytic immune cells in the central nervous system. The magnetized microglia were generated by loading the cells with iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with CpG oligonucleotides, serving as a proof of principle that nanoparticles can be used to both deliver an immunostimulatory cargo to cells and to control the movement of the cells. The nanoparticle-oligonucleotide conjugates are efficiently internalized, non-toxic, and immunostimulatory. We demonstrate that the in vitro migration of the adherent, loaded microglia can be controlled by an external magnetic field and that magnetically-induced migration is non-cytotoxic. In order to capture video of this magnetically-induced migration of loaded cells, a novel 3D-printed ``cell box'' was designed to facilitate our imaging application. Analysis of cell movement velocities clearly demonstrate increased cell velocities toward the magnet. These studies represent the initial step towards our final goal of using nanoparticles to both activate immune cells and to control their trafficking within the diseased brain.Immunotherapy is currently being investigated for the treatment of many diseases, including cancer. The ability to control the location of immune cells during or following activation would represent a powerful new technique for this field. Targeted magnetic delivery is emerging as a technique for controlling cell movement and localization. Here we show that this technique can be extended to microglia, the primary phagocytic immune cells in the central nervous system. The magnetized microglia were

  1. Antagonistic control of disease resistance protein stability in the plant immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Ben F; Belkhadir, Youssef; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2005-08-05

    Pathogen recognition by the plant immune system is governed by structurally related, polymorphic products of disease resistance (R) genes. RAR1 and/or SGT1b mediate the function of many R proteins. RAR1 controls preactivation R protein accumulation by an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis SGT1b has two distinct, genetically separable functions in the plant immune system: SGT1b antagonizes RAR1 to negatively regulate R protein accumulation before infection, and SGT1b has a RAR1-independent function that regulates programmed cell death during infection. The balanced activities of RAR1 and SGT1, in concert with cytosolic HSP90, modulate preactivation R protein accumulation and signaling competence.

  2. Synthetic biology: integrated gene circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandagopal, Nagarajan; Elowitz, Michael B

    2011-09-02

    A major goal of synthetic biology is to develop a deeper understanding of biological design principles from the bottom up, by building circuits and studying their behavior in cells. Investigators initially sought to design circuits "from scratch" that functioned as independently as possible from the underlying cellular system. More recently, researchers have begun to develop a new generation of synthetic circuits that integrate more closely with endogenous cellular processes. These approaches are providing fundamental insights into the regulatory architecture, dynamics, and evolution of genetic circuits and enabling new levels of control across diverse biological systems.

  3. State-Dependent Impulsive Control Strategies for a Tumor-Immune Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Su Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the number of tumor cells leads us to expect more efficient strategies for treatment of tumor. Towards this goal, a tumor-immune model with state-dependent impulsive treatments is established. This model may give an efficient treatment schedule to control tumor’s abnormal growth. By using the Poincaré map and analogue of Poincaré criterion, some conditions for the existence and stability of a positive order-1 periodic solution of this model are obtained. Moreover, we carry out numerical simulations to illustrate the feasibility of our main results and compare fixed-time impulsive treatment effects with state-dependent impulsive treatment effects. The results of our simulations say that, in determining optimal treatment timing, the model with state-dependent impulsive control is more efficient than that with fixed-time impulsive control.

  4. The Developmental Intestinal Regulator ELT-2 Controls p38-Dependent Immune Responses in Adult C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Dena H S; Twumasi-Boateng, Kwame; Kang, Hae Sung; Carlisle, Jolie A; Hanganu, Alexandru; Lai, Ty Yu-Jen; Shapira, Michael

    2015-05-01

    GATA transcription factors play critical roles in cellular differentiation and development. However, their roles in mature tissues are less understood. In C. elegans larvae, the transcription factor ELT-2 regulates terminal differentiation of the intestine. It is also expressed in the adult intestine, where it was suggested to maintain intestinal structure and function, and where it was additionally shown to contribute to infection resistance. To study the function of elt-2 in adults we characterized elt-2-dependent gene expression following its knock-down specifically in adults. Microarray analysis identified two ELT-2-regulated gene subsets: one, enriched for hydrolytic enzymes, pointed at regulation of constitutive digestive functions as a dominant role of adult elt-2; the second was enriched for immune genes that are induced in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Focusing on the latter, we used genetic analyses coupled to survival assays and quantitative RT-PCR to interrogate the mechanism(s) through which elt-2 contributes to immunity. We show that elt-2 controls p38-dependent gene induction, cooperating with two p38-activated transcription factors, ATF-7 and SKN-1. This demonstrates a mechanism through which the constitutively nuclear elt-2 can impact induced responses, and play a dominant role in C. elegans immunity.

  5. Yoga and immune system functioning: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, R I; Eising, C; Peters, M L

    2018-02-10

    Yoga is an ancient mind-body practice that is increasingly recognized to have health benefits in a variety of clinical and non-clinical conditions. This systematic review summarizes the findings of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of yoga on immune system functioning which is imperative to justify its application in the clinic. Fifteen RCTs were eligible for the review. Even though the existing evidence is not entirely consistent, a general pattern emerged suggesting that yoga can downregulate pro-inflammatory markers. In particular, the qualitative evaluation of RCTs revealed decreases in IL-1beta, as well as indications for reductions in IL-6 and TNF-alpha. These results imply that yoga may be implemented as a complementary intervention for populations at risk or already suffering from diseases with an inflammatory component. Beyond this, yoga practice may exert further beneficial effects by enhancing cell-mediated and mucosal immunity. It is hypothesized that longer time spans of yoga practice are required to achieve consistent effects especially on circulating inflammatory markers. Overall, this field of investigation is still young, hence the current body of evidence is small and for most immune parameters, more research is required to draw distinct conclusions.

  6. Evading plant immunity: feedback control of the T3SS in Pseudomonas syringae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Christopher; Schumacher, Jörg; Jovanovic, Milija; Bennett, Mark; Buck, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Microbes are responsible for over 10% of the global yield losses in staple crops such as wheat, rice, and maize. Understanding the decision-making strategies that enable bacterial plant pathogens to evade the host immune system and cause disease is essential for managing their ever growing threat to food security. Many utilise the needle-like type III secretion system (T3SS) to suppress plant immunity, by injecting effector proteins that inhibit eukaryotic signalling pathways into the host cell cytoplasm. Plants can in turn evolve resistance to specific pathogens via recognition and blocking of the T3SS effectors, so leading to an ongoing co-evolutionary ‘arms race’ between pathogen and host pairs. The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor HrpL co-ordinates the expression of the T3SS regulon in the leaf-dwelling Pseudomonas syringae and similar pathogens. Recently, we showed that association of HrpL with a target promoter directly adjacent to the hrpL gene imposes negative autogenous control on its own expression level due to overlapping regulatory elements. Our results suggest that by down-regulating T3SS function, this fine-tuning mechanism enables P. syringae to minimise effector-mediated elicitation of plant immunity. PMID:28435841

  7. Lactobacillus paracasei feeding improves immune control of influenza infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouria Belkacem

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections such as flu cause severe morbidity and mortality and are among the leading causes of death in children and adults worldwide. Commensal microbiota is critical for orchestrating tissue homeostasis and immunity in the intestine. Probiotics represent an interesting source of immune modulators and several clinical studies have addressed the potential beneficial effects of probiotics against respiratory infections. Therefore, we have investigated the mechanisms of protection conferred by L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 strain in a mouse model of influenza infection. Notably, local myeloid cells accumulation is generated in the lungs after seven days feeding with L. paracasei prior to viral infection. L. paracasei-fed mice showed reduced susceptibility to the influenza infection, associated with less accumulation of inflammatory cells in the lungs, faster viral clearance and general health improvement. Interestingly, Allobaculum was significantly increased in L. paracasei-fed mice 7 days after influenza infection, even if the gut microbiota composition was not altered overall. L. paracasei-purified peptidoglycan partially recapitulated the protective phenotype observed with the entire bacteria. Collectively, our results demonstrate that oral consumption of L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 modulates lung immunity was associated with an improved control of influenza infection. These results further extend the beneficial role for certain lactobacilli to alleviate the burden of respiratory tract infections.

  8. Design of a 300-Watt Isolated Power Supply with Minimized Circuit Input-to-Output Parasitic Capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Petersen, Lars Press; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a 300-Watt isolated power supply for MOS gate driver circuit in medium and high voltage applications. The key feature of the developed power supply is having a very low circuit input-to-output parasitic capacitance, thus maximizing its noise immunity. This makes...... it suitable for modular stacking applications. The converter is a voltage-controlled current source, utilizing a transformer that has an extremely low inter-winding parasitic capacitance. The experiments show that an overall circuit input-to-output parasitic capacitance of 10 pF can be achieved. Design...

  9. The nuclear IκB family of proteins controls gene regulation and immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaruYama, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    The inhibitory IκB family of proteins is subdivided into two groups based on protein localization in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. These proteins interact with NF-κB, a major transcription factor regulating the expression of many inflammatory cytokines, by modulating its transcriptional activity. However, nuclear IκB family proteins not only interact with NF-κB to change its transcriptional activity, but they also bind to chromatin and control gene expression. This review provides an overview of nuclear IκB family proteins and their role in immune homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Affective Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to the intersecting streams of goods, people, ideas, and money as they circulate between African migrants and their kin who remain back home. They also show the complex ways that emotions become entangled in these exchanges. Examining how these circuits operate in domains of social life ranging from child fosterage...... to binational marriages, from coming-of-age to healing and religious rituals, the book also registers the tremendous impact of state officials, laws, and policies on migrant experience. Together these essays paint an especially vivid portrait of new forms of kinship at a time of both intense mobility and ever...

  11. Bolstering Immunity through Pattern Recognition Receptors: A Unique Approach to Control Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Pahari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The global control of tuberculosis (TB presents a continuous health challenge to mankind. Despite having effective drugs, TB still has a devastating impact on human health. Contributing reasons include the emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the AIDS-pandemic, and the absence of effective vaccines against the disease. Indeed, alternative and effective methods of TB treatment and control are urgently needed. One such approach may be to more effectively engage the immune system; particularly the frontline pattern recognition receptor (PRR systems of the host, which sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs of Mtb. It is well known that 95% of individuals infected with Mtb in latent form remain healthy throughout their life. Therefore, we propose that clues can be found to control the remainder by successfully manipulating the innate immune mechanisms, particularly of nasal and mucosal cavities. This article highlights the importance of signaling through PRRs in restricting Mtb entry and subsequently preventing its infection. Furthermore, we discuss whether this unique therapy employing PRRs in combination with drugs can help in reducing the dose and duration of current TB regimen.

  12. Evidence for Innate Immune System Activation in HIV Type 1–Infected Elite Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sonya; Wilson, Eleanor M. P.; Sheikh, Virginia; Rupert, Adam; Mendoza, Daniel; Yang, Jun; Lempicki, Richard; Migueles, Stephen A.; Sereti, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Background. Elite controllers maintain high CD4+ T-cell counts and suppress plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). It is unclear whether levels of biomarkers associated with coagulation, monocyte activation, and inflammation, which are linked to HIV-associated mortality, differ among elite controllers, ART recipients with suppressed viremia (plasma HIV type 1 RNA load, elite controllers, 68 ART recipients with suppressed viremia, and 35 HIV-negative participants were evaluated. Levels of biomarkers in cryopreserved plasma were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electrochemiluminescence-based assay. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to assess monocyte phenotype and function and interferon-inducible gene expression (IFIG). Nonparametric testing was used to compare median values among groups. Results. CD4+ T-cell counts were similar between elite controllers and HIV-negative controls but significantly lower in ART recipients with suppressed viremia. Levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin 6 were higher and IFIG upregulated in both HIV-positive groups, compared with HIV-negative controls. D-dimer and soluble tissue factor levels were significantly elevated in elite controllers, compared with those in ART recipients with suppressed viremia and HIV-negative controls (P elite controllers (and ART recipients with suppressed viremia) expressed lower CCR2 and higher CX3CR1 levels than monocytes from HIV-negative controls. In addition, elite controllers had a significantly higher proportion of CD14++CD16+ monocytes, compared with HIV-negative controls. Conclusion. Elite controllers maintain control of plasma HIV viremia and have evidence of an activated innate immune response. PMID:24185941

  13. Evidence for innate immune system activation in HIV type 1-infected elite controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sonya; Wilson, Eleanor M P; Sheikh, Virginia; Rupert, Adam; Mendoza, Daniel; Yang, Jun; Lempicki, Richard; Migueles, Stephen A; Sereti, Irini

    2014-03-01

    Elite controllers maintain high CD4(+) T-cell counts and suppress plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). It is unclear whether levels of biomarkers associated with coagulation, monocyte activation, and inflammation, which are linked to HIV-associated mortality, differ among elite controllers, ART recipients with suppressed viremia (plasma HIV type 1 RNA load, elite controllers, 68 ART recipients with suppressed viremia, and 35 HIV-negative participants were evaluated. Levels of biomarkers in cryopreserved plasma were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electrochemiluminescence-based assay. Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to assess monocyte phenotype and function and interferon-inducible gene expression (IFIG). Nonparametric testing was used to compare median values among groups. CD4(+) T-cell counts were similar between elite controllers and HIV-negative controls but significantly lower in ART recipients with suppressed viremia. Levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin 6 were higher and IFIG upregulated in both HIV-positive groups, compared with HIV-negative controls. D-dimer and soluble tissue factor levels were significantly elevated in elite controllers, compared with those in ART recipients with suppressed viremia and HIV-negative controls (P elite controllers (and ART recipients with suppressed viremia) expressed lower CCR2 and higher CX3CR1 levels than monocytes from HIV-negative controls. In addition, elite controllers had a significantly higher proportion of CD14(++)CD16(+) monocytes, compared with HIV-negative controls. Elite controllers maintain control of plasma HIV viremia and have evidence of an activated innate immune response.

  14. IL-1β Signaling Promotes CNS-Intrinsic Immune Control of West Nile Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Hilario J.; Lanteri, Marion C.; Blahnik, Gabriele; Negash, Amina; Suthar, Mehul S.; Brassil, Margaret M.; Sodhi, Khushbu; Treuting, Piper M.; Busch, Michael P.; Norris, Philip J.; Gale, Michael

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging flavivirus capable of infecting the central nervous system (CNS) and mediating neuronal cell death and tissue destruction. The processes that promote inflammation and encephalitis within the CNS are important for control of WNV disease but, how inflammatory signaling pathways operate to control CNS infection is not defined. Here, we identify IL-1β signaling and the NLRP3 inflammasome as key host restriction factors involved in viral control and CNS disease associated with WNV infection. Individuals presenting with acute WNV infection displayed elevated levels of IL-1β in their plasma over the course of infection, suggesting a role for IL-1β in WNV immunity. Indeed, we found that in a mouse model of infection, WNV induced the acute production of IL-1β in vivo, and that animals lacking the IL-1 receptor or components involved in inflammasome signaling complex exhibited increased susceptibility to WNV pathogenesis. This outcome associated with increased accumulation of virus within the CNS but not peripheral tissues and was further associated with altered kinetics and magnitude of inflammation, reduced quality of the effector CD8+ T cell response and reduced anti-viral activity within the CNS. Importantly, we found that WNV infection triggers production of IL-1β from cortical neurons. Furthermore, we found that IL-1β signaling synergizes with type I IFN to suppress WNV replication in neurons, thus implicating antiviral activity of IL-1β within neurons and control of virus replication within the CNS. Our studies thus define the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and IL-1β signaling as key features controlling WNV infection and immunity in the CNS, and reveal a novel role for IL-1β in antiviral action that restricts virus replication in neurons. PMID:23209411

  15. Fiber-Coupled Planar Light-Wave Circuit for Seed Laser Control in High Spectral Resolution Lidar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Anthony; McNeil, Shirley; Switzer, Gregg; Battle, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Precise laser remote sensing of aerosol extinction and backscatter in the atmosphere requires a high-power, pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser that is wavelength- stabilized to a narrow absorption line such as found in iodine vapor. One method for precise wavelength control is to injection seed the Nd:YAG laser with a low-power CW laser that is stabilized by frequency converting a fraction of the beam to 532 nm, and to actively frequency-lock it to an iodine vapor absorption line. While the feasibility of this approach has been demonstrated using bulk optics in NASA Langley s Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) program, an ideal, lower cost solution is to develop an all-waveguide, frequency-locked seed laser in a compact, robust package that will withstand the temperature, shock, and vibration levels associated with airborne and space-based remote sensing platforms. A key technology leading to this miniaturization is the integration of an efficient waveguide frequency doubling element, and a low-voltage phase modulation element into a single, monolithic, planar light-wave circuit (PLC). The PLC concept advances NASA's future lidar systems due to its compact, efficient and reliable design, thus enabling use on small aircraft and satellites. The immediate application for this technology is targeted for NASA Langley's HSRL system for aerosol and cloud characterization. This Phase I effort proposes the development of a potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguide phase modulator for future integration into a PLC. For this innovation, the proposed device is the integration of a waveguide-based frequency doubler and phase modulator in a single, fiber pigtail device that will be capable of efficient second harmonic generation of 1,064-nm light and subsequent phase modulation of the 532 nm light at 250 MHz, providing a properly spectrally formatted beam for HSRL s seed laser locking system. Fabrication of the integrated PLC chip for NASA Langley, planned for

  16. Synaptotagmin 1 Negatively Controls the Two Distinct Immune Secretory Pathways to Powdery Mildew Fungi in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeran; Kwon, Hyeokjin; Kim, Soohong; Kim, Mi Kyung; Botella, Miguel A; Yun, Hye Sup; Kwon, Chian

    2016-06-01

    PEN1, one of the plasma membrane (PM) syntaxins, comprises an immune exocytic pathway by forming the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex with SNAP33 and VAMP721/722 in plants. Although this secretory pathway is also involved in plant growth and development, how plants control their exocytic activity is as yet poorly understood. Since constitutive PEN1 cycling between the PM and endocytosed vesicles is critical for its immune activity, we studied here the relationship of PEN1 to synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1) that is known to regulate endocytosis at the PM. Interestingly, syt1 plants showed enhanced disease resistance to the Arabidopsis-adapted Golovinomyces orontii fungus, and elevated protein but not transcript levels of PEN1 Calcium-dependent promotion of PEN1-SYT1 interaction suggests that SYT1 controls defense activities of the PEN1-associated secretory pathway by post-translationally modulating PEN1. Increased PEN1-SYT1 interaction and inhibited PEN1 SNARE complex induction by G. orontii additionally suggest that the adaption of phytopathogens to host plants might partly result from effective suppression of the PEN1-related secretory pathway. Further genetic analyses revealed that SYT1 also regulates the atypical peroxisomal myrosinase PEN2-associated secretory pathway. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The effect of postpartum vitamin A supplementation on breast milk immune regulators and infant immune functions: study protocol of a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Bergman, Peter; Kabir, Yearul; Raqib, Rubhana

    2015-03-31

    Because of limited impact on infant morbidity, mortality, and vitamin A status, the new guideline of the World Health Organization (WHO) does not recommend postpartum vitamin A supplementation (VAS) as a public health intervention in developing countries. However, breast milk contains numerous immune-protective components that are important for infant immune development, and several of these components are regulated by vitamin A. Postpartum women are being enrolled within 3 days (d) of delivery at a maternity clinic located in a slum area of Dhaka city and randomized to one of four postpartum VAS regimens (32/group, total 128). The regimens are as follows: Group 1: 200,000 IU VAS at VAS at 6 weeks postpartum; Group 3: 200,000 IU VAS, both at <3 d and 6 weeks postpartum; Group 4: placebo, both at <3 d and 6 weeks postpartum. Breast milk samples at <3 d (before supplementation) and 4 months postpartum will be used to measure vitamin A and bioactive compounds. Infant blood samples at 2 and 4 months of age will be used to measure vitamin A, as well as innate and vaccine-specific immune responses. Dietary, anthropometric, and morbidity data are also being collected. This is the first placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of postnatal vitamin A supplementation to investigate the key bioactive compounds in breast milk, important for infant immunity, in relation to dose and time point of postpartum supplementation and whether such maternal supplementation improves infant immune status during the critical period of early infancy. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02043223 , 5 December 2013.

  18. Quantum-circuit refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kuan Yen; Partanen, Matti; Lake, Russell E.; Govenius, Joonas; Masuda, Shumpei; Möttönen, Mikko

    2017-05-01

    Quantum technology promises revolutionizing applications in information processing, communications, sensing and modelling. However, efficient on-demand cooling of the functional quantum degrees of freedom remains challenging in many solid-state implementations, such as superconducting circuits. Here we demonstrate direct cooling of a superconducting resonator mode using voltage-controllable electron tunnelling in a nanoscale refrigerator. This result is revealed by a decreased electron temperature at a resonator-coupled probe resistor, even for an elevated electron temperature at the refrigerator. Our conclusions are verified by control experiments and by a good quantitative agreement between theory and experimental observations at various operation voltages and bath temperatures. In the future, we aim to remove spurious dissipation introduced by our refrigerator and to decrease the operational temperature. Such an ideal quantum-circuit refrigerator has potential applications in the initialization of quantum electric devices. In the superconducting quantum computer, for example, fast and accurate reset of the quantum memory is needed.

  19. Quantum-circuit refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kuan Yen; Partanen, Matti; Lake, Russell E.; Govenius, Joonas; Masuda, Shumpei; Möttönen, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Quantum technology promises revolutionizing applications in information processing, communications, sensing and modelling. However, efficient on-demand cooling of the functional quantum degrees of freedom remains challenging in many solid-state implementations, such as superconducting circuits. Here we demonstrate direct cooling of a superconducting resonator mode using voltage-controllable electron tunnelling in a nanoscale refrigerator. This result is revealed by a decreased electron temperature at a resonator-coupled probe resistor, even for an elevated electron temperature at the refrigerator. Our conclusions are verified by control experiments and by a good quantitative agreement between theory and experimental observations at various operation voltages and bath temperatures. In the future, we aim to remove spurious dissipation introduced by our refrigerator and to decrease the operational temperature. Such an ideal quantum-circuit refrigerator has potential applications in the initialization of quantum electric devices. In the superconducting quantum computer, for example, fast and accurate reset of the quantum memory is needed. PMID:28480900

  20. Effects of music on immunity and physiological responses in healthcare workers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hui-Ling; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Chen, Pin-Wen; Peng, Tai-Chu

    2013-04-01

    Research-based evidence supports the effectiveness of soothing music in improving stress-related psycho-physiological indices in a clinical setting. However, there is currently insufficient scientific knowledge of the effects of music on immune markers of stress in humans. Therefore, the aims of the study were to compare the effects of music and quiet rest on the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), heart rate and mean arterial pressure among healthcare workers. By using a randomized controlled trial design, 60 nurses were randomly assigned to the stimulating or sedating music or rest groups for 30 min. Participants' psychoneuroimmunological parameters were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. General estimating equation was used to analyse data. Results revealed that IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 were not detectable in this population. No significance differences in heart rate were found among the three groups. However, the stimulating music group had significantly higher mean arterial pressure levels than the sedating music group but no differences between the quiet rest group and the sedating music group. Music with different tempi had little effect on mean arterial pressure. Any effect of music on immune markers of stress requires further research. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Pathologic effects of RNase-L dysregulation in immunity and proliferative control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezelle, Heather J.; Hassel, Bret A.

    2012-01-01

    The endoribonuclease RNase-L is the terminal component of an RNA cleavage pathway that mediates antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Inactivation or dysregulation of RNase-L is associated with a compromised immune response and increased risk of cancer, accordingly its activity is tightly controlled and requires an allosteric activator, 2',5'-linked oligoadenylates, for enzymatic activity. The biological activities of RNase-L are a result of direct and indirect effects of RNA cleavage and microarray analyses have revealed that RNase-L impacts the gene expression program at multiple levels. The identification of RNase-L-regulated RNAs has provided insights into potential mechanisms by which it exerts antiproliferative, proapoptotic, senescence-inducing and innate immune activities. RNase-L protein interactors have been identified that serve regulatory functions and are implicated as alternate mechanisms of its biologic functions. Thus while the molecular details are understood for only a subset of RNase-L activities, its regulation by small molecules and critical roles in host defense and as a candidate tumor suppressor make it a promising therapeutic target. PMID:22202089

  2. Killers and beyond: NK-cell-mediated control of immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoniou, Christopher E; Coudert, Jérôme D; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A

    2008-11-01

    Effective immunity requires coordinated activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. NK cells are principal mediators of innate immunity, able to respond to challenge quickly and generally without prior activation. The most acknowledged functions of NK cells are their cytotoxic potential and their ability to release large amounts of cytokines, especially IFN-gamma. Recently, it has become clear that NK cells are more than assassins. Indeed, NK cells play critical roles in shaping adaptive immunity.

  3. Developing a Domain Model for Relay Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we stepwise develop a domain model for relay circuits as used in railway control systems. First we provide an abstract, property-oriented model of networks consisting of components that can be glued together with connectors. This model is strongly inspired by a network model...... for railways madeby Bjørner et.al., however our model is more general: the components can be of any kind and can later be refined to e.g. railway components or circuit components. Then we show how the abstract network model can be refined into an explicit model for relay circuits. The circuit model describes...... the statics as well as the dynamics of relay circuits, i.e. how a relay circuit can be composed legally from electrical components as well as how the components may change state over time. Finally the circuit model is transformed into an executable model, and we show how a concrete circuit can be defined...

  4. Variational integrators for electric circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ober-Blöbaum, Sina, E-mail: sinaob@math.upb.de [Computational Dynamics and Optimal Control, University of Paderborn (Germany); Tao, Molei [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Cheng, Mulin [Applied and Computational Mathematics, California Institute of Technology (United States); Owhadi, Houman; Marsden, Jerrold E. [Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology (United States); Applied and Computational Mathematics, California Institute of Technology (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In this contribution, we develop a variational integrator for the simulation of (stochastic and multiscale) electric circuits. When considering the dynamics of an electric circuit, one is faced with three special situations: 1. The system involves external (control) forcing through external (controlled) voltage sources and resistors. 2. The system is constrained via the Kirchhoff current (KCL) and voltage laws (KVL). 3. The Lagrangian is degenerate. Based on a geometric setting, an appropriate variational formulation is presented to model the circuit from which the equations of motion are derived. A time-discrete variational formulation provides an iteration scheme for the simulation of the electric circuit. Dependent on the discretization, the intrinsic degeneracy of the system can be canceled for the discrete variational scheme. In this way, a variational integrator is constructed that gains several advantages compared to standard integration tools for circuits; in particular, a comparison to BDF methods (which are usually the method of choice for the simulation of electric circuits) shows that even for simple LCR circuits, a better energy behavior and frequency spectrum preservation can be observed using the developed variational integrator.

  5. Immune responses against recombinant tick antigen, Bm95, for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Garg, Rajat; Yadav, C L; Vatsya, Stuti; Kumar, R R; Sugumar, Parthasarthy; Chandran, Dev; Mangamoorib, Lakshmi Narasu; Bedarkar, S N

    2009-10-28

    Immune responses against Bm95 recombinant cattle tick antigen and its protective efficacy for control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were determined in experimental crossbred cow calves. Anti-Bm95 antibody titers, as assessed by indirect ELISA, in immunized calves ranged from 196.1+/-13.7 on day 0 to 7979.9+/-312.5 on day 110 post-primary immunization. The rise in antibody titer was statistically significant (pticks, mean percentage of dead ticks, and decrease in engorgement weight were recorded in immunized animals. Also, there were significant differences (pcontrol calves. The percent reduction in number of adult females in vaccinated calves, reduction in mean weight of egg masses, percent reduction in mean weight and reduction in fertility of engorged females collected from vaccinated calves were determined and the efficacy of Bm95 recombinant cattle tick antigen was 81.27%.

  6. Analog circuit design designing dynamic circuit response

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This second volume, Designing Dynamic Circuit Response builds upon the first volume Designing Amplifier Circuits by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences.

  7. Induced prion protein controls immune-activated retroviruses in the mouse spleen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Lötscher

    Full Text Available The prion protein (PrP is crucially involved in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, but neither its exact role in disease nor its physiological function are known. Here we show for mice, using histological, immunochemical and PCR-based methods, that stimulation of innate resistance was followed by appearance of numerous endogenous retroviruses and ensuing PrP up-regulation in germinal centers of the spleen. Subsequently, the activated retroviruses disappeared in a PrP-dependent manner. Our results reveal the regular involvement of endogenous retroviruses in murine immune responses and provide evidence for an essential function of PrP in the control of the retroviral activity. The interaction between PrP and ubiquitous endogenous retroviruses may allow new interpretations of TSE pathophysiology and explain the evolutionary conservation of PrP.

  8. What roles do regulatory T cells play in the control of the adaptive immune response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Melvin

    2008-09-01

    The immune system, like many systems responsive to specific stimuli, requires feedback regulation. The key regulatory element determining antigen-specific responsiveness is the effector T helper. As the response tends to overshoot, a feedback control of the magnitude of the response is critical to avoid immunopathology. This is the proposed role of the effector T suppressor (T(s)). The reasons for this interpretation of the data are discussed as are the reasons that the competing postulate is ruled out, namely that T(s) function in determining the self-non-self-discrimination. The regulatory T cell family consists of two lineages, T helpers and T(s). Differentiated derivatives of the T helper lineage drive the expression and amplification of specific classes of defensive effector cells. T(s) feedback to limit the magnitude of the process so that debilitating immunopathology is acceptably infrequent.

  9. GPS low noise amplifier with high immunity to wireless jamming signals and power control option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Schulz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A SiGe GPS low noise amplifier with power control option and high immunity to wireless jamming signals is presented. These novel features applied to Atmel’s ATR0610 GPS LNA allow significant power saving at the radio interface while meeting the out-of-band linearity requirements. The results show the noise figure less than 2.1 dB, including the embedded pre-select filter, and out-of-band IIP3 above +8 dBm in the frequency range between 1.8GHz and 2 GHz with 3mA current consumption. The GPS system performance shows GPS sensitivity below -141 dBm with 5 ms integration interval.

  10. Rapid identification of genes controlling virulence and immunity in malaria parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Abkallo, Hussein M.

    2017-07-13

    Identifying the genetic determinants of phenotypes that impact disease severity is of fundamental importance for the design of new interventions against malaria. Here we present a rapid genome-wide approach capable of identifying multiple genetic drivers of medically relevant phenotypes within malaria parasites via a single experiment at single gene or allele resolution. In a proof of principle study, we found that a previously undescribed single nucleotide polymorphism in the binding domain of the erythrocyte binding like protein (EBL) conferred a dramatic change in red blood cell invasion in mutant rodent malaria parasites Plasmodium yoelii. In the same experiment, we implicated merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) and other polymorphic proteins, as the major targets of strain-specific immunity. Using allelic replacement, we provide functional validation of the substitution in the EBL gene controlling the growth rate in the blood stages of the parasites.

  11. Research on Fuzzy Immune Self-Adaptive PID Algorithm Based on New Smith Predictor for Networked Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We first analyze the effect of network-induced delay on the stability of networked control systems (NCSs. Then, aiming at stochastic characteristics of the time delay, we introduce a new Smith predictor to remove the exponential function with the time delay in the closed-loop characteristic equation of the NCS. Furthermore, we combine the fuzzy PID algorithm with the fuzzy immune control algorithm and present a fuzzy immune self-adaptive PID algorithm to compensate the influence of the model deviation of the controlled object. At last, a kind of fuzzy immune self-adaptive PID algorithm based on new Smith predictor is presented to apply to the NCS. The simulation research on a DC motor is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  12. The critical proportion of immune individuals needed to control hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Juan; Hincapié-Palacio, Doracelly

    2016-05-01

    We estimate the critical proportion of immunity (Pc) to control hepatitis B in Medellin - Colombia, based on a random population survey of 2077 individuals of 6-64 years of age. The force of infection (Fi) was estimated according to empirical data of susceptibility by age S(a), assuming a quadratic expression. Parameters were estimated by adjusting data to a nonlinear regression. Fi was defined by -(ds(a)/da)/s(a) and according to the form of the empirical curve S(a) we assume a quadratic expression given by S(a)= Ea2+Ba+C. Then we have the explicit expression for the accumulated Fi by age given by F(a) = -a(Ea+B)/c. The expression of average infection age A is obtained as A = L + EL3/(3C)+BL2/(2C) and the basic reproductive number R0 is obtained as R0 = 1 + 6C/(6C+2EL2+3BL). From the las result we obtain the Pc given by Pc= 6C/(12C+2EL2+3BL). Numerical simulations were performed with the age-susceptibility proportion and initial values (a=0.02, b=20, c=100), obtaining an adjusted coefficient of multiple determination of 64.83%. According to the best estimate, the algebraic expressions for S(a) and the Fi were derived. Using the result of Fi, we obtain A = 30, L =85; R0 CI 95%: 1.42 - 1.64 and Pc: 0-0.29. These results indicate that at the worst case, to maintain control of the disease should be immunes at least 30% of susceptible individuals. Similar results were obtained by sex and residential area.

  13. Molecular Control of Innate Immune Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection by Intestinal let-7 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daoyong; Wang, Dayong

    2017-01-01

    The microRNA (miRNA) let-7 is an important miRNA identified in Caenorhabditis elegans and has been shown to be involved in the control of innate immunity. The underlying molecular mechanisms for let-7 regulation of innate immunity remain largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for intestinal let-7 in the regulation of innate immunity. Infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 decreased let-7::GFP expression. Intestine- or neuron-specific activity of let-7 was required for its function in the regulation of innate immunity. During the control of innate immune response to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection, SDZ-24 was identified as a direct target for intestinal let-7. SDZ-24 was found to be predominantly expressed in the intestine, and P. aeruginosa PA14 infection increased SDZ-24::GFP expression. Intestinal let-7 regulated innate immune response to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection by suppressing both the expression and the function of SDZ-24. Knockout or RNA interference knockdown of sdz-24 dampened the resistance of let-7 mutant to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection. Intestinal overexpression of sdz-24 lacking 3’-UTR inhibited the susceptibility of nematodes overexpressing intestinal let-7 to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection. In contrast, we could observed the effects of intestinal let-7 on innate immunity in P. aeruginosa PA14 infected transgenic strain overexpressing sdz-24 containing 3’-UTR. In the intestine, certain SDZ-24-mediated signaling cascades were formed for nematodes against the P. aeruginosa PA14 infection. Our results highlight the crucial role of intestinal miRNAs in the regulation of the innate immune response to pathogenic infection. PMID:28095464

  14. Quality control considerations for the development of the front end hybrid circuits for the CMS Outer Tracker upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gadek, Tomasz; Bonnaud, Julien Yves Robert; De Clercq, Jarne Theo; Honma, Alan; Koliatos, Alexandros; Kovacs, Mark Istvan; Luetic, Jelena

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the CMS Outer Tracker for the HL-LHC requires the design of new double-sensor modules. They contain two high-density front end hybrid circuits, equipped with flip-chip ASICs, passives and mechanical structures. First prototype hybrids in a close-to-final form have been received from three manufacturers. To qualify these hybrids a test setup was built, which emulates future tracker temperature and humidity conditions, provides temporary interconnection, and implements testing features. The system was automated to minimize the testing time in view for the production phase. Failure modes, deliberately implemented in the produced hybrids, provided feedback on the system's effectiveness.

  15. Analog circuit design designing waveform processing circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The fourth volume in the set Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors.

  16. Altered Innate Immune Responses in Neutrophils from Patients with Well- and Suboptimally Controlled Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca S. M. Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Respiratory infections are a major cause of asthma exacerbations where neutrophilic inflammation dominates and is associated with steroid refractory asthma. Structural airway cells in asthma differ from nonasthmatics; however it is unknown if neutrophils differ. We investigated neutrophil immune responses in patients who have good (AGood and suboptimal (ASubopt asthma symptom control. Methods. Peripheral blood neutrophils from AGood (ACQ 0.75, n=7, and healthy controls (HC (n=9 were stimulated with bacterial (LPS (1 μg/mL, fMLF (100 nM, and viral (imiquimod (3 μg/mL, R848 (1.5 μg/mL, and poly I:C (10 μg/mL surrogates or live rhinovirus (RV 16 (MOI1. Cell-free supernatant was collected after 1 h for neutrophil elastase (NE and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 measurements or after 24 h for CXCL8 release. Results. Constitutive NE was enhanced in AGood neutrophils compared to HC. fMLF stimulated neutrophils from ASubopt but not AGood produced 50% of HC levels. fMLF induced MMP-9 was impaired in ASubopt and AGood compared to HC. fMLF stimulated CXCL8 but not MMP-9 was positively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. ASubopt and AGood responded similarly to other stimuli. Conclusions. Circulating neutrophils are different in asthma; however, this is likely to be related to airflow limitation rather than asthma control.

  17. Experimental tuberculosis in the Wistar rat: a model for protective immunity and control of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Singhal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of many animal models for tuberculosis (TB research, there still exists a need for better understanding of the quiescent stage of disease observed in many humans. Here, we explored the use of the Wistar rat model for the study of protective immunity and control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The kinetics of bacillary growth, evaluated by the colony stimulating assay (CFU and the extent of lung pathology in Mtb infected Wistar rats were dependent on the virulence of the strains and the size of the infecting inoculums. Bacillary growth control was associated with induction of T helper type 1 (Th1 activation, the magnitude of which was also Mtb strain and dose dependent. Histopathology analysis of the infected lungs demonstrated the formation of well organized granulomas comprising epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells and foamy macrophages surrounded by large numbers of lymphocytes. The late stage subclinical form of disease was reactivated by immunosuppression leading to increased lung CFU. CONCLUSION: The Wistar rat is a valuable model for better understanding host-pathogen interactions that result in control of Mtb infection and potentially establishment of latent TB. These properties together with the ease of manipulation, relatively low cost and well established use of rats in toxicology and pharmacokinetic analyses make the rat a good animal model for TB drug discovery.

  18. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2005-01-01

    is idle. This reduces unnecessary switching activity in the individual functional units and therefore the energy consumption of the entire circuit. A collection of behavioral synthesis algorithms have been developed allowing the designer to perform time and power constrained design space exploration....... The datapath and control architecture is then expressed in the Balsa-language, and using syntax directed compilation a corresponding handshake circuit implementation (and eventually a layout) is produced....

  19. PSTPIP1 controls immune synapse stability in human T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, W J M; Grobarova, V; Leleux, J; Jongeneel, C H; van Gijn, M; van Montfrans, J M; Boes, M

    2018-02-09

    PSTPIP1 is a cytosolic adaptor protein involved with T-cell activation, differentiation, and migration. Upon cognate T-cell contact, PSTPIP1 is recruited to surface-expressed CD2, where it regulates f-actin remodeling. An immune synapse (IS) is thereby rapidly formed, consisting of TCR clusters surrounded by a ring of adhesion molecules including CD2. From genetic screening of primary immunodeficiency patients, we identified two mutations in PSTPIP1, R228C and T274M which we further characterized in primary patient T-cells. F-actin dynamics were assessed in patient and healthy control primary T-cells by use of FACS. HEK293T and Jurkat cells were transfected with R228C, T274M and WT PSTPIP1 in order to visualize f-actin in immune synapse formation. CD2-PSTPIP1 association was quantified through immunoprecipitation assays. The patients presented with immunodeficiency without signs of auto-inflammation. The R228C patient had expansion of mostly naive phenotype T-cells and few memory T-cells; the T274M patient had 75% reduction in CD4 T-cells that were predominantly of memory subset.We observed f-actin polymerization defects in both PSTPIP1 patient T-cells, most notably T274M. Capping of CD2-containing membrane microdomains was disrupted. Analysis of IS formation using Jurkat T-cell transfectants revealed a reduction in f-actin accumulation at the IS, again especially in T274M PSTPIP1 cells. Patient T274M T-cells migrated spontaneously at increased speed as assessed in a 3D collagen matrix, while TCR crosslinking induced a significantly diminished calcium flux. We propose that PSTPIP1 T-cell differentiation defects are caused by defective control of f-actin polymerization. A pre-activated polymerized f-actin status, as seen in PSTPIP1-T274M T-cells, appears particularly damaging. PSTPIP1 controls IS formation and cell adhesion, through its function as orchestrator of the f-actin cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Techniques for control of long-term reliability of complex integrated circuits. I - Reliability assurance by test vehicle qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vonno, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Development of an alternate approach to the conventional methods of reliability assurance for large-scale integrated circuits. The product treated is a large-scale T squared L array designed for space applications. The concept used is that of qualification of product by evaluation of the basic processing used in fabricating the product, providing an insight into its potential reliability. Test vehicles are described which enable evaluation of device characteristics, surface condition, and various parameters of the two-level metallization system used. Evaluation of these test vehicles is performed on a lot qualification basis, with the lot consisting of one wafer. Assembled test vehicles are evaluated by high temperature stress at 300 C for short time durations. Stressing at these temperatures provides a rapid method of evaluation and permits a go/no go decision to be made on the wafer lot in a timely fashion.

  1. Increase of noise immunity of photomask images binarization in the space of the wavelet transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbakova G. Yu.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An information technology for histogram analysis and a method for noise immunity binary processing of integrated and printed circuits board photo-masks image based on this technology was carryed out. This method based on the sub-gradient iterative noise stability optimization method satisfies the demands of the automated optical control of photo-masks and printed circuits in the error and noise immunity. The maximum binary processing error does not exceed 1 pixel if the signal-to-noise ratio is more than 7.

  2. Equivalent Quantum Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Quantum algorithms and protocols are often presented as quantum circuits for a better understanding. We give a list of equivalence rules which can help in the analysis and design of quantum circuits. As example applications we study quantum teleportation and dense coding protocols in terms of a simple XOR swapping circuit and give an intuitive picture of a basic gate teleportation circuit.

  3. Circuit design on plastic foils

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, Daniele; Roermund, Arthur H M

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates a variety of circuit designs on plastic foils and provides all the information needed to undertake successful designs in large-area electronics.  The authors demonstrate architectural, circuit, layout, and device solutions and explain the reasons and the creative process behind each. Readers will learn how to keep under control large-area technologies and achieve robust, reliable circuit designs that can face the challenges imposed by low-cost low-temperature high-throughput manufacturing.   • Discusses implications of problems associated with large-area electronics and compares them to standard silicon; • Provides the basis for understanding physics and modeling of disordered material; • Includes guidelines to quickly setup the basic CAD tools enabling efficient and reliable designs; • Illustrates practical solutions to cope with hard/soft faults, variability, mismatch, aging and bias stress at architecture, circuit, layout, and device levels.

  4. Universal Quantum Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Bera, Debajyoti; Fenner, Stephen; Green, Frederic; Homer, Steve

    2008-01-01

    We define and construct efficient depth-universal and almost-size-universal quantum circuits. Such circuits can be viewed as general-purpose simulators for central classes of quantum circuits and can be used to capture the computational power of the circuit class being simulated. For depth we construct universal circuits whose depth is the same order as the circuits being simulated. For size, there is a log factor blow-up in the universal circuits constructed here. We prove that this construc...

  5. Circuit analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago, John

    2013-01-01

    Circuits overloaded from electric circuit analysis? Many universities require that students pursuing a degree in electrical or computer engineering take an Electric Circuit Analysis course to determine who will ""make the cut"" and continue in the degree program. Circuit Analysis For Dummies will help these students to better understand electric circuit analysis by presenting the information in an effective and straightforward manner. Circuit Analysis For Dummies gives you clear-cut information about the topics covered in an electric circuit analysis courses to help

  6. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  7. Mid-pregnancy circulating immune biomarkers in women with preeclampsia and normotensive controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brandie D; Tang, Gong; Ness, Roberta B; Olsen, Jørn; Hougaard, David M; Skogstrand, Kristin; Roberts, James M; Haggerty, Catherine L

    2016-01-01

    To determine if mid-pregnancy circulating immune biomarkers are associated with preeclampsia. Nested case-control study of 410 preeclamptic women and 297 normotensive controls with primiparous singleton pregnancies enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. The mean gestational age in our cohort is 16 weeks (range 9-26). Preeclampsia was defined by blood pressure ⩾140/90 mmHg and proteinuria ⩾3 g/24 h. Serum immune biomarkers included interleukin (IL)-6, IL-6 receptor, IL-4, IL-4 receptor, IL-5, IL-12, IL-2, TNF-α, TNF-β, TNF-receptor, IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-18, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, macrophage inflammatory protein, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and RANTES. Associations with preeclampsia, term preeclampsia and preterm preeclampsia were determined using two logistic regression models; (1) biomarkers were dichotomized by the limit of detection (LOD); (2) on the continuous scale, non-detectable values were imputed by LOD/2 and transformed (base 2). All models were adjusted for body mass index and smoking. IL1β was significantly associated with a decrease in the log odds of preeclampsia (p=0.0065), term preeclampsia (p=0.0230) and preterm preeclampsia (p=0.0068). Results were similar for IL4r and preeclampsia (p=0.0383). In the dichotomized models, detectable TNF-β was significantly associated with preeclampsia (ORadj 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3) and term preeclampsia (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.5) but not preterm preeclampsia. Detectable IL6 was significantly with term preeclampsia only (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.2). Mid-pregnancy circulating IL1β, IL4r, IL6, and TNFβ were associated with preeclampsia. However, results were not consistent across statistical models. As the relationship is complex, future studies should explore cytokine clusters in preeclampsia risk. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Interference effect of impulse noise on noise immunity of communication and control channels in underground structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyboldin, Yu K.; Borisov, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    The interference effect of impulse noise on the noise immunity of underground communication systems is investigated. A comparative analysis of the noise immunity of an optimal demodulator of the discrete FM signals and of the system “wide band – limiter – narrow band”, in the presence of impulse noise, has been carried out.

  9. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling gene expression during the innate immunity response of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI) is an important component of the plant innate immunity response to invading pathogens. However, most of our knowledge of MTI comes from studies of model systems with relatively little work done with crop plants. In this work, we re...

  10. Global stabilization control of high-energy responses of a nonlinear wideband piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using a self-excitation circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Norihiko; Masuda, Arata

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a resonance-type vibration energy harvester using a nonlinear oscillator with self-excitation circuit. The bandwidth of the resonance peak and the performance of the power generation at the resonance frequency are trade- offs for the conventional linear vibration energy harvester. A nonlinear oscillator can expand the resonance frequency band to generate larger electric power in a wider frequency range. However, it is difficult for the harmonically excited nonlinear vibration energy harvester to maintain the highest-energy response under the presence of disturbances since the nonlinear oscillator can have multiple stable steady-state solutions in the resonance band. In order to provide the global stability to the highest-energy solution, we introduce a self-excitation circuit which can destabilize other unexpected lower-energy solutions and entrain the oscillator only in the highest-energy solution. Numerical and experimental studies show that the proposed self-excitation control can provide the global stability to the highest-solution and maintain the high performance of the power generation in the widened resonance frequency band.

  11. Dendritic Cells Coordinate Innate Immunity via MyD88 Signaling to Control Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Arnold-Schrauf

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes (LM, a facultative intracellular Gram-positive pathogen, can cause life-threatening infections in humans. In mice, the signaling cascade downstream of the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 is essential for proper innate immune activation against LM, as MyD88-deficient mice succumb early to infection. Here, we show that MyD88 signaling in dendritic cells (DCs is sufficient to mediate the protective innate response, including the production of proinflammatory cytokines, neutrophil infiltration, bacterial clearance, and full protection from lethal infection. We also demonstrate that MyD88 signaling by DCs controls the infection rates of CD8α+ cDCs and thus limits the spread of LM to the T cell areas. Furthermore, in mice expressing MyD88 in DCs, inflammatory monocytes, which are required for bacterial clearance, are activated independently of intrinsic MyD88 signaling. In conclusion, CD11c+ conventional DCs critically integrate pathogen-derived signals via MyD88 signaling during early infection with LM in vivo.

  12. Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein, a Dual Functional Protein Involved in the Immune Response of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiaoting; Song, Liang; Xia, Qingyou

    2013-01-01

    Insect gut immunity is the first line of defense against oral infection. Although a few immune-related molecules in insect intestine has been identified by genomics or proteomics approach with comparison to well-studied tissues, such as hemolymph or fat body, our knowledge about the molecular mechanism underlying the gut immunity which would involve a variety of unidentified molecules is still limited. To uncover additional molecules that might take part in pathogen recognition, signal transduction or immune regulation in insect intestine, a T7 phage display cDNA library of the silkworm midgut is constructed. By use of different ligands for biopanning, Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) has been selected. BmTCTP is produced in intestinal epithelial cells and released into the gut lumen. The protein level of BmTCTP increases at the early time points during oral microbial infection and declines afterwards. In vitro binding assay confirms its activity as a multi-ligand binding molecule and it can further function as an opsonin that promotes the phagocytosis of microorganisms. Moreover, it can induce the production of anti-microbial peptide via a signaling pathway in which ERK is required and a dynamic tyrosine phosphorylation of certain cytoplasmic membrane protein. Taken together, our results characterize BmTCTP as a dual-functional protein involved in both the cellular and the humoral immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. PMID:23894441

  13. Translationally controlled tumor protein, a dual functional protein involved in the immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    Full Text Available Insect gut immunity is the first line of defense against oral infection. Although a few immune-related molecules in insect intestine has been identified by genomics or proteomics approach with comparison to well-studied tissues, such as hemolymph or fat body, our knowledge about the molecular mechanism underlying the gut immunity which would involve a variety of unidentified molecules is still limited. To uncover additional molecules that might take part in pathogen recognition, signal transduction or immune regulation in insect intestine, a T7 phage display cDNA library of the silkworm midgut is constructed. By use of different ligands for biopanning, Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP has been selected. BmTCTP is produced in intestinal epithelial cells and released into the gut lumen. The protein level of BmTCTP increases at the early time points during oral microbial infection and declines afterwards. In vitro binding assay confirms its activity as a multi-ligand binding molecule and it can further function as an opsonin that promotes the phagocytosis of microorganisms. Moreover, it can induce the production of anti-microbial peptide via a signaling pathway in which ERK is required and a dynamic tyrosine phosphorylation of certain cytoplasmic membrane protein. Taken together, our results characterize BmTCTP as a dual-functional protein involved in both the cellular and the humoral immune response of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

  14. Design of drive circuit of laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yingying; Huang, Xuegong; Xu, Xiaobin

    2016-10-01

    Aiming at the difficult problem of high precision frequency stabilization of semiconductor laser diode, the laser frequency control is realized through the design of the semiconductor drive system. Above all, the relationship between the emission frequency and the temperature of LD is derived theoretically. Then the temperature corresponding to the stable frequency is obtained. According to the desired temperature stability of LD, temperature control system is designed, which is composed of a temperature setting circuit, temperature gathering circuit, the temperature display circuit, analog PID control circuit and a semiconductor refrigerator control circuit module. By sampling technology, voltage of platinum resistance is acquired, and the converted temperature is display on liquid crystal display. PID analog control circuit controls speed stability and precision of temperature control. The constant current source circuit is designed to provide the reference voltage by a voltage stabilizing chip, which is buffered by an operational amplifier. It is connected with the MOSFET to drive the semiconductor laser to provide stable current for the semiconductor laser. PCB circuit board was finished and the experimental was justified. The experimental results show that: the design of the temperature control system could achieve the goal of temperature monitoring. Meanwhile, temperature can be stabilized at 40°C +/- 0.1°C. The output voltage of the constant current source is 2 V. The current is 35 mA.

  15. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  16. Digital Optical Circuit Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, B. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Proceedings for the 48th Meeting of the AGARD Avionics Panel contain the 18 papers presented a Technical Evaluation Report, and discussions that followed the presentations of papers. Seven papers were presented in the session devoted to optical bistability. Optical logic was addressed by three papers. The session on sources, modulators and demodulators presented three papers. Five papers were given in the final session on all optical systems. The purpose of this Specialists' Meeting was to present the research and development status of digital optical circuit technology and to examine its relevance in the broad context of digital processing, communication, radar, avionics and flight control systems implementation.

  17. Substrate noise coupling in analog/RF circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Bronckers, Stephane; Vandersteen, Gerd; Rolain, Yves

    2010-01-01

    This practical resource offers you detailed guidance on the impact of substrate noise on a wide range of circuits operating from baseband frequencies up to mm-wave frequencies. This unique book presents case studies to illustrate that careful modeling of the assembly characteristics and layout details is required to bring simulations and measurements into agreement. You learn how to use a proper combination of isolation structures and circuit techniques to make analog/RF circuits more immune to substrate noise.

  18. The circuit designer's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Tim

    1991-01-01

    The Circuit Designer's Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are foll

  19. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  20. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  1. Intelligent Motion Control for Four-Wheeled Holonomic Mobile Robots Using FPGA-Based Artificial Immune System Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu-Chih Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent motion controller for four-wheeled holonomic mobile robots with four driving omnidirectional wheels equally spaced at 90 degrees from one another by using field-programmable gate array (FPGA-based artificial immune system (AIS algorithm. Both the nature-inspired AIS computational approach and motion controller are implemented in one FPGA chip to address the optimal control problem of real-world mobile robotics application. The proposed FPGA-based AIS method takes the advantages of artificial intelligence and FPGA technology by using system-on-a-programmable chip (SoPC methodology. Experimental results are conducted to show the effectiveness and merit of the proposed FPGA-based AIS intelligent motion controller for four-wheeled omnidirectional mobile robots. This FPGA-based AIS autotuning intelligent controller outperforms the conventional nonoptimal controllers, the genetic algorithm (GA controller, and the particle swarm optimization (PSO controller.

  2. Epithelial p38alpha controls immune cell recruitment in the colonic mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jun Kang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs compose the first barrier against microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the NF-kappaB pathway in IECs was recently shown to be essential for epithelial integrity and intestinal immune homeostasis, the roles of other inflammatory signaling pathways in immune responses in IECs are still largely unknown. Here we show that p38alpha in IECs is critical for chemokine expression, subsequent immune cell recruitment into the intestinal mucosa, and clearance of the infected pathogen. Mice with p38alpha deletion in IECs suffer from a sustained bacterial burden after inoculation with Citrobacter rodentium. These animals are normal in epithelial integrity and immune cell function, but fail to recruit CD4(+ T cells into colonic mucosal lesions. The expression of chemokines in IECs is impaired, which appears to be responsible for the impaired T cell recruitment. Thus, p38alpha in IECs contributes to the host immune responses against enteric bacteria by the recruitment of immune cells.

  3. Protein and mRNA levels support the notion that a genetic regulatory circuit controls growth phases in E. coli populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustino Martinez-Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial populations transition between growing and non-growing phases, based on nutrient availability and stresses conditions. The hallmark of a growing state is anabolism, including DNA replication and cell division. In contrast, bacteria in a growth-arrested state acquire a resistant physiology and diminished metabolism. However, there is little knowledge on how this transition occurs at the molecular level. Here, we provide new evidence that a multi-element genetic regulatory circuit might work to maintain genetic control among growth-phase transitions in Escherichia coli. This work contributes to the discovering of design principles behind the performance of biological functions, which could be of relevance on the new disciplines of biological engineering and synthetic biology.

  4. Interface control of semiconducting metal oxide layers for efficient and stable inverted polymer solar cells with open-circuit voltages over 1.0 volt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhigang; Zheng, Qingdong; Chen, Shan-Ci; Cai, Dongdong

    2013-09-25

    Inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) with high open-circuit voltages of 1.00-1.06 V are fabricated by using an indenofluorene-containing copolymer (PIFTBT8) as an electron donor material and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as an electron acceptor material. To improve the photovoltaic performance, interface control of various low-temperature processed ZnO films as cathode buffer layers is systematically investigated for effective electron transportation, while transition metal oxides including MoO3, WO3, NiO, and Cu2O are employed as anode buffer layers for hole-extraction. Incorporation of optimized semiconducting metal oxide interlayers can minimize interfacial power losses, which thus affords large open-circuit voltages (Voc), increased short-circuit current densities (Jsc), and fill factors (FF), eventually contributing to higher power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) as well as better device stability. Due to the improved interfacial contacts and fine-matching energy levels, inverted PSCs with a device configuration of ITO/ZnO/PIFTBT8:PC71BM/MoO3/Ag exhibit a high PCE of 5.05% with a large Voc of 1.04 V, a Jsc of 9.74 mA cm(-2), and an FF of 50.1%. For the single junction inverted PSCs with efficiencies over 5.0%, 1.04 V is the largest Voc ever achieved. By controlling the processing conditions of the active layer, the Voc can further be improved to 1.05 and 1.06 V, with PCEs of 4.70% and 4.18%, respectively. More importantly, the inverted PSCs are ascertained to maintain a PCE of 4.55% (>90% of its initial efficiency) and a Voc of 1.05 V over 180 days, demonstrating good long-term stability, which is much better than that of the conventional devices. The results suggest that the interface engineering of metal oxide interlayers is an important strategy to develop PSCs with good performance.

  5. CD4+ levels control the odds of induction of humoral immune responses to tracer doses of therapeutic antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasula, Sharat; Gabriel, Erin; Kim, Insook; DeGrange, Paula; St Claire, Alexis; Mallow, Candace; Donahue, Robert E; Paik, Chang; Lane, H C; Di Mascio, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Rapidly increasing number of therapeutic antibodies are being repurposed to imaging probes for noninvasive diagnosis, as well as monitoring during treatment or disease recurrence. Though antibody-based imaging involves tracer doses (~3 log lower than therapeutic doses), and immune responses are severely reduced in patients with impaired immunity, formation of anti-tracer antibodies (ATA) has been observed hampering further diagnostic monitoring. Here, we explored the potential to develop humoral responses to intravenously administered tracer dose of a monoclonal antibody F(ab΄)2 fragment, and associated with host related immune measures in 49 rhesus macaques categorized into healthy (uninfected controls), SIV-progressors, SIV non-progressors, or total body irradiated (TBI). Antibody fragment administered in tracer amount (~100μg) induced immune responses with significantly lower odds in SIV-progressors or TBI macaques (P<0.005) as compared to healthy animals. Peripheral blood (PB) CD4+ cell counts, but not CD20+ cell levels, were associated with significantly higher risk of developing a humoral response (P<0.001). Doubling the PB CD4+ counts is associated with an odds ratio of developing an immune response of 1.73. Among SIV-infected animals, CD4+ cell count was a stronger predictor of immune response than plasma SIV-RNA levels. Both SIV-progressors and TBI macaques showed higher odds of responses with increasing CD4+ counts, however when compared to healthy or SIV non-progressors with similar CD4+ count, they were still functionally incompetent in generating a response (P<0.01). Moreover, presence of ATA in systemic circulation altered the in vivo biodistribution by increasing hepatic uptake and decreasing plasma radiotracer clearance, with minimal to no binding detected in targeted tissues.

  6. Impact of innate immunity in a subset of children with autism spectrum disorders: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cushing-Ruby Agnes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD evaluated in our clinic, there appears to be a subset that can be clinically distinguished from other ASD children because of frequent infections (usually viral accompanied by worsening behavioural symptoms and/or loss/decrease in acquired skills. This study assessed whether these clinical features of this ASD subset are associated with atopy, asthma, food allergy (FA, primary immunodeficiency (PID, or innate immune responses important in viral infections. Methods This study included the ASD children described above (ASD test, N = 26 and the following controls: ASD controls (N = 107, non-ASD controls with FA (N = 24, non-ASD controls with chronic rhinosinusitis/recurrent otitis media (CRS/ROM; N = 38, and normal controls (N = 43. We assessed prevalence of atopy, asthma, FA, CRS/ROM, and PID. Innate immune responses were assessed by measuring production of proinflammatory and counter-regulatory cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in response to agonists of Toll-like receptors (TLRs, with or without pre-treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a TLR4 agonist. Results Non-IgE mediated FA was equally prevalent in both ASD test and ASD control groups, occurring at higher frequency than in the non-ASD controls. Allergic rhinitis, atopic/non-atopic asthma, and atopic dermatitis were equally prevalent among the study groups except for the CRS/ROM group in which non-atopic asthma was more prevalent (52.6%. CRS/ROM and specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD were more prevalent in the ASD test group than in the ASD control, FA, and normal control groups: 23.1% vs. Conclusion Clinical features of the ASD test group were not associated with atopy, asthma, FA, or PID in our study but may be associated with altered TLR responses mediating neuro-immune interactions.

  7. Noise effects on robust synchronization of a small pacemaker neuronal ensemble via nonlinear controller: electronic circuit design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megam Ngouonkadi, Elie Bertrand; Fotsin, Hilaire Bertrand; Kabong Nono, Martial; Louodop Fotso, Patrick Herve

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we report on the synchronization of a pacemaker neuronal ensemble constituted of an AB neuron electrically coupled to two PD neurons. By the virtue of this electrical coupling, they can fire synchronous bursts of action potential. An external master neuron is used to induce to the whole system the desired dynamics, via a nonlinear controller. Such controller is obtained by a combination of sliding mode and feedback control. The proposed controller is able to offset uncertainties in the synchronized systems. We show how noise affects the synchronization of the pacemaker neuronal ensemble, and briefly discuss its potential benefits in our synchronization scheme. An extended Hindmarsh-Rose neuronal model is used to represent a single cell dynamic of the network. Numerical simulations and Pspice implementation of the synchronization scheme are presented. We found that, the proposed controller reduces the stochastic resonance of the network when its gain increases.

  8. Fingerprinted circuits and methods of making and identifying the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Michael Ian (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A circuit having a fingerprint for identification of a particular instantiation of the circuit is disclosed. The circuit may include a plurality of digital circuits or gates. Each of the digital circuits or gates is responsive to a configuration voltage applied to its analog input for controlling whether or not the digital circuit or gate performs its intended digital function and each of the digital circuits or gates transitioning between its functional state and its at least one other state when the configuration voltage equals a boundary voltage. The boundary voltage varies between different instantiations of the circuit for a majority of the digital circuits or gates and these differing boundary voltages serving to identify (or fingerprint) different instantiations of the same circuit.

  9. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  10. Commensal Lactobacillus Controls Immune Tolerance during Acute Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Nakamoto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Gut-derived microbial antigens trigger the innate immune system during acute liver injury. During recovery, regulatory immunity plays a role in suppressing inflammation; however, the precise mechanism underlying this process remains obscure. Here, we find that recruitment of immune-regulatory classical dendritic cells (cDCs is crucial for liver tolerance in concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury. Acute liver injury resulted in enrichment of commensal Lactobacillus in the gut. Notably, Lactobacillus activated IL-22 production by gut innate lymphoid cells and raised systemic IL-22 levels. Gut-derived IL-22 enhanced mucosal barrier function and promoted the recruitment of regulatory cDCs to the liver. These cDCs produced IL-10 and TGF-β through TLR9 activation, preventing further liver inflammation. Collectively, our results indicate that beneficial gut microbes influence tolerogenic immune responses in the liver. Therefore, modulation of the gut microbiota might be a potential option to regulate liver tolerance. : Nakamoto et.al. find that Lactobacillus accumulates in the gut and activates IL-22 production by innate lymphoid cells during acute liver injury. Gut-derived IL-22 contributes to liver tolerance via induction of regulatory DCs. Keywords: immune tolerance, dendritic cell, innate lymphoid cell, acute liver injury, interleukin-10, interleukin-22, microbiota, dysbiosis

  11. Apical Organelle Secretion by Toxoplasma Controls Innate and Adaptive Immunity and Mediates Long-Term Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloves, Pierre-Julien; Mouveaux, Thomas; Ait-Yahia, Saliha; Vorng, Han; Everaere, Laetitia; Sangare, Lamba Omar; Tsicopoulos, Anne; Tomavo, Stanislas

    2015-11-01

    Apicomplexan parasites have unique apical rhoptry and microneme secretory organelles that are crucial for host infection, although their role in protection against Toxoplasma gondii infection is not thoroughly understood. Here, we report a novel function of the endolysosomal T. gondii sortilin-like receptor (TgSORTLR), which mediates trafficking to functional apical organelles and their subsequent secretion of virulence factors that are critical to the induction of sterile immunity against parasite reinfection. We further demonstrate that the T. gondii armadillo repeats-only protein (TgARO) mutant, which is deficient only in apical secretion of rhoptries, is also critical in mounting protective immunity. The lack of TgSORTLR and TgARO proteins completely inhibited T-helper 1-dependent adaptive immunity and compromised the function of natural killer T-cell-mediated innate immunity. Our findings reveal an essential role for apical secretion in promoting sterile protection against T. gondii and provide strong evidence for rhoptry-regulated discharge of antigens as a key effector for inducing protective immunity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Mechanisms That Regulate Peripheral Immune Responses to Control Organ-Specific Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard F. Hoyne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system must balance the need to maintain a diverse repertoire of lymphocytes to be able to fight infection with the need to maintain tolerance to self-proteins. The immune system places strict regulation over the ability of T cells to produce the major T cell growth factor interleukin 2 as this cytokine can influence a variety of immune outcomes. T cells require the delivery of two signals, one through the antigen receptor and a second through the costimulatory receptor CD28. The immune system uses a variety of E3 ubiquitin ligases to target signaling proteins that function downstream of the TCR and CD28 receptors. Mutations in these E3 ligases can lead to a breakdown in immune tolerance and development of autoimmunity. This paper will examine the role of a range of E3 ubiquitin ligases and signaling pathways that influence the development of T-cell effector responses and the development of organ-specific autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes.

  13. Control of the Amplitude in a Surging Balling Drum Circuit, a New Approach to an Old Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Rapp

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest a new method for controlling the balling drums used in the iron ore industry. We suggest that a cluster of drums are controlled collectively rather than individually. Further, we investigate the possibility of using an extended Kalman filter for estimating the amplitude and frequency of the oscillations in such drums. The filters thresholding point is identified, and the area for which the filter is usable is given. Finally a simulation of the proposed control scheme, based on a simple nonlinear model, is presented.

  14. Classical circuit theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wing, Omar

    2008-01-01

    Starting with the basic principles of circuits, this book derives their analytic properties in both the time and frequency domains. It develops an algorithmic method to design common and uncommon types of circuits, such as prototype filters, lumped delay lines, constant phase difference circuits, and delay equalizers.

  15. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  16. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  17. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  18. Exact Threshold Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    with the well-studied corresponding hierarchies defined using ordinary threshold gates. A major open problem in Boolean circuit complexity is to provide an explicit super-polynomial lower bound for depth two threshold circuits. We identify the class of depth two exact threshold circuits as a natural subclass...

  19. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  20. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  1. Posttranslational Modifications of the Master Transcriptional Regulator NPR1 Enable Dynamic but Tight Control of Plant Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Abdelaty; Withers, John; Mohan, Rajinikanth; Marqués, Jorge; Gu, Yangnan; Yan, Shunping; Zavaliev, Raul; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Dong, Xinnian

    2015-08-12

    NPR1, a master regulator of basal and systemic acquired resistance in plants, confers immunity through a transcriptional cascade, which includes transcription activators (e.g., TGA3) and repressors (e.g., WRKY70), leading to the massive induction of antimicrobial genes. How this single protein orchestrates genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming in response to immune stimulus remains a major question. Paradoxically, while NPR1 is essential for defense gene induction, its turnover appears to be required for this function, suggesting that NPR1 activity and degradation are dynamically regulated. Here we show that sumoylation of NPR1 by SUMO3 activates defense gene expression by switching NPR1's association with the WRKY transcription repressors to TGA transcription activators. Sumoylation also triggers NPR1 degradation, rendering the immune induction transient. SUMO modification of NPR1 is inhibited by phosphorylation at Ser55/Ser59, which keeps NPR1 stable and quiescent. Thus, posttranslational modifications enable dynamic but tight and precise control of plant immune responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. HLA-B*57 Micropolymorphism shapes HLA allele-specific epitope immunogenicity, selection pressure, and HIV immune control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Henrik Nyhus; Buus, Anette Stryhn; van der Stok, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The genetic polymorphism that has the greatest impact on immune control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is expression of HLA-B*57. Understanding of the mechanism for this strong effect remains incomplete. HLA-B*57 alleles and the closely related HLA-B*5801 are often grouped together...... because of their similar peptide-binding motifs and HIV disease outcome associations. However, we show here that the apparently small differences between HLA-B*57 alleles, termed HLA-B*57 micropolymorphisms, have a significant impact on immune control of HIV. In a study cohort of >2,000 HIV C......-clade-infected subjects from southern Africa, HLA-B*5703 is associated with a lower viral-load set point than HLA-B*5702 and HLA-B*5801 (medians, 5,980, 15,190, and 19,000 HIV copies/ml plasma; P = 0.24 and P = 0.0005). In order to better understand these observed differences in HLA-B*57/5801-mediated immune control...

  3. Energy metabolic pathways control the fate and function of myeloid immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khami, Amir A; Rodriguez, Paulo C; Ochoa, Augusto C

    2017-08-01

    The past decade has seen a significant interest in investigating the intracellular metabolism of cells of the immune system. This has increased the realization that immune cells endure metabolic reprogramming upon responding to pathogen-derived or inflammatory signals. More importantly, not only does this metabolic switch provide for the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands but also it, in a highly specific manner, determines the cellular fate and function. In this review, we discuss the metabolic aspects that regulate the differentiation and function of myeloid cells, pivotal for both innate and adaptive immunity. The manipulation of these pathways can alter the function of these cells and therefore, could provide novel therapeutic approaches in cancer and other chronic inflammatory conditions. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  4. The epithelia-specific membrane trafficking factor AP-1B controls gut immune homeostasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Hase, Koji; Kimura, Shunsuke; Nakatsu, Fubito; Ohmae, Masumi; Mandai, Yasushi; Sato, Toru; Date, Yasuhiro; Ebisawa, Masashi; Kato, Tamotsu; Obata, Yuuki; Fukuda, Shinji; Kawamura, Yuki I; Dohi, Taeko; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Yokosuka, Osamu; Waguri, Satoshi; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Epithelial cells that cover the intestinal mucosal surface maintain immune homeostasis and tolerance in the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate epithelial immune functions. Epithelial cells are distinct in that they are highly polarized; this polarity is, at least in part, established by the epithelium-specific polarized sorting factor adaptor protein (AP)-1B. We investigated the role of AP-1B-mediated protein sorting in the maintenance of gastrointestinal immune homeostasis. The role of AP-1B in intestinal immunity was examined in AP-1B-deficient mice (Ap1m2(-/-)) by monitoring their phenotypes, intestinal morphology, and epithelial barrier functions. AP-1B-mediated protein sorting was examined in polarized epithelial cells from AP-1B knockdown and Ap1m2(-/-) mice. Ap1m2(-/-) mice developed spontaneous chronic colitis, characterized by accumulation of interleukin-17A-producing, T-helper 17 cells. Deficiency of AP-1B caused epithelial immune dysfunction, such as reduced expression of antimicrobial proteins and impaired secretion of immunoglobulin A. These defects promoted intestinal dysbiosis and increased bacterial translocation within the mucosa. Importantly, AP-1B deficiency led to mistargeting of a subset of basolateral cytokine receptors to the apical plasma membrane in a polarized epithelial cell line and in colonic epithelial cells from mice. AP1M2 expression was reduced significantly in colonic epithelium samples from patients with Crohn's disease. AP-1B is required for proper localization of a subset of cytokine receptors in polarized epithelial cells, which allows them to respond to cytokine signals from underlying lamina propria cells. The AP-1B-mediated protein sorting machinery is required for maintenance of immune homeostasis and prevention of excessive inflammation. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Regulatory Circuit Composed of a Transcription Factor, IscR, and a Regulatory RNA, RyhB, Controls Fe-S Cluster Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mandin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fe-S clusters are cofactors conserved through all domains of life. Once assembled by dedicated ISC and/or SUF scaffolds, Fe-S clusters are conveyed to their apo-targets via A-type carrier proteins (ATCs. Escherichia coli possesses four such ATCs. ErpA is the only ATC essential under aerobiosis. Recent studies reported a possible regulation of the erpA mRNA by the small RNA (sRNA RyhB, which controls the expression of many genes under iron starvation. Surprisingly, erpA has not been identified in recent transcriptomic analysis of the iron starvation response, thus bringing into question the actual physiological significance of the putative regulation of erpA by RyhB. Using an sRNA library, we show that among 26 sRNAs, only RyhB represses the expression of an erpA-lacZ translational fusion. We further demonstrate that this repression occurs during iron starvation. Using mutational analysis, we show that RyhB base pairs to the erpA mRNA, inducing its disappearance. In addition, IscR, the master regulator of Fe-S homeostasis, represses expression of erpA at the transcriptional level when iron is abundant, but depleting iron from the medium alleviates this repression. The conjunction of transcriptional derepression by IscR and posttranscriptional repression by RyhB under Fe-limiting conditions is best described as an incoherent regulatory circuit. This double regulation allows full expression of erpA at iron concentrations for which Fe-S biogenesis switches from the ISC to the SUF system. We further provide evidence that this regulatory circuit coordinates ATC usage to iron availability.

  6. Analysis of the immune system of multiple myeloma patients achieving long-term disease control by multidimensional flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa de Magalhães, Roberto J; Vidriales, María-Belén; Paiva, Bruno; Fernandez-Gimenez, Carlos; García-Sanz, Ramón; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Gutierrez, Norma C; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Blanco, Juan F; Hernández, Jose; de las Heras, Natalia; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Roig, Monica; Costa, Elaine Sobral; Ocio, Enrique M; Perez-Andres, Martin; Maiolino, Angelo; Nucci, Marcio; De La Rubia, Javier; Lahuerta, Juan-Jose; San-Miguel, Jesús F; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma remains largely incurable. However, a few patients experience more than 10 years of relapse-free survival and can be considered as operationally cured. Interestingly, long-term disease control in multiple myeloma is not restricted to patients with a complete response, since some patients revert to having a profile of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We compared the distribution of multiple compartments of lymphocytes and dendritic cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control (n=28), patients with newly diagnosed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (n=23), patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (n=23), and age-matched healthy adults (n=10). Similarly to the patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and symptomatic multiple myeloma, patients with long-term disease control showed an expansion of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells and natural killer cells. However, the numbers of bone marrow T-regulatory cells were lower in patients with long-term disease control than in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma. It is noteworthy that B cells were depleted in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, but recovered in both the bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with long-term disease control, due to an increase in normal bone marrow B-cell precursors and plasma cells, as well as pre-germinal center peripheral blood B cells. The number of bone marrow dendritic cells and tissue macrophages differed significantly between patients with long-term disease control and those with symptomatic multiple myeloma, with a trend to cell count recovering in the former group of patients towards levels similar to those found in healthy adults. In summary, our results indicate that multiple myeloma patients with long-term disease control have a constellation of unique immune changes

  7. OTULIN Restricts Met1-Linked Ubiquitination to Control Innate Immune Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Damgaard, Rune Busk; Wagner, Sebastian Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Conjugation of Met1-linked polyubiquitin (Met1-Ub) by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) is an important regulatory modification in innate immune signaling. So far, only few Met1-Ub substrates have been described, and the regulatory mechanisms have remained elusive. We recently...... spontaneously accumulated Met1-Ub on LUBAC components, and NOD2 or TNFR1 stimulation led to extensive Met1-Ub accumulation on receptor complex components. We propose that OTULIN restricts Met1-Ub formation after immune receptor stimulation to prevent unwarranted proinflammatory signaling....

  8. Genetic control of the variable innate immune response to asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Grönberg-Hernández

    Full Text Available The severity of urinary tract infection (UTI reflects the quality and magnitude of the host response. While strong local and systemic innate immune activation occurs in patients with acute pyelonephritis, the response to asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU is low. The immune response repertoire in ABU has not been characterized, due to the inherent problem to distinguish bacterial differences from host-determined variation. In this study, we investigated the host response to ABU and genetic variants affecting innate immune signaling and UTI susceptibility. Patients were subjected to therapeutic urinary tract inoculation with E. coli 83972 to ensure that they were exposed to the same E. coli strain. The innate immune response repertoire was characterized in urine samples, collected from each patient before and after inoculation with bacteria or PBS, if during the placebo arm of the study. Long-term E. coli 83972 ABU was established in 23 participants, who were followed for up to twelve months and the innate immune response was quantified in 233 urine samples. Neutrophil numbers increased in all but two patients and in an extended urine cytokine/chemokine analysis (31 proteins, the chemoattractants IL-8 and GRO-α, RANTES, Eotaxin-1 and MCP-1, the T cell chemoattractant and antibacterial peptide IP-10, inflammatory regulators IL-1-α and sIL-1RA and the T lymphocyte/dendritic cell product sIL-2Rα were detected and variably increased, compared to sterile samples. IL-6, which is associated with symptomatic UTI, remained low and numerous specific immune mediators were not detected. The patients were also genotyped for UTI-associated IRF3 and TLR4 promoter polymorphisms. Patients with ABU associated TLR4 polymorphisms had low neutrophil numbers, IL-6, IP-10, MCP-1 and sIL-2Rα concentrations. Patients with the ABU-associated IRF3 genotype had lower neutrophils, IL-6 and MCP-1 responses than the remaining group. The results suggest that the host

  9. A INFLUÊNCIA DO TREINAMENTO RESISTIDO E AERÓBIO EM FORMA DE CIRCUIT TRAINING NO CONTROLE GLICÊMICO DO DIABETES TIPO I: ESTUDO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tadeu Grzelczak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes Mellitus é uma doença que pode desencadear uma série de complicações, desde problemas renais, hipertensão até cegueira e amputações. O exercício é normalmente indicado para portadores de diabetes, auxiliando no controle da doença, aumentando a sensibilidade à insulina, estabilizando as taxas de glicose no sangue auxiliando no controle de peso e redução das doses de insulina. Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar a influência do treinamento de musculação ou treinamento resistido,sendo desenvolvido em forma de circuito com treinamento aeróbio durante as seções, no controle da glicemia de um diabético tipo 1 (insulino dependente. A amostra foi composta por um homem de 27 anos portador de Diabetes Mellitus tipo1, insulino dependente a 4 anos. O programa de exercícios teve duração de 90dias e consistiu de um Circuit Training de musculação(contrações dinâmicas em séries únicas de 30 repetições e aeróbio (intensidade60% a 80% da frequência cardíaca máxima, foi aplicada na estatística descritiva.Foi observado diminuição da média glicêmica de 209,3 mg/dl no inicio do treinamentopara 122,4 mg/dl, ao final do estudo, uma diminuição de 41,52 % em relação a média inicial. Observou-se diminuição dos níveis de HbA1c de 7,10% para 5,02%. Neste sentido o treinamento de musculação e aeróbio em Circuit Training demonstrou ser uma opção salutar para o controle glicêmico de portadores de diabetes tipo1.

  10. FastStats: Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Immunization Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... 2015 Related Links National Health Interview Survey National Immunization Survey Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Vaccines ...

  11. Noise in biological circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael L; Cox, Chris D; Allen, Michael S; McCollum, James M; Dar, Roy D; Karig, David K; Cooke, John F

    2009-01-01

    Noise biology focuses on the sources, processing, and biological consequences of the inherent stochastic fluctuations in molecular transitions or interactions that control cellular behavior. These fluctuations are especially pronounced in small systems where the magnitudes of the fluctuations approach or exceed the mean value of the molecular population. Noise biology is an essential component of nanomedicine where the communication of information is across a boundary that separates small synthetic and biological systems that are bound by their size to reside in environments of large fluctuations. Here we review the fundamentals of the computational, analytical, and experimental approaches to noise biology. We review results that show that the competition between the benefits of low noise and those of low population has resulted in the evolution of genetic system architectures that produce an uneven distribution of stochasticity across the molecular components of cells and, in some cases, use noise to drive biological function. We review the exact and approximate approaches to gene circuit noise analysis and simulation, and review many of the key experimental results obtained using flow cytometry and time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. In addition, we consider the probative value of noise with a discussion of using measured noise properties to elucidate the structure and function of the underlying gene circuit. We conclude with a discussion of the frontiers of and significant future challenges for noise biology. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Circuit prevents overcharging of secondary cell batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, T. J.; Potter, N. H.; Sizemore, K. O.

    1966-01-01

    Circuit prevents battery cell overcharging by detecting and reducing the charging voltage to the open-circuit voltage of the battery when this current falls to a predetermined value. The voltage control depends on the fact that the charging current falls significantly when the battery nears its fully charged state.

  13. Hacking DNA copy number for circuit engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feilun; You, Lingchong

    2017-07-27

    DNA copy number represents an essential parameter in the dynamics of synthetic gene circuits but typically is not explicitly considered. A new study demonstrates how dynamic control of DNA copy number can serve as an effective strategy to program robust oscillations in gene expression circuits.

  14. Virological and morphological relationships in the phases of the immune control and reactivation in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Gabdrakhmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate relationships between virological and morphological data in patients with chronic hepatitis B in phase immune control and reactivation.Materials and methods: The study involved 46 patients with chronic hepatitis B, indicators defined were content of surface antigen and hepatitis B virus DNA in the peripheral blood, the level of covalently closed circular HBV DNA in liver tissue and fibrosis stage and histological activity index (METAVIR.Results: The study found a direct correlation between the level of covalently closed circular DNA in liver puncture biopsies (number of copies per cell and quantitative content of HBsAg in serum (r = 0,51, p = 0,03 in patients with chronic hepatitis B in phase immune control. Also in the immune control phase a direct correlation between the HBV DNA and the level of HBsAg in serum (r = 0.79, p = 0.0001 is shown. The level of covalently closed circular HBV DNA in liver puncture biopsy specimens did not differ in patients with chronic hepatitis B in the phase of immune control in the phase of reactivation (1,02 ± 0,01 copies / cell and 1,03 ± 0,03 copies / cell, p = 0.72. The index of histological activity and fibrosis were not correlated with any of the investigated virological indicator.Conclusion: Results of the study emphasized the complexity and ambiguity of the relationships between both virological and morphological indicators in patients with chronic hepatitis B, determined the direction for further study (in particular the assessment of the epigenetic regulation of the synthesis of circular covalently closed DNA, as well as set the stage for improving the principles of dynamic observing the patients with chronic hepatitis B in a phase of immune control.

  15. A Review on Grid-connected Converter Control for Short Circuit Power Provision under Grid Unbalanced Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Jundi; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2017-01-01

    behave significantly different from the traditional alternators under grid faults. In order to evaluate the potential impact of future converter-based power systems on protective relays, it is necessary to consider diverse current control strategies of voltage source converters (VSC) under unbalanced...

  16. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has opposite effects on memory circuits of multiple sclerosis patients and controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fera

    Full Text Available Episodic memory deficits are frequent symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis and have been associated with dysfunctions of the hippocampus, a key region for learning. However, it is unclear whether genetic factors that influence neural plasticity modulate episodic memory in MS. We thus studied how the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val(66Met genotype, a common polymorphism influencing the hippocampal function in healthy controls, impacted on brain networks underlying episodic memory in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess how the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val(66Met polymorphism modulated brain regional activity and functional connectivity in 26 cognitively unimpaired Multiple Sclerosis patients and 25 age- and education-matched healthy controls while performing an episodic memory task that included encoding and retrieving visual scenes. We found a highly significant group by genotype interaction in the left posterior hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampus, and left posterior cingulate cortex. In particular, Multiple Sclerosis patients homozygous for the Val(66 allele, relative to Met(66 carriers, showed greater brain responses during both encoding and retrieval while the opposite was true for healthy controls. Furthermore, a robust group by genotype by task interaction was detected for the functional connectivity between the left posterior hippocampus and the ipsilateral posterior cingulate cortex. Here, greater hippocampus-posterior cingulate cortex connectivity was observed in Multiple Sclerosis Met(66 carriers relative to Val(66 homozygous during retrieval (but not encoding while, again, the reverse was true for healthy controls. The Val(66Met polymorphism has opposite effects on hippocampal circuitry underlying episodic memory in Multiple Sclerosis patients and healthy controls. Enhancing the knowledge of how genetic factors influence cognitive functions may improve the clinical

  17. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  18. Immunity in frail elderly : a randomized controlled trial of exercise and enriched foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Jong, de N.; Pallast, E.G.M.; Kloek, G.; Schouten, E.G.; Kok, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    To examine the effects of 17-wk physical exercise and enriched foods on cellular immune response (CIR) in frail elderly. METHODS: A total of 112 independently living, frail elderly men and women (mean age 79.2 /- 5.9) received: twice weekly comprehensive, moderate intensity, progressive group

  19. Target cell limited and immune control models of HIV infection : A comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de; Perelson, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    We develop various mathematical models of the clinical latency stage of HIV-1 infection assuming that HIV-1 infection is limited either by the availability of cells that HIV can infect or by a specific anti-HIV cellular immune response. The former models we call "target-cell-limited". Comparing the

  20. Dynamics of formation of passive and active immunity and control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vera

    The aim of this study was to come to a closer understanding of the origination, dynamics of movement and cessation of colostral immunity to parvovirus infection in swine (PPV) on the basis of an analysis of antibody titres in the blood serum of piglets in their first 6 months. On the third day of life in the blood serum of newborn ...

  1. NOD-Like Receptor P3 Inflammasome Controls Protective Th1/Th17 Immunity against Pulmonary Paracoccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Feriotti

    2017-07-01

    CD8+ T cells expressing IFN-γ and IL-17 whereas those producing IL-4 and TGF-β appeared in increased frequencies. Histopathological studies showed that all deficient mouse strains developed more severe lesions containing elevated numbers of budding yeast cells resulting in increased mortality rates. Altogether, these findings led us to conclude that the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome has a crucial role in the immunoprotection against pulmonary PCM by promoting the expansion of Th1/Th17 immunity and reducing the suppressive control mediated by Treg cells.

  2. High Quality Acquisition of Surface Electromyography - Conditioning Circuit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Khan, Sheroz; Nurashikin, Anis; Haider, Samnan; Larbani, Sofiane; Arshad, Atika; Tasnim, Rumana

    2013-12-01

    The acquisition of Surface Electromyography (SEMG) signals is used for many applications including the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases, and prosthesis control. The diagnostic quality of the SEMG signal is highly dependent on the conditioning circuit of the SEMG acquisition system. This paper presents the design of an SEMG conditioning circuit that can guarantee to collect high quality signal with high SNR such that it is immune to environmental noise. The conditioning circuit consists of four stages; consisting of an instrumentation amplifier that is used with a gain of around 250; 4th order band pass filter in the 20-500Hz frequency range as the two initial stages. The third stage is an amplifier with adjustable gain using a variable resistance; the gain could be changed from 1000 to 50000. In the final stage the signal is translated to meet the input requirements of data acquisition device or the ADC. Acquisition of accurate signals allows it to be analyzed for extracting the required characteristic features for medical and clinical applications. According to the experimental results, the value of SNR for collected signal is 52.4 dB which is higher than the commercial system, the power spectrum density (PSD) graph is also presented and it shows that the filter has eliminated the noise below 20 Hz.

  3. Control of equine infectious anemia virus replication following immune reconstitution in an Arabian foal with severe combined immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Robert H.; Fraser, Darrilyn G.; Oaks, J. Lindsay; Cantor, Glenn H.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2012-01-01

    Acute infection with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a lentivirus of horses, results in a persistent high-level viremia in Arabian foals affected with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This observation argues against the idea that the transient nature of acute lentiviral viremia is solely a function of viral population dynamics. To extend these studies, EIAV-specific immune reconstitution was attempted prior to EIAV challenge in 2 SCID foals, using adoptively transferred virus-stimulated lymphocytes derived from persistently EIAV-infected half sibling donors. Following transfer, lymphocyte engraftment occurred in 1 foal, and EIAV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes as well as neutralizing antibody activity developed. Following a brief period of plasma viremia in this foal, EIAV replication was controlled and plasma virus could not be detected by RT-PCR or culture. These results provide further direct evidence that a specific immune response is required for termination of plasma viremia in acute lentiviral infections. PMID:11683583

  4. Plant nonsense-mediated mRNA decay is controlled by different autoregulatory circuits and can be induced by an EJC-like complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyikó, Tünde; Kerényi, Farkas; Szabadkai, Levente; Benkovics, Anna H.; Major, Péter; Sonkoly, Boglárka; Mérai, Zsuzsanna; Barta, Endre; Niemiec, Emilia; Kufel, Joanna; Silhavy, Dániel

    2013-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic quality control system that recognizes and degrades transcripts containing NMD cis elements in their 3′untranslated region (UTR). In yeasts, unusually long 3′UTRs act as NMD cis elements, whereas in vertebrates, NMD is induced by introns located >50 nt downstream from the stop codon. In vertebrates, splicing leads to deposition of exon junction complex (EJC) onto the mRNA, and then 3′UTR-bound EJCs trigger NMD. It is proposed that this intron-based NMD is vertebrate specific, and it evolved to eliminate the misproducts of alternative splicing. Here, we provide evidence that similar EJC-mediated intron-based NMD functions in plants, suggesting that this type of NMD is evolutionary conserved. We demonstrate that in plants, like in vertebrates, introns located >50 nt from the stop induces NMD. We show that orthologs of all core EJC components are essential for intron-based plant NMD and that plant Partner of Y14 and mago (PYM) also acts as EJC disassembly factor. Moreover, we found that complex autoregulatory circuits control the activity of plant NMD. We demonstrate that expression of suppressor with morphogenic effect on genitalia (SMG)7, which is essential for long 3′UTR- and intron-based NMD, is regulated by both types of NMD, whereas expression of Barentsz EJC component is downregulated by intron-based NMD. PMID:23666629

  5. Analysis, Adaptive Control and Anti-Synchronization of a Six-Term Novel Jerk Chaotic System with two Exponential Nonlinearities and its Circuit Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vaidyanathan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research work proposes a six-term novel 3-D jerk chaotic system with two exponential nonlinearities. This work also analyses system’s fundamental properties such as dissipativity, equilibria, Lyapunov exponents and Kaplan-Yorke dimension. The phase portraits of the jerk chaotic system simulated using MATLAB, depict the strange chaotic attractor of the system. For the parameter values and initial conditions chosen in this work, the Lyapunov exponents of the novel jerk chaotic system are obtained as L1 = 0.24519, L2 = 0 and L3 = −0.84571. Also, the Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the novel jerk chaotic system is obtained as DKY = 2.2899. Next, an adaptive backstepping controller is designed to stabilize the novel jerk chaotic system having two unknown parameters. Moreover, an adaptive backstepping controller is designed to achieve global chaos anti-synchronization of two identical novel jerk chaotic systems with two unknown system parameters. Finally, an electronic circuit realization of the novel jerk chaotic system is presented using SPICE to confirm the feasibility of the theoretical model.

  6. Limited ability of humoral immune responses in control of viremia during infection with SIVsmmD215 strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribiero, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the impact of humoral immunity on SIV replication, 11 rhesus macaques (RMs) were inoculated with the neutralization-sensitive strain SIVsmmD215. Seven RMs were treated every three weeks, with 50 mglkg of an anti-CD20 antibody (Rituxan, gift from Genentech) starting from day -7 p.i., as follows: four RMs were treated for two months, and three were treated for five months. The remaining four RMs were used as controls. Three RMs were completely depleted of CD20 cells. Four RMs only partially depleted CD20 cells in the LNs and intestine. The efficacy of tissue CD20 depletion predicted the ablation of antibody production, with SIVsmm seroconversion being delayed in the animals with complete tissue CD20 depletion, and neutralizing antibody production being significantly delayed and at low levels in all CD20-depleted RMs. There was no significant difference in acute or chronic VLs between CD20-depleted RMs and control monkeys, with a tendency for lower set-point VLs in CD20-depleted RMs. At 6 weeks p.i., cellular immune responses were significantly stronger in CD20 depleted RMs than in controls. After two years p.i., there was no significant difference in survival between CD20-depleted and control RMs. We concluded that CD20 depletion plays no significant role in the control of SIV replication or disease progression in SIVsmmD215-infected RMs.

  7. Premotor circuits controlling eyelid movements in conjunction with vertical saccades in the cat: II. interstitial nucleus of Cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingzhong; May, Paul J

    2007-02-01

    Vertical saccadic eye movements are accompanied by concurrent eyelid movements in the same direction. The interstitial nucleus of Cajal (InC) controls eye position for vertical eye movements and may also control saccade-related lid position as well. This study investigates whether the InC serves as a premotor center for eyelid saccades, by employing dual-tracer methods in cats to label both the projections of the InC and the motoneurons supplying the levator palpebrae superioris (LPS) muscle, which lie in the caudal central subdivision (CCS) of the oculomotor complex. Injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the InC anterogradely labeled axons that terminated bilaterally throughout the CCS and in the oculomotor nuclei proper. Labeled terminals lay in close association with labeled LPS motoneurons, which were retrogradely labeled following injections of wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) into the muscle. Ultrastructural investigation revealed that most terminals contained spherical vesicles and formed asymmetric synaptic contacts with the labeled motoneurons. These results strongly suggest that the InC monosynaptically controls lid movements in conjunction with vertical eye movements, including saccades. To identify the neurons of origin for this pathway, WGA-HRP injections were centered in the CCS. These experiments indicate that lid and eye motoneurons may share a common source of bilateral InC input. Thus, a common vertical position signal may be employed to maintain the lid and eye at appropriate elevations during fixation, such that the lid sits just above the pupil, allowing unobstructed vision, but at the ready to protect the cornea. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Control of a Two-Stage Direct Power Converter with a Single Voltage Sensor Mounted in the Intermediary Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Wheeler, P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    Controlling a converter requires not only a powerful processors but also accurate voltage and current sensors and fast and precise analogue-digital converters, which increase the cost per kW of the assembly, especially in the low power range. A matrix converter requires less transducers than a back......-wave out operation while using a single voltage sensor mounted in the intermediary link between the rectification and the inversion stages and the information of the sign of the input line-to-line voltages, which is needed anyway for the safe-commutation of the rectification stage....

  9. Adaptive backstepping control, synchronization and circuit simulation of a 3-D novel jerk chaotic system with two hyperbolic sinusoidal nonlinearities

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidyanathan Sundarapandian; Volos Christos; Pham Viet-Thanh; Madhavan Kavitha; Idowu Babatunde A.

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, a six-term 3-D novel jerk chaotic system with two hyperbolic sinusoidal nonlinearities has been proposed, and its qualitative properties have been detailed. The Lyapunov exponents of the novel jerk system are obtained as L1 = 0.07765,L2 = 0, and L3 = −0.87912. The Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the novel jerk system is obtained as DKY = 2.08833. Next, an adaptive backstepping controller is designed to stabilize the novel jerk chaotic system with two unknown parameters. Moreo...

  10. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Design and implementation of a high precision and wide range adjustable LED drive controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoding, Dai; Feng, Yu; Xuan, Wang; Weimin, Li

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a novel high precision and wide range adjustable LED constant-current drive controller design. Compared with the traditional technique, the conventional mirror resistance is substituted by a MOSFET with fixed drain voltage, and a negative feedback amplifier is used to keep all mirror device voltages equal, so that the output current is precise and not affected by the load supply voltage. In addition, the electric property of the mirror MOSFET is optimized by a current subsection mirror (CSM) mechanism, thus ensuring a wide range of output current with high accuracy. A three-channel LED driver chip based on this project is designed and fabricated in the TSMC 0.6 μm BCD process with a die area of 1.1 × 0.7 mm2. Experimental results show that the proposed LED drive controller works well, and, as expected, the output current can be maintained from 5 to 60 mA. A relative current accuracy error of less than 1% and a maximal relative current matching error of 1.5% are successfully achieved.

  11. Exploring the relationship between polio type 2 serum neutralizing antibodies and intestinal immunity using data from two randomized controlled trials of new bOPV-IPV immunization schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S; Asturias, Edwin J; O'Ryan, Miguel; Oberste, M Steven; Weldon, William; Clemens, Ralf; Rüttimann, Ricardo; Modlin, John F; Gast, Chris

    2017-12-19

    Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is now the only source of routine type 2 protection. The relationship, if any, between vaccine-induced type 2 humoral and intestinal immunity is poorly understood. Two clinical trials in five Latin American countries of mixed or sequential bOPV-IPV schedules in 1640 infants provided data on serum neutralizing antibodies (NAb) and intestinal immunity, assessed as viral shedding following oral mOPV2 challenge. Analyses with generalized additive and quantile regression models examined the relationships between prechallenge NAb titers and proportion, duration and titers (magnitude) of viral shedding. We found a statistically significant (p IPV or mixed/sequential bOPV/IPV immunization and differences in intestinal immunity is insufficient to predict polio type 2 intestinal immunity; even very high titers may not preclude viral shedding. Further research is needed to identify predictive markers of intestinal immunity in the context of global OPV cessation and IPV-only immunization. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuma Matsubara

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2.

  13. Lymphocyte Circadian Clocks Control Lymph Node Trafficking and Adaptive Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzd, David; Matveeva, Olga; Ince, Louise; Harrison, Ute; He, Wenyan; Schmal, Christoph; Herzel, Hanspeter; Tsang, Anthony H; Kawakami, Naoto; Leliavski, Alexei; Uhl, Olaf; Yao, Ling; Sander, Leif Erik; Chen, Chien-Sin; Kraus, Kerstin; de Juan, Alba; Hergenhan, Sophia Martina; Ehlers, Marc; Koletzko, Berthold; Haas, Rainer; Solbach, Werner; Oster, Henrik; Scheiermann, Christoph

    2017-01-17

    Lymphocytes circulate through lymph nodes (LN) in search for antigen in what is believed to be a continuous process. Here, we show that lymphocyte migration through lymph nodes and lymph occurred in a non-continuous, circadian manner. Lymphocyte homing to lymph nodes peaked at night onset, with cells leaving the tissue during the day. This resulted in strong oscillations in lymphocyte cellularity in lymph nodes and efferent lymphatic fluid. Using lineage-specific genetic ablation of circadian clock function, we demonstrated this to be dependent on rhythmic expression of promigratory factors on lymphocytes. Dendritic cell numbers peaked in phase with lymphocytes, with diurnal oscillations being present in disease severity after immunization to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). These rhythms were abolished by genetic disruption of T cell clocks, demonstrating a circadian regulation of lymphocyte migration through lymph nodes with time-of-day of immunization being critical for adaptive immune responses weeks later. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Pregnant Women's Stress and Immune Function: A Longitudinal, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pao-Ju; Chou, Cheng-Chen; Yang, Luke; Tsai, Yu-Lun; Chang, Yue-Cune; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan

    2017-10-01

    This study's aims are to examine the effects of aromatherapy massage on women's stress and immune function during pregnancy. This longitudinal, prospective, randomized controlled trial recruited 52 healthy pregnant women from a prenatal clinic in Taipei using convenience sampling. The participants were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 24) or control (n = 28) group using Clinstat block randomization. The intervention group received 70 min of aromatherapy massage with 2% lavender essential oil every other week (10 times in total) for 20 weeks; the control group received only routine prenatal care. In both groups, participants' salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels were collected before and after the intervention group received aromatherapy massage (every month from 16 to 36 weeks gestation) and were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The pregnant women in the intervention group had lower salivary cortisol (p aromatherapy massage than those in the control group, which did not receive massage treatment. Comparing the long-term effects of aromatherapy massage on salivary IgA levels between groups at different times, the study found that the pretest salivary IgA levels at 32 (p = 0.002) and 36 (p aromatherapy massage could significantly decrease stress and enhance immune function in pregnant women. The findings can guide clinicians or midwives in providing aromatherapy massage to women throughout the pregnancy.

  15. Effect of a mixture of micronutrients, but not of bovine colostrum concentrate, on immune function parameters in healthy volunteers: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wielen Reggy PJ

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supplementation of nutritional deficiencies helps to improve immune function and resistance to infections in malnourished subjects. However, the suggested benefits of dietary supplementation for immune function in healthy well nourished subjects is less clear. Among the food constituents frequently associated with beneficial effects on immune function are micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene and zinc, and colostrum. This study was designed to investigate the effects these ingredients on immune function markers in healthy volunteers. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, parallel, 2*2, placebo-controlled intervention study one hundred thirty-eight healthy volunteers aged 40–80 y (average 57 ± 10 y received one of the following treatments: (1 bovine colostrum concentrate 1.2 g/d (equivalent to ~500 mg/d immunoglobulins, (2 micronutrient mix of 288 mg vitamin E, 375 mg vitamin C, 12 mg β-carotene and 15 mg zinc/day, (3 combination of colostrum and micronutrient mix, or (4 placebo. Several immune function parameters were assessed after 6 and 10 weeks. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Groups were combined to test micronutrient treatment versus no micronutrient treatment, and colostrum treatment versus no colostrum treatment. Results Overall, consumption of the micronutrient mix significantly enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH responses (p Conclusion Consumption of bovine colostrum had no effect on any of the immune parameters assessed. The micronutrient mix enhanced cellular immunity as measured by DTH, with an increased effect by incremental age, but did not affect any of the other immune parameters measured. Although correlations between decreased DTH and enhanced risk of certain infection have been reported, it remains unclear whether and enhanced DTH response actually improves immune defense. The present data suggests that improvement of immune parameters in a population with a

  16. Electric circuits and signals

    CERN Document Server

    Sabah, Nassir H

    2007-01-01

    Circuit Variables and Elements Overview Learning Objectives Electric Current Voltage Electric Power and Energy Assigned Positive Directions Active and Passive Circuit Elements Voltage and Current Sources The Resistor The Capacitor The Inductor Concluding Remarks Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Circuit Connections and Laws Overview Learning Objectives Circuit Terminology Kirchhoff's Laws Voltage Division and Series Connection of Resistors Current Division and Parallel Connection of Resistors D-Y Transformation Source Equivalence and Transformation Reduced-Voltage Supply Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics and Examples on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Analysis of Resistive Circuits Overview Learning Objectives Number of Independent Circuit Equations Node-Voltage Analysis Special Considerations in Node-Voltage Analysis Mesh-Current Analysis Special Conside...

  17. Large-scale recording of thalamocortical circuits: in vivo electrophysiology with the two-dimensional electronic depth control silicon probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiáth, Richárd; Beregszászi, Patrícia; Horváth, Domonkos; Wittner, Lucia; Aarts, Arno A. A.; Ruther, Patrick; Neves, Hercules P.; Bokor, Hajnalka; Acsády, László

    2016-01-01

    Recording simultaneous activity of a large number of neurons in distributed neuronal networks is crucial to understand higher order brain functions. We demonstrate the in vivo performance of a recently developed electrophysiological recording system comprising a two-dimensional, multi-shank, high-density silicon probe with integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor electronics. The system implements the concept of electronic depth control (EDC), which enables the electronic selection of a limited number of recording sites on each of the probe shafts. This innovative feature of the system permits simultaneous recording of local field potentials (LFP) and single- and multiple-unit activity (SUA and MUA, respectively) from multiple brain sites with high quality and without the actual physical movement of the probe. To evaluate the in vivo recording capabilities of the EDC probe, we recorded LFP, MUA, and SUA in acute experiments from cortical and thalamic brain areas of anesthetized rats and mice. The advantages of large-scale recording with the EDC probe are illustrated by investigating the spatiotemporal dynamics of pharmacologically induced thalamocortical slow-wave activity in rats and by the two-dimensional tonotopic mapping of the auditory thalamus. In mice, spatial distribution of thalamic responses to optogenetic stimulation of the neocortex was examined. Utilizing the benefits of the EDC system may result in a higher yield of useful data from a single experiment compared with traditional passive multielectrode arrays, and thus in the reduction of animals needed for a research study. PMID:27535370

  18. Regrowing the Adult Brain: NF-κB Controls Functional Circuit Formation and Tissue Homeostasis in the Dentate Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imielski, Yvonne; Schwamborn, Jens C.; Lüningschrör, Patrick; Heimann, Peter; Holzberg, Magdalena; Werner, Hendrikje; Leske, Oliver; Püschel, Andreas W.; Memet, Sylvie; Heumann, Rolf; Israel, Alain; Kaltschmidt, Christian; Kaltschmidt, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive decline during aging is correlated with a continuous loss of cells within the brain and especially within the hippocampus, which could be regenerated by adult neurogenesis. Here we show that genetic ablation of NF-κB resulted in severe defects in the neurogenic region (dentate gyrus) of the hippocampus. Despite increased stem cell proliferation, axogenesis, synaptogenesis and neuroprotection were hampered, leading to disruption of the mossy fiber pathway and to atrophy of the dentate gyrus during aging. Here, NF-κB controls the transcription of FOXO1 and PKA, regulating axogenesis. Structural defects culminated in behavioral impairments in pattern separation. Re-activation of NF-κB resulted in integration of newborn neurons, finally to regeneration of the dentate gyrus, accompanied by a complete recovery of structural and behavioral defects. These data identify NF-κB as a crucial regulator of dentate gyrus tissue homeostasis suggesting NF-κB to be a therapeutic target for treating cognitive and mood disorders. PMID:22312433

  19. Innate immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans is regulated by neurons expressing NPR-1/GPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styer, Katie L; Singh, Varsha; Macosko, Evan; Steele, Sarah E; Bargmann, Cornelia I; Aballay, Alejandro

    2008-10-17

    A large body of evidence indicates that metazoan innate immunity is regulated by the nervous system, but the mechanisms involved in the process and the biological importance of such control remain unclear. We show that a neural circuit involving npr-1, which encodes a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) related to mammalian neuropeptide Y receptors, functions to suppress innate immune responses. The immune inhibitory function requires a guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate-gated ion channel encoded by tax-2 and tax-4 as well as the soluble guanylate cyclase GCY-35. Furthermore, we show that npr-1- and gcy-35-expressing sensory neurons actively suppress immune responses of nonneuronal tissues. A full-genome microarray analysis on animals with altered neural function due to mutation in npr-1 shows an enrichment in genes that are markers of innate immune responses, including those regulated by a conserved PMK-1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. These results present evidence that neurons directly control innate immunity in C. elegans, suggesting that GPCRs may participate in neural circuits that receive inputs from either pathogens or infected sites and integrate them to coordinate appropriate immune responses.

  20. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  1. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  2. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  3. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  4. Speed and segmentation control mechanisms characterized in rhythmically-active circuits created from spinal neurons produced from genetically-tagged embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternfeld, Matthew J; Hinckley, Christopher A; Moore, Niall J; Pankratz, Matthew T; Hilde, Kathryn L; Driscoll, Shawn P; Hayashi, Marito; Amin, Neal D; Bonanomi, Dario; Gifford, Wesley D; Sharma, Kamal; Goulding, Martyn; Pfaff, Samuel L

    2017-01-01

    Flexible neural networks, such as the interconnected spinal neurons that control distinct motor actions, can switch their activity to produce different behaviors. Both excitatory (E) and inhibitory (I) spinal neurons are necessary for motor behavior, but the influence of recruiting different ratios of E-to-I cells remains unclear. We constructed synthetic microphysical neural networks, called circuitoids, using precise combinations of spinal neuron subtypes derived from mouse stem cells. Circuitoids of purified excitatory interneurons were sufficient to generate oscillatory bursts with properties similar to in vivo central pattern generators. Inhibitory V1 neurons provided dual layers of regulation within excitatory rhythmogenic networks - they increased the rhythmic burst frequency of excitatory V3 neurons, and segmented excitatory motor neuron activity into sub-networks. Accordingly, the speed and pattern of spinal circuits that underlie complex motor behaviors may be regulated by quantitatively gating the intra-network cellular activity ratio of E-to-I neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21540.001 PMID:28195039

  5. T2* and T1 assessment of abdominal tissue response to graded hypoxia and hypercapnia using a controlled gas mixing circuit for small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Tameshwar; Estrada, Marvin; Duffin, James; Cheng, Hai Ling

    2016-08-01

    To characterize T2* and T1 relaxation time response to a wide spectrum of gas challenges in extracranial tissues of healthy rats. A range of graded gas mixtures (hyperoxia, hypercapnia, hypoxia, and hypercapnic hypoxia) were delivered through a controlled gas-mixing circuit to mechanically ventilated and intubated rats. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 3T clinical scanner; T2* and T1 maps were computed to determine tissue response in the liver, kidney cortex, and paraspinal muscles. Heart rate and blood oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) were measured through a rodent oximeter and physiological monitor. T2* decreases consistent with lowered SaO2 measurements were observed for hypercapnia and hypoxia, but decreases were significant only in liver and kidney cortex (P 10% CO2 and gas stimulus, hypercapnic hypoxia, producing the greatest T2* decrease. Hyperoxia-related T2* increases were accompanied by negligible increases in SaO2 . T1 generally increased, if at all, in the liver and decreased in the kidney. Significance was observed (P 90% O2 and >5% CO2 . T2* and T1 provide complementary roles for evaluating extracranial tissue response to a broad range of gas challenges. Based on both measured and known physiological responses, our results are consistent with T2* as a sensitive marker of blood oxygen saturation and T1 as a weak marker of blood volume changes. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:305-316. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. CMOS circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1995-01-01

    CMOS Circuits Manual is a user's guide for CMOS. The book emphasizes the practical aspects of CMOS and provides circuits, tables, and graphs to further relate the fundamentals with the applications. The text first discusses the basic principles and characteristics of the CMOS devices. The succeeding chapters detail the types of CMOS IC, including simple inverter, gate and logic ICs and circuits, and complex counters and decoders. The last chapter presents a miscellaneous collection of two dozen useful CMOS circuits. The book will be useful to researchers and professionals who employ CMOS circu

  7. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  8. Nanoscale Microelectronic Circuit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    Project 3: Low-Power All-Digital Chip-to-Chip Interface Circuits by Pavan Kumar Hanumolu (OSU) CDADIC Project 4: Nanoscale Clock and Data Recovery...CDADIC Project 3: Low-Power All-Digital Chip-to-Chip Interface Circuits by Pavan Kumar Hanumolu (OSU) CDADIC Project 6: Stochastic and Passive A/D...Area 3: Reconfigurable Mixed-Signal Circuits CDADIC Project 3: Low-Power All-Digital Chip-to-Chip Interface Circuits by Pavan Kumar Hanumolu (OSU

  9. Timergenerator circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Timer/Generator Circuits Manual is an 11-chapter text that deals mainly with waveform generator techniques and circuits. Each chapter starts with an explanation of the basic principles of its subject followed by a wide range of practical circuit designs. This work presents a total of over 300 practical circuits, diagrams, and tables.Chapter 1 outlines the basic principles and the different types of generator. Chapters 2 to 9 deal with a specific type of waveform generator, including sine, square, triangular, sawtooth, and special waveform generators pulse. These chapters also include pulse gen

  10. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  11. Security electronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1998-01-01

    Security Electronics Circuits Manual is an invaluable guide for engineers and technicians in the security industry. It will also prove to be a useful guide for students and experimenters, as well as providing experienced amateurs and DIY enthusiasts with numerous ideas to protect their homes, businesses and properties.As with all Ray Marston's Circuits Manuals, the style is easy-to-read and non-mathematical, with the emphasis firmly on practical applications, circuits and design ideas. The ICs and other devices used in the practical circuits are modestly priced and readily available ty

  12. MOS integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfendale, E

    2013-01-01

    MOS Integral Circuit Design aims to help in the design of integrated circuits, especially large-scale ones, using MOS Technology through teaching of techniques, practical applications, and examples. The book covers topics such as design equation and process parameters; MOS static and dynamic circuits; logic design techniques, system partitioning, and layout techniques. Also featured are computer aids such as logic simulation and mask layout, as well as examples on simple MOS design. The text is recommended for electrical engineers who would like to know how to use MOS for integral circuit desi

  13. Power electronics handbook components, circuits and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1993-01-01

    Power Electronics Handbook: Components, Circuits, and Applications is a collection of materials about power components, circuit design, and applications. Presented in a practical form, theoretical information is given as formulae. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 deals with the usual components found in power electronics such as semiconductor devices and power semiconductor control components, their electronic compatibility, and protection. Part 2 tackles parts and principles related to circuits such as switches; link frequency chargers; converters; and AC line control, and Part 3

  14. Digital Pulse-Width-Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, Carl J.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    1995-01-01

    Digital pulse-width-modulation circuit provides programmable duration from 1 microsecond to full on, at repetition rate of 1 kHz. Designed for use in controlling CO2 laser, also used in applications in which precision and flexibility of digital control of pulse durations needed. Circuit incorporates low-power Schottky transistor/transistor-logic (TTL) devices in critical high-speed parts. Designed in TTL to make it compatible with Pro-Log 7914 (or equivalent) decoder input/output (I/O) utility printed-circuit card.

  15. Neutrophil and Alveolar Macrophage-Mediated Innate Immune Control of Legionella pneumophila Lung Infection via TNF and ROS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Ziltener

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacterium that lives in aquatic environments where it parasitizes amoeba. However, upon inhalation of contaminated aerosols it can infect and replicate in human alveolar macrophages, which can result in Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia. Upon experimental airway infection of mice, L. pneumophila is rapidly controlled by innate immune mechanisms. Here we identified, on a cell-type specific level, the key innate effector functions responsible for rapid control of infection. In addition to the well-characterized NLRC4-NAIP5 flagellin recognition pathway, tumor necrosis factor (TNF and reactive oxygen species (ROS are also essential for effective innate immune control of L. pneumophila. While ROS are essential for the bactericidal activity of neutrophils, alveolar macrophages (AM rely on neutrophil and monocyte-derived TNF signaling via TNFR1 to restrict bacterial replication. This TNF-mediated antibacterial mechanism depends on the acidification of lysosomes and their fusion with L. pneumophila containing vacuoles (LCVs, as well as caspases with a minor contribution from cysteine-type cathepsins or calpains, and is independent of NLRC4, caspase-1, caspase-11 and NOX2. This study highlights the differential utilization of innate effector pathways to curtail intracellular bacterial replication in specific host cells upon L. pneumophila airway infection.

  16. Neutrophil and Alveolar Macrophage-Mediated Innate Immune Control of Legionella pneumophila Lung Infection via TNF and ROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziltener, Pascal; Reinheckel, Thomas; Oxenius, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacterium that lives in aquatic environments where it parasitizes amoeba. However, upon inhalation of contaminated aerosols it can infect and replicate in human alveolar macrophages, which can result in Legionnaires’ disease, a severe form of pneumonia. Upon experimental airway infection of mice, L. pneumophila is rapidly controlled by innate immune mechanisms. Here we identified, on a cell-type specific level, the key innate effector functions responsible for rapid control of infection. In addition to the well-characterized NLRC4-NAIP5 flagellin recognition pathway, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also essential for effective innate immune control of L. pneumophila. While ROS are essential for the bactericidal activity of neutrophils, alveolar macrophages (AM) rely on neutrophil and monocyte-derived TNF signaling via TNFR1 to restrict bacterial replication. This TNF-mediated antibacterial mechanism depends on the acidification of lysosomes and their fusion with L. pneumophila containing vacuoles (LCVs), as well as caspases with a minor contribution from cysteine-type cathepsins or calpains, and is independent of NLRC4, caspase-1, caspase-11 and NOX2. This study highlights the differential utilization of innate effector pathways to curtail intracellular bacterial replication in specific host cells upon L. pneumophila airway infection. PMID:27105352

  17. 47 CFR 36.126 - Circuit equipment-Category 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is used for the amplification, modulation, regeneration, testing, balancing or control of signals... Equipment Excluding Wideband—Category 4.13—The cost of Circuit Equipment associated with exchange line plant... included in this category: Jointly used message circuits, i.e., message switching plant circuits carrying...

  18. HLA-G in human early pregnancy: Control of uterine immune cell activation and likely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Le Bouteiller

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a number of controversies, the functional importance of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G in early human pregnancy is now sustained by a large amount of sound data. Membrane-bound and soluble HLA-G isoforms, either as β2-microglobulin-free or -associated as monomers or dimers, are expressed by different trophoblast subpopulations, the only fetal-derived cells that are directly in contact with maternal cells (maternal-fetal interfaces. Trophoblast HLA-G is the specific ligand of multiple cellular receptors present in maternal immune and non-immune cells, including CD8, leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor (LILR B1, LILRB2, killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR 2DL4, and possibly CD160. Trophoblast HLA-G specific engagement of these cellular receptors triggers either inhibitory or activating signals in decidual CD8 + T cells, CD4 + T cells, natural killer (NK cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, or endothelial cells. Such HLA-G-receptor specific interactions first contribute to limit potentially harmful maternal anti-paternal immune response by impairment of decidual NK cell cytotoxicity, inhibition of CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell and B-cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis of activated CD8 + T cells. Second, these HLA-G specific interactions contribute to stimulate placental development through secretion of angiogenic factors by decidual NK cells and macrophages, and to provide a protective effect for the outcome of pregnancy by the secretion of interleukin (IL-4 by decidual trophoblast antigen-specific CD4 + T cells.

  19. Designing Novel Quaternary Quantum Reversible Subtractor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Monfared, Asma Taheri

    2018-01-01

    Reversible logic synthesis is an important area of current research because of its ability to reduce energy dissipation. In recent years, multiple valued logic has received great attention due to its ability to reduce the width of the reversible circuit which is a main requirement in quantum technology. Subtractor circuits are between major components used in quantum computers. In this paper, we will discuss the design of a quaternary quantum reversible half subtractor circuit using quaternary 1-qudit, 2-qudit Muthukrishnan-Stroud and 3-qudit controlled gates and a 2-qudit Generalized quaternary gate. Then a design of a quaternary quantum reversible full subtractor circuit based on the quaternary half subtractor will be presenting. The designs shall then be evaluated in terms of quantum cost, constant input, garbage output, and hardware complexity. The proposed quaternary quantum reversible circuits are the first attempt in the designing of the aforementioned subtractor.

  20. Designing Novel Quaternary Quantum Reversible Subtractor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Monfared, Asma Taheri

    2017-10-01

    Reversible logic synthesis is an important area of current research because of its ability to reduce energy dissipation. In recent years, multiple valued logic has received great attention due to its ability to reduce the width of the reversible circuit which is a main requirement in quantum technology. Subtractor circuits are between major components used in quantum computers. In this paper, we will discuss the design of a quaternary quantum reversible half subtractor circuit using quaternary 1-qudit, 2-qudit Muthukrishnan-Stroud and 3-qudit controlled gates and a 2-qudit Generalized quaternary gate. Then a design of a quaternary quantum reversible full subtractor circuit based on the quaternary half subtractor will be presenting. The designs shall then be evaluated in terms of quantum cost, constant input, garbage output, and hardware complexity. The proposed quaternary quantum reversible circuits are the first attempt in the designing of the aforementioned subtractor.

  1. Effects of standard training in the use of closed-circuit televisions in visually impaired adults: design of a training protocol and a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Reading problems are frequently reported by visually impaired persons. A closed-circuit television (CCTV) can be helpful to maintain reading ability, however, it is difficult to learn how to use this device. In the Netherlands, an evidence-based rehabilitation program in the use of CCTVs was lacking. Therefore, a standard training protocol needed to be developed and tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to provide an evidence-based training program in the use of this device. Methods/Design To develop a standard training program, information was collected by studying literature, observing training in the use of CCTVs, discussing the content of the training program with professionals and organizing focus and discussion groups. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated in an RCT, to obtain an evidence-based training program. Dutch patients (n = 122) were randomized into a treatment group: normal instructions from the supplier combined with training in the use of CCTVs, or into a control group: instructions from the supplier only. The effect of the training program was evaluated in terms of: change in reading ability (reading speed and reading comprehension), patients' skills to operate the CCTV, perceived (vision-related) quality of life and tasks performed in daily living. Discussion The development of the CCTV training protocol and the design of the RCT in the present study may serve as an example to obtain an evidence-based training program. The training program was adjusted to the needs and learning abilities of individual patients, however, for scientific reasons it might have been preferable to standardize the protocol further, in order to gain more comparable results. Trial registration http://www.trialregister.nl, identifier: NTR1031 PMID:20219120

  2. Comparative Study of Regulatory Circuits in Two Sea Urchin Species Reveals Tight Control of Timing and High Conservation of Expression Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvia Gildor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate temporal control of gene expression is essential for normal development and must be robust to natural genetic and environmental variation. Studying gene expression variation within and between related species can delineate the level of expression variability that development can tolerate. Here we exploit the comprehensive model of sea urchin gene regulatory networks and generate high-density expression profiles of key regulatory genes of the Mediterranean sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus (Pl. The high resolution of our studies reveals highly reproducible gene initiation times that have lower variation than those of maximal mRNA levels between different individuals of the same species. This observation supports a threshold behavior of gene activation that is less sensitive to input concentrations. We then compare Mediterranean sea urchin gene expression profiles to those of its Pacific Ocean relative, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Sp. These species shared a common ancestor about 40 million years ago and show highly similar embryonic morphologies. Our comparative analyses of five regulatory circuits operating in different embryonic territories reveal a high conservation of the temporal order of gene activation but also some cases of divergence. A linear ratio of 1.3-fold between gene initiation times in Pl and Sp is partially explained by scaling of the developmental rates with temperature. Scaling the developmental rates according to the estimated Sp-Pl ratio and normalizing the expression levels reveals a striking conservation of relative dynamics of gene expression between the species. Overall, our findings demonstrate the ability of biological developmental systems to tightly control the timing of gene activation and relative dynamics and overcome expression noise induced by genetic variation and growth conditions.

  3. Comparative Study of Regulatory Circuits in Two Sea Urchin Species Reveals Tight Control of Timing and High Conservation of Expression Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildor, Tsvia; Ben-Tabou de-Leon, Smadar

    2015-07-01

    Accurate temporal control of gene expression is essential for normal development and must be robust to natural genetic and environmental variation. Studying gene expression variation within and between related species can delineate the level of expression variability that development can tolerate. Here we exploit the comprehensive model of sea urchin gene regulatory networks and generate high-density expression profiles of key regulatory genes of the Mediterranean sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus (Pl). The high resolution of our studies reveals highly reproducible gene initiation times that have lower variation than those of maximal mRNA levels between different individuals of the same species. This observation supports a threshold behavior of gene activation that is less sensitive to input concentrations. We then compare Mediterranean sea urchin gene expression profiles to those of its Pacific Ocean relative, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Sp). These species shared a common ancestor about 40 million years ago and show highly similar embryonic morphologies. Our comparative analyses of five regulatory circuits operating in different embryonic territories reveal a high conservation of the temporal order of gene activation but also some cases of divergence. A linear ratio of 1.3-fold between gene initiation times in Pl and Sp is partially explained by scaling of the developmental rates with temperature. Scaling the developmental rates according to the estimated Sp-Pl ratio and normalizing the expression levels reveals a striking conservation of relative dynamics of gene expression between the species. Overall, our findings demonstrate the ability of biological developmental systems to tightly control the timing of gene activation and relative dynamics and overcome expression noise induced by genetic variation and growth conditions.

  4. cIAP-1 controls innate immunity to C. pneumoniae pulmonary infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hridayesh Prakash

    Full Text Available The resistance of epithelial cells infected with Chlamydophila pneumoniae for apoptosis has been attributed to the induced expression and increased stability of anti-apoptotic proteins called inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs. The significance of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (cIAP-1 in C. pneumoniae pulmonary infection and innate immune response was investigated in cIAP-1 knockout (KO mice using a novel non-invasive intra-tracheal infection method. In contrast to wildtype, cIAP-1 knockout mice failed to clear the infection from their lungs. Wildtype mice responded to infection with a strong inflammatory response in the lung. In contrast, the recruitment of macrophages was reduced in cIAP-1 KO mice compared to wildtype mice. The concentration of Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma was increased whereas that of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-alpha was reduced in the lungs of infected cIAP-1 KO mice compared to infected wildtype mice. Ex vivo experiments on mouse peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes revealed that cIAP-1 is required for innate immune responses of these cells. Our findings thus suggest a new immunoregulatory role of cIAP-1 in the course of bacterial infection.

  5. The RNA-Editing Enzyme ADAR1 Controls Innate Immune Responses to RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh M. Mannion

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The ADAR RNA-editing enzymes deaminate adenosine bases to inosines in cellular RNAs. Aberrant interferon expression occurs in patients in whom ADAR1 mutations cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS or dystonia arising from striatal neurodegeneration. Adar1 mutant mouse embryos show aberrant interferon induction and die by embryonic day E12.5. We demonstrate that Adar1 embryonic lethality is rescued to live birth in Adar1; Mavs double mutants in which the antiviral interferon induction response to cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA is prevented. Aberrant immune responses in Adar1 mutant mouse embryo fibroblasts are dramatically reduced by restoring the expression of editing-active cytoplasmic ADARs. We propose that inosine in cellular RNA inhibits antiviral inflammatory and interferon responses by altering RLR interactions. Transfecting dsRNA oligonucleotides containing inosine-uracil base pairs into Adar1 mutant mouse embryo fibroblasts reduces the aberrant innate immune response. ADAR1 mutations causing AGS affect the activity of the interferon-inducible cytoplasmic isoform more severely than the nuclear isoform.

  6. Asparagine endopeptidase controls anti-influenza virus immune responses through TLR7 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Maschalidi

    Full Text Available Intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs expressed by dendritic cells recognize nucleic acids derived from pathogens and play an important role in the immune responses against the influenza virus (IAV, a single-stranded RNA sensed by different receptors including TLR7. However, the importance of TLR7 processing in the development of anti-viral immune responses is not known. Here we report that asparagine endopeptidase (AEP deficient mice are unable to generate a strong anti-IAV response, as demonstrated by reduced inflammation, cross presentation of cell-associated antigens and priming of CD8(+ T cells following TLR7-dependent pulmonary infection induced by IAV. Moreover, AEP deficient lung epithelial- or myeloid-cells exhibit impaired TLR7 signaling due to defective processing of this receptor. Indeed, TLR7 requires a proteolytic cleavage by AEP to generate a C-terminal fragment competent for signaling. Thus, AEP activity is critical for TLR7 processing, opening new possibilities for the treatment of influenza and TLR7-dependent inflammatory diseases.

  7. Intrinsic innate immunity fails to control herpes simplex virus and vesicular stomatitis virus replication in sensory neurons and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Pamela C; Leib, David A

    2014-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes lifelong latent infections in the sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia (TG), wherein it retains the capacity to reactivate. The interferon (IFN)-driven antiviral response is critical for the control of HSV-1 acute replication. We therefore sought to further investigate this response in TG neurons cultured from adult mice deficient in a variety of IFN signaling components. Parallel experiments were also performed in fibroblasts isolated concurrently. We showed that HSV-1 replication was comparable in wild-type (WT) and IFN signaling-deficient neurons and fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, a similar pattern was observed for the IFN-sensitive vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Despite these findings, TG neurons responded to IFN-β pretreatment with STAT1 nuclear localization and restricted replication of both VSV and an HSV-1 strain deficient in γ34.5, while wild-type HSV-1 replication was unaffected. This was in contrast to fibroblasts in which all viruses were restricted by the addition of IFN-β. Taken together, these data show that adult TG neurons can mount an effective antiviral response only if provided with an exogenous source of IFN-β, and HSV-1 combats this response through γ34.5. These results further our understanding of the antiviral response of neurons and highlight the importance of paracrine IFN-β signaling in establishing an antiviral state. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous virus that establishes a lifelong latent infection in neurons. Reactivation from latency can cause cold sores, blindness, and death from encephalitis. Humans with deficiencies in innate immunity have significant problems controlling HSV infections. In this study, we therefore sought to elucidate the role of neuronal innate immunity in the control of viral infection. Using neurons isolated from mice, we found that the intrinsic capacity of neurons to restrict virus replication was unaffected by the presence or absence of

  8. Offset cancelling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Remco J.; Seevinck, Evert; de Jager, Wim

    1989-01-01

    A monolithic offset cancelling circuit to reduce the offset voltage at an integrated audio-amplifier output is described. This offset voltage is detected using a low-pass filter with a very large time constant for which only one small on-chip capacitor is needed. The circuit was realized with a

  9. Synchronizing Hyperchaotic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamasevicius, Arunas; Cenys, Antanas; Namajunas, Audrius

    1997-01-01

    Regarding possible applications to secure communications the technique of synchronizing hyperchaotic circuits with a single dynamical variable is discussed. Several specific examples including the fourth-order circuits with two positive Lyapunov exponents as well as the oscillator with a delay line...

  10. A Virtual Circuits Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    The University of Colorado's Physics Education Technology (PhET) website offers free, high-quality simulations of many physics experiments that can be used in the classroom. The Circuit Construction Kit, for example, allows students to safely and constructively play with circuit components while learning the mathematics behind many circuit…

  11. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    In nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) circuits of a proposed type, digital data would be stored in analog form in ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FFETs). This type of memory circuit would offer advantages over prior volatile and nonvolatile types: In a conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor static RAM, six transistors must be used to store one bit, and storage is volatile in that data are lost when power is turned off. In a conventional dynamic RAM, three transistors must be used to store one bit, and the stored bit must be refreshed every few milliseconds. In contrast, in a RAM according to the proposal, data would be retained when power was turned off, each memory cell would contain only two FFETs, and the cell could store multiple bits (the exact number of bits depending on the specific design). Conventional flash memory circuits afford nonvolatile storage, but they operate at reading and writing times of the order of thousands of conventional computer memory reading and writing times and, hence, are suitable for use only as off-line storage devices. In addition, flash memories cease to function after limited numbers of writing cycles. The proposed memory circuits would not be subject to either of these limitations. Prior developmental nonvolatile ferroelectric memories are limited to one bit per cell, whereas, as stated above, the proposed memories would not be so limited. The design of a memory circuit according to the proposal must reflect the fact that FFET storage is only partly nonvolatile, in that the signal stored in an FFET decays gradually over time. (Retention times of some advanced FFETs exceed ten years.) Instead of storing a single bit of data as either a positively or negatively saturated state in a ferroelectric device, each memory cell according to the proposal would store two values. The two FFETs in each cell would be denoted the storage FFET and the control FFET. The storage FFET would store an analog signal value

  12. CMOS analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Phillip E

    1987-01-01

    This text presents the principles and techniques for designing analog circuits to be implemented in a CMOS technology. The level is appropriate for seniors and graduate students familiar with basic electronics, including biasing, modeling, circuit analysis, and some familiarity with frequency response. Students learn the methodology of analog integrated circuit design through a hierarchically-oriented approach to the subject that provides thorough background and practical guidance for designing CMOS analog circuits, including modeling, simulation, and testing. The authors' vast industrial experience and knowledge is reflected in the circuits, techniques, and principles presented. They even identify the many common pitfalls that lie in the path of the beginning designer--expert advice from veteran designers. The text mixes the academic and practical viewpoints in a treatment that is neither superficial nor overly detailed, providing the perfect balance.

  13. Rapid chromatin repression by Aire provides precise control of immune tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Andrew S; Miller, Erik L; Buenrostro, Jason D; Moskowitz, David M; Wang, Jing; Greenleaf, William J; Chang, Howard Y; Crabtree, Gerald R

    2018-02-01

    Aire mediates the expression of tissue-specific antigens in thymic epithelial cells to promote tolerance against self-reactive T lymphocytes. However, the mechanism that allows expression of tissue-specific genes at levels that prevent harm is unknown. Here we show that Brg1 generates accessibility at tissue-specific loci to impose central tolerance. We found that Aire has an intrinsic repressive function that restricts chromatin accessibility and opposes Brg1 across the genome. Aire exerted this repressive influence within minutes after recruitment to chromatin and restrained the amplitude of active transcription. Disease-causing mutations that impair Aire-induced activation also impair the protein's repressive function, which indicates dual roles for Aire. Together, Brg1 and Aire fine-tune the expression of tissue-specific genes at levels that prevent toxicity yet promote immune tolerance.

  14. Immune systems are not just for making you feel better: they are for controlling autonomous robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Mark

    2005-05-01

    The typical algorithm for robot autonomous navigation in off-road complex environments involves building a 3D map of the robot's surrounding environment using a 3D sensing modality such as stereo vision or active laser scanning, and generating an instantaneous plan to navigate around hazards. Although there has been steady progress using these methods, these systems suffer from several limitations that cannot be overcome with 3D sensing and planning alone. Geometric sensing alone has no ability to distinguish between compressible and non-compressible materials. As a result, these systems have difficulty in heavily vegetated environments and require sensitivity adjustments across different terrain types. On the planning side, these systems have no ability to learn from their mistakes and avoid problematic environmental situations on subsequent encounters. We have implemented an adaptive terrain classification system based on the Artificial Immune System (AIS) computational model, which is loosely based on the biological immune system, that combines various forms of imaging sensor inputs to produce a "feature labeled" image of the scene categorizing areas as benign or detrimental for autonomous robot navigation. Because of the qualities of the AIS computation model, the resulting system will be able to learn and adapt on its own through interaction with the environment by modifying its interpretation of the sensor data. The feature labeled results from the AIS analysis are inserted into a map and can then be used by a planner to generate a safe route to a goal point. The coupling of diverse visual cues with the malleable AIS computational model will lead to autonomous robotic ground vehicles that require less human intervention for deployment in novel environments and more robust operation as a result of the system's ability to improve its performance through interaction with the environment.

  15. Reducing methane emissions in sheep by immunization against rumen methanogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A D G; Kennedy, P; O'Neill, C J; Toovey, A F; Popovski, S; Rea, S M; Pimm, C L; Klein, L

    2004-09-28

    This work was conducted to determine if methane emissions from sheep immunized with an anti-methanogen vaccine were significantly lower than methane emissions from non-immunized sheep, to test the effectiveness of two different vaccine formulations (VF) on methane abatement, and to compare methane emissions measured using a closed-circuit respiration chamber and the sulphur-hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique. Thirty mature wether sheep were randomly allocated to three treatment groups (n = 10). One group received an immunization of adjuvant only on days 0 and 153 (control), a second group received an immunization with a 3-methanogen mix on days 0 and 153 (VF3 + 3), and a third group received an immunization of a 7-methanogen mix on day 0 followed by a 3-methanogen mix on day 153 (VF7 + 3). Four weeks post-secondary immunization, there was a significant 7.7% reduction in methane production per kg dry matter intake in the VF7 + 3 group compared to the controls (P = 0.051). However, methane emissions from sheep immunized with VF7 + 3 were not significantly different when compared to the sheep in the control group (P = 0.883). The average IgG and IgA antibody titres in both plasma and saliva of the VF3 + 3 immunized sheep were four to nine times higher than those immunized with VF7 + 3 (Pmethane estimates were consistently higher than the respiration chamber estimates and that there was no significant correlation between the SF6 methane estimates and the respiration chamber methane estimates (R2 = 0.11).

  16. A novel CMOS charge-pump circuit with current mode control 110 mA at 2.7 V for telecommunication systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krit, Salahddine; Qjidaa, Hassan; Affar, Imad El; Khadija, Yafrah; Messghati, Ziani; El-Ghzizal, Yassir, E-mail: krit_salah@yahoo.f, E-mail: qjidah@yahoo.f [Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, Laboratory of Electronic, Signal-Systymes and Informatic (LESSI) Fes (Morocco)

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents a novel organization of switch capacitor charge pump circuits based on voltage doubler structures. Each voltage doubler takes a DC input and outputs a doubled DC voltage. By cascading voltage doublers the output voltage increases up to 2 times. A two-phase voltage doubler and a multiphase voltage doubler structures are discussed and design considerations are presented. A simulator working in the Q-V realm was used for simplified circuit level simulation. In order to evaluate the power delivered by a charge pump, a resistive load is attached to the output of the charge pump and an equivalent capacitance is evaluated. To avoid the short circuit during switching, a clock pair generator is used to achieve multi-phase non-overlapping clock pairs. This paper also identifies optimum loading conditions for different configurations of the charge pumps. The proposed charge-pump circuit is designed and simulated by SPICE with TSMC 0.35-{mu}m CMOS technology and operates with a 2.7 to 3.6 V supply voltage. It has an area of 0.4 mm{sup 2}; it was designed with a frequency regulation of 1 MHz and internal current mode to reduce power consumption. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. Four-terminal circuit element with photonic core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampayan, Stephen

    2017-08-29

    A four-terminal circuit element is described that includes a photonic core inside of the circuit element that uses a wide bandgap semiconductor material that exhibits photoconductivity and allows current flow through the material in response to the light that is incident on the wide bandgap material. The four-terminal circuit element can be configured based on various hardware structures using a single piece or multiple pieces or layers of a wide bandgap semiconductor material to achieve various designed electrical properties such as high switching voltages by using the photoconductive feature beyond the breakdown voltages of semiconductor devices or circuits operated based on electrical bias or control designs. The photonic core aspect of the four-terminal circuit element provides unique features that enable versatile circuit applications to either replace the semiconductor transistor-based circuit elements or semiconductor diode-based circuit elements.

  18. A novel interface circuit for triboelectric nanogenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wuqi; Ma, Jiahao; Zhang, Zhaohua; Ren, Tianling

    2017-10-01

    For most triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), the electric output should be a short AC pulse, which has the common characteristic of high voltage but low current. Thus it is necessary to convert the AC to DC and store the electric energy before driving conventional electronics. The traditional AC voltage regulator circuit which commonly consists of transformer, rectifier bridge, filter capacitor, and voltage regulator diode is not suitable for the TENG because the transformer’s consumption of power is appreciable if the TENG output is small. This article describes an innovative design of an interface circuit for a triboelectric nanogenerator that is transformerless and easily integrated. The circuit consists of large-capacity electrolytic capacitors that can realize to intermittently charge lithium-ion batteries and the control section contains the charging chip, the rectifying circuit, a comparator chip and switch chip. More important, the whole interface circuit is completely self-powered and self-controlled. Meanwhile, the chip is widely used in the circuit, so it is convenient to integrate into PCB. In short, this work presents a novel interface circuit for TENGs and makes progress to the practical application and industrialization of nanogenerators. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61434001) and the ‘Thousands Talents’ Program for Pioneer Researchers and Its Innovation Team, China.

  19. Lithocholic acid controls adaptive immune responses by inhibition of Th1 activation through the Vitamin D receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, Teresa; Korkmaz, H. Inci; Vos, Mariska; Soeters, Maarten R.; de Vries, Carlie J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are established signaling molecules next to their role in the intestinal emulsification and uptake of lipids. We here aimed to identify a potential interaction between bile acids and CD4+ Th cells, which are central in adaptive immune responses. We screened distinct bile acid species for their potency to affect T cell function. Primary human and mouse CD4+ Th cells as well as Jurkat T cells were used to gain insight into the mechanism underlying these effects. We found that unconjugated lithocholic acid (LCA) impedes Th1 activation as measured by i) decreased production of the Th1 cytokines IFNγ and TNFαα, ii) decreased expression of the Th1 genes T-box protein expressed in T cells (T-bet), Stat-1 and Stat4, and iii) decreased STAT1α/β phosphorylation. Importantly, we observed that LCA impairs Th1 activation at physiological relevant concentrations. Profiling of MAPK signaling pathways in Jurkat T cells uncovered an inhibition of ERK-1/2 phosphorylation upon LCA exposure, which could provide an explanation for the impaired Th1 activation. LCA induces these effects via Vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling since VDR RNA silencing abrogated these effects. These data reveal for the first time that LCA controls adaptive immunity via inhibition of Th1 activation. Many factors influence LCA levels, including bile acid-based drugs and gut microbiota. Our data may suggest that these factors also impact on adaptive immunity via a yet unrecognized LCA-Th cell axis. PMID:28493883

  20. Lithocholic acid controls adaptive immune responses by inhibition of Th1 activation through the Vitamin D receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thijs W H Pols

    Full Text Available Bile acids are established signaling molecules next to their role in the intestinal emulsification and uptake of lipids. We here aimed to identify a potential interaction between bile acids and CD4+ Th cells, which are central in adaptive immune responses. We screened distinct bile acid species for their potency to affect T cell function. Primary human and mouse CD4+ Th cells as well as Jurkat T cells were used to gain insight into the mechanism underlying these effects. We found that unconjugated lithocholic acid (LCA impedes Th1 activation as measured by i decreased production of the Th1 cytokines IFNγ and TNFαα, ii decreased expression of the Th1 genes T-box protein expressed in T cells (T-bet, Stat-1 and Stat4, and iii decreased STAT1α/β phosphorylation. Importantly, we observed that LCA impairs Th1 activation at physiological relevant concentrations. Profiling of MAPK signaling pathways in Jurkat T cells uncovered an inhibition of ERK-1/2 phosphorylation upon LCA exposure, which could provide an explanation for the impaired Th1 activation. LCA induces these effects via Vitamin D receptor (VDR signaling since VDR RNA silencing abrogated these effects. These data reveal for the first time that LCA controls adaptive immunity via inhibition of Th1 activation. Many factors influence LCA levels, including bile acid-based drugs and gut microbiota. Our data may suggest that these factors also impact on adaptive immunity via a yet unrecognized LCA-Th cell axis.

  1. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  2. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-12-22

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  3. Elimination of Chattering by Control Strategy Based on the Multiphase Sliding Model Control for Efficient Power Conversion in a DC-DC Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woonki Na

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multiphase sliding mode (MPSM control method with a master–slave structure is proposed and analyzed in order to suppress ripples at input terminals or output terminals in DC/DC converter applications. With the proposed MPSM, the switching frequency of a multiphase DC/DC converter does not need to be operating such a high switching frequency as adopted in a conventional sliding mode control-based DC/DC converter. As a result, switching power losses could be reduced in this converter. Another advantage of this proposed method is that the master–slave multiphase slide control loop could figure out a proper phase shift between each switching phase of a DC/DC converter instead of precalculated phase shift. The proposed concepts are proven by the PSIM computer simulations and the feasibility of the proposed concepts is validated through the test experiments.

  4. Microelectronic circuit design for energy harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the design of microelectronic circuits for energy harvesting, broadband energy conversion, new methods and technologies for energy conversion. The author also discusses the design of power management circuits and the implementation of voltage regulators. Coverage includes advanced methods in low and high power electronics, as well as principles of micro-scale design based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies with control and conditioning circuit design. Provides a single-source reference to energy harvesting and its applications; Serves as a practical guide to microelectronics design for energy harvesting, with application to mobile power supplies; Enables readers to develop energy harvesting systems for wearable/mobile electronics.

  5. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  6. Plasmonic Nanoguides and Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Modern communication systems dealing with huge amounts of data at ever increasing speed try to utilize the best aspects of electronic and optical circuits. Electronic circuits are tiny but their operation speed is limited, whereas optical circuits are extremely fast but their sizes are limited by diffraction. Waveguide components utilizing surface plasmon (SP) modes were found to combine the huge optical bandwidth and compactness of electronics, and plasmonics thereby began to be considered as the next chip-scale technology. In this book, the authors concentrate on the SP waveguide configurati

  7. Modern TTL circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Modern TTL Circuits Manual provides an introduction to the basic principles of Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). This book outlines the major features of the 74 series of integrated circuits (ICs) and introduces the various sub-groups of the TTL family.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basics of digital ICs. This text then examines the symbology and mathematics of digital logic. Other chapters consider a variety of topics, including waveform generator circuitry, clocked flip-flop and counter circuits, special counter/dividers, registers, data latches, com

  8. General Immune Status and Oral Microbiology in Patients with Different Forms of Periodontitis and Healthy Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jana; Jentsch, Holger; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana; Sack, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective Immunological processes in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, especially the aggressive form, are not well understood. This study examined clinical as well as systemic immunological and local microbiological features in healthy controls and patients with different forms of periodontitis. Materials and Methods 14 healthy subjects, 15 patients diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis, and 11 patients with chronic periodontitis were recruited. Periodontal examination was performed and peripheral blood was collected from each patient. Lymphocyte populations as well as the release of cytokines by T-helper cells were determined by flow cytometry and enzyme linked immunosorbent spot assay. Subgingival plaque samples were taken from each individual and immediately cultivated for microbiological examination. Results When stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with lipopolysaccharide, a higher IL-1β release was found in patients with moderate chronic periodontitis compared to the other groups (pperiodontitis showed the highest percentage of memory B-cells without class switch (p = 0.01). The subgingival plaque differed quantitatively as well as qualitatively with a higher number of Gram-negative anaerobic species in periodontitis patients. Prevotella denticola was found more often in patients with aggressive periodontitis (pperiodontitis, seems to be associated with an activation of the systemic immune response. Conclusion Differences between aggressive periodontitis and moderate chronic periodontitis are evident, which raises the question of an inadequate balance between systemic immune response and bacterial infection in aggressive periodontitis. PMID:25299619

  9. Depletion of CLL-associated patrolling monocytes and macrophages controls disease development and repairs immune dysfunction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, B S; McClanahan, F; Yazdanparast, H; Zaborsky, N; Kalter, V; Rößner, P M; Benner, A; Dürr, C; Egle, A; Gribben, J G; Lichter, P; Seiffert, M

    2016-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by apoptosis resistance and a dysfunctional immune system. Previous reports suggested a potential role of myeloid cells in mediating these defects. However, the composition and function of CLL-associated myeloid cells have not been thoroughly investigated in vivo. Using the Eμ-TCL1 mouse model, we observed severe skewing of myeloid cell populations with CLL development. Monocytes and M2-like macrophages infiltrated the peritoneal cavity of leukemic mice. Monocytes also accumulated in the spleen in a CCR2-dependent manner, and were severely skewed toward Ly6C(low) patrolling or nonclassical phenotype. In addition, the percentage of MHC-II(hi) dendritic cells and macrophages significantly dropped in the spleen. Gene expression profiling of CLL-associated monocytes revealed aberrantly high PD-L1 expression and secretion of multiple inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokines like interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-α and CXCL9. In vivo myeloid cell depletion using liposomal Clodronate resulted in a significant control of CLL development accompanied by a pronounced repair of innate immune cell phenotypes and a partial resolution of systemic inflammation. In addition, CLL-associated skewing of T cells toward antigen-experienced phenotypes was repaired. The presented data suggest that targeting nonmalignant myeloid cells might serve as a novel immunotherapeutical strategy for CLL.

  10. Effect of probiotics on digestibility and immunity in infants: A study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lingli; Ding, Guodong; Ding, Yifang; Deng, Chaoming; Ze, Xiaolei; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Yao; Song, Lihua; Yan, Hongli; Liu, Fang; Ben, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of a fetus in utero is sterile but it becomes colonized with environmental microorganisms shortly after birth. Since the gut microbiota undergoes substantial changes in early life, healthy gut microflora is essential to an infant's gut health and immune system and probably also has an effect on overall health status in later life. Probiotics, defined as viable microbial preparations that have a beneficial effect on the health of the host, represent a rapidly expanding field. Although randomized controlled trials using probiotics in infants have shown promising results in the prevention and treatment of common diseases such as diarrhea and allergy, little is known about whether probiotics could offer benefits to healthy infants. We have designed a randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that an oral preparation of probiotics is superior to placebo in improving digestive and immune function in healthy infants.The trial will be a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-parallel-group study in Shanghai, China. After a 2-week run-in period, 200 exclusively formula-fed healthy infants aged 4 to 6 months will be randomly allocated to receive either a probiotic product containing Bifidobacterium infantis R0033, Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071, and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 or an identical placebo once daily for 4 weeks and will be followed up for 8 weeks. The duration of the subject's participation will be 14 weeks, with a total of 5 visits: inclusion (Visit 1, Day 1), start of intervention (V2, D15), end of intervention (V3, D44), and follow-up (V4 and V5, D72 and D100). Stool and saliva samples will be collected at the first 3 visits to measure microbial populations and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), respectively. Physical examination will be performed at each visit, and tolerance records will be completed 1 day prior to each visit. The primary endpoints will be the changes in the composition of fecal microbiota

  11. The immune response to Leishmania: mechanisms of parasite control and evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, C; Röllinghoff, M

    1998-01-01

    After transmission of Leishmania parasites by sandflies, disease manifestation of the infection requires mechanisms which allow the parasites to replicate in the mammalian host and to resist, at least initially, its innate and acquired antileishmanial defence. Likewise, lifelong persistence of Leishmania parasites, as it occurs even in cases of clinical healing of the infection, points to the existence of strategies which enable the parasite to partially circumvent the protective adaptive immune response of the host. In this review we will discuss the mechanisms which can be invoked to contribute to the initial, as well as long-term, survival of Leishmania parasites in the host organism. These include the passive protection of the parasite against antileishmanial products and the retreat into "safe target cells", the active suppression of the synthesis of reactive oxygen or nitrogen intermediates, the modulation of the host cytokine response, the inhibition of antigen-presentation and T cell-stimulation, and the induction and expansion of counterprotective T helper cells. It is probable that none of these mechanisms alone is sufficient to guarantee the survival of Leishmania, but together they might provide the safe environment which protects the parasite from elimination.

  12. Immune control of HIV-1 infection after therapy interruption: immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernaschi Massimo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal stage for initiating antiretroviral therapies in HIV-1 bearing patients is still a matter of debate. Methods We present computer simulations of HIV-1 infection aimed at identifying the pro et contra of immediate as compared to deferred Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART. Results Our simulations highlight that a prompt specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes response is detected when therapy is delayed. Compared to very early initiation of HAART, in deferred treated patients CD8+ T cells manage to mediate the decline of viremia in a shorter time and, at interruption of therapy, the virus experiences a stronger immune pressure. We also observe, however, that the immunological effects of the therapy fade with time in both therapeutic regimens. Thus, within one year from discontinuation, viral burden recovers to the value at which it would level off in the absence of therapy. In summary, simulations show that immediate therapy does not prolong the disease-free period and does not confer a survival benefit when compared to treatment started during the chronic infection phase. Conclusion Our conclusion is that, since there is no therapy to date that guarantees life-long protection, deferral of therapy should be preferred in order to minimize the risk of adverse effects, the occurrence of drug resistances and the costs of treatment.

  13. Month of birth, vitamin D and risk of immune-mediated disease: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disanto Giulio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A season of birth effect in immune-mediated diseases (ID such as multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes has been consistently reported. We aimed to investigate whether season of birth influences the risk of rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and systemic lupus erythematosus in addition to multiple sclerosis, and to explore the correlation between the risk of ID and predicted ultraviolet B (UVB light exposure and vitamin D status during gestation. Methods The monthly distribution of births of patients with ID from the UK (n = 115,172 was compared to that of the general population using the Cosinor test. Predicted UVB radiation and vitamin D status in different time windows during pregnancy were calculated for each month of birth and correlated with risk of ID using the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results The distributions of ID births significantly differed from that of the general population (P = 5e-12 with a peak in April (odds ratio = 1.045, 95% confidence interval = 1.024, 1.067, P P P = 0.00005 and third trimester vitamin D status (Spearman's rho = -0.44, P = 0.0003. Conclusions The risk of different ID in the UK is significantly influenced by the season of birth, suggesting the presence of a shared seasonal risk factor or factors predisposing to ID. Gestational UVB and vitamin D exposure may be implicated in the aetiology of ID.

  14. Identification of Casz1 as a Regulatory Protein Controlling T Helper Cell Differentiation, Inflammation, and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Bhaskaran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While T helper (Th cells play a crucial role in host defense, an imbalance in Th effector subsets due to dysregulation in their differentiation and expansion contribute to inflammatory disorders. Here, we show that Casz1, whose function is previously unknown in CD4+ T cells, coordinates Th differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Casz1 deficiency in CD4+ T cells lowers susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, consistent with the reduced frequency of Th17 cells, despite an increase in Th1 cells in mice. Loss of Casz1 in the context of mucosal Candida infection severely impairs Th17 and Treg responses, and lowers the ability of the mice to clear the secondary infection. Importantly, in both the models, absence of Casz1 causes a significant diminution in IFN-γ+IL-17A+ double-positive inflammatory Th17 cells (Th1* cells in tissues in vivo. Transcriptome analyses of CD4+ T cells lacking Casz1 show a signature consistent with defective Th17 differentiation. With regards to Th17 differentiation, Casz1 limits repressive histone marks and enables acquisition of permissive histone marks at Rorc, Il17a, Ahr, and Runx1 loci. Taken together, these data identify Casz1 as a new Th plasticity regulator having important clinical implications for autoimmune inflammation and mucosal immunity.

  15. Immune and viral correlates of "secondary viral control" after treatment interruption in chronically HIV-1 infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Van Gulck

    Full Text Available Upon interruption of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients usually show viral load rebound to pre-treatment levels. Four patients, hereafter referred to as secondary controllers (SC, were identified who initiated therapy during chronic infection and, after stopping treatment, could control virus replication at undetectable levels for more than six months. In the present study we set out to unravel possible viral and immune parameters or mechanisms of this phenomenon by comparing secondary controllers with elite controllers and non-controllers, including patients under HAART. As candidate correlates of protection, virus growth kinetics, levels of intracellular viral markers, several aspects of HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell function and HIV neutralizing antibodies were investigated. As expected all intracellular viral markers were lower in aviremic as compared to viremic subjects, but in addition both elite and secondary controllers had lower levels of viral unspliced RNA in PBMC as compared to patients on HAART. Ex vivo cultivation of the virus from CD4+ T cells of SC consistently failed in one patient and showed delayed kinetics in the three others. Formal in vitro replication studies of these three viruses showed low to absent growth in two cases and a virus with normal fitness in the third case. T cell responses toward HIV peptides, evaluated in IFN-γ ELISPOT, revealed no significant differences in breadth, magnitude or avidity between SC and all other patient groups. Neither was there a difference in polyfunctionality of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, as evaluated with intracellular cytokine staining. However, secondary and elite controllers showed higher proliferative responses to Gag and Pol peptides. SC also showed the highest level of autologous neutralizing antibodies. These data suggest that higher T cell proliferative responses and lower replication kinetics might be instrumental in secondary viral control in the absence of

  16. Effect of a mixture of micronutrients, but not of bovine colostrum concentrate, on immune function parameters in healthy volunteers: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolvers, Danielle AW; van Herpen-Broekmans, Wendy MR; Logman, Margot HGM; van der Wielen, Reggy PJ; Albers, Ruud

    2006-01-01

    Background Supplementation of nutritional deficiencies helps to improve immune function and resistance to infections in malnourished subjects. However, the suggested benefits of dietary supplementation for immune function in healthy well nourished subjects is less clear. Among the food constituents frequently associated with beneficial effects on immune function are micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene and zinc, and colostrum. This study was designed to investigate the effects these ingredients on immune function markers in healthy volunteers. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, parallel, 2*2, placebo-controlled intervention study one hundred thirty-eight healthy volunteers aged 40–80 y (average 57 ± 10 y) received one of the following treatments: (1) bovine colostrum concentrate 1.2 g/d (equivalent to ~500 mg/d immunoglobulins), (2) micronutrient mix of 288 mg vitamin E, 375 mg vitamin C, 12 mg β-carotene and 15 mg zinc/day, (3) combination of colostrum and micronutrient mix, or (4) placebo. Several immune function parameters were assessed after 6 and 10 weeks. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Groups were combined to test micronutrient treatment versus no micronutrient treatment, and colostrum treatment versus no colostrum treatment. Results Overall, consumption of the micronutrient mix significantly enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses (p micronutrient consumption. The other immune function parameters including responses to systemic tetanus and oral typhoid vaccination, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, lymphocyte proliferation and lymphocyte subset distribution were neither affected by the consumption of micronutrients nor by the consumption of bovine colostrum concentrate. Conclusion Consumption of bovine colostrum had no effect on any of the immune parameters assessed. The micronutrient mix enhanced cellular immunity as measured by DTH, with an increased effect by incremental age, but did not affect any of

  17. Switchless charge-discharge circuit for electrical capacitance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryszyn, J.; Smolik, W. T.; Radzik, B.; Olszewski, T.; Szabatin, R.

    2014-11-01

    The main factor limiting the performance of electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is an extremely low value of inter-electrode capacitances. The charge-discharge circuit is a well suited circuit for a small capacitance measurement due to its immunity to noise and stray capacitance, although it has a problem associated with a charge injected by the analogue switches, which results in a dc offset. This paper presents a new diode-based circuit for capacitance measurement in which a charge transfer method is realized without switches. The circuit was built and tested in one channel configuration with 16 multiplexed electrodes. The performance of the elaborated circuit and a comparison with a classic charge-discharge circuit are presented. The elaborated circuit can be used for sensors with inter-electrode capacitances not lower than 10 fF. The presented approach allows us to obtain a similar performance to the classic charge-discharge circuit, but has a simplified design. A lack of the need to synchronize the analogue switches in the transmitter and the receiver part of this circuit could be a desirable feature in the design of measurement systems integrated with electrodes.

  18. Quantum circuits for cryptanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amento, Brittanney Jaclyn

    Finite fields of the form F2 m play an important role in coding theory and cryptography. We show that the choice of how to represent the elements of these fields can have a significant impact on the resource requirements for quantum arithmetic. In particular, we show how the Gaussian normal basis representations and "ghost-bit basis" representations can be used to implement inverters with a quantum circuit of depth O(mlog(m)). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first construction with subquadratic depth reported in the literature. Our quantum circuit for the computation of multiplicative inverses is based on the Itoh-Tsujii algorithm which exploits the property that, in a normal basis representation, squaring corresponds to a permutation of the coefficients. We give resource estimates for the resulting quantum circuit for inversion over binary fields F2 m based on an elementary gate set that is useful for fault-tolerant implementation. Elliptic curves over finite fields F2 m play a prominent role in modern cryptography. Published quantum algorithms dealing with such curves build on a short Weierstrass form in combination with affine or projective coordinates. In this thesis we show that changing the curve representation allows a substantial reduction in the number of T-gates needed to implement the curve arithmetic. As a tool, we present a quantum circuit for computing multiplicative inverses in F2m in depth O(m log m) using a polynomial basis representation, which may be of independent interest. Finally, we change our focus from the design of circuits which aim at attacking computational assumptions on asymmetric cryptographic algorithms to the design of a circuit attacking a symmetric cryptographic algorithm. We consider a block cipher, SERPENT, and our design of a quantum circuit implementing this cipher to be used for a key attack using Grover's algorithm as in [18]. This quantum circuit is essential for understanding the complexity of Grover's algorithm.

  19. PBMC transcriptome profiles identifies potential candidate genes and functional networks controlling the innate and the adaptive immune response to PRRSV vaccine in Pietrain pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Aminul; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine; Pröll, Maren Julia; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Aqter Rony, Sharmin; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Hoelker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Neuhoff, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating viral disease affecting swine production, health and welfare throughout the world. A synergistic action of the innate and the adaptive immune system of the host is essential for mounting a durable protective immunity through vaccination. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the transcriptome profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to characterize the innate and the adaptive immune response to PRRS Virus (PRRSV) vaccination in Pietrain pigs. The Affymetrix gene chip porcine gene 1.0 ST array was used for the transcriptome profiling of PBMCs collected at immediately before (D0), at one (D1) and 28 days (D28) post PRRSV vaccination with three biological replications. With FDR activation, cytokine activity and inflammatory response were enriched during the innate immunity; cytolysis, T cell mediated cytotoxicity, immunoglobulin production were enriched during adaptive immunity to PRRSV vaccination. Significant enrichment of cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, signaling by interleukins, signaling by the B cell receptor (BCR), viral mRNA translation, IFN-gamma pathway and AP-1 transcription factor network pathways were indicating the involvement of altered genes in the antiviral defense. Network analysis revealed that four network modules were functionally involved with the transcriptional network of innate immunity, and five modules were linked to adaptive immunity in PBMCs. The innate immune transcriptional network was found to be regulated by LCK, STAT3, ATP5B, UBB and RSP17. While TGFß1, IL7R, RAD21, SP1 and GZMB are likely to be predictive for the adaptive immune transcriptional response to PRRSV vaccine in PBMCs. Results of the current immunogenomics study advances our understanding of PRRS in term of host-vaccine interaction, and thereby contribute to design a rationale for disease control strategy. PMID:28278192

  20. PTIP chromatin regulator controls development and activation of B cell subsets to license humoral immunity in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Dan; Vanhee, Stijn; Soria, Rebeca

    2017-01-01

    of follicular B cells during germinal center formation, and normal signaling through the classical NF-κB pathway. Together with the previously identified role for PTIP in promoting sterile transcription at the Igh locus, the present results establish PTIP as a licensing factor for humoral immunity that acts......B cell receptor signaling and downstream NF-κB activity are crucial for the maturation and functionality of all major B cell subsets, yet the molecular players in these signaling events are not fully understood. Here we use several genetically modified mouse models to demonstrate that expression...... of the multifunctional BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminal) domain-containing PTIP (Pax transactivation domain-interacting protein) chromatin regulator is controlled by B cell activation and potentiates steady-state and postimmune antibody production in vivo. By examining the effects of PTIP deficiency in mice at various ages during...

  1. Color Coding of Circuit Quantities in Introductory Circuit Analysis Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Johnson, Amy M.; Reisslein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Learning the analysis of electrical circuits represented by circuit diagrams is often challenging for novice students. An open research question in electrical circuit analysis instruction is whether color coding of the mathematical symbols (variables) that denote electrical quantities can improve circuit analysis learning. The present study…

  2. Vibration Damping Circuit Card Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Ronald Allen (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vibration damping circuit card assembly includes a populated circuit card having a mass M. A closed metal container is coupled to a surface of the populated circuit card at approximately a geometric center of the populated circuit card. Tungsten balls fill approximately 90% of the metal container with a collective mass of the tungsten balls being approximately (0.07) M.

  3. The Th17 immune response is controlled by the Rel-RORγ-RORγ T transcriptional axis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruan, Qingguo; Kameswaran, Vasumathi; Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Shijun; Sun, Jing; Wang, Junmei; DeVirgiliis, Jennifer; Liou, Hsiou-Chi; Beg, Amer A; Chen, Youhai H

    2011-01-01

    .... However, how Rorg is switched on during Th17 differentiation is unknown. We report here that c-Rel and RelA/p65 transcription factors drive Th17 differentiation by binding to and activating two distinct Rorg promoters that control RORγT and RORγ...

  4. The IDO–AhR Axis Controls Th17/Treg Immunity in a Pulmonary Model of Fungal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Frank de Araújo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In infectious diseases, the enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 (IDO1 that catalyzes the tryptophan (Trp degradation along the kynurenines (Kyn pathway has two main functions, the control of pathogen growth by reducing available Trp and immune regulation mediated by the Kyn-mediated expansion of regulatory T (Treg cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. In pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, IDO1 was shown to control the disease severity of both resistant and susceptible mice to the infection; however, only in resistant mice, IDO1 is induced by TGF-β signaling that confers a stable tolerogenic phenotype to dendritic cells (DCs. In addition, in pulmonary PCM, the tolerogenic function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells was linked to the IDO1 activity. To further evaluate the function of IDO1 in pulmonary PCM, IDO1-deficient (IDO1−/− C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally infected with P. brasiliensis yeasts and the infection analyzed at three postinfection periods regarding several parameters of disease severity and immune response. The fungal loads and tissue pathology of IDO1−/− mice were higher than their wild-type controls resulting in increased mortality rates. The evaluation of innate lymphoid cells showed an upregulated differentiation of the innate lymphoid cell 3 phenotype accompanied by a decreased expansion of ILC1 and NK cells in the lungs of infected IDO1−/− mice. DCs from these mice expressed elevated levels of costimulatory molecules and cytokine IL-6 associated with reduced production of IL-12, TNF-α, IL-1β, TGF-β, and IL-10. This response was concomitant with a marked reduction in AhR production. The absence of IDO1 expression caused an increased influx of activated Th17 cells to the lungs with a simultaneous reduction in Th1 and Treg cells. Accordingly, the suppressive cytokines IL-10, TGF-β, IL-27, and IL-35 appeared in reduced levels in the lungs of

  5. A comparison of modified Howland circuits as current generators with current mirror type circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertemes-Filho, P; Brown, B H; Wilson, A J

    2000-02-01

    Multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (EIT) systems require stable voltage controlled current generators that will work over a wide frequency range and with a large variation in load impedance. In this paper we compare the performance of two commonly used designs: the first is a modified Howland circuit whilst the second is based on a current mirror. The output current and the output impedance of both circuits were determined through PSPICE simulation and through measurement. Both circuits were stable over the frequency ranges 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The maximum variation of output current with frequency for the modified Howland circuit was 2.0% and for the circuit based on a current mirror 1.6%. The output impedance for both circuits was greater than 100 kohms for frequencies up to 100 kHz. However, neither circuit achieved this output impedance at 1 MHz. Comparing the results from the two circuits suggests that there is little to choose between them in terms of a practical implementation.

  6. Variation in circulating immune complex levels with diet, exercise, and sleep: a comparison between normal controls and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Isenberg, D A; Crisp, A J; Morrow, W J; Newham, D; Snaith, M L

    1981-01-01

    Circulating immune complexes (CIC) were measured in 4 normal controls and 8 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by a polyethylene glycol precipitation (PEG) method during a 24-hour period. In all the normal controls levels fell during sleep and after drinking 1 pint (568 ml) of milk and rose before getting out of bed and after moderate exercise. There were also marked differences in the patterns of rise and fall of the CIC levels between the normal controls and patients with SLE....

  7. Enhancement of the Th1-phenotype immune system by the intake of Oyster mushroom (Tamogitake extract in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Tanaka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus cornucopiae (Oyster mushroom, Tamogitake has long been eaten as a functional food for enhancement of the immune system, but its effectiveness has not been well confirmed in humans. To this end, we set up a double-blind placebo-controlled human clinical trial to investigate the potential of Oyster mushrooms with respect to the up-regulation of the immune system. The subjects ingested Oyster mushroom extract for 8 weeks. We measured the serum cytokine levels involved in regulation of the immune system, including interferon (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, and tumor-necrosis factor (TNF-α. We found that intake of Oyster mushroom extract elevated IFN-γ (P = 0.013 and IL-12, whereas serum levels of IL-10 and IL-13 and other cytokines were minimally changed. We also measured natural killer (NK cell activity, the levels of which tended to increase, but not significantly. Taken together, these facts suggest that Oyster mushrooms have the potential to enhance the immune system, through Th1 phenotype potentiation as the macrophage-IL-12 – IFN-γ pathway. This results in activation of the cell-mediated immune system as exemplified by up-regulation of NK cell activity. Oyster mushroom extract may be beneficial for the prevention of various diseases, including infectious diseases and cancer, due to its stimulation of the immune system.

  8. Low-frequency NMR with a non-resonant circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Timothy; Mandal, Soumyajit; Cory, David; Hürlimann, Martin; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2011-05-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance typically utilizes a tuned resonance circuit with impedance matching to transmit power and receive signal. The efficiency of such a tuned coil is often described in terms of the coil quality factor, Q. However, in field experiments such as in well-logging, the circuit Q can vary dramatically throughout the depth of the wellbore due to temperature or fluid salinity variations. Such variance can result in erroneous setting of NMR circuit parameters (tuning and matching) and subsequent errors in measurements. This paper investigates the use of a non-resonant transmitter to reduce the circuit sensitivity on Q and demonstrates that such circuits can be efficient in delivering power and current to the coil. We also describe a tuned receiver circuit whose resonant frequency can be controlled digitally. Experimental results show that a range of common NMR experiments can be performed with our circuits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Melatonin mediates photoperiod control of endocrine adaptations and humoral immunity in male Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellon, Steven M

    2007-09-01

    Effects of photoperiod are mediated by the pineal gland in male Siberian hamsters. The hypothesis that the pineal hormone melatonin mediates the effects of short days (SD) to blunt select humoral and endocrine functions was tested. In the first study, regressed testes were found in pineal-intact controls transferred from long days (LD) to SDs (16 hr to 8 hr light/day); the rise in antigen-induced serum immunoglobulin (Ig) M was blunted and serum cortisol concentrations elevated compared with long-day controls. These effects of short-day were blocked in pinealectomized males moved from long to SDs, but restored by melatonin treatments. In a second study, males in LD were exposed to constant light (LL) to abolish the nighttime melatonin rhythm. In hamsters in LL, melatonin induced testicular regression as in males in SDs. Large testes were present in vehicle-treated controls in LL and in males that remained in LDs. Antigen-induced increases in serum IgM in vehicle and melatonin treatment males in LL were intermediate between concentrations in long- or short-day controls and not significantly different from each other. However, serum cortisol was again elevated in hamsters in SDs or in LL when treated with melatonin compared with males in LL or LDs. These findings indicate that melatonin treatments mimicked the effects of SDs to regulate adaptive physiologic functions in hamsters lacking the nocturnal melatonin rhythm. Thus, the photoneuroendocrine mechanism regulating reproductive responses to photoperiod also mediates short-day effects on T cell-dependent B-cell antibody production and processes that regulate cortisol in circulation.

  10. Effect of substituting IPV for tOPV on immunity to poliovirus in Bangladeshi infants: An open-label randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Haque, Rashidul; Carmolli, Marya; Zhang, Dadong; Colgate, E Ross; Nayak, Uma; Taniuchi, Mami; Dickson, Dorothy; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Zaman, K; Houpt, Eric R; Alam, Masud; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Petri, William A

    2016-01-12

    The Polio Endgame strategy includes phased withdrawal of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) coordinated with introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) to ensure population immunity. The impact of IPV introduction into a primary OPV series of immunizations in a developing country is uncertain. Between May 2011 and November 2012, we enrolled 700 Bangladeshi infant-mother dyads from Dhaka slums into an open-label randomized controlled trial to test whether substituting an injected IPV dose for the standard Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) fourth tOPV dose at infant age 39 weeks would reduce fecal shedding and enhance systemic immunity. The primary endpoint was mucosal immunity to poliovirus at age one year, measured by fecal excretion of any Sabin virus at five time points up to 25 days post-52 week tOPV challenge, analyzed by the intention to treat principle. We randomized 350 families to the tOPV and IPV vaccination arms. Neither study arm resulted in superior intestinal protection at 52 weeks measured by the prevalence of infants shedding any of three poliovirus serotypes, but the IPV dose induced significantly higher seroprevalence and seroconversion rates. This result was identical for poliovirus detection by cell culture or RT-qPCR. The non-significant estimated culture-based shedding risk difference was -3% favoring IPV, and the two vaccination schedules were inferred to be equivalent within a 95% confidence margin of -10% to +4%. Results for shedding analyses stratified by poliovirus type were similar. Neither of the vaccination regimens is superior to the other in enhancing intestinal immunity as measured by poliovirus shedding at 52 weeks of age and the IPV regimen provides similar intestinal immunity to the four tOPV series, although the IPV regimen strongly enhances humoral immunity. The IPV-modified regimen may be considered for vaccination programs without loss of intestinal protection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  11. Nanoelectronic circuit design and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsir, Muzaffer Orkun

    Controlling power consumption in CMOS integrated circuits (ICs) during normal mode of operation is becoming one of the limiting factors to further scaling. In addition, it is a well known fact that during testing of a complex IC, power consumption can far exceed the values reached during its normal operation. High power consumption, combined with limited cooling support, leads to overheating of ICs. This can cause permanent damage to the chip or can invalidate test results due to the fact that extreme temperature variations lead to changes in path delays. Therefore, even good chips can fail the test. For these reasons, thermal problems during test need to be identified to prevent the loss of yield in CMOS ICs. In this thesis, we propose a methodology for thermally characterizing circuits under test. Using this methodology, it is possible to simulate the thermal profiles of the chips during test and prevent possible yield loss because of thermal problems. In addition to the problems associated with power and temperature, a more important barrier is the scaling limitations of the CMOS technology. It has been predicted that in next decade, it will not be possible to scale it further. In the near future, rather than a transition to a completely new technology, extensions to CMOS seem to be more realistic. Double-gate CMOS technology is one of the most promising alternatives that offers a simple extension to CMOS. The transistors of this technology are formed by adding a second gate across the conventional CMOS transistor gate. Designing circuits using this technology has attracted a lot of attention. However, as circuit design methods mature, there is a need to identify how these circuits can be tested. From a circuit testing viewpoint, it is unclear if CMOS fault models are comprehensive enough to model all defects in double-gate CMOS circuits. Therefore, fault models of this technology need to be defined to enable manufacturing-time testing. In this thesis, we

  12. Integrated Immune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarnece

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the program to replace several recent studies about astronaut immune systems with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling. The study will address lack of in-flight data to determine the inflight status of immune systems, physiological stress, viral immunity, to determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, and to determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

  13. Effectiveness of a smart phone app on improving immunization of children in rural Sichuan Province, China: study protocol for a paired cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Wang, Wei; Du, Xiaozhen; Rao, Xiuqin; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Yang, Ruikan; Zhang, Lin; Koepsell, Jeanne Catherine; Li, Ye; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2014-03-20

    Although good progress has been achieved in expanding immunization of children in China, disparities exist across different provinces. Information gaps both from the service supply and demand sides hinder timely vaccination of children in rural areas. The rapid development of mobile health technology (mHealth) provides unprecedented opportunities for improving health services and reaching underserved populations. However, there is a lack of literature that rigorously evaluates the impact of mHealth interventions on immunization coverage as well as the usability and feasibility of smart phone applications (apps). This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a smart phone-based app (Expanded Program on Immunization app, or EPI app) on improving the coverage of children's immunization. This cluster randomized trial will take place in Xuanhan County, Sichuan Province, China. Functionalities of the app include the following: to make appointments automatically, record and update children's immunization information, generate a list of children who missed their vaccination appointments, and send health education information to village doctors. After pairing, 36 villages will be randomly allocated to the intervention arm (n=18) and control arm (n=18). The village doctors in the intervention arm will use the app while the village doctors in the control arm will record and manage immunization in the usual way in their catchment areas. A household survey will be used at baseline and at endline (8 months of implementation). The primary outcome is full-dose coverage and the secondary outcome is immunization coverage of the five vaccines that are included in the national Expanded Program on Immunization program as well as Hib vaccine, Rotavirus vaccine and Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Multidimensional evaluation of the app will also be conducted to assess usability and feasibility. This study is the first to evaluate the effectiveness of a smart phone app for child

  14. Persistent hepatitis virus infection and immune homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis between the host and viruses is naturally maintained. On the one hand, the immune system activates the immune response to kill or eliminate viruses; on the other hand, the immune system controls the immune response to maintain immune homeostasis. The cause of persistent infections with hepatitis viruses such as HBV and HCV is that viral molecules damage the immune system of the host and their variants escape immune clearance. Long-term coexistence of the host and viruses is the pr...

  15. Offset cancelling circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegerink, Remco J.; Seevinck, Evert; de Jager, Wim

    1989-01-01

    A monolithic offset cancelling circuit to reduce the offset voltage at an integrated audio-amplifier output is described. This offset voltage is detected using a low-pass filter with a very large time constant for which only one small on-chip capacitor is needed. The circuit was realized with a bipolar cell-based semicustom array. Measurements have shown that a -3-dB bandwidth below 5 Hz can be realized with a capacitor value of 50 pF. The resulting offset voltage at the audio-amplifier outpu...

  16. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  17. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  18. Electrical Circuit Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Frank

    2006-04-18

    An electrical circuit testing device is provided, comprising a case, a digital voltage level testing circuit with a display means, a switch to initiate measurement using the device, a non-shorting switching means for selecting pre-determined electrical wiring configurations to be tested in an outlet, a terminal block, a five-pole electrical plug mounted on the case surface and a set of adapters that can be used for various multiple-pronged electrical outlet configurations for voltages from 100 600 VAC from 50 100 Hz.

  19. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  20. Basic protocols in quantum reinforcement learning with superconducting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamata, Lucas

    2017-05-09

    Superconducting circuit technologies have recently achieved quantum protocols involving closed feedback loops. Quantum artificial intelligence and quantum machine learning are emerging fields inside quantum technologies which may enable quantum devices to acquire information from the outer world and improve themselves via a learning process. Here we propose the implementation of basic protocols in quantum reinforcement learning, with superconducting circuits employing feedback- loop control. We introduce diverse scenarios for proof-of-principle experiments with state-of-the-art superconducting circuit technologies and analyze their feasibility in presence of imperfections. The field of quantum artificial intelligence implemented with superconducting circuits paves the way for enhanced quantum control and quantum computation protocols.

  1. Hysteresis in a quantized superfluid `atomtronic' circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Stephen; Lee, Jeffrey G.; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Murray, Noel; Clark, Charles W.; Lobb, Christopher J.; Phillips, William D.; Edwards, Mark; Campbell, Gretchen K.

    2014-02-01

    Atomtronics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that seeks to develop new functional methods by creating devices and circuits where ultracold atoms, often superfluids, have a role analogous to that of electrons in electronics. Hysteresis is widely used in electronic circuits--it is routinely observed in superconducting circuits and is essential in radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices. Furthermore, it is as fundamental to superfluidity (and superconductivity) as quantized persistent currents, critical velocity and Josephson effects. Nevertheless, despite multiple theoretical predictions, hysteresis has not been previously observed in any superfluid, atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. Here we directly detect hysteresis between quantized circulation states in an atomtronic circuit formed from a ring of superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate obstructed by a rotating weak link (a region of low atomic density). This contrasts with previous experiments on superfluid liquid helium where hysteresis was observed directly in systems in which the quantization of flow could not be observed, and indirectly in systems that showed quantized flow. Our techniques allow us to tune the size of the hysteresis loop and to consider the fundamental excitations that accompany hysteresis. The results suggest that the relevant excitations involved in hysteresis are vortices, and indicate that dissipation has an important role in the dynamics. Controlled hysteresis in atomtronic circuits may prove to be a crucial feature for the development of practical devices, just as it has in electronic circuits such as memories, digital noise filters (for example Schmitt triggers) and magnetometers (for example superconducting quantum interference devices).

  2. Effects of smoke on functional circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are converting to digital instrumentation and control systems; however, the effects of abnormal environments such as fire and smoke on such systems are not known. There are no standard tests for smoke, but previous smoke exposure tests at Sandia National Laboratories have shown that digital communications can be temporarily interrupted during a smoke exposure. Another concern is the long-term corrosion of metals exposed to the acidic gases produced by a cable fire. This report documents measurements of basic functional circuits during and up to 1 day after exposure to smoke created by burning cable insulation. Printed wiring boards were exposed to the smoke in an enclosed chamber for 1 hour. For high-resistance circuits, the smoke lowered the resistance of the surface of the board and caused the circuits to short during the exposure. These circuits recovered after the smoke was vented. For low-resistance circuits, the smoke caused their resistance to increase slightly. A polyurethane conformal coating substantially reduced the effects of smoke. A high-speed digital circuit was unaffected. A second experiment on different logic chip technologies showed that the critical shunt resistance that would cause failure was dependent on the chip technology and that the components used in the smoke exposures were some of the most smoke tolerant. The smoke densities in these tests were high enough to cause changes in high impedance (resistance) circuits during exposure, but did not affect most of the other circuits. Conformal coatings and the characteristics of chip technologies should be considered when designing circuitry for nuclear power plant safety systems, which must be highly reliable under a variety of operating and accident conditions. 10 refs., 34 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Multiple immune factors are involved in controlling acute and chronic chikungunya virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Suan Poo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent epidemic of the arthritogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV has prompted a quest to understand the correlates of protection against virus and disease in order to inform development of new interventions. Herein we highlight the propensity of CHIKV infections to persist long term, both as persistent, steady-state, viraemias in multiple B cell deficient mouse strains, and as persistent RNA (including negative-strand RNA in wild-type mice. The knockout mouse studies provided evidence for a role for T cells (but not NK cells in viraemia suppression, and confirmed the role of T cells in arthritis promotion, with vaccine-induced T cells also shown to be arthritogenic in the absence of antibody responses. However, MHC class II-restricted T cells were not required for production of anti-viral IgG2c responses post CHIKV infection. The anti-viral cytokines, TNF and IFNγ, were persistently elevated in persistently infected B and T cell deficient mice, with adoptive transfer of anti-CHIKV antibodies unable to clear permanently the viraemia from these, or B cell deficient, mice. The NOD background increased viraemia and promoted arthritis, with B, T and NK deficient NOD mice showing high-levels of persistent viraemia and ultimately succumbing to encephalitic disease. In wild-type mice persistent CHIKV RNA and negative strand RNA (detected for up to 100 days post infection was associated with persistence of cellular infiltrates, CHIKV antigen and stimulation of IFNα/β and T cell responses. These studies highlight that, secondary to antibodies, several factors are involved in virus control, and suggest that chronic arthritic disease is a consequence of persistent, replicating and transcriptionally active CHIKV RNA.

  4. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  5. Power amplifier circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takeya, Hideaki; Nauta, Bram

    2015-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a power amplifier circuit which has high power efficiency while suppressing a fluctuation of output power relatively to a fluctuation of a power supply voltage in a high-efficiency switching amplifier which operates in a radio frequency band.SOLUTION: A duty ratio

  6. "Printed-circuit" rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Rectifying antenna is less bulky structure for absorbing transmitted microwave power and converting it into electrical current. Printed-circuit approach, using microstrip technology and circularly polarized antenna, makes polarization orientation unimportant and allows much smaller arrays for given performance. Innovation is particularly useful with proposed electric vehicles powered by beam microwaves.

  7. Superconducting Quantum Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majer, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes a number of experiments with superconducting cir- cuits containing small Josephson junctions. The circuits are made out of aluminum islands which are interconnected with a very thin insulating alu- minum oxide layer. The connections form a Josephson junction. The current trough

  8. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  9. Paneth cell extrusion and release of antimicrobial products is directly controlled by immune cell-derived IFN-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Henner F; Karthaus, Wouter R; Kujala, Pekka; Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Schwank, Gerald; Vries, Robert G J; Kalkhoven, Eric; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Clevers, Hans

    2014-06-30

    Paneth cells (PCs) are terminally differentiated, highly specialized secretory cells located at the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn in the small intestine. Besides their antimicrobial function, PCs serve as a component of the intestinal stem cell niche. By secreting granules containing bactericidal proteins like defensins/cryptdins and lysozyme, PCs regulate the microbiome of the gut. Here we study the control of PC degranulation in primary epithelial organoids in culture. We show that PC degranulation does not directly occur upon stimulation with microbial antigens or bacteria. In contrast, the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) induces rapid and complete loss of granules. Using live cell imaging, we show that degranulation is coupled to luminal extrusion and death of PCs. Transfer of supernatants from in vitro stimulated iNKT cells recapitulates degranulation in an IFN-γ-dependent manner. Furthermore, endogenous IFN-γ secretion induced by anti-CD3 antibody injection causes Paneth loss and release of goblet cell mucus. The identification of IFN-γ as a trigger for degranulation and extrusion of PCs establishes a novel effector mechanism by which immune responses may regulate epithelial status and the gut microbiome. © 2014 Farin et al.

  10. Characterization of Peripheral Immune Cell Subsets in Patients with Acute and Chronic Cerebrovascular Disease: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kraft

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Immune cells (IC play a crucial role in murine stroke pathophysiology. However, data are limited on the role of these cells in ischemic stroke in humans. We therefore aimed to characterize and compare peripheral IC subsets in patients with acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (AIS/TIA, chronic cerebrovascular disease (CCD and healthy volunteers (HV. We conducted a case-control study of patients with AIS/TIA (n = 116 or CCD (n = 117, and HV (n = 104 who were enrolled at the University Hospital Würzburg from 2010 to 2013. We determined the expression and quantity of IC subsets in the three study groups and performed correlation analyses with demographic and clinical parameters. The quantity of several IC subsets differed between the AIS/TIA, CCD, and HV groups. Several clinical and demographic variables independently predicted the quantity of IC subsets in patients with AIS/TIA. No significant changes in the quantity of IC subsets occurred within the first three days after AIS/TIA. Overall, these findings strengthen the evidence for a pathophysiologic role of IC in human ischemic stroke and the potential use of IC-based biomarkers for the prediction of stroke risk. A comprehensive description of IC kinetics is crucial to enable the design of targeted treatment strategies.

  11. Effect of buffer on the immune response to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine in Bangladesh: a community based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandir, Subhash; Ahamed, Kabir U; Baqui, Abdullah H; Sutter, Roland W; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Pallansch, Mark A; Oberste, Mark S; Moulton, Lawrence H; Halsey, Neal A

    2014-11-01

    Polio eradication efforts have been hampered by low responses to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) in some developing countries. Since stomach acidity may neutralize vaccine viruses, we assessed whether administration of a buffer solution could improve the immunogenicity of tOPV. Healthy infants 4-6 weeks old in Sylhet, Bangladesh, were randomized to receive tOPV with or without a sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate buffer at age 6, 10, and 14 weeks. Levels of serum neutralizing antibodies for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were measured before and after vaccination, at 6 and 18 weeks of age, respectively. Serologic response rates following 3 doses of tOPV for buffer recipients and control infants were 95% and 88% (P=.065), respectively, for type 1 poliovirus; 95% and 97% (P=.543), respectively, for type 2 poliovirus; and 90% and 89% (P=.79), respectively, for type 3 poliovirus. Administration of a buffer solution prior to vaccination was not associated with statistically significant increases in the immune response to tOPV; however, a marginal 7% increase (P=.065) in serologic response to poliovirus type 1 was observed. NCT01579825. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Impact of Sickle Cell Trait and Naturally Acquired Immunity on Uncomplicated Malaria after Controlled Human Malaria Infection in Adults in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lell, Bertrand; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Dejon Agobe, Jean-Claude; Honkpehedji, Josiane; Zinsou, Jeannot; Mengue, Juliana Boex; Loembe, Marguerite Massinga; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Held, Jana; Lalremruata, Albert; Nguyen, The Trong; Esen, Meral; Kc, Natasha; Ruben, Adam J; Chakravarty, Sumana; Lee Sim, B Kim; Billingsley, Peter; James, Eric; Richie, Thomas L; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G

    2017-12-18

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) by direct venous inoculation (DVI) with 3,200 cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) consistently leads to parasitemia and malaria symptoms in malaria-naive adults. We used CHMI by DVI to investigate infection rates, parasite kinetics, and malaria symptoms in lifelong malaria-exposed (semi-immune) Gabonese adults with and without sickle cell trait. Eleven semi-immune Gabonese with normal hemoglobin (IA), nine with sickle cell trait (IS), and five nonimmune European controls with normal hemoglobin (NI) received 3,200 PfSPZ by DVI and were followed 28 days for parasitemia by thick blood smear (TBS) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and for malaria symptoms. End points were time to parasitemia and parasitemia plus symptoms. PfSPZ Challenge was well tolerated and safe. Five of the five (100%) NI, 7/11 (64%) IA, and 5/9 (56%) IS volunteers developed parasitemia by TBS, and 5/5 (100%) NI, 9/11 (82%) IA, and 7/9 (78%) IS by qPCR, respectively. The time to parasitemia by TBS was longer in IA (geometric mean 16.9 days) and IS (19.1 days) than in NA (12.6 days) volunteers (P = 0.016, 0.021, respectively). Five of the five, 6/9, and 1/7 volunteers with parasitemia developed symptoms (P = 0.003, NI versus IS). Naturally acquired immunity (NAI) to malaria significantly prolonged the time to parasitemia. Sickle cell trait seemed to prolong it further. NAI plus sickle cell trait, but not NAI alone, significantly reduced symptom rate. Twenty percent (4/20) semi-immunes demonstrated sterile protective immunity. Standardized CHMI with PfSPZ Challenge is a powerful tool for dissecting the impact of innate and naturally acquired adaptive immunity on malaria.

  13. Replicable and Coupled Changes in Innate and Adaptive Immune Gene Expression in Two Case-Control Studies of Blood Microarrays in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leday, Gwenaël G R; Vértes, Petra E; Richardson, Sylvia; Greene, Jonathan R; Regan, Tim; Khan, Shahid; Henderson, Robbie; Freeman, Tom C; Pariante, Carmine M; Harrison, Neil A; Perry, V Hugh; Drevets, Wayne C; Wittenberg, Gayle M; Bullmore, Edward T

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral inflammation is often associated with major depressive disorder (MDD), and immunological biomarkers of depression remain a focus of investigation. We used microarray data on whole blood from two independent case-control studies of MDD: the GlaxoSmithKline-High-Throughput Disease-specific target Identification Program [GSK-HiTDiP] study (113 patients and 57 healthy control subjects) and the Janssen-Brain Resource Company study (94 patients and 100 control subjects). Genome-wide differential gene expression analysis (18,863 probes) resulted in a p value for each gene in each study. A Bayesian method identified the largest p-value threshold (q = .025) associated with twice the number of genes differentially expressed in both studies compared with the number of coincidental case-control differences expected by chance. A total of 165 genes were differentially expressed in both studies with concordant direction of fold change. The 90 genes overexpressed (or UP genes) in MDD were significantly enriched for immune response to infection, were concentrated in a module of the gene coexpression network associated with innate immunity, and included clusters of genes with correlated expression in monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and neutrophils. In contrast, the 75 genes underexpressed (or DOWN genes) in MDD were associated with the adaptive immune response and included clusters of genes with correlated expression in T cells, natural killer cells, and erythroblasts. Consistently, the MDD patients with overexpression of UP genes also had underexpression of DOWN genes (correlation > .70 in both studies). MDD was replicably associated with proinflammatory activation of the peripheral innate immune system, coupled with relative inactivation of the adaptive immune system, indicating the potential of transcriptional biomarkers for immunological stratification of patients with depression. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier

  14. Immunizations - diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000331.htm Immunizations - diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Immunizations (vaccines or vaccinations) help protect you from some ...

  15. Synthesis for Negative Group Delay Circuits Using Distributed and Second-Order RC Circuit Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kyoung-Pyo; Ishikawa, Ryo; Saitou, Akira; Honjo, Kazuhiko

    This paper describes the characteristic of negative group delay (NGD) circuits for various configurations including first-order, distributed, and second-order RC circuit configurations. This study includes locus, magnitude, and phase characteristics of the NGD circuits. The simplest NGD circuit is available using first-order RC or RL configuration. As an example of distributed circuit configuration, it is verified that losses in a distributed line causes NGD characteristic at higher cut-off band of a coupled four-line bandpass filter. Also, novel wideband NGD circuits using second-order RC configuration, instead of conventional RLC configuration, are proposed. Adding a parallel resistor to a parallel-T filter enables NGD characteristic to it. Also, a Wien-Robinson bridge is modified to have NGD characteristic by controlling the voltage division ratio. They are fabricated on MMIC substrate, and their NGD characteristics are verified with measured results. They have larger insertion loss than multi-stage RLC NGD circuits, however they can realize second-order NGD characteristic without practical implementation of inductors.

  16. The impact of vitamin D deficiency on immune T cells in asthmatic children: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maalmi H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Haïfa Maalmi,1,2 Anissa Berraïes,1,2,3 Eya Tangour,1,2,3 Jamel Ammar,1,2,3 Hanadi Abid,1,2,3 Kamel Hamzaoui,1,2 Agnes Hamzaoui1,2,31Department of Basic Sciences, Medicine School of Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunis; 2Unit Research, Homeostasis and Cell Dysfunction, Ariana; 3Department of Pneumopediatry, A Mami Hospital, Ariana, Tunisia Background: Vitamin D exerts profound effects on both adaptive and innate immune functions involved in the development and course of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. As the incidence of vitamin D insufficiency is surprisingly high in the general population, experimental studies have started to investigate whether vitamin D levels (measured as serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D-25[OH]D are correlated with immune cells and clinical parameters.Purpose: The aim of the present research was to investigate serum vitamin D status in a case-control study in children with asthma and to study associations between vitamin D levels and certain immunological parameters.Materials and methods: A case control study of thirty-nine children with clinically controlled asthma was enrolled to assess the relationship between serum vitamin D concentrations and disease activity. Vitamin D was assayed with a radioimmunoassay kit. We evaluated the relationship between vitamin D concentrations and forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, and the FEV1/FVC ratio. Correlations between inflammatory mediators, Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Treg and vitamin D were investigated.Results: Only 15.38% of our asthmatic children had a sufficient serum 25(OHD (≥30 ng/mL whereas 80% of healthy children expressed sufficient levels. Deficient values of vitamin D (<20 ng/mL were observed in 17 (43.59% asthmatic patients (14.40 ± 3.30 ng/mL; P = 0.0001. Deficiency was not observed in controls. Th1/Th2 ratio was significantly correlated to 25(OHD level (r = 0.698; P = 0.0001. A significant negative correlation

  17. Evolving meningococcal immunization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio; Bettinger, Julie A; Maturana, Gabriela Moreno; Enwere, Godwin; Borrow, Ray

    2015-04-01

    Meningococcal disease is a major public health problem and immunization is considered the best strategy for prevention. The introduction of meningococcal C conjugate immunization schedules that targeted adolescents, with catch-up programs in several European countries, Australia and Canada proved to be highly effective, with dramatic reduction in the incidence of serogroup C disease, not only in vaccinated, but also in unvaccinated individuals. Meningococcal quadrivalent (A, C, W, Y) conjugate vaccines are now licensed and are being used in adolescent programs in North America and to control serogroup W disease in South America. In the African meningitis belt, a mass immunization campaign against serogroup A disease using a meningococcal A conjugate vaccine is now controlling the devastating epidemics of meningococcal disease. After introducing new immunization programs, it is of importance to maintain enhanced surveillance for a better understanding of the changing nature of disease epidemiology. This information is crucial for identifying optimal immunization policies.

  18. Bioinformatics analysis of the factors controlling type I IFN gene expression in autoimmune disease and virus-induced immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di eFeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and Sjögren's syndrome (SS display increased levels of type I IFN-induced genes. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs are natural interferon producing cells and considered to be a primary source of IFN-α in these two diseases. Differential expression patterns of type I IFN inducible transcripts can be found in different immune cell subsets and in patients with both active and inactive autoimmune disease. A type I IFN gene signature generally consists of three groups of IFN-induced genes - those regulated in response to virus-induced type I IFN, those regulated by the IFN-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK pathway, and those by the IFN-induced phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K pathway. These three groups of type I IFN-regulated genes control important cellular processes such as apoptosis, survival, adhesion, and chemotaxis, that when dysregulated, contribute to autoimmunity. With the recent generation of large datasets in the public domain from next-generation sequencing and DNA microarray experiments, one can perform detailed analyses of cell type-specific gene signatures as well as identify distinct transcription factors that differentially regulate these gene signatures. We have performed bioinformatics analysis of data in the public domain and experimental data from our lab to gain insight into the regulation of type I IFN gene expression. We have found that the genetic landscape of the IFNA and IFNB genes are occupied by transcription factors, such as insulators CTCF and cohesin, that negatively regulate transcription, as well as IRF5 and IRF7, that positively and distinctly regulate IFNA subtypes. A detailed understanding of the factors controlling type I IFN gene transcription will significantly aid in the identification and development of new therapeutic strategies targeting the IFN pathway in autoimmune disease.

  19. Reducing energy with asynchronous circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas Barragan, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Reducing energy consumption using asynchronous circuits. The elastic clocks approach has been implemented along with a closed-feedback loop in order to achieve a lower energy consumption along with more reliability in integrated circuits.

  20. EMI-resilient amplifier circuits

    CERN Document Server

    van der Horst, Marcel J; Linnenbank, André C

    2014-01-01

    This book enables circuit designers to reduce the errors introduced by the fundamental limitations and electromagnetic interference (EMI) in negative-feedback amplifiers.  The authors describe a systematic design approach for application specific negative-feedback amplifiers, with specified signal-to-error ratio (SER).  This approach enables designers to calculate noise, bandwidth, EMI, and the required bias parameters of the transistors used in  application specific amplifiers in order to meet the SER requirements.   ·         Describes design methods that incorporate electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the design of application specific negative-feedback amplifiers; ·         Provides designers with a structured methodology to avoid the use of trial and error in meeting signal-to-error ratio (SER) requirements; ·         Equips designers to increase EMI immunity of the amplifier itself, thus avoiding filtering at the input, reducing the number of components and avoiding detr...